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Sample records for automatic rapid processing

  1. Deconstructing Rapid Automatized Naming: Component Processes and the Prediction of Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert; Pillay, Vanitha; Melidona, Santo

    2007-01-01

    This study explores 1) the components of rapid automatized naming (RAN) by first analyzing the factorial associations between RAN tasks and various nonword decoding and processing speed measures and secondly, by exploring which of these process latent variables are uniquely associated with literacy in 65 below-average readers and spellers. In…

  2. Component Processes Subserving Rapid Automatized Naming in Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Susana; Inacio, Filomena; Francisco, Ana; Faisca, Luis; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated which time components of rapid automatized naming (RAN) predict group differences between dyslexic and non-dyslexic readers (matched for age and reading level), and how these components relate to different reading measures. Subjects performed two RAN tasks (letters and objects), and data were analyzed through a…

  3. Rapid-processing procedure for heat polymerization of polymethyl methacrylate in a pressure cooker with automatic controls.

    PubMed

    Xia, C M; Shi, C; He, W

    1996-10-01

    This study introduces a new rapid-processing procedure for curing polymethyl methacrylate denture base resin in an automatically controlled pressure cooker. The cooker filled with water was inflated with 6 kgf/cm2 air pressure and heated to 120 degrees C (248 degrees F) and maintained for 10 minutes. No significant differences were found between the new pressure cooker method and the conventional method for surface hardness and porosity (p > 0.05). The pressure cooker significantly shortened polymerization time, and the polymerization is controlled automatically.

  4. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, Anthony J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

  5. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  6. Complementary roles of cortical oscillations in automatic and controlled processing during rapid serial tasks.

    PubMed

    Isabella, Silvia; Ferrari, Paul; Jobst, Cecilia; Cheyne, J Allan; Cheyne, Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive control may involve adjusting behaviour by inhibiting or altering habitual actions, requiring rapid communication between sensory, cognitive, and motor systems of the brain. Cognitive control may be achieved using top-down processing from frontal areas to inhibit prepared responses, likely mediated through frontal theta (4-8 Hz) oscillations. However there is conflicting evidence for mechanisms of response inhibition, where global and selective inhibition are either considered separate processes, or frontal areas maintain and execute goal-directed actions, including inhibition. In the current study we measured neuromagnetic oscillatory brain activity in twelve adults responding to rapidly presented visual cues. We used two tasks in the same subjects that required inhibition of a habitual "go" response. Presentation of infrequent "target" cues required subjects to completely inhibit responding (go/no-go task) or to perform an alternate response (go/switch task). Source analysis of oscillatory brain activity was compared for correct no-go and switch trials as well as error trials ("go" responses to targets). Frontal theta activity was similar in cortical location, amplitude and time course for correct no-go and switch responses reflecting an equivalent role in both global and selective response inhibition. Error-related frontal theta activity was also observed but was different in source location (errors vs correct, both tasks: p<0.005) and power (go/switch>go/no-go error, correct switch power, p=0.01). We additionally observed sensorimotor high gamma (60-90 Hz) activity accompanying motor responses, which was markedly stronger for correct switch and error responses compared with go responses, and was delayed for errors (p<0.01). These results suggest that gamma signals in the motor cortex may function to integrate inhibitory signals with sensorimotor processing, and may represent a mechanism for the overriding of habitual behaviours, as errors were

  7. Automatic Data Processing Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Budget, Washington, DC.

    The technology of the automatic information processing field has progressed dramatically in the past few years and has created a problem in common term usage. As a solution, "Datamation" Magazine offers this glossary which was compiled by the U.S. Bureau of the Budget as an official reference. The terms appear in a single alphabetic sequence,…

  8. Why Is Rapid Automatized Naming Related to Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno; Cui, Ying; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine why rapid automatized naming (RAN) is related to reading by manipulating processes involved at the input, processing, and output stages of its production. In total, 65 children in Grade 2 and 65 in Grade 6 were assessed on serial and discrete RAN (Digits and Objects), Cancellation, RAN Yes/No, and oral…

  9. A rapid automatic processing platform for bead label-assisted microarray analysis: application for genetic hearing-loss mutation detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiang; Song, Xiumei; Xiang, Guangxin; Feng, Zhengde; Guo, Hongju; Mei, Danyang; Zhang, Guohao; Wang, Dong; Mitchelson, Keith; Xing, Wanli; Cheng, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Molecular diagnostics using microarrays are increasingly being used in clinical diagnosis because of their high throughput, sensitivity, and accuracy. However, standard microarray processing takes several hours and involves manual steps during hybridization, slide clean up, and imaging. Here we describe the development of an integrated platform that automates these individual steps as well as significantly shortens the processing time and improves reproducibility. The platform integrates such key elements as a microfluidic chip, flow control system, temperature control system, imaging system, and automated analysis of clinical results. Bead labeling of microarray signals required a simple imaging system and allowed continuous monitoring of the microarray processing. To demonstrate utility, the automated platform was used to genotype hereditary hearing-loss gene mutations. Compared with conventional microarray processing procedures, the platform increases the efficiency and reproducibility of hybridization, speeding microarray processing through to result analysis. The platform also continuously monitors the microarray signals, which can be used to facilitate optimization of microarray processing conditions. In addition, the modular design of the platform lends itself to development of simultaneous processing of multiple microfluidic chips. We believe the novel features of the platform will benefit its use in clinical settings in which fast, low-complexity molecular genetic testing is required.

  10. Why is rapid automatized naming related to reading?

    PubMed

    Georgiou, George K; Parrila, Rauno; Cui, Ying; Papadopoulos, Timothy C

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine why rapid automatized naming (RAN) is related to reading by manipulating processes involved at the input, processing, and output stages of its production. In total, 65 children in Grade 2 and 65 in Grade 6 were assessed on serial and discrete RAN (Digits and Objects), Cancellation, RAN Yes/No, and oral and silent reading fluency. The results of regression analyses indicated that RAN is related to reading because both involve serial processing and oral production of the names of the stimuli. PMID:23384823

  11. What automaticity deficit? Activation of lexical information by readers with dyslexia in a rapid automatized naming Stroop-switch task.

    PubMed

    Jones, Manon W; Snowling, Margaret J; Moll, Kristina

    2016-03-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with nondyslexic readers. We combined the RAN task with a Stroop-switch manipulation to test the automaticity of dyslexic and nondyslexic readers' lexical access directly within a fluency task. Participants named letters in 10 × 4 arrays while eye movements and speech responses were recorded. Upon fixation, specific letter font colors changed from black to a different color, whereupon the participant was required to rapidly switch from naming the letter to naming the letter color. We could therefore measure reading group differences on "automatic" lexical processing, insofar as it was task-irrelevant. Readers with dyslexia showed obligatory lexical processing and a timeline for recognition that was overall similar to typical readers, but a delay emerged in the output (naming) phase. Further delay was caused by visual-orthographic competition between neighboring stimuli. Our findings outline the specific processes involved when researchers speak of "impaired automaticity" in dyslexic readers' fluency, and are discussed in the context of the broader literature in this field. PMID:26414305

  12. Automaticity in social-cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Bargh, John A; Schwader, Kay L; Hailey, Sarah E; Dyer, Rebecca L; Boothby, Erica J

    2012-12-01

    Over the past several years, the concept of automaticity of higher cognitive processes has permeated nearly all domains of psychological research. In this review, we highlight insights arising from studies in decision-making, moral judgments, close relationships, emotional processes, face perception and social judgment, motivation and goal pursuit, conformity and behavioral contagion, embodied cognition, and the emergence of higher-level automatic processes in early childhood. Taken together, recent work in these domains demonstrates that automaticity does not result exclusively from a process of skill acquisition (in which a process always begins as a conscious and deliberate one, becoming capable of automatic operation only with frequent use) - there are evolved substrates and early childhood learning mechanisms involved as well.

  13. What Automaticity Deficit? Activation of Lexical Information by Readers with Dyslexia in a Rapid Automatized Naming Stroop-Switch Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Manon W.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Moll, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with…

  14. Effective scheduling of looking and talking during rapid automatized naming.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Peter C; Hoedemaker, Renske S

    2016-05-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is strongly related to literacy gains in developing readers, reading disabilities, and reading ability in children and adults. Because successful RAN performance depends on the close coordination of a number of abilities, it is unclear what specific skills drive this RAN-reading relationship. The current study used concurrent recordings of young adult participants' vocalizations and eye movements during the RAN task to assess how individual variation in RAN performance depends on the coordination of visual and vocal processes. Results showed that fast RAN times are facilitated by having the eyes 1 or more items ahead of the current vocalization, as long as the eyes do not get so far ahead of the voice as to require a regressive eye movement to an earlier item. These data suggest that optimizing RAN performance is a problem of scheduling eye movements and vocalization given memory constraints and the efficiency of encoding and articulatory control. Both RAN completion time (conventionally used to indicate RAN performance) and eye-voice relations predicted some aspects of participants' eye movements on a separate sentence reading task. However, eye-voice relations predicted additional features of first-pass reading that were not predicted by RAN completion time. This shows that measurement of eye-voice patterns can identify important aspects of individual variation in reading that are not identified by the standard measure of RAN performance. We argue that RAN performance predicts reading ability because both tasks entail challenges of scheduling cognitive and linguistic processes that operate simultaneously on multiple linguistic inputs.

  15. Effective scheduling of looking and talking during rapid automatized naming.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Peter C; Hoedemaker, Renske S

    2016-05-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is strongly related to literacy gains in developing readers, reading disabilities, and reading ability in children and adults. Because successful RAN performance depends on the close coordination of a number of abilities, it is unclear what specific skills drive this RAN-reading relationship. The current study used concurrent recordings of young adult participants' vocalizations and eye movements during the RAN task to assess how individual variation in RAN performance depends on the coordination of visual and vocal processes. Results showed that fast RAN times are facilitated by having the eyes 1 or more items ahead of the current vocalization, as long as the eyes do not get so far ahead of the voice as to require a regressive eye movement to an earlier item. These data suggest that optimizing RAN performance is a problem of scheduling eye movements and vocalization given memory constraints and the efficiency of encoding and articulatory control. Both RAN completion time (conventionally used to indicate RAN performance) and eye-voice relations predicted some aspects of participants' eye movements on a separate sentence reading task. However, eye-voice relations predicted additional features of first-pass reading that were not predicted by RAN completion time. This shows that measurement of eye-voice patterns can identify important aspects of individual variation in reading that are not identified by the standard measure of RAN performance. We argue that RAN performance predicts reading ability because both tasks entail challenges of scheduling cognitive and linguistic processes that operate simultaneously on multiple linguistic inputs. PMID:26689309

  16. An Experimental Comparison between Rival Theories of Rapid Automatized Naming Performance and Its Relationship to Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Daisy; Stainthorp, Rhona; Stuart, Morag; Garwood, Holly; Quinlan, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Two studies investigated the degree to which the relationship between rapid automatized naming (RAN) performance and reading development is driven by shared phonological processes. Study 1 assessed RAN, phonological awareness, and reading performance in 1010 7- to 10-year-olds. Results showed that RAN deficits occurred in the absence of…

  17. Rapid Automatized Naming and Immediate Memory Functions in Chinese Mandarin-Speaking Elementary Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yi; Richman, Lynn C.; Yang, Ling-yan; Guo, Jian-peng

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate rapid automatized naming skills (RAN) and immediate memory processes in 243 Chinese Mandarin-speaking elementary readers (ranging from Grade 1 to Grade 5). For RAN subtests, the mean naming time decreased monotonically with grade level in good and average readers, and a similar trajectory was found in poor…

  18. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Stuart J; Cowley,; Wendy E; Crow, Vernon L; Cramer, Nicholas O

    2012-03-06

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  19. Response variability in rapid automatized naming predicts reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Li, James J; Cutting, Laurie E; Ryan, Matthew; Zilioli, Monica; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark

    2009-10-01

    A total of 37 children ages 8 to 14 years, screened for word-reading difficulties (23 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; 14 controls) completed oral reading and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tests. RAN trials were segmented into pause and articulation time and intraindividual variability. There were no group differences on reading or RAN variables. Color- and letter-naming pause times and number-naming articulation time were significant predictors of reading fluency. In contrast, number and letter pause variability were predictors of comprehension. Results support analysis of subcomponents of RAN and add to literature emphasizing intraindividual variability as a marker for response preparation, which has relevance to reading comprehension.

  20. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, Jr., G. Harold

    1993-01-01

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  1. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1993-01-12

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  2. Automatic Processing of Reactive Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roylance, D.

    1985-01-01

    A series of process modeling computer codes were examined. The codes use finite element techniques to determine the time-dependent process parameters operative during nonisothermal reactive flows such as can occur in reaction injection molding or composites fabrication. The use of these analytical codes to perform experimental control functions is examined; since the models can determine the state of all variables everywhere in the system, they can be used in a manner similar to currently available experimental probes. A small but well instrumented reaction vessel in which fiber-reinforced plaques are cured using computer control and data acquisition was used. The finite element codes were also extended to treat this particular process.

  3. Towards automatic planning for manufacturing generative processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-05-24

    Generative process planning describes methods process engineers use to modify manufacturing/process plans after designs are complete. A completed design may be the result from the introduction of a new product based on an old design, an assembly upgrade, or modified product designs used for a family of similar products. An engineer designs an assembly and then creates plans capturing manufacturing processes, including assembly sequences, component joining methods, part costs, labor costs, etc. When new products originate as a result of an upgrade, component geometry may change, and/or additional components and subassemblies may be added to or are omitted from the original design. As a result process engineers are forced to create new plans. This is further complicated by the fact that the process engineer is forced to manually generate these plans for each product upgrade. To generate new assembly plans for product upgrades, engineers must manually re-specify the manufacturing plan selection criteria and re-run the planners. To remedy this problem, special-purpose assembly planning algorithms have been developed to automatically recognize design modifications and automatically apply previously defined manufacturing plan selection criteria and constraints.

  4. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) and reading fluency: implications for understanding and treatment of reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Norton, Elizabeth S; Wolf, Maryanne

    2012-01-01

    Fluent reading depends on a complex set of cognitive processes that must work together in perfect concert. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) tasks provide insight into this system, acting as a microcosm of the processes involved in reading. In this review, we examine both RAN and reading fluency and how each has shaped our understanding of reading disabilities. We explore the research that led to our current understanding of the relationships between RAN and reading and what makes RAN unique as a cognitive measure. We explore how the automaticity that supports RAN affects reading across development, reading abilities, and languages, and the biological bases of these processes. Finally, we bring these converging areas of knowledge together by examining what the collective studies of RAN and reading fluency contribute to our goals of creating optimal assessments and interventions that help every child become a fluent, comprehending reader.

  5. A Novel Automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test Reader Platform.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Haydar; Kayhan, Osman Semih

    2016-01-01

    A novel automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) reader platform is designed to analyze and diagnose target disease by using existing consumer cameras of a laptop-computer or a tablet. The RDT reader is useable with numerous lateral immunochromatographic assays and similar biomedical tests. The system has two different components, which are 3D-printed, low-cost, tiny, and compact stand and a decision program named RDT-AutoReader 2.0. The program takes the image of RDT, crops the region of interest (ROI), and extracts the features from the control end test lines to classify the results as invalid, positive, or negative. All related patient's personal information, image of ROI, and the e-report are digitally saved and transferred to the related clinician. Condition of the patient and the progress of the disease can be monitored by using the saved data. The reader platform has been tested by taking image from used cassette RDTs of rotavirus (RtV)/adenovirus (AdV) and lateral flow strip RDTs of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) before discarding them. The created RDT reader can also supply real-time statistics of various illnesses by using databases and Internet. This can help to inhibit propagation of contagious diseases and to increase readiness against epidemic diseases worldwide. PMID:27190549

  6. A Novel Automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test Reader Platform

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Haydar; Kayhan, Osman Semih

    2016-01-01

    A novel automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) reader platform is designed to analyze and diagnose target disease by using existing consumer cameras of a laptop-computer or a tablet. The RDT reader is useable with numerous lateral immunochromatographic assays and similar biomedical tests. The system has two different components, which are 3D-printed, low-cost, tiny, and compact stand and a decision program named RDT-AutoReader 2.0. The program takes the image of RDT, crops the region of interest (ROI), and extracts the features from the control end test lines to classify the results as invalid, positive, or negative. All related patient's personal information, image of ROI, and the e-report are digitally saved and transferred to the related clinician. Condition of the patient and the progress of the disease can be monitored by using the saved data. The reader platform has been tested by taking image from used cassette RDTs of rotavirus (RtV)/adenovirus (AdV) and lateral flow strip RDTs of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) before discarding them. The created RDT reader can also supply real-time statistics of various illnesses by using databases and Internet. This can help to inhibit propagation of contagious diseases and to increase readiness against epidemic diseases worldwide. PMID:27190549

  7. Rapid Automatized Naming in Children with Dyslexia: Is Inhibitory Control Involved?

    PubMed

    Bexkens, Anika; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Tijms, Jurgen

    2015-08-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is widely seen as an important indicator of dyslexia. The nature of the cognitive processes involved in rapid naming is however still a topic of controversy. We hypothesized that in addition to the involvement of phonological processes and processing speed, RAN is a function of inhibition processes, in particular of interference control. A total 86 children with dyslexia and 31 normal readers were recruited. Our results revealed that in addition to phonological processing and processing speed, interference control predicts rapid naming in dyslexia, but in contrast to these other two cognitive processes, inhibition is not significantly associated with their reading and spelling skills. After variance in reading and spelling associated with processing speed, interference control and phonological processing was partialled out, naming speed was no longer consistently associated with the reading and spelling skills of children with dyslexia. Finally, dyslexic children differed from normal readers on naming speed, literacy skills, phonological processing and processing speed, but not on inhibition processes. Both theoretical and clinical interpretations of these results are discussed.

  8. Rapid Automatized Naming in Children with Dyslexia: Is Inhibitory Control Involved?

    PubMed

    Bexkens, Anika; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Tijms, Jurgen

    2015-08-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is widely seen as an important indicator of dyslexia. The nature of the cognitive processes involved in rapid naming is however still a topic of controversy. We hypothesized that in addition to the involvement of phonological processes and processing speed, RAN is a function of inhibition processes, in particular of interference control. A total 86 children with dyslexia and 31 normal readers were recruited. Our results revealed that in addition to phonological processing and processing speed, interference control predicts rapid naming in dyslexia, but in contrast to these other two cognitive processes, inhibition is not significantly associated with their reading and spelling skills. After variance in reading and spelling associated with processing speed, interference control and phonological processing was partialled out, naming speed was no longer consistently associated with the reading and spelling skills of children with dyslexia. Finally, dyslexic children differed from normal readers on naming speed, literacy skills, phonological processing and processing speed, but not on inhibition processes. Both theoretical and clinical interpretations of these results are discussed. PMID:25530120

  9. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    SciTech Connect

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  10. Rapid and automatic detection of brain tumors in MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengjia; Hu, Qingmao; Loe, KiaFock; Aziz, Aamer; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.

    2004-04-01

    An algorithm to automatically detect brain tumors in MR images is presented. The key concern is speed in order to process efficiently large brain image databases and provide quick outcomes in clinical setting. The method is based on study of asymmetry of the brain. Tumors cause asymmetry of the brain, so we detect brain tumors in 3D MR images using symmetry analysis of image grey levels with respect to the midsagittal plane (MSP). The MSP, separating the brain into two hemispheres, is extracted using our previously developed algorithm. By removing the background pixels, the normalized grey level histograms are calculated for both hemispheres. The similarity between these two histograms manifests the symmetry of the brain, and it is quantified by using four symmetry measures: correlation coefficient, root mean square error, integral of absolute difference (IAD), and integral of normalized absolute difference (INAD). A quantitative analysis of brain normality based on 42 patients with tumors and 55 normals is presented. The sensitivity and specificity of IAD and INAD were 83.3% and 89.1%, and 85.7% and 83.6%, respectively. The running time for each symmetry measure for a 3D 8bit MR data was between 0.1 - 0.3 seconds on a 2.4GHz CPU PC.

  11. Efficient Word Reading: Automaticity of Print-Related Skills Indexed by Rapid Automatized Naming through Cusp-Catastrophe Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Simos, Panagiotis; Mouzaki, Angeliki; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the moderating role of rapid automatized naming (RAN) in reading achievement through a cusp-catastrophe model grounded on nonlinear dynamic systems theory. Data were obtained from a community sample of 496 second through fourth graders who were followed longitudinally over 2 years and split into 2 random subsamples (validation…

  12. Cognitive Mechanism Underlying the Relationship between Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading: A Longitudinal Study on Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Susanna S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming has been demonstrated as an important correlate of various reading outcomes. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying the RAN-reading relationship is not well understood. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate three major theoretical accounts for the RAN--reading relationship: phonological processing account,…

  13. Eye-voice span during rapid automatized naming: evidence of reduced automaticity in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and their siblings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents demonstrate impaired performance in rapid automatized naming (RAN), a task that recruits a variety of linguistic and executive processes. Though the basic processes that contribute to RAN differences remain unclear, eye-voice relationships, as measured through eye tracking, can provide insight into cognitive and perceptual processes contributing to RAN performance. For example, in RAN, eye-voice span (EVS), the distance ahead the eyes are when articulation of a target item's label begins, is an indirect measure of automaticity of the processes underlying RAN. The primary objective of this study was to investigate automaticity in naming processes, as indexed by EVS during RAN. The secondary objective was to characterize RAN difficulties in individuals with ASD and their siblings. Methods Participants (aged 15–33 years) included 21 individuals with ASD, 23 siblings of individuals with ASD, and 24 control subjects, group-matched on chronological age. Naming time, frequency of errors, and EVS were measured during a RAN task and compared across groups. Results A stepwise pattern of RAN performance was observed, with individuals with ASD demonstrating the slowest naming across all RAN conditions, controls demonstrating the fastest naming, and siblings demonstrating intermediate performance. Individuals with ASD exhibited smaller EVSs than controls on all RAN conditions, and siblings exhibited smaller EVSs during number naming (the most highly automatized type of naming). EVSs were correlated with naming times in controls only, and only in the more automatized conditions. Conclusions These results suggest that reduced automaticity in the component processes of RAN may underpin differences in individuals with ASD and their siblings. These findings also provide further support that RAN abilities are impacted by genetic liability to ASD. This study has important implications for understanding the

  14. Automatic processing of word meaning: intralingual and interlingual interference.

    PubMed

    Goodman, G S; Haith, M M; Guttentag, R E; Rao, S

    1985-02-01

    Automatic processing of word meaning was studied in bilingual children and children in various stages of second-language acquisition in 2 experiments. A picture-word interference task was used. The children named outlined pictures as rapidly as possible while attempting to ignore distractor words printed inside the pictures' borders. For children proficient in the 2 languages (Experiment 1), the printed distractors interfered with naming on both intralingual trials, for which the distractor and naming language were the same, and on interlingual trials, for which they were different. The pattern of interference across 6 levels of name-distractor relation was similar for the intralingual and interlingual conditions and indicated that at least part of the interference occurred at a semantic level. For children who were in various phases of learning a second language (Experiment 2), second-language words were automatically processed to the level of meaning early in the course of second-language reading instruction. As was found for the more proficient groups, both the pattern and the amount of interlingual interference matched that for intralingual interference. The results question whether an "input switch" operates for bilingual word processing.

  15. Distributed automatic control of technological processes in conditions of weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukhtenko, A. I.; Merkulov, V. I.; Samoylenko, Y. I.; Ladikov-Royev, Y. P.

    1986-01-01

    Some problems associated with the automatic control of liquid metal and plasma systems under conditions of weightlessness are examined, with particular reference to the problem of stability of liquid equilibrium configurations. The theoretical fundamentals of automatic control of processes in electrically conducting continuous media are outlined, and means of using electromagnetic fields for simulating technological processes in a space environment are discussed.

  16. The Interplay between Automatic and Control Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczyk, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews prominent reading theories in light of their accounts of how automatic and control processes combine to produce successful text comprehension, and the trade-offs between the two. Presents the Compensatory-Encoding Model of reading, which explicates how, when, and why automatic and control processes interact. Notes important educational…

  17. Automatic, Rapid Replanning of Satellite Operations for Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottler, D.; Mahan, K.

    An important component of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is knowledge of the status and tasking of blue forces (e.g. satellites and ground stations) and the rapid determination of the impacts of real or hypothetical changes and the ability to quickly replan based on those changes. For example, if an antenna goes down (either for benign reasons or from purposeful interference) determining which missions will be impacted is important. It is not simply the set of missions that were scheduled to utilize that antenna, because highly expert human schedulers will respond to the outage by intelligently replanning the real-time schedule. We have developed an automatic scheduling and deconfliction engine, called MIDAS (for Managed Intelligent Deconfliction And Scheduling) that interfaces to the current legacy system (ESD 2.7) which can perform this replanning function automatically. In addition to determining the impact of failed resources, MIDAS can also replan in response to a satellite under attack. In this situation, additional supports must be quickly scheduled and executed (while minimizing impacts to other missions). Because MIDAS is a fully automatic system, replacing a current human labor-intensive process, and provides very rapid turnaround (seconds) it can also be used by commanders to consider what-if questions and focus limited protection resources on the most critical resources. For example, the commander can determine the impact of a successful attack on one of two ground stations and place heavier emphasis on protecting the station whose loss would create the most severe impacts. The system is currently transitioning to operational use. The MIDAS system and its interface to the legacy ESD 2.7 system will be described along with the ConOps for different types of detailed operational scenarios.

  18. Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading Performance: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araújo, Susana; Reis, Alexandra; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Faísca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that rapid naming skill is associated with reading ability has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. However, there is considerable variation in the literature concerning the magnitude of this relationship. The objective of the present study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the evidence on the relationship between rapid…

  19. Count Me In! on the Automaticity of Numerosity Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naparstek, Sharon; Henik, Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Extraction of numerosity (i.e., enumeration) is an essential component of mathematical abilities. The current study asked how automatic is the processing of numerosity and whether automatic activation is task dependent. Participants were presented with displays containing a variable number of digits and were asked to pay attention to the number of…

  20. Chemical vapor deposition for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition for automatic processing of integrated circuits including the wafer carrier and loading from a receiving air track into automatic furnaces and unloading on to a sending air track is discussed. Passivation using electron beam deposited quartz is also considered.

  1. Automatic Synthesis and Deployment of Intensional Kahn Process Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, Manuel; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Bharadwaj, Ramesh

    In this paper we introduce and study, theoretically, a clean slate "formal" foundational approach for developing and deploying high-assurance distributed embedded systems deployed in mission-critical applications. We propose a simple formal distributed asynchronous framework extending Kahn Process Networks with intensional specification. More precisely, we present a model-driven approach based on a platform-independent language and an intensional specification logic that allows us to synthesize distributed agents that can handle interactions with external resources asynchronously, ensure enforcement of information flow and security policies, and have the ability to deal with failures of resources. Our approach allows rapid development and automated deployment of formally verified embedded networked systems that provide guarantees that clients' requirements will be met and QoS guarantees will be respected. Moreover, it allows modeling (and programming) reliable distributed systems for multi-core hosts. Such a capability makes our framework suitable for next generation grid computing systems where multi-core individual hosts need to be utilized for improving scalability.Given an intensional logical specification of a distributed embedded system, that includes Quality of Service (QoS) requirements, a set of software resources and devices available in a network, and their formal interface specifications, a deductive system can automatically generate distributed extended Kahn processes and their deployment information in such a way that the application requirements - including QoS requirements - are guaranteed to be met. The generated processes use the inputs of the sensors/meters/probes and the management policies of the customer to generate real-time control decisions for managing the system. The processes are deployed automatically on a distributed network involving sensors/meters/probes tracking system parameters, actuators controlling devices, and diverse computing

  2. a Multi-Sensor Micro Uav Based Automatic Rapid Mapping System for Damage Assessment in Disaster Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, E.; Choi, K.; Lee, I.; Kim, H.

    2013-08-01

    Damage assessment is an important step toward the restoration of the severely affected areas due to natural disasters or accidents. For more accurate and rapid assessment, one should utilize geospatial data such as ortho-images acquired from the damaged areas. Change detection based on the geospatial data before and after the damage can make possible fast and automatic assessment with a reasonable accuracy. Accordingly, there have been significant demands on a rapid mapping system, which can provide the orthoimages of the damaged areas to the specialists and decision makers in disaster management agencies. In this study, we are developing a UAV based rapid mapping system that can acquire multi-sensory data in the air and generate ortho-images from the data on the ground in a rapid and automatic way. The proposed system consists of two main segments, aerial and ground segments. The aerial segment is to acquire sensory data through autonomous flight over the specified target area. It consists of a micro UAV platform, a mirror-less camera, a GPS, a MEMS IMU, and sensor integration and synchronization module. The ground segment is to receive and process the multi-sensory data to produce orthoimages in rapid and automatic ways. It consists of a computer with appropriate software for flight planning, data reception, georeferencing, and orthoimage generation. In the middle of this on-going project, we will introduce the overview of the project, describe the main components of each segment and provide intermediate results from preliminary test flights.

  3. Automatic processes in aggression: Conceptual and assessment issues.

    PubMed

    Bluemke, Matthias; Teige-Mocigemba, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This editorial to the special section "Automatic Processes in Aggression: Conceptual and Assessment Issues" introduces major research lines, all of which culminate in recent advances in the measurement of automatic components in aggressive behavior. Researchers of almost all psychological disciplines have stressed increasingly the importance of automatic components to gain a comprehensive psychological understanding of human behavior. This is reflected in current dual-process theories according to which both controlled processes and rather automatic processes elicit behavior in a synergistic or antagonistic way. As a consequence, complementing self-reports (assumed to assess predominantly controlled processes) by the use of implicit measures (assumed to assess predominantly automatic processes) has become common practice in various domains. We familiarize the reader with the three contributions that illuminate how such a distinction can further our understanding of human aggression. At the same time, it becomes evident that there is a long way that method-oriented researchers need to go before we can fully comprehend how to best measure automatic processes in aggression. We see the present special section as an invigorating call to contribute to this endeavor. Aggr. Behav. 41:44-50 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Influence of Inattention on Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Andy V.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how behavioral symptoms of inattention predict rapid automatized naming (RAN) performance and reading skills in typically developing children. Participants included 104 third- and fourth-grade children from different elementary schools in mid-Michigan. RAN performance was assessed using the four Rapid…

  5. What Does Rapid Automatized Naming Measure? A New RAN Task Compared to Naming and Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wile, Tammy L.; Borowsky, Ron

    2004-01-01

    The present research investigated the relationship between Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) performance, letter-string reading measures of sight vocabulary (SV) and phonetic decoding (PD), and lexical decision. Criterion-based naming rates were obtained from three types of RAN tasks: digits, letters, and letter sounds. Latency measures were obtained…

  6. Mediating Effects of Working Memory in the Relation between Rapid Automatized Naming and Chinese Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Xiaoqian; Li, Guangze; Li, Rongbao

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of working memory (WM) in the relation between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and Chinese reading comprehension. Three tasks assessing differentially visual and verbal components of WM were programmed by E-prime 2.0. Data collected from 55 Chinese college students were analyzed using correlations and…

  7. Neural Systems for Rapid Automatized Naming in Skilled Readers: Unraveling the RAN-Reading Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Maya; Katzir, Tamar; Wolf, Maryanne; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of children and adults with reading disabilities exhibit pronounced difficulties on naming-speed measures such as tests of rapid automatized naming (RAN). RAN tasks require speeded naming of serially presented stimuli and share key characteristics with reading, but different versions of the RAN task vary in their sensitivity: The RAN…

  8. Automatic RST-based system for a rapid detection of man-made disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, Valerio; Corrado, Rosita; Filizzola, Carolina; Livia Grimaldi, Caterina Sara; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Marchese, Francesco; Pergola, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    Man-made disasters may cause injuries to citizens and damages to critical infrastructures. When it is not possible to prevent or foresee such disasters it is hoped at least to rapidly detect the accident in order to intervene as soon as possible to minimize damages. In this context, the combination of a Robust Satellite Technique (RST), able to identify for sure actual (i.e. no false alarm) accidents, and satellite sensors with high temporal resolution seems to assure both a reliable and a timely detection of abrupt Thermal Infrared (TIR) transients related to dangerous explosions. A processing chain, based on the RST approach, has been developed in the framework of the GMOSS and G-MOSAIC projects by DIFA-UNIBAS team, suitable for automatically identify on MSG-SEVIRI images harmful events. Maps of thermal anomalies are generated every 15 minutes (i.e. SEVIRI temporal repetition rate) over a selected area together with kml files (containing information on latitude and longitude of "thermally" anomalous SEVIRI pixel centre, time of image acquisition, relative intensity of anomalies, etc.) for a rapid visualization of the accident position even on Google Earth. Results achieved in the cases of gas pipelines recently exploded or attacked in Russia and in Iraq will be presented in this work.

  9. Semi-automatic process partitioning for parallel computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelbel, Charles; Mehrotra, Piyush; Vanrosendale, John

    1988-01-01

    On current multiprocessor architectures one must carefully distribute data in memory in order to achieve high performance. Process partitioning is the operation of rewriting an algorithm as a collection of tasks, each operating primarily on its own portion of the data, to carry out the computation in parallel. A semi-automatic approach to process partitioning is considered in which the compiler, guided by advice from the user, automatically transforms programs into such an interacting task system. This approach is illustrated with a picture processing example written in BLAZE, which is transformed into a task system maximizing locality of memory reference.

  10. Automatic metaphor processing in adults with Asperger syndrome: a metaphor interference effect task.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Ismene; Haser, Verena; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Ebert, Dieter; Müller-Feldmeth, Daniel; Riedel, Andreas; Konieczny, Lars

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigates automatic processing of novel metaphors in adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and typically developing controls. We present an experiment combining a semantic judgment task and a recognition task. Four types of sentences were compared: Literally true high-typical sentences, literally true low-typical sentences, apt metaphors, and scrambled metaphors (literally false sentences which are not readily interpretable as metaphors). Participants were asked to make rapid decisions about the literal truth of such sentences. The results revealed that AS and control participants showed significantly slower RTs for metaphors than for scrambled metaphors and made more mistakes in apt metaphoric sentences than in scrambled metaphors. At the same time, there was higher recognition of apt metaphors compared with scrambled metaphors. The findings indicate intact automatic metaphor processing in AS and replicate previous findings on automatic metaphor processing in typically developing individuals.

  11. Automatic processing system for shadowgraph and interference patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vereninov, I. A.; Lazarev, V. D.; Popov, S. S.; Tarasov, V. S.

    1987-01-01

    The design and operation of an automatic system for the processing of shadowgraph and interference images are described. The system includes a two-coordinate processing table with an optical system for the projection of transparent images onto the photodetector, an image filter in the photodetector field, and a device for controlling the movement of the table and transmitting information to the minicomputer.

  12. Control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed-processing model of the stroop effect. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.D.; Dunbar, K.; McClelland, J.L.

    1988-06-16

    A growing body of evidence suggests that traditional views of automaticity are in need of revision. For example, automaticity has often been treated as an all-or-none phenomenon, and traditional theories have held that automatic processes are independent of attention. Yet recent empirial data suggests that automatic processes are continuous, and furthermore are subject to attentional control. In this paper we present a model of attention which addresses these issues. Using a parallel distributed processing framework we propose that the attributes of automaticity depend upon the strength of a process and that strength increases with training. Using the Stroop effect as an example, we show how automatic processes are continuous and emerge gradually with practice. Specifically, we present a computational model of the Stroop task which simulates the time course of processing as well as the effects of learning.

  13. The Caltech Tomography Database and Automatic Processing Pipeline.

    PubMed

    Ding, H Jane; Oikonomou, Catherine M; Jensen, Grant J

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe the Caltech Tomography Database and automatic image processing pipeline, designed to process, store, display, and distribute electron tomographic data including tilt-series, sample information, data collection parameters, 3D reconstructions, correlated light microscope images, snapshots, segmentations, movies, and other associated files. Tilt-series are typically uploaded automatically during collection to a user's "Inbox" and processed automatically, but can also be entered and processed in batches via scripts or file-by-file through an internet interface. As with the video website YouTube, each tilt-series is represented on the browsing page with a link to the full record, a thumbnail image and a video icon that delivers a movie of the tomogram in a pop-out window. Annotation tools allow users to add notes and snapshots. The database is fully searchable, and sets of tilt-series can be selected and re-processed, edited, or downloaded to a personal workstation. The results of further processing and snapshots of key results can be recorded in the database, automatically linked to the appropriate tilt-series. While the database is password-protected for local browsing and searching, datasets can be made public and individual files can be shared with collaborators over the Internet. Together these tools facilitate high-throughput tomography work by both individuals and groups.

  14. The Caltech Tomography Database and Automatic Processing Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Ding, H. Jane; Oikonomou, Catherine M.; Jensen, Grant J.

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe the Caltech Tomography Database and automatic image processing pipeline, designed to process, store, display, and distribute electron tomographic data including tilt-series, sample information, data collection parameters, 3D reconstructions, correlated light microscope images, snapshots, segmentations, movies, and other associated files. Tilt-series are typically uploaded automatically during collection to a user’s “Inbox” and processed automatically, but can also be entered and processed in batches via scripts or file-by-file through an internet interface. As with the video website YouTube, each tilt-series is represented on the browsing page with a link to the full record, a thumbnail image and a video icon that delivers a movie of the tomogram in a pop-out window. Annotation tools allow users to add notes and snapshots. The database is fully searchable, and sets of tilt-series can be selected and re-processed, edited, or downloaded to a personal workstation. The results of further processing and snapshots of key results can be recorded in the database, automatically linked to the appropriate tilt-series. While the database is password-protected for local browsing and searching, datasets can be made public and individual files can be shared with collaborators over the Internet. Together these tools facilitate high-throughput tomography work by both individuals and groups. PMID:26087141

  15. The Caltech Tomography Database and Automatic Processing Pipeline.

    PubMed

    Ding, H Jane; Oikonomou, Catherine M; Jensen, Grant J

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe the Caltech Tomography Database and automatic image processing pipeline, designed to process, store, display, and distribute electron tomographic data including tilt-series, sample information, data collection parameters, 3D reconstructions, correlated light microscope images, snapshots, segmentations, movies, and other associated files. Tilt-series are typically uploaded automatically during collection to a user's "Inbox" and processed automatically, but can also be entered and processed in batches via scripts or file-by-file through an internet interface. As with the video website YouTube, each tilt-series is represented on the browsing page with a link to the full record, a thumbnail image and a video icon that delivers a movie of the tomogram in a pop-out window. Annotation tools allow users to add notes and snapshots. The database is fully searchable, and sets of tilt-series can be selected and re-processed, edited, or downloaded to a personal workstation. The results of further processing and snapshots of key results can be recorded in the database, automatically linked to the appropriate tilt-series. While the database is password-protected for local browsing and searching, datasets can be made public and individual files can be shared with collaborators over the Internet. Together these tools facilitate high-throughput tomography work by both individuals and groups. PMID:26087141

  16. Automatic memory processes in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Grafman, J; Rao, S; Bernardin, L; Leo, G J

    1991-10-01

    To better understand the nature of the memory deficit in patients with multiple sclerosis, we designed a study to compare automatic vs effortful memory processes. Forty-one patients with definite multiple sclerosis and 45 demographically matched normal control subjects were administered two tasks designed to assess both automatic (monitoring frequency and modality) and effortful (free and cued-recall) processing. Results indicated that patients with multiple sclerosis, as expected, were significantly impaired on memory measures requiring effort, but performed normally on automatic measures. Performance on the memory indexes did not correlate with self-reported depression. The implications of these findings for delineating the locus of the memory impairment in multiple sclerosis is discussed. PMID:1929900

  17. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  18. An examination of the rapid automatized naming-reading relationship using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cummine, J; Chouinard, B; Szepesvari, E; Georgiou, G K

    2015-10-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been established to be a strong predictor of reading. Yet, the neural correlates underlying the RAN-reading relationship remain unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine: (a) the extent to which RAN and reading activate similar brain regions (within subjects), (b) whether RAN and reading are directly related in the shared activity network outlined in (a), and (c) to what extent RAN neural activation predicts behavioral reading performance. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), university students (N=15; Mean age=20.6 years) were assessed on RAN (letters and digits) and single-word reading (words and non-words). The results revealed a common RAN-reading network that included regions associated with motor planning (cerebellum), semantic access (middle temporal gyrus), articulation (supplementary motor area, pre-motor), and grapheme-phoneme translation (supramarginal gyrus). We found differences between RAN and reading with respect to percent signal change (PSC) in phonological and orthographic regions, but not in articulatory regions. Significant correlations between the neural RAN and reading parameters were found primarily in motor/articulatory regions. Further, we found a unique relationship between in-scanner reading response time and RAN PSC in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Taken together, these findings support the notion that RAN and reading activate similar neural networks. However, the relationship between RAN and reading is primarily driven by commonalities in the motor-sequencing/articulatory processes.

  19. An examination of the rapid automatized naming-reading relationship using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cummine, J; Chouinard, B; Szepesvari, E; Georgiou, G K

    2015-10-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been established to be a strong predictor of reading. Yet, the neural correlates underlying the RAN-reading relationship remain unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine: (a) the extent to which RAN and reading activate similar brain regions (within subjects), (b) whether RAN and reading are directly related in the shared activity network outlined in (a), and (c) to what extent RAN neural activation predicts behavioral reading performance. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), university students (N=15; Mean age=20.6 years) were assessed on RAN (letters and digits) and single-word reading (words and non-words). The results revealed a common RAN-reading network that included regions associated with motor planning (cerebellum), semantic access (middle temporal gyrus), articulation (supplementary motor area, pre-motor), and grapheme-phoneme translation (supramarginal gyrus). We found differences between RAN and reading with respect to percent signal change (PSC) in phonological and orthographic regions, but not in articulatory regions. Significant correlations between the neural RAN and reading parameters were found primarily in motor/articulatory regions. Further, we found a unique relationship between in-scanner reading response time and RAN PSC in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Taken together, these findings support the notion that RAN and reading activate similar neural networks. However, the relationship between RAN and reading is primarily driven by commonalities in the motor-sequencing/articulatory processes. PMID:26235433

  20. Automatic generation of signal processing integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    A system for the automated design of signal processing integrated circuits is described in this thesis. The system is based on a library of circuit cells, and a software package that can configure the cells into complete integrated circuits. The architecture of the cell library is optimized for low and medium bandwidth digital signal processing applications. Circuits designed with the system use a multiprocessor architecture. Input to the system is a design file written in a specialized programming language. Software emulation from the design file is used to verify performance. A two-pass silicon compiler is used to translate the design file into a mask-level description of an integrated circuit. A major goal of the project is to make the system useable by those with little or no formal training in integrated circuits. A second goal is to reduce the time and cost associated with performing an integrated circuit design, while still producing designs which are reasonably efficient in their use of the technology. Development of the system was guided by basic research on appropriate architectures and circuit constructs for signal processors. As part of this research an integrated circuit was designed which performs speech analysis and synthesis. This vocoder circuit is intended for use in low-bit-rate digital speech transmission systems.

  1. Rapid prototyping in the development of image processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Fecht, Arno; Kelm, Claus Thomas

    2004-08-01

    This contribution presents a rapid prototyping approach for the real-time demonstration of image processing algorithms. As an example EADS/LFK has developed a basic IR target tracking system implementing this approach. Traditionally in research and industry time-independent simulation of image processing algorithms on a host computer is processed. This method is good for demonstrating the algorithms' capabilities. Rarely done is a time-dependent simulation or even a real-time demonstration on a target platform to prove the real-time capabilities. In 1D signal processing applications time-dependent simulation and real-time demonstration has already been used for quite a while. For time-dependent simulation Simulink from The MathWorks has established as an industry standard. Combined with The MathWorks' Real-Time Workshop the simulation model can be transferred to a real-time target processor. The executable is generated automatically by the Real-Time Workshop directly out of the simulation model. In 2D signal processing applications like image processing The Mathworks' Matlab is commonly used for time-independent simulation. To achieve time-dependent simulation and real-time demonstration capabilities the algorithms can be transferred to Simulink, which in fact runs on top of Matlab. Additionally to increase the performance Simulink models or parts of them can be transferred to Xilinx FPGAs using Xilinx' System Generator. With a single model and the automatic workflow both, a time-dependant simulation and the real-time demonstration, are covered leading to an easy and flexible rapid prototyping approach. EADS/LFK is going to use this approach for a wider spectrum of IR image processing applications like automatic target recognition or image based navigation or imaging laser radar target recognition.

  2. A conceptual study of automatic and semi-automatic quality assurance techniques for round image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study conducted by Engineering and Economics Research (EER), Inc. under NASA Contract Number NAS5-27513. The study involved the development of preliminary concepts for automatic and semiautomatic quality assurance (QA) techniques for ground image processing. A distinction is made between quality assessment and the more comprehensive quality assurance which includes decision making and system feedback control in response to quality assessment.

  3. Automatic recognition of lactating sow behaviors through depth image processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manual observation and classification of animal behaviors is laborious, time-consuming, and of limited ability to process large amount of data. A computer vision-based system was developed that automatically recognizes sow behaviors (lying, sitting, standing, kneeling, feeding, drinking, and shiftin...

  4. A Simple Blueprint for Automatic Boolean Query Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, G.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a new Boolean retrieval environment in which an extended soft Boolean logic is used to automatically construct queries from original natural language formulations provided by users. Experimental results that compare the retrieval effectiveness of this method to conventional Boolean and vector processing are discussed. (27 references)…

  5. Automatic process control in anaerobic digestion technology: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that relies upon a synergistic effort of a diverse group of microbial communities for metabolizing diverse organic substrates. However, AD is highly sensitive to process disturbances, and thus it is advantageous to use online monitoring and process control techniques to efficiently operate AD process. A range of electrochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic devices can be deployed for on-line monitoring and control of the AD process. While complexity of the control strategy ranges from a feedback control to advanced control systems, there are some debates on implementation of advanced instrumentations or advanced control strategies. Centralized AD plants could be the answer for the applications of progressive automatic control field. This article provides a critical overview of the available automatic control technologies that can be implemented in AD processes at different scales.

  6. Towards Automatic Processing of Virtual City Models for Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piepereit, R.; Schilling, A.; Alam, N.; Wewetzer, M.; Pries, M.; Coors, V.

    2016-10-01

    Especially in the field of numerical simulations, such as flow and acoustic simulations, the interest in using virtual 3D models to optimize urban systems is increasing. The few instances in which simulations were already carried out in practice have been associated with an extremely high manual and therefore uneconomical effort for the processing of models. Using different ways of capturing models in Geographic Information System (GIS) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE), increases the already very high complexity of the processing. To obtain virtual 3D models suitable for simulation, we developed a tool for automatic processing with the goal to establish ties between the world of GIS and CAE. In this paper we introduce a way to use Coons surfaces for the automatic processing of building models in LoD2, and investigate ways to simplify LoD3 models in order to reduce unnecessary information for a numerical simulation.

  7. On the Control of Automatic Processes: A Parallel Distributed Processing Account of the Stroop Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed that attributes of automatization depend on the strength of a processing pathway, and that strength increases with training. With the Stroop effect as an example, automatic processes are shown through simulation to be continuous and to emerge gradually with practice. (SLD)

  8. AUTOMATISM.

    PubMed

    MCCALDON, R J

    1964-10-24

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed "automatism". Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of "automatism".

  9. Automatic processing of political preferences in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Tusche, Anita; Kahnt, Thorsten; Wisniewski, David; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2013-05-15

    Individual political preferences as expressed, for instance, in votes or donations are fundamental to democratic societies. However, the relevance of deliberative processing for political preferences has been highly debated, putting automatic processes in the focus of attention. Based on this notion, the present study tested whether brain responses reflect participants' preferences for politicians and their associated political parties in the absence of explicit deliberation and attention. Participants were instructed to perform a demanding visual fixation task while their brain responses were measured using fMRI. Occasionally, task-irrelevant images of German politicians from two major competing parties were presented in the background while the distraction task was continued. Subsequent to scanning, participants' political preferences for these politicians and their affiliated parties were obtained. Brain responses in distinct brain areas predicted automatic political preferences at the different levels of abstraction: activation in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with preference ranks for unattended politicians, whereas participants' preferences for the affiliated political parties were reflected in activity in the insula and the cingulate cortex. Using an additional donation task, we showed that the automatic preference-related processing in the brain extended to real-world behavior that involved actual financial loss to participants. Together, these findings indicate that brain responses triggered by unattended and task-irrelevant political images reflect individual political preferences at different levels of abstraction.

  10. Cast Process Simulation for the Rapid Tooling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renji; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Yuan; Yan, Yongnian

    1997-03-01

    A major use for RP (Rapid Prototyping) now is in the foundry industry. It is so called RT (Rapid Tooling). Models are used as patterns for sand and plaster casting or used as sacrificial models in investment casting in the RT. In order to improve casting quality, a cast process simulation program for the RT has been made. This simulation depends on analysis of size accuracy parameters. The result could be came back into the CAD forming program. After that a new CAD data have been adopted in RT process. Then the RT technology could have sufficient accuracy in fabrication. Work supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC).

  11. Phoenix: automatic science processing of ESO-VLT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuschik, Reinhard

    2014-08-01

    ESO has implemented a process to automatically create science-grade data products and offer them to the scientific community, ready for scientific analysis. This process, called 'phoenix', is built on two main concepts: 1. a certification procedure for pipelines which includes a code review and, if necessary, upgrade; and 2. a certification procedure for calibrations which are processed into master calibrations, scored and trended. These master calibrations contain all information about the intrinsic instrumental variations and instabilities inevitable for ground-based telescopes. The phoenix process then automatically processes all science data using the certified pipeline and the certified master calibrations. Phoenix currently focuses on spectroscopic data. The first phoenix project has been the processing of all science data from UVES, ESO's high-resolution Echelle spectrograph at the VLT. More than 100,000 Echelle spectra of point sources, from begin of operations (March 2000) until now, have been reduced and are available to the public from the ESO archive, http://archive.eso.org/cms/eso-data/eso-data-products.html. The phoenix process will also feed future UVES data into the archive. The second project has been X-SHOOTER slit spectroscopy which currently has more than 30,000 Echelle spectra from the UV to the infrared (up to 2.5μm). The phoenix process will be extended to other, mostly spectroscopic, instruments with certified pipelines, like FLAMES. Also, all future VLT instruments will be supported by phoenix.

  12. Control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed-processing account of the Stroop effect. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.D.; Dunbar, K.; McClelland, J.L.

    1989-11-22

    A growing body of evidence suggests that traditional views of automaticity are in need of revision. For example, automaticity has often been treated as an all-or-none phenomenon, and traditional theories have held that automatic processes are independent of attention. Yet recent empirical data suggest that automatic processes are continuous, and furthermore are subject to attentional control. In this paper we present a model of attention which addresses these issues. Using a parallel distributed processing framework we propose that the attributes of automaticity depend upon the strength of a processing pathway and that strength increases with training. Using the Stroop effect as an example, we show how automatic processes are continuous and emerge gradually with practice. Specifically, we present a computational model of the Stroop task which simulates the time course of processing as well as the effects of learning. This was accomplished by combining the cascade mechanism described by McClelland (1979) with the back propagation learning algorithm (Rumelhart, Hinton, Williams, 1986). The model is able to simulate performance in the standard Stroop task, as well as aspects of performance in variants of this task which manipulate SOA, response set, and degree of practice. In the discussion we contrast our model with other models, and indicate how it relates to many of the central issues in the literature on attention, automaticity, and interference.

  13. Verification and Validation in a Rapid Software Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Easterbrook, Steve M.

    1997-01-01

    The high cost of software production is driving development organizations to adopt more automated design and analysis methods such as rapid prototyping, computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools, and high-level code generators. Even developers of safety-critical software system have adopted many of these new methods while striving to achieve high levels Of quality and reliability. While these new methods may enhance productivity and quality in many cases, we examine some of the risks involved in the use of new methods in safety-critical contexts. We examine a case study involving the use of a CASE tool that automatically generates code from high-level system designs. We show that while high-level testing on the system structure is highly desirable, significant risks exist in the automatically generated code and in re-validating releases of the generated code after subsequent design changes. We identify these risks and suggest process improvements that retain the advantages of rapid, automated development methods within the quality and reliability contexts of safety-critical projects.

  14. Iterative Strategies for Aftershock Classification in Automatic Seismic Processing Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Kværna, Tormod; Harris, David B.; Dodge, Douglas A.

    2016-04-01

    Aftershock sequences following very large earthquakes present enormous challenges to near-realtime generation of seismic bulletins. The increase in analyst resources needed to relocate an inflated number of events is compounded by failures of phase association algorithms and a significant deterioration in the quality of underlying fully automatic event bulletins. Current processing pipelines were designed a generation ago and, due to computational limitations of the time, are usually limited to single passes over the raw data. With current processing capability, multiple passes over the data are feasible. Processing the raw data at each station currently generates parametric data streams which are then scanned by a phase association algorithm to form event hypotheses. We consider the scenario where a large earthquake has occurred and propose to define a region of likely aftershock activity in which events are detected and accurately located using a separate specially targeted semi-automatic process. This effort may focus on so-called pattern detectors, but here we demonstrate a more general grid search algorithm which may cover wider source regions without requiring waveform similarity. Given many well-located aftershocks within our source region, we may remove all associated phases from the original detection lists prior to a new iteration of the phase association algorithm. We provide a proof-of-concept example for the 2015 Gorkha sequence, Nepal, recorded on seismic arrays of the International Monitoring System. Even with very conservative conditions for defining event hypotheses within the aftershock source region, we can automatically remove over half of the original detections which could have been generated by Nepal earthquakes and reduce the likelihood of false associations and spurious event hypotheses. Further reductions in the number of detections in the parametric data streams are likely using correlation and subspace detectors and/or empirical matched

  15. Rapid Automatized Naming and Immediate Memory Functions in Chinese Children Who Read English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yi; Guo, Jian-Peng; Yang, Ling-Yan; Zhang, Dake; Ning, Huan; Richman, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined reading performance of 102 Chinese Mandarin-speaking 4th graders in their second language (L2, English) as a function of performance in their first language (L1, Chinese). The results revealed that for Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Rapid Alternating Stimulus (RAS) measures, the mean naming time decreased monotonically in…

  16. Automatic data processing and crustal modeling on Brazilian Seismograph Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L. P.; Chimpliganond, C.; Peres Rocha, M.; Franca, G.; Marotta, G. S.; Von Huelsen, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Brazilian Seismograph Network (RSBR) is a joint project of four Brazilian research institutions with the support of Petrobras and its main goal is to monitor the seismic activities, generate alerts of seismic hazard and provide data for Brazilian tectonic and structure research. Each institution operates and maintain their seismic network, sharing their data in an virtual private network. These networks have seismic stations transmitting in real time (or near real time) raw data to their respective data centers, where the seismogram files are then shared with other institutions. Currently RSBR has 57 broadband stations, some of them operating since 1994, transmitting data through mobile phone data networks or satellite links. Station management, data acquisition and storage and earthquake data processing at the Seismological Observatory of the University of Brasilia is automatically performed by SeisComP3 (SC3). However, the SC3 data processing is limited to event detection, location and magnitude. An automatic crustal modeling system was designed process raw seismograms and generate 1D S-velocity profiles. This system automatically calculates receiver function (RF) traces, Vp/Vs ratio (h-k stack) and surface waves dispersion (SWD) curves. These traces and curves are then used to calibrate the lithosphere seismic velocity models using a joint inversion scheme The results can be reviewed by an analyst, change processing parameters and selecting/neglecting RF traces and SWD curves used in lithosphere model calibration. The results to be obtained from this system will be used to generate and update a quasi-3D crustal model of Brazil's territory.

  17. Automatic Denoising and Unmixing in Hyperspectral Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Honghong

    This thesis addresses two important aspects in hyperspectral image processing: automatic hyperspectral image denoising and unmixing. The first part of this thesis is devoted to a novel automatic optimized vector bilateral filter denoising algorithm, while the remainder concerns nonnegative matrix factorization with deterministic annealing for unsupervised unmixing in remote sensing hyperspectral images. The need for automatic hyperspectral image processing has been promoted by the development of potent hyperspectral systems, with hundreds of narrow contiguous bands, spanning the visible to the long wave infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Due to the large volume of raw data generated by such sensors, automatic processing in the hyperspectral images processing chain is preferred to minimize human workload and achieve optimal result. Two of the mostly researched processing for such automatic effort are: hyperspectral image denoising, which is an important preprocessing step for almost all remote sensing tasks, and unsupervised unmixing, which decomposes the pixel spectra into a collection of endmember spectral signatures and their corresponding abundance fractions. Two new methodologies are introduced in this thesis to tackle the automatic processing problems described above. Vector bilateral filtering has been shown to provide good tradeoff between noise removal and edge degradation when applied to multispectral/hyperspectral image denoising. It has also been demonstrated to provide dynamic range enhancement of bands that have impaired signal to noise ratios. Typical vector bilateral filtering usage does not employ parameters that have been determined to satisfy optimality criteria. This thesis also introduces an approach for selection of the parameters of a vector bilateral filter through an optimization procedure rather than by ad hoc means. The approach is based on posing the filtering problem as one of nonlinear estimation and minimizing the Stein

  18. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1992-12-22

    A rotor assembly is described for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water. It includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and includes a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses. 34 figs.

  19. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1992-01-01

    A rotor assembly for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water, includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and including a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses.

  20. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  1. Using Dual-Task Methodology to Dissociate Automatic from Nonautomatic Processes Involved in Artificial Grammar Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Michelle A.; Conway, Christopher M.; Kellogg, Ronald T.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that both automatic and intentional processes contribute to the learning of grammar and fragment knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks. To explore the relative contribution of automatic and intentional processes to knowledge gained in AGL, we utilized dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic and…

  2. Automatic Data Processing to Achieve a Safe Telemedical Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Hernando, M. Elena; García-Sáez, Gema; Martínez-Sarriegui, Iñaki; Rodríguez-Herrero, Agustín; Pérez-Gandía, Carmen; Rigla, Mercedes; de Leiva, Alberto; Capel, Ismael; Pons, Belén; Gómez, Enrique J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of telemedicine for diabetes care has evolved over time, proving that it contributes to patient self-monitoring, improves glycemic control, and provides analysis tools for decision support. The timely development of a safe and robust ambulatory artificial pancreas should rely on a telemedicine architecture complemented with automatic data analysis tools able to manage all the possible high-risk situations and to guarantee the patient's safety. Methods The Intelligent Control Assistant system (INCA) telemedical artificial pancreas architecture is based on a mobile personal assistant integrated into a telemedicine system. The INCA supports four control strategies and implements an automatic data processing system for risk management (ADP-RM) providing short-term and medium-term risk analyses. The system validation comprises data from 10 type 1 pump-treated diabetic patients who participated in two randomized crossover studies, and it also includes in silico simulation and retrospective data analysis. Results The ADP-RM short-term risk analysis prevents hypoglycemic events by interrupting insulin infusion. The pump interruption has been implemented in silico and tested for a closed-loop simulation over 30 hours. For medium-term risk management, analysis of capillary blood glucose notified the physician with a total of 62 alarms during a clinical experiment (56% for hyperglycemic events). The ADP-RM system is able to filter anomalous continuous glucose records and to detect abnormal administration of insulin doses with the pump. Conclusions Automatic data analysis procedures have been tested as an essential tool to achieve a safe ambulatory telemedical artificial pancreas, showing their ability to manage short-term and medium-term risk situations. PMID:20144417

  3. Processing, analysis, recognition, and automatic understanding of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard; Ogiela, Marek R.

    2004-07-01

    Paper presents some new ideas introducing automatic understanding of the medical images semantic content. The idea under consideration can be found as next step on the way starting from capturing of the images in digital form as two-dimensional data structures, next going throw images processing as a tool for enhancement of the images visibility and readability, applying images analysis algorithms for extracting selected features of the images (or parts of images e.g. objects), and ending on the algorithms devoted to images classification and recognition. In the paper we try to explain, why all procedures mentioned above can not give us full satisfaction in many important medical problems, when we do need understand image semantic sense, not only describe the image in terms of selected features and/or classes. The general idea of automatic images understanding is presented as well as some remarks about the successful applications of such ideas for increasing potential possibilities and performance of computer vision systems dedicated to advanced medical images analysis. This is achieved by means of applying linguistic description of the picture merit content. After this we try use new AI methods to undertake tasks of the automatic understanding of images semantics in intelligent medical information systems. A successful obtaining of the crucial semantic content of the medical image may contribute considerably to the creation of new intelligent multimedia cognitive medical systems. Thanks to the new idea of cognitive resonance between stream of the data extracted form the image using linguistic methods and expectations taken from the representation of the medical knowledge, it is possible to understand the merit content of the image even if the form of the image is very different from any known pattern.

  4. Digital signal processing algorithms for automatic voice recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botros, Nazeih M.

    1987-01-01

    The current digital signal analysis algorithms are investigated that are implemented in automatic voice recognition algorithms. Automatic voice recognition means, the capability of a computer to recognize and interact with verbal commands. The digital signal is focused on, rather than the linguistic, analysis of speech signal. Several digital signal processing algorithms are available for voice recognition. Some of these algorithms are: Linear Predictive Coding (LPC), Short-time Fourier Analysis, and Cepstrum Analysis. Among these algorithms, the LPC is the most widely used. This algorithm has short execution time and do not require large memory storage. However, it has several limitations due to the assumptions used to develop it. The other 2 algorithms are frequency domain algorithms with not many assumptions, but they are not widely implemented or investigated. However, with the recent advances in the digital technology, namely signal processors, these 2 frequency domain algorithms may be investigated in order to implement them in voice recognition. This research is concerned with real time, microprocessor based recognition algorithms.

  5. Processing the in the parafovea: are articles skipped automatically?

    PubMed

    Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith

    2013-03-01

    One of the words that readers of English skip most often is the definite article the. Most accounts of reading assume that in order for a reader to skip a word, it must have received some lexical processing. The definite article is skipped so regularly, however, that the oculomotor system might have learned to skip the letter string t-h-e automatically. We tested whether skipping of articles in English is sensitive to context information or whether it is truly automatic in the sense that any occurrence of the letter string the will trigger a skip. This was done using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) to provide readers with false parafoveal previews of the article the. All experimental sentences contained a short target verb, the preview of which could be correct (i.e., identical to the actual subsequent word in the sentence; e.g., ace), a nonword (tda), or an infelicitous article preview (the). Our results indicated that readers tended to skip the infelicitous the previews frequently, suggesting that, in many cases, they seemed to be unable to detect the syntactic anomaly in the preview and based their skipping decision solely on the orthographic properties of the article. However, there was some evidence that readers sometimes detected the anomaly, as they also showed increased skipping of the pretarget word in the the preview condition.

  6. Memory-Based Processing as a Mechanism of Automaticity in Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Middleton, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    A widespread theoretical assumption is that many processes involved in text comprehension are automatic, with automaticity typically defined in terms of properties (e.g., speed, effort). In contrast, the authors advocate for conceptualization of automaticity in terms of underlying cognitive mechanisms and evaluate one prominent account, the…

  7. Exploring Automaticity in Text Processing: Syntactic Ambiguity as a Test Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.

    2004-01-01

    A prevalent assumption in text comprehension research is that many aspects of text processing are automatic, with automaticity typically defined in terms of properties (e.g., speed and effort). The present research advocates conceptualization of automaticity in terms of underlying mechanisms and evaluates two such accounts, a…

  8. Automatic endpoint detection to support the systematic review process.

    PubMed

    Blake, Catherine; Lucic, Ana

    2015-08-01

    Preparing a systematic review can take hundreds of hours to complete, but the process of reconciling different results from multiple studies is the bedrock of evidence-based medicine. We introduce a two-step approach to automatically extract three facets - two entities (the agent and object) and the way in which the entities are compared (the endpoint) - from direct comparative sentences in full-text articles. The system does not require a user to predefine entities in advance and thus can be used in domains where entity recognition is difficult or unavailable. As with a systematic review, the tabular summary produced using the automatically extracted facets shows how experimental results differ between studies. Experiments were conducted using a collection of more than 2million sentences from three journals Diabetes, Carcinogenesis and Endocrinology and two machine learning algorithms, support vector machines (SVM) and a general linear model (GLM). F1 and accuracy measures for the SVM and GLM differed by only 0.01 across all three comparison facets in a randomly selected set of test sentences. The system achieved the best performance of 92% for objects, whereas the accuracy for both agent and endpoints was 73%. F1 scores were higher for objects (0.77) than for endpoints (0.51) or agents (0.47). A situated evaluation of Metformin, a drug to treat diabetes, showed system accuracy of 95%, 83% and 79% for the object, endpoint and agent respectively. The situated evaluation had higher F1 scores of 0.88, 0.64 and 0.62 for object, endpoint, and agent respectively. On average, only 5.31% of the sentences in a full-text article are direct comparisons, but the tabular summaries suggest that these sentences provide a rich source of currently underutilized information that can be used to accelerate the systematic review process and identify gaps where future research should be focused.

  9. Automatic endpoint detection to support the systematic review process.

    PubMed

    Blake, Catherine; Lucic, Ana

    2015-08-01

    Preparing a systematic review can take hundreds of hours to complete, but the process of reconciling different results from multiple studies is the bedrock of evidence-based medicine. We introduce a two-step approach to automatically extract three facets - two entities (the agent and object) and the way in which the entities are compared (the endpoint) - from direct comparative sentences in full-text articles. The system does not require a user to predefine entities in advance and thus can be used in domains where entity recognition is difficult or unavailable. As with a systematic review, the tabular summary produced using the automatically extracted facets shows how experimental results differ between studies. Experiments were conducted using a collection of more than 2million sentences from three journals Diabetes, Carcinogenesis and Endocrinology and two machine learning algorithms, support vector machines (SVM) and a general linear model (GLM). F1 and accuracy measures for the SVM and GLM differed by only 0.01 across all three comparison facets in a randomly selected set of test sentences. The system achieved the best performance of 92% for objects, whereas the accuracy for both agent and endpoints was 73%. F1 scores were higher for objects (0.77) than for endpoints (0.51) or agents (0.47). A situated evaluation of Metformin, a drug to treat diabetes, showed system accuracy of 95%, 83% and 79% for the object, endpoint and agent respectively. The situated evaluation had higher F1 scores of 0.88, 0.64 and 0.62 for object, endpoint, and agent respectively. On average, only 5.31% of the sentences in a full-text article are direct comparisons, but the tabular summaries suggest that these sentences provide a rich source of currently underutilized information that can be used to accelerate the systematic review process and identify gaps where future research should be focused. PMID:26003938

  10. How well Do Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Correlate with Chinese Reading Accuracy and Fluency? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Georgiou, George K.; Su, Mengmeng; Hua, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses on the relationship between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading have been conducted primarily in English, an atypical alphabetic orthography. Here, we aimed to examine the association between phonological awareness, RAN, and word reading in a nonalphabetic language (Chinese). A random-effects…

  11. Growth in Rapid Automatized Naming from Grades K to 8 in Children with Math or Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is widely used to identify reading disabilities (RD) and has recently been considered a potential predictor of risk for mathematics learning disabilities (MLD). Here we longitudinally examine RAN performance from Grades K to 8, to view how growth on RAN response time differs for children with RD versus MLD. Across…

  12. Do Children Selected for Reading Recovery[R] Exhibit Weaknesses in Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatic Naming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether children considered to be at high risk for developing reading difficulties due to weaknesses in either phonological awareness or rapid automatic naming (RAN)--two skills linked to reading difficulties in many studies--were being captured for early intervention with Reading Recovery using the…

  13. A Web-Based Assessment for Phonological Awareness, Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Learning to Read Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the equivalency of conventional and web-based tests in reading Chinese. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), reading accuracy, and reading fluency tests were administered to 93 grade 6 children in Taiwan with both test versions (paper-pencil and web-based). The results suggest that conventional and…

  14. Eye-Voice Span during Rapid Automatized Naming of Digits and Dice in Chinese Normal and Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jinger; Yan, Ming; Laubrock, Jochen; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    We measured Chinese dyslexic and control children's eye movements during rapid automatized naming (RAN) with alphanumeric (digits) and symbolic (dice surfaces) stimuli. Both types of stimuli required identical oral responses, controlling for effects associated with speech production. Results showed that naming dice was much slower than naming…

  15. Prosody's Contribution to Fluency: An Examination of the Theory of Automatic Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrauben, Julie E.

    2010-01-01

    LaBerge and Samuels' (1974) theory of automatic information processing in reading offers a model that explains how and where the processing of information occurs and the degree to which processing of information occurs. These processes are dependent upon two criteria: accurate word decoding and automatic word recognition. However, LaBerge and…

  16. Development of serial processing in reading and rapid naming.

    PubMed

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Altani, Angeliki; Georgiou, George K

    2013-12-01

    Serial rapid automatized naming (RAN) is more strongly related to reading fluency than naming of isolated words, suggesting that the implementation of serial processing may underlie the RAN-reading relationship. In this study, 107 Greek children from Grade 2 and 107 from Grade 6 were tested with discrete and serial naming of digits, objects, and words in 50-item arrays. The correlation between discrete and serial word reading was very high in Grade 2 but only moderate in Grade 6. In confirmatory factor analysis, a reading-naming latent structure fit the Grade 2 data best; in contrast, a serial-discrete structure fit the Grade 6 data. Thus, the superficial longitudinal stability of RAN-reading correlations belies vastly different patterns of interrelations, indicative of changes in the developing cognitive processes underlying both naming and reading. Word fluency tasks in Grade 2 are apparently accomplished largely as a series of isolated individual word naming trials even though multiple individual letters in each word may be processed in parallel. In contrast, specifically serial procedures are applied in Grade 6, presumably via simultaneous processing of multiple individual words at successive levels. It is proposed that this feat requires endogenous control of cognitive cascades.

  17. Development of serial processing in reading and rapid naming.

    PubMed

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Altani, Angeliki; Georgiou, George K

    2013-12-01

    Serial rapid automatized naming (RAN) is more strongly related to reading fluency than naming of isolated words, suggesting that the implementation of serial processing may underlie the RAN-reading relationship. In this study, 107 Greek children from Grade 2 and 107 from Grade 6 were tested with discrete and serial naming of digits, objects, and words in 50-item arrays. The correlation between discrete and serial word reading was very high in Grade 2 but only moderate in Grade 6. In confirmatory factor analysis, a reading-naming latent structure fit the Grade 2 data best; in contrast, a serial-discrete structure fit the Grade 6 data. Thus, the superficial longitudinal stability of RAN-reading correlations belies vastly different patterns of interrelations, indicative of changes in the developing cognitive processes underlying both naming and reading. Word fluency tasks in Grade 2 are apparently accomplished largely as a series of isolated individual word naming trials even though multiple individual letters in each word may be processed in parallel. In contrast, specifically serial procedures are applied in Grade 6, presumably via simultaneous processing of multiple individual words at successive levels. It is proposed that this feat requires endogenous control of cognitive cascades. PMID:24077466

  18. Automatic Evaluation of Welded Joints Using Image Processing on Radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Ch.

    2003-03-01

    Radiography is frequently used to detect discontinuities in welded joints (porosity, cracks, lack of penetration). Perfect knowledge of the geometry of these defects is an important step which is essential to appreciate the quality of the weld. Because of this, an action improving the interpretation of radiographs by image processing has been undertaken. The principle consists in making a radiograph of the welded joint and of a depth step wedge penetrameter in the material. The radiograph is then finely digitized and an automatic processing of the radiograph of the penetrameter image allows the establishment of a correspondence between grey levels and material thickness. An algorithm based on image processing is used to localize defects in the welded joints and to isolate them from the original image. First, defects detected by this method are characterized in terms of dimension and equivalent thickness. Then, from the image of the healthy welded joint (that is to say without the detected defects), characteristic values of the weld are evaluated (thickness reduction, width).

  19. Guidelines for Automatic Data Processing Physical Security and Risk Management. Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    These guidelines provide a handbook for use by federal organizations in structuring physical security and risk management programs for their automatic data processing facilities. This publication discusses security analysis, natural disasters, supporting utilities, system reliability, procedural measures and controls, off-site facilities,…

  20. Automatic processing of macromolecular crystallography X-ray diffraction data at the ESRF

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Stéphanie; Gordon, Elspeth; Bowler, Matthew W.; Delagenière, Solange; Guijarro, Matias; Spruce, Darren; Svensson, Olof; McSweeney, Sean M.; McCarthy, Andrew A.; Leonard, Gordon; Nanao, Max H.

    2013-01-01

    The development of automated high-intensity macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines at synchrotron facilities has resulted in a remarkable increase in sample throughput. Developments in X-ray detector technology now mean that complete X-ray diffraction datasets can be collected in less than one minute. Such high-speed collection, and the volumes of data that it produces, often make it difficult for even the most experienced users to cope with the deluge. However, the careful reduction of data during experimental sessions is often necessary for the success of a particular project or as an aid in decision making for subsequent experiments. Automated data reduction pipelines provide a fast and reliable alternative to user-initiated processing at the beamline. In order to provide such a pipeline for the MX user community of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), a system for the rapid automatic processing of MX diffraction data from single and multiple positions on a single or multiple crystals has been developed. Standard integration and data analysis programs have been incorporated into the ESRF data collection, storage and computing environment, with the final results stored and displayed in an intuitive manner in the ISPyB (information system for protein crystallography beamlines) database, from which they are also available for download. In some cases, experimental phase information can be automatically determined from the processed data. Here, the system is described in detail. PMID:23682196

  1. Automatic retrieval of bone fracture knowledge using natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew S; Maley, Joan; Biswal, Sandip

    2013-08-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract data from unstructured text into formal computer representations are valuable for creating robust, scalable methods to mine data in medical documents and radiology reports. As voice recognition (VR) becomes more prevalent in radiology practice, there is opportunity for implementing NLP in real time for decision-support applications such as context-aware information retrieval. For example, as the radiologist dictates a report, an NLP algorithm can extract concepts from the text and retrieve relevant classification or diagnosis criteria or calculate disease probability. NLP can work in parallel with VR to potentially facilitate evidence-based reporting (for example, automatically retrieving the Bosniak classification when the radiologist describes a kidney cyst). For these reasons, we developed and validated an NLP system which extracts fracture and anatomy concepts from unstructured text and retrieves relevant bone fracture knowledge. We implement our NLP in an HTML5 web application to demonstrate a proof-of-concept feedback NLP system which retrieves bone fracture knowledge in real time. PMID:23053906

  2. Multiple-reason decision making based on automatic processing.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Betsch, Tilmann

    2008-09-01

    It has been repeatedly shown that in decisions under time constraints, individuals predominantly use noncompensatory strategies rather than complex compensatory ones. The authors argue that these findings might be due not to limitations of cognitive capacity but instead to limitations of information search imposed by the commonly used experimental tool Mouselab (J. W. Payne, J. R. Bettman, & E. J. Johnson, 1988). The authors tested this assumption in 3 experiments. In the 1st experiment, information was openly presented, whereas in the 2nd experiment, the standard Mouselab program was used under different time limits. The results indicate that individuals are able to compute weighted additive decision strategies extremely quickly if information search is not restricted by the experimental procedure. In a 3rd experiment, these results were replicated using more complex decision tasks, and the major alternative explanations that individuals use more complex heuristics or that they merely encode the constellation of cues were ruled out. In sum, the findings challenge the fundaments of bounded rationality and highlight the importance of automatic processes in decision making.

  3. Automatic processing of CERN video, audio and photo archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, M.

    2008-07-01

    The digitalization of CERN audio-visual archives, a major task currently in progress, will generate over 40 TB of video, audio and photo files. Storing these files is one issue, but a far more important challenge is to provide long-time coherence of the archive and to make these files available on-line with minimum manpower investment. An infrastructure, based on standard CERN services, has been implemented, whereby master files, stored in the CERN Distributed File System (DFS), are discovered and scheduled for encoding into lightweight web formats based on predefined profiles. Changes in master files, conversion profiles or in the metadata database (read from CDS, the CERN Document Server) are automatically detected and the media re-encoded whenever necessary. The encoding processes are run on virtual servers provided on-demand by the CERN Server Self Service Centre, so that new servers can be easily configured to adapt to higher load. Finally, the generated files are made available from the CERN standard web servers with streaming implemented using Windows Media Services.

  4. A Rapid Process for Fabricating Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Luo, Li-Siang

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a low-toxicity and environmentally-friendly material applied on devices, sensors or actuators for “green” usage. A porous ZnO film deposited by a rapid process of aerosol deposition (AD) was employed as the gas-sensitive material in a CO gas sensor to reduce both manufacturing cost and time, and to further extend the AD application for a large-scale production. The relative resistance change (ΔR/R) of the ZnO gas sensor was used for gas measurement. The fabricated ZnO gas sensors were measured with operating temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 180 °C, and CO concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensitivity and the response time presented good performance at increasing operating temperatures and CO concentrations. AD was successfully for applied for making ZnO gas sensors with great potential for achieving high deposition rates at low deposition temperatures, large-scale production and low cost. PMID:25010696

  5. Development of the Interplay between Automatic Processes and Cognitive Resources in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; Wei, Min; Grifith-Ross, Diana A.; Goubert, Sarah E.; Cooper, Alison L.; Zha, Peijia

    2007-01-01

    An account was tested of the development of the interplay between automatic processes and cognitive resources in reading. According to compensatory-encoding theory, with advancing skill, readers increasingly keep automatic processes from faltering and provide timely, accurate data to working memory by pausing, looking back, rereading, and…

  6. Comet assay: rapid processing of multiple samples.

    PubMed

    McNamee, J P; McLean, J R; Ferrarotto, C L; Bellier, P V

    2000-03-01

    The present study describes modifications to the basic comet protocol that increase productivity and efficiency without sacrificing assay reliability. A simple technique is described for rapidly preparing up to 96 comet assay samples simultaneously. The sample preparation technique allows thin layers of agarose-embedded cells to be prepared in multiple wells attached to a flexible film of Gelbond, which improves the ease of manipulating and processing samples. To evaluate the effect of these modifications on assay sensitivity, dose-response curves are presented for DNA damage induced by exposure of TK6 cells to low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (0-10 microM) and for exposure of human lymphocytes to X-irradiation (0-100 cGy). The limit of detection of DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in TK6 cells was observed to be 1 uM for all parameters (tail ratio, tail moment, tail length and comet length) while the limit of detection of DNA damage in human lymphocytes was 10 cGy for tail and comet length parameters, but 50 cGy for tail ratio and tail moment parameters. These results are similar to those previously reported using the conventional alkaline comet assay. The application of SYBR Gold for detection of DNA damage was compared to that of propidium iodide. Measurements of matching samples for tail length and comet length were similar using both stains. However, comets stained with SYBR Gold persisted longer and were much brighter than those obtained with propidium iodide. SYBR Gold was found to be ideal for measuring tail length and comet length but, under present assay conditions, impractical for measuring tail ratio or tail moment due to saturation of staining in the head region of the comets. PMID:10751727

  7. An automatic placement tool for rapid prototyping of printed circuit boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granacki, John; Kazi, Tauseef

    1993-11-01

    This report describes a fully automatic placement tool for PCB's (printed circuit boards), nap (nonhierarchical automatic placement) that combines approaches from different placement heuristics developed both for PCB and VLSI chip placement. Although the problem of placement for a PCB can be abstractly cast into the same formalism as the problem of VLSI cell placement, a practical tool must incorporate many additional features. In this report we describe the impact of incorporating these PCB-specific features as well as other constraints imposed by the CAD environment (that is, the schematic capture system and the automatic routing tools) into an automatic placement tool. Next we discuss the selected heuristics and their associated data structures in detail. Following this discussion, we present the results of using the placement tool on two test cases along with an analysis of the tools performance. Finally, we identify the limitations of the current implementation and we propose some possible solutions and future work.

  8. Controlled versus automatic processes: which is dominant to safety? The moderating effect of inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Ding, Weidong; Lu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end.

  9. Using suggestion to modulate automatic processes: from Stroop to McGurk and beyond.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Michael; Aubert Bonn, Noémie; Fischer, Alexandra; Kashem, Irene Farah; Raz, Amir

    2013-02-01

    Cognitive scientists typically classify cognitive processes as either controlled or automatic. Whereas controlled processes are slow and effortful, automatic processes are fast and involuntary. Over the past decade, we have propelled a research trajectory investigating how top-down influence in the form of suggestion can allow individuals to modulate the automaticity of cognitive processes. Here we present an overarching array of converging findings that collectively indicate that certain individuals can derail involuntary processes, such as reading, by "unringing" the proverbial bell. We examine replications of these effects from both our own laboratory and independent groups, and extend our Stroop findings to several other well-established automatic paradigms, including the McGurk effect. We thus demonstrate how, in the case of highly suggestible individuals, suggestion seems to wield control over a process that is likely even more automatic than the Stroop effect. Finally, we present findings from two novel experimental paradigms exploring the potential of shifting automaticity in the opposite direction - i.e., transforming, without practice, a controlled task into one that is automatic. Drawing on related evidence from the neuroscience of contemplative practices, we discuss how these findings pave the road to a more scientific understanding of voluntary control and automaticity, and expound on their possible experimental and therapeutic applications.

  10. Automatic Neural Processing of Disorder-Related Stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder: Faces and More

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Claudia; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Straube, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with automatic information processing biases resulting in hypersensitivity to signals of social threat such as negative facial expressions. However, the nature and extent of automatic processes in SAD on the behavioral and neural level is not entirely clear yet. The present review summarizes neuroscientific findings on automatic processing of facial threat but also other disorder-related stimuli such as emotional prosody or negative words in SAD. We review initial evidence for automatic activation of the amygdala, insula, and sensory cortices as well as for automatic early electrophysiological components. However, findings vary depending on tasks, stimuli, and neuroscientific methods. Only few studies set out to examine automatic neural processes directly and systematic attempts are as yet lacking. We suggest that future studies should: (1) use different stimulus modalities, (2) examine different emotional expressions, (3) compare findings in SAD with other anxiety disorders, (4) use more sophisticated experimental designs to investigate features of automaticity systematically, and (5) combine different neuroscientific methods (such as functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology). Finally, the understanding of neural automatic processes could also provide hints for therapeutic approaches. PMID:23745116

  11. Rapid thermal processing of III-nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, J.; Lee, J.W.; Vartuli, C.B.; Abernathy, C.R.; MacKenzie, J.D.; Donovan, S.M.; Pearton, S.J.; Zolper, J.C.

    1997-05-01

    High-temperature annealing is necessary in a number of applications for III-nitrides, including activation of Si{sup +} or Mg{sup +} implants for doping, maximization of implant-isolated regions, and Ohmic contact sintering. We have compared two methods for protection against surface dissociation of GaN, AlN, InN, In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N, and In{sub x}Al{sub 1{minus}x}N during rapid thermal processing in N{sub 2} ambients. In the first method, AlN or InN powder is placed in the reservoirs of a SiC-coated graphite susceptor and provides a N{sub 2} overpressure for the nitride samples within the susceptor. In the second method, the nitrides are placed face down on other III{endash}V substrates during annealing. In both techniques N loss from the nitride surface is found to occur at {ge}1050{degree}C for GaN and {ge}1100{degree}C for AlN and {ge}InN, as measured by Auger electron spectroscopy. Real surface roughening is generally significant only for the In-containing materials, with GaN and AlN retaining smooth morphologies even up to 1150{degree}C unless H{sub 2} is present in the annealing ambient. When InN powder is used in the susceptor, there is In droplet condensation on the surfaces of all samples above {approximately}750{degree}C leading to higher root-mean-square surface roughness measured by atomic force microscopy. The N{sub 2}-deficient surfaces of the binary nitrides become strongly n type, while those of ternaries become less conducting. At temperature of 850{endash}900{degree}C, the In droplets on thermally degraded ternaries also begin to evaporate, leading to an apparent improvement in morphology. The presence of H{sub 2} or O{sub 2} in the annealing ambient lowers the dissociation temperature of each of the nitrides by 100{endash}200{degree}C, due to an enhancement in N{sub 2} removal. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}

  12. The Development of Automatic Associative Processes and Children's False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Marina C.; Howe, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated children's ability to generate associations and how automaticity of associative activation unfolds developmentally. Children generated associative responses using a single associate paradigm (Experiment 1) or a Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM)-like multiple associates paradigm (Experiment 2). The results indicated that children's…

  13. Are Automatic Imitation and Spatial Compatibility Mediated by Different Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard P.; Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Automatic imitation or "imitative compatibility" is thought to be mediated by the mirror neuron system and to be a laboratory model of the motor mimicry that occurs spontaneously in naturalistic social interaction. Imitative compatibility and spatial compatibility effects are known to depend on different stimulus dimensions--body…

  14. The Masked Semantic Priming Effect Is Task Dependent: Reconsidering the Automatic Spreading Activation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Semantic priming effects are popularly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process, according to which the activation of a node in a semantic network spreads automatically to interconnected nodes, preactivating a semantically related word. It is expected from this account that semantic priming effects should be routinely…

  15. Uav Data Processing for Rapid Mapping Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2015-08-01

    During disaster and emergency situations, geospatial data plays an important role to serve as a framework for decision support system. As one component of basic geospatial data, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable geospatial analysis within quite a number of societal challenges. The increasing role of geo-information in disaster management nowadays consequently needs to include geospatial aspects on its analysis. Therefore different geospatial datasets can be combined in order to produce reliable geospatial analysis especially in the context of disaster preparedness and emergency response. A very well-known issue in this context is the fast delivery of geospatial relevant data which is expressed by the term "Rapid Mapping". Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is the rising geospatial data platform nowadays that can be attractive for modelling and monitoring the disaster area with a low cost and timely acquisition in such critical period of time. Disaster-related object extraction is of special interest for many applications. In this paper, UAV-borne data has been used for supporting rapid mapping activities in combination with high resolution airborne Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) data. A real disaster instance from 2013 in conjunction with Mount Sinabung eruption, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, is used as the benchmark test for the rapid mapping activities presented in this paper. On this context, the reliable IFSAR dataset from airborne data acquisition in 2011 has been used as a comparable dataset for accuracy investigation and assessment purpose in 3 D reconstructions. After all, this paper presents a proper geo-referencing and feature extraction method of UAV data to support rapid mapping activities.

  16. An Image Processing System For Automatic Retina Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Norman; Goldbaum, Michael; Nelson, Mark; Chaudhuri, Subhasis

    1988-06-01

    We are developing a system designed around an IBM PC-AT to perform automatic diagnosis of diseases from images of the retina. The system includes hardware for color image capture and display. We are developing software for performing image enhancement, image analysis, pattern recognition and artificial intelligence. The design goal of the system is to automatically segment a digitized photograph of the retina into its normal and abnormal structures, identifying these objects by various features such as color, size, shape, texture, orientation, etc., and ultimately to provide a list of possible diagnoses with varying degrees of probability. We will discuss algorithms used to identify markedly different objects and to distinguish between those objects which appear very similar to the trained eye. Implementation of these algorithms, which are typically applied to areas such as remote sensing, terrain mapping and robotics, has been very successful when applied to color images of the retina.

  17. Evidence of automatic processing in sequence learning using process-dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Mong, Heather M.; McCabe, David P.; Clegg, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a way to apply process-dissociation to sequence learning in addition and extension to the approach used by Destrebecqz and Cleeremans (2001). Participants were trained on two sequences separated from each other by a short break. Following training, participants self-reported their knowledge of the sequences. A recognition test was then performed which required discrimination of two trained sequences, either under the instructions to call any sequence encountered in the experiment “old” (the inclusion condition), or only sequence fragments from one half of the experiment “old” (the exclusion condition). The recognition test elicited automatic and controlled process estimates using the process dissociation procedure, and suggested both processes were involved. Examining the underlying processes supporting performance may provide more information on the fundamental aspects of the implicit and explicit constructs than has been attainable through awareness testing. PMID:22679465

  18. Is rapid automatized naming related to reading and mathematics for the same reason(s)? A follow-up study from kindergarten to Grade 1.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, George K; Tziraki, Niki; Manolitsis, George; Fella, Argyro

    2013-07-01

    We examined (a) what rapid automatized naming (RAN) components (articulation time and/or pause time) predict reading and mathematics ability and (b) what processing skills involved in RAN (speed of processing, response inhibition, working memory, and/or phonological awareness) may explain its relationship with reading and mathematics. A sample of 72 children were followed from the beginning of kindergarten until the end of Grade 1 and were assessed on measures of RAN, general cognitive ability, speed of processing, attention, working memory, phonological awareness, reading, and mathematics. The results indicated that pause time was the critical component in both the RAN-reading and RAN-mathematics relationships and that it shared most of its predictive variance in reading and mathematics with speed of processing and working memory. Our findings further suggested that, unlike the relationship between RAN and reading fluency in Grade 1, there is nothing in the RAN task that is uniquely related to math. PMID:23506806

  19. Is rapid automatized naming related to reading and mathematics for the same reason(s)? A follow-up study from kindergarten to Grade 1.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, George K; Tziraki, Niki; Manolitsis, George; Fella, Argyro

    2013-07-01

    We examined (a) what rapid automatized naming (RAN) components (articulation time and/or pause time) predict reading and mathematics ability and (b) what processing skills involved in RAN (speed of processing, response inhibition, working memory, and/or phonological awareness) may explain its relationship with reading and mathematics. A sample of 72 children were followed from the beginning of kindergarten until the end of Grade 1 and were assessed on measures of RAN, general cognitive ability, speed of processing, attention, working memory, phonological awareness, reading, and mathematics. The results indicated that pause time was the critical component in both the RAN-reading and RAN-mathematics relationships and that it shared most of its predictive variance in reading and mathematics with speed of processing and working memory. Our findings further suggested that, unlike the relationship between RAN and reading fluency in Grade 1, there is nothing in the RAN task that is uniquely related to math.

  20. Effects of automatic/controlled access processes on semantic memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Anlló, Eva M; Bellouard, Stéphanie; Ingrand, Pierre; Gil, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of automatic/controlled access processes on the semantic network in 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The AD group was compared with a control group using a battery of neuropsychological tests, a variation of Hodges's semantic testing battery, designed to assess semantic knowledge. The AD group had markedly lower scores than the normal group on each semantic test, but with a different degree of deterioration depending on the nature of the processes (controlled/automatic) in accessing the semantic network. AD patients had poorer performances on the explicit semantic tasks mainly involving controlled-process access (e.g., the WAIS Similarities Subtest) than those involving mainly automatic-process access (e.g., the Verbal Automatism test). Analyses of confidence intervals allowed a gradient of impaired performances in increasing order to be elaborated: a) the Verbal Automatism test, b) the WAIS Vocabulary Subtest, c) the WAIS Information Subtest, d) the Letter Fluency Task, e) Naming as a Response to Definition, f) the Category Fluency Task, g) the WAIS Similarities Subtest, and h) the Oral Denomination 80 Test. The results of our study suggest that explicit semantic tasks needing passive or automatic processes to access semantic memory would be better preserved in AD. PMID:21471640

  1. Implications of number-space synesthesia on the automaticity of numerical processing

    PubMed Central

    Gertner, Limor; Henik, Avishai; Reznik, Daniel; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Number-space synesthetes visualize numbers in specific spatial configurations. Their spatial-numerical perceptions are assumed to be automatic in nature and have been found to affect performance in various numerical tasks. The current study tested whether synesthetic number-space associations can modulate the well-established Size Congruency Effect (SiCE), which is considered to be an indication for the automaticity of numerical processing. Two groups, number-space synesthetes and matched controls, were tested on a numerical Stroop task (Henik and Tzelgov, 1982). In separate blocks, participants were presented with two digits and asked to make comparative judgments regarding either numerical values (numerical comparison) or physical size (physical comparison). Both dimensions were manipulated orthogonally, creating three congruency levels: congruent (e.g., 2 7), incongruent (e.g., 2 7) and neutral (e.g., 2 2 and 2 7 for physical and numerical blocks, respectively). For the numerical block, both synesthetes and controls showed the classic SiCE, indicating similar automatic processing of physical magnitude. However, in the physical block, synesthetes showed a lack of automatic numerical magnitude processing when the numbers to be compared were presented incompatibly with their relative position on the synesthetic number-form. This finding strongly suggests that synesthetes’ number-space perceptions affect their ability to automatically process the semantic meaning of numerals. The involvement of space in automatic magnitude processing for number-space synesthetes and non-synesthetes is discussed. PMID:22578710

  2. Implications of number-space synesthesia on the automaticity of numerical processing.

    PubMed

    Gertner, Limor; Henik, Avishai; Reznik, Daniel; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-05-01

    Number-space synesthetes visualize numbers in specific spatial configurations. Their spatial-numerical perceptions are assumed to be automatic in nature and have been found to affect performance in various numerical tasks. The current study tested whether synesthetic number-space associations can modulate the well-established Size Congruency Effect (SiCE), which is considered to be an indication for the automaticity of numerical processing. Two groups, number-space synesthetes and matched controls, were tested on a numerical Stroop task (Henik and Tzelgov, 1982). In separate blocks, participants were presented with two digits and asked to make comparative judgments regarding either numerical values (numerical comparison) or physical size (physical comparison). Both dimensions were manipulated orthogonally, creating three congruency levels: congruent (e.g., 2 7), incongruent (e.g., 2 7) and neutral (e.g., 2 2 and 2 7 for physical and numerical blocks, respectively). For the numerical block, both synesthetes and controls showed the classic SiCE, indicating similar automatic processing of physical magnitude. However, in the physical block, synesthetes showed a lack of automatic numerical magnitude processing when the numbers to be compared were presented incompatibly with their relative position on the synesthetic number-form. This finding strongly suggests that synesthetes' number-space perceptions affect their ability to automatically process the semantic meaning of numerals. The involvement of space in automatic magnitude processing for number-space synesthetes and non-synesthetes is discussed.

  3. Localized rapid heating process for precision chalcogenide glass molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; He, Peng; Yu, Jianfeng; Lee, L. James; Yi, Allen Y.

    2015-10-01

    Precision glass molding is an important process for high volume optical fabrication. However, conventional glass molding is a bulk heating process that usually requires a long thermal cycle, where molding assembly and other mechanical parts are heated and cooled together. This often causes low efficiency and other heating and cooling related problems, such as large thermal expansion in both the molds and molded optics. To cope with this issue, we developed a localized rapid heating process to effectively heat only very small part of the glass. This localized rapid heating study utilized a fused silica wafer coated with a thin graphene layer to heat only the surface of the glass. The graphene coating functions as an electrical resistant heater when a power source was applied across the thin film coating, generating heat on and near the coating. The feasibility of this process was validated by both experiments and numerical simulation. To demonstrate the advantages of the localized rapid heating, both localized rapid heating process and bulk heating process were performed and carefully compared. The uniformity and quality of the molded sample by localized rapid heating process was also demonstrated. In summary, localized rapid heating process by using graphene coated fused silica wafer was characterized and can be readily implemented in replication of micro scale chalcogenide glasses. A fused silica wafer coated with a thin graphene layer was utilized for localized rapid heating only the surface of the glass. The graphene coating functions as an electrical resistant heater when a power source was applied across the thin film coating, generating high temperature on and near the coating. This process is fast and efficient since only interested areas are heated without affecting the entire glass substrate or the mold assembly. The uniformity and quality of the molded sample by localized rapid heating process was demonstrated by comparing both localized rapid heating

  4. Racial bias in pain perception and response: experimental examination of automatic and deliberate processes

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vani A.; Richeson, Jennifer A.; Paice, Judith A.; Muzyka, Michael; Chiao, Joan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Racial disparities in pain treatment pose a significant public health and scientific problem. Prior studies demonstrate clinicians and non-clinicians are less perceptive, and suggest less treatment for, the pain of African Americans, relative to European Americans. Here we investigate the effects of explicit/implicit patient race presentation, patient race, and perceiver race on pain perception and response. African American and European American participants rated pain perception, empathy, helping motivation, and treatment suggestion in response to vignettes about patients’ pain. Vignettes were accompanied by a rapid (implicit), or static (explicit) presentation of an African or European American patient’s face. Participants perceived and responded more to European American patients in the implicit prime condition, when the effect of patient race was below the level of conscious regulation. This effect was reversed when patient race was presented explicitly. Additionally, female participants perceived and responded more to the pain of all patients, relative to male participants, and in the implicit prime condition, African American participants were more perceptive and responsive than European Americans to the pain of all patients. Taken together, these results suggest that known disparities in pain treatment may be largely due to automatic (below the level of conscious regulation), rather than deliberate (subject to conscious regulation) biases. These biases were not associated with traditional implicit measures of racial attitudes, suggesting that biases in pain perception and response may be independent of general prejudice. Perspective Results suggest racial biases in pain perception and treatment are at least partially due to automatic processes. When the relevance of patient race is made explicit, however, biases are attenuated and even reversed. We also find preliminary evidence that African Americans may be more sensitive to the pain of others than

  5. TARGET: Rapid Capture of Process Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, C. J.; Ly, H. V.; Saito, T.; Loftin, R. B.

    1993-01-01

    TARGET (Task Analysis/Rule Generation Tool) represents a new breed of tool that blends graphical process flow modeling capabilities with the function of a top-down reporting facility. Since NASA personnel frequently perform tasks that are primarily procedural in nature, TARGET models mission or task procedures and generates hierarchical reports as part of the process capture and analysis effort. Historically, capturing knowledge has proven to be one of the greatest barriers to the development of intelligent systems. Current practice generally requires lengthy interactions between the expert whose knowledge is to be captured and the knowledge engineer whose responsibility is to acquire and represent the expert's knowledge in a useful form. Although much research has been devoted to the development of methodologies and computer software to aid in the capture and representation of some types of knowledge, procedural knowledge has received relatively little attention. In essence, TARGET is one of the first tools of its kind, commercial or institutional, that is designed to support this type of knowledge capture undertaking. This paper will describe the design and development of TARGET for the acquisition and representation of procedural knowledge. The strategies employed by TARGET to support use by knowledge engineers, subject matter experts, programmers and managers will be discussed. This discussion includes the method by which the tool employs its graphical user interface to generate a task hierarchy report. Next, the approach to generate production rules for incorporation in and development of a CLIPS based expert system will be elaborated. TARGET also permits experts to visually describe procedural tasks as a common medium for knowledge refinement by the expert community and knowledge engineer making knowledge consensus possible. The paper briefly touches on the verification and validation issues facing the CLIPS rule generation aspects of TARGET. A description of

  6. A comparison of conscious and automatic memory processes for picture and word stimuli: a process dissociation analysis.

    PubMed

    McBride, Dawn M; Anne Dosher, Barbara

    2002-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate explanations of picture superiority effects previously found for several tasks. In a process dissociation procedure (Jacoby, 1991) with word stem completion, picture fragment completion, and category production tasks, conscious and automatic memory processes were compared for studied pictures and words with an independent retrieval model and a generate-source model. The predictions of a transfer appropriate processing account of picture superiority were tested and validated in "process pure" latent measures of conscious and unconscious, or automatic and source, memory processes. Results from both model fits verified that pictures had a conceptual (conscious/source) processing advantage over words for all tasks. The effects of perceptual (automatic/word generation) compatibility depended on task type, with pictorial tasks favoring pictures and linguistic tasks favoring words. Results show support for an explanation of the picture superiority effect that involves an interaction of encoding and retrieval processes. PMID:12435377

  7. Syntax as a Reflex: Neurophysiological Evidence for Early Automaticity of Grammatical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Hasting, Anna S.; Carlyon, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    It has been a matter of debate whether the specifically human capacity to process syntactic information draws on attentional resources or is automatic. To address this issue, we recorded neurophysiological indicators of syntactic processing to spoken sentences while subjects were distracted to different degrees from language processing. Subjects…

  8. A new method of automatic processing of seismic waves: waveform modeling by using Hidden Markov Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodera, Y.; Sakai, S.

    2012-12-01

    Development of a method of automatic processing of seismic waves is needed since there are limitations to manually picking out earthquake events from seismograms. However, there is no practical method to automatically detect arrival times of P and S waves in seismograms. One typical example of previously proposed methods is automatic detection by using AR model (e.g. Kitagawa et al., 2004). This method seems not to be effective for seismograms contaminated with spike noise, because it cannot distinguish non-stationary signals generated by earthquakes from those generated by noise. The difficulty of distinguishing the signals is caused by the fact that the automatic detection system has a lack of information on time series variation of seismic waves. We expect that an automatic detection system that includes the information on seismic waves is more effective for seismograms contaminated with noise. So we try to adapt Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to construct seismic wave models and establish a new automatic detection method. HMM has been widely used in many fields such as voice recognition (e.g. Bishop, 2006). With the use of HMM, P- or S-waveform models that include envelops can be constructed directly and semi-automatically from lots of observed waveform data of P or S waves. These waveform models are expected to become more robust if the quantity of observation data increases. We have constructed seismic wave models based on HMM from seismograms observed in Ashio, Japan. By using these models, we have tried automatic detection of arrival times of earthquake events in Ashio. Results show that automatic detection based on HMM is more effective for seismograms contaminated with noise than that based on AR model.

  9. What Discrete and Serial Rapid Automatized Naming Can Reveal about Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Serial rapid automized naming (RAN) has been often found to correlate more strongly with reading than discrete RAN. This study aimed to demonstrate that the strength of the RAN-reading fluency relationship is dependent on the format of both RAN and the reading task if the reading task consists of sight words. Seventy-one first-grade, 74…

  10. Thermally grown oxide and diffusions for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1979-01-01

    A totally automated facility for semiconductor oxidation and diffusion was developed using a state-of-the-art diffusion furnace and high temperature grown oxides. Major innovations include: (1) a process controller specifically for semiconductor processing; (2) an automatic loading system to accept wafers from an air track, insert them into a quartz carrier and then place the carrier on a paddle for insertion into the furnace; (3) automatic unloading of the wafers back onto the air track, and (4) boron diffusion using diborane with plus or minus 5 percent uniformity. Processes demonstrated include Wet and dry oxidation for general use and for gate oxide, boron diffusion, phosphorous diffusion, and sintering.

  11. Development of a rapid method for the automatic classification of biological agents' fluorescence spectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carestia, Mariachiara; Pizzoferrato, Roberto; Gelfusa, Michela; Cenciarelli, Orlando; Ludovici, Gian Marco; Gabriele, Jessica; Malizia, Andrea; Murari, Andrea; Vega, Jesus; Gaudio, Pasquale

    2015-11-01

    Biosecurity and biosafety are key concerns of modern society. Although nanomaterials are improving the capacities of point detectors, standoff detection still appears to be an open issue. Laser-induced fluorescence of biological agents (BAs) has proved to be one of the most promising optical techniques to achieve early standoff detection, but its strengths and weaknesses are still to be fully investigated. In particular, different BAs tend to have similar fluorescence spectra due to the ubiquity of biological endogenous fluorophores producing a signal in the UV range, making data analysis extremely challenging. The Universal Multi Event Locator (UMEL), a general method based on support vector regression, is commonly used to identify characteristic structures in arrays of data. In the first part of this work, we investigate fluorescence emission spectra of different simulants of BAs and apply UMEL for their automatic classification. In the second part of this work, we elaborate a strategy for the application of UMEL to the discrimination of different BAs' simulants spectra. Through this strategy, it has been possible to discriminate between these BAs' simulants despite the high similarity of their fluorescence spectra. These preliminary results support the use of SVR methods to classify BAs' spectral signatures.

  12. Exploring the Developmental Changes in Automatic Two-Digit Number Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Au, Terry K.; Tang, Joey

    2011-01-01

    Even when two-digit numbers are irrelevant to the task at hand, adults process them. Do children process numbers automatically, and if so, what kind of information is activated? In a novel dot-number Stroop task, children (Grades 1-5) and adults were shown two different two-digit numbers made up of dots. Participants were asked to select the…

  13. Dialog system for automatic data input/output and processing with two BESM-6 computers

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, Y.N.; Gorlov, Y.P.; Makarychev, S.V.; Monakov, A.A.; Shcherbakov, S.A.

    1985-09-01

    This paper presents a system for conducting experiments with fully automatic processing of data from multichannel recorders in the dialog mode. The system acquires data at a rate of 2.5 . 10/sup 3/ readings/sec, processes in real time, and outputs digital and graphical material in a multitasking environment.

  14. Using Automatic Code Generation in the Attitude Control Flight Software Engineering Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Andrews, Stephen F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the attitude control subsystem flight software development process, identifies how the process has changed due to automatic code generation, analyzes each software development phase in detail, and concludes with a summary of our lessons learned.

  15. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) taps a mechanism that places constraints on the development of early reading fluency.

    PubMed

    Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that rapid automatized naming (RAN) is a correlate of early reading skills; however, the interpretation of this finding remains controversial. We present the results from a 3-year longitudinal study. RAN, measured with nonalphabetic stimuli before reading instruction has begun, is a predictor of later growth in reading fluency. After reading instruction has started, RAN continues to exert an influence on the development of reading fluency over the next 2 years. However, there is no evidence of a reciprocal influence of reading fluency on the growth of RAN skill. We suggest that RAN taps the integrity of left-hemisphere object-recognition and naming circuits that are recruited to function as a critical component of the child's developing visual word-recognition system. PMID:19619178

  16. Spatio-temporal dynamics of automatic processing of phonological information in visual words.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Yin-Yuan; A-Ping Liu; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Sensory-specific cortices appear to be sensitive to information from another modality. Here we investigate whether the human brain automatically extracts the phonological information in visual words in early visual processing. We continuously presented native Chinese speakers peripherally with Chinese homophone characters in an oddball paradigm, while they performed a visual detection task presented in the centre of the visual field. We found the lexical tone phonology embedded in the characters is processed automatically by the brain of native speakers, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the mismatch negativity (MMN). Source solution further revealed the MMN involved the neural activations from the visual cortex to the auditory cortex (130-460 ms). The spatial-temporal dynamics indicate a visual-auditory interaction in the early, automatic processing of phonological information in visual words. PMID:24336606

  17. Automatic and controlled semantic processing: a masked prime-task effect.

    PubMed

    Valdés, B; Catena, A; Marí-Beffa, P

    2005-06-01

    A classical definition of automaticity establishes that automatic processing occurs without attention or consciousness, and cannot be controlled. Previous studies have demonstrated that semantic priming can be reduced if attention is directed to a low-level of analysis. This finding suggests that semantic processing is not automatic since it can be controlled. In this paper, we present two experiments that demonstrate that semantic processing may occur in the absence of attention and consciousness. A negative semantic priming effect was found when a low-level prime-task was required and when a masked lexical decision prime-task was performed (Experiment 1). This paper also discusses the limitations of the inhibitory mechanism involved in negative semantic priming effect.

  18. [Complex automatic data processing in multi-profile hospitals].

    PubMed

    Dovzhenko, Iu M; Panov, G D

    1990-01-01

    The computerization of data processing in multi-disciplinary hospitals is the key factor in raising the quality of medical care provided to the population, intensifying the work of the personnel, improving the curative and diagnostic process and the use of resources. Even a small experience in complex computerization at the Botkin Hospital indicates that due to the use of the automated system the quality of data processing in being improved, a high level of patients' examination is being provided, a speedy training of young specialists is being achieved, conditions are being created for continuing education of physicians through the analysis of their own activity. At big hospitals a complex solution of administrative and curative diagnostic tasks on the basis of general hospital network of display connection and general hospital data bank is the most prospective form of computerization.

  19. Automatic detection and rapid determination of earthquake magnitude by wavelet multiscale analysis of the primary arrival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Frederik J.; Dando, Ben D. E.; Allen, Richard M.

    2006-10-01

    Earthquake early warning systems must save lives. It is of great importance that networked systems of seismometers be equipped with reliable tools to make rapid determinations of earthquake magnitude in the few to tens of seconds before the damaging ground motion occurs. A new fully automated algorithm based on the discrete wavelet transform detects as well as analyzes the incoming first arrival with great accuracy and precision, estimating the final magnitude to within a single unit from the first few seconds of the P wave.

  20. Processing "the" in the Parafovea: Are Articles Skipped Automatically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    One of the words that readers of English skip most often is the definite article "the". Most accounts of reading assume that in order for a reader to skip a word, it must have received some lexical processing. The definite article is skipped so regularly, however, that the oculomotor system might have learned to skip the letter string "t-h-e"…

  1. The Development from Effortful to Automatic Processing in Mathematical Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Daniel B.; And Others

    This investigation capitalizes upon the information processing models that depend upon measurement of latency of response to a mathematical problem and the decomposition of reaction time (RT). Simple two term addition problems were presented with possible solutions for true-false verification, and accuracy and RT to response were recorded. Total…

  2. Investigation of registration algorithms for the automatic tile processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamir, Dan E.

    1995-01-01

    The Robotic Tile Inspection System (RTPS), under development in NASA-KSC, is expected to automate the processes of post-flight re-water-proofing and the process of inspection of the Shuttle heat absorbing tiles. An important task of the robot vision sub-system is to register the 'real-world' coordinates with the coordinates of the robot model of the Shuttle tiles. The model coordinates relate to a tile data-base and pre-flight tile-images. In the registration process, current (post-flight) images are aligned with pre-flight images to detect the rotation and translation displacement required for the coordinate systems rectification. The research activities performed this summer included study and evaluation of the registration algorithm that is currently implemented by the RTPS, as well as, investigation of the utility of other registration algorithms. It has been found that the current algorithm is not robust enough. This algorithm has a success rate of less than 80% and is, therefore, not suitable for complying with the requirements of the RTPS. Modifications to the current algorithm has been developed and tested. These modifications can improve the performance of the registration algorithm in a significant way. However, this improvement is not sufficient to satisfy system requirements. A new algorithm for registration has been developed and tested. This algorithm presented very high degree of robustness with success rate of 96%.

  3. Automatic and controlled processing of acoustic and phonetic contrasts.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Elyse; Kujala, Teija; Halmetoja, Jaana; Lyytinen, Heikki; Alku, Paavo; Näätänen, Risto

    2004-04-01

    Changes in the temporal properties of the speech signal provide important cues for phoneme identification. An impairment or inability to detect such changes may adversely affect one's ability to understand spoken speech. The difference in meaning between the Finnish words tuli (fire) and tuuli (wind), for example, lies in the difference between the duration of the vowel /u/. Detecting changes in the temporal properties of the speech signal, therefore, is critical for distinguishing between phonemes and identifying words. In the current study, we tested whether detection of changes in speech sounds, in native Finnish speakers, would vary as a function of the position within the word that the informational changes occurred (beginning, middle, or end) by evaluating how length contrasts in segments of three-syllable Finnish pseudo-words and their acoustic correlates were discriminated. We recorded a combination of cortical components of event-related brain potentials (MMN, N2b, P3b) along with behavioral measures of the perception of the same sounds. It was found that speech sounds were not processed differently than non-speech sounds in the early stages of auditory processing indexed by MMN. Differences occurred only in later stages associated with controlled processes. The effects of position and attention on speech and non-speech stimuli are discussed. PMID:15051135

  4. Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) of semiconductors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. J.; Jones, K. S.

    1993-01-01

    The progress achieved on the project entitled 'Rapid Thermal Processing of Semiconductors in Space' for a 12 month period of activity ending March 31, 1993 is summarized. The activity of this group is being performed under the direct auspices of the ROMPS program. The main objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate the use of advanced robotics in space with rapid thermal process (RTP) of semiconductors providing the test technology. Rapid thermal processing is an ideal processing step for demonstration purposes since it encompasses many of the characteristics of other processes used in solid state device manufacturing. Furthermore, a low thermal budget is becoming more important in existing manufacturing practice, while a low thermal budget is critical to successful processing in space. A secondary objective of this project is to determine the influence of microgravity on the rapid thermal process for a variety of operating modes. In many instances, this involves one or more fluid phases. The advancement of microgravity processing science is an important ancillary objective.

  5. Automatic detection and rapid determination of earthquake magnitude by wavelet multiscale analysis of the primary arrival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dando, B.; Simons, F. J.; Allen, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    Earthquake early warning systems save lives. It is of great importance that networked systems of seismometers be equipped with reliable tools to make rapid determinations of earthquake magnitude in the few to tens of seconds before the damaging ground motion occurs. A new fully automated algorithm based on the discrete wavelet transform detects as well as analyzes the incoming first arrival with unmatched accuracy and precision, estimating the final magnitude to within a single unit from the first few seconds of the P wave. The curious observation that such brief segments of the seismogram may contain information about the final magnitude even of very large earthquakes, which occur on faults that may rupture over tens of seconds, is central to a debate in the seismological community which we hope to stimulate but cannot attempt to address within the scope of this paper. Wavelet coefficients of the seismogram can be determined extremely rapidly and efficiently by the fast lifting wavelet transform. Extracting amplitudes at individual scales is a very simple procedure, involving a mere handful of lines of computer code. Scale-dependent thresholded amplitudes derived from the wavelet transform of the first 3--4 seconds of an incoming seismic P arrival are predictive of earthquake magnitude, with errors of one magnitude unit for seismograms recorded up to 150 km away from the earthquake source. Our procedure is a simple yet extremely efficient tool for implementation on low-power recording stations. It provides an accurate and precise method of autonomously detecting the incoming P wave and predicting the magnitude of the source from the scale-dependent character of its amplitude well before the arrival of damaging ground motion. Provided a dense array of networked seismometers exists, our procedure should become the tool of choice for earthquake early warning systems worldwide.

  6. A new tool for rapid and automatic estimation of earthquake source parameters and generation of seismic bulletins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    RISS S.r.l. is a Spin-off company recently born from the initiative of the research group constituting the Seismology Laboratory of the Department of Physics of the University of Naples Federico II. RISS is an innovative start-up, based on the decade-long experience in earthquake monitoring systems and seismic data analysis of its members and has the major goal to transform the most recent innovations of the scientific research into technological products and prototypes. With this aim, RISS has recently started the development of a new software, which is an elegant solution to manage and analyse seismic data and to create automatic earthquake bulletins. The software has been initially developed to manage data recorded at the ISNet network (Irpinia Seismic Network), which is a network of seismic stations deployed in Southern Apennines along the active fault system responsible for the 1980, November 23, MS 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. The software, however, is fully exportable and can be used to manage data from different networks, with any kind of station geometry or network configuration and is able to provide reliable estimates of earthquake source parameters, whichever is the background seismicity level of the area of interest. Here we present the real-time automated procedures and the analyses performed by the software package, which is essentially a chain of different modules, each of them aimed at the automatic computation of a specific source parameter. The P-wave arrival times are first detected on the real-time streaming of data and then the software performs the phase association and earthquake binding. As soon as an event is automatically detected by the binder, the earthquake location coordinates and the origin time are rapidly estimated, using a probabilistic, non-linear, exploration algorithm. Then, the software is able to automatically provide three different magnitude estimates. First, the local magnitude (Ml) is computed, using the peak-to-peak amplitude

  7. Real-time hyperspectral processing for automatic nonferrous material sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picón, Artzai; Ghita, Ovidiu; Bereciartua, Aranzazu; Echazarra, Jone; Whelan, Paul F.; Iriondo, Pedro M.

    2012-01-01

    The application of hyperspectral sensors in the development of machine vision solutions has become increasingly popular as the spectral characteristics of the imaged materials are better modeled in the hyperspectral domain than in the standard trichromatic red, green, blue data. While there is no doubt that the availability of detailed spectral information is opportune as it opens the possibility to construct robust image descriptors, it also raises a substantial challenge when this high-dimensional data is used in the development of real-time machine vision systems. To alleviate the computational demand, often decorrelation techniques are commonly applied prior to feature extraction. While this approach has reduced to some extent the size of the spectral descriptor, data decorrelation alone proved insufficient in attaining real-time classification. This fact is particularly apparent when pixel-wise image descriptors are not sufficiently robust to model the spectral characteristics of the imaged materials, a case when the spatial information (or textural properties) also has to be included in the classification process. The integration of spectral and spatial information entails a substantial computational cost, and as a result the prospects of real-time operation for the developed machine vision system are compromised. To answer this requirement, in this paper we have reengineered the approach behind the integration of the spectral and spatial information in the material classification process to allow the real-time sorting of the nonferrous fractions that are contained in the waste of electric and electronic equipment scrap.

  8. Dyslexia and fluency: parafoveal and foveal influences on rapid automatized naming.

    PubMed

    Jones, Manon W; Ashby, Jane; Branigan, Holly P

    2013-04-01

    The ability to coordinate serial processing of multiple items is crucial for fluent reading but is known to be impaired in dyslexia. To investigate this impairment, we manipulated the orthographic and phonological similarity of adjacent letters online as dyslexic and nondyslexic readers named letters in a serial naming (RAN) task. Eye movements and voice onsets were recorded. Letter arrays contained target item pairs in which the second letter was orthographically or phonologically similar to the first letter when viewed either parafoveally (Experiment 1a) or foveally (Experiment 1b). Relative to normal readers, dyslexic readers were more affected by orthographic confusability in Experiment 1a and phonological confusability in Experiment 1b. Normal readers were slower to process orthographically similar letters in Experiment 1b. Findings indicate that the phonological and orthographic processing problems of dyslexic readers manifest differently during parafoveal and foveal processing, with each contributing to slower RAN performance and impaired reading fluency. PMID:22924951

  9. Fast Implementation of Matched Filter Based Automatic Alignment Image Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S; Rice, K; Taha, T

    2008-04-02

    Video images of laser beams imprinted with distinguishable features are used for alignment of 192 laser beams at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Algorithms designed to determine the position of these beams enable the control system to perform the task of alignment. Centroiding is a common approach used for determining the position of beams. However, real world beam images suffer from intensity fluctuation or other distortions which make such an approach susceptible to higher position measurement variability. Matched filtering used for identifying the beam position results in greater stability of position measurement compared to that obtained using the centroiding technique. However, this gain is achieved at the expense of extra processing time required for each beam image. In this work we explore the possibility of using a field programmable logic array (FPGA) to speed up these computations. The results indicate a performance improvement of 20 using the FPGA relative to a 3 GHz Pentium 4 processor.

  10. Native language shapes automatic neural processing of speech.

    PubMed

    Intartaglia, Bastien; White-Schwoch, Travis; Meunier, Christine; Roman, Stéphane; Kraus, Nina; Schön, Daniele

    2016-08-01

    The development of the phoneme inventory is driven by the acoustic-phonetic properties of one's native language. Neural representation of speech is known to be shaped by language experience, as indexed by cortical responses, and recent studies suggest that subcortical processing also exhibits this attunement to native language. However, most work to date has focused on the differences between tonal and non-tonal languages that use pitch variations to convey phonemic categories. The aim of this cross-language study is to determine whether subcortical encoding of speech sounds is sensitive to language experience by comparing native speakers of two non-tonal languages (French and English). We hypothesized that neural representations would be more robust and fine-grained for speech sounds that belong to the native phonemic inventory of the listener, and especially for the dimensions that are phonetically relevant to the listener such as high frequency components. We recorded neural responses of American English and French native speakers, listening to natural syllables of both languages. Results showed that, independently of the stimulus, American participants exhibited greater neural representation of the fundamental frequency compared to French participants, consistent with the importance of the fundamental frequency to convey stress patterns in English. Furthermore, participants showed more robust encoding and more precise spectral representations of the first formant when listening to the syllable of their native language as compared to non-native language. These results align with the hypothesis that language experience shapes sensory processing of speech and that this plasticity occurs as a function of what is meaningful to a listener. PMID:27263123

  11. The Development of Automatic and Controlled Inhibitory Retrieval Processes in True and False Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, Lauren M.; Howe, Mark L.; Wimmer, Marina C.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the role of automatic and controlled inhibitory retrieval processes in true and false memory development in children and adults. Experiment 1 incorporated a directed forgetting task to examine controlled retrieval inhibition. Experiments 2 and 3 used a part-set cue and retrieval practice task to examine…

  12. Automatic and Controlled Processing in Sentence Recall: The Role of Long-Term and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferies, E.; Lambon Ralph, M.A.; Baddeley, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    Immediate serial recall is better for sentences than word lists presumably because of the additional support that meaningful material receives from long-term memory. This may occur automatically, without the involvement of attention, or may require additional attentionally demanding processing. For example, the episodic buffer model (Baddeley,…

  13. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY...

  14. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY...

  15. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY...

  16. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY...

  17. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY...

  18. The Development of Automatic Numerosity Processing in Preschoolers: Evidence for Numerosity-Perceptual Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousselle, Laurence; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined developmental changes in the automatic processing of numerosity and perceptual information using a nonsymbolic numerical Stroop paradigm. In Experiments 1 and 2 (E1 and E2), 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds had to compare the numerosities or the total filled areas of collections of dots (E1) or bars (E2) varying along both…

  19. Relatedness Proportion Effects in Semantic Categorization: Reconsidering the Automatic Spreading Activation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    Semantic priming effects at a short prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony are commonly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process. According to this view, the proportion of related trials should have no impact on the size of the semantic priming effect. Using a semantic categorization task ("Is this a living…

  20. Automatic Processing of Perceptual-Linguistic Stimuli in Second Grade Achieving and Non-Achieving Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swallow, Rose-Marie

    This study examined automatic processing of perceptual stimuli (auditory, visual, auditory-visual) and of linguistic units (morphological rules, grammatical structures, and syntactical control). Sixty average (85-115 IQ), Caucasian, middle class, eight-year-old boys were selected from La Habra School District second grades. The testing instruments…

  1. Semi-Automatic Post-Processing for Improved Usability of Electure Podcasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Wolfgang; Welte, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Playing back recorded lectures on handheld devices offers interesting perspectives for learning, but suffers from small screen sizes. The purpose of this paper is to propose several semi-automatic post-processing steps in order to improve usability by providing a better readability and additional navigation functionality.…

  2. The Development of Automatic Letter Processing Skills Related to Reading and Intellectual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, D. B.; And Others

    To determine the developmental level at which letter processing skills become automatic, an experiment was conducted using a variant of the visual search task. Subjects in grades one, two, and three and in college searched for target letters displayed on a cathode ray tube along with either visually confusable letters, acoustically confusable…

  3. Automatic Data Processing, 4-1. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    These two texts and student workbook for a secondary/postsecondary-level correspondence course in automatic data processing comprise one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose stated for the individualized, self-paced…

  4. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 95.49 Security...

  5. Decimals Are Not Processed Automatically, Not Even as Being Smaller than One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallai, Arava Y.; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Common fractions have been found to be processed intentionally but not automatically, which led to the conclusion that they are not represented holistically in long-term memory. However, decimals are more similar to natural numbers in their form and thus might be better candidates to be holistically represented by educated adults. To test this…

  6. Dyslexia and Fluency: Parafoveal and Foveal Influences on Rapid Automatized Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Manon W.; Ashby, Jane; Branigan, Holly P.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to coordinate serial processing of multiple items is crucial for fluent reading but is known to be impaired in dyslexia. To investigate this impairment, we manipulated the orthographic and phonological similarity of adjacent letters online as dyslexic and nondyslexic readers named letters in a serial naming (RAN) task. Eye movements…

  7. Automatic Classification of Extensive Aftershock Sequences Using Empirical Matched Field Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Harris, David B.; Kværna, Tormod; Dodge, Douglas A.

    2013-04-01

    The aftershock sequences that follow large earthquakes create considerable problems for data centers attempting to produce comprehensive event bulletins in near real-time. The greatly increased number of events which require processing can overwhelm analyst resources and reduce the capacity for analyzing events of monitoring interest. This exacerbates a potentially reduced detection capability at key stations, due the noise generated by the sequence, and a deterioration in the quality of the fully automatic preliminary event bulletins caused by the difficulty in associating the vast numbers of closely spaced arrivals over the network. Considerable success has been enjoyed by waveform correlation methods for the automatic identification of groups of events belonging to the same geographical source region, facilitating the more time-efficient analysis of event ensembles as opposed to individual events. There are, however, formidable challenges associated with the automation of correlation procedures. The signal generated by a very large earthquake seldom correlates well enough with the signals generated by far smaller aftershocks for a correlation detector to produce statistically significant triggers at the correct times. Correlation between events within clusters of aftershocks is significantly better, although the issues of when and how to initiate new pattern detectors are still being investigated. Empirical Matched Field Processing (EMFP) is a highly promising method for detecting event waveforms suitable as templates for correlation detectors. EMFP is a quasi-frequency-domain technique that calibrates the spatial structure of a wavefront crossing a seismic array in a collection of narrow frequency bands. The amplitude and phase weights that result are applied in a frequency-domain beamforming operation that compensates for scattering and refraction effects not properly modeled by plane-wave beams. It has been demonstrated to outperform waveform correlation as a

  8. Understanding and shifting drug-related decisions: contributions of automatic decision-making processes.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kenneth M; Bedi, Gillinder; Vadhan, Nehal P

    2015-08-01

    While substance use is common, only a minority of individuals who use drugs or alcohol develop problematic use. An understanding of the factors underlying the transition from substance use to misuse may improve prevention and intervention efforts. A key feature of substance misuse is ongoing decisions to use drugs or alcohol despite escalating negative consequences. Research findings highlight the importance of both relatively automatic, associative cognitive processes and relatively controlled, deliberative, and rational-analytic cognitive processes, for understanding situational decisions to use drugs. In this review, we discuss several cognitive component processes that may contribute to decision-making that promotes substance use and misuse, with a focus on more automatic processes. A growing body of evidence indicates that relative differences in the strength of these component processes can account for individual differences in the transition from substance use to misuse and may offer important avenues for developing novel intervention strategies.

  9. Understanding and shifting drug-related decisions: Contributions of automatic decision-making processes

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Kenneth M.; Bedi, Gillinder; Vadhan, Nehal P.

    2015-01-01

    While substance use is common, only a minority of individuals who use drugs or alcohol develop problematic use. An understanding of the factors underlying the transition from substance use to misuse may improve prevention and intervention efforts. A key feature of substance misuse is ongoing decisions to use drugs or alcohol despite escalating negative consequences. Research findings highlight the importance of both relatively automatic, associative cognitive processes and relatively controlled, deliberative, and rational-analytic cognitive processes, for understanding situational decisions to use drugs. In this review, we discuss several cognitive component processes that may contribute to decision-making that promotes substance use and misuse, with a focus on more automatic processes. A growing body of evidence indicates that relative differences in the strength of these component processes can account for individual differences in the transition from substance use to misuse, and may offer important avenues for developing novel intervention strategies. PMID:26084667

  10. A new tool for rapid and automatic estimation of earthquake source parameters and generation of seismic bulletins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    RISS S.r.l. is a Spin-off company recently born from the initiative of the research group constituting the Seismology Laboratory of the Department of Physics of the University of Naples Federico II. RISS is an innovative start-up, based on the decade-long experience in earthquake monitoring systems and seismic data analysis of its members and has the major goal to transform the most recent innovations of the scientific research into technological products and prototypes. With this aim, RISS has recently started the development of a new software, which is an elegant solution to manage and analyse seismic data and to create automatic earthquake bulletins. The software has been initially developed to manage data recorded at the ISNet network (Irpinia Seismic Network), which is a network of seismic stations deployed in Southern Apennines along the active fault system responsible for the 1980, November 23, MS 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. The software, however, is fully exportable and can be used to manage data from different networks, with any kind of station geometry or network configuration and is able to provide reliable estimates of earthquake source parameters, whichever is the background seismicity level of the area of interest. Here we present the real-time automated procedures and the analyses performed by the software package, which is essentially a chain of different modules, each of them aimed at the automatic computation of a specific source parameter. The P-wave arrival times are first detected on the real-time streaming of data and then the software performs the phase association and earthquake binding. As soon as an event is automatically detected by the binder, the earthquake location coordinates and the origin time are rapidly estimated, using a probabilistic, non-linear, exploration algorithm. Then, the software is able to automatically provide three different magnitude estimates. First, the local magnitude (Ml) is computed, using the peak-to-peak amplitude

  11. Implicit Cognition and Substance Use: The Role of Controlled and Automatic Processes in Children

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Roisin M.; Lopez-Vergara, Hector I.; Colder, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Most cognitive models of substance abuse and dependence posit that controlled and automatic processes are central to substance use. Tests of these models rely on methods that are interpreted to measure one or the other of these processes. There has been growing interest in the use of implicit substance use tasks, which are posited to reflect automatic processes. Recent model advancements suggest that behavior is determined by multiple cognitive processes and that dual-process models may provide an overly simplistic account of the cognitive process involved in the assessment of implicit cognition. The goal of the current study was to apply the Quad Model to children's performance on implicit substance use tasks and consider associations with early substance use. Method: Children (N = 378; 52% girls) ranging from 10 to 12 years old completed alcohol and cigarette Single Category Implicit Association Tests (SC-IATs) and self-reports of substance use. Results: Four distinct cognitive processes were found to influence SC-IAT performance, one of which reflected automatic activation, the process typically viewed as central to IAT performance. Differences across drinking status revealed weaker automatic activation of negative alcohol associations for those who had (vs. had not) initiated drinking, and a strong likelihood to overcome biased attitudes was supported for all children. The low prevalence of cigarette use in our young sample prohibited examination of the model across smoking status. Conclusions: Findings suggest that performance on implicit substance use tasks is not process pure. Quantifying and interpreting the multiple influencing processes are crucial for further development and evaluation of cognitive risk models of substance use. PMID:22152671

  12. Acute Alcohol Consumption Impairs Controlled but Not Automatic Processes in a Psychophysical Pointing Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Kevin; Timney, Brian; Goodale, Melvyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Such studies have shown that alcohol impairs performance on tasks requiring conscious, intentional control, while leaving automatic performance relatively intact. Here, we sought to extend these findings to aspects of visuomotor control by investigating the effects of alcohol in a visuomotor pointing paradigm that allowed us to separate the influence of controlled and automatic processes. Six male participants were assigned to an experimental “correction” condition in which they were instructed to point at a visual target as quickly and accurately as possible. On a small percentage of trials, the target “jumped” to a new location. On these trials, the participants’ task was to amend their movement such that they pointed to the new target location. A second group of 6 participants were assigned to a “countermanding” condition, in which they were instructed to terminate their movements upon detection of target “jumps”. In both the correction and countermanding conditions, participants served as their own controls, taking part in alcohol and no-alcohol conditions on separate days. Alcohol had no effect on participants’ ability to correct movements “in flight”, but impaired the ability to withhold such automatic corrections. Our data support the notion that alcohol selectively impairs controlled processes in the visuomotor domain. PMID:23861934

  13. Rapid Automatized Naming, Word-Level Reading, and Oral Reading Fluency in First-Grade Korean Readers at Risk for Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongil; Park, Yujeong; Lombardino, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate potential reading differences between low-achieving and typically achieving first-grade Korean-speaking children by (1) comparing their speed of lexical access on alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric tests of rapid automatized naming and (2) comparing relationships between the two groups' performance on…

  14. Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Predicting Early Development in Reading and Spelling: Results from a Cross-Linguistic Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) was investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230…

  15. Intentional and automatic numerical processing as predictors of mathematical abilities in primary school children

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Violeta; Castillo, Alejandro; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Fuentes, Luis J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that numerical processing relates to mathematical performance, but it seems that such relationship is more evident for intentional than for automatic numerical processing. In the present study we assessed the relationship between the two types of numerical processing and specific mathematical abilities in a sample of 109 children in grades 1–6. Participants were tested in an ample range of mathematical tests and also performed both a numerical and a size comparison task. The results showed that numerical processing related to mathematical performance only when inhibitory control was involved in the comparison tasks. Concretely, we found that intentional numerical processing, as indexed by the numerical distance effect in the numerical comparison task, was related to mathematical reasoning skills only when the task-irrelevant dimension (the physical size) was incongruent; whereas automatic numerical processing, indexed by the congruency effect in the size comparison task, was related to mathematical calculation skills only when digits were separated by small distance. The observed double dissociation highlights the relevance of both intentional and automatic numerical processing in mathematical skills, but when inhibitory control is also involved. PMID:25873909

  16. Towards fully automated processing of VLBI sessions - results from ultra-rapid UT1 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobiger, T.; Sekido, M.; Koyama, Y.; Kondo, T.; Takiguchi, H.; Kurihara, S.; Kokado, K.; Nozawa, K.; Haas, R.; Otsubo, T.; Gotoh, T.; Kubo-Oka, T.

    2010-12-01

    Like other space geodetic techniques, data processing and analysis of VLBI data requires some human interactions before the target parameters are available to the scientific community. If the processing chain can be completely automated, results would be available independent from time-zones, holidays or illness of the analyst. In VLBI, a lot of effort is put into near real-time monitoring of Earth orientation parameters, especially UT1. Since VLBI is the only space-geodetic technique which gives direct access to the Earth's phase of rotation, i.e. universal time UT1, a low latency product is desirable. Beside multi-baseline sessions, regular single-baseline VLBI experiments are scheduled in order to provide estimates of UT1 for the international science community. Although the turn-around time of such sessions is usually much shorter and results are available within one day after the data were recorded, lower latency of UT1 results is still requested. Based on the experience gained over the last three years, an automated processing chain was established. In July 2010, we started to provide automatically processed results to IERS rapid service, and thus fully unattended operation and robust estimation of UT1 has become routine operation. A new analysis software ensures that all post-processing stages run smoothly and a variety of scripts guarantee that the data-flow to and through the correlator takes full advantage of the available resources. The concept of ultra-rapid VLBI sessions can be extended further to include additional, geometrical well distributed stations, in order to derive also polar motion components with the same latency as UT1 and to provide an up-to-date complete set of Earth orientation parameters for navigation of space and satellite missions. Moreover, our work demonstrates how future VLBI networks can be processed automatically in order to provide near real-time information about the instantaneous Earth orientation in the framework of GGOS.

  17. Using dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic from nonautomatic processes involved in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Michelle A; Conway, Christopher M; Kellogg, Ronald T

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that both automatic and intentional processes contribute to the learning of grammar and fragment knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks. To explore the relative contribution of automatic and intentional processes to knowledge gained in AGL, we utilized dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic and intentional grammar- and fragment-based knowledge in AGL at both acquisition and at test. Both experiments used a balanced chunk strength grammar to assure an equal proportion of fragment cues (i.e., chunks) in grammatical and nongrammatical test items. In Experiment 1, participants engaged in a working memory dual-task either during acquisition, test, or both acquisition and test. The results showed that participants performing the dual-task during acquisition learned the artificial grammar as well as the single-task group, presumably by relying on automatic learning mechanisms. A working memory dual-task at test resulted in attenuated grammar performance, suggesting a role for intentional processes for the expression of grammatical learning at test. Experiment 2 explored the importance of perceptual cues by changing letters between the acquisition and test phase; unlike Experiment 1, there was no significant learning of grammatical information for participants under dual-task conditions in Experiment 2, suggesting that intentional processing is necessary for successful acquisition and expression of grammar-based knowledge under transfer conditions. In sum, it appears that some aspects of learning in AGL are indeed relatively automatic, although the expression of grammatical information and the learning of grammatical patterns when perceptual similarity is eliminated both appear to require explicit resources.

  18. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  19. Neural correlates of rapid spectrotemporal processing in musicians and nonmusicians.

    PubMed

    Gaab, N; Tallal, P; Kim, H; Lakshminarayanan, K; Archie, J J; Glover, G H; Gabrieli, J D E

    2005-12-01

    Our results suggest that musical training alters the functional anatomy of rapid spectrotemporal processing, resulting in improved behavioral performance along with a more efficient functional network primarily involving traditional language regions. This finding may have important implications for improving language/reading skills, especially in children struggling with dyslexia. PMID:16597753

  20. Automatic humidification system to support the assessment of food drying processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Hernández, B. D.; Carreño Olejua, A. R.; Castellanos Olarte, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    This work shows the main features of an automatic humidification system to provide drying air that match environmental conditions of different climate zones. This conditioned air is then used to assess the drying process of different agro-industrial products at the Automation and Control for Agro-industrial Processes Laboratory of the Pontifical Bolivarian University of Bucaramanga, Colombia. The automatic system allows creating and improving control strategies to supply drying air under specified conditions of temperature and humidity. The development of automatic routines to control and acquire real time data was made possible by the use of robust control systems and suitable instrumentation. The signals are read and directed to a controller memory where they are scaled and transferred to a memory unit. Using the IP address is possible to access data to perform supervision tasks. One important characteristic of this automatic system is the Dynamic Data Exchange Server (DDE) to allow direct communication between the control unit and the computer used to build experimental curves.

  1. Automatic perceptual simulation of first language meanings during second language sentence processing in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Nikola; Williams, John N

    2014-01-01

    Research supports the claim that, when understanding language, people perform mental simulation using those parts of the brain which support sensation, action, and emotion. A major criticism of the findings quoted as evidence for embodied simulation, however, is that they could be a result of conscious image generation strategies. Here we exploit the well-known fact that bilinguals routinely and automatically activate both their languages during comprehension to test whether this automatic process is, in turn, modulated by embodied simulatory processes. Dutch participants heard English sentences containing interlingual homophones and implying specific distance relations, and had to subsequently respond to pictures of objects matching or mismatching this implied distance. Participants were significantly slower to reject critical items when their perceptual features matched said distance relationship. These results suggest that bilinguals not only activate task-irrelevant meanings of interlingual homophones, but also automatically simulate these meanings in a detailed perceptual fashion. Our study supports the claim that embodied simulation is not due to participants' conscious strategies, but is an automatic component of meaning construction.

  2. Growth in rapid automatized naming from grades K to 8 in children with math or reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Grimm, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is widely used to identify reading disabilities (RD) and has recently been considered a potential predictor of risk for mathematics learning disabilities (MLD). Here we longitudinally examine RAN performance from Grades K to 8, to view how growth on RAN response time differs for children with RD versus MLD. Across all participants, there was significant stability of RAN performance for all three subtests. For all three subtests, there was significant between-child variability in response times (RTs) at kindergarten and Grade 8; for select combinations of subtests, there was also between-child variability in difference scores over time. Relative to typically achieving peers, children with MLD or RD were slower on all three subtests at kindergarten, but these deficits were most pronounced for children with MLD versus RD at kindergarten and more persistent through Grade 8 for children with RD. RAN numbers and letters performance was closely related in the RD group, more so than in the MLD group, despite deficits on both subtests across groups. Our findings indicate that empirically guided modifications of RAN are needed for extending its use for evaluating risk for MLD. PMID:23449728

  3. Oscillatory brain dynamics associated with the automatic processing of emotion in words.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the automaticity of processing the emotional aspects of words, and characterizes the oscillatory brain dynamics that accompany this automatic processing. Participants read emotionally negative, neutral and positive nouns while performing a color detection task in which only perceptual-level analysis was required. Event-related potentials and time frequency representations were computed from the concurrently measured EEG. Negative words elicited a larger P2 and a larger late positivity than positive and neutral words, indicating deeper semantic/evaluative processing of negative words. In addition, sustained alpha power suppressions were found for the emotional compared to neutral words, in the time range from 500 to 1000ms post-stimulus. These results suggest that sustained attention was allocated to the emotional words, whereas the attention allocated to the neutral words was released after an initial analysis. This seems to hold even when the emotional content of the words is task-irrelevant.

  4. Automatic inspection of the printing on soft drink cans by image processing analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Catherine W.

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes a machine vision, automatic inspection algorithm of the printings of soft drink cans by image processing analysis. There are two new techniques employed in this procedure to make the automatic inspection possible: (1) barcode referencing: we develop a fast barcode detection algorithm, such that when the cans pass through the image- taking area in the inspection lines with uncertain directions, we use barcode location as the reference point, (2) 2D matching: we connect the multiple view-angle images of the whole 3D cans' surfaces, then with artificial 2D images, we adjust the matching process for a flexible system inspection resolution requirements for the quality control decision making. This process inspects 3D cans with true color information and can easily replace different cans for inspection.

  5. Automatic data processing and analysis system for monitoring region around a planned nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiira, Timo; Kaisko, Outi; Kortström, Jari; Vuorinen, Tommi; Uski, Marja; Korja, Annakaisa

    2015-04-01

    The site of a new planned nuclear power plant is located in Pyhäjoki, eastern coast of the Bay of Bothnia. The area is characterized by low-active intraplate seismicity, with earthquake magnitudes rarely exceeding 4.0. IAEA guidelines state that when a nuclear power plant site is evaluated a network of sensitive seismographs having a recording capability for micro-earthquakes should be installed to acquire more detailed information on potential seismic sources. The operation period of the network should be long enough to obtain a comprehensive earthquake catalogue for seismotectonic interpretation. A near optimal configuration of ten seismograph stations will be installed around the site. A central station, including 3-C high-frequency and strong motion seismographs, is located in the site area. In addition, the network comprises nine high-frequency 3-C stations within a distance of 50 km from the central station. The network is dense enough to fulfil the requirements of azimuthal coverage better than 180o and automatic event location capability down to ~ ML -0.1 within a radius of 25 km from the site. Automatic processing and analysis of the planned seismic network is presented. Following the IAEA guidelines, real-time monitoring of the site area is integrated with the automatic detection and location process operated by the Institute of Seismology, University of Helsinki. In addition interactive data analysis is needed. At the end of year 2013 5 stations have been installed. The automatic analysis utilizes also 7 near by stations of national seismic networks of Finland and Sweden. During this preliminary phase several small earthquakes have been detected. The detection capability and location accuracy of the automatic analysis is estimated using chemical explosions at 15 known sites.

  6. Differences in automatic social information processing between nondepressed and subclinically depressed individuals.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cecilia; Chiu, Chi-Yue

    2002-04-01

    The present research examined individual differences in automatic social information processing. We hypothesized that because nondepressed and subclinically depressed persons have different interpersonal experiences, they may process social information in different ways. In this experiment, participants were asked to make judgments about social relationships after being reminded of a target person. They had to make these judgments under either a light or a heavy memory load. Results showed that when nondepressed participants were reminded of people with whom they had frequent pleasant interactions, they made a greater number of positive judgments about their social relationships than did subclinically depressed participants. When subclinically depressed participants were reminded of people with whom they had had frequent unpleasant interactions, they made a greater number of negative judgments about their social relationships than did their nondepressed counterparts. Moreover, performance in these experimental conditions was unaffected by memory load, suggesting that automatic thoughts about their social relationships had been evoked. PMID:11908844

  7. Adaptive finite element program for automatic modeling of thermal processes during laser-tissue interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakunin, Alexander N.; Scherbakov, Yury N.

    1994-02-01

    The absence of satisfactory criteria for discrete model parameters choice during computer modeling of thermal processes of laser-biotissue interaction may be the premier sign for the accuracy of the numerical results obtained. The approach realizing the new concept of direct automatical adaptive grid construction is suggested. The intellectual program provides high calculation accuracy and is simple in practical usage so that a physician receives the ability to prescribe treatment without any assistance of a specialist in mathematical modeling.

  8. Neural mechanisms of the automatic processing of emotional information from faces and voices.

    PubMed

    Straube, Thomas; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

    2011-11-01

    Theoretical accounts suggest an increased and automatic neural processing of emotional, especially threat-related, facial expressions and emotional prosody. In line with this assumption, several functional imaging studies showed activation to threat-related faces and voices in subcortical and cortical brain areas during attentional distraction or unconscious stimulus processing. Furthermore, electrophysiological studies provided evidence for automatic early brain responses to emotional facial expressions and emotional prosody. However, there is increasing evidence that available cognitive resources modulate brain responses to emotional signals from faces and voices, even though conflicting findings may occur depending on contextual factors, specific emotions, sensory modality, and neuroscientific methods used. The current review summarizes these findings and suggests that further studies should combine information from different sensory modalities and neuroscientific methods such as functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology. Furthermore, it is concluded that the variable saliency and relevance of emotional social signals on the one hand and available cognitive resources on the other hand interact in a dynamic manner, making absolute boundaries of the automatic processing of emotional information from faces and voices unlikely. PMID:21988387

  9. Using AI Planning Techniques to Automatically Generate Image Processing Procedures: A Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes work on the Multimission VICAR Planner (MVP) system to automatically construct executable image processing procedures for custom image processing requests for the JPL Multimission Image Processing Lab (MIPL). This paper focuses on two issues. First, large search spaces caused by complex plans required the use of hand encoded control information. In order to address this in a manner similar to that used by human experts, MVP uses a decomposition-based planner to implement hierarchical/skeletal planning at the higher level and then uses a classical operator based planner to solve subproblems in contexts defined by the high-level decomposition.

  10. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication: A Rapid Metal Deposition Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing of structural metal parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data has been investigated by numerous researchers over the past decade. Researchers at NASA Langley REsearch Center are developing a new solid freeform fabrication process, electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF), as a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Thus far, this technique has been demonstrated on aluminum and titanium alloys of interest for aerospace structural applications nickel and ferrous based alloys are also planned. Deposits resulting from 2219 aluminum demonstrations have exhibited a range of grain morphologies depending upon the deposition parameters. These materials ave exhibited excellent tensile properties comparable to typical handbook data for wrought plate product after post-processing heat treatments. The EBF process is capable of bulk metal deposition at deposition rated in excess of 2500 cubic centimeters per hour (150 cubic inches per our) or finer detail at lower deposition rates, depending upon the desired application. This process offers the potential for rapidly adding structural details to simpler cast or forged structures rather than the conventional approach of machining large volumes of chips to produce a monolithic metallic structure. Selective addition of metal onto simpler blanks of material can have a significant effect on lead time reduction and lower material and machining costs.

  11. An automatic LCD panel quality detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bianfang; Hou, Wenguang; Ding, Mingyue

    2009-10-01

    Automatic detection using computer vision expands rapidly along with the development of image processing technology. In this paper, we developed a rapid LCD quality detection system for automobile instrument panel production, which has wide range of usage and good stability.Our automatic detection system consists of four parts: panel fixture, signal generator module, image acquisition module and image processing software. Experiments demonstrated that our system is feasible, efficient and fast compared to manual detection.

  12. A dual-task investigation of automaticity in visual word processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, R. S.; Remington, R. W.; Van Selst, M.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of activation models of visual word processing suggests that frequency-sensitive forms of lexical processing should proceed normally while unattended. This hypothesis was tested by having participants perform a speeded pitch discrimination task followed by lexical decisions or word naming. As the stimulus onset asynchrony between the tasks was reduced, lexical-decision and naming latencies increased dramatically. Word-frequency effects were additive with the increase, indicating that frequency-sensitive processing was subject to postponement while attention was devoted to the other task. Either (a) the same neural hardware shares responsibility for lexical processing and central stages of choice reaction time task processing and cannot perform both computations simultaneously, or (b) lexical processing is blocked in order to optimize performance on the pitch discrimination task. Either way, word processing is not as automatic as activation models suggest.

  13. Effortful and automatic information processing in boys with ADHD and specific learning disorders.

    PubMed

    Hazell, P L; Carr, V J; Lewin, T J; Dewis, S A; Heathcote, D M; Brucki, B M

    1999-02-01

    Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, N = 50), Specific Learning Disorder (LD, N = 45), combined Specific Learning Disorder and ADHD (LD/ADHD, N = 25), and controls (N = 51) completed effortful and automatic information processing tasks based on Treisman and Gelade's (1980) "information integration theory". ADHD and LD/ADHD subjects did not differ from controls at baseline or under feedback and reward conditions, suggesting that they were investing similar levels of mental effort in the tasks. The LD group had a superior performance in the effortful task and an inferior performance in the automatic task compared with the other groups at baseline. The data suggest a potential method of distinguishing primary LD from learning difficulties that occur secondary to ADHD.

  14. The Automatic Conservative: Ideology-Based Attentional Asymmetries in the Processing of Valenced Information

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Luciana; Castelli, Luigi; Macchiella, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Research has widely explored the differences between conservatives and liberals, and it has been also recently demonstrated that conservatives display different reactions toward valenced stimuli. However, previous studies have not yet fully illuminated the cognitive underpinnings of these differences. In the current work, we argued that political ideology is related to selective attention processes, so that negative stimuli are more likely to automatically grab the attention of conservatives as compared to liberals. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that negative (vs. positive) information impaired the performance of conservatives, more than liberals, in an Emotional Stroop Task. This finding was confirmed in Experiment 2 and in Experiment 3 employing a Dot-Probe Task, demonstrating that threatening stimuli were more likely to attract the attention of conservatives. Overall, results support the conclusion that people embracing conservative views of the world display an automatic selective attention for negative stimuli. PMID:22096486

  15. Automatic spent fuel ID-number reader (II) image-processing technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, K.; Mizuguchi, H.; Miyazawa, T. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an image-processing technique for automatic spent fuel ID-number reader system. As a result, efficiency and reliability of the reader system is improved. To obtain reliable ID-number identification-capability, there are many items to be considered. Some of the important ones are appropriate lighting, high speed processors and suitable algorithm. After developing the technique on the items, the applicability of the image-processing technique for the reader system is verified. ID-numbers are accurately identified, and the time required for one ID-number reading is obtained in about 2 seconds. The result is one tenth of the conventional visual identification.

  16. Low-complexity PDE-based approach for automatic microarray image processing.

    PubMed

    Belean, Bogdan; Terebes, Romulus; Bot, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Microarray image processing is known as a valuable tool for gene expression estimation, a crucial step in understanding biological processes within living organisms. Automation and reliability are open subjects in microarray image processing, where grid alignment and spot segmentation are essential processes that can influence the quality of gene expression information. The paper proposes a novel partial differential equation (PDE)-based approach for fully automatic grid alignment in case of microarray images. Our approach can handle image distortions and performs grid alignment using the vertical and horizontal luminance function profiles. These profiles are evolved using a hyperbolic shock filter PDE and then refined using the autocorrelation function. The results are compared with the ones delivered by state-of-the-art approaches for grid alignment in terms of accuracy and computational complexity. Using the same PDE formalism and curve fitting, automatic spot segmentation is achieved and visual results are presented. Considering microarray images with different spots layouts, reliable results in terms of accuracy and reduced computational complexity are achieved, compared with existing software platforms and state-of-the-art methods for microarray image processing.

  17. The Neural Signatures of Processing Semantic End Values in Automatic Number Comparisons.

    PubMed

    Pinhas, Michal; Buchman, Chananel; Lavro, Dmitri; Mesika, David; Tzelgov, Joseph; Berger, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The brain activity associated with processing numerical end values has received limited research attention. The present study explored the neural correlates associated with processing semantic end values under conditions of automatic number processing. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed the numerical Stroop task, in which they were asked to compare the physical size of pairs of numbers, while ignoring their numerical values. The smallest end value in the set, which is a task irrelevant factor, was manipulated between participant groups. We focused on the processing of the lower end values of 0 and 1 because these numbers were found to be automatically tagged as the "smallest." Behavioral results showed that the size congruity effect was modulated by the presence of the smallest end value in the pair. ERP data revealed a spatially extended centro-parieto-occipital P3 that was enhanced for congruent versus incongruent trials. Importantly, over centro-parietal sites, the P3 congruity effect (congruent minus incongruent) was larger for pairs containing the smallest end value than for pairs containing non-smallest values. These differences in the congruency effect were localized to the precuneus. The presence of an end value within the pair also modulated P3 latency. Our results provide the first neural evidence for the encoding of numerical end values. They further demonstrate that the use of end values as anchors is a primary aspect of processing symbolic numerical information. PMID:26640436

  18. The Neural Signatures of Processing Semantic End Values in Automatic Number Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Pinhas, Michal; Buchman, Chananel; Lavro, Dmitri; Mesika, David; Tzelgov, Joseph; Berger, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The brain activity associated with processing numerical end values has received limited research attention. The present study explored the neural correlates associated with processing semantic end values under conditions of automatic number processing. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed the numerical Stroop task, in which they were asked to compare the physical size of pairs of numbers, while ignoring their numerical values. The smallest end value in the set, which is a task irrelevant factor, was manipulated between participant groups. We focused on the processing of the lower end values of 0 and 1 because these numbers were found to be automatically tagged as the “smallest.” Behavioral results showed that the size congruity effect was modulated by the presence of the smallest end value in the pair. ERP data revealed a spatially extended centro-parieto-occipital P3 that was enhanced for congruent versus incongruent trials. Importantly, over centro-parietal sites, the P3 congruity effect (congruent minus incongruent) was larger for pairs containing the smallest end value than for pairs containing non-smallest values. These differences in the congruency effect were localized to the precuneus. The presence of an end value within the pair also modulated P3 latency. Our results provide the first neural evidence for the encoding of numerical end values. They further demonstrate that the use of end values as anchors is a primary aspect of processing symbolic numerical information. PMID:26640436

  19. BRICORK: an automatic machine with image processing for the production of corks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Roger; Correia, Bento A. B.; Carvalho, Fernando D.; Rodrigues, Fernando C.

    1991-06-01

    The production of cork stoppers from raw cork strip is a manual and labour-intensive process in which a punch-operator quickly inspects all sides of the cork strip for defects and decides where to punch out stoppers. He then positions the strip underneath a rotating tubular cutter and punches out the stoppers one at a time. This procedure is somewhat subjective and prone to error, being dependent on the judgement and accuracy of the operator. This paper describes the machine being developed jointly by Mecanova, Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia (LNETI) and Empresa de Investiga&sigmafcoe Desenvolvimento de Electronica SA (EID) which automatically processes cork strip introduced by an unskilled operator. The machine uses both image processing and laser inspection techniques to examine the strip. Defects in the cork are detected and categorised in order to determine regions where stoppers may be punched. The precise locations are then automatically optimised for best usage of the raw material (quantity and quality of stoppers). In order to achieve the required speed of production these image processing techniques may be implemented in hardware. The paper presents results obtained using the vision system software under development together with descriptions of both the image processing and mechanical aspects of the proposed machine.

  20. Rapidly dissolving repaglinide powders produced by the ultra-rapid freezing process.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Troy; Mattucci, Michal E; Crisp, M Todd; Johnston, Keith P; Williams, Robert O

    2007-07-20

    The objective of the study was to produce rapidly dissolving formulations of the poorly water-soluble drug repaglinide using an innovative new technology, ultra-rapid freezing (URF), and to investigate the influence of excipient type on repaglinide stability. Repaglinide compositions containing different types and levels of excipients and different drug potencies (50%-86%) were produced by the URF technology. Repaglinide/excipient solutions were frozen on a cryogenic substrate, collected, and lyophilized to form a dry powder. Surfactants, including sodium dodecyl sulfate, and alkalizing agents such as diethanolamine (DEA) and tromethamine (TRIS) were incorporated into the compositions. Forced degradation of repaglinide was conducted under stressed conditions (eg, elevated temperature, exposure to peroxide) to determine the stability of the drug in such environments. The solubility of repaglinide increased as a function of increasing pH; therefore, incorporation of an alkalizing agent into the URF formulations increased the drug's solubility. Drug instability resulted when the drug was exposed to pH values above 9.0. URF formulations containing alkalizing agents showed no degradation or spontaneous recrystallization in the formulation, indicating that increased stability was afforded by processing. URF processing created nanostructured drug/excipient particles with higher dissolution rates than were achieved for unprocessed drug. Alkalizing agents such as TRIS and DEA, present at levels of 25% to 33% wt/wt in the formulations, did not cause degradation of the drug when processed using URF. URF processing, therefore, yielded fast-dissolving formulations that were physically and chemically stable, resistant to alkali degradation or spontaneous recrystallization in the formulation.

  1. Automatic segmentation of nerve structures in ultrasound images using Graph Cuts and Gaussian processes.

    PubMed

    Gil González, Julián; Álvarez, Mauricio A; Orozco, Álvaro A

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral Nerve Blocking (PNB), is a procedure used for performing regional anesthesia, that comprises the administration of anesthetic in the proximity of a nerve. Several techniques have been used with the purpose of locating nerve structures when the PNB procedure is performed: anatomical surface landmarks, elicitation of paresthesia, nerve stimulation and ultrasound imaging. Among those, ultrasound imaging has gained great attention because it is not invasive and offers an accurate location of the nerve and the structures around it. However, the segmentation of nerve structures in ultrasound images is a difficult task for the specialist, since such images are affected by echo perturbations and speckle noise. The development of systems for the automatic segmentation of nerve structures can aid the specialist for locating nerve structures accurately. In this paper we present a methodology for the automatic segmentation of nerve structures in ultrasound images. An initial step is carried out using Graph Cut segmentation in order to generate regions of interest; we then use machine learning techniques with the aim of segmenting the nerve structure; here, a specific non-linear Wavelet transform is used for the feature extraction stage, and Gaussian processes for the classification step. The methodology performance is measured in terms of accuracy and the dice coefficient. Results show that the implemented methodology can be used for automatically segmenting nerve structures. PMID:26736945

  2. Automatic segmentation of nerve structures in ultrasound images using Graph Cuts and Gaussian processes.

    PubMed

    Gil González, Julián; Álvarez, Mauricio A; Orozco, Álvaro A

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral Nerve Blocking (PNB), is a procedure used for performing regional anesthesia, that comprises the administration of anesthetic in the proximity of a nerve. Several techniques have been used with the purpose of locating nerve structures when the PNB procedure is performed: anatomical surface landmarks, elicitation of paresthesia, nerve stimulation and ultrasound imaging. Among those, ultrasound imaging has gained great attention because it is not invasive and offers an accurate location of the nerve and the structures around it. However, the segmentation of nerve structures in ultrasound images is a difficult task for the specialist, since such images are affected by echo perturbations and speckle noise. The development of systems for the automatic segmentation of nerve structures can aid the specialist for locating nerve structures accurately. In this paper we present a methodology for the automatic segmentation of nerve structures in ultrasound images. An initial step is carried out using Graph Cut segmentation in order to generate regions of interest; we then use machine learning techniques with the aim of segmenting the nerve structure; here, a specific non-linear Wavelet transform is used for the feature extraction stage, and Gaussian processes for the classification step. The methodology performance is measured in terms of accuracy and the dice coefficient. Results show that the implemented methodology can be used for automatically segmenting nerve structures.

  3. Neural Signatures of Controlled and Automatic Retrieval Processes in Memory-based Decision-making.

    PubMed

    Khader, Patrick H; Pachur, Thorsten; Weber, Lilian A E; Jost, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Decision-making often requires retrieval from memory. Drawing on the neural ACT-R theory [Anderson, J. R., Fincham, J. M., Qin, Y., & Stocco, A. A central circuit of the mind. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 136-143, 2008] and other neural models of memory, we delineated the neural signatures of two fundamental retrieval aspects during decision-making: automatic and controlled activation of memory representations. To disentangle these processes, we combined a paradigm developed to examine neural correlates of selective and sequential memory retrieval in decision-making with a manipulation of associative fan (i.e., the decision options were associated with one, two, or three attributes). The results show that both the automatic activation of all attributes associated with a decision option and the controlled sequential retrieval of specific attributes can be traced in material-specific brain areas. Moreover, the two facets of memory retrieval were associated with distinct activation patterns within the frontoparietal network: The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was found to reflect increasing retrieval effort during both automatic and controlled activation of attributes. In contrast, the superior parietal cortex only responded to controlled retrieval, arguably reflecting the sequential updating of attribute information in working memory. This dissociation in activation pattern is consistent with ACT-R and constitutes an important step toward a neural model of the retrieval dynamics involved in memory-based decision-making.

  4. Automaticity in attractive face processing: brain potentials from a dual task.

    PubMed

    Rellecke, Julian; Bakirtas, Arda Melih; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2011-10-01

    Attractive faces have a special status, possibly because of evolutionary reasons. We assessed the automaticity of facial attractiveness processing in a dual-task paradigm manipulating the availability of cognitive resources to face processing by a primary tone task presented at varying stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). In event-related brain potentials, attractive relative to neutral faces induced an increased posterior negativity from 260 ms onwards indicating enhanced stimulus encoding at the cortical level. Interestingly, effects of attractive faces on event-related brain potentials were most pronounced at high temporal overlap with the primary task (short stimulus onset asynchrony). This indicates that a shortage of cognitive resources may enhance the processing of attractive faces, revealing hard-wired processing biases of the human information processing system for evolutionarily prepared stimuli.

  5. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  6. Rapidly rotating spacetimes and collisional super-Penrose process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2016-05-01

    We consider generic axially symmetric rotating spacetimes and examine particle collisions in the ergoregion. The results are generic and agree with those obtained in the particular case of the rotating Teo wormhole in Tsukamoto and Bambi, Phys Rev D 91:104040, 2015. It is shown that for sufficiently rapid rotation, the energy of a particle escaping to infinity can become arbitrary large (so-called super-Penrose process). Moreover, this energy is typically much larger than the center-of mass energy of colliding particles. In this sense the situation differs radically from that for collisions near black holes.

  7. Adjustment of automatic control systems of production facilities at coal processing plants using multivariant physico- mathematical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, V. F.; Myshlyaev, L. P.; Makarov, G. V.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Burkova, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    The structure of multi-variant physical and mathematical models of control system is offered as well as its application for adjustment of automatic control system (ACS) of production facilities on the example of coal processing plant.

  8. Automatic Processing of Chinese GF-1 Wide Field of View Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wan, Y.; Wang, B.; Kang, Y.; Xiong, J.

    2015-04-01

    The wide field of view (WFV) imaging instrument carried on the Chinese GF-1 satellite includes four cameras. Each camera has 200km swath-width that can acquire earth image at the same time and the observation can be repeated within only 4 days. This enables the applications of remote sensing imagery to advance from non-scheduled land-observation to periodically land-monitoring in the areas that use the images in such resolutions. This paper introduces an automatic data analysing and processing technique for the wide-swath images acquired by GF-1 satellite. Firstly, the images are validated by a self-adaptive Gaussian mixture model based cloud detection method to confirm whether they are qualified and suitable to be involved into the automatic processing workflow. Then the ground control points (GCPs) are quickly and automatically matched from the public geo-information products such as the rectified panchromatic images of Landsat-8. Before the geometric correction, the cloud detection results are also used to eliminate the invalid GCPs distributed in the cloud covered areas, which obviously reduces the ratio of blunders of GCPs. The geometric correction module not only rectifies the rational function models (RFMs), but also provides the self-calibration model and parameters for the non-linear distortion, and it is iteratively processed to detect blunders. The maximum geometric distortion in WFV image decreases from about 10-15 pixels to 1-2 pixels when compensated by self-calibration model. The processing experiments involve hundreds of WFV images of GF-1 satellite acquired from June to September 2013, which covers the whole mainland of China. All the processing work can be finished by one operator within 2 days on a desktop computer made up by a second-generation Intel Core-i7 CPU and a 4-solid-State-Disk array. The digital ortho maps (DOM) are automatically generated with 3 arc second Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The geometric accuracies of the

  9. Fluid Intelligence and Automatic Neural Processes in Facial Expression Perception: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Li, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between human fluid intelligence and social-emotional abilities has been a topic of considerable interest. The current study investigated whether adolescents with different intellectual levels had different automatic neural processing of facial expressions. Two groups of adolescent males were enrolled: a high IQ group and an average IQ group. Age and parental socioeconomic status were matched between the two groups. Participants counted the numbers of the central cross changes while paired facial expressions were presented bilaterally in an oddball paradigm. There were two experimental conditions: a happy condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and happy expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2), and a fearful condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and fearful expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2). Participants were required to concentrate on the primary task of counting the central cross changes and to ignore the expressions to ensure that facial expression processing was automatic. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained during the tasks. The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) components were analyzed to index the automatic neural processing of facial expressions. For the early vMMN (50-130 ms), the high IQ group showed more negative vMMN amplitudes than the average IQ group in the happy condition. For the late vMMN (320-450 ms), the high IQ group had greater vMMN responses than the average IQ group over frontal and occipito-temporal areas in the fearful condition, and the average IQ group evoked larger vMMN amplitudes than the high IQ group over occipito-temporal areas in the happy condition. The present study elucidated the close relationships between fluid intelligence and pre-attentive change detection on social-emotional information. PMID:26375031

  10. Rapid loss of glacial ice reveals stream community assembly processes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lee E; Milner, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    Glacial retreat creates new habitat which is colonized and developed by plants and animals during the process of primary succession. While there has been much debate about the relative role of deterministic and stochastic processes during terrestrial succession, evidence from freshwater ecosystems remains minimal and a general consensus is lacking. Using a unique 27 years record of community assembly following glacial recession in southeast Alaska, we demonstrate significant change in the trait composition of stream invertebrate communities as catchment glacial cover decreased from ∼70% to zero. Functional diversity increased significantly as glacier cover decreased and taxonomic richness increased. Null modelling approaches led to a key finding that niche filtering processes were dominant when glacial cover was extensive, reflecting water temperature and dispersal constraints. Thereafter the community shifted towards co-occurrence of stochastic and deterministic assembly processes. A further novel discovery was that intrinsic functional redundancy developed throughout the study, particularly because new colonizers possessed similar traits to taxa already present. Rapid glacial retreat is occurring in Arctic and alpine environments worldwide and the assembly processes observed in this study provide new fundamental insights into how glacially influenced stream ecosystems will respond. The findings support tolerance as a key primary successional mechanism in this system, and have broader value for developing our understanding of how biological communities in river ecosystems assemble or restructure in response to environmental change.

  11. Automatic processing and modeling of GPR data for pavement thickness and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olhoeft, Gary R.; Smith, Stanley S., III

    2000-04-01

    A GSSI SIR-8 with 1 GHz air-launched horn antennas has been modified to acquire data from a moving vehicle. Algorithms have been developed to acquire the data, and to automatically calibrate, position, process, and full waveform model it without operator intervention. Vehicle suspension system bounce is automatically compensated (for varying antenna height). Multiple scans are modeled by full waveform inversion that is remarkably robust and relatively insensitive to noise. Statistical parameters and histograms are generated for the thickness and dielectric permittivity of concrete or asphalt pavements. The statistical uncertainty with which the thickness is determined is given with each thickness measurement, along with the dielectric permittivity of the pavement material and of the subgrade material at each location. Permittivities are then converted into equivalent density and water content. Typical statistical uncertainties in thickness are better than 0.4 cm in 20 cm thick pavement. On a Pentium laptop computer, the data may be processed and modeled to have cross-sectional images and computed pavement thickness displayed in real time at highway speeds.

  12. Materials processing by use of a Ti:Sapphire laser with automatically-adjustable pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, M.; Imahoko, T.; Ozono, K.; Obara, M.

    We have developed an automatic pulsewidth-adjustable femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser system that can generate an output of 50 fs-1 ps in duration, and sub-mJ/pulse at a repetition rate of 1 kpps. The automatic pulse compressor enables one to control the pulsewidth in the range of 50 fs-1 ps by use of a personal computer (PC). The compressor can change the distance in-between and the tilt angle of the grating pairs by use of two stepping motors and two piezo-electric transducer(PZT) driven actuators, respectively. Both are controlled by a PC. Therefore, not only control of the pulsewidth, but also of the optical chirp becomes easy. By use of this femtosecond laser system, we fabricated a waveguide in fused quartz. The numerical aperture is chosen to 0.007 to loosely focus the femtosecond laser. The fabricated waveguides are well controllable by the incident laser pulsewidth. We also demonstrated the ablation processing of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), which is a key component of human tooth and human bone for orthopedics and dentistry. With pulsewidth tunable output from 50 fs through 2 ps at 1 kpps, the chemical content of calcium and phosphorus is kept unchanged before and after 50-fs-2-ps laser ablation. We also demonstrated the precise ablation processing of human tooth enamel with 2 ps Ti:Sapphire laser.

  13. Automatic Rice Crop Height Measurement Using a Field Server and Digital Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Sritarapipat, Tanakorn; Rakwatin, Preesan; Kasetkasem, Teerasit

    2014-01-01

    Rice crop height is an important agronomic trait linked to plant type and yield potential. This research developed an automatic image processing technique to detect rice crop height based on images taken by a digital camera attached to a field server. The camera acquires rice paddy images daily at a consistent time of day. The images include the rice plants and a marker bar used to provide a height reference. The rice crop height can be indirectly measured from the images by measuring the height of the marker bar compared to the height of the initial marker bar. Four digital image processing steps are employed to automatically measure the rice crop height: band selection, filtering, thresholding, and height measurement. Band selection is used to remove redundant features. Filtering extracts significant features of the marker bar. The thresholding method is applied to separate objects and boundaries of the marker bar versus other areas. The marker bar is detected and compared with the initial marker bar to measure the rice crop height. Our experiment used a field server with a digital camera to continuously monitor a rice field located in Suphanburi Province, Thailand. The experimental results show that the proposed method measures rice crop height effectively, with no human intervention required. PMID:24451465

  14. Are scalar implicatures automatically processed and different for each individual? A mismatch negativity (MMN) study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Liu, Tao; Chen, Gang; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-03-01

    Scalar implicatures are ordinarily activated in human communication when the speaker uses a weak expression (e.g., some) from a set of stronger alternatives (e.g., many, all). It has been debated whether scalar inferences are generated by default. To clarify this issue and examine whether individual pragmatic ability will affect the mechanism of scalar inference processing, we performed experiment with an MMN paradigm to capture the neurophysiological indicators of automatic processing of spoken sentences and divided participants into high and low pragmatic ability groups. Experimental results showed that compared with the condition that an informative sentence ("Some animals have tails") is the deviant stimuli, when an underinformative sentence ("Some tigers have tails") is the deviant stimuli, the high pragmatic ability group induced mismatch negativity (MMN) and sustained negativity, while the low pragmatic ability group had no ERP effects. These results indicated that at least some people can automatically activate the scalar implicatures when encountering scalar trigger words, even in the inattentive status. PMID:25542387

  15. Rapid detection of technological disasters by using a RST-based processing chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filizzola, Carolina; Corrado, Rosita; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Marchese, Francesco; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2010-05-01

    Natural disasters may be responsible for technological disasters which may cause injuries to citizens and damages to relevant infrastructures. When it is not possible to prevent or foresee such disasters it is hoped at least to rapidly detect the accident in order to intervene as soon as possible to minimize damages. In this context, the combination of a Robust Satellite Technique (RST), able to identify for sure actual (i.e. no false alarm) accidents, and satellite sensors with high temporal resolution seems to assure both a reliable and a timely detection of abrupt Thermal Infrared (TIR) transients related to dangerous explosions. A processing chain, based on the RST approach, has been developed in the framework of the G-MOSAIC project by DIFA-UNIBAS team, suitable for automatically identify on MSG-SEVIRI images harmful events. Maps of thermal anomalies are generated every 15 minutes (i.e. SEVIRI temporal repetition rate) over a selected area together with kml files (containing information on latitude and longitude of "thermally" anomalous SEVIRI pixel centre, time of image acquisition, relative intensity of anomalies, etc.) for a rapid visualization of the accident position even on google earth. Results achieved in the case of the event occurred in Russia on 10th May 2009 will be presented: a gas pipeline exploded, causing injures to citizens and a huge damage to a Physicochemical Scientific Research Institute which is, according to official data, an organisation, running especially dangerous production and facilities.

  16. Linking automatic evaluation to mood and information processing style: consequences for experienced affect, impression formation, and stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Tanya L; van Baaren, Rick B; Bargh, John A

    2006-02-01

    According to the feelings-as-information account, a person's mood state signals to him or her the valence of the current environment (N. Schwarz & G. Clore, 1983). However, the ways in which the environment automatically influences mood in the first place remain to be explored. The authors propose that one mechanism by which the environment influences affect is automatic evaluation, the nonconscious evaluation of environmental stimuli as good or bad. A first experiment demonstrated that repeated brief exposure to positive or negative stimuli (which leads to automatic evaluation) induces a corresponding mood in participants. In 3 additional studies, the authors showed that automatic evaluation affects information processing style. Experiment 4 showed that participants' mood mediates the effect of valenced brief primes on information processing. PMID:16478316

  17. Superior metallic alloys through rapid solidification processing (RSP) by design

    SciTech Connect

    Flinn, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    Rapid solidification processing using powder atomization methods and the control of minor elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon can provide metallic alloys with superior properties and performance compared to conventionally processing alloys. Previous studies on nickel- and iron-base superalloys have provided the baseline information to properly couple RSP with alloy composition, and, therefore, enable alloys to be designed for performance improvements. The RSP approach produces powders, which need to be consolidated into suitable monolithic forms. This normally involves canning, consolidation, and decanning of the powders. Canning/decanning is expensive and raises the fabrication cost significantly above that of conventional, ingot metallurgy production methods. The cost differential can be offset by the superior performance of the RSP metallic alloys. However, without the performance database, it is difficult to convince potential users to adopt the RSP approach. Spray casting of the atomized molten droplets into suitable preforms for subsequent fabrication can be cost competitive with conventional processing. If the fine and stable microstructural features observed for the RSP approach are preserved during spray casing, a cost competitive product can be obtained that has superior properties and performance that cannot be obtained by conventional methods.

  18. Automatic ultrasonic imaging system with adaptive-learning-network signal-processing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, L.J.; Aravanis, N.A.; Gouge, J.R. Jr.; Mucciardi, A.N.; Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1982-04-01

    A conventional pulse-echo imaging system has been modified to operate with a linear ultrasonic array and associated digital electronics to collect data from a series of defects fabricated in aircraft quality steel blocks. A thorough analysis of the defect responses recorded with this modified system has shown that considerable improvements over conventional imaging approaches can be obtained in the crucial areas of defect detection and characterization. A combination of advanced signal processing concepts with the Adaptive Learning Network (ALN) methodology forms the basis for these improvements. Use of established signal processing algorithms such as temporal and spatial beam-forming in concert with a sophisticated detector has provided a reliable defect detection scheme which can be implemented in a microprocessor-based system to operate in an automatic mode.

  19. Automatic detection of health changes using statistical process control techniques on measured transfer times of elderly.

    PubMed

    Baldewijns, Greet; Luca, Stijn; Nagels, William; Vanrumste, Bart; Croonenborghs, Tom

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that gait speed and transfer times are good measures of functional ability in elderly. However, data currently acquired by systems that measure either gait speed or transfer times in the homes of elderly people require manual reviewing by healthcare workers. This reviewing process is time-consuming. To alleviate this burden, this paper proposes the use of statistical process control methods to automatically detect both positive and negative changes in transfer times. Three SPC techniques: tabular CUSUM, standardized CUSUM and EWMA, known for their ability to detect small shifts in the data, are evaluated on simulated transfer times. This analysis shows that EWMA is the best-suited method with a detection accuracy of 82% and an average detection time of 9.64 days. PMID:26737425

  20. ERPs Differentially Reflect Automatic and Deliberate Processing of the Functional Manipulability of Objects.

    PubMed

    Madan, Christopher R; Chen, Yvonne Y; Singhal, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the functional properties of an object can interact with perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes. Previously we have found that a between-subjects manipulation of judgment instructions resulted in different manipulability-related memory biases in an incidental memory test. To better understand this effect we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while participants made judgments about images of objects that were either high or low in functional manipulability (e.g., hammer vs. ladder). Using a between-subjects design, participants judged whether they had seen the object recently (Personal Experience), or could manipulate the object using their hand (Functionality). We focused on the P300 and slow-wave event-related potentials (ERPs) as reflections of attentional allocation. In both groups, we observed higher P300 and slow wave amplitudes for high-manipulability objects at electrodes Pz and C3. As P300 is thought to reflect bottom-up attentional processes, this may suggest that the processing of high-manipulability objects recruited more attentional resources. Additionally, the P300 effect was greater in the Functionality group. A more complex pattern was observed at electrode C3 during slow wave: processing the high-manipulability objects in the Functionality instruction evoked a more positive slow wave than in the other three conditions, likely related to motor simulation processes. These data provide neural evidence that effects of manipulability on stimulus processing are further mediated by automatic vs. deliberate motor-related processing. PMID:27536224

  1. ERPs Differentially Reflect Automatic and Deliberate Processing of the Functional Manipulability of Objects

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Christopher R.; Chen, Yvonne Y.; Singhal, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the functional properties of an object can interact with perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes. Previously we have found that a between-subjects manipulation of judgment instructions resulted in different manipulability-related memory biases in an incidental memory test. To better understand this effect we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while participants made judgments about images of objects that were either high or low in functional manipulability (e.g., hammer vs. ladder). Using a between-subjects design, participants judged whether they had seen the object recently (Personal Experience), or could manipulate the object using their hand (Functionality). We focused on the P300 and slow-wave event-related potentials (ERPs) as reflections of attentional allocation. In both groups, we observed higher P300 and slow wave amplitudes for high-manipulability objects at electrodes Pz and C3. As P300 is thought to reflect bottom-up attentional processes, this may suggest that the processing of high-manipulability objects recruited more attentional resources. Additionally, the P300 effect was greater in the Functionality group. A more complex pattern was observed at electrode C3 during slow wave: processing the high-manipulability objects in the Functionality instruction evoked a more positive slow wave than in the other three conditions, likely related to motor simulation processes. These data provide neural evidence that effects of manipulability on stimulus processing are further mediated by automatic vs. deliberate motor-related processing. PMID:27536224

  2. Automatic River Bed Grain Size Measurement Using Image Processing and Support Vector Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellugi, D.; Nelson, P. A.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    Gravel-bedded rivers cut through hilly and mountainous areas, driving landscape evolution and creating a diverse habitat upon which river food web ecosystems develop. Our understanding of the mechanics underlying important processes in fluvial geomorphology, hydrodynamics, and aquatic ecology inevitably requires knowledge about the grain size distribution of river bed material. Standard methods of sampling bed surface material may introduce errors due to biases and inadequate sample size. Alternative areal or volumetric sampling procedures are often impractical, particularly in coarse channel beds. Furthermore, all invasive sampling techniques can compromise laboratory flume experiments. These concerns suggest that there is a practical need for a reliable, automated, non-invasive procedure for obtaining the grain size distribution of bed surface material. Although considerable effort has been made to automatically generate grain size distributions using image processing and analysis techniques, the problem remains quite challenging: issues such as varying lighting conditions, partial immersion of particles in water, and heterogeneous mineralogy result in ambiguities that cannot be easily resolved. Feature extraction introduces further biases due to over- or under-segmentation of the image. Moreover, unless the grain distributions are fairly homogeneous between different locations, and images are collected in similar fashion, it is difficult to parametrize any such method in a transferable manner. In this study we present an image processing and machine learning procedure to automatically identify and measure grains from photographic images of gravel-bedded rivers. We apply the state-of-the-art of image segmentation techniques, making use of local cues such as brightness, color, and texture in a multi-scale approach. These cues are globalized using a graph partitioning method on the oriented contour signal. The resulting boundary probability signal is treated by a

  3. Automatically Detecting Failures in Natural Language Processing Tools for Online Community Text

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Andrea L; Huh, Jina; McDonald, David W; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and value of patient-generated health text are increasing, but processing such text remains problematic. Although existing biomedical natural language processing (NLP) tools are appealing, most were developed to process clinician- or researcher-generated text, such as clinical notes or journal articles. In addition to being constructed for different types of text, other challenges of using existing NLP include constantly changing technologies, source vocabularies, and characteristics of text. These continuously evolving challenges warrant the need for applying low-cost systematic assessment. However, the primarily accepted evaluation method in NLP, manual annotation, requires tremendous effort and time. Objective The primary objective of this study is to explore an alternative approach—using low-cost, automated methods to detect failures (eg, incorrect boundaries, missed terms, mismapped concepts) when processing patient-generated text with existing biomedical NLP tools. We first characterize common failures that NLP tools can make in processing online community text. We then demonstrate the feasibility of our automated approach in detecting these common failures using one of the most popular biomedical NLP tools, MetaMap. Methods Using 9657 posts from an online cancer community, we explored our automated failure detection approach in two steps: (1) to characterize the failure types, we first manually reviewed MetaMap’s commonly occurring failures, grouped the inaccurate mappings into failure types, and then identified causes of the failures through iterative rounds of manual review using open coding, and (2) to automatically detect these failure types, we then explored combinations of existing NLP techniques and dictionary-based matching for each failure cause. Finally, we manually evaluated the automatically detected failures. Results From our manual review, we characterized three types of failure: (1) boundary failures, (2) missed

  4. Long-term abacus training induces automatic processing of abacus numbers in children.

    PubMed

    Du, Fenglei; Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Qiong; Chen, Feiyan

    2014-01-01

    Abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) is a unique strategy for arithmetic that is based on the mental abacus. AMC experts can solve calculation problems with extraordinarily fast speed and high accuracy. Previous studies have demonstrated that abacus experts showed superior performance and special neural correlates during numerical tasks. However, most of those studies focused on the perception and cognition of Arabic numbers. It remains unclear how the abacus numbers were perceived. By applying a similar enumeration Stroop task, in which participants are presented with a visual display containing two abacus numbers and asked to compare the numerosity of beads that consisted of the abacus number, in the present study we investigated the automatic processing of the numerical value of abacus numbers in abacus-trained children. The results demonstrated a significant congruity effect in the numerosity comparison task for abacus-trained children, in both reaction time and error rate analysis. These results suggested that the numerical value of abacus numbers was perceived automatically by the abacus-trained children after long-term training. PMID:25223112

  5. Long-term abacus training induces automatic processing of abacus numbers in children.

    PubMed

    Du, Fenglei; Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Qiong; Chen, Feiyan

    2014-01-01

    Abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) is a unique strategy for arithmetic that is based on the mental abacus. AMC experts can solve calculation problems with extraordinarily fast speed and high accuracy. Previous studies have demonstrated that abacus experts showed superior performance and special neural correlates during numerical tasks. However, most of those studies focused on the perception and cognition of Arabic numbers. It remains unclear how the abacus numbers were perceived. By applying a similar enumeration Stroop task, in which participants are presented with a visual display containing two abacus numbers and asked to compare the numerosity of beads that consisted of the abacus number, in the present study we investigated the automatic processing of the numerical value of abacus numbers in abacus-trained children. The results demonstrated a significant congruity effect in the numerosity comparison task for abacus-trained children, in both reaction time and error rate analysis. These results suggested that the numerical value of abacus numbers was perceived automatically by the abacus-trained children after long-term training.

  6. Effects of Wafer Emissivity on Rapid Thermal Processing Temperature Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D. H.; DeWitt, D. P.; Tsai, B. K.; Kreider, K. G.; Kimes, W. A.

    2003-09-01

    Lightpipe radiation thermometers (LPRTs) are widely used to measure wafer temperatures in rapid thermal processing (RTP) tools. To use blackbody-calibrated LPRTs to infer the wafer temperature, it is necessary to build a model to predict the effective emissivity accounting for the wafer and chamber radiative properties as well as geometrical features of the chamber. The uncertainty associated with model-corrected temperatures can be investigated using test wafers instrumented with thin-film thermocouples (TFTCs) on which the LPRT target spot has been coated with films of different emissivity. A finite-element model of the wafer-chamber arrangement was used to investigate the effects of Pt spot (ɛs = 0.25) and Au spot (ɛs = 0.05) on the temperature distribution of test wafers with spectral emissivities of 0.65 and 0.84. The effects of the shield reflectivity and the cool lightpipe (LP) tip on the wafer temperature were evaluated. A radiance analysis method was developed, and a comparison of model-based predictions with experimental observations was made on a 200 mm diameter wafer in the NIST RTP test bed. The temperature rises caused by the low-emissivity spot were predicted and the cooling effect of the LP tip was determined. The results of the study are important for developing the model-based corrections for temperature measurements and related uncertainties using LPRTs in semiconductor thermal processes.

  7. Airplane numerical simulation for the rapid prototyping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roysdon, Paul F.

    Airplane Numerical Simulation for the Rapid Prototyping Process is a comprehensive research investigation into the most up-to-date methods for airplane development and design. Uses of modern engineering software tools, like MatLab and Excel, are presented with examples of batch and optimization algorithms which combine the computing power of MatLab with robust aerodynamic tools like XFOIL and AVL. The resulting data is demonstrated in the development and use of a full non-linear six-degrees-of-freedom simulator. The applications for this numerical tool-box vary from un-manned aerial vehicles to first-order analysis of manned aircraft. A Blended-Wing-Body airplane is used for the analysis to demonstrate the flexibility of the code from classic wing-and-tail configurations to less common configurations like the blended-wing-body. This configuration has been shown to have superior aerodynamic performance -- in contrast to their classic wing-and-tube fuselage counterparts -- and have reduced sensitivity to aerodynamic flutter as well as potential for increased engine noise abatement. Of course without a classic tail elevator to damp the nose up pitching moment, and the vertical tail rudder to damp the yaw and possible rolling aerodynamics, the challenges in lateral roll and yaw stability, as well as pitching moment are not insignificant. This thesis work applies the tools necessary to perform the airplane development and optimization on a rapid basis, demonstrating the strength of this tool through examples and comparison of the results to similar airplane performance characteristics published in literature.

  8. SAUNA—a system for automatic sampling, processing, and analysis of radioactive xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringbom, A.; Larson, T.; Axelsson, A.; Elmgren, K.; Johansson, C.

    2003-08-01

    A system for automatic sampling, processing, and analysis of atmospheric radioxenon has been developed. From an air sample of about 7 m3 collected during 12 h, 0.5 cm3 of xenon is extracted, and the atmospheric activities from the four xenon isotopes 133Xe, 135Xe, 131mXe, and 133mXe are determined with a beta-gamma coincidence technique. The collection is performed using activated charcoal and molecular sieves at ambient temperature. The sample preparation and quantification are performed using preparative gas chromatography. The system was tested under routine conditions for a 5-month period, with average minimum detectable concentrations below 1 mBq/ m3 for all four isotopes.

  9. An automatic detection method to the field wheat based on image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Cao, Zhiguo; Bai, Xiaodong; Yu, Zhenghong; Li, Yanan

    2013-10-01

    The automatic observation of the field crop attracts more and more attention recently. The use of image processing technology instead of the existing manual observation method can observe timely and manage consistently. It is the basis that extracting the wheat from the field wheat images. In order to improve accuracy of the wheat segmentation, a novel two-stage wheat image segmentation method is proposed. Training stage adjusts several key thresholds which will be used in segmentation stage to achieve the best segmentation results, and counts these thresholds. Segmentation stage compares the different values of color index to determine which class of each pixel is. To verify the superiority of the proposed algorithm, we compared our method with other crop segmentation methods. Experiment results shows that the proposed method has the best performance.

  10. Stereotype threat strengthens automatic recall and undermines controlled processes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Morisset, Pauline; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2012-07-01

    The threat of being judged stereotypically (stereotype threat) may impair memory performance in older adults, thereby producing inflated age differences in memory tasks. However, the underlying mechanisms of stereotype threat in older adults or other stigmatized groups remain poorly understood. Here, we offer evidence that stereotype threat consumes working memory resources in older adults. More important, using a process-dissociation procedure, we found, for the first time, that stereotype threat undermines the controlled use of memory and simultaneously intensifies automatic response tendencies. These findings indicate that competing models of stereotype threat are actually compatible and offer further reasons for researchers and practitioners to pay special attention to age-related stereotypes during standardized neuropsychological testing. PMID:22609539

  11. Automatic Wheezing Detection Based on Signal Processing of Spectrogram and Back-Propagation Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bor-Shing; Wu, Huey-Dong; Chen, Sao-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Wheezing is a common clinical symptom in patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases such as asthma. Automatic wheezing detection offers an objective and accurate means for identifying wheezing lung sounds, helping physicians in the diagnosis, long-term auscultation, and analysis of a patient with obstructive pulmonary disease. This paper describes the design of a fast and high-performance wheeze recognition system. A wheezing detection algorithm based on the order truncate average method and a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) is proposed. Some features are extracted from processed spectra to train a BPNN, and subsequently, test samples are analyzed by the trained BPNN to determine whether they are wheezing sounds. The respiratory sounds of 58 volunteers (32 asthmatic and 26 healthy adults) were recorded for training and testing. Experimental results of a qualitative analysis of wheeze recognition showed a high sensitivity of 0.946 and a high specificity of 1.0.

  12. Stereotype threat strengthens automatic recall and undermines controlled processes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Morisset, Pauline; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2012-07-01

    The threat of being judged stereotypically (stereotype threat) may impair memory performance in older adults, thereby producing inflated age differences in memory tasks. However, the underlying mechanisms of stereotype threat in older adults or other stigmatized groups remain poorly understood. Here, we offer evidence that stereotype threat consumes working memory resources in older adults. More important, using a process-dissociation procedure, we found, for the first time, that stereotype threat undermines the controlled use of memory and simultaneously intensifies automatic response tendencies. These findings indicate that competing models of stereotype threat are actually compatible and offer further reasons for researchers and practitioners to pay special attention to age-related stereotypes during standardized neuropsychological testing.

  13. Mapping forest vegetation with ERTS-1 MSS data and automatic data processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messmore, J.; Copeland, G. E.; Levy, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the intent of elucidating the forest mapping capabilities of ERTS-1 MSS data when analyzed with the aid of LARS' automatic data processing techniques. The site for this investigation was the Great Dismal Swamp, a 210,000 acre wilderness area located on the Middle Atlantic coastal plain. Due to inadequate ground truth information on the distribution of vegetation within the swamp, an unsupervised classification scheme was utilized. Initially pictureprints, resembling low resolution photographs, were generated in each of the four ERTS-1 channels. Data found within rectangular training fields was then clustered into 13 spectral groups and defined statistically. Using a maximum likelihood classification scheme, the unknown data points were subsequently classified into one of the designated training classes. Training field data was classified with a high degree of accuracy (greater than 95 percent), and progress is being made towards identifying the mapped spectral classes.

  14. Lab experiments on the innovative rapid thick strip casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Richard; Senk, Dieter

    2012-05-01

    Rapid thick strip casting (RTSC) by Anton Hulek, Inventmetall®, is an innovative concept for the production of hot strips with a final as-cast thickness of about 25 mm before rolling. The innovation of the mechanism consists in a vertical mould performing a caterpillar motion. This moving mould has an unconventional parallelogram-shaped cross-section. The conventional rectangular shape is formed in the shaping machine, which is placed straight below the mould. Further elements of the technology are state-of-the-art. For the investigation of this new casting system theoretical calculations were complemented with practical experiments. The investigation focused mainly on two key aspects: the characteristics of the mould and the shaping process. For the practical analysis a static mould with three pairs of elements in laboratory scale was developed and commissioned by the Dept. of Ferrous Metallurgy @ RWTH Aachen University. The shaping experiments were carried out in model scale with two different materials and in variable boundary conditions. The results of these experiments delivered important mechanical as well as thermal informations about the casting system.

  15. Inviting the Unconscious to Manifest: Process as a Product? Authentic Movement and Automatic Drawing Performed/Exhibited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesonen, Inari

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines two improvisational processes, Authentic Movement (AM) and automatic drawing (AD), the possibility of their presentation to the viewer and the meanings such presentation may bring to the work presented. Improvisation has traditionally been used in the process of creating a finished work of art rather than in the finished art…

  16. Individual Differences in Children's Mathematical Competence Are Related to the Intentional but Not Automatic Processing of Arabic Numerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugden, Stephanie; Ansari, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role played by basic numerical magnitude processing in the typical and atypical development of mathematical skills. In this context, tasks measuring both the intentional and automatic processing of numerical magnitude have been employed to characterize how children's representation and…

  17. [Automatic information processing, the frontal system and blunted affect. From clinical dimensions to cognitive processes toward a psychobiological explanation of temperament].

    PubMed

    Partiot, A; Pierson, A; Renault, B; Widlöcher, D; Jouvent, R

    1994-01-01

    Several theorists have drawn a distinction between automatic and attentional or controlled processing. Hasher and Zacks (1979), were the very first to argue that effortful processes are reduced under conditions of stress including depression. They suggested that, in these conditions, no such deficit occurs in automatic processing. Then, Weingartner and co-workers provided some experiments which seemed to support such an interpretation of the cognitive dysfunction in depressed patients. However, some recent data do not fit with this well admitted theoretical framework. The purpose of our article is to try to clarify this issue both from a theoretical and from a methodological point of view. First, we make a critical review of the most recent results in three fields of experimentation related to the "automatic versus controlled" topic: 1) The classical neuropsychology of memory which manipulates the level of effort required to perform the tasks. Confusion arises when theories at the process level are tested with reference to data collected at the task level. The transparency assumption could be false: Impairment in an effort-demanding task could be due to a defect in automatic processes and it is possible to hypothesize that the more automatic processes are deficient, the more controlled processes are saturated and the effort demanding task impaired. The emergence of controlled processes could depend on the level of automaticity and the regulation of automatic processes could be determinant for the ability of the subject to make associations. 2) The recent studies on implicit memory in depression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7828514

  18. Electronic manufacturing process improvement (EMPI) for automatic winding of quadrupole fiber optic gyro sensor coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, Gregory S.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this EMPI program was to design an Automatic Coil Winding Station (ACWS) for winding Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) sensor coils through the use of TQM, QFD, etc., followed by use of Taguchi an other statistical techniques to optimize the coil winding process. Four phases were involved: Process Definition, Critical Factor Identification, Variability Reduction, and SPC Implementation. Winding FOG coils is both difficult and fragile in that it is a quadrupole wind - as apposed to the conventional thread wind - compounded by the requirement for low tension precision, high-fiber packing density, and always risk of damage to the delicate fiber itself. The critical factor identification in the quadrupole winding process was reduced to fiber crossover - a significant detrimental influence on gyro performance - which, in turn, was closely identified with fiber gap control. The station was completed and deployed to the field where production coils are currently being wound. The ACWS not only lowered the required labor skill but succeeded in reducing the winding cycle time to 1 hour (from 24 hours) and touch labor time to 0.3 hours (from 24 hours) while improving the yield and performance through improved process control.

  19. Automatic processing of high-rate, high-density multibeam echosounder data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, B. R.; Mayer, L. A.

    2003-06-01

    Multibeam echosounders (MBES) are currently the best way to determine the bathymetry of large regions of the seabed with high accuracy. They are becoming the standard instrument for hydrographic surveying and are also used in geological studies, mineral exploration and scientific investigation of the earth's crustal deformations and life cycle. The significantly increased data density provided by an MBES has significant advantages in accurately delineating the morphology of the seabed, but comes with the attendant disadvantage of having to handle and process a much greater volume of data. Current data processing approaches typically involve (computer aided) human inspection of all data, with time-consuming and subjective assessment of all data points. As data rates increase with each new generation of instrument and required turn-around times decrease, manual approaches become unwieldy and automatic methods of processing essential. We propose a new method for automatically processing MBES data that attempts to address concerns of efficiency, objectivity, robustness and accuracy. The method attributes each sounding with an estimate of vertical and horizontal error, and then uses a model of information propagation to transfer information about the depth from each sounding to its local neighborhood. Embedded in the survey area are estimation nodes that aim to determine the true depth at an absolutely defined location, along with its associated uncertainty. As soon as soundings are made available, the nodes independently assimilate propagated information to form depth hypotheses which are then tracked and updated on-line as more data is gathered. Consequently, we can extract at any time a "current-best" estimate for all nodes, plus co-located uncertainties and other metrics. The method can assimilate data from multiple surveys, multiple instruments or repeated passes of the same instrument in real-time as data is being gathered. The data assimilation scheme is

  20. Examining the influence of psychopathy, hostility biases, and automatic processing on criminal offenders' Theory of Mind.

    PubMed

    Nentjes, Lieke; Bernstein, David; Arntz, Arnoud; van Breukelen, Gerard; Slaats, Mariëtte

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is a social perceptual skill that refers to the ability to take someone else's perspective and infer what others think. The current study examined the effect of potential hostility biases, as well as controlled (slow) versus automatic (fast) processing on ToM performance in psychopathy. ToM abilities (as assessed with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test; RMET; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001), was compared between 39 PCL-R diagnosed psychopathic offenders, 37 non-psychopathic offenders, and 26 nonoffender controls. Contrary to our hypothesis, psychopathic individuals presented with intact overall RMET performance when restrictions were imposed on how long task stimuli could be processed. In addition, psychopaths did not over-ascribe hostility to task stimuli (i.e., lack of hostility bias). However, there was a significant three-way interaction between hostility, processing speed, and psychopathy: when there was no time limit on stimulus presentation, psychopathic offenders made fewer errors in identifying more hostile eye stimuli compared to nonoffender controls, who seemed to be less accurate in detecting hostility. Psychopaths' more realistic appraisal of others' malevolent mental states is discussed in the light of theories that stress its potential adaptive function.

  1. The role of automaticity and attention in neural processes underlying empathy for happiness, sadness, and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, Sylvia A.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the neural basis of empathy, relatively little is known about how empathic processes are affected by different attentional conditions. Thus, we examined whether instructions to empathize might amplify responses in empathy-related regions and whether cognitive load would diminish the involvement of these regions. Thirty-two participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session assessing empathic responses to individuals experiencing happy, sad, and anxious events. Stimuli were presented under three conditions: watching naturally, actively empathizing, and under cognitive load. Across analyses, we found evidence for a core set of neural regions that support empathic processes (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, DMPFC; medial prefrontal cortex, MPFC; temporoparietal junction, TPJ; amygdala; ventral anterior insula, AI; and septal area, SA). Two key regions—the ventral AI and SA—were consistently active across all attentional conditions, suggesting that they are automatically engaged during empathy. In addition, watching vs. empathizing with targets was not markedly different and instead led to similar subjective and neural responses to others' emotional experiences. In contrast, cognitive load reduced the subjective experience of empathy and diminished neural responses in several regions related to empathy and social cognition (DMPFC, MPFC, TPJ, and amygdala). The results reveal how attention impacts empathic processes and provides insight into how empathy may unfold in everyday interactions. PMID:23658538

  2. Examining the influence of psychopathy, hostility biases, and automatic processing on criminal offenders' Theory of Mind.

    PubMed

    Nentjes, Lieke; Bernstein, David; Arntz, Arnoud; van Breukelen, Gerard; Slaats, Mariëtte

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is a social perceptual skill that refers to the ability to take someone else's perspective and infer what others think. The current study examined the effect of potential hostility biases, as well as controlled (slow) versus automatic (fast) processing on ToM performance in psychopathy. ToM abilities (as assessed with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test; RMET; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001), was compared between 39 PCL-R diagnosed psychopathic offenders, 37 non-psychopathic offenders, and 26 nonoffender controls. Contrary to our hypothesis, psychopathic individuals presented with intact overall RMET performance when restrictions were imposed on how long task stimuli could be processed. In addition, psychopaths did not over-ascribe hostility to task stimuli (i.e., lack of hostility bias). However, there was a significant three-way interaction between hostility, processing speed, and psychopathy: when there was no time limit on stimulus presentation, psychopathic offenders made fewer errors in identifying more hostile eye stimuli compared to nonoffender controls, who seemed to be less accurate in detecting hostility. Psychopaths' more realistic appraisal of others' malevolent mental states is discussed in the light of theories that stress its potential adaptive function. PMID:25655653

  3. Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of SAR data for flood applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussul, Natalia; Skakun, Serhiy; Shelestov, Andrii

    2010-05-01

    More and more geosciences applications are being put on to the Grids. Due to the complexity of geosciences applications that is caused by complex workflow, the use of computationally intensive environmental models, the need of management and integration of heterogeneous data sets, Grid offers solutions to tackle these problems. Many geosciences applications, especially those related to the disaster management and mitigations require the geospatial services to be delivered in proper time. For example, information on flooded areas should be provided to corresponding organizations (local authorities, civil protection agencies, UN agencies etc.) no more than in 24 h to be able to effectively allocate resources required to mitigate the disaster. Therefore, providing infrastructure and services that will enable automatic generation of products based on the integration of heterogeneous data represents the tasks of great importance. In this paper we present Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) satellite images to derive flood products. In particular, we use SAR data acquired by ESA's ENVSAT satellite, and neural networks to derive flood extent. The data are provided in operational mode from ESA rolling archive (within ESA Category-1 grant). We developed a portal that is based on OpenLayers frameworks and provides access point to the developed services. Through the portal the user can define geographical region and search for the required data. Upon selection of data sets a workflow is automatically generated and executed on the resources of Grid infrastructure. For workflow execution and management we use Karajan language. The workflow of SAR data processing consists of the following steps: image calibration, image orthorectification, image processing with neural networks, topographic effects removal, geocoding and transformation to lat/long projection, and visualisation. These steps are executed by different software, and can be

  4. 48 CFR 245.608-72 - Screening excess automatic data processing equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening excess automatic... Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.608-72 Screening excess automatic data... screening, including General Services Administration screening, for ADPE. (See the Defense...

  5. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC) Effects Reflect Controlled Rather than Automatic Mechanisms of Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Wioland, Norma; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2012-01-01

    This study compared automatic and controlled cognitive processes that underlie event-related potentials (ERPs) effects during speech perception. Sentences were presented to French native speakers, and the final word could be congruent or incongruent, and presented at one of four levels of degradation (using a modulation with pink noise): no degradation, mild degradation (2 levels), or strong degradation. We assumed that degradation impairs controlled more than automatic processes. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC) effects were defined as the differences between the corresponding wave amplitudes to incongruent words minus congruent words. Under mild degradation, where controlled sentence-level processing could still occur (as indicated by behavioral data), both N400 and LPC effects were delayed and the latter effect was reduced. Under strong degradation, where sentence processing was rather automatic (as indicated by behavioral data), no ERP effect remained. These results suggest that ERP effects elicited in complex contexts, such as sentences, reflect controlled rather than automatic mechanisms of speech processing. These results differ from the results of experiments that used word-pair or word-list paradigms. PMID:24961195

  6. Automatic domain-general processing of sound source identity in the left posterior middle frontal gyrus.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Bruno L; Pernet, Cyril; Charest, Ian; Belizaire, Guylaine; Zatorre, Robert J; Belin, Pascal

    2014-09-01

    Identifying sound sources is fundamental to developing a stable representation of the environment in the face of variable auditory information. The cortical processes underlying this ability have received little attention. In two fMRI experiments, we investigated passive adaptation to (Exp. 1) and explicit discrimination of (Exp. 2) source identities for different categories of auditory objects (voices, musical instruments, environmental sounds). All cortical effects of source identity were independent of high-level category information, and were accounted for by sound-to-sound differences in low-level structure (e.g., loudness). A conjunction analysis revealed that the left posterior middle frontal gyrus (pMFG) adapted to identity repetitions during both passive listening and active discrimination tasks. These results indicate that the comparison of sound source identities in a stream of auditory stimulation recruits the pMFG in a domain-general way, i.e., independent of the sound category, based on information contained in the low-level acoustical structure. pMFG recruitment during both passive listening and explicit identity comparison tasks also suggests its automatic engagement in sound source identity processing.

  7. Automatic Analysis for the Chemical Testing of Urine Examination Using Digital Image Processing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilardy, Juan M.; Peña, Jose C.; Daza, Miller F.; Torres, Cesar O.; Mattos, Lorenzo

    2008-04-01

    For to make the chemical testing of urine examination a dipstick is used, which contains pads that have incorporated within them the reagents for chemical reactions for the detection of a number from substances in the urine. Urine is added to the pads for reaction by dipping the dipstick into the urine and then slowly withdrawing it. The subsequent colorimetric reactions are timed to an endpoint; the extent of colors formation is directly related to the level of the urine constituent. The colors can be read manually by comparison with color charts or with the use of automated reflectance meters. The aim of the System described in this paper is to analyze and to determine automatically the changes of the colors in the dipstick when this is retired of the urine sample and to compare the results with color charts for the diagnosis of many common diseases such as diabetes. The system consists of: (a) a USB camera. (b) Computer. (c) Software Matlab v7.4. Image analysis begins with a digital capturing of the image as data. Once the image is acquired in digital format, the data can be manipulated through digital image processing. Our objective was to develop a computerised image processing system and an interactive software package for the backing of clinicians, medical research and medical students.

  8. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  9. Rapid Word Recognition as a Measure of Word-Level Automaticity and Its Relation to Other Measures of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Elizabeth M.; Gosky, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between rapid recognition of individual words (Word Recognition Test) and two measures of contextual reading: (1) grade-level Passage Reading Test (IRI passage) and (2) performance on standardized STAR Reading Test. To establish if time of presentation on the word recognition test was a factor in…

  10. Rapid gas hydrate formation processes: Will they work?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bernardo, Mark P.

    2010-06-07

    Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETL’s 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. The results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuous formation of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve.

  11. Rapid gas hydrate formation processes: Will they work?

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bernardo, Mark P.

    2010-06-07

    Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETL’s 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. The results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuousmore » formation of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve.« less

  12. On the Automatic Generation of Plans for Life Cycle Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing products for easy assembly and disassembly during their entire life cycles for purposes including product assembly, product upgrade, product servicing and repair, and product disposal is a process that involves many disciplines. In addition, finding the best solution often involves considering the design as a whole and by considering its intended life cycle. Different goals and manufacturing plan selection criteria, as compared to initial assembly, require re-visiting significant fundamental assumptions and methods that underlie current assembly planning techniques. Previous work in this area has been limited to either academic studies of issues in assembly planning or to applied studies of life cycle assembly processes that give no attention to automatic planning. It is believed that merging these two areas will result in a much greater ability to design for, optimize, and analyze the cycle assembly processes. The study of assembly planning is at the very heart of manufacturing research facilities and academic engineering institutions; and, in recent years a number of significant advances in the field of assembly planning have been made. These advances have ranged from the development of automated assembly planning systems, such as Sandia's Automated Assembly Analysis System Archimedes 3.0{copyright}, to the startling revolution in microprocessors and computer-controlled production tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), flexible manufacturing systems (EMS), and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). These results have kindled considerable interest in the study of algorithms for life cycle related assembly processes and have blossomed into a field of intense interest. The intent of this manuscript is to bring together the fundamental results in this area, so that the unifying principles and underlying concepts of algorithm design may more easily be implemented in practice.

  13. Rapidly solidified ceramics: Processing, structure, and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kalonji, G.M.; O'Handley, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Since its initiation in September 1984, work under this contract has progressed in two areas: construction of a gas atomizer for rapid solidification of ceramics; and characterization of rapidly solidified materials in the SrO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, BaO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2}, and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2} systems. This report summarize this work.

  14. Children's and Adults' Automatic Processing of Proportion in a Stroop-Like Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ying; Hu, Qingfen; Wu, Di; Yang, Shuqi

    2015-01-01

    This current study examined human children's and adults' automatic processing of proportion using a Stroop-like paradigm. Preschool children and university students compared the areas of two sectors that varied not only in absolute areas but also in the proportions they occupied in their original rounds. A congruity effect was found in…

  15. An Investigation of the Stroop Effect among Deaf Signers in English and Japanese: Automatic Processing or Memory Retrieval?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Mary; Moran, Aidan

    2007-01-01

    Most studies on the Stroop effect (unintentional automatic word processing) have been restricted to English speakers using vocal responses. Little is known about this effect with deaf signers. The study compared Stroop task responses among four different samples: deaf participants from a Japanese-language environment and from an English-language…

  16. Rapid Prototyping of High Performance Signal Processing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, Nimish

    Advances in embedded systems for digital signal processing (DSP) are enabling many scientific projects and commercial applications. At the same time, these applications are key to driving advances in many important kinds of computing platforms. In this region of high performance DSP, rapid prototyping is critical for faster time-to-market (e.g., in the wireless communications industry) or time-to-science (e.g., in radio astronomy). DSP system architectures have evolved from being based on application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to incorporate reconfigurable off-the-shelf field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), the latest multiprocessors such as graphics processing units (GPUs), or heterogeneous combinations of such devices. We, thus, have a vast design space to explore based on performance trade-offs, and expanded by the multitude of possibilities for target platforms. In order to allow systematic design space exploration, and develop scalable and portable prototypes, model based design tools are increasingly used in design and implementation of embedded systems. These tools allow scalable high-level representations, model based semantics for analysis and optimization, and portable implementations that can be verified at higher levels of abstractions and targeted toward multiple platforms for implementation. The designer can experiment using such tools at an early stage in the design cycle, and employ the latest hardware at later stages. In this thesis, we have focused on dataflow-based approaches for rapid DSP system prototyping. This thesis contributes to various aspects of dataflow-based design flows and tools as follows: 1. We have introduced the concept of topological patterns, which exploits commonly found repetitive patterns in DSP algorithms to allow scalable, concise, and parameterizable representations of large scale dataflow graphs in high-level languages. We have shown how an underlying design tool can systematically exploit a high

  17. Automatic analysis (aa): efficient neuroimaging workflows and parallel processing using Matlab and XML.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Rhodri; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; Mitchell, Daniel J; Wild, Conor J; Auer, Tibor; Linke, Annika C; Peelle, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen neuroimaging data sets becoming richer, with larger cohorts of participants, a greater variety of acquisition techniques, and increasingly complex analyses. These advances have made data analysis pipelines complicated to set up and run (increasing the risk of human error) and time consuming to execute (restricting what analyses are attempted). Here we present an open-source framework, automatic analysis (aa), to address these concerns. Human efficiency is increased by making code modular and reusable, and managing its execution with a processing engine that tracks what has been completed and what needs to be (re)done. Analysis is accelerated by optional parallel processing of independent tasks on cluster or cloud computing resources. A pipeline comprises a series of modules that each perform a specific task. The processing engine keeps track of the data, calculating a map of upstream and downstream dependencies for each module. Existing modules are available for many analysis tasks, such as SPM-based fMRI preprocessing, individual and group level statistics, voxel-based morphometry, tractography, and multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPA). However, aa also allows for full customization, and encourages efficient management of code: new modules may be written with only a small code overhead. aa has been used by more than 50 researchers in hundreds of neuroimaging studies comprising thousands of subjects. It has been found to be robust, fast, and efficient, for simple-single subject studies up to multimodal pipelines on hundreds of subjects. It is attractive to both novice and experienced users. aa can reduce the amount of time neuroimaging laboratories spend performing analyses and reduce errors, expanding the range of scientific questions it is practical to address.

  18. Automatic analysis (aa): efficient neuroimaging workflows and parallel processing using Matlab and XML

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, Rhodri; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; Mitchell, Daniel J.; Wild, Conor J.; Auer, Tibor; Linke, Annika C.; Peelle, Jonathan E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen neuroimaging data sets becoming richer, with larger cohorts of participants, a greater variety of acquisition techniques, and increasingly complex analyses. These advances have made data analysis pipelines complicated to set up and run (increasing the risk of human error) and time consuming to execute (restricting what analyses are attempted). Here we present an open-source framework, automatic analysis (aa), to address these concerns. Human efficiency is increased by making code modular and reusable, and managing its execution with a processing engine that tracks what has been completed and what needs to be (re)done. Analysis is accelerated by optional parallel processing of independent tasks on cluster or cloud computing resources. A pipeline comprises a series of modules that each perform a specific task. The processing engine keeps track of the data, calculating a map of upstream and downstream dependencies for each module. Existing modules are available for many analysis tasks, such as SPM-based fMRI preprocessing, individual and group level statistics, voxel-based morphometry, tractography, and multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPA). However, aa also allows for full customization, and encourages efficient management of code: new modules may be written with only a small code overhead. aa has been used by more than 50 researchers in hundreds of neuroimaging studies comprising thousands of subjects. It has been found to be robust, fast, and efficient, for simple-single subject studies up to multimodal pipelines on hundreds of subjects. It is attractive to both novice and experienced users. aa can reduce the amount of time neuroimaging laboratories spend performing analyses and reduce errors, expanding the range of scientific questions it is practical to address. PMID:25642185

  19. SNPflow: A Lightweight Application for the Processing, Storing and Automatic Quality Checking of Genotyping Assays

    PubMed Central

    Schönherr, Sebastian; Neuner, Mathias; Forer, Lukas; Specht, Günther; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Kronenberg, Florian; Coassin, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play a prominent role in modern genetics. Current genotyping technologies such as Sequenom iPLEX, ABI TaqMan and KBioscience KASPar made the genotyping of huge SNP sets in large populations straightforward and allow the generation of hundreds of thousands of genotypes even in medium sized labs. While data generation is straightforward, the subsequent data conversion, storage and quality control steps are time-consuming, error-prone and require extensive bioinformatic support. In order to ease this tedious process, we developed SNPflow. SNPflow is a lightweight, intuitive and easily deployable application, which processes genotype data from Sequenom MassARRAY (iPLEX) and ABI 7900HT (TaqMan, KASPar) systems and is extendible to other genotyping methods as well. SNPflow automatically converts the raw output files to ready-to-use genotype lists, calculates all standard quality control values such as call rate, expected and real amount of replicates, minor allele frequency, absolute number of discordant replicates, discordance rate and the p-value of the HWE test, checks the plausibility of the observed genotype frequencies by comparing them to HapMap/1000-Genomes, provides a module for the processing of SNPs, which allow sex determination for DNA quality control purposes and, finally, stores all data in a relational database. SNPflow runs on all common operating systems and comes as both stand-alone version and multi-user version for laboratory-wide use. The software, a user manual, screenshots and a screencast illustrating the main features are available at http://genepi-snpflow.i-med.ac.at. PMID:23527209

  20. Automatic analysis (aa): efficient neuroimaging workflows and parallel processing using Matlab and XML.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Rhodri; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; Mitchell, Daniel J; Wild, Conor J; Auer, Tibor; Linke, Annika C; Peelle, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen neuroimaging data sets becoming richer, with larger cohorts of participants, a greater variety of acquisition techniques, and increasingly complex analyses. These advances have made data analysis pipelines complicated to set up and run (increasing the risk of human error) and time consuming to execute (restricting what analyses are attempted). Here we present an open-source framework, automatic analysis (aa), to address these concerns. Human efficiency is increased by making code modular and reusable, and managing its execution with a processing engine that tracks what has been completed and what needs to be (re)done. Analysis is accelerated by optional parallel processing of independent tasks on cluster or cloud computing resources. A pipeline comprises a series of modules that each perform a specific task. The processing engine keeps track of the data, calculating a map of upstream and downstream dependencies for each module. Existing modules are available for many analysis tasks, such as SPM-based fMRI preprocessing, individual and group level statistics, voxel-based morphometry, tractography, and multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPA). However, aa also allows for full customization, and encourages efficient management of code: new modules may be written with only a small code overhead. aa has been used by more than 50 researchers in hundreds of neuroimaging studies comprising thousands of subjects. It has been found to be robust, fast, and efficient, for simple-single subject studies up to multimodal pipelines on hundreds of subjects. It is attractive to both novice and experienced users. aa can reduce the amount of time neuroimaging laboratories spend performing analyses and reduce errors, expanding the range of scientific questions it is practical to address. PMID:25642185

  1. SNPflow: a lightweight application for the processing, storing and automatic quality checking of genotyping assays.

    PubMed

    Weissensteiner, Hansi; Haun, Margot; Schönherr, Sebastian; Neuner, Mathias; Forer, Lukas; Specht, Günther; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Kronenberg, Florian; Coassin, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play a prominent role in modern genetics. Current genotyping technologies such as Sequenom iPLEX, ABI TaqMan and KBioscience KASPar made the genotyping of huge SNP sets in large populations straightforward and allow the generation of hundreds of thousands of genotypes even in medium sized labs. While data generation is straightforward, the subsequent data conversion, storage and quality control steps are time-consuming, error-prone and require extensive bioinformatic support. In order to ease this tedious process, we developed SNPflow. SNPflow is a lightweight, intuitive and easily deployable application, which processes genotype data from Sequenom MassARRAY (iPLEX) and ABI 7900HT (TaqMan, KASPar) systems and is extendible to other genotyping methods as well. SNPflow automatically converts the raw output files to ready-to-use genotype lists, calculates all standard quality control values such as call rate, expected and real amount of replicates, minor allele frequency, absolute number of discordant replicates, discordance rate and the p-value of the HWE test, checks the plausibility of the observed genotype frequencies by comparing them to HapMap/1000-Genomes, provides a module for the processing of SNPs, which allow sex determination for DNA quality control purposes and, finally, stores all data in a relational database. SNPflow runs on all common operating systems and comes as both stand-alone version and multi-user version for laboratory-wide use. The software, a user manual, screenshots and a screencast illustrating the main features are available at http://genepi-snpflow.i-med.ac.at. PMID:23527209

  2. Fidelity of Automatic Speech Processing for Adult and Child Talker Classifications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Automatic speech processing (ASP) has recently been applied to very large datasets of naturalistically collected, daylong recordings of child speech via an audio recorder worn by young children. The system developed by the LENA Research Foundation analyzes children's speech for research and clinical purposes, with special focus on of identifying and tagging family speech dynamics and the at-home acoustic environment from the auditory perspective of the child. A primary issue for researchers, clinicians, and families using the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) system is to what degree the segment labels are valid. This classification study evaluates the performance of the computer ASP output against 23 trained human judges who made about 53,000 judgements of classification of segments tagged by the LENA ASP. Results indicate performance consistent with modern ASP such as those using HMM methods, with acoustic characteristics of fundamental frequency and segment duration most important for both human and machine classifications. Results are likely to be important for interpreting and improving ASP output. PMID:27529813

  3. Extended morphological processing: a practical method for automatic spot detection of biological markers from microscopic images

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A reliable extraction technique for resolving multiple spots in light or electron microscopic images is essential in investigations of the spatial distribution and dynamics of specific proteins inside cells and tissues. Currently, automatic spot extraction and characterization in complex microscopic images poses many challenges to conventional image processing methods. Results A new method to extract closely located, small target spots from biological images is proposed. This method starts with a simple but practical operation based on the extended morphological top-hat transformation to subtract an uneven background. The core of our novel approach is the following: first, the original image is rotated in an arbitrary direction and each rotated image is opened with a single straight line-segment structuring element. Second, the opened images are unified and then subtracted from the original image. To evaluate these procedures, model images of simulated spots with closely located targets were created and the efficacy of our method was compared to that of conventional morphological filtering methods. The results showed the better performance of our method. The spots of real microscope images can be quantified to confirm that the method is applicable in a given practice. Conclusions Our method achieved effective spot extraction under various image conditions, including aggregated target spots, poor signal-to-noise ratio, and large variations in the background intensity. Furthermore, it has no restrictions with respect to the shape of the extracted spots. The features of our method allow its broad application in biological and biomedical image information analysis. PMID:20615231

  4. Fidelity of Automatic Speech Processing for Adult and Child Talker Classifications.

    PubMed

    VanDam, Mark; Silbert, Noah H

    2016-01-01

    Automatic speech processing (ASP) has recently been applied to very large datasets of naturalistically collected, daylong recordings of child speech via an audio recorder worn by young children. The system developed by the LENA Research Foundation analyzes children's speech for research and clinical purposes, with special focus on of identifying and tagging family speech dynamics and the at-home acoustic environment from the auditory perspective of the child. A primary issue for researchers, clinicians, and families using the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) system is to what degree the segment labels are valid. This classification study evaluates the performance of the computer ASP output against 23 trained human judges who made about 53,000 judgements of classification of segments tagged by the LENA ASP. Results indicate performance consistent with modern ASP such as those using HMM methods, with acoustic characteristics of fundamental frequency and segment duration most important for both human and machine classifications. Results are likely to be important for interpreting and improving ASP output. PMID:27529813

  5. Explodet Project:. Methods of Automatic Data Processing and Analysis for the Detection of Hidden Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecca, Paola

    2003-12-01

    The research of the INFN Gruppo Collegato di Trento in the ambit of EXPLODET project for the humanitarian demining, is devoted to the development of a software procedure for the automatization of data analysis and decision taking about the presence of hidden explosive. Innovative algorithms of likely background calculation, a system based on neural networks for energy calibration and simple statistical methods for the qualitative consistency check of the signals are the main parts of the software performing the automatic data elaboration.

  6. Multistage processing for automatic minefield detection using low-frequency SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Sandra C.; Ayasli, Serpil; Grosch, Theodore O.

    1995-06-01

    An automatic, multistage algorithm for detecting minefields is introduced. This algorithm was tested, with encouraging results, against buried metal mines. The measurement data for this test were obtained using a low-frequency airborne SAR, collected during an extensive ground penetration experiment in Yuma, Arizona, in June 1993. Although verified using SAR data, the automatic minefield detection technique may prove applicable to other remote sensors as well.

  7. VACTIV: A graphical dialog based program for an automatic processing of line and band spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlokazov, V. B.

    2013-05-01

    The program VACTIV-Visual ACTIV-has been developed for an automatic analysis of spectrum-like distributions, in particular gamma-ray spectra or alpha-spectra and is a standard graphical dialog based Windows XX application, driven by a menu, mouse and keyboard. On the one hand, it was a conversion of an existing Fortran program ACTIV [1] to the DELPHI language; on the other hand, it is a transformation of the sequential syntax of Fortran programming to a new object-oriented style, based on the organization of event interactions. New features implemented in the algorithms of both the versions consisted in the following as peak model both an analytical function and a graphical curve could be used; the peak search algorithm was able to recognize not only Gauss peaks but also peaks with an irregular form; both narrow peaks (2-4 channels) and broad ones (50-100 channels); the regularization technique in the fitting guaranteed a stable solution in the most complicated cases of strongly overlapping or weak peaks. The graphical dialog interface of VACTIV is much more convenient than the batch mode of ACTIV. [1] V.B. Zlokazov, Computer Physics Communications, 28 (1982) 27-37. NEW VERSION PROGRAM SUMMARYProgram Title: VACTIV Catalogue identifier: ABAC_v2_0 Licensing provisions: no Programming language: DELPHI 5-7 Pascal. Computer: IBM PC series. Operating system: Windows XX. RAM: 1 MB Keywords: Nuclear physics, spectrum decomposition, least squares analysis, graphical dialog, object-oriented programming. Classification: 17.6. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ABAC_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 28 (1982) 27 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes. Nature of problem: Program VACTIV is intended for precise analysis of arbitrary spectrum-like distributions, e.g. gamma-ray and X-ray spectra and allows the user to carry out the full cycle of automatic processing of such spectra, i.e. calibration, automatic peak search

  8. VACTIV: A graphical dialog based program for an automatic processing of line and band spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlokazov, V. B.

    2013-05-01

    The program VACTIV-Visual ACTIV-has been developed for an automatic analysis of spectrum-like distributions, in particular gamma-ray spectra or alpha-spectra and is a standard graphical dialog based Windows XX application, driven by a menu, mouse and keyboard. On the one hand, it was a conversion of an existing Fortran program ACTIV [1] to the DELPHI language; on the other hand, it is a transformation of the sequential syntax of Fortran programming to a new object-oriented style, based on the organization of event interactions. New features implemented in the algorithms of both the versions consisted in the following as peak model both an analytical function and a graphical curve could be used; the peak search algorithm was able to recognize not only Gauss peaks but also peaks with an irregular form; both narrow peaks (2-4 channels) and broad ones (50-100 channels); the regularization technique in the fitting guaranteed a stable solution in the most complicated cases of strongly overlapping or weak peaks. The graphical dialog interface of VACTIV is much more convenient than the batch mode of ACTIV. [1] V.B. Zlokazov, Computer Physics Communications, 28 (1982) 27-37. NEW VERSION PROGRAM SUMMARYProgram Title: VACTIV Catalogue identifier: ABAC_v2_0 Licensing provisions: no Programming language: DELPHI 5-7 Pascal. Computer: IBM PC series. Operating system: Windows XX. RAM: 1 MB Keywords: Nuclear physics, spectrum decomposition, least squares analysis, graphical dialog, object-oriented programming. Classification: 17.6. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ABAC_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 28 (1982) 27 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes. Nature of problem: Program VACTIV is intended for precise analysis of arbitrary spectrum-like distributions, e.g. gamma-ray and X-ray spectra and allows the user to carry out the full cycle of automatic processing of such spectra, i.e. calibration, automatic peak search

  9. Path selection process utilizing rapid estimation scheme. [for Martian rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ring, H.; Shen, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the use of a rapid estimation scheme for path selection by a roving vehicle. Essentially, the evaluation procedure simulates movement of the rover over each of several corridors lying radially outward from the scanning position. Two levels of corridors are used, and the path selection scheme selects the optimal primary corridor according to a dynamic programming algorithm. In the present version, the length of the corridors is variable. The rapid estimation scheme provides information to define corridor dimensions. This corridor structure, which varies as a function of the terrain, eliminates the need for backtracking, except in certain extreme cases. Computer results are promising in that obstacles were avoided while corridor lengths were kept to a maximum where safety permitted.

  10. Rapid process for producing transparent, monolithic porous glass

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.

    2006-02-14

    A process for making transparent porous glass monoliths from gels. The glass is produced much faster and in much larger sizes than present technology for making porous glass. The process reduces the cost of making large porous glass monoliths because: 1) the process does not require solvent exchange nor additives to the gel to increase the drying rates, 2) only moderate temperatures and pressures are used so relatively inexpensive equipment is needed, an 3) net-shape glass monoliths are possible using this process. The process depends on the use of temperature to control the partial pressure of the gel solvent in a closed vessel, resulting in controlled shrinking during drying.

  11. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  12. Methods for automatized detection of rapid changes in lateral boundary condition fields for NWP limited area models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, M.

    2015-08-01

    Three-hourly temporal resolution of lateral boundary data for limited area models (LAMs) can be too infrequent to resolve rapidly moving storms. This problem is expected to be worse with increasing horizontal resolution. In order to detect intensive disturbances in surface pressure moving rapidly through the model domain, a filtered surface pressure field (MCUF) is computed operationally in the ARPEGE global model of Météo France. The field is distributed in the coupling files along with conventional meteorological fields used for lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the operational forecast using limited area model ALADIN (Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational) in the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia (DHMZ). Here an analysis is performed of the MCUF field for the LACE coupling domain for the period from 23 January 2006, when it became available, until 15 November 2014. The MCUF field is a good indicator of rapidly moving pressure disturbances (RMPDs). Its spatial and temporal distribution can be associated with the usual cyclone tracks and areas known to be supporting cyclogenesis. An alternative set of coupling files from the IFS operational run in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is also available operationally in DHMZ with 3-hourly temporal resolution, but the MCUF field is not available. Here, several methods are tested that detect RMPDs in surface pressure a posteriori from the IFS model fields provided in the coupling files. MCUF is computed by running ALADIN on the coupling files from IFS. The error function is computed using one-time-step integration of ALADIN on the coupling files without initialization, initialized with digital filter initialization (DFI) or scale-selective DFI (SSDFI). Finally, the amplitude of changes in the mean sea level pressure is computed from the fields in the coupling files. The results are compared to the MCUF field of ARPEGE and the results of same

  13. Evaluating the Potential of Rtk-Uav for Automatic Point Cloud Generation in 3d Rapid Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazeli, H.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadrasjavan, F.

    2016-06-01

    During disaster and emergency situations, 3D geospatial data can provide essential information for decision support systems. The utilization of geospatial data using digital surface models as a basic reference is mandatory to provide accurate quick emergency response in so called rapid mapping activities. The recipe between accuracy requirements and time restriction is considered critical in this situations. UAVs as alternative platforms for 3D point cloud acquisition offer potentials because of their flexibility and practicability combined with low cost implementations. Moreover, the high resolution data collected from UAV platforms have the capabilities to provide a quick overview of the disaster area. The target of this paper is to experiment and to evaluate a low-cost system for generation of point clouds using imagery collected from a low altitude small autonomous UAV equipped with customized single frequency RTK module. The customized multi-rotor platform is used in this study. Moreover, electronic hardware is used to simplify user interaction with the UAV as RTK-GPS/Camera synchronization, and beside the synchronization, lever arm calibration is done. The platform is equipped with a Sony NEX-5N, 16.1-megapixel camera as imaging sensor. The lens attached to camera is ZEISS optics, prime lens with F1.8 maximum aperture and 24 mm focal length to deliver outstanding images. All necessary calibrations are performed and flight is implemented over the area of interest at flight height of 120 m above the ground level resulted in 2.38 cm GSD. Earlier to image acquisition, 12 signalized GCPs and 20 check points were distributed in the study area and measured with dualfrequency GPS via RTK technique with horizontal accuracy of σ = 1.5 cm and vertical accuracy of σ = 2.3 cm. results of direct georeferencing are compared to these points and experimental results show that decimeter accuracy level for 3D points cloud with proposed system is achievable, that is suitable

  14. Adult attachment orientation and automatic processing of emotional information on a semantic level: A masked affective priming study.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Zeitschel, Frank; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-09-30

    Early adverse social experiences leading to attachment insecurity could cause heightened sensitivity to emotional information. Automatic processing of emotional stimuli conveys information about positive-negative differentiation and the so-called possessor vs. other-relevance of valence. The aim of the present study was to examine automatic processing of emotional and relevance type information on a semantic level as a function of adult attachment avoidance and anxiety. A masked affective priming task, varying valence and relevance of prime and target adjectives, was presented to a sample of 153 healthy adults. The Experiences in Close Relationships scale was administered to assess attachment orientation. Significant priming effects for valence and relevance were observed. Attachment avoidance, but not attachment anxiety, was significantly related to affective priming independently of trait anxiety and depression. Specifically, attachment avoidance was found to be related to affective priming effects based on other-relevant words. It can be concluded that automatic processing of emotional adjectives used to characterize safe or risky social environments is heightened in avoidant individuals. The avoidantly attached processing style has similarities with repressive coping, which is characterized by an enhanced early response to emotion stimuli followed by avoidant biases at a controlled processing level. PMID:26235477

  15. Automatic processing of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 mole fractions at the ICOS Atmosphere Thematic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazan, Lynn; Tarniewicz, Jérôme; Ramonet, Michel; Laurent, Olivier; Abbaris, Amara

    2016-09-01

    The Integrated Carbon Observation System Atmosphere Thematic Centre (ICOS ATC) automatically processes atmospheric greenhouse gases mole fractions of data coming from sites of the ICOS network. Daily transferred raw data files are automatically processed and archived. Data are stored in the ICOS atmospheric database, the backbone of the system, which has been developed with an emphasis on the traceability of the data processing. Many data products, updated daily, explore the data through different angles to support the quality control of the dataset performed by the principal operators in charge of the instruments. The automatic processing includes calibration and water vapor corrections as described in the paper. The mole fractions calculated in near-real time (NRT) are automatically revaluated as soon as a new instrument calibration is processed or when the station supervisors perform quality control. By analyzing data from 11 sites, we determined that the average calibration corrections are equal to 1.7 ± 0.3 µmol mol-1 for CO2 and 2.8 ± 3 nmol mol-1 for CH4. These biases are important to correct to avoid artificial gradients between stations that could lead to error in flux estimates when using atmospheric inversion techniques. We also calculated that the average drift between two successive calibrations separated by 15 days amounts to ±0.05 µmol mol-1 and ±0.7 nmol mol-1 for CO2 and CH4, respectively. Outliers are generally due to errors in the instrument configuration and can be readily detected thanks to the data products provided by the ATC. Several developments are still ongoing to improve the processing, including automated spike detection and calculation of time-varying uncertainties.

  16. Sentinel-1 automatic processing chain for volcanic and seismic areas monitoring within the Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Claudio; Zinno, Ivana; Manunta, Michele; Lanari, Riccardo; Casu, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The microwave remote sensing scenario is rapidly evolving through development of new sensor technology for Earth Observation (EO). In particular, Sentinel-1A (S1A) is the first of a sensors' constellation designed to provide a satellite data stream for the Copernicus European program. Sentinel-1A has been specifically designed to provide, over land, Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) products to analyze and investigate Earth's surface displacements. S1A peculiarities include wide ground coverage (250 km of swath), C-band operational frequency and short revisit time (that will reduce from 12 to 6 days when the twin system Sentinel-1B will be placed in orbit during 2016). Such characteristics, together with the global coverage acquisition policy, make the Sentinel-1 constellation to be extremely suitable for volcanic and seismic areas studying and monitoring worldwide, thus allowing the generation of both ground displacement information with increasing rapidity and new geological understanding. The main acquisition mode over land is the so called Interferometric Wide Swath (IWS) that is based on the Terrain Observation by Progressive Scans (TOPS) technique and that guarantees the mentioned S1A large coverage characteristics at expense of a not trivial interferometric processing. Moreover, the satellite spatial coverage and the reduced revisit time will lead to an exponential increase of the data archives that, after the launch of Sentine-1B, will reach about 3TB per day. Therefore, the EO scientific community needs from the one hand automated and effective DInSAR tools able to address the S1A processing complexity, and from the other hand the computing and storage capacities to face out the expected large amount of data. Then, it is becoming more crucial to move processors and tools close to the satellite archives, being not efficient anymore the approach of downloading and processing data with in-house computing facilities. To address

  17. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  18. A simple method for rapidly processing HEU from weapons returns

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    A method based on the use of a high temperature fluidized bed for rapidly oxidizing, homogenizing and down-blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) from dismantled nuclear weapons is presented. This technology directly addresses many of the most important issues that inhibit progress in international commerce in HEU; viz., transaction verification, materials accountability, transportation and environmental safety. The equipment used to carry out the oxidation and blending is simple, inexpensive and highly portable. Mobile facilities to be used for point-of-sale blending and analysis of the product material are presented along with a phased implementation plan that addresses the conversion of HEU derived from domestic weapons and related waste streams as well as material from possible foreign sources such as South Africa or the former Soviet Union.

  19. Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D.; Rastogi, S.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1994-07-01

    The thermodynamic properties of coal under conditions of rapid heating have been determined using a combination of UTRC facilities including a proprietary rapid heating rate differential thermal analyzer (RHR-DTA), a microbomb calorimeter (MBC), an entrained flow reactor (EFR), an elemental analyzer (EA), and a FT-IR. The total heat of devolatilization, was measured for a HVA bituminous coal (PSOC 1451D, Pittsburgh No. 8) and a LV bituminous coal (PSOC 1516D, Lower Kittaning). For the HVA coal, the contributions of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization were measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars. Morphological characterization of coal and char samples was performed at the University of Pittsburgh using a PC-based image analysis system, BET apparatus, helium pcynometer, and mercury porosimeter. The bulk density, true density, CO{sub 2} surface area, pore volume distribution, and particle size distribution as a function of extent of reaction are reported for both the HVA and LV coal. Analyses of the data were performed to obtain the fractal dimension of the particles as well as estimates for the external surface area. The morphological data together with the thermodynamic data obtained in this investigation provides a complete database for a set of common, well characterized coal and char samples. This database can be used to improve the prediction of particle temperatures in coal devolatilization models. Such models are used both to obtain kinetic rates from fundamental studies and in predicting furnace performance with comprehensive coal combustion codes. Recommendations for heat capacity functions and heats of devolatilization for the HVA and LV coals are given. Results of sample particle temperature calculations using the recommended thermodynamic properties are provided.

  20. Differences in semantic category priming in the left and right cerebral hemispheres under automatic and controlled processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Collins, M

    1999-08-01

    The contribution of each cerebral hemisphere to the generation of semantic category meanings at automatic and strategic levels of processing was investigated in a priming experiment where prime and target words were independently projected to the left or right visual fields (LVF or RVF). Non-associated category exemplars were employed as related pairs in a lexical decision task and presented in two experimental conditions. The first condition was designed to elicit automatic processing, so related pairs comprised 20% of the positive set, stimulus pairs were temporally separated by a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 250 ms, and there was no allusion to the presence of related pairs in the instructions to subjects. The second condition, designed to invoke controlled processing, incorporated a relatedness proportion of 50%, stimulus pairs separated by an SOA of 750 ms, and instructions which informed subjects of the presence and use of category exemplar pairs in the stimulus set. In the first condition, a prime directed to either visual field facilitated responses to categorically related targets subsequently projected to the RVF, while in the second condition a prime directed to either visual field facilitated responses to related targets projected to the LVF. The facilitation effects obtained in both conditions appeared to reflect automatic processes, while strategic processes were invoked in the left, but not the right hemisphere in the second condition. The results suggest that both hemispheres have automatic access to semantic category meanings, although the timecourse of activation of semantic category meanings is slower in the right hemisphere than in the left.

  1. Automatic instrument for chemical processing to detect microorganism in biological samples by measuring light reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelbaugh, B. N.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Colburn, M. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automated apparatus is reported for sequentially assaying urine samples for the presence of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that comprises a rotary table which carries a plurality of sample containing vials and automatically dispenses fluid reagents into the vials preparatory to injecting a light producing luciferase-luciferin mixture into the samples. The device automatically measures the light produced in each urine sample by a bioluminescence reaction of the free bacterial adenosine triphosphate with the luciferase-luciferin mixture. The light measured is proportional to the concentration of bacterial adenosine triphosphate which, in turn, is proportional to the number of bacteria present in the respective urine sample.

  2. Rapid, potentially automatable, method extract biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to detect and identify BW agents

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.C. |; Burkhalter, R.S.; Smith, C.; Whitaker, K.W.

    1997-12-31

    The program proposes to concentrate on the rapid recovery of signature biomarkers based on automated high-pressure, high-temperature solvent extraction (ASE) and/or supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to produce lipids, nucleic acids and proteins sequentially concentrated and purified in minutes with yields especially from microeukaryotes, Gram-positive bacteria and spores. Lipids are extracted in higher proportions greater than classical one-phase, room temperature solvent extraction without major changes in lipid composition. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with or without derivatization, electrospray ionization (ESI) and highly specific detection by mass spectrometry (MS) particularly with (MS){sup n} provides the detection, identification and because the signature lipid biomarkers are both phenotypic as well as genotypic biomarkers, insights into potential infectivity of BW agents. Feasibility has been demonstrated with detection, identification, and determination of infectious potential of Cryptosporidium parvum at the sensitivity of a single oocyst (which is unculturable in vitro) and accurate identification and prediction, pathogenicity, and drug-resistance of Mycobacteria spp.

  3. THE UBIQUITY OF THE RAPID NEUTRON-CAPTURE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Lugaro, Maria; Simmerer, Jennifer; Farouqi, Khalil

    2010-12-01

    To better characterize the abundance patterns produced by the r-process, we have derived new abundances or upper limits for the heavy elements zinc (Zn, Z= 30), yttrium (Y, Z= 39), lanthanum (La, Z= 57), europium (Eu, Z= 63), and lead (Pb, Z= 82). Our sample of 161 metal-poor stars includes new measurements from 88 high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with the Tull Spectrograph on the 2.7 m Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory, and other abundances are adopted from the literature. We use models of the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars to characterize the high Pb/Eu ratios produced in the s-process at low metallicity, and our new observations then allow us to identify a sample of stars with no detectable s-process material. In these stars, we find no significant increase in the Pb/Eu ratios with increasing metallicity. This suggests that s-process material was not widely dispersed until the overall Galactic metallicity grew considerably, perhaps even as high as [Fe/H] =-1.4, in contrast with earlier studies that suggested a much lower mean metallicity. We identify a dispersion of at least 0.5 dex in [La/Eu] in metal-poor stars with [Eu/Fe] <+0.6 attributable to the r-process, suggesting that there is no unique 'pure' r-process elemental ratio among pairs of rare earth elements. We confirm earlier detections of an anti-correlation between Y/Eu and Eu/Fe bookended by stars strongly enriched in the r-process (e.g., CS 22892-052) and those with deficiencies of the heavy elements (e.g., HD 122563). We can reproduce the range of Y/Eu ratios using simulations of high-entropy neutrino winds of core-collapse supernovae that include charged-particle and neutron-capture components of r-process nucleosynthesis. The heavy element abundance patterns in most metal-poor stars do not resemble that of CS 22892-052, but the presence of heavy elements such as Ba in nearly all metal-poor stars without s-process enrichment suggests that the r-process

  4. A CityGML extension for traffic-sign objects that guides the automatic processing of data collected using Mobile Mapping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela-González, M.; Riveiro, B.; Arias-Sánchez, P.; González-Jorge, H.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.

    2014-11-01

    The rapid evolution of integral schemes, accounting for geometric and semantic data, has been importantly motivated by the advances in the last decade in mobile laser scanning technology; automation in data processing has also recently influenced the expansion of the new model concepts. This paper reviews some important issues involved in the new paradigms of city 3D modelling: an interoperable schema for city 3D modelling (cityGML) and mobile mapping technology to provide the features that composing the city model. This paper focuses in traffic signs, discussing their characterization using cityGML in order to ease the implementation of LiDAR technology in road management software, as well as analysing some limitations of the current technology in the labour of automatic detection and classification.

  5. Maturation of Rapid Auditory Temporal Processing and Subsequent Nonword Repetition Performance in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Allison M.; Reid, Corinne L.; Anderson, Mike; Richardson, Cassandra; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2012-01-01

    According to the rapid auditory processing theory, the ability to parse incoming auditory information underpins learning of oral and written language. There is wide variation in this low-level perceptual ability, which appears to follow a protracted developmental course. We studied the development of rapid auditory processing using event-related…

  6. Automatic Weed Control System For Transplanted Processing Tomatoes Using X-ray Stem Sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A stem detection system was developed for automatic weed control in transplanted tomato fields. A portable x-ray source projected an x-ray beam perpendicular to the crop row and parallel to the soil surface. The plant’s main stem absorbs x-ray energy, decreasing the detected signal and allowing ste...

  7. Automatic data processing and analysis system for monitoring region around a planned nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortström, Jari; Tiira, Timo; Kaisko, Outi

    2016-03-01

    The Institute of Seismology of University of Helsinki is building a new local seismic network, called OBF network, around planned nuclear power plant in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. The network will consist of nine new stations and one existing station. The network should be dense enough to provide azimuthal coverage better than 180° and automatic detection capability down to ML -0.1 within a radius of 25 km from the site.The network construction work began in 2012 and the first four stations started operation at the end of May 2013. We applied an automatic seismic signal detection and event location system to a network of 13 stations consisting of the four new stations and the nearest stations of Finnish and Swedish national seismic networks. Between the end of May and December 2013 the network detected 214 events inside the predefined area of 50 km radius surrounding the planned nuclear power plant site. Of those detections, 120 were identified as spurious events. A total of 74 events were associated with known quarries and mining areas. The average location error, calculated as a difference between the announced location from environment authorities and companies and the automatic location, was 2.9 km. During the same time period eight earthquakes between magnitude range 0.1-1.0 occurred within the area. Of these seven could be automatically detected. The results from the phase 1 stations of the OBF network indicates that the planned network can achieve its goals.

  8. Reading Aloud Is Not Automatic: Processing Capacity Is Required to Generate a Phonological Code from Print

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Michael; Besner, Derek

    2006-01-01

    The present experiments tested the claim that phonological recoding occurs "automatically" by assessing whether it uses central attention in the context of the psychological refractory period paradigm. Task 1 was a tone discrimination task and Task 2 was reading aloud. The joint effects of long-lag word repetition priming and stimulus onset…

  9. Rapid feedback processing in human nucleus accumbens and motor thalamus.

    PubMed

    Schüller, Thomas; Gruendler, Theo O J; Jocham, Gerhard; Klein, Tilmann A; Timmermann, Lars; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Kuhn, Jens; Ullsperger, Markus

    2015-04-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and thalamus are integral parts in models of feedback processing. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been successfully employed to alleviate symptoms of psychiatric conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome (TS). Common target structures are the NAcc and the ventral anterior and ventro-lateral nuclei (VA/VL) of the thalamus, for OCD and TS, respectively. The feedback related negativity (FRN) is an event-related potential associated with feedback processing reflecting posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) activity. Here we report on three cases where we recorded scalp EEG and local field potentials (LFP) from externalized electrodes located in the NAcc or thalamus (VA/VL) while patients engaged in a modified time estimation task, known to engage feedback processing and elicit the FRN. Additionally, scalp EEG were recorded from 29 healthy participants (HP) engaged in the same task. The signal in all structures (pMFC, NAcc, and thalamus) was differently modulated by positive and negative feedback. LFP activity in the NAcc showed a biphasic time course after positive feedback during the FRN time interval. Negative feedback elicited a much weaker and later response. In the thalamus a monophasic modulation was recorded during the FRN time interval. Again, this modulation was more pronounced after positive performance feedback compared to negative feedback. In channels outside the target area no modulation was observed. The surface-FRN was reliably elicited on a group level in HP and showed no significant difference following negative feedback between patients and HP. German Clinical Trial Register: Neurocognitive specification of dysfunctions within basal ganglia-cortex loops and their therapeutic modulation by deep brain stimulation in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome, http://www.drks.de/DRKS00005316. PMID:25726897

  10. On the meaning of meaning when being mean: commentary on Berkowitz's "on the consideration of automatic as well as controlled psychological processes in aggression".

    PubMed

    Dodge, Kenneth A

    2008-01-01

    Berkowitz (this issue) makes a cogent case for his cognitive neo-associationist (CNA) model that some aggressive behaviors occur automatically, emotionally, and through conditioned association with other stimuli. He also proposes that they can occur without "processing," that is, without meaning. He contrasts his position with that of social information processing (SIP) models, which he casts as positing only controlled processing mechanisms for aggressive behavior. However, both CNA and SIP models posit automatic as well as controlled processes in aggressive behavior. Most aggressive behaviors occur through automatic processes, which are nonetheless rule governed. SIP models differ from the CNA model in asserting the essential role of meaning (often through nonconscious, automatic, and emotional processes) in mediating the link between a stimulus and an angry aggressive behavioral response. PMID:18203196

  11. On the meaning of meaning when being mean: commentary on Berkowitz's "on the consideration of automatic as well as controlled psychological processes in aggression".

    PubMed

    Dodge, Kenneth A

    2008-01-01

    Berkowitz (this issue) makes a cogent case for his cognitive neo-associationist (CNA) model that some aggressive behaviors occur automatically, emotionally, and through conditioned association with other stimuli. He also proposes that they can occur without "processing," that is, without meaning. He contrasts his position with that of social information processing (SIP) models, which he casts as positing only controlled processing mechanisms for aggressive behavior. However, both CNA and SIP models posit automatic as well as controlled processes in aggressive behavior. Most aggressive behaviors occur through automatic processes, which are nonetheless rule governed. SIP models differ from the CNA model in asserting the essential role of meaning (often through nonconscious, automatic, and emotional processes) in mediating the link between a stimulus and an angry aggressive behavioral response.

  12. Operational SAR Data Processing in GIS Environments for Rapid Disaster Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    DEM without the need of ground control points. This step includes radiometric calibration. (3) A subsequent change detection analysis generates the final map showing the extent of the flash flood on Nov. 5th 2010. The underlying algorithms are provided by three different sources: Geocoding & radiometric calibration (2) is a standard functionality from the commercial SARscape Toolbox for ArcGIS. This toolbox is extended by the filter tool (1), which is called from the SARscape modules in ENVI. The change detection analysis (3) is based on ENVI processing routines and scripted with IDL. (2) and (3) are integrated with ArcGIS using a predefined Python interface. These 3 processing steps are combined using the ArcGIS ModelBuilder to create a new model for rapid disaster mapping in ArcGIS, based on SAR data. Moreover, this model can be dissolved from its desktop environment and published to users across the ArcGIS Server enterprise. Thus disaster zones, e.g. after severe flooding, can be automatically identified and mapped to support local task forces - using an operational workflow for SAR image analysis, which can be executed by the responsible operators without SAR expert knowledge.

  13. Development of Automatic Live Linux Rebuilding System with Flexibility in Science and Engineering Education and Applying to Information Processing Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoda, Jun; Yamaki, Kota

    We develop an automatic Live Linux rebuilding system for science and engineering education, such as information processing education, numerical analysis and so on. Our system is enable to easily and automatically rebuild a customized Live Linux from a ISO image of Ubuntu, which is one of the Linux distribution. Also, it is easily possible to install/uninstall packages and to enable/disable init daemons. When we rebuild a Live Linux CD using our system, we show number of the operations is 8, and the rebuilding time is about 33 minutes on CD version and about 50 minutes on DVD version. Moreover, we have applied the rebuilded Live Linux CD in a class of information processing education in our college. As the results of a questionnaires survey from our 43 students who used the Live Linux CD, we obtain that the our Live Linux is useful for about 80 percents of students. From these results, we conclude that our system is able to easily and automatically rebuild a useful Live Linux in short time.

  14. [Real-time automatic cloud detection during the process of taking aerial photographs].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xian-Jun; Wan, You-Chuan; Zheng, Shun-Yi; Yang, Yuan-Wei

    2014-07-01

    The present paper adopted a method based on the spectrum signatures with thresholds to detect cloud. Through analyzing the characteristic in the aspect of spectrum signatures of cloud, two effective signatures were explored, one was brightness signature I and the other was normalized difference signature P. Combined with corresponding thresholds, each spectrum condition can detect some cloud pixels. By composing the union of two spectrum conditions together, cloud can be detected more completely. In addition, the threshold was also very important to the accuracy of the detection result. In order to detect cloud efficiently, correctly and automatically, this paper proposed a new strategy about the assignment of thresholds to acquire suitable thresholds. Firstly, the images should be classified into three kinds of types which were images with no cloud, with thin cloud and with thick cloud. Secondly, different assignment methods of automatic thresholds of signatures would be adopted according to different types of images. For images with thick cloud, they would be further classified into three kinds by another standard and assigned by different thresholds integrated by automatic thresholds from other spectrum signatures. The automatic thresholds were acquired by Otsu algorithm and an improved Otsu algorithm. For images with thin cloud, the cloud would be detected by score algorithm. Due to this flexible strategy, cloud in images can be detected rightly and if there isn't cloud in images the detection will be null to show that there is no cloud. Compared to the detection results of other different methods, the contrast results show that the efficiency of the detection method proposed in this paper is high and the accuracy satisfies the demand of real-time evaluation and the application range is wider.

  15. Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Predicting Early Development in Reading and Spelling: Results from a Cross-Linguistic Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) were investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230 Scandinavian children were followed longitudinally between kindergarten and 2nd grade. PA and RAN were measured in kindergarten and Grade 1, while word recognition, phonological decoding, and spelling were measured in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. In general, high stability was observed for the various reading and spelling measures, such that little additional variance was left open for PA and RAN. However, results demonstrated that RAN was more related to reading than spelling across orthographies, with the opposite pattern shown for PA. In addition, tests of measurement invariance show that the factor loadings of each observed indicator on the latent PA factor was the same across U.S./Australia and Scandinavia. Similar findings were obtained for RAN. In general, tests of structural invariance show that models of early literacy development are highly transferable across languages.

  16. Rapid parallel semantic processing of numbers without awareness.

    PubMed

    Van Opstal, Filip; de Lange, Floris P; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we investigate whether multiple digits can be processed at a semantic level without awareness, either serially or in parallel. In two experiments, we presented participants with two successive sets of four simultaneous Arabic digits. The first set was masked and served as a subliminal prime for the second, visible target set. According to the instructions, participants had to extract from the target set either the mean or the sum of the digits, and to compare it with a reference value. Results showed that participants applied the requested instruction to the entire set of digits that was presented below the threshold of conscious perception, because their magnitudes jointly affected the participant's decision. Indeed, response decision could be accurately modeled as a sigmoid logistic function that pooled together the evidence provided by the four targets and, with lower weights, the four primes. In less than 800ms, participants successfully approximated the addition and mean tasks, although they tended to overweight the large numbers, particularly in the sum task. These findings extend previous observations on ensemble coding by showing that set statistics can be extracted from abstract symbolic stimuli rather than low-level perceptual stimuli, and that an ensemble code can be represented without awareness.

  17. Key issues in automatic classification of defects in post-inspection review process of photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mark; Maji, Manabendra; Pai, Ravi R.; B. V. R., Samir; Seshadri, R.; Patil, Pradeepkumar

    2012-11-01

    The mask inspection and defect classification is a crucial part of mask preparation technology and consumes a significant amount of mask preparation time. As the patterns on a mask become smaller and more complex, the need for a highly precise mask inspection system with high detection sensitivity becomes greater. However, due to the high sensitivity, in addition to the detection of smaller defects on finer geometries, the inspection machine could report large number of false defects. The total number of defects becomes significantly high and the manual classification of these defects, where the operator should review each of the defects and classify them, may take huge amount of time. Apart from false defects, many of the very small real defects may not print on the wafer and user needs to spend time on classifying them as well. Also, sometimes, manual classification done by different operators may not be consistent. So, need for an automatic, consistent and fast classification tool becomes more acute in more advanced nodes. Automatic Defect Classification tool (NxADC) which is in advanced stage of development as part of NxDAT1, can automatically classify defects accurately and consistently in very less amount of time, compared to a human operator. Amongst the prospective defects as detected by the Mask Inspection System, NxADC identifies several types of false defects such as false defects due to registration error, false defects due to problems with CCD, noise, etc. It is also able to automatically classify real defects such as, pin-dot, pin-hole, clear extension, multiple-edges opaque, missing chrome, chrome-over-MoSi, etc. We faced a large set of algorithmic challenges during the course of the development of our NxADC tool. These include selecting the appropriate image alignment algorithm to detect registration errors (especially when there are sub-pixel registration errors or misalignment in repetitive patterns such as line space), differentiating noise from

  18. Concept of using a benchmark part to evaluate rapid prototype processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cariapa, Vikram

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual benchmark part for guiding manufacturers and users of rapid prototyping technologies is proposed. This is based on a need to have some tool to evaluate the development of this technology and to assist the user in judiciously selecting a process. The benchmark part is designed to have unique product details and features. The extent to which a rapid prototyping process can reproduce these features becomes a measure of the capability of the process. Since rapid prototyping is a dynamic technology, this benchmark part should be used to continuously monitor process capability of existing and developing technologies. Development of this benchmark part is, therefore, based on an understanding of the properties required from prototypes and characteristics of various rapid prototyping processes and measuring equipment that is used for evaluation.

  19. Rapid e-Learning Tools Selection Process for Cognitive and Psychomotor Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, David Tawei; Huang, Yung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a decision making process for the selection of rapid e-learning tools that could match different learning domains. With the development of the Internet, the speed of information updates has become faster than ever. E-learning has rapidly become the mainstream for corporate training and academic instruction. In order to reduce…

  20. Development of Open source-based automatic shooting and processing UAV imagery for Orthoimage Using Smart Camera UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. W.; Jeong, H. H.; Kim, J. S.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, aerial photography with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system uses UAV and remote controls through connections of ground control system using bandwidth of about 430 MHz radio Frequency (RF) modem. However, as mentioned earlier, existing method of using RF modem has limitations in long distance communication. The Smart Camera equipments's LTE (long-term evolution), Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi to implement UAV that uses developed UAV communication module system carried out the close aerial photogrammetry with the automatic shooting. Automatic shooting system is an image capturing device for the drones in the area's that needs image capturing and software for loading a smart camera and managing it. This system is composed of automatic shooting using the sensor of smart camera and shooting catalog management which manages filmed images and information. Processing UAV imagery module used Open Drone Map. This study examined the feasibility of using the Smart Camera as the payload for a photogrammetric UAV system. The open soure tools used for generating Android, OpenCV (Open Computer Vision), RTKLIB, Open Drone Map.

  1. A Review of Automatic Methods Based on Image Processing Techniques for Tuberculosis Detection from Microscopic Sputum Smear Images.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Rani Oomman; Soman, Biju; Saini, Gagan; Rajan, Jeny

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body. TB remains one of the leading causes of death in developing countries, and its recent resurgences in both developed and developing countries warrant global attention. The number of deaths due to TB is very high (as per the WHO report, 1.5 million died in 2013), although most are preventable if diagnosed early and treated. There are many tools for TB detection, but the most widely used one is sputum smear microscopy. It is done manually and is often time consuming; a laboratory technician is expected to spend at least 15 min per slide, limiting the number of slides that can be screened. Many countries, including India, have a dearth of properly trained technicians, and they often fail to detect TB cases due to the stress of a heavy workload. Automatic methods are generally considered as a solution to this problem. Attempts have been made to develop automatic approaches to identify TB bacteria from microscopic sputum smear images. In this paper, we provide a review of automatic methods based on image processing techniques published between 1998 and 2014. The review shows that the accuracy of algorithms for the automatic detection of TB increased significantly over the years and gladly acknowledges that commercial products based on published works also started appearing in the market. This review could be useful to researchers and practitioners working in the field of TB automation, providing a comprehensive and accessible overview of methods of this field of research. PMID:26573654

  2. Rapid Naming and Phonemic Awareness in Children with Reading Disabilities and/or Specific Language Impairment: Differentiating Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Bartholomeus J. A.; Van den Bos, Kees P.; Van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.; Minnaert, Alexander E. M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess and compare the predictive values of group membership for rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonemic awareness (PA) in Dutch school children with and without reading disabilities (RD) or specific language impairment (SLI). Method: A composite word reading index and a formal SLI diagnosis were…

  3. Age effects shrink when motor learning is predominantly supported by nondeclarative, automatic memory processes: evidence from golf putting.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Maquestiaux, François; Hartley, Alan A; Joubert, Sven; Didierjean, André; Masters, Rich S W

    2012-01-01

    Can motor learning be equivalent in younger and older adults? To address this question, 48 younger (M = 23.5 years) and 48 older (M = 65.0 years) participants learned to perform a golf-putting task in two different motor learning situations: one that resulted in infrequent errors or one that resulted in frequent errors. The results demonstrated that infrequent-error learning predominantly relied on nondeclarative, automatic memory processes whereas frequent-error learning predominantly relied on declarative, effortful memory processes: After learning, infrequent-error learners verbalized fewer strategies than frequent-error learners; at transfer, a concurrent, attention-demanding secondary task (tone counting) left motor performance of infrequent-error learners unaffected but impaired that of frequent-error learners. The results showed age-equivalent motor performance in infrequent-error learning but age deficits in frequent-error learning. Motor performance of frequent-error learners required more attention with age, as evidenced by an age deficit on the attention-demanding secondary task. The disappearance of age effects when nondeclarative, automatic memory processes predominated suggests that these processes are preserved with age and are available even early in motor learning. PMID:21736434

  4. Visualization of a newborn's hip joint using 3D ultrasound and automatic image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overhoff, Heinrich M.; Lazovic, Djordje; von Jan, Ute

    1999-05-01

    Graf's method is a successful procedure for the diagnostic screening of developmental dysplasia of the hip. In a defined 2-D ultrasound (US) scan, which virtually cuts the hip joint, landmarks are interactively identified to derive congruence indicators. As the indicators do not reflect the spatial joint structure, and the femoral head is not clearly visible in the US scan, here 3-D US is used to gain insight to the hip joint in its spatial form. Hip joints of newborns were free-hand scanned using a conventional ultrasound transducer and a localizer system fixed on the scanhead. To overcome examiner- dependent findings the landmarks were detected by automatic segmentation of the image volume. The landmark image volumes and an automatically determined virtual sphere approximating the femoral head were visualized color-coded on a computer screen. The visualization was found to be intuitive and to simplify the diagnostic substantially. By the visualization of the 3-D relations between acetabulum and femoral head the reliability of diagnostics is improved by finding the entire joint geometry.

  5. Characteristics of products generated by selective sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cariapa, Vikram

    1993-01-01

    The trend in the modern global economy towards free market policies has motivated companies to use rapid prototyping technologies to not only reduce product development cycle time but also to maintain their competitive edge. A rapid prototyping technology is one which combines computer aided design with computer controlled tracking of focussed high energy source (eg. lasers, heat) on modern ceramic powders, metallic powders, plastics or photosensitive liquid resins in order to produce prototypes or models. At present, except for the process of shape melting, most rapid prototyping processes generate products that are only dimensionally similar to those of the desired end product. There is an urgent need, therefore, to enhance the understanding of the characteristics of these processes in order to realize their potential for production. Currently, the commercial market is dominated by four rapid prototyping processes, namely selective laser sintering, stereolithography, fused deposition modelling and laminated object manufacturing. This phase of the research has focussed on the selective laser sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes. A theoretical model for these processes is under development. Different rapid prototyping sites supplied test specimens (based on ASTM 638-84, Type I) that have been measured and tested to provide a data base on surface finish, dimensional variation and ultimate tensile strength. Further plans call for developing and verifying the theoretical models by carefully designed experiments. This will be a joint effort between NASA and other prototyping centers to generate a larger database, thus encouraging more widespread usage by product designers.

  6. The contribution of discrete-trial naming and visual recognition to rapid automatized naming deficits of dyslexic children with and without a history of language delay

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Filippo; Brizzolara, Daniela; Cristofani, Paola; Casalini, Claudia; Chilosi, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    Children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD) are impaired in Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) tasks, where subjects are asked to name arrays of high frequency items as quickly as possible. However the reasons why RAN speed discriminates DD from typical readers are not yet fully understood. Our study was aimed to identify some of the cognitive mechanisms underlying RAN-reading relationship by comparing one group of 32 children with DD with an age-matched control group of typical readers on a naming and a visual recognition task both using a discrete-trial methodology, in addition to a serial RAN task, all using the same stimuli (digits and colors). Results showed a significant slowness of DD children in both serial and discrete-trial naming (DN) tasks regardless of type of stimulus, but no difference between the two groups on the discrete-trial recognition task. Significant differences between DD and control participants in the RAN task disappeared when performance in the DN task was partialled out by covariance analysis for colors, but not for digits. The same pattern held in a subgroup of DD subjects with a history of early language delay (LD). By contrast, in a subsample of DD children without LD the RAN deficit was specific for digits and disappeared after slowness in DN was partialled out. Slowness in DN was more evident for LD than for noLD DD children. Overall, our results confirm previous evidence indicating a name-retrieval deficit as a cognitive impairment underlying RAN slowness in DD children. This deficit seems to be more marked in DD children with previous LD. Moreover, additional cognitive deficits specifically associated with serial RAN tasks have to be taken into account when explaining deficient RAN speed of these latter children. We suggest that partially different cognitive dysfunctions underpin superficially similar RAN impairments in different subgroups of DD subjects. PMID:25237301

  7. Rapid deposition process for zinc oxide film applications in pyroelectric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Yu, Shih-Yuan

    2012-10-01

    Aerosol deposition (AD) is a rapid process for the deposition of films. Zinc oxide is a low toxicity and environmentally friendly material, and it possesses properties such as semiconductivity, pyroelectricity and piezoelectricity without the poling process. Therefore, AD is used to accelerate the manufacturing process for applications of ZnO films in pyroelectric devices. Increasing the temperature variation rate in pyroelectric films is a useful method for enhancing the responsivity of pyroelectric devices. In the present study, a porous ZnO film possessing the properties of large heat absorption and high temperature variation rate is successfully produced by the AD rapid process and laser annealing for application in pyroelectric devices.

  8. Reflection on the Process of Open Sourcing Software Based on Ten Years of Development of RAPID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, C. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Yang, Z. L.; Habets, F.; Maidment, D.

    2015-12-01

    As the number and size of geoscience datasets persist in their constant rise, geoscientists increasingly express their yearning for further sharing of their data and software, and for facilitation of the associated academic credits. We present here our experience based on the open source development of an Earth System Model focusing on the propagation of water flow waves in large river networks: the Routing Application for Parallel computatIon of Discharge (RAPID). Since inception of RAPID ten years ago in January 2006, the community of its users has grown slowly but steadily, and now includes researchers in industry, academia, and government organizations. This growth of the RAPID users community can be explained - at least in part - by its open availability. However, despite an increasing support for open science (software and data), the mechanics of sharing still remain mysterious to many geoscientists… as they were for the authors. The purpose of this presentation is therefore to shed light on the steps involved in opening software and data based on a decade of experience related to the development and release of an Earth System Model. Three distinct steps of open sourcing are highlighted here: opening, exposing, and automatic testing. Each one of these steps is presented as an independent and tractable increment at various stages of development that is justified based on the size of the users community. Topics covered include software and data licenses, code and data repositories, unit testing, and continuous integration.

  9. Automatic processing of an orientation map into a finite element mesh that conforms to grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dancette, S.; Browet, A.; Martin, G.; Willemet, M.; Delannay, L.

    2016-06-01

    A new procedure for microstructure-based finite element modeling of polycrystalline aggregates is presented. The proposed method relies (i) on an efficient graph-based community detection algorithm for crystallographic data segmentation and feature contour extraction and (ii) on the generation of selectively refined meshes conforming to grain boundaries. It constitutes a versatile and close to automatic environment for meshing complex microstructures. The procedure is illustrated with polycrystal microstructures characterized by orientation imaging microscopy. Hot deformation of a Duplex stainless steel is investigated based on ex-situ EBSD measurements performed on the same region of interest before and after deformation. A finite element mesh representing the initial microstructure is generated and then used in a crystal plasticity simulation of the plane strain compression. Simulation results and experiments are in relatively good agreement, confirming a large potential for such directly coupled experimental and modeling analyses, which is facilitated by the present image-based meshing procedure.

  10. A Telesurveillance System With Automatic Electrocardiogram Interpretation Based on Support Vector Machine and Rule-Based Processing

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Miao; Lai, Feipei; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Hung, Chi-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Telehealth care is a global trend affecting clinical practice around the world. To mitigate the workload of health professionals and provide ubiquitous health care, a comprehensive surveillance system with value-added services based on information technologies must be established. Objective We conducted this study to describe our proposed telesurveillance system designed for monitoring and classifying electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and to evaluate the performance of ECG classification. Methods We established a telesurveillance system with an automatic ECG interpretation mechanism. The system included: (1) automatic ECG signal transmission via telecommunication, (2) ECG signal processing, including noise elimination, peak estimation, and feature extraction, (3) automatic ECG interpretation based on the support vector machine (SVM) classifier and rule-based processing, and (4) display of ECG signals and their analyzed results. We analyzed 213,420 ECG signals that were diagnosed by cardiologists as the gold standard to verify the classification performance. Results In the clinical ECG database from the Telehealth Center of the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH), the experimental results showed that the ECG classifier yielded a specificity value of 96.66% for normal rhythm detection, a sensitivity value of 98.50% for disease recognition, and an accuracy value of 81.17% for noise detection. For the detection performance of specific diseases, the recognition model mainly generated sensitivity values of 92.70% for atrial fibrillation, 89.10% for pacemaker rhythm, 88.60% for atrial premature contraction, 72.98% for T-wave inversion, 62.21% for atrial flutter, and 62.57% for first-degree atrioventricular block. Conclusions Through connected telehealth care devices, the telesurveillance system, and the automatic ECG interpretation system, this mechanism was intentionally designed for continuous decision-making support and is reliable enough to reduce the

  11. Input Control Processes in Rapid Serial Visual Presentations: Target Selection and Distractor Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Watson, Derrick G.

    2006-01-01

    The attentional blink refers to the finding that the 2nd of 2 targets embedded in a stream of rapidly presented distractors is often missed. Whereas most theories of the attentional blink focus on limited-capacity processes that occur after target selection, the present work investigates the selection process itself. Identifying a target letter…

  12. Automatic disease screening method using image processing for dried blood microfluidic drop stain pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Sikarwar, Basant S; Roy, Mukesh; Ranjan, Priya; Goyal, Ayush

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines programmed automatic recognition of infection from samples of dried stains of micro-scale drops of patient blood. This technique has the upside of being low-cost and less-intrusive and not requiring puncturing the patient with a needle for drawing blood, which is especially critical for infants and the matured. It also does not require expensive pathological blood test laboratory equipment. The method is shown in this work to be successful for ailment identification in patients suffering from tuberculosis and anaemia. Illness affects the physical properties of blood, which thus influence the samples of dried micro-scale blood drop stains. For instance, if a patient has a severe drop in platelet count, which is often the case of dengue or malaria patients, the blood's physical property of viscosity drops substantially, i.e. the blood is thinner. Thus, the blood micro-scale drop stain samples can be utilised for diagnosing maladies. This paper presents programmed automatic examination of the dried micro-scale drop blood stain designs utilising an algorithm based on pattern recognition. The samples of micro-scale blood drop stains of ordinary non-infected people are clearly recognisable as well as the samples of micro-scale blood drop stains of sick people, due to key distinguishing features. As a contextual analysis, the micro-scale blood drop stains of patients infected with tuberculosis have been contrasted with the micro-scale blood drop stains of typical normal healthy people. The paper dives into the fundamental flow mechanics behind how the samples of the dried micro-scale blood drop stain is shaped. What has been found is a thick ring like feature in the dried micro-scale blood drop stains of non-ailing people and thin shape like lines in the dried micro-scale blood drop stains of patients with anaemia or tuberculosis disease. The ring like feature at the periphery is caused by an outward stream conveying suspended particles to the edge

  13. [The development of the multifunctional automatic rotating bed with process-monitoring].

    PubMed

    Geng, Hongzhu; Hu, Monong; Cheng, Ping; Dong, Kejiang; Zhang, Jiaxia; Sun, Juefei

    2013-04-01

    We have developed a new rotating bed for the old and the paralised people. This rotating bed is composed of two bed heads at front and at end, bed boards, guardrails, an electric motor, a reducer, an induction locator and a set of electronic controls. With the preestablished program, the angle between the left/right bed board and the middle board is changed by rotating the left/right board around the rotation axis, and the gravity direction between the human body and the ground is changed by the rotation of the middle board as a whole, so that the middle bed board and the left and right ones will act respectively as supporters of weight of the person who is lying on his back or on his side. In this way, a person can turn over automatically, comfortably and naturally when he/she is asleep. This rotating bed meets the physiological needs of a sleeping person, and people with turning over problems can turn over in a comfortable and natural way by means of biotechnology. It can also improve the quality of sleep and help avoid decubitus. In addition, it can be used to promote the rehabilitation of those who are paralysed by reason of its passive exercising function.

  14. Electrophysiological Correlates of Rapid Auditory and Linguistic Processing in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Leonard, Laurence B.; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Brief tonal stimuli and spoken sentences were utilized to examine whether adolescents (aged 14;3-18;1) with specific language impairments (SLI) exhibit atypical neural activity for rapid auditory processing of non-linguistic stimuli and linguistic processing of verb-agreement and semantic constraints. Further, we examined whether the behavioral and electrophysiological indices for rapid auditory processing were correlated with those for linguistic processing. Fifteen adolescents with SLI and 15 adolescents with normal language met strict criteria for displaying consistent diagnoses from kindergarten through the eighth grade. The findings provide evidence that auditory processing for non-linguistic stimuli is atypical in a significant number of adolescents with SLI compared to peers with normal language and indicate that reduced efficiency in auditory processing in SLI is more vulnerable to rapid rates (200 ms ISI) of stimuli presentation (indexed by reduced accuracy, a tendency for longer RTs, reduced N100 over right anterior sites, and reduced amplitude P300). Many adolescents with SLI displayed reduced behavioral accuracy for detecting verb-agreement violations and semantic anomalies, along with less robust P600s elicited by verb-agreement violations. The results indicate that ERPs elicited by morphosyntactic aspects of language processing are atypical in many adolescents with SLI. Additionally, correlational analyses between behavioral and electrophysiological indices of processing non-linguistic stimuli and verb-agreement violations suggest that the integrity of neural functions for auditory processing may only account for a small proportion of the variance in morphosyntactic processing in some adolescents. PMID:20889197

  15. Does the learning of two symbolic sets of numbers affect the automaticity of number processing in children?

    PubMed

    Hochman Cohen, Hila; Berger, Andrea; Rubinsten, Orly; Henik, Avishai

    2014-05-01

    We explored the effects of learning two different symbolic sets of numerals (Arabic and Indian) on the development of automatic number processing. Children in the school we examined learn Indian numerals between first and third grades. In third grade, they switch to a new set of numerals (i.e., Arabic numbers). Participants in this study performed a numerical Stroop-like task in which they assessed the numerical value or physical size of stimuli varying along these two dimensions. Each participant saw either Arabic or Indian numerals. The results of the size congruity effect in the physical task, for both Indian and Arabic numerals, suggest that studying two sets of numerals interferes with the acquisition of an automatic association of a numerical symbol and magnitude. This is true both for the first learned set of numerals (i.e., Indian numerals) and for the second one (i.e., Arabic numerals). Furthermore, we found an absence of the distance effect, which further supports this conclusion. This learning program gave us the unique opportunity to examine the connection between symbolic sets and the mental representation of numbers in a novel fashion.

  16. Modulating rest-break length induces differential recruitment of automatic and controlled attentional processes upon task reengagement.

    PubMed

    Lim, Julian; Teng, James; Wong, Kian Foong; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-07-01

    Rest breaks are commonly administered as a countermeasure to reduce on-the-job fatigue, both physical and mental. However, this practice makes the assumption that recovery from fatigue, as measured by the reversal of performance declines, is the sole effect of taking a break on behavior. Here, through administering rest breaks of differing lengths in between blocks of a mentally demanding symbol decoding task, we show that this assumption may not be strictly true. First, we replicate previous work by showing that taking a longer break leads to two correlated effects: greater immediate rebound in performance, and greater subsequent time-on-task decline. Using fMRI, we reveal that time-on-task in this paradigm is associated with increasing recruitment of fronto-parietal areas associated with top-down control, and decreasing deactivation in the default-mode network. Finally, by analyzing individual differences, we reveal a potential neural basis for our behavioral observation: greater recovery following long breaks is associated with greater activity in the putamen, an area associated with the automatic generation of motor responses, followed by greater activity in left middle frontal gyrus by the end of those task periods. Taken together, this suggests a shift in the implicit engagement of automatic and controlled attentional processing following longer breaks. This shift may be undesirable or detrimental in real-world situations where maintaining a stable level of attention over time is necessary. PMID:27039697

  17. Etna_NETVIS: A dedicated tool for automatically pre-processing high frequency data useful to extract geometrical parameters and track the evolution of the lava field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsella, Maria; Junior Valentino D'Aranno, Peppe; De Bonis, Roberto; Nardinocchi, Carla; Scifoni, Silvia; Scutti, Marianna; Sonnessa, Alberico; Wahbeh, Wissam; Biale, Emilio; Coltelli, Mauro; Pecora, Emilio; Prestifilippo, Michele; Proietti, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    In volcanic areas, where it could be difficult to gain access to the most critical zones for carrying out direct surveys, digital photogrammetry techniques are rarely experimented, although in many cases they proved to have remarkable potentialities, as the possibility to follow the evolution of volcanic (fracturing, vent positions, lava fields, lava front positions) and deformation processes (inflation/deflation and instability phenomena induced by volcanic activity). These results can be obtained, in the framework of standard surveillance activities, by acquiring multi-temporal datasets including Digital Orthophotos (DO) and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to be used for implementing a quantitative and comparative analysis. The frequency of the surveys can be intensified during emergency phases to implement a quasi real-time monitoring for supporting civil protection actions. The high level of accuracy and the short time required for image processing make digital photogrammetry a suitable tool for controlling the evolution of volcanic processes which are usually characterized by large and rapid mass displacements. In order to optimize and extend the existing permanent ground NEtwork of Thermal and VIsible Sensors located on Mt. Etna (Etna_NETVIS) and to improve the observation of the most active areas, an approach for monitoring surface sin-eruptive processes was implemented. A dedicated tool for automatically pre-processing high frequency data, useful to extract geometrical parameters as well as to track the evolution of the lava field, was developed and tested both in simulated and real scenarios. The tool allows to extract a coherent multi-temporal dataset of orthophotos useful to evaluate active flow area and to estimate effusion rates. Furthermore, Etna_NETVIS data were used to downscale the information derived from satellite data and/or to integrate the satellite datasets in case of incomplete coverage or missing acquisitions. This work was developed in the

  18. Rapid fingerprinting of milk thermal processing history by intact protein mass spectrometry with nondenaturing chromatography.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Phil; Philo, Mark; Watson, Andrew; Mills, E N Clare

    2011-12-14

    Thermal processing of foods results in proteins undergoing conformational changes, aggregation, and chemical modification notably with sugars via the Maillard reaction. This can impact their functional, nutritional, and allergenic properties. Native size-exclusion chromatography with online electrospray mass spectrometry (SEC-ESI-MS) was used to characterize processing-induced changes in milk proteins in a range of milk products. Milk products could be readily grouped into either pasteurized liquid milks, heavily processed milks, or milk powders by SEC behavior, particularly by aggregation of whey proteins by thermal processing. Maillard modification of all major milk proteins by lactose was observed by MS and was primarily present in milk powders. The method developed is a rapid tool for fingerprinting the processing history of milk and has potential as a quality control method for food ingredient manufacture. The method described here can profile milk protein oligomeric state, aggregation, and Maillard modification in a single shot, rapid analysis. PMID:22007861

  19. Parkinson's disease disrupts both automatic and controlled processing of action verbs.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Conant, Lisa L; Binder, Jeffrey R; Blindauer, Karen; Hiner, Bradley; Spangler, Katie; Desai, Rutvik H

    2013-10-01

    The problem of how word meaning is processed in the brain has been a topic of intense investigation in cognitive neuroscience. While considerable correlational evidence exists for the involvement of sensory-motor systems in conceptual processing, it is still unclear whether they play a causal role. We investigated this issue by comparing the performance of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with that of age-matched controls when processing action and abstract verbs. To examine the effects of task demands, we used tasks in which semantic demands were either implicit (lexical decision and priming) or explicit (semantic similarity judgment). In both tasks, PD patients' performance was selectively impaired for action verbs (relative to controls), indicating that the motor system plays a more central role in the processing of action verbs than in the processing of abstract verbs. These results argue for a causal role of sensory-motor systems in semantic processing.

  20. Parkinson's disease disrupts both automatic and controlled processing of action verbs.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Conant, Lisa L; Binder, Jeffrey R; Blindauer, Karen; Hiner, Bradley; Spangler, Katie; Desai, Rutvik H

    2013-10-01

    The problem of how word meaning is processed in the brain has been a topic of intense investigation in cognitive neuroscience. While considerable correlational evidence exists for the involvement of sensory-motor systems in conceptual processing, it is still unclear whether they play a causal role. We investigated this issue by comparing the performance of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with that of age-matched controls when processing action and abstract verbs. To examine the effects of task demands, we used tasks in which semantic demands were either implicit (lexical decision and priming) or explicit (semantic similarity judgment). In both tasks, PD patients' performance was selectively impaired for action verbs (relative to controls), indicating that the motor system plays a more central role in the processing of action verbs than in the processing of abstract verbs. These results argue for a causal role of sensory-motor systems in semantic processing. PMID:22910144

  1. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  2. Facilitating goal-oriented behaviour in the Stroop task: when executive control is influenced by automatic processing.

    PubMed

    Parris, Benjamin A; Bate, Sarah; Brown, Scott D; Hodgson, Timothy L

    2012-01-01

    A portion of Stroop interference is thought to arise from a failure to maintain goal-oriented behaviour (or goal neglect). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether goal- relevant primes could enhance goal maintenance and reduce the Stroop interference effect. Here it is shown that primes related to the goal of responding quickly in the Stroop task (e.g. fast, quick, hurry) substantially reduced Stroop interference by reducing reaction times to incongruent trials but increasing reaction times to congruent and neutral trials. No effects of the primes were observed on errors. The effects on incongruent, congruent and neutral trials are explained in terms of the influence of the primes on goal maintenance. The results show that goal priming can facilitate goal-oriented behaviour and indicate that automatic processing can modulate executive control.

  3. The effects of total sleep deprivation on semantic priming: event-related potential evidence for automatic and controlled processing strategies.

    PubMed

    López Zunini, Rocío; Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Campbell, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    There is general consensus that performance on a number of cognitive tasks deteriorates following total sleep deprivation. At times, however, subjects manage to maintain performance. This may be because of an ability to switch cognitive strategies including the exertion of compensatory effort. The present study examines the effects of total sleep deprivation on a semantic word priming task. Word priming is unique because it can be carried out using different strategies involving either automatic, effortless or controlled, effortful processing. Twelve subjects were presented with word pairs, a prime and a target, that were either highly semantically associated (cat…dog), weakly associated (cow…barn) or unassociated (apple…road). In order to increase the probability of the use of controlled processing following normal sleep, the subject's task was to determine if the target word was semantically related to the prime. Furthermore, the time between the offset of the prime and the onset of the target was relatively long, permitting the use of an effortful, expectancy-predictive strategy. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 64 electrode sites. After normal sleep, RTs were faster and accuracy higher to highly associated targets; this performance advantage was also maintained following sleep deprivation. A large negative deflection, the N400, was larger to weakly associated and unassociated targets in both sleep-deprived and normal conditions. The overall N400 was however larger in the normal sleep condition. Moreover, a long-lasting negative slow wave developed between the offset of the prime and the onset of the target. These physiological measures are consistent with the use of an effortful, predictive strategy following normal sleep but an automatic, effortless strategy following total sleep deprivation. A picture priming task was also run. This task benefits less from the use of a predictive strategy. Accordingly, in this task, ERPs following the

  4. A Five-Year Plan for Meeting the Automatic Data Processing and Telecommunications Needs of the Federal Government. Volume l: Planning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.

    The first of two volumes, this document describes the planning process of a 5-year plan for meeting the telecommunications and automatic data processing (ADP) needs of the federal government, examines the planning efforts of several typical agencies, and explores issues involved in managing new technology as it evolves. For each agency,…

  5. A fully automatic processing chain to produce Burn Scar Mapping products, using the full Landsat archive over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontoes, Charalampos; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Herekakis, Themistoklis; Michail, Dimitrios; Ieronymidi, Emmanuela

    2013-04-01

    Remote sensing tools for the accurate, robust and timely assessment of the damages inflicted by forest wildfires provide information that is of paramount importance to public environmental agencies and related stakeholders before, during and after the crisis. The Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing of the National Observatory of Athens (IAASARS/NOA) has developed a fully automatic single and/or multi date processing chain that takes as input archived Landsat 4, 5 or 7 raw images and produces precise diachronic burnt area polygons and damage assessments over the Greek territory. The methodology consists of three fully automatic stages: 1) the pre-processing stage where the metadata of the raw images are extracted, followed by the application of the LEDAPS software platform for calibration and mask production and the Automated Precise Orthorectification Package, developed by NASA, for image geo-registration and orthorectification, 2) the core-BSM (Burn Scar Mapping) processing stage which incorporates a published classification algorithm based on a series of physical indexes, the application of two filters for noise removal using graph-based techniques and the grouping of pixels classified as burnt to form the appropriate pixels clusters before proceeding to conversion from raster to vector, and 3) the post-processing stage where the products are thematically refined and enriched using auxiliary GIS layers (underlying land cover/use, administrative boundaries, etc.) and human logic/evidence to suppress false alarms and omission errors. The established processing chain has been successfully applied to the entire archive of Landsat imagery over Greece spanning from 1984 to 2012, which has been collected and managed in IAASARS/NOA. The number of full Landsat frames that were subject of process in the framework of the study was 415. These burn scar mapping products are generated for the first time to such a temporal and spatial

  6. Directional Effects between Rapid Auditory Processing and Phonological Awareness in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erin Phinney; Pennington, Bruce F.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Boada, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Deficient rapid auditory processing (RAP) has been associated with early language impairment and dyslexia. Using an auditory masking paradigm, children with language disabilities perform selectively worse than controls at detecting a tone in a backward masking (BM) condition (tone followed by white noise) compared to a forward masking…

  7. The Data-to-Action Framework: A Rapid Program Improvement Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakocs, Ronda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn; Freire, Kimberley E.

    2015-01-01

    Although health education programs may benefit from quality improvement methods, scant resources exist to help practitioners apply these methods for program improvement. The purpose of this article is to describe the Data-to-Action framework, a process that guides practitioners through rapid-feedback cycles in order to generate actionable data to…

  8. Involvement of the anterior cingulate and frontoinsular cortices in rapid processing of salient facial emotional information

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jin; Gu, Xiaosi; Liu, Xun; Guise, Kevin G.; Park, Yunsoo; Martin, Laura; de Marchena, Ashley; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Minzenberg, Michael J.; Hof, Patrick R.

    2010-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and frontoinsular cortex (FI) have been implicated in processing information across a variety of domains, including those related to attention and emotion. However, their role in rapid information processing, for example, as required for timely processing of salient stimuli, is not well understood. Here, we designed an emotional face priming paradigm and employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to elucidate their role in these mechanisms. Target faces with either neutral or fearful emotion were briefly primed by either neutral or fearful faces, or by blank ovals. Activation in the pregenual ACC and the FI, together with other regions, such as the amygdala, were preferentially activated in response to fearful face priming, suggesting that these regions are involved in the rapid processing of salient facial emotional information. PMID:20937394

  9. ERP and Adaptive Autoregressive identification with spectral power decomposition to study rapid auditory processing in infants.

    PubMed

    Piazza, C; Cantiani, C; Tacchino, G; Molteni, M; Reni, G; Bianchi, A M

    2014-01-01

    The ability to process rapidly-occurring auditory stimuli plays an important role in the mechanisms of language acquisition. For this reason, the research community has begun to investigate infant auditory processing, particularly using the Event Related Potentials (ERP) technique. In this paper we approach this issue by means of time domain and time-frequency domain analysis. For the latter, we propose the use of Adaptive Autoregressive (AAR) identification with spectral power decomposition. Results show EEG delta-theta oscillation enhancement related to the processing of acoustic frequency and duration changes, suggesting that, as expected, power modulation encodes rapid auditory processing (RAP) in infants and that the time-frequency analysis method proposed is able to identify this modulation.

  10. Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE) acquisition plan for the medical sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An effective mechanism for meeting the SLSD/MSD data handling/processing requirements for Shuttle is discussed. The ability to meet these requirements depends upon the availability of a general purpose high speed digital computer system. This system is expected to implement those data base management and processing functions required across all SLSD/MSD programs during training, laboratory operations/analysis, simulations, mission operations, and post mission analysis/reporting.

  11. Rapid thermal processing of Czochralski silicon substrates: Defects, denuded zones, and minority carrier lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozgonyi, G. S.; Yang, D. K.; Cao, Y. H.; Radzimski, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) of Czochralski (Cz) silicon substrates is discussed with its attendant effects on defects, denuded zones, and minority carrier lifetime. Preferential chemical etching and X-ray topography was used to delineate defects which were subsequently correlated with minority carrier lifetime; determined by a pulse metallo-organic decompositon (MOD) test device. The X-ray delineation of grown-in defects was enhanced by a lithium decoration procedure. Results, thus far, show excellent correlation between process-induced defects.

  12. The role of rapid solidification processing in the fabrication of fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, Ivan E.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced composite processing techniques for fiber reinforced metal matrix composites require the flexibility to meet several widespread objectives. The development of uniquely desired matrix microstructures and uniformly arrayed fiber spacing with sufficient bonding between fiber and matrix to transmit load between them without degradation to the fiber or matrix are the minimum requirements necessary of any fabrication process. For most applications these criteria can be met by fabricating composite monotapes which are then consolidated into composite panels or more complicated components such as fiber reinforced turbine blades. Regardless of the end component, composite monotapes are the building blocks from which near net shape composite structures can be formed. The most common methods for forming composite monotapes are the powder cloth, foil/fiber, plasma spray, and arc spray processes. These practices, however, employ rapid solidification techniques in processing of the composite matrix phase. Consequently, rapid solidification processes play a vital and yet generally overlooked role in composite fabrication. The future potential of rapid solidification processing is discussed.

  13. Automatic Number Processing Independent of Language and Notation in Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorova, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Numbers are ubiquitous in life. At the same time, the symbols for numbers are highly abstract and their visual appearance does not carry any direct relation to their magnitude. This poses an important question for researchers interested in how numbers are mentally processed. Whereas research on numeric cognition suggests that culturally based…

  14. Operational SAR Data Processing in GIS Environments for Rapid Disaster Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meroni, A.; Bahr, T.

    2013-05-01

    Having access to SAR data can be highly important and critical especially for disaster mapping. Updating a GIS with contemporary information from SAR data allows to deliver a reliable set of geospatial information to advance civilian operations, e.g. search and rescue missions. Therefore, we present in this paper the operational processing of SAR data within a GIS environment for rapid disaster mapping. This is exemplified by the November 2010 flash flood in the Veneto region, Italy. A series of COSMO-SkyMed acquisitions was processed in ArcGIS® using a single-sensor, multi-mode, multi-temporal approach. The relevant processing steps were combined using the ArcGIS ModelBuilder to create a new model for rapid disaster mapping in ArcGIS, which can be accessed both via a desktop and a server environment.

  15. Reduction of chromium in Ni-base superalloys through element substitution and rapid solidification processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, H. D.; Muddl, B. C.

    1982-01-01

    The reduction in the use of Cr in Ni base superalloys by the combined approaches of both elemental substitution and rapid solidification processing is studied. The elements Si, Zr, Y and Hf were chosen as potential partial substitutes for Cr in Waspaloy and IN 713LC sine their separate addition to other alloys has previously resulted in enhanced oxidation resistance. The roles of Cr and these replacement elements in determining the microstructure and properties are evaluated. The elements Si, Zr, and Y and Hf are used as partial replacements for Cr in the base superalloys and these resultant alloys are processed using rapid solidification techniques. The mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of the processed materials are evaluated. The microstructure is characterized using state of the art techniques (e.g. analytical transmission electron microscopy), and the mechanism by which these structures are produced is determined.

  16. Properties of Nb3Al Wires Processed by Double Rapid Heating and Quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Kikuchi, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Banno, N.; Iijima, Y.; Nimori, S.; Takigawa, H.; Yoshida, M.; Tomita, K.; Kato, S.; Takao, T.; Nakamoto, T.; Nakagawa, K.

    We have been developing Nb3Al wires processed by rapid heating and quenching for a number of years as promising candidates for use in future high-field accelerator magnets. These wires have better strain and stress tolerances than Nb3Sn wires do, but to meet the demands of future accelerator magnet designs, it is necessary to further improve their performance. In particular,it is necessary to increase their non-copper critical current density in 12-20T fields. To pursue this goal, we introduced double rapid heating and quenching (DRHQ) treatment into the fabrication process for Nb3Al wires, and studied the mechanical and superconducting properties of the resulting DRHQ-processed wires.

  17. Rapid prototyping of biodegradable microneedle arrays by integrating CO2 laser processing and polymer molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, K. T.; Chung, C. K.

    2016-06-01

    An integrated technology of CO2 laser processing and polymer molding has been demonstrated for the rapid prototyping of biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microneedle arrays. Rapid and low-cost CO2 laser processing was used for the fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio microneedle master mold instead of conventional time-consuming and expensive photolithography and etching processes. It is crucial to use flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to detach PLGA. However, the direct CO2 laser-ablated PDMS could generate poor surfaces with bulges, scorches, re-solidification and shrinkage. Here, we have combined the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ablation and two-step PDMS casting process to form a PDMS female microneedle mold to eliminate the problem of direct ablation. A self-assembled monolayer polyethylene glycol was coated to prevent stiction between the two PDMS layers during the peeling-off step in the PDMS-to-PDMS replication. Then the PLGA microneedle array was successfully released by bending the second-cast PDMS mold with flexibility and hydrophobic property. The depth of the polymer microneedles can range from hundreds of micrometers to millimeters. It is linked to the PMMA pattern profile and can be adjusted by CO2 laser power and scanning speed. The proposed integration process is maskless, simple and low-cost for rapid prototyping with a reusable mold.

  18. The Herschel PACS Pipeline Extensions: Making Tasks and Scripts Suitable for Interactive and Automatic Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, J. A.; Wieprecht, E.; Schreiber, J.; Huygen, R.; Wetzstein, M.; Royer, P.; Vandenbussche, B.; Exter, K.; Vavrek, R.; Gonzalez, B.; Diaz, J.; Bakker, J.; Sturm, E.

    2012-09-01

    We present some extensions which were added to the Herschel Common Software System (HCSS) for processing and analyzing observations of the PACS instrument (Poglitsch et al. 2010) on the Herschel Space Observatory (Pilbratt et al. 2010). PACS users and developers worked closely together to improve the user experience when interactively analyzing observations, in such a way that user friendly scripts can be shared with the pipeline for systematic processing. In this way we can easily keep the pipeline up-to-date with user contributed improvements. The most important goals of these improvements are: (1) Hide all the administrative work done in pipeline tasks (such as handling meta data) from the user; (2) Make sure that all tasks can be run step-by-step, even if loops over several products are needed (such loops are all hidden inside the pipeline tasks); (3) Provide convenience tools to deal with observations which are split into many parts (which we call slices).

  19. Automatic Event Detection in Noisy Environment for Material Process Monitoring by Laser AE Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, K.; Kuriki, H.; Araki, H.; Kuroda, S.; Enoki, M.

    2014-06-01

    Laser acoustic emission (AE) method is a unique in-situ and non-contact nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method. It has a capability to detect signals generated from crack generation and propagation, friction and other physical phenomena in materials even in high temperature environment. However, laser AE system has lower signal-to-noise ratio compared to the conventional AE system using PZT sensors, so it is difficult to apply this method in noisy environment. A novel AE measurement system to detect events in such difficult environments was developed. This system could continuously record all AE waveforms and enable unrestricted post-analyses. Noise reduction filters in frequency domain coupling with a new AE event extraction using multiple threshold values showed a good potential for AE signal processing. This system was successfully applied for crack monitoring of plasma spray deposition process of ceramic coating.

  20. Process monitoring using automatic physical measurement based on electrical and physical variability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shauly, Eitan N.; Levi, Shimon; Schwarzband, Ishai; Adan, Ofer; Latinsky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    A fully automated silicon-based methodology for systematic analysis of electrical features is shown. The system was developed for process monitoring and electrical variability reduction. A mapping step was created by dedicated structures such as static-random-access-memory (SRAM) array or standard cell library, or by using a simple design rule checking run-set. The resulting database was then used as an input for choosing locations for critical dimension scanning electron microscope images and for specific layout parameter extraction then was input to SPICE compact modeling simulation. Based on the experimental data, we identified two items that must be checked and monitored using the method described here: transistor's sensitivity to the distance between the poly end cap and edge of active area (AA) due to AA rounding, and SRAM leakage due to a too close N-well to P-well. Based on this example, for process monitoring and variability analyses, we extensively used this method to analyze transistor gates having different shapes. In addition, analysis for a large area of high density standard cell library was done. Another set of monitoring focused on a high density SRAM array is also presented. These examples provided information on the poly and AA layers, using transistor parameters such as leakage current and drive current. We successfully define "robust" and "less-robust" transistor configurations included in the library and identified unsymmetrical transistors in the SRAM bit-cells. These data were compared to data extracted from the same devices at the end of the line. Another set of analyses was done to samples after Cu M1 etch. Process monitoring information on M1 enclosed contact was extracted based on contact resistance as a feedback. Guidelines for the optimal M1 space for different layout configurations were also extracted. All these data showed the successful in-field implementation of our methodology as a useful process monitoring method.

  1. Automatic Defect Detection for TFT-LCD Array Process Using Quasiconformal Kernel Support Vector Data Description

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi-Hung; Chen, Yan-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Defect detection has been considered an efficient way to increase the yield rate of panels in thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) manufacturing. In this study we focus on the array process since it is the first and key process in TFT-LCD manufacturing. Various defects occur in the array process, and some of them could cause great damage to the LCD panels. Thus, how to design a method that can robustly detect defects from the images captured from the surface of LCD panels has become crucial. Previously, support vector data description (SVDD) has been successfully applied to LCD defect detection. However, its generalization performance is limited. In this paper, we propose a novel one-class machine learning method, called quasiconformal kernel SVDD (QK-SVDD) to address this issue. The QK-SVDD can significantly improve generalization performance of the traditional SVDD by introducing the quasiconformal transformation into a predefined kernel. Experimental results, carried out on real LCD images provided by an LCD manufacturer in Taiwan, indicate that the proposed QK-SVDD not only obtains a high defect detection rate of 96%, but also greatly improves generalization performance of SVDD. The improvement has shown to be over 30%. In addition, results also show that the QK-SVDD defect detector is able to accomplish the task of defect detection on an LCD image within 60 ms. PMID:22016625

  2. Automatic processing of grammar in the human brain as revealed by the mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury

    2003-09-01

    The Mismatch Negativity (MMN), a neurophysiological indicator of cognitive processing, was used to investigate grammatical processes in the absence of focused attention to language. Subjects instructed to watch a silent video film and to ignore speech stimuli heard grammatical and ungrammatical spoken word strings that were physically identical up to a divergence point where they differed between each other by a minimal acoustic event, the presence or the absence of a final -s sound. The sentence we come was presented as a rare deviant stimulus against the background of frequently occurring ungrammatical strings, and, in a different experiment, the ungrammatical string *we comes was the deviant in the reverse design. To control for effects related to differences between the critical words, come and comes, control conditions were used in which the same words were presented out of linguistic context. At 100-150 ms after the divergence point, the ungrammatical deviant stimulus elicited a larger MMN than the correct sentence at left-anterior recording sites. This difference was not seen under the out-of-context conditions. In the time range 100-400 ms after stimulus divergence, a spatiotemporal pattern of grammatically related effects was documented by statistically significant interactions of the word and context variables. Minimum-Norm Current Estimates of the cortical sources of the grammaticality effects revealed a main source in the left frontal cortex. We use a neurobiological model of serial order processing to provide a tentative explanation for the data. PMID:14527578

  3. Reduced capacity in automatic processing of facial expression in restrictive anorexia nervosa and obesity.

    PubMed

    Cserjési, Renáta; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Lénárd, László; Luminet, Olivier

    2011-07-30

    There is growing evidence that disordered eating is associated with facial expression recognition and emotion processing problems. In this study, we investigated the question of whether anorexia and obesity occur on a continuum of attention bias towards negative facial expressions in comparison with healthy individuals of normal weight. Thirty-three patients with restrictive anorexia nervosa (AN-R), 30 patients with obesity (OB) and 63 healthy age and social-economic status matched controls were recruited. Our results indicated that AN-R patients were more attentive to angry faces and had difficulties in being attentive to positive expressions, whilst OB patients had problems in looking for or being attentive to negative expressions independently of self-reported depression and anxiety. Our findings did not support the idea that AN-R and OB occur on a continuum. We found that AN-R was associated with a reduced capacity in positive facial expression processing, whereas OB was associated with a reduced capacity in negative facial expressions processing. The social relevance of our findings and a possible explanation based upon neuroscience are discussed.

  4. The Data-to-Action Framework: A Rapid Program Improvement Process.

    PubMed

    Zakocs, Ronda; Hill, Jessica A; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn; Freire, Kimberley E

    2015-08-01

    Although health education programs may benefit from quality improvement methods, scant resources exist to help practitioners apply these methods for program improvement. The purpose of this article is to describe the Data-to-Action framework, a process that guides practitioners through rapid-feedback cycles in order to generate actionable data to improve implementation of ongoing programs. The framework was designed while implementing DELTA PREP, a 3-year project aimed at building the primary prevention capacities of statewide domestic violence coalitions. The authors describe the framework's main steps and provide a case example of a rapid-feedback cycle and several examples of rapid-feedback memos produced during the project period. The authors also discuss implications for health education evaluation and practice.

  5. The Data-to-Action Framework: A Rapid Program Improvement Process.

    PubMed

    Zakocs, Ronda; Hill, Jessica A; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn; Freire, Kimberley E

    2015-08-01

    Although health education programs may benefit from quality improvement methods, scant resources exist to help practitioners apply these methods for program improvement. The purpose of this article is to describe the Data-to-Action framework, a process that guides practitioners through rapid-feedback cycles in order to generate actionable data to improve implementation of ongoing programs. The framework was designed while implementing DELTA PREP, a 3-year project aimed at building the primary prevention capacities of statewide domestic violence coalitions. The authors describe the framework's main steps and provide a case example of a rapid-feedback cycle and several examples of rapid-feedback memos produced during the project period. The authors also discuss implications for health education evaluation and practice. PMID:26245935

  6. Automatic Short Essay Scoring Using Natural Language Processing to Extract Semantic Information in the Form of Propositions. CRESST Report 831

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre; Mousavi, Hamid; Iseli, Markus R.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core assessments emphasize short essay constructed-response items over multiple-choice items because they are more precise measures of understanding. However, such items are too costly and time consuming to be used in national assessments unless a way to score them automatically can be found. Current automatic essay-scoring techniques…

  7. RapidSeis: Enabling User-Defined Seismological Waveform Data Processing over the Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Heath, Andy; Koestjer, Jos; Trani, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this JISC-funded pilot project was to remove perceived barriers to uptake of an application that performs analysis of seismic waveform data. The aim was to provide the seismological community with a simplified system that overcame important barriers such as installation and understanding of the analysis package, location and transfer of large amounts of input data and visualisation of results. The project combined the expertise of three distinct teams. The Orfeus Data Centre provided discovery services and access management to distributed earthquake waveform data and metadata, supported by technologies such as webservices, SPARQL/RDF and a JSR-168 portal framework based on the WSRP portlet architecture. Analysis and visualisation of the waveform data were performed by SDX (Seismic Data eXplorer) developed at the University of Liverpool. SDX formed the core processing engine - this application's functionality can be extended via user-defined algorithms coded as plugins. The processing engine was supported by several webservice-enabled modules used for data and plugin exchange. The user, data and processing infrastructure were connected using the Rapid framework created by the UK National e-Science Centre. Rapid generates intuitive interfaces to the processing core in the form of two self-contained JSR-168 remote portlets. One portlet facilitated plugin creation, whilst the other allowed execution of plugin code within the processing core running on a campus or national Grid infrastructure. The RapidSeis system was deployed within a community gateway: the NERIES web portal. Although RapidSeis originated within the seismological community we suggest it forms a framework which could be exploited in different domains or scientific gateways where users can discover data, store data within a cart and wish to apply specialised processing algorithms remotely through a web browser. Processing performed on Grid infrastructure is completely transparent: the

  8. Rapid Fabrication of Lightweight SiC Optics using Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiske, Peter S.

    2006-01-01

    Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) processing is a non-contact, plasma-based processing technology that can be used to generate damage-free optical surfaces. We have developed tools and processes using RAP that allow us to shape extremely lightweight mirror Surfaces made from extremely hard-to-machine materials (e.g. SiC). We will describe our latest results using RAP in combination with other technologies to produce finished lightweight SiC mirrors and also discuss applications for RAP in the rapid fabrication of mirror segments for reflective and grazing incidence telescopes.

  9. Automatic Synthesis of UML Designs from Requirements in an Iterative Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Whittle, Jon; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is gaining wide popularity for the design of object-oriented systems. UML combines various object-oriented graphical design notations under one common framework. A major factor for the broad acceptance of UML is that it can be conveniently used in a highly iterative, Use Case (or scenario-based) process (although the process is not a part of UML). Here, the (pre-) requirements for the software are specified rather informally as Use Cases and a set of scenarios. A scenario can be seen as an individual trace of a software artifact. Besides first sketches of a class diagram to illustrate the static system breakdown, scenarios are a favorite way of communication with the customer, because scenarios describe concrete interactions between entities and are thus easy to understand. Scenarios with a high level of detail are often expressed as sequence diagrams. Later in the design and implementation stage (elaboration and implementation phases), a design of the system's behavior is often developed as a set of statecharts. From there (and the full-fledged class diagram), actual code development is started. Current commercial UML tools support this phase by providing code generators for class diagrams and statecharts. In practice, it can be observed that the transition from requirements to design to code is a highly iterative process. In this talk, a set of algorithms is presented which perform reasonable synthesis and transformations between different UML notations (sequence diagrams, Object Constraint Language (OCL) constraints, statecharts). More specifically, we will discuss the following transformations: Statechart synthesis, introduction of hierarchy, consistency of modifications, and "design-debugging".

  10. Overview of the SOFIA Data Processing System: A generalized system for manual and automatic data processing at the SOFIA Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuping, Ralph; Krzaczek, Robert; Vacca, William D.; Charcos-Llorens, Miguel; Reach, William T.; Alles, Rosemary; Clarke, Melanie; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Radomski, James T.; Shenoy, Sachindev S.; Sandel, David; Omelian, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne astronomical observatory comprised of a 2.5-meter telescope mounted in the aft section of a Boeing 747SP aircraft. SOFIA is designed to execute observations at altitudes between 37,000 and 45,00 feet, above 99% of atmospheric water vapor. During routine operations, several instruments will be available to the astronomical community including cameras and spectrographs in the near- to far-IR. Raw data obtained in-flight require a significant amount of processing to correct for background emission (from both the telescope and atmosphere), remove instrumental artifacts, correct for atmospheric absorption, and apply both wavelength and flux calibration. In general, this processing is highly specific to the instrument and telescope. Once this post-processing is complete, the data can be used in scientific analysis and publications. In order to maximize the scientific output of the observatory, the SOFIA Science Center must provide these post-processed data sets to Guest Investigators in a timely manner. To meet this requirement, we have designed and built the SOFIA Data Processing System (DPS): an in-house set of tools and services that can be used in both automatic ("pipeline") and manual modes to process data from a variety of instruments. In this poster paper, we present an overview of the DPS concepts and architecture, as well as operational results from the first two SOFIA observing cycles (2013--2014).

  11. Rapid solidification processing of iron-base alloys for structural applications

    SciTech Connect

    Flinn, J.E.

    1991-09-01

    The response of iron-base alloys to rapid solidification is reviewed with an emphasis on the effects of processing on the microstructure and mechanical property behavior. The processing topics addressed are powder atomization, powder consolidation, joining, and thermal-mechanical exposure. The value of rapid solidification processing (RSP) lies in the ability to promote compositional homogeneity and retention of fine and stable (to high temperatures) microstructures. Achieving the maximum benefit from RSP requires proper application of the basic principles of composition control and rapid crystallization. This investigation has disclosed two very important facets of the RSP approach that can be applied using current technologies. Dissociated oxygen appears to play a significant role in stabilizing microstructural features. In conjunction with oxygen, vacancies trapped during crystallization provide a very stable matrix dispersion for enhanced strengthening. With a fundamental understanding of the response of iron-base alloys to RSP, alloys can be designed that will have substantially better properties and performance than their conventionally processed counterparts. 77 refs., 94 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. A cell-free expression and purification process for rapid production of protein biologics.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Challise J; Pendleton, Erik D; Sasmor, Henri H; Hicks, William L; Farnum, John B; Muto, Machiko; Amendt, Eric M; Schoborg, Jennifer A; Martin, Rey W; Clark, Lauren G; Anderson, Mark J; Choudhury, Alaksh; Fior, Raffaella; Lo, Yu-Hwa; Griffey, Richard H; Chappell, Stephen A; Jewett, Michael C; Mauro, Vincent P; Dresios, John

    2016-02-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis has emerged as a powerful technology for rapid and efficient protein production. Cell-free methods are also amenable to automation and such systems have been extensively used for high-throughput protein production and screening; however, current fluidic systems are not adequate for manufacturing protein biopharmaceuticals. In this work, we report on the initial development of a fluidic process for rapid end-to-end production of recombinant protein biologics. This process incorporates a bioreactor module that can be used with eukaryotic or prokaryotic lysates that are programmed for combined transcription/translation of an engineered DNA template encoding for specific protein targets. Purification of the cell-free expressed product occurs through a series of protein separation modules that are configurable for process-specific isolation of different proteins. Using this approach, we demonstrate production of two bioactive human protein therapeutics, erythropoietin and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in yeast and bacterial extracts, respectively, each within 24 hours. This process is flexible, scalable and amenable to automation for rapid production at the point-of-need of proteins with significant pharmaceutical, medical, or biotechnological value.

  13. (13)C-detected NMR experiments for automatic resonance assignment of IDPs and multiple-fixing SMFT processing.

    PubMed

    Dziekański, Paweł; Grudziąż, Katarzyna; Jarvoll, Patrik; Koźmiński, Wiktor; Zawadzka-Kazimierczuk, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) have recently attracted much interest, due to their role in many biological processes, including signaling and regulation mechanisms. High-dimensional (13)C direct-detected NMR experiments have proven exceptionally useful in case of IDPs, providing spectra with superior peak dispersion. Here, two such novel experiments recorded with non-uniform sampling are introduced, these are 5D HabCabCO(CA)NCO and 5D HNCO(CA)NCO. Together with the 4D (HACA)CON(CA)NCO, an extension of the previously published 3D experiments (Pantoja-Uceda and Santoro in J Biomol NMR 59:43-50, 2014. doi: 10.1007/s10858-014-9827-1), they form a set allowing for complete and reliable resonance assignment of difficult IDPs. The processing is performed with sparse multidimensional Fourier transform based on the concept of restricting (fixing) some of spectral dimensions to a priori known resonance frequencies. In our study, a multiple-fixing method was developed, that allows easy access to spectral data. The experiments were tested on a resolution-demanding alpha-synuclein sample. Due to superior peak dispersion in high-dimensional spectrum and availability of the sequential connectivities between four consecutive residues, the overwhelming majority of resonances could be assigned automatically using the TSAR program. PMID:25902761

  14. Three stages of emotional word processing: an ERP study with rapid serial visual presentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dandan; He, Weiqi; Wang, Ting; Luo, Wenbo; Zhu, Xiangru; Gu, Ruolei; Li, Hong; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2014-12-01

    Rapid responses to emotional words play a crucial role in social communication. This study employed event-related potentials to examine the time course of neural dynamics involved in emotional word processing. Participants performed a dual-target task in which positive, negative and neutral adjectives were rapidly presented. The early occipital P1 was found larger when elicited by negative words, indicating that the first stage of emotional word processing mainly differentiates between non-threatening and potentially threatening information. The N170 and the early posterior negativity were larger for positive and negative words, reflecting the emotional/non-emotional discrimination stage of word processing. The late positive component not only distinguished emotional words from neutral words, but also differentiated between positive and negative words. This represents the third stage of emotional word processing, the emotion separation. Present results indicated that, similar with the three-stage model of facial expression processing; the neural processing of emotional words can also be divided into three stages. These findings prompt us to believe that the nature of emotion can be analyzed by the brain independent of stimulus type, and that the three-stage scheme may be a common model for emotional information processing in the context of limited attentional resources.

  15. AUTOMATIC MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, M.L.; Tabor, C.D. Jr.

    1961-12-01

    A mass spectrometer for analyzing the components of a gas is designed which is capable of continuous automatic operation such as analysis of samples of process gas from a continuous production system where the gas content may be changing. (AEC)

  16. 76 FR 47216 - Expediting Research Tools to NIH Licensees Through the Use of Pay.gov for Rapid Processing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... of Pay.gov for Rapid Processing of Royalty Payments AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public... tools through the use of Pay.gov for rapid processing of their royalty payments. SUPPLEMENTARY... payment site within Pay.gov expedites processing times for shipment of their research tools licensed...

  17. Effect of Back Contact and Rapid Thermal Processing Conditions on Flexible CdTe Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Meysing, D. M.; Rance, Will L.; Burst, James M.; Reese, Matthew O.; Wolden, C. A.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Garner, S.; Barnes, Teresa M.

    2015-06-14

    Flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates can enable new applications that require high specific power, unique form-factors, and low manufacturing costs. To be successful, these cells must be cost competitive, have high efficiency, and have high reliability. Here we present back contact processing conditions that enabled us to achieve over 16% efficiency on flexible Corning (R) Willow (R) Glass substrates. We used co-evaporated ZnTe:Cu and Au as our back contact and used rapid thermal processing (RTP) to activate the back contact. Both the ZnTe to Cu ratio and the RTP activation temperature provide independent control over the device performance. We have investigated the influence of various RTP conditions to Cu activation and distribution. Current density-voltage, capacitance-voltage measurements along with device simulations were used to examine the device performance in terms of ZnTe to Cu ratio and rapid thermal activation temperature.

  18. Numerical stability analysis of submerged slopes subject to rapid sedimentation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Prisco, Claudio; Mancinelli, Luca; Zanelotti, Letizia; Pisanò, Federico

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the stability of infinitely long submerged slopes subject to rapid sedimentation processes is theoretically/numerically investigated. In particular, rapid deposition is considered as a potential triggering factor for static liquefaction in inclined loose sand layers. The corresponding initial boundary value problem is numerically analysed by employing a one-dimensional finite difference scheme in conjunction with two distinct versions of the same constitutive model—elasto-plastic and elasto-viscoplastic (EV). The EV approach is shown to be the most suitable for describing the onset of liquefaction phenomena, since its mathematical well-posedness and numerical stability are never lost. The results of parametric analyses for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous strata are critically discussed in the light of some case history data concerning natural and anthropic sedimentation processes.

  19. Knowledge-based visual image processing IDE model for algorithm and system rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Biyin; Chen, Wei; Wang, Yuanbin

    2009-10-01

    A novel intelligent model for Image Processing (IP) research integrated development environment (IDE) is presented for rapid converting conceptual model of IP algorithm into computational model and program implementation. Considering psychology of IP and computer programming, this model presents a cycle model of IP research process and establishes an improved expert system prototype. Visualization approaches are introduced into visualizing three phases of IP development. An intelligent methodology is applied to reuse algorithms, graphical user interfaces (GUI) and data visualizing tools. Thus, researchers are allowed to fix more attention only on their own interest algorithm models. Experimental results show that the development based the new model enhances rapid algorithm prototype modeling with great efficiency and speed.

  20. Overview of the SOFIA Data Processing System: A Generalized System for Manual and Automatic Data Processing at the SOFIA Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuping, R. Y.; Krzaczek, R.; Vacca, W. D.; Charcos-Llorens, M.; Reach, W. T.; Alles, R.; Clarke, M.; Melchiorri, R.; Radomski, J.; Shenoy, S.; Sandel, D.; Omelian, E. B.

    2015-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne astronomical observatory comprised of a 2.5-meter telescope mounted in the aft section of a Boeing 747SP aircraft. During routine operations, several instruments will be available to the astronomical community including cameras and spectrographs in the near- to far-IR. Raw data obtained in-flight require a significant amount of processing to correct for background emission (from both the telescope and atmosphere), remove instrumental artifacts, correct for atmospheric absorption, and apply both wavelength and flux calibration. In general, this processing is highly specific to the instrument and telescope. In order to maximize the scientific output of the observatory, the SOFIA Science Center must provide these post-processed data sets to Guest Investigators in a timely manner. To meet this requirement, we have designed and built the SOFIA Data Processing System (DPS): an in-house set of tools and services that can be used in both automatic (“pipeline”) and manual modes to process data from a variety of instruments. Here we present an overview of the DPS concepts and architecture, as well as operational results from the first two SOFIA observing cycles (2013-2014).

  1. Development of Rapid Temporal Processing and Its Impact on Literacy Skills in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbrink, Claudia; Zimmer, Karin; Lachmann, Thomas; Dirichs, Martin; Kammer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In a longitudinal study, auditory and visual temporal order thresholds (TOTs) were investigated in primary school children (N = 236; mean age at first data point = 6;7) at the beginning of Grade 1 and the end of Grade 2 to test whether rapid temporal processing abilities predict reading and spelling at the end of Grades 1 and 2. Auditory and…

  2. Novel developments in rapid thermal processing (RTP) temperature measurement and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, B. E.; Hunter, A. M.

    2013-09-01

    Since the development of integrated circuits in the 1960's, the semiconductor industry has continued to see the reduction of transistor size in accordance with Moore's law. Rapid thermal processing (RTP) has been an enabling technology for the continued evolution of these ultra-small devices. As thermal budgets have progressively dropped, equipment manufacturers have greatly increased the thermal ramp rates and reduced temperatures for many key processes. Lamp heated technology has developed sub-second dwell times and laser based systems have reduced processing time to milliseconds and shorter. This paper will highlight the key development in RTP temperature measurement and control for two distinct applications. The first is the development of temperature measurements of laser heated substrates. The work will discuss the unique challenges and requirements in this rapidly expanding processing space. These challenges arise from the very high background radiation from the laser sources, the extremely short dwell times, and the high processing temperatures. The second area under discussion is a solution to very low temperature silicon processes-primarily driven by Ni and NiPt silicides that have constrained thermal budgets, thus requiring high ramp rates and short dwell times, but in temperatures below the fundamental limits of standard radiation pyrometry. In particular, this work describes a novel system capable of measuring temperature down to room temperature in a state of the art RTP system.

  3. Reduced Sensory Oscillatory Activity during Rapid Auditory Processing as a Correlate of Language-Learning Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Sabine; Friedman, Jennifer Thomas; Keil, Andreas; Benasich, April A.

    2010-01-01

    Successful language acquisition has been hypothesized to involve the ability to integrate rapidly presented, brief acoustic cues in sensory cortex. A body of work has suggested that this ability is compromised in language-learning impairment (LLI). The present research aimed to examine sensory integration during rapid auditory processing by means of electrophysiological measures of oscillatory brain activity using data from a larger longitudinal study. Twenty-nine children with LLI and control participants with typical language development (n=18) listened to tone doublets presented at a temporal interval that is essential for accurate speech processing (70-ms interstimulus interval). The children performed a deviant (pitch change of second tone) detection task, or listened passively. The electroencephalogram was recorded from 64 electrodes. Data were source-projected to the auditory cortices and submitted to wavelet analysis, resulting in time-frequency representations of electrocortical activity. Results show significantly reduced amplitude and phase-locking of early (45–75 ms) oscillations in the gamma-band range (29–52 Hz), specifically in the LLI group, for the second stimulus of the tone doublet. This suggests altered temporal organization of sensory oscillatory activity in LLI when processing rapid sequences. PMID:21822356

  4. Thin film poly-crystalline silicon fabrication based on Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jun; Li, Jirong; Liao, Yang; Shi, Weimin; Kuang, Huahui; Ming, Xiuchun; Liu, Jin; Jin, Jing; Qin, Juan

    2013-12-01

    Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) process was introduced to the experiment of Aluminum-induced crystallization of a-Si, based on sputtering method, on low cost glass substrate. A stack of glass/Al (150 nm)/Si (220 nm) was deposited by sputtering sequentially. Samples were annealed under RTA process, then annealed in the tube annealing furnace at 400 °C for 5 h. The grain crystallization was inspected by optical microscopy (OM), ,Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD),and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The preferential orientation (111) was observed, with a Raman Peak at 520.8cm-1, Different annealing periods were discussed.

  5. Is VIRTU4L larger than VIR7UAL? Automatic processing of number quantity and lexical representations in leet words.

    PubMed

    García-Orza, Javier; Comesaña, Montserrat; Piñeiro, Ana; Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Recent research has shown that leet words (i.e., words in which some of the letters are replaced by visually similar digits; e.g., VIRTU4L) can be processed as their base words without much cost. However, it remains unclear whether the digits inserted in leet words are simply processed as letters or whether they are simultaneously processed as numbers (i.e., in terms of access to their quantity representation). To address this question, we conducted 2 experiments that examined the size congruity effect (i.e., when comparisons of the physical size of numbers are affected by their numerical magnitudes) in a physical-size judgment task. Participants were presented with pairs of leet words that were nominally identical except for the embedded digit (e.g., VIR7UAL-VIRTU4L) and were asked to decide as quickly and accurately as possible which word in the pair appeared in a bigger font. In Experiment 1, we examined the congruity effect (congruent: VIRTU4L-VIR7UAL vs. incongruent: VIR7UAL-VIRTU4L vs. neutral: VIR7UAL-VIR7UAL) and the numerical distance effect (distance 1: PAN3L-P4NEL vs. distance 3: VIRTU4L-VIR7UAL). To examine whether the meaning of these words was accessed, we also manipulated word frequency (i.e., a marker of lexical access) in Experiment 2. Results revealed effects of congruity, distance, and word frequency, thus suggesting automatic access to both number quantity and word representations for leet words. These findings favor multidimensional accounts of number/word recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. The MODIS Rapid Response Project: Near-Real-Time Processing for Fire Monitoring and Other Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descloitres, J.; Justice, C.; Sohlberg, R.; Giglio, L.; Schmaltz, J.; Seaton, J.; Davies, D.; Anyamba, A.; Hansen, M.; Carroll, M.; Sullivan, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board the Terra and Aqua satellites offers an unprecedented combination of daily spatial coverage, spatial resolution, and spectral characteristics. These capabilities make MODIS ideal to observe a variety of rapid events: active fires, floods, smoke transport, dust storms, severe storms, iceberg calving, and volcanic eruptions. The MODIS Rapid Response System (http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov) was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a rapid response to those events, with initial emphasis on active fire detection and 250m-resolution imagery. MODIS data for most of the Earth's land surface is processed just a few hours after data acquisition. A collaboration between NASA, the University of Maryland and the U.S.D.A. Forest Service has been developed to provide fire information derived from MODIS to federal fire managers. Active fire locations in the conterminous United States are produced by the MODIS Rapid Response System and communicated to the Forest Service within a few minutes of production. The MODIS Rapid Response processing was also adapted to Direct Broadcast to reduce the product turn-around to just minutes after data acquisition regionally. MODIS active fire locations are used by the Forest Service to generate regional fire maps over the United States, updated twice daily and provided to the fire managers to help them allocate firefighting resources. Active fire locations are also distributed in near-real-time to the Global Observation of Forest Cover (G.O.F.C.) user community through a web interface integrating MODIS active fire locations and Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) datasets. The suite of MODIS rapid fire products is currently being complemented with a Smoke Index product and a Burned Area product that will represent two new key tools available to the fire community. Finally a new collaboration with the U.S.D.A. Foreign Agricultural Service was

  7. The August December 2000 earthquake swarm in NW Bohemia: the first results based on automatic processing of seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Tomáš

    2003-03-01

    Main features of the August-December 2000 earthquake swarm which occurred in the major focal area of the North-West Bohemia / Vogtland swarm region are presented. Seismograms from four stations of WEBNET were automatically processed to get arrival times, first motion amplitudes and hypocentre coordinates of a representative set of events. Altogether 7017 microearthquakes in the magnitude range of ML=0-3.3 were identified. It is shown the decay of activity of individual swarm phases followed the modified Omori law, which points to a partial similarity with aftershock sequences of tectonic earthquakes. The space-time distribution of a subset of 2913 events with low location residuals shows a strong space clustering of the earthquake hypocentres and their pronounced migration between individual swarm phases. Most of the activity took place along an elliptical, nearly vertically dipping, 6 km long N-S oriented fault plane in depths ranging from 10.5 to 6.5 km. The P and T axes were estimated by FOCMEC for the 782 strong events and three groups of earthquakes with similar faulting type were distinguished. In contrast to the normal and strike-slip faulting events that created the prevailing portion of the swarm and were distributed uniformly within the focal area, the reverse events were clustered in time and space.

  8. Image processing based automatic diagnosis of glaucoma using wavelet features of segmented optic disc from fundus image.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anushikha; Dutta, Malay Kishore; ParthaSarathi, M; Uher, Vaclav; Burget, Radim

    2016-02-01

    Glaucoma is a disease of the retina which is one of the most common causes of permanent blindness worldwide. This paper presents an automatic image processing based method for glaucoma diagnosis from the digital fundus image. In this paper wavelet feature extraction has been followed by optimized genetic feature selection combined with several learning algorithms and various parameter settings. Unlike the existing research works where the features are considered from the complete fundus or a sub image of the fundus, this work is based on feature extraction from the segmented and blood vessel removed optic disc to improve the accuracy of identification. The experimental results presented in this paper indicate that the wavelet features of the segmented optic disc image are clinically more significant in comparison to features of the whole or sub fundus image in the detection of glaucoma from fundus image. Accuracy of glaucoma identification achieved in this work is 94.7% and a comparison with existing methods of glaucoma detection from fundus image indicates that the proposed approach has improved accuracy of classification.

  9. Rapid evolution of redox processes in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Lovley, D.R.; O'Neill, K.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water chemistry data collected over a six-year period show that the distribution of contaminants and redox processes in a shallow petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer has changed rapidly over time. Shortly after a gasoline release occurred in 1990, high concentrations of benzene were present near the contaminant source area. In this contaminated zone, dissolved oxygen in ground water was depleted, and by 1994 Fe(III) reduction and sulfate reduction were the predominant terminal electron accepting processes. Significantly, dissolved methane was below measurable levels in 1994, indicating the absence of significant methanogenesis. By 1996, however, depletion of solid-phase Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides in aquifer sediments and depletion of dissolved sulfate in ground water resulted in the onset of methanogenesis. Between 1996 and 2000, water-chemistry data indicated that methanogenic metabolism became increasingly prevalent. Molecular analysis of 16S-rDNA extracted from sediments shows the presence of a more diverse methanogenic community inside as opposed to outside the plume core, and is consistent with water-chemistry data indicating a shift toward methanogenesis over time. This rapid evolution of redox processes reflects several factors including the large amounts of contaminants, relatively rapid ground water flow (???0.3 m/day [???1 foot/day]), and low concentrations of microbially reducible Fe(III) oxyhydroxides (???1 ??mol/g) initially present in aquifer sediments. These results illustrate that, under certain hydrologic conditions, redox conditions in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can change rapidly in time and space, and that the availability of solid-phase Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides affects this rate of change.

  10. Development of Automatic and Speeded Reading of Printed Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Colette C.; Manis, Franklin R.

    1987-01-01

    Results of two studies of elementary school and college students indicate that the processes of automaticity and speed in recognizing the meanings of familiar printed words take slightly different developmental courses. However, the most rapid changes in both measures occur prior to second grade. (PCB)

  11. Rapid Intelligent Inspection Process Definition for dimensional measurement in advanced manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.W.

    1993-03-01

    The Rapid Intelligent Inspection Process Definition (RIIPD) project is an industry-led effort to advance computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) systems for the creation and modification of inspection process definitions. The RIIPD project will define, design, develop, and demonstrate an automated tool (i.e., software) to generate inspection process plans and coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection programs, as well as produce support information for the dimensional measurement of piece parts. The goal of this project is to make the inspection and part verification function, specifically CMM measurements, a more effective production support tool by reducing inspection process definition flowtime, creating consistent and standard inspections, increasing confidence of measurement results, and capturing inspection expertise. This objective is accomplished through importing STEP geometry definitions, applying solid modeling, incorporating explicit tolerance representations, establishing dimensional inspection,techniques, embedding artificial intelligence techniques, and adhering to the Dimensional Measuring Interface Standard (DMIS) national standard.

  12. Rapid processing of urine specimens by urine screening and the AutoMicrobic system.

    PubMed Central

    Wadke, M; McDonnell, C; Ashton, J K

    1982-01-01

    A total of 1,500 clean-voided urine specimens were analyzed for the presence of bacteria by urine screening with the Autobac 1 system. The specimens found positive by this method were further processed on the same day for identification and for antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the AutoMicrobic system with the Enterobacteriaceae-plus Card and the General Susceptibility Card, respectively. The inocula for these tests were prepared from the centrifuged and washed growth in the eugonic broth aspirated from the Autobac cuvette chambers. Of 1,500 specimens that were analyzed, 183 contained single isolates of gram-negative bacilli. The results of these rapid procedures were compared with results for the same organisms isolated from urine specimens cultured by the conventional method. The data showed 92.3% agreement for identification and a correlation of 93.6% for antibiotic susceptibility between the two procedures. It is concluded that gram-negative bacilli can be rapidly identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility with a high degree of accuracy from the centrifuged eugonic broth after urine screening. These findings also suggest that the AutoMicrobic system provides a rapid and convenient method for same-day processing of positive urine cultures when combined with the urine screening procedure. PMID:6759524

  13. Product Development and its Comparative Analysis by SLA, SLS and FDM Rapid Prototyping Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhari, C. M.; Patil, V. D.

    2016-09-01

    To grab market and meeting deadlines has increased the scope of new methods in product design and development. Industries continuously strive to optimize the development cycles with high quality and cost efficient products to maintain market competitiveness. Thus the need of Rapid Prototyping Techniques (RPT) has started to play pivotal role in rapid product development cycle for complex product. Dimensional accuracy and surface finish are the corner stone of Rapid Prototyping (RP) especially if they are used for mould development. The paper deals with the development of part made with the help of Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Stereo-lithography (SLA) and Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) processes to benchmark and investigate on various parameters like material shrinkage rate, dimensional accuracy, time, cost and surface finish. This helps to conclude which processes can be proved to be effective and efficient in mould development. In this research work the emphasis was also given to the design stage of a product development to obtain an optimum design solution for an existing product.

  14. Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M.; Rebello, N. Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants’ attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants’ verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers’ attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions. PMID:25324804

  15. Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams.

    PubMed

    Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M; Rebello, N Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants' attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants' verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers' attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions.

  16. Rapid preparation process of antiparkinsonian drug Mucuna pruriens silver nanoparticle by bioreduction and their characterization

    PubMed Central

    Arulkumar, Subramanian; Sabesan, Muthukumaran

    2010-01-01

    Backgorund: Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is evolving an important branch of nanotechnology. Methods: The bioreduction behavior of plant seed extract of Mucuna pruriens in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated employing UV/visible spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform – infra red (FT- IR). Result: M. pruriens was found to exhibit strong potential for rapid reduction of silver ions. The formation of nanoparticles by this method is extremely rapid, requires no toxic chemicals, and the nanoparticles are stable for several months. Conclusion: The main conclusion is that the bioreduction method to produce nanoparticles is a good alternative to the electrochemical methods and it is expected to be biocompatible. PMID:21808573

  17. Consequences of a simulated rapid ocean acidification event for benthic ecosystem processes and functions.

    PubMed

    Murray, Fiona; Widdicombe, Stephen; McNeill, C Louise; Solan, Martin

    2013-08-30

    Whilst the biological consequences of long-term, gradual changes in acidity associated with the oceanic uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are increasingly studied, the potential effects of rapid acidification associated with a failure of sub-seabed carbon storage infrastructure have received less attention. This study investigates the effects of severe short-term (8days) exposure to acidified seawater on infaunal mediation of ecosystem processes (bioirrigation and sediment particle redistribution) and functioning (nutrient concentrations). Following acidification, individuals of Amphiura filiformis exhibited emergent behaviour typical of a stress response, which resulted in altered bioturbation, but limited changes in nutrient cycling. Under acidified conditions, A. filiformis moved to shallower depths within the sediment and the variability in occupancy depth reduced considerably. This study indicated that rapid acidification events may not be lethal to benthic invertebrates, but may result in behavioural changes that could have longer-term implications for species survival, ecosystem structure and functioning.

  18. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes.

    PubMed

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690

  19. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes.

    PubMed

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field.

  20. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes

    PubMed Central

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C.; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690

  1. Rapid Automated Dissolution and Analysis Techniques for Radionuclides in Recycle Process Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Sudowe, Ralf; Roman, Audrey; Dailey, Ashlee; Go, Elaine

    2013-07-18

    The analysis of process samples for radionuclide content is an important part of current procedures for material balance and accountancy in the different process streams of a recycling plant. The destructive sample analysis techniques currently available necessitate a significant amount of time. It is therefore desirable to develop new sample analysis procedures that allow for a quick turnaround time and increased sample throughput with a minimum of deviation between samples. In particular, new capabilities for rapid sample dissolution and radiochemical separation are required. Most of the radioanalytical techniques currently employed for sample analysis are based on manual laboratory procedures. Such procedures are time- and labor-intensive, and not well suited for situations in which a rapid sample analysis is required and/or large number of samples need to be analyzed. To address this issue we are currently investigating radiochemical separation methods based on extraction chromatography that have been specifically optimized for the analysis of process stream samples. The influence of potential interferences present in the process samples as well as mass loading, flow rate and resin performance is being studied. In addition, the potential to automate these procedures utilizing a robotic platform is evaluated. Initial studies have been carried out using the commercially available DGA resin. This resin shows an affinity for Am, Pu, U, and Th and is also exhibiting signs of a possible synergistic effects in the presence of iron.

  2. Paraglacial processes during rapid deglaciation: a question of time and space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Denis

    2013-04-01

    The paraglacial period is characterized by high rates of sediment delivery from slopes and into fluvial systems. This period of rapid response is triggered by the instability of unconsolidated glacigenic sediments and over steepened rock slopes, which have been debuttressed. In theory, the paraglacial period ends once sediment yields drop to rates typical of unglaciated catchments. Due to rapid climatic change, paraglacial processes occurred at a short time scale interval in glaciated margin areas all around the world, but especially in Arctic environments. Based on our own researches in Svalbard and Iceland and on literature review, we propose a lecture of two main paraglacial processes occurred during rapid deglaciation in previously glaciated areas: paraglacial denudation and paraglacial redistribution processes. (i) Paraglacial denudation processes are responsible of rock slope failures (such as sackungs, rock avalanches and various other landslide types…). Examples from north Iceland mass movements could be enlighten this question for the last deglaciation period and the beginning of the Holocene. (ii) Paraglacial of sediment redistribution processes could explain alluvial fans, terraces, valley-train deposits, outwash plains or "sandurs" with outburst floods or "jökulhlaups", coastal deposits… Examples from Svalbard and Iceland could be illustrated the question of time and space scales (i) gullying on freshly exposed moraines; (ii) sediments fluxes from source (glacier margin) to sink (fjord) and progradation of sandy coasts. Finally, the question of time scale for paraglacial processes depend of several internal and external parameters. First at all, paraglacial processes were controlled by ice melting and were dependent upon the presence of ice and, at another scale, upon the temporary abundance of glacially formed debris. In a time scale point of view, paraglacial processes were only a temporary condition and, paraglacial features themselves were

  3. Automatic and Flexible

    PubMed Central

    Hassin, Ran R.; Bargh, John A.; Zimerman, Shira

    2008-01-01

    Arguing from the nature of goal pursuit and from the economy of mental resources this paper suggests that automatic goal pursuit, much like its controlled counterpart, may be flexible. Two studies that employ goal priming procedures examine this hypothesis using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Study 1) and a variation of the Iowa Gambling Task (Study 2). Implications of the results for our understanding of the dichotomy between automatic and controlled processes in general, and for our conception of automatic goal pursuit in particular, are discussed. PMID:19325712

  4. Automatic Inspection In Industry Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Richard A.

    1989-02-01

    With increasing competition in the manufacturing industries product quality is becoming even more important. The shortcomings of human inspectors in many applications are well know, however, the eye/brain combination is very powerful and difficult to replace. At best, any system only simulates a small subset of the human's operations. The economic justification for installing automatic inspection is often difficult without previous applications experience. It therefore calls for confidence and long-term vision by those making the decisions. Over the last ten years the use of such systems has increased as the technology involved has matured and the risks have diminished. There is now a complete spectrum of industrial applications from simple, low-cost systems using standard sensors and computer hardware to the higher cost, custom-designed systems using novel sensors and processing hardware. The underlying growth in enabling technology has been in many areas; sensors and sensing techniques, signal processing and data processing have all moved forward rapidly. This paper will examine the currrent state of automatic inspection and look to the future. The use of expert systems is an obvious candidate. Parallel processing, giving massive increases in the speed of data reduction, is also likely to play a major role in future systems.

  5. Automatic Inspection In Industry Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Richard A.

    1989-03-01

    With increasing competition in the manufacturing industries product quality is becoming even more important. The shortcomings of human inspectors in many applications are well know, however, the eye/brain combination is very powerful and difficult to replace. At best, any system only simulates a small subset of the human's operations. The economic justification for installing automatic inspection is often difficult without previous applications experience. It therefore calls for confidence and long-term vision by those making the decisions. Over the last ten years the use of such systems has increased as the technology involved has matured and the risks have diminished. There is now a complete spectrum of industrial applications from simple, low-cost systems using standard sensors and computer hardware to the higher cost, custom-designed systems using novel sensors and processing hardware. The underlying growth in enabling technology has been in many areas; sensors and sensing techniques, signal processing and data processing have all moved forward rapidly. This paper will examine the currrent state of automatic inspection and look to the future. The use of expert systems is an obvious candidate. Parallel processing, giving massive increases in the speed of data reduction, is also likely to play a major role in future systems.

  6. Investigation of rapidly solidified aluminum by using diamond turning and a magnetorheological finishing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Abou-El-Hossein, Khaled; Otieno, Timothy

    2015-08-01

    The metal mirror has been widely used in optical application for a longtime. Especially the aluminum 6061 is often considered the preferred material for manufacturing optical components for ground-based astronomical applications. One reason for using this material is its high specific stiffness and excellent thermal properties. However, a large amount of data exists for this material and commercially available aluminum 6061 using single point diamond turning (SPDT) and polishing process can achieve surface roughness values of approximately 2 to 4 nm, which is adequate for applications that involve the infrared spectral range, but not for the shorter spectral range. A novel aluminum material, fabricated using a rapid solidification process that is equivalent to the conventional aluminum 6061 alloy grade has been used in optical applications in recent years because of its smaller grain size. In this study, the surface quality of the rapid solidification aluminum after single point diamond turning and followed by magnetorheological finish (MRF) process is investigated and compared with conventional aluminum 6061. Both the surface roughness Ra was evaluated using white light interferometers. Finally, indicators such as optimal fabrication parameter combination and optical performance are discussed.

  7. High-temperature microstructural stability in iron- and nickel-base alloys from rapid solidification processing

    SciTech Connect

    Flinn, J.E. ); Bae, J.C.; Kelly, T.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The properties and performance of metallic alloys for heat resistant applications depend on the fineness, homogeneity, and stability of their microstructures, particularly after high temperature exposures. Potential advantages of rapid solidification processing (RSP) of alloys for such applications are the homogeneity in composition and fine microstructural features derived from the nature of the RSP process. The main RSP product form is powder, is which obtained by atomizing a narrow melt stream into fine molten droplets. Rapid cooling of the droplets is typically achieved through convective cooling with noble gases such as argon or helium. Consolidation of RSP powder, either using near-net-shape methods or into forms that can be converted to final product shapes, requires exposures to fairly high temperatures, usually 900 to 1200{degrees}C for iron- and nickel-base alloys. Full consolidation, i.e., complete densification with accompanying particle bonding, usually requires pressure or stress assistance. Consolidation, as well as any subsequent thermal-mechanical processing, may affect the chemical homogeneity and fine microstructures. A study has been performed on a series of RSP iron- and nickel-base alloys. The results of microstructure examinations and mechanical properties tests of the consolidated powders, and their correlation, will be covered in this paper. 14 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Rapid dune changes associated with overwash processes on the deltaic coast of South Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritchie, W.; Penland, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Caminada-Moreau barrier headland of South Louisiana is a low-profile beach and dune coastline that is transgressing rapidly over the surfaces of the abandoned Lafourche delta complex. With the passage of cold fronts (10-30 times per year) and hurricanes (once every 4 yrs), overwash events occur year round with varying degrees of frequency, intensity and geomorphological modification. This coastline consists of washover and dune surfaces that respond rapidly to overwash impact. The fine sand stored in washover deposits is easily reworked by aeolian processes into a variety of dune forms in the shore-zone that are vegetated rapidly. Geomorphological changes vary according to the position, ground elevation, and surface stability of the dunes. Independent factors are overwash surge elevations, beach gradient and the presence of pre-existing landforms. For ten years detailed surveys supplemented by aerial photographs and videotape surveys have recorded these changes. The analysis of these information sources provides insight into both the general evolution of this distinctive coastline and also the geomorphological interaction of dunes, beaches and washover deposits in different physiographic settings. ?? 1988.

  9. Rapid tooling for functional prototyping of metal mold processes: Literature review on cast tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, M.D.; Hochanadel, P.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report is a literature review on cast tooling with the general focus on AISI H13 tool steel. The review includes processing of both wrought and cast H13 steel along with the accompanying microstructures. Also included is the incorporation of new rapid prototyping technologies, such as Stereolithography and Selective Laser Sintering, into the investment casting of tool steel. The limiting property of using wrought or cast tool steel for die casting is heat checking. Heat checking is addressed in terms of testing procedures, theories regarding the mechanism, and microstructural aspects related to the cracking.

  10. The mathematical modeling of rapid solidification processing. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez-Miravete, E.

    1986-01-01

    The detailed formulation of and the results obtained from a continuum mechanics-based mathematical model of the planar flow melt spinning (PFMS) rapid solidification system are presented and discussed. The numerical algorithm proposed is capable of computing the cooling and freezing rates as well as the fluid flow and capillary phenomena which take place inside the molten puddle formed in the PFMS process. The FORTRAN listings of some of the most useful computer programs and a collection of appendices describing the basic equations used for the modeling are included.

  11. Reaction time and rapid serial processing measures of information processing speed in multiple sclerosis: complexity, compounding, and augmentation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Abbey J; Denney, Douglas R; Lynch, Sharon G

    2011-11-01

    Information processing speed is frequently cited as the primary cognitive domain impacted by multiple sclerosis (MS) and is usually evaluated with reaction time (RT) or rapid serial processing (RSP) measures. The present study compared the efficacy of RT and RSP measures to distinguish between patients with MS (N = 42) and healthy controls (N = 40). The RT measure was patterned after the Computerized Tests of Information Processing and included measures of simple, choice, and semantic RT. The RSP measures consisted of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and the Stroop Test. Substantial differences in information processing speed between patients and controls were found on all tests, with slightly larger effect sizes for RSP measures than RT measures and for the SDMT than the Stroop Test. Binary logistic regression analyses showed RSP measures performed better than RT measures at distinguishing patients from controls, and likewise, the SDMT score performed better than the scores derived from the Stroop Test. Results are discussed in the context of three effects associated with common measures of processing speed: complexity, compounding, and augmentation. PMID:22040901

  12. Cognitive Predictors of Rapid Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Englund, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in rapid automatized naming (RAN) have been found to be a sensitive cognitive marker for children with dyslexia. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the construct validity and theoretical neuro-cognitive processes involved in RAN. Additionally, most studies investigating RAN include a narrow range of cognitive measures. The…

  13. Emotional Noun Processing: An ERP Study with Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Shengnan; He, Weiqi; Zhan, Lei; Qi, Zhengyang; Zhu, Chuanlin; Luo, Wenbo; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Reading is an important part of our daily life, and rapid responses to emotional words have received a great deal of research interest. Our study employed rapid serial visual presentation to detect the time course of emotional noun processing using event-related potentials. We performed a dual-task experiment, where subjects were required to judge whether a given number was odd or even, and the category into which each emotional noun fit. In terms of P1, we found that there was no negativity bias for emotional nouns. However, emotional nouns elicited larger amplitudes in the N170 component in the left hemisphere than did neutral nouns. This finding indicated that in later processing stages, emotional words can be discriminated from neutral words. Furthermore, positive, negative, and neutral words were different from each other in the late positive complex, indicating that in the third stage, even different emotions can be discerned. Thus, our results indicate that in a three-stage model the latter two stages are more stable and universal. PMID:25738633

  14. Triggering HIV polyprotein processing by light using rapid photodegradation of a tight-binding protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Schimer, Jiří; Pávová, Marcela; Anders, Maria; Pachl, Petr; Šácha, Pavel; Cígler, Petr; Weber, Jan; Majer, Pavel; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Müller, Barbara; Konvalinka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    HIV protease (PR) is required for proteolytic maturation in the late phase of HIV replication and represents a prime therapeutic target. The regulation and kinetics of viral polyprotein processing and maturation are currently not understood in detail. Here we design, synthesize, validate and apply a potent, photodegradable HIV PR inhibitor to achieve synchronized induction of proteolysis. The compound exhibits subnanomolar inhibition in vitro. Its photolabile moiety is released on light irradiation, reducing the inhibitory potential by 4 orders of magnitude. We determine the structure of the PR-inhibitor complex, analyze its photolytic products, and show that the enzymatic activity of inhibited PR can be fully restored on inhibitor photolysis. We also demonstrate that proteolysis of immature HIV particles produced in the presence of the inhibitor can be rapidly triggered by light enabling thus to analyze the timing, regulation and spatial requirements of viral processing in real time. PMID:25751579

  15. Combustion synthesis process for the rapid preparation of high-purity SrO powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados-Correa, Francisco; Bonifacio-Martínez, Juan

    2014-12-01

    A rapid, safe and simple technique for the production of high purity strontium oxide powders via a chemical combustion process is reported. The combustion reactions were performed to optimize the fuel to oxidizer ratios in the reaction mixtures required to obtain pure SrO powders by varying the molar ratio of chemical precursors and the temperature. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and N2-physisorption measurements. The results indicate that crystalline SrO was obtained using a 1:1 strontium nitrate: urea molar ratio at 1000 °C after 5 minutes. In addition, high-purity, homogeneous and crystalline SrO powders were easily produced in a short time via a chemical combustion process.

  16. Characterization and Calibration of Lightpipe Radiation Thermometers for Use in Rapid Thermal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, B. K.; DeWitt, D. P.

    2003-09-01

    Lightpipe radiation thermometers (LPRTs) are the sensor of choice for temperature measurements in Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) applications. At the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), we have developed protocols for calibrating and characterizing LPRTs for use in RTP and other applications. In this paper, the LPRTs and the sodium heat pipe blackbody (Na-HPBB) used in the calibration process at NIST will be introduced. The calibration and characterization methods (spatial response, spectral response, temporal response, and optical inspection) of the LPRTs will be described also. Finally, a discussion of the application of LPRTs in an environment outside of the calibration laboratory, along with a list of recommendations for proper use of LPRTs, will be presented.

  17. Rapid assessment of anisotropic surface processes: experiments on the corrosion of Inconel 600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, Christopher A.; Anderson, Kelly; Orme, Christine

    2003-10-01

    We present a general experimental method for rapid characterization of surface processes on crystals of many orientations. By correlating maps of crystallographic orientation (obtained by electron backscatter diffraction methods) with those of surface topography (obtained by atomic force microscopy), we illustrate how a surface property can be elucidated on many off-principle crystal surfaces from a single polycrystalline specimen. For the corrosion of Inconel 600 in a dilute aqueous solution of HCl, we find that corrosion rates scale with the deviation angle of the surface normal from an ideal <1 1 1> direction. The use of atomic force microscopy can also provide mechanistic details about the surface process in question. For Inconel 600, we correlate the surface oxide morphology directly to the orientation of the underlying crystal.

  18. Rapid processing of PET list-mode data for efficient uncertainty estimation and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, P. J.; Thielemans, K.; Schott, J. M.; Atkinson, D.; Arridge, S. R.; Hutton, B. F.; Ourselin, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this technical note we propose a rapid and scalable software solution for the processing of PET list-mode data, which allows the efficient integration of list mode data processing into the workflow of image reconstruction and analysis. All processing is performed on the graphics processing unit (GPU), making use of streamed and concurrent kernel execution together with data transfers between disk and CPU memory as well as CPU and GPU memory. This approach leads to fast generation of multiple bootstrap realisations, and when combined with fast image reconstruction and analysis, it enables assessment of uncertainties of any image statistic and of any component of the image generation process (e.g. random correction, image processing) within reasonable time frames (e.g. within five minutes per realisation). This is of particular value when handling complex chains of image generation and processing. The software outputs the following: (1) estimate of expected random event data for noise reduction; (2) dynamic prompt and random sinograms of span-1 and span-11 and (3) variance estimates based on multiple bootstrap realisations of (1) and (2) assuming reasonable count levels for acceptable accuracy. In addition, the software produces statistics and visualisations for immediate quality control and crude motion detection, such as: (1) count rate curves; (2) centre of mass plots of the radiodistribution for motion detection; (3) video of dynamic projection views for fast visual list-mode skimming and inspection; (4) full normalisation factor sinograms. To demonstrate the software, we present an example of the above processing for fast uncertainty estimation of regional SUVR (standard uptake value ratio) calculation for a single PET scan of 18F-florbetapir using the Siemens Biograph mMR scanner.

  19. Rapid processing of PET list-mode data for efficient uncertainty estimation and data analysis.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, P J; Thielemans, K; Schott, J M; Atkinson, D; Arridge, S R; Hutton, B F; Ourselin, S

    2016-07-01

    In this technical note we propose a rapid and scalable software solution for the processing of PET list-mode data, which allows the efficient integration of list mode data processing into the workflow of image reconstruction and analysis. All processing is performed on the graphics processing unit (GPU), making use of streamed and concurrent kernel execution together with data transfers between disk and CPU memory as well as CPU and GPU memory. This approach leads to fast generation of multiple bootstrap realisations, and when combined with fast image reconstruction and analysis, it enables assessment of uncertainties of any image statistic and of any component of the image generation process (e.g. random correction, image processing) within reasonable time frames (e.g. within five minutes per realisation). This is of particular value when handling complex chains of image generation and processing. The software outputs the following: (1) estimate of expected random event data for noise reduction; (2) dynamic prompt and random sinograms of span-1 and span-11 and (3) variance estimates based on multiple bootstrap realisations of (1) and (2) assuming reasonable count levels for acceptable accuracy. In addition, the software produces statistics and visualisations for immediate quality control and crude motion detection, such as: (1) count rate curves; (2) centre of mass plots of the radiodistribution for motion detection; (3) video of dynamic projection views for fast visual list-mode skimming and inspection; (4) full normalisation factor sinograms. To demonstrate the software, we present an example of the above processing for fast uncertainty estimation of regional SUVR (standard uptake value ratio) calculation for a single PET scan of (18)F-florbetapir using the Siemens Biograph mMR scanner. PMID:27280456

  20. Efficient composite fabrication using electron-beam rapidly cured polymers engineered for several manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, T.C.; Crivello, J.V.

    1995-10-01

    Low cost, efficiently processed ultra high specific strength and stiffness graphite fiber reinforced polymeric composite materials are of great interest to commercial transportation, construction and aerospace industries for use in various components with enhanced degrees of weight reduction, corrosion/erosion resistance and fatigue resistance. 10 MeV Electron Beam cure processing has been found to increase the cure rate by an order of magnitude over thermally cured systems yet provide less molded in stresses and high T{sub g}s. However, a limited range of resins are available which are easily processed with low shrinkage and with performance properties equal or exceeding those of state of the art toughened epoxies and BMI`s. The technology, introduced by an academia-industry partnership sparked by Langley Research Center utilizes a cost effective, rapid curing polymeric composite processing technique which effectively reduces the need for expensive tooling and energy inefficient autoclave processing and can cure the laminate in seconds (compared to hours for thermal curing) in ambient or sub-ambient conditions. The process is based on electron beam (E-Beam) curing of a new series of (65 to 1,000,000 cPs.) specially formulated resins that have been shown to exhibit excellent mechanical and physical properties once cured. Fabrication processes utilizing these specially formulated and newly commercialized resins, (e.g. including Vacuum Assist Resin Transfer molding (VARTM), vacuum bag prepreg layup, pultrusion and filament winding grades) are engineered to cure with low shrinkage, provide excellent mechanical properties, be processed solventless (environmentally friendly) and are inherently non toxic.

  1. Sensor-based atomic layer deposition for rapid process learning and enhanced manufacturability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wei

    sensing results confirm the proposed surface reaction path and once again reveal the complexity of ALD processes. The impact of this work includes: (1) It explores new ALD reactor designs which enable the implementation of in-situ process sensors for rapid process learning and enhanced manufacturability; (2) It demonstrates in the first time that in-situ QMS can reveal detailed process dynamics and film growth kinetics in wafer-scale ALD process, and thus can be used for ALD film thickness metrology. (3) Based on results from two different processes carried out in two different reactors, it is clear that ALD is a more complicated process than normally believed or advertised, but real-time observation of the operational chemistries in ALD by in-situ sensors provides critical insight to the process and the basis for more effective process control for ALD applications.

  2. Linking Automatic Evaluation to Mood and Information Processing Style: Consequences for Experienced Affect, Impression Formation, and Stereotyping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartrand, Tanya L.; van Baaren, Rick B.; Bargh, John A.

    2006-01-01

    According to the feelings-as-information account, a person's mood state signals to him or her the valence of the current environment (N. Schwarz & G. Clore, 1983). However, the ways in which the environment automatically influences mood in the first place remain to be explored. The authors propose that one mechanism by which the environment…

  3. Automatic Imaging the Rupture Process of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake by Iterative Deconvolution and Stacking the Strong-motion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, R.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 South Napa earthquake was well recorded by a densely distributed strong-motion network. By using the automatic iterative deconvolution and stacking (IDS) method, we invert data of strong-motion networks with different apertures and station spacings for rupture processes, in order to examine the influences of networks on the rupture models. By performing a series of inversions, we have found that networks, with apertures more than 60 km and station spacings less than 10 km, are sufficient to imaging the rupture process of the South Napa earthquake. The automatically estimated rupture models of different networks are consistent with each other; all of them suggest that the ruptures mainly propagated to the north and to shallow depths, and formed a unilateral rupture event. The peak slip of this earthquake is about 0.5-0.7 m, located near the ground surface and about 5 km to the north of the epicenter. This work suggests that, with the IDS method, it is feasible in principle to automatically estimate the earthquake rupture process after the earthquake occurrence. This would be beneficial to the earthquake emergency responses, such as earthquake relief and disaster mitigations.

  4. Graphics Processing Unit-Based Bioheat Simulation to Facilitate Rapid Decision Making Associated with Cryosurgery Training.

    PubMed

    Keelan, Robert; Zhang, Hong; Shimada, Kenji; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the implementation of an efficient numerical technique for cryosurgery simulations on a graphics processing unit as an alternative means to accelerate runtime. This study is part of an ongoing effort to develop computerized training tools for cryosurgery, with prostate cryosurgery as a developmental model. The ability to perform rapid simulations of various test cases is critical to facilitate sound decision making associated with medical training. Consistent with clinical practice, the training tool aims at correlating the frozen region contour and the corresponding temperature field with the target region shape. The current study focuses on the feasibility of graphics processing unit-based computation using C++ accelerated massive parallelism, as one possible implementation. Benchmark results on a variety of computation platforms display between 3-fold acceleration (laptop) and 13-fold acceleration (gaming computer) of cryosurgery simulation, in comparison with the more common implementation on a multicore central processing unit. While the general concept of graphics processing unit-based simulations is not new, its application to phase-change problems, combined with the unique requirements for cryosurgery optimization, represents the core contribution of the current study.

  5. Processing and microstructural characterization of Al-Cu alloys produced from rapidly solidified powders

    SciTech Connect

    Conlon, K.T.; Maire, E.; Wilkinson, D.S.; Henein, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper concerns the processing of Al-Cu alloys via a novel powder-metallurgy route. The specific technique used for powder processing involves the rapid solidification of coarse, molten droplets following impulse atomization. This produces a fine, homogeneous, dendritic microstructure within the alloy granules. Following consolidation via hot pressing, the microstructure consists mostly of an Al matrix with fine CuAl{sub 2} particles and partially recrystallized dendrites. Further heat treatment and/or thermomechanical processing completes the spheroidization process in the CuAl{sub 2} phase. Blending powders with different Cu has been used to make materials with a bimodal distribution of the local particle-volume-fraction content. The high temperature (773 K) strength of these materials decreases with increasing CuAl{sub 2} content. This can be explained using a flow model based on superplastic deformation, controlled by diffusion-accommodated sliding at Al grain boundaries. This mechanism may also explain the deformation-enhanced particle coarsening observed during channel-die forging operations.

  6. Evolution of lateral ordering in symmetric block copolymer thin films upon rapid thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Ceresoli, Monica; Ferrarese Lupi, Federico; Seguini, Gabriele; Sparnacci, Katia; Gianotti, Valentina; Antonioli, Diego; Laus, Michele; Boarino, Luca; Perego, Michele

    2014-07-11

    This work reports experimental findings about the evolution of lateral ordering of lamellar microdomains in symmetric PS-b-PMMA thin films on featureless substrates. Phase separation and microdomain evolution are explored in a rather wide range of temperatures (190-340 °C) using a rapid thermal processing (RTP) system. The maximum processing temperature that enables the ordering of block copolymers without introducing any significant degradation of macromolecules is identified. The reported results clearly indicate that the range of accessible temperatures in the processing of these self-assembling materials is mainly limited by the thermal instability of the grafted random copolymer layer, which starts to degrade at T > 300 °C, inducing detachment of the block copolymer thin film. For T ⩽ 290 °C, clear dependence of correlation length (ξ) values on temperature is observed. The highest level of lateral order achievable in the current system in a quasi-equilibrium condition was obtained at the upper processing temperature limit after an annealing time as short as 60 s.

  7. Rapid-response process reduces mortality, facilitates speedy treatment for patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    To reduce mortality and improve the care of patients with sepsis, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center in Winston-Salem, NC, created a new rapid-response protocol aimed at facilitating earlier diagnosis and treatment. In this approach, clinicians who suspect a patient may have sepsis can call a Code Sepsis, which will fast-track the series of tests and evaluations that are needed to confirm the diagnosis and get appropriate patients on IV antibiotics quickly. Administrators say the approach fits in with the culture of the ED, and it has quickly slashed time-to-treatment in this environment. In just one year, the hospital has been able to reduce its risk-adjusted mortality index from 1.8 to less than 1.25. In the ED, where a modified version of the approach has been in place since April 1 of this year, the percentage of patients with sepsis receiving antibiotics within one hour of diagnosis has increased from 25% to 85%. Key to the success of the approach are specially trained rapid-response nurses who are called in on a case whenever a diagnosis of sepsis is suspected and a series of policy changes designed to facilitate needed diagnostic tests to confirm a diagnosis. A mandated online education module helped to bring all clinicians and staff up to speed on the new process quickly. PMID:23923521

  8. The snooze of lose: Rapid reaching reveals that losses are processed more slowly than gains.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Craig S; Gallivan, Jason P; Wong, Jeremy D; Wispinski, Nathan J; Enns, James T

    2015-08-01

    Decision making revolves around weighing potential gains and losses. Research in economic decision making has emphasized that humans exercise disproportionate caution when making explicit choices involving loss. By comparison, research in perceptual decision making has revealed a processing advantage for targets associated with potential gain, though the effects of loss have been explored less systematically. Here, we use a rapid reaching task to measure the relative sensitivity (Experiment 1) and the time course (Experiments 2 and 3) of rapid actions with regard to the reward valence and probability of targets. We show that targets linked to a high probability of gain influence actions about 100 ms earlier than targets associated with equivalent probability and value of loss. These findings are well accounted for by a model of stimulus response in which reward modulates the late, postpeak phase of the activity. We interpret our results within a neural framework of biased competition that is resolved in spatial maps of behavioral relevance. As implied by our model, all visual stimuli initially receive positive activation. Gain stimuli can build off of this initial activation when selected as a target, whereas loss stimuli have to overcome this initial activation in order to be avoided, accounting for the observed delay between valences. Our results bring clarity to the perceptual effects of losses versus gains and highlight the importance of considering the timeline of different biasing factors that influence decisions. PMID:26097977

  9. Implicit affectivity and rapid processing of affective body language: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Suslow, Thomas; Ihme, Klas; Quirin, Markus; Lichev, Vladimir; Rosenberg, Nicole; Bauer, Jochen; Bomberg, Luise; Kersting, Anette; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Lobsien, Donald

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has revealed affect-congruity effects for the recognition of affects from faces. Little is known about the impact of affect on the perception of body language. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of implicit (versus explicit) affectivity with the recognition of briefly presented affective body expressions. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, has been found to be more predictive of spontaneous physiological reactions than explicit (self-reported) affect. Thirty-four healthy women had to label the expression of body postures (angry, fearful, happy, or neutral) presented for 66 ms and masked by a neutral body posture in a forced-choice format while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants' implicit affectivity was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test. Measures of explicit state and trait affectivity were also administered. Analysis of the fMRI data was focused on a subcortical network involved in the rapid perception of affective body expressions. Only implicit negative affect (but not explicit affect) was correlated with correct labeling performance for angry body posture. As expected, implicit negative affect was positively associated with activation of the subcortical network in response to fearful and angry expression (compared to neutral expression). Responses of the caudate nucleus to affective body expression were especially associated with its recognition. It appears that processes of rapid recognition of affects from body postures could be facilitated by an individual's implicit negative affect. PMID:26032148

  10. Electric Field Measurements During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, Monte G.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field program, a system of 6 electric field mills was flown on one of NASA's Global Hawk aircraft. We placed several mills on the aircraft to enable us to measure the vector electric field. We created a distributed, ethernet-connected system so that each sensor has its own embedded Linux system, complete with web server. This makes our current generation system fully "sensor web enabled." The Global Hawk has several unique qualities, but relevant to quality storm electric field measurements are high altitude (20 km) and long duration (20-30 hours) flights. There are several aircraft participating in the GRIP program, and coordinated measurements are happening. Lightning and electric field measurements will be used to study the relationships between lightning and other storm characteristics. It has been long understood that lightning can be used as a marker for strong convective activity. Past research and field programs suggest that lightning flash rate may serve as an indicator and precursor for rapid intensification change in tropical cyclones and hurricanes. We have the opportunity to sample hurricanes for many hours at a time and observe intensification (or de-intensification) periods. The electrical properties of hurricanes during such periods are not well known. American

  11. Rapid emotional processing in relation to trauma-related symptoms as revealed by magnetic source imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traumatic stress leads to functional reorganization in the brain and may trigger an alarm response. However, when the traumatic event produces severe helplessness, the predominant peri-traumatic response may instead be marked by a dissociative shutdown reaction. The neural correlates of this dissociative shutdown were investigated by presenting rapidly presented affective pictures to female participants with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and comparing responses to a Non-PTSD control group. Methods Event-related-magnetic-fields were recorded during rapid visual serial presentation of emotionally arousing stimuli (unpleasant or pleasant), which alternated with pictures with low affective content (neutral). Neural sources, based on the L2-surface-minimum-norm, correlated with the severity of the symptom clusters: PTSD, depression and shutdown dissociation. Results For the early cortical response (60 to 110 ms), dissociation and PTSD symptom severity show similar spatial distributions of correlates for unpleasant stimuli. Cortical networks that could be involved in the relationships seem to be widespread. Conclusion We conclude that shutdown dissociation, PTSD and depression all have distinct effects on early processing of emotional stimuli. PMID:24997778

  12. A graphically oriented specification language for automatic code generation. GRASP/Ada: A Graphical Representation of Algorithms, Structure, and Processes for Ada, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II; Morrison, Kelly I.; May, Charles H., Jr.; Waddel, Kathryn C.

    1989-01-01

    The first phase of a three-phase effort to develop a new graphically oriented specification language which will facilitate the reverse engineering of Ada source code into graphical representations (GRs) as well as the automatic generation of Ada source code is described. A simplified view of the three phases of Graphical Representations for Algorithms, Structure, and Processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada) with respect to three basic classes of GRs is presented. Phase 1 concentrated on the derivation of an algorithmic diagram, the control structure diagram (CSD) (CRO88a) from Ada source code or Ada PDL. Phase 2 includes the generation of architectural and system level diagrams such as structure charts and data flow diagrams and should result in a requirements specification for a graphically oriented language able to support automatic code generation. Phase 3 will concentrate on the development of a prototype to demonstrate the feasibility of this new specification language.

  13. Processing of short auditory stimuli: the rapid audio sequential presentation paradigm (RASP).

    PubMed

    Suied, Clara; Agus, Trevor R; Thorpe, Simon J; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Human listeners seem to be remarkably able to recognise acoustic sound sources based on timbre cues. Here we describe a psychophysical paradigm to estimate the time it takes to recognise a set of complex sounds differing only in timbre cues: both in terms of the minimum duration of the sounds and the inferred neural processing time. Listeners had to respond to the human voice while ignoring a set of distractors. All sounds were recorded from natural sources over the same pitch range and equalised to the same duration and power. In a first experiment, stimuli were gated in time with a raised-cosine window of variable duration and random onset time. A voice/non-voice (yes/no) task was used. Performance, as measured by d', remained above chance for the shortest sounds tested (2 ms); d's above 1 were observed for durations longer than or equal to 8 ms. Then, we constructed sequences of short sounds presented in rapid succession. Listeners were asked to report the presence of a single voice token that could occur at a random position within the sequence. This method is analogous to the "rapid sequential visual presentation" paradigm (RSVP), which has been used to evaluate neural processing time for images. For 500-ms sequences made of 32-ms and 16-ms sounds, d' remained above chance for presentation rates of up to 30 sounds per second. There was no effect of the pitch relation between successive sounds: identical for all sounds in the sequence or random for each sound. This implies that the task was not determined by streaming or forward masking, as both phenomena would predict better performance for the random pitch condition. Overall, the recognition of familiar sound categories such as the voice seems to be surprisingly fast, both in terms of the acoustic duration required and of the underlying neural time constants. PMID:23716251

  14. A rapid and reliable bonding process for microchip electrophoresis fabricated in glass substrates.

    PubMed

    Segato, Thiago Pinotti; Coltro, Wendell Karlos Tomazelli; Almeida, André Luiz de Jesus; Piazetta, Maria Helena de Oliveira; Gobbi, Angelo Luiz; Mazo, Luiz Henrique; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2010-08-01

    In this report, we describe a rapid and reliable process to bond channels fabricated in glass substrates. Glass channels were fabricated by photolithography and wet chemical etching. The resulting channels were bonded against another glass plate containing a 50-microm thick PDMS layer. This same PDMS layer was also used to provide the electrical insulation of planar electrodes to carry out capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. The analytical performance of the proposed device was shown by using both LIF and capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection systems. Efficiency around 47,000 plates/m was achieved with good chip-to-chip repeatability and satisfactory long-term stability of EOF. The RSD for the EOF measured in three different devices was ca. 7%. For a chip-to-chip comparison, the RSD values for migration time, electrophoretic current and peak area were below 10%. With the proposed approach, a single chip can be fabricated in less than 30 min including patterning, etching and sealing steps. This fabrication process is faster and easier than the thermal bonding process. Besides, the proposed method does not require high temperatures and provides excellent day-to-day and device-to-device repeatability.

  15. Accessing thermoplastic processing windows in metallic glasses using rapid capacitive discharge.

    PubMed

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Harris, Thomas; Sun, Kerry; Tran, Thomas; Chang, Gregory; Schramm, Joseph P; Demetriou, Marios D; Johnson, William L

    2014-10-01

    The ability of the rapid-capacitive discharge approach to access optimal viscosity ranges in metallic glasses for thermoplastic processing is explored. Using high-speed thermal imaging, the heating uniformity and stability against crystallization of Zr35Ti30Cu7.5Be27.5 metallic glass heated deeply into the supercooled region is investigated. The method enables homogeneous volumetric heating of bulk samples throughout the entire supercooled liquid region at high rates (~10(5) K/s) sufficient to bypass crystallization throughout. The crystallization onsets at temperatures in the vicinity of the "crystallization nose" were identified and a Time-Temperature-Transformation diagram is constructed, revealing a "critical heating rate" for the metallic glass of ~1000 K/s. Thermoplastic process windows in the optimal viscosity range of 10(0)-10(4) Pa · s are identified, being confined between the glass relaxation and the eutectic crystallization transition. Within this process window, near-net forging of a fine precision metallic glass part is demonstrated.

  16. Accessing thermoplastic processing windows in metallic glasses using rapid capacitive discharge

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Harris, Thomas; Sun, Kerry; Tran, Thomas; Chang, Gregory; Schramm, Joseph P.; Demetriou, Marios D.; Johnson, William L.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the rapid-capacitive discharge approach to access optimal viscosity ranges in metallic glasses for thermoplastic processing is explored. Using high-speed thermal imaging, the heating uniformity and stability against crystallization of Zr35Ti30Cu7.5Be27.5 metallic glass heated deeply into the supercooled region is investigated. The method enables homogeneous volumetric heating of bulk samples throughout the entire supercooled liquid region at high rates (~105 K/s) sufficient to bypass crystallization throughout. The crystallization onsets at temperatures in the vicinity of the “crystallization nose” were identified and a Time-Temperature-Transformation diagram is constructed, revealing a “critical heating rate” for the metallic glass of ~1000 K/s. Thermoplastic process windows in the optimal viscosity range of 100–104 Pa·s are identified, being confined between the glass relaxation and the eutectic crystallization transition. Within this process window, near-net forging of a fine precision metallic glass part is demonstrated. PMID:25269892

  17. Rapid thermal processing chamber for in-situ x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Md. Imteyaz; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Yu, Jiafan; Pool, Vanessa L.; Van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Toney, Michael F.; Fields, Jeremy D.; Parilla, Philip A.; Ginley, David S.

    2015-01-15

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is widely used for processing a variety of materials, including electronics and photovoltaics. Presently, optimization of RTP is done primarily based on ex-situ studies. As a consequence, the precise reaction pathways and phase progression during the RTP remain unclear. More awareness of the reaction pathways would better enable process optimization and foster increased adoption of RTP, which offers numerous advantages for synthesis of a broad range of materials systems. To achieve this, we have designed and developed a RTP instrument that enables real-time collection of X-ray diffraction data with intervals as short as 100 ms, while heating with ramp rates up to 100 °Cs{sup −1}, and with a maximum operating temperature of 1200 °C. The system is portable and can be installed on a synchrotron beamline. The unique capabilities of this instrument are demonstrated with in-situ characterization of a Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} glass frit obtained during heating with ramp rates 5 °C s{sup −1} and 100 °C s{sup −1}, revealing numerous phase changes.

  18. The Frequency of Rapid Pupil Dilations as a Measure of Linguistic Processing Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Demberg, Vera; Sayeed, Asad

    2016-01-01

    While it has long been known that the pupil reacts to cognitive load, pupil size has received little attention in cognitive research because of its long latency and the difficulty of separating effects of cognitive load from the light reflex or effects due to eye movements. A novel measure, the Index of Cognitive Activity (ICA), relates cognitive effort to the frequency of small rapid dilations of the pupil. We report here on a total of seven experiments which test whether the ICA reliably indexes linguistically induced cognitive load: three experiments in reading (a manipulation of grammatical gender match/mismatch, an experiment of semantic fit, and an experiment comparing locally ambiguous subject versus object relative clauses, all in German), three dual-task experiments with simultaneous driving and spoken language comprehension (using the same manipulations as in the single-task reading experiments), and a visual world experiment comparing the processing of causal versus concessive discourse markers. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect and time course of the ICA in language processing. All of our experiments support the idea that the ICA indexes linguistic processing difficulty. The effects of our linguistic manipulations on the ICA are consistent for reading and auditory presentation. Furthermore, our experiments show that the ICA allows for usage within a multi-task paradigm. Its robustness with respect to eye movements means that it is a valid measure of processing difficulty for usage within the visual world paradigm, which will allow researchers to assess both visual attention and processing difficulty at the same time, using an eye-tracker. We argue that the ICA is indicative of activity in the locus caeruleus area of the brain stem, which has recently also been linked to P600 effects observed in psycholinguistic EEG experiments. PMID:26799065

  19. The Frequency of Rapid Pupil Dilations as a Measure of Linguistic Processing Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Demberg, Vera; Sayeed, Asad

    2016-01-01

    While it has long been known that the pupil reacts to cognitive load, pupil size has received little attention in cognitive research because of its long latency and the difficulty of separating effects of cognitive load from the light reflex or effects due to eye movements. A novel measure, the Index of Cognitive Activity (ICA), relates cognitive effort to the frequency of small rapid dilations of the pupil. We report here on a total of seven experiments which test whether the ICA reliably indexes linguistically induced cognitive load: three experiments in reading (a manipulation of grammatical gender match/mismatch, an experiment of semantic fit, and an experiment comparing locally ambiguous subject versus object relative clauses, all in German), three dual-task experiments with simultaneous driving and spoken language comprehension (using the same manipulations as in the single-task reading experiments), and a visual world experiment comparing the processing of causal versus concessive discourse markers. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect and time course of the ICA in language processing. All of our experiments support the idea that the ICA indexes linguistic processing difficulty. The effects of our linguistic manipulations on the ICA are consistent for reading and auditory presentation. Furthermore, our experiments show that the ICA allows for usage within a multi-task paradigm. Its robustness with respect to eye movements means that it is a valid measure of processing difficulty for usage within the visual world paradigm, which will allow researchers to assess both visual attention and processing difficulty at the same time, using an eye-tracker. We argue that the ICA is indicative of activity in the locus caeruleus area of the brain stem, which has recently also been linked to P600 effects observed in psycholinguistic EEG experiments.

  20. The Frequency of Rapid Pupil Dilations as a Measure of Linguistic Processing Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Demberg, Vera; Sayeed, Asad

    2016-01-01

    While it has long been known that the pupil reacts to cognitive load, pupil size has received little attention in cognitive research because of its long latency and the difficulty of separating effects of cognitive load from the light reflex or effects due to eye movements. A novel measure, the Index of Cognitive Activity (ICA), relates cognitive effort to the frequency of small rapid dilations of the pupil. We report here on a total of seven experiments which test whether the ICA reliably indexes linguistically induced cognitive load: three experiments in reading (a manipulation of grammatical gender match / mismatch, an experiment of semantic fit, and an experiment comparing locally ambiguous subject versus object relative clauses, all in German), three dual-task experiments with simultaneous driving and spoken language comprehension (using the same manipulations as in the single-task reading experiments), and a visual world experiment comparing the processing of causal versus concessive discourse markers. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect and time course of the ICA in language processing. All of our experiments support the idea that the ICA indexes linguistic processing difficulty. The effects of our linguistic manipulations on the ICA are consistent for reading and auditory presentation. Furthermore, our experiments show that the ICA allows for usage within a multi-task paradigm. Its robustness with respect to eye movements means that it is a valid measure of processing difficulty for usage within the visual world paradigm, which will allow researchers to assess both visual attention and processing difficulty at the same time, using an eye-tracker. We argue that the ICA is indicative of activity in the locus caeruleus area of the brain stem, which has recently also been linked to P600 effects observed in psycholinguistic EEG experiments. PMID:26799065

  1. Late Quaternary Climate Forcing of Rapid Sedimentation and Erosion Processes in the NW Himalaya (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookhagen, B.; Scherler, D.; Strecker, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    The intensity of the Asian summer-monsoon circulation varies over decadal to millennial time scales and is reflected in changes in surface processes, terrestrial environments, and marine sediment records. The impact of climatic forcing on the landscape’s response and associated erosion processes varies, depending on magnitude and size of the climatic events, as well as on the tectonic and geomorphologic preconditioning of the landscape. Here, we present new surface-exposure ages combined with previously published data to quantify erosion and process rates and their changes through the time. The NW Himalaya is located at the end of the monsoonal conveyer belt that transports moisture from the Bay of Bengal to the Sutlej Valley and farther west. Along the Himalaya, orographic barriers force out rainfall with peak amounts located consistently at a 3-km-radius relief of ~1 km. The tail and northward end of the rainfall distribution decays rapidly with only little or no moisture reaching the southern Tibetan Plateau. However, during a generally stronger monsoon circulation in the early Holocene called the Intensified Monsoon Phase rainfall reached the today arid regions of the northern Himalaya and southern Tibetan Plateau as documented in numerous terrestrial sediment archives. During this time period in the NW Himalaya, the presently arid, high-elevation areas have been impacted by flooding and heavy landsliding ultimately leading to a significant increase in sediment-flux rates. Some of the sediment material has been derived from glaciers. We show that the transiently-stored sediments in these valleys have been rapidly removed during the early Holocene at the onset of the Intensified Monsoon Phase. The limiting factor for sediment removal and transport on millennial timescales are large bedrock landslides that impounded the river network and formed intramontane basins lasting for several thousands of years. We suggest a feedback process between sediment removal and

  2. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the

  3. Automatic Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report lays more stress on the principles underlying automatic piloting than on the means of applications. Mechanical details of servomotors and the mechanical release device necessary to assure instantaneous return of the controls to the pilot in case of malfunction are not included. Descriptions are provided of various commercial systems.

  4. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  5. Convergent polishing: a simple, rapid, full aperture polishing process of high quality optical flats & spheres.

    PubMed

    Suratwala, Tayyab; Steele, Rusty; Feit, Michael; Dylla-Spears, Rebecca; Desjardin, Richard; Mason, Dan; Wong, Lana; Geraghty, Paul; Miller, Phil; Shen, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Convergent Polishing is a novel polishing system and method for finishing flat and spherical glass optics in which a workpiece, independent of its initial shape (i.e., surface figure), will converge to final surface figure with excellent surface quality under a fixed, unchanging set of polishing parameters in a single polishing iteration. In contrast, conventional full aperture polishing methods require multiple, often long, iterative cycles involving polishing, metrology and process changes to achieve the desired surface figure. The Convergent Polishing process is based on the concept of workpiece-lap height mismatch resulting in pressure differential that decreases with removal and results in the workpiece converging to the shape of the lap. The successful implementation of the Convergent Polishing process is a result of the combination of a number of technologies to remove all sources of non-uniform spatial material removal (except for workpiece-lap mismatch) for surface figure convergence and to reduce the number of rogue particles in the system for low scratch densities and low roughness. The Convergent Polishing process has been demonstrated for the fabrication of both flats and spheres of various shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios on various glass materials. The practical impact is that high quality optical components can be fabricated more rapidly, more repeatedly, with less metrology, and with less labor, resulting in lower unit costs. In this study, the Convergent Polishing protocol is specifically described for fabricating 26.5 cm square fused silica flats from a fine ground surface to a polished ~λ/2 surface figure after polishing 4 hr per surface on a 81 cm diameter polisher. PMID:25489745

  6. Galactic evolution of rapid neutron capture process abundances: the inhomogeneous approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehmeyer, B.; Pignatari, M.; Thielemann, F.-K.

    2015-09-01

    For the origin of heavy rapid neutron capture process (r-process) elements, different sources have been proposed, e.g. core-collapse supernovae or neutron star mergers. Old metal-poor stars carry the signature of the astrophysical source(s). Among the elements dominantly made by the r-process, europium (Eu) is relatively easy to observe. In this work we simulate the evolution of Eu in our Galaxy with the inhomogeneous chemical evolution (ICE) model, and compare our results with spectroscopic observations. We test the most important parameters affecting the chemical evolution of Eu: (a) for neutron star mergers the coalescence time-scale of the merger (tcoal) and the probability to experience a neutron star merger event after two supernova explosions occurred and formed a double neutron star system (PNSM) and (b) for the subclass of magnetorotationally driven supernovae (`Jet-SNe'), their occurrence rate compared to standard supernovae (PJet-SN). We find that the observed [Eu/Fe] pattern in the Galaxy can be reproduced by a combination of neutron star mergers and Jet-SNe as r-process sources. While neutron star mergers alone seem to set in at too high metallicities, Jet-SNe provide a cure for this deficiency at low metallicities. Furthermore, we confirm that local inhomogeneities can explain the observed large spread in the Eu abundances at low metallicities. We also predict the evolution of [O/Fe] to test whether the spread in α-elements for inhomogeneous models agrees with observations and whether this provides constraints on supernova explosion models and their nucleosynthesis.

  7. Re-emerging conceptual integration: commentary on Berkowitz's "on the consideration of automatic as well as controlled psychological processes in aggression".

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Farzaneh

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, researchers in various areas of psychology have challenged the claims of a single mode of information processing, and developed dual-process models of social behaviors. Although these theories differ on a number of dimensions, they all share the basic assumption that two different modes of information processing operate in making decision and copying behavior. In essence, the common distinction in these perspectives is between controlled vs. automatic, conscious vs. unconscious, and affective vs. cognitive modes of processing. The purpose of Berkowitz's article is to go beyond the notion of automatic processes in order to use classic notions of conditioning and displacement to explain aggressive behavior. I assert that an explanatory framework for psychology of aggression must be anchored not only in the new but also classic theoretical paradigms. However, progress in psychology does not rest solely on the accumulation of theoretical insights. It demands a large body of empirical facts, with attention to incongruities, discordances, and conceptual clarifications. PMID:18085524

  8. Global interference during early visual processing: ERP evidence from a rapid global/local selective task.

    PubMed

    Beaucousin, Virginie; Simon, Grégory; Cassotti, Mathieu; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier; Poirel, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Visual perception depends on the integration of local elements of a visual scene into a global frame. Evidence from behavioral studies shows that (1) the detection of the global frame is faster than the detection of the local parts, a phenomenon called the global advantage, and that (2) an interference of the global shape is also present during local processing. Together, these effects are called the global precedence effect (GPE). Even if the global advantage appears to impact neural processing as early as the first 100 ms post-stimulus, previous studies failed to find a global interference effect before 200 ms post-stimulus. Using for the first time a rapid display of letter component stimuli during a global/local selective task in which conditions with perceptual conflict, congruent and incongruent conditions were considered, the present event-related potential (ERP) study shows a global interference effect occurring as early as the time range of the N1 component. In particular, only congruent stimuli elicited similar N1 amplitude during the global and local tasks, whereas an increased of the N1 amplitude during the global task was observed (as compared to the local task) for both stimuli with perceptual conflict and incongruent stimuli. This finding corroborates the recent neural models of human visual perception.

  9. Rapid thermal processing of high-efficiency silicon solar cells with controlled in-situ annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Doshi, P.; Rohatgi, A.; Ropp, M.; Chen, Z.; Ruby, D.; Meier, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 17.1%, 16.4%, 14.8%, and 14.9% have been achieved on FZ, Cz, multicrystalline (mc-Si), and dendritic web (DW) silicon, respectively, using simplified, cost-effective rapid thermal processing (RTP). These represent the highest reported efficiencies for solar cells processed with simultaneous front and back diffusion with no conventional high-temperature furnace steps. Appropriate diffusion temperature coupled with the added in-situ anneal resulted in suitable minority-carrier lifetime and diffusion profiles for high-efficiency cells. The cooling rate associated with the in-situ anneal can improve the lifetime and lower the reverse saturation current density (J{sub 0}), however, this effect is material and base resistivity specific. PECVD antireflection (AR) coatings provided low reflectance and efficient front surface and bulk defect passivation. Conventional cells fabricated on FZ silicon by furnace diffusions and oxidations gave an efficiency of 18.8% due to greater short wavelength response and lower J{sub 0}.

  10. Meta-analytic moderators of experimental exposure to media portrayals of women on female appearance satisfaction: Social comparisons as automatic processes.

    PubMed

    Want, Stephen C

    2009-09-01

    Experimental exposure to idealized media portrayals of women is thought to induce social comparisons in female viewers and thereby to be generally detrimental to female viewers' satisfaction with their own appearance. Through meta-analysis, the present paper examines the impact of moderators of this effect, some identified and updated from a prior meta-analysis and some that have hitherto received little attention. Participants' pre-existing appearance concerns and the processing instructions participants were given when exposed to media portrayals were found to significantly moderate effect sizes. With regard to processing instructions, a novel and counter-intuitive pattern was revealed; effect sizes were smallest when participants were instructed to focus on the appearance of women in media portrayals, and largest when participants processed the portrayals on a distracting, non-appearance dimension. These results are interpreted through a framework that suggests that social comparisons are automatic processes, the effects of which can be modified through conscious processing.

  11. Comparison of automatic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppelt, W

    1941-01-01

    This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

  12. Effects of Lightpipe Proximity on Si Wafer Temperature in Rapid Thermal Processing Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreider, K. G.; Chen, D. H.; DeWitt, D. P.; Kimes, W. A.; Tsai, B. K.

    2003-09-01

    Lightpipe radiation thermometers (LPRTs) are used as temperature monitoring sensors in most rapid thermal processing (RTP) tools for semiconductor fabrication. These tools are used for dopant anneal, gate oxide formation, and other high temperature processing. In order to assure uniform wafer temperatures during processing these RTP tools generally have highly reflecting chamber walls to promote a uniform heat flux on the wafer. Therefore, only minimal disturbances in the chamber reflectivity are permitted for the sensors, and the small 2 mm diameter sapphire lightpipe is generally the temperature sensor of choice. This study was undertaken to measure and model the effect of LPRT proximity on the wafer temperature. Our experiments were performed in the NIST RTP test bed using a NIST thin-film thermocouple (TFTC) calibration wafer. We measured the spectral radiance temperature with the center lightpipe and compared these with the TFTC junctions and with the three LPRTs at the mid-radius of the wafer. We measured LPRT outputs from a position flush with the reflecting plate to within 2 mm of the stationary wafer under steady-state conditions with wafer-to-cold plate separation distances of 6 mm, 10 mm and 12.5 mm. Depressions in the wafer temperature up to 25 °C were observed. A finite-element radiation model of the wafer-chamber-lightpipe was developed to predict the temperature depression as a function of proximity distance and separation distance. The experimental results were compared with those from a model that accounts for lightpipe geometry and radiative properties, wafer emissivity and chamber cold plate reflectivity.

  13. Automatic analysis of microscopic images of red blood cell aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menichini, Pablo A.; Larese, Mónica G.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.

    2015-06-01

    Red blood cell aggregation is one of the most important factors in blood viscosity at stasis or at very low rates of flow. The basic structure of aggregates is a linear array of cell commonly termed as rouleaux. Enhanced or abnormal aggregation is seen in clinical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, producing alterations in the microcirculation, some of which can be analyzed through the characterization of aggregated cells. Frequently, image processing and analysis for the characterization of RBC aggregation were done manually or semi-automatically using interactive tools. We propose a system that processes images of RBC aggregation and automatically obtains the characterization and quantification of the different types of RBC aggregates. Present technique could be interesting to perform the adaptation as a routine used in hemorheological and Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories because this automatic method is rapid, efficient and economical, and at the same time independent of the user performing the analysis (repeatability of the analysis).

  14. Auxiliary circuit enables automatic monitoring of EKG'S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Auxiliary circuits allow direct, automatic monitoring of electrocardiograms by digital computers. One noiseless square-wave output signal for each trigger pulse from an electrocardiogram preamplifier is produced. The circuit also permits automatic processing of cardiovascular data from analog tapes.

  15. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  16. Does a Sensory Processing Deficit Explain Counting Accuracy on Rapid Visual Sequencing Tasks in Adults with and without Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Elizabeth G.; Wright, Craig M.; Norris, Karla; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The experiments conducted aimed to investigate whether reduced accuracy when counting stimuli presented in rapid temporal sequence in adults with dyslexia could be explained by a sensory processing deficit, a general slowing in processing speed or difficulties shifting attention between stimuli. To achieve these aims, the influence of the…

  17. MATURE: A Model Driven bAsed Tool to Automatically Generate a langUage That suppoRts CMMI Process Areas spEcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musat, David; Castaño, Víctor; Calvo-Manzano, Jose A.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Many companies have achieved a higher quality in their processes by using CMMI. Process definition may be efficiently supported by software tools. A higher automation level will make process improvement and assessment activities easier to be adapted to customer needs. At present, automation of CMMI is based on tools that support practice definition in a textual way. These tools are often enhanced spreadsheets. In this paper, following the Model Driven Development paradigm (MDD), a tool that supports automatic generation of a language that can be used to specify process areas practices is presented. The generation is performed from a metamodel that represents CMMI. This tool, differently from others available, can be customized according to user needs. Guidelines to specify the CMMI metamodel are also provided. The paper also shows how this approach can support other assessment methods.

  18. Influence of temperature and backside roughness on the emissivity of Si wafers during rapid thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenabeele, Peter; Maex, Karen

    1992-12-01

    The influence of temperature and roughness on the backside emissivity of Si wafers was studied. In situ measurements were done in two commercial rapid thermal processing systems. An experimental setup was built for in situ emissivity measurements of wafers with a polished or nonpolished backside. The emissivity of double-side polished wafers was measured for temperatures ranging from 300 to 700 °C and at wavelengths of 1.7 and 3.4 μm. It was found that the absorption coefficient α of lightly doped silicon is described by the equation α=4.15×10-5λ1.51T2.95 exp(-7000/T) cm-1, for wavelengths λ ranging from 1.5 to 5 μm and temperatures T ranging from 673 to 973 K (λ in μm, T in K). The backside emissivity of Si wafers with different roughnesses was measured. At temperatures above 600-700 °C the wafers are opaque and the emissivity is only slightly dependent on backside roughness. At lower temperatures the wafers are partially transparent and the emissivity is strongly dependent on the backside roughness of the wafer due to light trapping in the bulk of the wafer. For the latter case a new model was developed to simulate the emissivity of wafers with a rough backside at low temperatures.

  19. Fast-ramp rapid vertical processor for 300-mm Si wafer processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Cole; Laser, Allan; Herring, Robert; Pandey, Pradeep

    1998-09-01

    Fast-ramp vertical furnace technology has been established on the 200-nm wafer platform providing higher capacity production, decreased cycle time and lower thermal budgets. Fast-ramp furnaces are capable of instantaneous temperature ramp rates up to 100 degrees C/min. This fast-ramp technology is now applied to 300-nm wafer processing on the SVG/Thermco Rapid Vertical Processor Vertical Furnace. 300- mm fast-ramp capability using the latest in real-time adaptive model based temperature control technology, Clairvoyant Control, is reported. Atmospheric Thermal Oxidation, LPCVD Nitride and Polysilicon Deposition, and LPCVD TEOS-based SiO2 Deposition results are discussed. 300- mm wafer Radial Delta Temperature dependence on temperature ramp rate, wafer pitch, and wafer support fixtures are discussed. Wafer throughput is calculated and reported. The Clairvoyant Control methodology of combining thermal, direct and virtually-sensed parameters to produce real-tim e estimation of wafer temperatures, thermal trajectory optimization, and feedback to minimize variations in film thickness and electrical properties is presented.

  20. Development of Rapid Identification and Risk Analysis of Moniliella Spp. in Acidic Processed Foods.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Motokazu; Hosoya, Kouichi; Shimizu-Imanishi, Yumi; Chibana, Hiroji; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The number of spoilage incidents in the food industry attributable to a species of the genus Moniliella has recently increased, but the risk of food spoilage has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to rapidly identify high-risk species and to conduct a risk analysis study of Moniliella spp. Acetic acid resistance of M. acetoabutens and ethanol resistance of M. suaveolens were higher than for other Moniliella species. All examined strains of M. acetoabutens developed a high tolerance to acetic acid by being cultured twice in liquid media containing low concentrations of acetic acid. These findings indicate that M. acetoabutens and M. suaveolens are high-risk species for food spoilage and must be discriminated from other fungi. We developed species-specific primers to identify M. acetoabutens and M. suaveolens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the D1/D2 domain of 28S rDNA. The PCR using the primer sets designed for M. acetoabutens (Mac_F1/R1) and M. suaveolens (Msu_F1/R1) was specific to the target species and did not detect other fungi involved in food spoilage or environmental contamination. This method is expected to be effective for the monitoring of raw materials and components of the food production process. PMID:27350425

  1. Training in rapid auditory processing ameliorates auditory comprehension in aphasic patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Szelag, Elzbieta; Lewandowska, Monika; Wolak, Tomasz; Seniow, Joanna; Poniatowska, Renata; Pöppel, Ernst; Szymaszek, Aneta

    2014-03-15

    Experimental studies have often reported close associations between rapid auditory processing and language competency. The present study was aimed at improving auditory comprehension in aphasic patients following specific training in the perception of temporal order (TO) of events. We tested 18 aphasic patients showing both comprehension and TO perception deficits. Auditory comprehension was assessed by the Token Test, phonemic awareness and Voice-Onset-Time Test. The TO perception was assessed using auditory Temporal-Order-Threshold, defined as the shortest interval between two consecutive stimuli, necessary to report correctly their before-after relation. Aphasic patients participated in eight 45-minute sessions of either specific temporal training (TT, n=11) aimed to improve sequencing abilities, or control non-temporal training (NT, n=7) focussed on volume discrimination. The TT yielded improved TO perception; moreover, a transfer of improvement was observed from the time domain to the language domain, which was untrained during the training. The NT did not improve either the TO perception or comprehension in any language test. These results are in agreement with previous literature studies which proved ameliorated language competency following the TT in language-learning-impaired or dyslexic children. Our results indicated for the first time such benefits also in aphasic patients. PMID:24388435

  2. Processing of pure Ti by rapid prototyping based on laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias-González, F.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Rapid prototyping based on laser cladding is an additive manufacturing (AM) process based on the overlapping of cladding tracks to produce functional components. Powder or wire are fed into a melting pool created using laser radiation as a heat source and the relative movement between the beam and the work piece makes possible to generate pieces layer-by-layer. This technique can be applied for any material which can be melted and the components can be manufactured directly according to a computer aided design (CAD) model. Additive manufacturing is particularly interesting to produce titanium components because, in this case, the loss of material produced by subtractive manufacturing methods is highly costly. Moreover, titanium and its alloys are widely used in biomedical, aircraft, chemical and marine industries due to their biocompatibility, excellent corrosion resistance and superior strength-to-weight ratio. In this research work, a near-infrared laser delivering a maximum power of 500W is used to produce pure titanium thin parts. Dimensions and surface morphology are characterized using Optical Microscopy (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), the hardness by nanoindentation and the composition by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The aim of this work is to establish the conditions under which satisfactory properties are obtained and to understand the relationship between microstructure/properties and deposition parameters.

  3. Rapid distributed fronto-parieto-occipital processing stages during working memory in humans.

    PubMed

    Halgren, E; Boujon, C; Clarke, J; Wang, C; Chauvel, P

    2002-07-01

    Cortical potentials were recorded from implanted electrodes during a difficult working memory task requiring rapid storage, modification and retrieval of multiple memoranda. Synchronous event-related potentials were generated in distributed occipital, parietal, Rolandic and prefrontal sites beginning approximately 130 ms after stimulus onset and continuing for >500 ms. Coherent phase-locked, event-related oscillations supported interaction between these dorsal stream structures throughout the task period. The Rolandic structures generated early as well as sustained potentials to sensory stimuli in the absence of movement. Activation peaks and phase lags between synaptic populations suggested that perceptual processing occurred exclusively in the visual association cortex from approximately 90 to 130 ms, with its results projected to fronto-parietal areas for interpretation from approximately 130 to 280 ms. The direction of interaction then appeared to reverse from approximately 300 to 400 ms, consistent with mental arithmetic being performed by fronto-parietal areas operating upon a visual scratch pad in the dorsolateral occipital cortex. A second reversal, from approximately 420 to 600 ms, may have represented an updating of memoranda stored in fronto-parietal sites. Lateralized perisylvian oscillations suggested an articulatory loop. Anterior cingulate activity was evoked by feedback signals indicating errors. These results indicate how a fronto-centro-parietal 'central executive' might interact with an occipital visual scratch pad, perisylvian articulatory loop and limbic monitor to implement the sequential stages of a complex mental operation.

  4. Development of Rapid Identification and Risk Analysis of Moniliella Spp. in Acidic Processed Foods.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Motokazu; Hosoya, Kouichi; Shimizu-Imanishi, Yumi; Chibana, Hiroji; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The number of spoilage incidents in the food industry attributable to a species of the genus Moniliella has recently increased, but the risk of food spoilage has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to rapidly identify high-risk species and to conduct a risk analysis study of Moniliella spp. Acetic acid resistance of M. acetoabutens and ethanol resistance of M. suaveolens were higher than for other Moniliella species. All examined strains of M. acetoabutens developed a high tolerance to acetic acid by being cultured twice in liquid media containing low concentrations of acetic acid. These findings indicate that M. acetoabutens and M. suaveolens are high-risk species for food spoilage and must be discriminated from other fungi. We developed species-specific primers to identify M. acetoabutens and M. suaveolens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the D1/D2 domain of 28S rDNA. The PCR using the primer sets designed for M. acetoabutens (Mac_F1/R1) and M. suaveolens (Msu_F1/R1) was specific to the target species and did not detect other fungi involved in food spoilage or environmental contamination. This method is expected to be effective for the monitoring of raw materials and components of the food production process.

  5. Investigating the fluid dynamics of rapid processes within microfluidic devices using bright-field microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pirbodaghi, Tohid; Vigolo, Daniele; Akbari, Samin; deMello, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    The widespread application of microfluidic devices in the biological and chemical sciences requires the implementation of complex designs and geometries, which in turn leads to atypical fluid dynamic phenomena. Accordingly, a complete understanding of fluid dynamics in such systems is key in the facile engineering of novel and efficient analytical tools. Herein, we present an accurate approach for studying the fluid dynamics of rapid processes within microfluidic devices using bright-field microscopy with white light illumination and a standard high-speed camera. Specifically, we combine Ghost Particle Velocimetry and the detection of moving objects in automated video surveillance to track submicron size tracing particles via cross correlation between the speckle patterns of successive images. The efficacy of the presented technique is demonstrated by measuring the flow field over a square pillar (80 μm × 80 μm) in a 200 μm wide microchannel at high volumetric flow rates. Experimental results are in excellent agreement with those obtained via computational fluid dynamics simulations. The method is subsequently used to study the dynamics of droplet generation at a flow focusing microfluidic geometry. A unique feature of the presented technique is the ability to perform velocimetry analysis of high-speed phenomena, which is not possible using micron-resolution particle image velocimetry (μPIV) approaches based on confocal or fluorescence microscopy. PMID:25812165

  6. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cantiani, Chiara; Molteni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP) deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of non-verbal tone sequences. Participants were 46 children aged 8–14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia). Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ) (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length), and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children's performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children's difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older) children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs. short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs. long tones and for long vs. short ISIs predict non-word and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness. In conclusion, the relationship between non-verbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with subgroup

  7. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cantiani, Chiara; Molteni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP) deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of non-verbal tone sequences. Participants were 46 children aged 8-14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia). Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ) (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length), and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children's performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children's difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older) children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs. short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs. long tones and for long vs. short ISIs predict non-word and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness. In conclusion, the relationship between non-verbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with subgroup

  8. The role of stimulus cross-splicing in an event-related potentials study. Misleading formant transitions hinder automatic phonological processing.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Johanna; Truckenbrodt, Hubert; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    The mental organization of linguistic knowledge and its involvement in speech processing can be investigated using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential. A contradiction arises, however, between the technical need for strict control of acoustic stimulus properties and the quest for naturalness and acoustic variability of the stimuli. Here, two methods of preparing speech stimulus material were compared. Focussing on the automatic processing of a phonotactic restriction in German, two corresponding sets of various vowel-fricative syllables were used as stimuli. The former syllables were naturally spoken while the latter ones were created by means of cross-splicing. Phonetically, natural and spliced syllables differed with respect to the appropriateness of coarticulatory information about the forthcoming fricative within the vowels. Spliced syllables containing clearly misleading phonetic information were found to elicit larger N2 responses compared to their natural counterparts. Furthermore, MMN results found for the natural syllables could not be replicated with these spliced stimuli. These findings indicate that the automatic processing of the stimuli was considerably affected by the stimulus preparation method. Thus, in spite of its unquestioned benefits for MMN experiments, the splicing technique may lead to interference effects on the linguistic factors under investigation. PMID:22501085

  9. RAPID ACOUSTIC PROCESSING IN THE AUDITORY BRAINSTEM IS NOT RELATED TO CORTICAL ASYMMETRY FOR THE SYLLABLE RATE OF SPEECH

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Daniel A.; Nicol, Trent; Zecker, Steven; Kraus, Nina

    2010-01-01

    Objective Temporal acuity in the auditory brainstem is correlated with left-dominant patterns of cortical asymmetry for processing rapid speech-sound stimuli. Here we investigate whether a similar relationship exists between brainstem processing of rapid speech components and cortical processing of syllable patterns in speech. Methods We measured brainstem and cortical evoked potentials in response to speech tokens in 23 children. We used established measures of auditory brainstem and cortical activity to examine functional relationships between these structures. Results We found no relationship between brainstem responses to fast acoustic elements of speech and right-dominant cortical processing of syllable patterns. Conclusions Brainstem processing of rapid elements in speech is not functionally related to rightward cortical asymmetry associated with the processing of syllable-rate features in speech. Viewed together with previous evidence linking brainstem timing with leftward cortical asymmetry for faster acoustic features, findings support the existence of distinct mechanisms for encoding rapid vs. slow elements of speech. Significance Results provide a fundamental advance in our knowledge of the segregation of subcortical input associated with cortical asymmetries for acoustic rate processing in the human auditory system. Implications of these findings for auditory perception, reading ability and development are discussed. PMID:20378402

  10. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.

    1988-02-16

    An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

  11. Automatic stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report concerns the study of automatic stabilizers and extends it to include the control of the three-control system of the airplane instead of just altitude control. Some of the topics discussed include lateral disturbed motion, static stability, the mathematical theory of lateral motion, and large angles of incidence. Various mechanisms and stabilizers are also discussed. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression, achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

  12. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, N.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

  13. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.

    1989-03-21

    An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

  14. Attaining Automaticity in the Visual Numerosity Task is Not Automatic

    PubMed Central

    Speelman, Craig P.; Muller Townsend, Katrina L.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment is a replication of experiments reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993) using the visual numerosity task. The aim was to replicate the transition from controlled to automatic processing reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993), and to examine the extent to which this result, reported with average group results, can be observed in the results of individuals within a group. The group results in this experiment did replicate those reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993); however, one half of the sample did not attain automaticity with the task, and one-third did not exhibit a transition from controlled to automatic processing. These results raise questions about the pervasiveness of automaticity, and the interpretation of group means when examining cognitive processes. PMID:26635658

  15. A novel GIS-based tool for estimating present-day ocean reference depth using automatically processed gridded bathymetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurecka, Mirosława; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Migoń, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computing the present-day value of the reference depth (dr) which is an essential input information for assessment of past sea-level changes. The method applies a novel automatic geoprocessing tool developed using Python script and ArcGIS, and uses recent data about ocean floor depth, sediment thickness, and age of oceanic crust. The procedure is multi-step and involves creation of a bathymetric dataset corrected for sediment loading and isostasy, delineation of subduction zones, computation of perpendicular sea-floor profiles, and statistical analysis of these profiles versus crust age. The analysis of site-specific situations near the subduction zones all around the world shows a number of instances where the depth of the oceanic crust stabilizes at a certain level before reaching the subduction zone, and this occurs at depths much lower than proposed in previous approaches to the reference depth issue. An analysis of Jurassic and Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere shows that the most probable interval at which the reference depth occurs is 5300-5800 m. This interval is broadly consistent with dr estimates determined using the Global Depth-Heatflow model (GDH1), but is significantly lower than dr estimates calculated on a basis of the Parsons-Sclater Model (PSM).

  16. Optimizing the real-time automatic location of the events produced in Romania using an advanced processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neagoe, Cristian; Grecu, Bogdan; Manea, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) operates a real time seismic network which is designed to monitor the seismic activity on the Romanian territory, which is dominated by the intermediate earthquakes (60-200 km) from Vrancea area. The ability to reduce the impact of earthquakes on society depends on the existence of a large number of high-quality observational data. The development of the network in recent years and an advanced seismic acquisition are crucial to achieving this objective. The software package used to perform the automatic real-time locations is Seiscomp3. An accurate choice of the Seiscomp3 setting parameters is necessary to ensure the best performance of the real-time system i.e., the most accurate location for the earthquakes and avoiding any false events. The aim of this study is to optimize the algorithms of the real-time system that detect and locate the earthquakes in the monitored area. This goal is pursued by testing different parameters (e.g., STA/LTA, filters applied to the waveforms) on a data set of representative earthquakes of the local seismicity. The results are compared with the locations from the Romanian Catalogue ROMPLUS.

  17. A processing-modeling routine to use rough data from automatic weather stations in snowpack mass dynamics modeling at fine temporal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanzi, Francesco; De Michele, Carlo; Ghezzi, Antonio; Jommi, Cristina; Pepe, Monica

    2015-04-01

    We discuss a proposal of coupled routine to process rough data from automatic weather stations at an hourly resolution and to model snowpack mass dynamics. Seasonal snow represents an important component of the water cycle in mountain environment, and the modeling of its mass dynamics is a living topic in modern hydrology, given the expected modifications of the climate in the near future. Nevertheless, model forcing, calibration and evaluation operations are often hampered by the noisiness of rough data from automatic weather stations. The noise issue include, among others, non-physical temperature-based fluctuations of the signal or gauge under-catch. Consequently, it can be difficult to quantify precipitation inputs, accumulation/ablation periods or melt-runoff timing and amounts. This problem is particularly relevant at fine temporal resolution (e.g., the hourly one). To tackle this issue, 40 SNOTEL sites from western US are here considered, and the proposed processing-modeling routine is applied on multi-year datasets to assess its performances to both process hourly data and model snowpack dynamics. A simple one-layer snowpack model is used for this purpose. Specific attention is paid to remove sub-daily erroneous oscillations of snow depth. Under these assumptions, we can separate events of different types and recover catch deficiency by means of a data-fusion procedure that relies on the mass conservation law, instead of site- or instrument-specific relations. Since the considered model needs the calibration of two parameters, and given that sub-daily physical oscillations in snow depth data are difficult to be separated from instrument noise, a coupled processing-modeling procedure has been designed. Results prove that noise can be successfully removed from data, and that sub-daily data-series can be exploited as useful sources to model snowpack dynamics.

  18. Automatic dilution gaging of rapidly varying flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerk, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis showed that the discharges measured by dye-dilution techniques were generally within ± 10 percent of the discharges determined from ratings established by current-meter measurements. Larger differences were noted at the start of and on the rising limb of four hydrographs. Of the 20 storms monitored, dilution measurements on 17 were of acceptable accuracy. Peak discharges from the open-channel site ranged from 0 to 12 percent departures from the existing rating whereas the comparison of peak discharge at the storm sewer site ranged from 0 to 5 percent departures from the existing rating.

  19. Comparison of a semi-automatic annotation tool and a natural language processing application for the generation of clinical statement entries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Heng; Wu, Nai-Yuan; Lai, Wei-Shao; Liou, Der-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Electronic medical records with encoded entries should enhance the semantic interoperability of document exchange. However, it remains a challenge to encode the narrative concept and to transform the coded concepts into a standard entry-level document. This study aimed to use a novel approach for the generation of entry-level interoperable clinical documents. Methods Using HL7 clinical document architecture (CDA) as the example, we developed three pipelines to generate entry-level CDA documents. The first approach was a semi-automatic annotation pipeline (SAAP), the second was a natural language processing (NLP) pipeline, and the third merged the above two pipelines. We randomly selected 50 test documents from the i2b2 corpora to evaluate the performance of the three pipelines. Results The 50 randomly selected test documents contained 9365 words, including 588 Observation terms and 123 Procedure terms. For the Observation terms, the merged pipeline had a significantly higher F-measure than the NLP pipeline (0.89 vs 0.80, p<0.0001), but a similar F-measure to that of the SAAP (0.89 vs 0.87). For the Procedure terms, the F-measure was not significantly different among the three pipelines. Conclusions The combination of a semi-automatic annotation approach and the NLP application seems to be a solution for generating entry-level interoperable clinical documents. PMID:25332357

  20. Insight into the Physical and Dynamical Processes that Control Rapid Increases in Total Flash Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") have been observed for many decades. Lightning jumps have been well correlated to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The main focus of lightning jump work has been on the development of lightning algorithms to be used in real-time assessment of storm intensity. However, in these studies it is typically assumed that the updraft "increases" without direct measurements of the vertical motion, or specification of which updraft characteristic actually increases (e.g., average speed, maximum speed, or convective updraft volume). Therefore, an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling rapid increases in total flash rate to increases in updraft speed and volume must be understood in order to ultimately relate lightning occurrence to severe storm metrics. Herein, we use polarimetric, multi-Doppler, and lightning mapping array measurements to provide physical context as to why rapid increases in total lightning are closely tied to severe and hazardous weather.

  1. Processing factors affecting the clarity of a rapid-curing clear acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Keng, S B; Cruickshanks-Boyd, D W; Davies, E H

    1979-10-01

    The difficulty in repeatedly producing unblemished, clear acrylic resin in the dental laboratory has hindered its wider use, despite its many advantages over coloured material. Recently, rapid-cure dental acrylics have been introduced, which are available in both clear and coloured forms. This investigation examined various factors which may influence the production of unblemished, rapid-curing, clear acrylic resin. Utilizing a quantitative assessment of clarity, the most important factor influencing the clarity of the resin is shown to be the choice of separating medium. Tin-foil produces extremely high clarity, but alginate mould separator causes surface blanching. However, this surface blanching can be removed by polishing. Porosity, caused by too rapid curing, and stone model dryness are of only secondary importance. Possible water contamination of the monomer liquid due to accidental exposure only affects clarity at very high levels of contamination.

  2. Rapidly solidified ceramics: Processing, structure, and magnetic properties. Progress report, September 1984--January 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Kalonji, G.M.; O`Handley, R.C.

    1985-12-31

    Since its initiation in September 1984, work under this contract has progressed in two areas: construction of a gas atomizer for rapid solidification of ceramics; and characterization of rapidly solidified materials in the SrO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, BaO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2}, and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2} systems. This report summarize this work.

  3. Is VIRTU4L Larger than VIR7UAL? Automatic Processing of Number Quantity and Lexical Representations in Leet Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Orza, Javier; Comesaña, Montserrat; Piñeiro, Ana; Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that leet words (i.e., words in which some of the letters are replaced by visually similar digits; e.g., VIRTU4L) can be processed as their base words without much cost. However, it remains unclear whether the digits inserted in leet words are simply processed as letters or whether they are simultaneously processed as…

  4. Contributions to a neurophysiology of meaning: the interpretation of written messages could be an automatic stimulus-reaction mechanism before becoming conscious processing of information.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Roberto; Convertini, Livia S; Quatraro, Sabrina; Ressa, Stefania; Velasco, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Background. Even though the interpretation of natural language messages is generally conceived as the result of a conscious processing of the message content, the influence of unconscious factors is also well known. What is still insufficiently known is the way such factors work. We have tackled interpretation assuming it is a process, whose basic features are the same for the whole humankind, and employing a naturalistic approach (careful observation of phenomena in conditions the closest to "natural" ones, and precise description before and independently of data statistical analysis). Methodology. Our field research involved a random sample of 102 adults. We presented them with a complete real world-like case of written communication using unabridged message texts. We collected data (participants' written reports on their interpretations) in controlled conditions through a specially designed questionnaire (closed and opened answers); then, we treated it through qualitative and quantitative methods. Principal Findings. We gathered some evidence that, in written message interpretation, between reading and the attribution of conscious meaning, an intermediate step could exist (we named it "disassembling") which looks like an automatic reaction to the text words/expressions. Thus, the process of interpretation would be a discontinuous sequence of three steps having different natures: the initial "decoding" step (i.e., reading, which requires technical abilities), disassembling (the automatic reaction, an unconscious passage) and the final conscious attribution of meaning. If this is true, words and expressions would firstly function like physical stimuli, before being taken into account as symbols. Such hypothesis, once confirmed, could help explaining some links between the cultural (human communication) and the biological (stimulus-reaction mechanisms as the basis for meanings) dimension of humankind. PMID:26528419

  5. Internally- and externally-driven network transitions as a basis for automatic and strategic processes in semantic priming: theory and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Itamar; Shriki, Oren

    2014-01-01

    For the last four decades, semantic priming-the facilitation in recognition of a target word when it follows the presentation of a semantically related prime word-has been a central topic in research of human cognitive processing. Studies have drawn a complex picture of findings which demonstrated the sensitivity of this priming effect to a unique combination of variables, including, but not limited to, the type of relatedness between primes and targets, the prime-target Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA), the relatedness proportion (RP) in the stimuli list and the specific task subjects are required to perform. Automatic processes depending on the activation patterns of semantic representations in memory and controlled strategies adapted by individuals when attempting to maximize their recognition performance have both been implicated in contributing to the results. Lately, we have published a new model of semantic priming that addresses the majority of these findings within one conceptual framework. In our model, semantic memory is depicted as an attractor neural network in which stochastic transitions from one stored pattern to another are continually taking place due to synaptic depression mechanisms. We have shown how such transitions, in combination with a reinforcement-learning rule that adjusts their pace, resemble the classic automatic and controlled processes involved in semantic priming and account for a great number of the findings in the literature. Here, we review the core findings of our model and present new simulations that show how similar principles of parameter-adjustments could account for additional data not addressed in our previous studies, such as the relation between expectancy and inhibition in priming, target frequency and target degradation effects. Finally, we describe two human experiments that validate several key predictions of the model.

  6. Contributions to a neurophysiology of meaning: the interpretation of written messages could be an automatic stimulus-reaction mechanism before becoming conscious processing of information.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Roberto; Convertini, Livia S; Quatraro, Sabrina; Ressa, Stefania; Velasco, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Background. Even though the interpretation of natural language messages is generally conceived as the result of a conscious processing of the message content, the influence of unconscious factors is also well known. What is still insufficiently known is the way such factors work. We have tackled interpretation assuming it is a process, whose basic features are the same for the whole humankind, and employing a naturalistic approach (careful observation of phenomena in conditions the closest to "natural" ones, and precise description before and independently of data statistical analysis). Methodology. Our field research involved a random sample of 102 adults. We presented them with a complete real world-like case of written communication using unabridged message texts. We collected data (participants' written reports on their interpretations) in controlled conditions through a specially designed questionnaire (closed and opened answers); then, we treated it through qualitative and quantitative methods. Principal Findings. We gathered some evidence that, in written message interpretation, between reading and the attribution of conscious meaning, an intermediate step could exist (we named it "disassembling") which looks like an automatic reaction to the text words/expressions. Thus, the process of interpretation would be a discontinuous sequence of three steps having different natures: the initial "decoding" step (i.e., reading, which requires technical abilities), disassembling (the automatic reaction, an unconscious passage) and the final conscious attribution of meaning. If this is true, words and expressions would firstly function like physical stimuli, before being taken into account as symbols. Such hypothesis, once confirmed, could help explaining some links between the cultural (human communication) and the biological (stimulus-reaction mechanisms as the basis for meanings) dimension of humankind.

  7. Contributions to a neurophysiology of meaning: the interpretation of written messages could be an automatic stimulus-reaction mechanism before becoming conscious processing of information

    PubMed Central

    Convertini, Livia S.; Quatraro, Sabrina; Ressa, Stefania; Velasco, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Background. Even though the interpretation of natural language messages is generally conceived as the result of a conscious processing of the message content, the influence of unconscious factors is also well known. What is still insufficiently known is the way such factors work. We have tackled interpretation assuming it is a process, whose basic features are the same for the whole humankind, and employing a naturalistic approach (careful observation of phenomena in conditions the closest to “natural” ones, and precise description before and independently of data statistical analysis). Methodology. Our field research involved a random sample of 102 adults. We presented them with a complete real world-like case of written communication using unabridged message texts. We collected data (participants’ written reports on their interpretations) in controlled conditions through a specially designed questionnaire (closed and opened answers); then, we treated it through qualitative and quantitative methods. Principal Findings. We gathered some evidence that, in written message interpretation, between reading and the attribution of conscious meaning, an intermediate step could exist (we named it “disassembling”) which looks like an automatic reaction to the text words/expressions. Thus, the process of interpretation would be a discontinuous sequence of three steps having different natures: the initial “decoding” step (i.e., reading, which requires technical abilities), disassembling (the automatic reaction, an unconscious passage) and the final conscious attribution of meaning. If this is true, words and expressions would firstly function like physical stimuli, before being taken into account as symbols. Such hypothesis, once confirmed, could help explaining some links between the cultural (human communication) and the biological (stimulus-reaction mechanisms as the basis for meanings) dimension of humankind. PMID:26528419

  8. The potential for early and rapid pathogen detection within poultry processing through hyperspectral microscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acquisition of hyperspectral microscopic images containing both spatial and spectral data has shown potential for the early and rapid optical classification of foodborne pathogens. A hyperspectral microscope with a metal halide light source and acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) collects 89 ...

  9. Containerless processing and rapid solidification of Nb-Si alloys in the niobium-rich eutectic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmeister, W. H.; Bayuzick, R. J.; Robinson, M. B.; Bertero, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Containerless processing and rapid solidification techniques were used to process Nb-Si alloys in the Nb-rich eutectic range. Electromagnetically levitated drops were melted and subsequently splat-quenched from different temperatures. A variety of eutectic morphologies was obtained as a function of the degree of superheating or undercooling of the drops prior to splatting. Metallic glass was observed only in drops quenched from above the melting temperature. Microstructures of splats deeply undercooled prior to quenching were very fine and uniform. These results are discussed in terms of classic nucleation theory concepts and the expected heat evolution at different regions of the splat during the rapid quenching process. The locations of the coupled-zone boundaries for the alpha-Nb + Nb3Si eutectic are also suggested.

  10. Speech perception, rapid temporal processing, and the left hemisphere: a case study of unilateral pure word deafness.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Martin, Randi C; Hamilton, A Cris; Joanisse, Marc F

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms and functional anatomy underlying the early stages of speech perception are still not well understood. One way to investigate the cognitive and neural underpinnings of speech perception is by investigating patients with speech perception deficits but with preserved ability in other domains of language. One such case is reported here: patient NL shows highly impaired speech perception despite normal hearing ability and preserved semantic knowledge, speaking, and reading ability, and is thus classified as a case of pure word deafness (PWD). NL has a left temporoparietal lesion without right hemisphere damage and DTI imaging suggests that he has preserved cross-hemispheric connectivity, arguing against an account of PWD as a disconnection of left lateralized language areas from auditory input. Two experiments investigated whether NL's speech perception deficit could instead result from an underlying problem with rapid temporal processing. Experiment 1 showed that NL has particular difficulty discriminating sounds that differ in terms of rapid temporal changes, be they speech or non-speech sounds. Experiment 2 employed an intensive training program designed to improve rapid temporal processing in language impaired children (Fast ForWord; Scientific Learning Corporation, Oakland, CA) and found that NL was able to improve his ability to discriminate rapid temporal differences in non-speech sounds, but not in speech sounds. Overall, these data suggest that patients with unilateral PWD may, in fact, have a deficit in (left lateralized) temporal processing ability, however they also show that a rapid temporal processing deficit is, by itself, unable to account for this patient's speech perception deficit.

  11. Visual processing of rapidly presented stimuli is normalized in Parkinson's disease when proximal stimulus strength is enhanced.

    PubMed

    Amick, Melissa M; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; Gilmore, Grover C

    2003-12-01

    Deficient perception and cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been attributed to slow information processing, but an alternative explanation may be reduced signal strength. In 18 nondemented individuals with PD and 15 healthy adults, we enhanced the contrast level of rapidly flashed masked letters. The PD group required significantly higher contrast to reach criterion (80% accuracy). Normal motion detection in these participants indicated no gross, general dysfunction of the dorsal visual processing stream. These results suggest that putatively slowed processing in PD may be an artifact of reduced signal strength arising from depletion of dopamine in retina or cortical visual areas.

  12. A multi-station matched filter and coherent network processing approach to the automatic detection and relative location of seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Kværna, Tormod

    2014-05-01

    Correlation detectors facilitate seismic monitoring in the near vicinity of previously observed events at far lower detection thresholds than are possible using the methods applied in most existing processing pipelines. The use of seismic arrays has been demonstrated to be highly beneficial in pressing down the detection threshold, due to superior noise suppression, and also in eliminating vast numbers of false alarms by performing array processing on the multi-channel output of the correlation detectors. This last property means that it is highly desirable to run continuous detectors for sites of repeating seismic events on a single-array basis for many arrays across a global network. Spurious detections for a given signal template on a single array can however still occur when an unrelated wavefront crosses the array from a very similar direction to that of the master event wavefront. We present an algorithm which scans automatically the output from multiple stations - both array and 3-component - for coherence between the individual station correlator outputs that is consistent with a disturbance in the vicinity of the master event. The procedure results in a categorical rejection of an event hypothesis in the absence of support from stations other than the one generating the trigger and provides a fully automatic relative event location estimate when patterns in the correlation detector outputs are found to be consistent with a common event. This coherence-based approach removes the need to make explicit measurements of the time-differences for single stations and this eliminates a potential source of error. The method is demonstrated for the North Korea nuclear test site and the relative event location estimates obtained for the 2006, 2009, and 2013 events are compared with previous estimates from different station configurations.

  13. Development and implementation of an automatic integration system for fibre optic sensors in the braiding process with the objective of online-monitoring of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufenbach, W.; Gude, M.; Czulak, A.; Kretschmann, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Increasing economic, political and ecological pressure leads to steadily rising percentage of modern processing and manufacturing processes for fibre reinforced polymers in industrial batch production. Component weights beneath a level achievable by classic construction materials, which lead to a reduced energy and cost balance during product lifetime, justify the higher fabrication costs. However, complex quality control and failure prediction slow down the substitution by composite materials. High-resolution fibre-optic sensors (FOS), due their low diameter, high measuring point density and simple handling, show a high applicability potential for an automated sensor-integration in manufacturing processes, and therefore the online monitoring of composite products manufactured in industrial scale. Integrated sensors can be used to monitor manufacturing processes, part tests as well as the component structure during product life cycle, which simplifies allows quality control during production and the optimization of single manufacturing processes.[1;2] Furthermore, detailed failure analyses lead to a enhanced understanding of failure processes appearing in composite materials. This leads to a lower wastrel number and products of a higher value and longer product life cycle, whereby costs, material and energy are saved. This work shows an automation approach for FOS-integration in the braiding process. For that purpose a braiding wheel has been supplemented with an appliance for automatic sensor application, which has been used to manufacture preforms of high-pressure composite vessels with FOS-networks integrated between the fibre layers. All following manufacturing processes (vacuum infiltration, curing) and component tests (quasi-static pressure test, programmed delamination) were monitored with the help of the integrated sensor networks. Keywords: SHM, high-pressure composite vessel, braiding, automated sensor integration, pressure test, quality control, optic

  14. Rapid communication: Global-local processing affects recognition of distractor emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Narayanan; Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies have shown links between happy faces and global, distributed attention as well as sad faces to local, focused attention. Emotions have been shown to affect global-local processing. Given that studies on emotion-cognition interactions have not explored the effect of perceptual processing at different spatial scales on processing stimuli with emotional content, the present study investigated the link between perceptual focus and emotional processing. The study investigated the effects of global-local processing on the recognition of distractor faces with emotional expressions. Participants performed a digit discrimination task with digits at either the global level or the local level presented against a distractor face (happy or sad) as background. The results showed that global processing associated with broad scope of attention facilitates recognition of happy faces, and local processing associated with narrow scope of attention facilitates recognition of sad faces. The novel results of the study provide conclusive evidence for emotion-cognition interactions by demonstrating the effect of perceptual processing on emotional faces. The results along with earlier complementary results on the effect of emotion on global-local processing support a reciprocal relationship between emotional processing and global-local processing. Distractor processing with emotional information also has implications for theories of selective attention.

  15. The influence of wavelength-dependent radiation in simulation of lamp-heated rapid thermal processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, A.

    1994-08-01

    Understanding the thermal response of lamp-heated rapid thermal processing (RTP) systems requires understanding relatively complex radiation exchange among opaque and partially transmitting surfaces and materials. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of wavelength-dependent radiative properties. The examples used for the analysis consider axisymmetric systems of the kind that were developed by Texas Instruments (TI) for the Microelectronics Manufacturing Science and Technology (MMST) Program and illustrate a number of wavelength-dependent (spectral) effects. The models execute quickly on workstation class computing flatforms, and thus permit rapid comparison of alternative reactor designs and physical models. The fast execution may also permit the incorporation of these models into real-time model-based process control algorithms.

  16. SoilJ - An ImageJ plugin for semi-automatized image-processing of 3-D X-ray images of soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koestel, John

    2016-04-01

    3-D X-ray imaging is a formidable tool for quantifying soil structural properties which are known to be extremely diverse. This diversity necessitates the collection of large sample sizes for adequately representing the spatial variability of soil structure at a specific sampling site. One important bottleneck of using X-ray imaging is however the large amount of time required by a trained specialist to process the image data which makes it difficult to process larger amounts of samples. The software SoilJ aims at removing this bottleneck by automatizing most of the required image processing steps needed to analyze image data of cylindrical soil columns. SoilJ is a plugin of the free Java-based image-processing software ImageJ. The plugin is designed to automatically process all images located with a designated folder. In a first step, SoilJ recognizes the outlines of the soil column upon which the column is rotated to an upright position and placed in the center of the canvas. Excess canvas is removed from the images. Then, SoilJ samples the grey values of the column material as well as the surrounding air in Z-direction. Assuming that the column material (mostly PVC of aluminium) exhibits a spatially constant density, these grey values serve as a proxy for the image illumination at a specific Z-coordinate. Together with the grey values of the air they are used to correct image illumination fluctuations which often occur along the axis of rotation during image acquisition. SoilJ includes also an algorithm for beam-hardening artefact removal and extended image segmentation options. Finally, SoilJ integrates the morphology analyses plugins of BoneJ (Doube et al., 2006, BoneJ Free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ. Bone 47: 1076-1079) and provides an ASCII file summarizing these measures for each investigated soil column, respectively. In the future it is planned to integrate SoilJ into FIJI, the maintained and updated edition of ImageJ with selected

  17. Sensory processing within cockroach antenna enables rapid implementation of feedback control for high-speed running maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Mongeau, Jean-Michel; Sponberg, Simon N; Miller, John P; Full, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    Animals are remarkably stable during high-speed maneuvers. As the speed of locomotion increases, neural bandwidth and processing delays can limit the ability to achieve and maintain stable control. Processing the information of sensory stimuli into a control signal within the sensor itself could enable rapid implementation of whole-body feedback control during high-speed locomotion. Here, we show that processing in antennal afferents is sufficient to act as the control signal for a fast sensorimotor loop. American cockroaches Periplaneta americana use their antennae to mediate escape running by tracking vertical surfaces such as walls. A control theoretic model of wall following predicts that stable control is possible if the animal can compute wall position (P) and velocity, its derivative (D). Previous whole-nerve recordings from the antenna during simulated turning experiments demonstrated a population response consistent with P and D encoding, and suggested that the response was synchronized with the timing of a turn executed while wall following. Here, we record extracellularly from individual mechanoreceptors distributed along the antenna and show that these receptors encode D and have distinct latencies and filtering properties. The summed output of these receptors can be used as a control signal for rapid steering maneuvers. The D encoding within the antenna in addition to the temporal filtering properties and P dependence of the population of afferents support a sensory-encoding notion from control theory. Our findings support the notion that peripheral sensory processing can enable rapid implementation of whole-body feedback control during rapid running maneuvers.

  18. New technologies applied to surgical processes: Virtual Reality and rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Mejías, Cristina; Gomez-Ciriza, Gorka; Valverde, Israel; Parra Calderón, Carlos; Gómez-Cía, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    AYRA is software of virtual reality for training, planning and optimizing surgical procedures. AYRA was developed under a research, development and innovation project financed by the Andalusian Ministry of Health, called VirSSPA. Nowadays AYRA has been successfully used in more than 1160 real cases and after proving its efficiency it has been introduced in the clinical practice at the Virgen del Rocío University Hospital . Furthermore, AYRA allows generating physical 3D biomodels using rapid prototyping technology. They are used for surgical planning support, intraoperative reference or defect reconstruction. In this paper, some of these tools and some real cases are presented.

  19. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  20. GAIT-ER-AID: An Expert System for Analysis of Gait with Automatic Intelligent Pre-Processing of Data

    PubMed Central

    Bontrager, EL.; Perry, J.; Bogey, R.; Gronley, J.; Barnes, L.; Bekey, G.; Kim, JW.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture and applications of an expert system designed to identify the specific muscles responsible for a given dysfunctional gait pattern. The system consists of two parts: a data analysis expert system (DA/ES) and a gait pathology expert system (GP/ES). The DA/ES processes raw data on joint angles, foot-floor contact patterns and EMG's from relevant muscles and synthesizes them into a data frame for use by the GP/ES. Various aspects of the intelligent data pre-processing are described in detail, followed by a presentation of the GP/ES, including its structure, knowledge base, rule base, and inference engine. The inference process is clarified by careful analysis of an actual case, a patient with an equinus gait.

  1. A new automatic synthetic aperture radar-based flood mapping application hosted on the European Space Agency's Grid Processing of Demand Fast Access to Imagery environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matgen, Patrick; Giustarini, Laura; Hostache, Renaud

    2012-10-01

    This paper introduces an automatic flood mapping application that is hosted on the Grid Processing on Demand (GPOD) Fast Access to Imagery (Faire) environment of the European Space Agency. The main objective of the online application is to deliver operationally flooded areas using both recent and historical acquisitions of SAR data. Having as a short-term target the flooding-related exploitation of data generated by the upcoming ESA SENTINEL-1 SAR mission, the flood mapping application consists of two building blocks: i) a set of query tools for selecting the "crisis image" and the optimal corresponding "reference image" from the G-POD archive and ii) an algorithm for extracting flooded areas via change detection using the previously selected "crisis image" and "reference image". Stakeholders in flood management and service providers are able to log onto the flood mapping application to get support for the retrieval, from the rolling archive, of the most appropriate reference image. Potential users will also be able to apply the implemented flood delineation algorithm. The latter combines histogram thresholding, region growing and change detection as an approach enabling the automatic, objective and reliable flood extent extraction from SAR images. Both algorithms are computationally efficient and operate with minimum data requirements. The case study of the high magnitude flooding event that occurred in July 2007 on the Severn River, UK, and that was observed with a moderateresolution SAR sensor as well as airborne photography highlights the performance of the proposed online application. The flood mapping application on G-POD can be used sporadically, i.e. whenever a major flood event occurs and there is a demand for SAR-based flood extent maps. In the long term, a potential extension of the application could consist in systematically extracting flooded areas from all SAR images acquired on a daily, weekly or monthly basis.

  2. Analyzing Collaborative Learning Processes Automatically: Exploiting the Advances of Computational Linguistics in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Carolyn; Wang, Yi-Chia; Cui, Yue; Arguello, Jaime; Stegmann, Karsten; Weinberger, Armin; Fischer, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In this article we describe the emerging area of text classification research focused on the problem of collaborative learning process analysis both from a broad perspective and more specifically in terms of a publicly available tool set called TagHelper tools. Analyzing the variety of pedagogically valuable facets of learners' interactions is a…

  3. Authentication of processed meat products by peptidomic analysis using rapid ambient mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Montowska, Magdalena; Alexander, Morgan R; Tucker, Gregory A; Barrett, David A

    2015-11-15

    We present the application of a novel ambient LESA-MS method for the authentication of processed meat products. A set of 25 species and protein-specific heat stable peptide markers has been detected in processed samples manufactured from beef, pork, horse, chicken and turkey meat. We demonstrate that several peptides derived from myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins are sufficiently resistant to processing to serve as specific markers of processed products. The LESA-MS technique required minimal sample preparation without fractionation and enabled the unambiguous and simultaneous identification of skeletal muscle proteins and peptides as well as other components of animal origin, including the milk protein such as casein alpha-S1, in whole meat product digests. We have identified, for the first time, six fast type II and five slow/cardiac type I MHC peptide markers in various processed meat products. The study demonstrates that complex mixtures of processed proteins/peptides can be examined effectively using this approach.

  4. Embodiment and second-language: automatic activation of motor responses during processing spatially associated L2 words and emotion L2 words in a vertical Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence suggests that understanding our first-language (L1) results in reactivation of experiential sensorimotor traces in the brain. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the involvement of these processes during second-language (L2) processing. Participants saw L1 or L2 words referring to entities with a typical location (e.g., star, mole) (Experiment 1 & 2) or to an emotion (e.g., happy, sad) (Experiment 3). Participants responded to the words' ink color with an upward or downward arm movement. Despite word meaning being fully task-irrelevant, L2 automatically activated motor responses similar to L1 even when L2 was acquired rather late in life (age >11). Specifically, words such as star facilitated upward, and words such as root facilitated downward responses. Additionally, words referring to positive emotions facilitated upward, and words referring to negative emotions facilitated downward responses. In summary our study suggests that reactivation of experiential traces is not limited to L1 processing.

  5. Embodiment and second-language: automatic activation of motor responses during processing spatially associated L2 words and emotion L2 words in a vertical Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence suggests that understanding our first-language (L1) results in reactivation of experiential sensorimotor traces in the brain. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the involvement of these processes during second-language (L2) processing. Participants saw L1 or L2 words referring to entities with a typical location (e.g., star, mole) (Experiment 1 & 2) or to an emotion (e.g., happy, sad) (Experiment 3). Participants responded to the words' ink color with an upward or downward arm movement. Despite word meaning being fully task-irrelevant, L2 automatically activated motor responses similar to L1 even when L2 was acquired rather late in life (age >11). Specifically, words such as star facilitated upward, and words such as root facilitated downward responses. Additionally, words referring to positive emotions facilitated upward, and words referring to negative emotions facilitated downward responses. In summary our study suggests that reactivation of experiential traces is not limited to L1 processing. PMID:24681402

  6. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1990-01-01

    The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

  7. A new geometrical approach for rapid LED processing by using femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reklaitis, I.; Grinys, T.; Tomašiūnas, R.; Puodžiūnas, T.; Mažulė, L.; Sirutkaitis, V.; Lin, C. H.; Yang, C. C.

    2015-11-01

    A new original method to reduce time and resource consuming photolithography mask production operations has been suggested. By means of femtosecond laser direct writing, thus, gaining cleaner surrounding than for nano- and pico-second pulse processing, a 45° angle ablation geometry has been proven. LED chip separation trenches and n-GaN layer exposure were made simultaneously saving from one fundamental processing and alignment step without adverse effect from the laser-processing on the quantum well region.

  8. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jian; Chai, Xin Sheng; Zhu, Junyoung

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  9. Rapid processing of chemosensor transients in a neuromorphic implementation of the insect macroglomerular complex

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Timothy C.; Karout, Salah; Rácz, Zoltán; Capurro, Alberto; Gardner, Julian W.; Cole, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We present a biologically-constrained neuromorphic spiking model of the insect antennal lobe macroglomerular complex that encodes concentration ratios of chemical components existing within a blend, implemented using a set of programmable logic neuronal modeling cores. Depending upon the level of inhibition and symmetry in its inhibitory connections, the model exhibits two dynamical regimes: fixed point attractor (winner-takes-all type), and limit cycle attractor (winnerless competition type) dynamics. We show that, when driven by chemosensor input in real-time, the dynamical trajectories of the model's projection neuron population activity accurately encode the concentration ratios of binary odor mixtures in both dynamical regimes. By deploying spike timing-dependent plasticity in a subset of the synapses in the model, we demonstrate that a Hebbian-like associative learning rule is able to organize weights into a stable configuration after exposure to a randomized training set comprising a variety of input ratios. Examining the resulting local interneuron weights in the model shows that each inhibitory neuron competes to represent possible ratios across the population, forming a ratiometric representation via mutual inhibition. After training the resulting dynamical trajectories of the projection neuron population activity show amplification and better separation in their response to inputs of different ratios. Finally, we demonstrate that by using limit cycle attractor dynamics, it is possible to recover and classify blend ratio information from the early transient phases of chemosensor responses in real-time more rapidly and accurately compared to a nearest-neighbor classifier applied to the normalized chemosensor data. Our results demonstrate the potential of biologically-constrained neuromorphic spiking models in achieving rapid and efficient classification of early phase chemosensor array transients with execution times well beyond biological timescales. PMID

  10. Thin Silicon-Dioxide Films Grown on Silicon by Low Temperature Plasma Anodization and Rapid Thermal Processing: AN Electrostructural Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Scott Alan

    1988-06-01

    Capacitance-voltage (CV) techniques and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to study the electrical and structural properties of thin (< 200A) SiO_2 films grown on silicon by two reduced thermal load (RTL) processes, RF plasma anodization and rapid thermal processing (RTP), and compare them to furnace oxides. The electrical quality and structural characteristics of the thin films have been monitored as a function of process conditions and parameters. In particular, the plasma process has been studied and an optimal process configuration established which produces oxides with midgap interface state densities of 1 times 10^{11} eV^{-1} cm^ {-2}, Q_{ox} values of 1 times 10 ^{11} cm^{ -2}, and breakdown fields of 13 MV/cm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to compare the average SiO_4 tetrahedral ring structures and the suboxide content of the ~3 nm thick interfacial region of the plasma and rapid thermal oxides and significant structural differences have been identified. By correlating these structural differences with measured electrical differences the structural causes of some of the electrical characteristics found to be particularly prominent in plasma and RTP oxides have been identified. In plasma oxides larger amounts of silicon dangling bonds, P_{b} centers at the Si-SiO_2 interface have been identified as the source of a localized peak of interface states found at 0.3 eV above the silicon valence band. The larger P_{b} center density is probably caused by radiation damage from hot electrons and photons from the plasma, as evidenced by increased numbers of P_{b} centers in oxides grown in higher power and higher voltage plasmas, and by incomplete oxidation of the interface, as evidenced by a decreased P_{b} center density with increased oxidant flux via increased bias current density. Low temperature, 800-850C, rapid thermal annealing of the plasma oxides relieves localized compressive interfacial strain, apparently by allowing

  11. Do I have my attention? Speed of processing advantages for the self-face are not driven by automatic attention capture.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Helen; Dlugokencka, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    We respond more quickly to our own face than to other faces, but there is debate over whether this is connected to attention-grabbing properties of the self-face. In two experiments, we investigate whether the self-face selectively captures attention, and the attentional conditions under which this might occur. In both experiments, we examined whether different types of face (self, friend, stranger) provide differential levels of distraction when processing self, friend and stranger names. In Experiment 1, an image of a distractor face appeared centrally - inside the focus of attention - behind a target name, with the faces either upright or inverted. In Experiment 2, distractor faces appeared peripherally - outside the focus of attention - in the left or right visual field, or bilaterally. In both experiments, self-name recognition was faster than other name recognition, suggesting a self-referential processing advantage. The presence of the self-face did not cause more distraction in the naming task compared to other types of face, either when presented inside (Experiment 1) or outside (Experiment 2) the focus of attention. Distractor faces had different effects across the two experiments: when presented inside the focus of attention (Experiment 1), self and friend images facilitated self and friend naming, respectively. This was not true for stranger stimuli, suggesting that faces must be robustly represented to facilitate name recognition. When presented outside the focus of attention (Experiment 2), no facilitation occurred. Instead, we report an interesting distraction effect caused by friend faces when processing strangers' names. We interpret this as a "social importance" effect, whereby we may be tuned to pick out and pay attention to familiar friend faces in a crowd. We conclude that any speed of processing advantages observed in the self-face processing literature are not driven by automatic attention capture.

  12. Do I Have My Attention? Speed of Processing Advantages for the Self-Face Are Not Driven by Automatic Attention Capture

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Helen; Dlugokencka, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    We respond more quickly to our own face than to other faces, but there is debate over whether this is connected to attention-grabbing properties of the self-face. In two experiments, we investigate whether the self-face selectively captures attention, and the attentional conditions under which this might occur. In both experiments, we examined whether different types of face (self, friend, stranger) provide differential levels of distraction when processing self, friend and stranger names. In Experiment 1, an image of a distractor face appeared centrally – inside the focus of attention – behind a target name, with the faces either upright or inverted. In Experiment 2, distractor faces appeared peripherally – outside the focus of attention – in the left or right visual field, or bilaterally. In both experiments, self-name recognition was faster than other name recognition, suggesting a self-referential processing advantage. The presence of the self-face did not cause more distraction in the naming task compared to other types of face, either when presented inside (Experiment 1) or outside (Experiment 2) the focus of attention. Distractor faces had different effects across the two experiments: when presented inside the focus of attention (Experiment 1), self and friend images facilitated self and friend naming, respectively. This was not true for stranger stimuli, suggesting that faces must be robustly represented to facilitate name recognition. When presented outside the focus of attention (Experiment 2), no facilitation occurred. Instead, we report an interesting distraction effect caused by friend faces when processing strangers’ names. We interpret this as a “social importance” effect, whereby we may be tuned to pick out and pay attention to familiar friend faces in a crowd. We conclude that any speed of processing advantages observed in the self-face processing literature are not driven by automatic attention capture. PMID:25338170

  13. The search for the site of the r-process. [rapid neutron capture in stellar nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, John J.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Truran, J. W.; Sneden, Christopher

    1986-01-01

    A number of sites have been suggested for the r-process, including neutronized cores of exploding supernovae, jets of neutronized matter ejected from the collapse of rotating magnetized stellar cores, the helium and carbon zones of stars undergoing supernova explosions, and helium core flashes in low-mass stars. Despite much work and many advances in nuclear physics, the site or sites of the r-process is still unknown. Observations of metal-poor stars in the halo of the Galaxy indicate r-process production early in the history of the Galaxy and provide important constraints on galactic nucleosynthesis. Further observations of metal-poor stars, along with advances in understanding the nuclear properties of neutron-rich nuclei and improved astrophysical models of stars in the late stages of evolution, should help to identify the site of the r-process.

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Word Processing by First-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttentag, Robert E.; Haith, Marshall M.

    1980-01-01

    Twelve first-grade children were tested on word-reading and automaticity of letter and word processing. Word-reading speed increased steadily during the year. Apparently, their ability to process letters automatically was acquired prior to the ability to read words rapidly and accurately. (Author/CP)

  15. Expedited Site Characterization: A rapid, cost-effective process for preremedial site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Jennings, T.V.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Hastings, B.; Meyer, W.T.; Rose, C.M.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a unique, cost- and time-effective, technically innovative process for preremedial site characterization, referred to as Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). The cost of the ESC field sampling process ranges from 1/10 to 1/5 of the cost of traditional site characterization. The time required for this ESC field activity is approximately 1/30 of that for current methods. Argonne`s preremedial site investigations based on this approach have been accepted by the appropriate regulatory agencies. The ESC process is flexible and neither site nor contaminant dependent. The process has been successfully tested and applied in site investigations of multiple contaminated landfills in New Mexico (for the US Department of the Interior`s Bureau of Land Management [BLM]) and at former grain storage facilities in Nebraska and Kansas, contaminated with carbon tetrachloride (for the Department of Agriculture`s Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC/USDA]). A working demonstration of this process was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development as a model of the methodology needed to accelerate site characterizations at DOE facilities. This report describes the application of the process in New Mexico, Nebraska and Kansas.

  16. Development of a rapid cure polydimethylsiloxane replication process with near-zero shrinkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badshah, Mohsin Ali; Jang, Hyungjun; Kim, Young Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Kim, Seok-min

    2014-07-01

    Replicated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro/nanostructures are widely used in various research fields due to their inexpensiveness, flexibility, low surface energy, good optical properties, biocompatibility, chemical inertness, high durability, and easy fabrication process. However, the application of PDMS micro/nanostructures is limited when an accurate pattern shape or position is required because of the shrinkage that occurs during the PDMS curing process. In this study, we analyzed the effects of processing parameters in the PDMS replication process on the shrinkage of the final structure. Although the shrinkage can be decreased by decreasing the curing temperature, this reduction also increases the unnecessary curing time. To minimize the inherent shrinkage in the PDMS replica without an accompanying curing time increase, we propose a PDMS replication process on a high modulus substrate (glass and polymer films) with compression pressure, in which the adhesion force between the substrate and the PDMS, and the compression pressure prevent shrinkage during the curing process. Using the proposed method, a PDMS replica with less than 0.1% in-plane and vertical shrinkage was obtained at a curing temperature of 150°C and a curing time of 10 min.

  17. A Rapid Turn-around, Scalable Big Data Processing Capability for the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) is an integrated LIDAR and Spectrometer measuring snow depth and rate of snow melt in the Sierra Nevadas, specifically, the Tuolumne River Basin, Sierra Nevada, California above the O'Shaughnessy Dam of the Hetch Hetchy reservoir, and the Uncompahgre Basin, Colorado, amongst other sites. The ASO data was delivered to water resource managers from the California Department of Water Resources in under 24 hours from the time that the Twin Otter aircraft landed in Mammoth Lakes, CA to the time disks were plugged in to the ASO Mobile Compute System (MCS) deployed at the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory (SNARL) near the airport. ASO performed weekly flights and each flight took between 500GB to 1 Terabyte of raw data, which was then processed from level 0 data products all the way to full level 4 maps of Snow Water Equivalent, albedo mosaics, and snow depth from LIDAR. These data were produced by Interactive Data analysis Language (IDL) algorithms which were then unobtrusively and automatically integrated into an Apache OODT and Apache Tika based Big Data processing system. Data movement was both electronic and physical including novel uses of LaCie 1 and 2 TeraByte (TB) data bricks and deployment in rugged terrain. The MCS was controlled remotely from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) in Pasadena, California on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Communication was aided through the use of novel Internet Relay Chat (IRC) command and control mechanisms and through the use of the Notifico open source communication tools. This talk will describe the high powered, and light-weight Big Data processing system that we developed for ASO and its implications more broadly for airborne missions at NASA and throughout the government. The lessons learned from ASO show the potential to have a large impact in the development of Big Data processing systems in the years

  18. Detection of Off-normal Images for NIF Automatic Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; Awwal, A S; McClay, W A; Ferguson, S W; Burkhart, S C

    2005-07-11

    One of the major purposes of National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to accurately focus 192 high energy laser beams on a nanoscale (mm) fusion target at the precise location and time. The automatic alignment system developed for NIF is used to align the beams in order to achieve the required focusing effect. However, if a distorted image is inadvertently created by a faulty camera shutter or some other opto-mechanical malfunction, the resulting image termed ''off-normal'' must be detected and rejected before further alignment processing occurs. Thus the off-normal processor acts as a preprocessor to automatic alignment image processing. In this work, we discuss the development of an ''off-normal'' pre-processor capable of rapidly detecting the off-normal images and performing the rejection. Wide variety of off-normal images for each loop is used to develop the criterion for rejections accurately.

  19. Towards excimer-laser-based stereolithography: a rapid process to fabricate rigid biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Beke, S; Anjum, F; Tsushima, H; Ceseracciu, L; Chieregatti, E; Diaspro, A; Athanassiou, A; Brandi, F

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate high-resolution photocross-linking of biodegradable poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and diethyl fumarate (DEF) using UV excimer laser photocuring at 308 nm. The curing depth can be tuned in a micrometre range by adjusting the total energy dose (total fluence). Young's moduli of the scaffolds are found to be a few gigapascal, high enough to support bone formation. The results presented here demonstrate that the proposed technique is an excellent tool for the fabrication of stiff and biocompatible structures on a micrometre scale with defined patterns of high resolution in all three spatial dimensions. Using UV laser photocuring at 308 nm will significantly improve the speed of rapid prototyping of biocompatible and biodegradable polymer scaffolds and enables its production in a few seconds, providing high lateral and horizontal resolution. This short timescale is indeed a tremendous asset that will enable a more efficient translation of technology to clinical applications. Preliminary cell tests proved that PPF : DEF scaffolds produced by excimer laser photocuring are biocompatible and, therefore, are promising candidates to be applied in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  20. Rapid Sample Processing for Detection of Food-Borne Pathogens via Cross-Flow Microfiltration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Ximenes, Eduardo; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Vibbert, Hunter B.; Foster, Kirk; Jones, Jim; Liu, Xingya; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an approach to enable rapid concentration and recovery of bacterial cells from aqueous chicken homogenates as a preanalytical step of detection. This approach includes biochemical pretreatment and prefiltration of food samples and development of an automated cell concentration instrument based on cross-flow microfiltration. A polysulfone hollow-fiber membrane module having a nominal pore size of 0.2 μm constitutes the core of the cell concentration instrument. The aqueous chicken homogenate samples were circulated within the cross-flow system achieving 500- to 1,000-fold concentration of inoculated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and naturally occurring microbiota with 70% recovery of viable cells as determined by plate counting and quantitative PCR (qPCR) within 35 to 45 min. These steps enabled 10 CFU/ml microorganisms in chicken homogenates or 102 CFU/g chicken to be quantified. Cleaning and sterilizing the instrument and membrane module by stepwise hydraulic and chemical cleaning (sodium hydroxide and ethanol) enabled reuse of the membrane 15 times before replacement. This approach begins to address the critical need for the food industry for detecting food pathogens within 6 h or less. PMID:24014538