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Sample records for automatic rapid processing

  1. Deconstructing Rapid Automatized Naming: Component Processes and the Prediction of Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert; Pillay, Vanitha; Melidona, Santo

    2007-01-01

    This study explores 1) the components of rapid automatized naming (RAN) by first analyzing the factorial associations between RAN tasks and various nonword decoding and processing speed measures and secondly, by exploring which of these process latent variables are uniquely associated with literacy in 65 below-average readers and spellers. In…

  2. Measures of Information Processing in Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Their Relation To Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhaus, Graham; Foorman, Barbara R.; Francis, David J.; Carlson, Coleen D.

    2001-01-01

    Examined articulation and interarticulation (pause) times on Rapid Automatized Naming Tests for first- and second-graders. Found that pause and articulation times for RAN letters and objects were not reliably related, compared to RAN numbers articulation and pause durations. Subtest pause durations were differentially related to reading. RAN…

  3. Component Processes Subserving Rapid Automatized Naming in Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Susana; Inacio, Filomena; Francisco, Ana; Faisca, Luis; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated which time components of rapid automatized naming (RAN) predict group differences between dyslexic and non-dyslexic readers (matched for age and reading level), and how these components relate to different reading measures. Subjects performed two RAN tasks (letters and objects), and data were analyzed through a…

  4. ARP: Automatic rapid processing for the generation of problem dependent SAS2H/ORIGEN-s cross section libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Hermann, O.W.; Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    In this report, a methodology is described which serves as an alternative to the SAS2H path of the SCALE system to generate cross sections for point-depletion calculations with the ORIGEN-S code. ARP, Automatic Rapid Processing, is an algorithm that allows the generation of cross-section libraries suitable to the ORIGEN-S code by interpolation over pregenerated SAS2H libraries. The interpolations are carried out on the following variables: burnup, enrichment, and water density. The adequacy of the methodology is evaluated by comparing measured and computed spent fuel isotopic compositions for PWR and BWR systems.

  5. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, Anthony J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

  6. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  7. An integrated strategy for the rapid extraction and screening of phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylcholines using semi-automatic solid phase extraction and data processing technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenzhu; Zhang, Yani; Yin, Jia; Li, Yubo

    2016-08-26

    This study attempts to establish a comprehensive strategy for the rapid extraction and screening of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs) in biological samples using semi-automatic solid phase extraction (SPE) and data processing technology based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). First, the Ostro sample preparation method (i.e., semi-automatic SPE) was compared with the Bligh-Dyer method in terms of substance coverage, reproducibility and sample preparation time. Meanwhile, the screening method for PCs and LysoPCs was built through mass range screening, mass defect filtering and diagnostic fragments filtering. Then, the Ostro sample preparation method and the aforementioned screening method were combined under optimal conditions to establish a rapid extraction and screening platform. Finally, this developed method was validated and applied to the preparation and data analysis of tissue samples. Through a systematic evaluation, this developed method was shown to provide reliable and high-throughput experimental results and was suitable for the preparation and analysis of tissue samples. Our method provides a novel strategy for the rapid extraction and analysis of functional phospholipids. In addition, this study will promote further study of phospholipids in disease research.

  8. Why Is Rapid Automatized Naming Related to Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno; Cui, Ying; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine why rapid automatized naming (RAN) is related to reading by manipulating processes involved at the input, processing, and output stages of its production. In total, 65 children in Grade 2 and 65 in Grade 6 were assessed on serial and discrete RAN (Digits and Objects), Cancellation, RAN Yes/No, and oral…

  9. A rapid automatic processing platform for bead label-assisted microarray analysis: application for genetic hearing-loss mutation detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiang; Song, Xiumei; Xiang, Guangxin; Feng, Zhengde; Guo, Hongju; Mei, Danyang; Zhang, Guohao; Wang, Dong; Mitchelson, Keith; Xing, Wanli; Cheng, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Molecular diagnostics using microarrays are increasingly being used in clinical diagnosis because of their high throughput, sensitivity, and accuracy. However, standard microarray processing takes several hours and involves manual steps during hybridization, slide clean up, and imaging. Here we describe the development of an integrated platform that automates these individual steps as well as significantly shortens the processing time and improves reproducibility. The platform integrates such key elements as a microfluidic chip, flow control system, temperature control system, imaging system, and automated analysis of clinical results. Bead labeling of microarray signals required a simple imaging system and allowed continuous monitoring of the microarray processing. To demonstrate utility, the automated platform was used to genotype hereditary hearing-loss gene mutations. Compared with conventional microarray processing procedures, the platform increases the efficiency and reproducibility of hybridization, speeding microarray processing through to result analysis. The platform also continuously monitors the microarray signals, which can be used to facilitate optimization of microarray processing conditions. In addition, the modular design of the platform lends itself to development of simultaneous processing of multiple microfluidic chips. We believe the novel features of the platform will benefit its use in clinical settings in which fast, low-complexity molecular genetic testing is required.

  10. Design for a Rapid Automatic Sync Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. O.; Gallo, A. J.

    1969-01-01

    System provides rapid command sync acquisition between widely separated transmitter-receivers. It is based on a rapid, automatic range-adjustment approach rather than the time-consuming cycle slipping or stepping techniques of conventional phase-locked loops.

  11. Design Concept for a Rapid Automatic Sync Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. O.; Gallo, A. J.

    1968-01-01

    A design has been conceived for a system intended to provide rapid command sync acquisition between widely separated transmitter-receivers, such as between a spacecraft telemetry transmitter, and a ground-based receiver. Use of the system in commercial satellite communications would facilitate rapid sync acquisition between stations and regaining of data lock after interruption or equipment failure. The system is based on a rapid, automatic range-adjustment approach rather than the time-consuming cycle slipping or stepping techniques of conventional phase-locked loops.

  12. Automaticity in social-cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Bargh, John A; Schwader, Kay L; Hailey, Sarah E; Dyer, Rebecca L; Boothby, Erica J

    2012-12-01

    Over the past several years, the concept of automaticity of higher cognitive processes has permeated nearly all domains of psychological research. In this review, we highlight insights arising from studies in decision-making, moral judgments, close relationships, emotional processes, face perception and social judgment, motivation and goal pursuit, conformity and behavioral contagion, embodied cognition, and the emergence of higher-level automatic processes in early childhood. Taken together, recent work in these domains demonstrates that automaticity does not result exclusively from a process of skill acquisition (in which a process always begins as a conscious and deliberate one, becoming capable of automatic operation only with frequent use) - there are evolved substrates and early childhood learning mechanisms involved as well.

  13. Rapid Automatized Naming and Immediate Memory Functions in Chinese Mandarin-Speaking Elementary Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yi; Richman, Lynn C.; Yang, Ling-yan; Guo, Jian-peng

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate rapid automatized naming skills (RAN) and immediate memory processes in 243 Chinese Mandarin-speaking elementary readers (ranging from Grade 1 to Grade 5). For RAN subtests, the mean naming time decreased monotonically with grade level in good and average readers, and a similar trajectory was found in poor…

  14. What Automaticity Deficit? Activation of Lexical Information by Readers with Dyslexia in a Rapid Automatized Naming Stroop-Switch Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Manon W.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Moll, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with…

  15. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1993-01-12

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  16. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, Jr., G. Harold

    1993-01-01

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  17. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1991-05-02

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  18. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Stuart J [Richland, WA; Cowley,; E, Wendy [Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Cramer, Nicholas O [Richland, WA

    2012-03-06

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  19. Automatic Memory Processes in Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Debra Kosteski; And Others

    Automatic memory processes were investigated in 10 mild and moderately retarded persons (21 years old) and in 10 chronological age-matched college level and 10 mental age-matched elementary grade control subjects through use of a frequency estimation task. This task required the subjects to view a series of slides, then estimate how many times…

  20. Automatic/Control Processing and Attention.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    changes that occur with practice have lead many researchers to propose that qualitative changes occur in the processing (e.g., James, 1890; LaBerge ...functions are similar. Perception & Psychophvsics, 1972, 12, 378-3G4. (b) March 26, 19C2 Page 22 LaBerge , D. Acquisition of automatic processing in... LaBerge & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), Lasic Proc7’-.es in reading: Perception and comprehension. Hillsdale, N.J.: Schneider, W., & Shiffrin, R. M

  1. Automatic transformations in the inference process

    SciTech Connect

    Veroff, R. L.

    1980-07-01

    A technique for incorporating automatic transformations into processes such as the application of inference rules, subsumption, and demodulation provides a mechanism for improving search strategies for theorem proving problems arising from the field of program verification. The incorporation of automatic transformations into the inference process can alter the search space for a given problem, and is particularly useful for problems having broad rather than deep proofs. The technique can also be used to permit the generation of inferences that might otherwise be blocked and to build some commutativity or associativity into the unification process. Appropriate choice of transformations, and new literal clashing and unification algorithms for applying them, showed significant improvement on several real problems according to several distinct criteria. 22 references, 1 figure.

  2. Automatic draft reading based on image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujii, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hiromi; Iiguni, Youji

    2016-10-01

    In marine transportation, a draft survey is a means to determine the quantity of bulk cargo. Automatic draft reading based on computer image processing has been proposed. However, the conventional draft mark segmentation may fail when the video sequence has many other regions than draft marks and a hull, and the estimated waterline is inherently higher than the true one. To solve these problems, we propose an automatic draft reading method that uses morphological operations to detect draft marks and estimate the waterline for every frame with Canny edge detection and a robust estimation. Moreover, we emulate surveyors' draft reading process for getting the understanding of a shipper and a receiver. In an experiment in a towing tank, the draft reading error of the proposed method was <1 cm, showing the advantage of the proposed method. It is also shown that accurate draft reading has been achieved in a real-world scene.

  3. Automatic Processing of Navy Message Narrative.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-21

    1 Automatic Processing of Navy Message Narrative ELAME MARSH, JUDIT FROMCIBZ RALPH GRISHMAN, 0 HENRY HAmBURGER AND JoAN RACHENKo (0 Naw~ COW fojr...such as date-time groups. 2 I IM II II NRL REPORT 883 P 162305Z AUG 82 FM USS XXXXXXXX TO RUCLBDA/COMINEGRU TWO RUCBSAAICOMNAVSURFLANT NORFOLK VA ...RUCBSAA/CINCLANTFLT NORFOLK VA RUENAAAICNO WASHINGTON DC RUEOALAINAVSAFECEN NORFOLK VA RULSSAA/COMNAVSEASYSCOM WASHINGTON DC RULSSAA/CHNAVMAT WASHINGTON DC

  4. An information processing model of anxiety: automatic and strategic processes.

    PubMed

    Beck, A T; Clark, D A

    1997-01-01

    A three-stage schema-based information processing model of anxiety is described that involves: (a) the initial registration of a threat stimulus; (b) the activation of a primal threat mode; and (c) the secondary activation of more elaborative and reflective modes of thinking. The defining elements of automatic and strategic processing are discussed with the cognitive bias in anxiety reconceptualized in terms of a mixture of automatic and strategic processing characteristics depending on which stage of the information processing model is under consideration. The goal in the treatment of anxiety is to deactivate the more automatic primal threat mode and to strengthen more constructive reflective modes of thinking. Arguments are presented for the inclusion of verbal mediation as a necessary but not sufficient component in the cognitive and behavioral treatment of anxiety.

  5. Automatic document processing system with learning capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuhong; Ng, Peter A.

    2000-08-01

    This automatic document processing system proceeds from scanning a given paper-document into the system, automatic recognizing the document layout structure, classifying it as a particular document type, which is characterized in terms of attributes to form a frame template, and extracting the pertinent information from the document to form its corresponding frame instance, which is an effective digital form of the original document. The key attribute of the system is that it is a general-purpose system, which can be adapted easily to any application domains. A segmentation method based on the 'logical closeness' is proposed. A novel and natural representation of document layout structure -- Labeled Directed Weighted Graph (LDWG) and a methodology of transforming document segmentation into LDWG representation are described. To classify a given document, we compare its layout structure with the sample layout structures of various document types prestored in the knowledge base and then use logical structure to verify the initial matching from the first step. There is a weight associated with each component of the layout structure. During the learning stage, the system can adjust the weights automatically based on the human being's correction. Modified Perceptron Learning Algorithm (PLA) is applied.

  6. A Novel Automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test Reader Platform

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Haydar; Kayhan, Osman Semih

    2016-01-01

    A novel automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) reader platform is designed to analyze and diagnose target disease by using existing consumer cameras of a laptop-computer or a tablet. The RDT reader is useable with numerous lateral immunochromatographic assays and similar biomedical tests. The system has two different components, which are 3D-printed, low-cost, tiny, and compact stand and a decision program named RDT-AutoReader 2.0. The program takes the image of RDT, crops the region of interest (ROI), and extracts the features from the control end test lines to classify the results as invalid, positive, or negative. All related patient's personal information, image of ROI, and the e-report are digitally saved and transferred to the related clinician. Condition of the patient and the progress of the disease can be monitored by using the saved data. The reader platform has been tested by taking image from used cassette RDTs of rotavirus (RtV)/adenovirus (AdV) and lateral flow strip RDTs of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) before discarding them. The created RDT reader can also supply real-time statistics of various illnesses by using databases and Internet. This can help to inhibit propagation of contagious diseases and to increase readiness against epidemic diseases worldwide. PMID:27190549

  7. Chemical etching for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical etching for automatic processing of integrated circuits is discussed. The wafer carrier and loading from a receiving air track into automatic furnaces and unloading onto a sending air track are included.

  8. Rapid Automatized Naming in Children with Dyslexia: Is Inhibitory Control Involved?

    PubMed

    Bexkens, Anika; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Tijms, Jurgen

    2015-08-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is widely seen as an important indicator of dyslexia. The nature of the cognitive processes involved in rapid naming is however still a topic of controversy. We hypothesized that in addition to the involvement of phonological processes and processing speed, RAN is a function of inhibition processes, in particular of interference control. A total 86 children with dyslexia and 31 normal readers were recruited. Our results revealed that in addition to phonological processing and processing speed, interference control predicts rapid naming in dyslexia, but in contrast to these other two cognitive processes, inhibition is not significantly associated with their reading and spelling skills. After variance in reading and spelling associated with processing speed, interference control and phonological processing was partialled out, naming speed was no longer consistently associated with the reading and spelling skills of children with dyslexia. Finally, dyslexic children differed from normal readers on naming speed, literacy skills, phonological processing and processing speed, but not on inhibition processes. Both theoretical and clinical interpretations of these results are discussed.

  9. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    DOEpatents

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  10. Development and Utility of Automatic Language Processing Technologies. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    translation (MT), natural language processing ( NLP ), speech synthesis (TTS) and other speech and language processing technologies. 15. SUBJECT TERMS...Automatic speech recognition (ASR), machine translation (MT), natural language processing ( NLP ), and speech synthesis (TTS). 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...investigating the development and utility of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR), Machine Translation (MT), Natural Language Processing ( NLP ), Speech Synthesis

  11. Cognitive Mechanism Underlying the Relationship between Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading: A Longitudinal Study on Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Susanna S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming has been demonstrated as an important correlate of various reading outcomes. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying the RAN-reading relationship is not well understood. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate three major theoretical accounts for the RAN--reading relationship: phonological processing account,…

  12. Efficient Word Reading: Automaticity of Print-Related Skills Indexed by Rapid Automatized Naming through Cusp-Catastrophe Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Simos, Panagiotis; Mouzaki, Angeliki; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the moderating role of rapid automatized naming (RAN) in reading achievement through a cusp-catastrophe model grounded on nonlinear dynamic systems theory. Data were obtained from a community sample of 496 second through fourth graders who were followed longitudinally over 2 years and split into 2 random subsamples (validation…

  13. Improving Algorithm for Automatic Spectra Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rackovic, K.; Nikolic, S.; Kotrc, P.

    2009-09-01

    Testing and improving of the computer program for automatic processing (flat-fielding) of a great number of solar spectra obtained with the horizontal heliospectrograph HSFA2 has been done. This program was developed in the Astronomical Institute of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in Ondřejov. An irregularity in its work has been discovered, i.e. the program didn't work for some of the spectra. To discover a cause of this error an algorithm has been developed, and a program for examination of the parallelism of reference hairs crossing the spectral slit on records of solar spectra has been made. The standard methods for data processing have been applied-calculating and analyzing higher-order moments of distribution of radiation intensity. The spectra with the disturbed parallelism of the reference hairs have been eliminated from further processing. In order to improve this algorithm of smoothing of spectra, isolation and removal of the harmonic made by a sunspot with multiple elementary transformations of ordinates (Labrouste's transformations) are planned. This project was accomplished at the first summer astronomy practice of students of the Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Serbia in 2007 in Ondřejov.

  14. Method for Processing Liver Spheroids Using an Automatic Tissue Processor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    METHOD FOR PROCESSING LIVER SPHEROIDS USING AN AUTOMATIC TISSUE PROCESSOR ECBC-TN-070 Russell M. Dorsey...response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...COVERED (From - To) Jul 2014 – Jul 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Method for Processing Liver Spheroids Using an Automatic Tissue Processor 5a

  15. Distributed automatic control of technological processes in conditions of weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukhtenko, A. I.; Merkulov, V. I.; Samoylenko, Y. I.; Ladikov-Royev, Y. P.

    1986-01-01

    Some problems associated with the automatic control of liquid metal and plasma systems under conditions of weightlessness are examined, with particular reference to the problem of stability of liquid equilibrium configurations. The theoretical fundamentals of automatic control of processes in electrically conducting continuous media are outlined, and means of using electromagnetic fields for simulating technological processes in a space environment are discussed.

  16. Automatic, Rapid Replanning of Satellite Operations for Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottler, D.; Mahan, K.

    An important component of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is knowledge of the status and tasking of blue forces (e.g. satellites and ground stations) and the rapid determination of the impacts of real or hypothetical changes and the ability to quickly replan based on those changes. For example, if an antenna goes down (either for benign reasons or from purposeful interference) determining which missions will be impacted is important. It is not simply the set of missions that were scheduled to utilize that antenna, because highly expert human schedulers will respond to the outage by intelligently replanning the real-time schedule. We have developed an automatic scheduling and deconfliction engine, called MIDAS (for Managed Intelligent Deconfliction And Scheduling) that interfaces to the current legacy system (ESD 2.7) which can perform this replanning function automatically. In addition to determining the impact of failed resources, MIDAS can also replan in response to a satellite under attack. In this situation, additional supports must be quickly scheduled and executed (while minimizing impacts to other missions). Because MIDAS is a fully automatic system, replacing a current human labor-intensive process, and provides very rapid turnaround (seconds) it can also be used by commanders to consider what-if questions and focus limited protection resources on the most critical resources. For example, the commander can determine the impact of a successful attack on one of two ground stations and place heavier emphasis on protecting the station whose loss would create the most severe impacts. The system is currently transitioning to operational use. The MIDAS system and its interface to the legacy ESD 2.7 system will be described along with the ConOps for different types of detailed operational scenarios.

  17. Do We Process Frequency Information Automatically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Mary Ann; Foley, Hugh J.

    Two criteria for the automatic encoding of learning, instructional manipulation, and stimulus characteristics were studied in subjects who judged the frequency of occurrence of words, letters, and nonwords. In Experiment 1, six word lists were constructed with varying frequency of alphabet letters. A variety of instructions were presented (whether…

  18. Count Me In! on the Automaticity of Numerosity Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naparstek, Sharon; Henik, Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Extraction of numerosity (i.e., enumeration) is an essential component of mathematical abilities. The current study asked how automatic is the processing of numerosity and whether automatic activation is task dependent. Participants were presented with displays containing a variable number of digits and were asked to pay attention to the number of…

  19. Chemical vapor deposition for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition for automatic processing of integrated circuits including the wafer carrier and loading from a receiving air track into automatic furnaces and unloading on to a sending air track is discussed. Passivation using electron beam deposited quartz is also considered.

  20. Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading Performance: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araújo, Susana; Reis, Alexandra; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Faísca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that rapid naming skill is associated with reading ability has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. However, there is considerable variation in the literature concerning the magnitude of this relationship. The objective of the present study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the evidence on the relationship between rapid…

  1. Modeling the relationship between rapid automatized naming and literacy skills across languages varying in orthographic consistency.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, George K; Aro, Mikko; Liao, Chen-Huei; Parrila, Rauno

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to contrast the prominent theoretical explanations of the rapid automatized naming (RAN)-reading relationship across languages varying in orthographic consistency (Chinese, English, and Finnish) and (b) to examine whether the same accounts can explain the RAN-spelling relationship. In total, 304 Grade 4 children (102 Chinese-speaking Taiwanese children, 117 English-speaking Canadian children, and 85 Finnish-speaking children) were assessed on measures of RAN, speed of processing, phonological processing, orthographic processing, reading fluency, and spelling. The results of path analysis indicated that RAN had a strong direct effect on reading fluency that was of the same size across languages and that only in English was a small proportion of its predictive variance mediated by orthographic processing. In contrast, RAN did not exert a significant direct effect on spelling, and a substantial proportion of its predictive variance was mediated by phonological processing (in Chinese and Finnish) and orthographic processing (in English). Given that RAN predicted reading fluency equally well across languages and that phonological/orthographic processing had very little to do with this relationship, we argue that the reason why RAN is related to reading fluency should be sought in domain-general factors such as serial processing and articulation.

  2. Automatic Information Processing and High Performance Skills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    transfer of training paradigm. In the present work, a strength-based model of automatism ( Shiffrin and Schneider, 1977) was contrasted with an instance...Verbal Behavior, iU, 717-721. Czerwinski, M. P. (1988). Differences between visual and memory search: Implications for models of attention. Unpublished...Society Twenty-Sixth Annual Meeting (pp. 10-14). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society. Shiffrin , R. M. (1988). Attention. In R. C. Atkinson , R. J

  3. Beyond behaviorism: on the automaticity of higher mental processes.

    PubMed

    Bargh, J A; Ferguson, M J

    2000-11-01

    The first 100 years of experimental psychology were dominated by 2 major schools of thought: behaviorism and cognitive science. Here the authors consider the common philosophical commitment to determinism by both schools, and how the radical behaviorists' thesis of the determined nature of higher mental processes is being pursued today in social cognition research on automaticity. In harmony with "dual process" models in contemporary cognitive science, which equate determined processes with those that are automatic and which require no intervening conscious choice or guidance, as opposed to "controlled" processes which do, the social cognition research on the automaticity of higher mental processes provides compelling evidence for the determinism of those processes. This research has revealed that social interaction, evaluation and judgment, and the operation of internal goal structures can all proceed without the intervention of conscious acts of will and guidance of the process.

  4. Neural Systems for Rapid Automatized Naming in Skilled Readers: Unraveling the RAN-Reading Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Maya; Katzir, Tamar; Wolf, Maryanne; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of children and adults with reading disabilities exhibit pronounced difficulties on naming-speed measures such as tests of rapid automatized naming (RAN). RAN tasks require speeded naming of serially presented stimuli and share key characteristics with reading, but different versions of the RAN task vary in their sensitivity: The RAN…

  5. Mediating Effects of Working Memory in the Relation between Rapid Automatized Naming and Chinese Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Xiaoqian; Li, Guangze; Li, Rongbao

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of working memory (WM) in the relation between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and Chinese reading comprehension. Three tasks assessing differentially visual and verbal components of WM were programmed by E-prime 2.0. Data collected from 55 Chinese college students were analyzed using correlations and…

  6. The Automatic and Controlled Processing of Temporal and Spatial Patterns.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    Schneider, 1977; Laberge , 1973, 1975). There is a need to expand automatic processing to inputs where an event is defined by a sequence of stimuli. In this...that found by LaBerge (1973). In the LaBerge experiment, subjects were tested on both familiar and unfamiliar characters. For the familiar characters... LaBerge argued that the separate features were unitized into letters automatically. For unfamiliar characters, subjects could not initially

  7. Chandra Automatic Processing Task Interface: An Adaptable System Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, J. D., Jr.; Plummer, D.

    2007-10-01

    The Chandra Automatic Processing Task Interface (CAPTAIN) is an operations interface to Chandra Automatic Processing (AP) that provides detail management and execution of the AP pipelines. In particular, this kind of management is used in Special Automatic Processing (SAP) where there is a need to select specific pipelines that require non-standard handling for reprocessing of a given data set. Standard AP currently contains approximately 200 pipelines with complex interactions between them. As AP has evolved over the life of the mission, so has the number and attributes of these pipelines. As a result, CAPTAIN provides a system architecture capable of managing and adapting to this evolving system. This adaptability has allowed CAPTAIN to also be used to initiate Chandra Source Catalog Automatic Processing (Level~3 AP) and positions it for use with future automatic processing systems. This paper describes the approach to the development of the CAPTAIN system architecture and the maintainable, extensible and reusable software architecture by which it is implemented.

  8. Automatic detection of rapid eye movements (REMs): A machine learning approach

    PubMed Central

    Yetton, Benjamin D.; Niknazar, Mohammad; Duggan, Katherine A.; McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Whitehurst, Lauren N.; Sattari, Negin; Mednick, Sara C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Rapid eye movements (REMs) are a defining feature of REM sleep. The number of discrete REMs over time, or REM density, has been investigated as a marker of clinical psychopathology and memory consolidation. However, human detection of REMs is a time-consuming and subjective process. Therefore, reliable, automated REM detection software is a valuable research tool. New method We developed an automatic REM detection algorithm combining a novel set of extracted features and the ‘AdaBoost’ classification algorithm to detect the presence of REMs in Electrooculogram data collected from the right and left outer canthi (ROC/LOC). Algorithm performance measures of Recall (percentage of REMs detected) and Precision (percentage of REMs detected that are true REMs) were calculated and compared to the gold standard of human detection by three expert sleep scorers. REM detection by four non-experts were also investigated and compared to expert raters and the algorithm. Results The algorithm performance (78.1% Recall, 82.6% Precision) surpassed that of the average (expert & non-expert) single human detection performance (76% Recall, 83% Precision). Agreement between non-experts (Cronbach Alpha = 0.65) is markedly lower than experts (Cronbach Alpha = 0.80). Comparison with existing method(s) By following reported methods, we implemented all previously published LOC and ROC based detection algorithms on our dataset. Our algorithm performance exceeded all others. Conclusions The automatic detection algorithm presented is a viable and efficient method of REM detection as it reliably matches the performance of human scorers and outperforms all other known LOC- and ROC-based detection algorithms. PMID:26642967

  9. Control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed-processing model of the stroop effect. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.D.; Dunbar, K.; McClelland, J.L.

    1988-06-16

    A growing body of evidence suggests that traditional views of automaticity are in need of revision. For example, automaticity has often been treated as an all-or-none phenomenon, and traditional theories have held that automatic processes are independent of attention. Yet recent empirial data suggests that automatic processes are continuous, and furthermore are subject to attentional control. In this paper we present a model of attention which addresses these issues. Using a parallel distributed processing framework we propose that the attributes of automaticity depend upon the strength of a process and that strength increases with training. Using the Stroop effect as an example, we show how automatic processes are continuous and emerge gradually with practice. Specifically, we present a computational model of the Stroop task which simulates the time course of processing as well as the effects of learning.

  10. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  11. Rapid prototyping in the development of image processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Fecht, Arno; Kelm, Claus Thomas

    2004-08-01

    This contribution presents a rapid prototyping approach for the real-time demonstration of image processing algorithms. As an example EADS/LFK has developed a basic IR target tracking system implementing this approach. Traditionally in research and industry time-independent simulation of image processing algorithms on a host computer is processed. This method is good for demonstrating the algorithms' capabilities. Rarely done is a time-dependent simulation or even a real-time demonstration on a target platform to prove the real-time capabilities. In 1D signal processing applications time-dependent simulation and real-time demonstration has already been used for quite a while. For time-dependent simulation Simulink from The MathWorks has established as an industry standard. Combined with The MathWorks' Real-Time Workshop the simulation model can be transferred to a real-time target processor. The executable is generated automatically by the Real-Time Workshop directly out of the simulation model. In 2D signal processing applications like image processing The Mathworks' Matlab is commonly used for time-independent simulation. To achieve time-dependent simulation and real-time demonstration capabilities the algorithms can be transferred to Simulink, which in fact runs on top of Matlab. Additionally to increase the performance Simulink models or parts of them can be transferred to Xilinx FPGAs using Xilinx' System Generator. With a single model and the automatic workflow both, a time-dependant simulation and the real-time demonstration, are covered leading to an easy and flexible rapid prototyping approach. EADS/LFK is going to use this approach for a wider spectrum of IR image processing applications like automatic target recognition or image based navigation or imaging laser radar target recognition.

  12. The Caltech Tomography Database and Automatic Processing Pipeline.

    PubMed

    Ding, H Jane; Oikonomou, Catherine M; Jensen, Grant J

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe the Caltech Tomography Database and automatic image processing pipeline, designed to process, store, display, and distribute electron tomographic data including tilt-series, sample information, data collection parameters, 3D reconstructions, correlated light microscope images, snapshots, segmentations, movies, and other associated files. Tilt-series are typically uploaded automatically during collection to a user's "Inbox" and processed automatically, but can also be entered and processed in batches via scripts or file-by-file through an internet interface. As with the video website YouTube, each tilt-series is represented on the browsing page with a link to the full record, a thumbnail image and a video icon that delivers a movie of the tomogram in a pop-out window. Annotation tools allow users to add notes and snapshots. The database is fully searchable, and sets of tilt-series can be selected and re-processed, edited, or downloaded to a personal workstation. The results of further processing and snapshots of key results can be recorded in the database, automatically linked to the appropriate tilt-series. While the database is password-protected for local browsing and searching, datasets can be made public and individual files can be shared with collaborators over the Internet. Together these tools facilitate high-throughput tomography work by both individuals and groups.

  13. The Caltech Tomography Database and Automatic Processing Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Ding, H. Jane; Oikonomou, Catherine M.; Jensen, Grant J.

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe the Caltech Tomography Database and automatic image processing pipeline, designed to process, store, display, and distribute electron tomographic data including tilt-series, sample information, data collection parameters, 3D reconstructions, correlated light microscope images, snapshots, segmentations, movies, and other associated files. Tilt-series are typically uploaded automatically during collection to a user’s “Inbox” and processed automatically, but can also be entered and processed in batches via scripts or file-by-file through an internet interface. As with the video website YouTube, each tilt-series is represented on the browsing page with a link to the full record, a thumbnail image and a video icon that delivers a movie of the tomogram in a pop-out window. Annotation tools allow users to add notes and snapshots. The database is fully searchable, and sets of tilt-series can be selected and re-processed, edited, or downloaded to a personal workstation. The results of further processing and snapshots of key results can be recorded in the database, automatically linked to the appropriate tilt-series. While the database is password-protected for local browsing and searching, datasets can be made public and individual files can be shared with collaborators over the Internet. Together these tools facilitate high-throughput tomography work by both individuals and groups. PMID:26087141

  14. An examination of the rapid automatized naming-reading relationship using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cummine, J; Chouinard, B; Szepesvari, E; Georgiou, G K

    2015-10-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been established to be a strong predictor of reading. Yet, the neural correlates underlying the RAN-reading relationship remain unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine: (a) the extent to which RAN and reading activate similar brain regions (within subjects), (b) whether RAN and reading are directly related in the shared activity network outlined in (a), and (c) to what extent RAN neural activation predicts behavioral reading performance. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), university students (N=15; Mean age=20.6 years) were assessed on RAN (letters and digits) and single-word reading (words and non-words). The results revealed a common RAN-reading network that included regions associated with motor planning (cerebellum), semantic access (middle temporal gyrus), articulation (supplementary motor area, pre-motor), and grapheme-phoneme translation (supramarginal gyrus). We found differences between RAN and reading with respect to percent signal change (PSC) in phonological and orthographic regions, but not in articulatory regions. Significant correlations between the neural RAN and reading parameters were found primarily in motor/articulatory regions. Further, we found a unique relationship between in-scanner reading response time and RAN PSC in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Taken together, these findings support the notion that RAN and reading activate similar neural networks. However, the relationship between RAN and reading is primarily driven by commonalities in the motor-sequencing/articulatory processes.

  15. Automatic processing of multimodal tomography datasets.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Aaron D; Price, Stephen W T; Wadeson, Nicola; Basham, Mark; Beale, Andrew M; Ashton, Alun W; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Quinn, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    With the development of fourth-generation high-brightness synchrotrons on the horizon, the already large volume of data that will be collected on imaging and mapping beamlines is set to increase by orders of magnitude. As such, an easy and accessible way of dealing with such large datasets as quickly as possible is required in order to be able to address the core scientific problems during the experimental data collection. Savu is an accessible and flexible big data processing framework that is able to deal with both the variety and the volume of data of multimodal and multidimensional scientific datasets output such as those from chemical tomography experiments on the I18 microfocus scanning beamline at Diamond Light Source.

  16. Automatic processing of multimodal tomography datasets

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Aaron D.; Price, Stephen W. T.; Wadeson, Nicola; Basham, Mark; Beale, Andrew M.; Ashton, Alun W.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick. W.; Quinn, Paul. D.

    2017-01-01

    With the development of fourth-generation high-brightness synchrotrons on the horizon, the already large volume of data that will be collected on imaging and mapping beamlines is set to increase by orders of magnitude. As such, an easy and accessible way of dealing with such large datasets as quickly as possible is required in order to be able to address the core scientific problems during the experimental data collection. Savu is an accessible and flexible big data processing framework that is able to deal with both the variety and the volume of data of multimodal and multidimensional scientific datasets output such as those from chemical tomography experiments on the I18 microfocus scanning beamline at Diamond Light Source. PMID:28009564

  17. A Simple Blueprint for Automatic Boolean Query Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, G.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a new Boolean retrieval environment in which an extended soft Boolean logic is used to automatically construct queries from original natural language formulations provided by users. Experimental results that compare the retrieval effectiveness of this method to conventional Boolean and vector processing are discussed. (27 references)…

  18. Automatic recognition of lactating sow behaviors through depth image processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manual observation and classification of animal behaviors is laborious, time-consuming, and of limited ability to process large amount of data. A computer vision-based system was developed that automatically recognizes sow behaviors (lying, sitting, standing, kneeling, feeding, drinking, and shiftin...

  19. A conceptual study of automatic and semi-automatic quality assurance techniques for round image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study conducted by Engineering and Economics Research (EER), Inc. under NASA Contract Number NAS5-27513. The study involved the development of preliminary concepts for automatic and semiautomatic quality assurance (QA) techniques for ground image processing. A distinction is made between quality assessment and the more comprehensive quality assurance which includes decision making and system feedback control in response to quality assessment.

  20. Automatic process control in anaerobic digestion technology: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that relies upon a synergistic effort of a diverse group of microbial communities for metabolizing diverse organic substrates. However, AD is highly sensitive to process disturbances, and thus it is advantageous to use online monitoring and process control techniques to efficiently operate AD process. A range of electrochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic devices can be deployed for on-line monitoring and control of the AD process. While complexity of the control strategy ranges from a feedback control to advanced control systems, there are some debates on implementation of advanced instrumentations or advanced control strategies. Centralized AD plants could be the answer for the applications of progressive automatic control field. This article provides a critical overview of the available automatic control technologies that can be implemented in AD processes at different scales.

  1. Applying an Automatic Image-Processing Method to Synoptic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlatov, Andrey G.; Vasil'eva, Valeria V.; Makarova, Valentina V.; Otkidychev, Pavel A.

    2014-04-01

    We used an automatic image-processing method to detect solar-activity features observed in white light at the Kislovodsk Solar Station. This technique was applied to automatically or semi-automatically detect sunspots and active regions. The results of this automated recognition were verified with statistical data available from other observatories and revealed a high detection accuracy. We also provide parameters of sunspot areas, of the umbra, and of faculae as observed in Solar Cycle 23 as well as the magnetic flux of these active elements, calculated at the Kislovodsk Solar Station, together with white-light images and magnetograms from the Michaelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO/MDI). The ratio of umbral and total sunspot areas during Solar Cycle 23 is ≈ 0.19. The area of sunspots of the leading polarity was approximately 2.5 times the area of sunspots of the trailing polarity.

  2. Towards Automatic Processing of Virtual City Models for Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piepereit, R.; Schilling, A.; Alam, N.; Wewetzer, M.; Pries, M.; Coors, V.

    2016-10-01

    Especially in the field of numerical simulations, such as flow and acoustic simulations, the interest in using virtual 3D models to optimize urban systems is increasing. The few instances in which simulations were already carried out in practice have been associated with an extremely high manual and therefore uneconomical effort for the processing of models. Using different ways of capturing models in Geographic Information System (GIS) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE), increases the already very high complexity of the processing. To obtain virtual 3D models suitable for simulation, we developed a tool for automatic processing with the goal to establish ties between the world of GIS and CAE. In this paper we introduce a way to use Coons surfaces for the automatic processing of building models in LoD2, and investigate ways to simplify LoD3 models in order to reduce unnecessary information for a numerical simulation.

  3. Current evidence for automatic Theory of Mind processing in adults.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Dana; Slaughter, Virginia P; Dux, Paul E

    2017-05-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is thought to play a key role in social information processing as it refers to the ability of individuals to represent the mental states of others (e.g., intentions, desires, beliefs). A provocative hypothesis has been put forward which espouses the existence of two ToM systems: one that is implicit and involves the automatic analysis of the belief states of others and another that is not automatic and is involved in explicitly reasoning about others' mental states. Recently, Phillips et al. (2015) have suggested that there is limited evidence for automatic ToM processing, after identifying a confound in a previous high-profile paper supporting the existence of this cognitive operation in infants and adults (Kovács, Téglás, & Endress, 2010). Here, we take a broader view of the literature and find, contrary to the conclusions of Phillips et al., that there is a substantial body of literature which demonstrates that adult humans are able to engage in unconscious and unintentional, and thus automatic, analyses of others' mental states. However, whether this ability is best described under a one, two or multiple systems ToM account remains to be determined.

  4. Subcortical amygdala pathways enable rapid face processing.

    PubMed

    Garvert, Mona M; Friston, Karl J; Dolan, Raymond J; Garrido, Marta I

    2014-11-15

    Human faces may signal relevant information and are therefore analysed rapidly and effectively by the brain. However, the precise mechanisms and pathways involved in rapid face processing are unclear. One view posits a role for a subcortical connection between early visual sensory regions and the amygdala, while an alternative account emphasises cortical mediation. To adjudicate between these functional architectures, we recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) evoked fields in human subjects to presentation of faces with varying emotional valence. Early brain activity was better explained by dynamic causal models containing a direct subcortical connection to the amygdala irrespective of emotional modulation. At longer latencies, models without a subcortical connection had comparable evidence. Hence, our results support the hypothesis that a subcortical pathway to the amygdala plays a role in rapid sensory processing of faces, in particular during early stimulus processing. This finding contributes to an understanding of the amygdala as a behavioural relevance detector.

  5. Automatization of the guiding process in the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molgo, J.; Álvarez, C.; Rodríguez-Losada, J. A.; Huertas, M.; Macías, R.; Guerra, D.; Ramos, F.; Gaggstatter, T.; Brito, H.; de Paz, H.

    2016-07-01

    The "Gran Telescopio Canarias" (GTC) is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). The GTC Control System (GCS) is continuously evolving to enhance the operational efficiency. In this work we present the new GCS subsystem to automatize the guiding setup process, both for Fast Guiding and for Slow Guiding. A set of restrictions (including vignetting and photometric computations) is used to select the stars appropriate for guiding, and a merit function is used to choose the best one. Then, the system computes the optical configuration that fits best the selected star, automatically performs the guide star acquisition process and it closes the guide loop.

  6. Automatic Software Processing for Inventories of Nuclides (ASPIN)

    SciTech Connect

    Luca Gratton; J.M. Rammsy

    2001-10-22

    EQ6 users have difficulties tracking isotopic concentrations in a system with chemical and nuclear decay reactions. The capability to track isotopic concentrations is particularly important for simulating the degradation of the spent nuclear fuels. Isotopic tracking is necessary to evaluate the criticality risk associated with fissile material relocation inside of a disposal container. A code called ASPRIN (Automatic Software PRocessing, Inventories of Nuclides) was created to allow isotopic tracking using the results of EQ6 simulations.

  7. On the Learning of Distractors during Controlled and Automatic Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-04

    function of semantic, graphic and syntactic orienting tasks. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1973, 12, 471-480. LaBerge , D. Attention...and the measurement of perceptual learning. Memory and Cognition, 1973, 1, 268-278. LaBerge , D. Acquisition of automatic processing in perceptual and...Univ A. Stevens , Holt Beranek & Newman, Cambridge, 1A D. Stone, SUY, Albany P. Suppes, Stanford Uuiv H. Swaminathan, Univ of Massachusetts K. Tatsuoka

  8. Control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed-processing account of the Stroop effect. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.D.; Dunbar, K.; McClelland, J.L.

    1989-11-22

    A growing body of evidence suggests that traditional views of automaticity are in need of revision. For example, automaticity has often been treated as an all-or-none phenomenon, and traditional theories have held that automatic processes are independent of attention. Yet recent empirical data suggest that automatic processes are continuous, and furthermore are subject to attentional control. In this paper we present a model of attention which addresses these issues. Using a parallel distributed processing framework we propose that the attributes of automaticity depend upon the strength of a processing pathway and that strength increases with training. Using the Stroop effect as an example, we show how automatic processes are continuous and emerge gradually with practice. Specifically, we present a computational model of the Stroop task which simulates the time course of processing as well as the effects of learning. This was accomplished by combining the cascade mechanism described by McClelland (1979) with the back propagation learning algorithm (Rumelhart, Hinton, Williams, 1986). The model is able to simulate performance in the standard Stroop task, as well as aspects of performance in variants of this task which manipulate SOA, response set, and degree of practice. In the discussion we contrast our model with other models, and indicate how it relates to many of the central issues in the literature on attention, automaticity, and interference.

  9. Verification and Validation in a Rapid Software Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Easterbrook, Steve M.

    1997-01-01

    The high cost of software production is driving development organizations to adopt more automated design and analysis methods such as rapid prototyping, computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools, and high-level code generators. Even developers of safety-critical software system have adopted many of these new methods while striving to achieve high levels Of quality and reliability. While these new methods may enhance productivity and quality in many cases, we examine some of the risks involved in the use of new methods in safety-critical contexts. We examine a case study involving the use of a CASE tool that automatically generates code from high-level system designs. We show that while high-level testing on the system structure is highly desirable, significant risks exist in the automatically generated code and in re-validating releases of the generated code after subsequent design changes. We identify these risks and suggest process improvements that retain the advantages of rapid, automated development methods within the quality and reliability contexts of safety-critical projects.

  10. Automatic detection and severity measurement of eczema using image processing.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Nafiul; Munia, Tamanna Tabassum Khan; Tavakolian, Kouhyar; Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nick; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2016-08-01

    Chronic skin diseases like eczema may lead to severe health and financial consequences for patients if not detected and controlled early. Early measurement of disease severity, combined with a recommendation for skin protection and use of appropriate medication can prevent the disease from worsening. Current diagnosis can be costly and time-consuming. In this paper, an automatic eczema detection and severity measurement model are presented using modern image processing and computer algorithm. The system can successfully detect regions of eczema and classify the identified region as mild or severe based on image color and texture feature. Then the model automatically measures skin parameters used in the most common assessment tool called "Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI)," by computing eczema affected area score, eczema intensity score, and body region score of eczema allowing both patients and physicians to accurately assess the affected skin.

  11. Automatic data processing and crustal modeling on Brazilian Seismograph Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L. P.; Chimpliganond, C.; Peres Rocha, M.; Franca, G.; Marotta, G. S.; Von Huelsen, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Brazilian Seismograph Network (RSBR) is a joint project of four Brazilian research institutions with the support of Petrobras and its main goal is to monitor the seismic activities, generate alerts of seismic hazard and provide data for Brazilian tectonic and structure research. Each institution operates and maintain their seismic network, sharing their data in an virtual private network. These networks have seismic stations transmitting in real time (or near real time) raw data to their respective data centers, where the seismogram files are then shared with other institutions. Currently RSBR has 57 broadband stations, some of them operating since 1994, transmitting data through mobile phone data networks or satellite links. Station management, data acquisition and storage and earthquake data processing at the Seismological Observatory of the University of Brasilia is automatically performed by SeisComP3 (SC3). However, the SC3 data processing is limited to event detection, location and magnitude. An automatic crustal modeling system was designed process raw seismograms and generate 1D S-velocity profiles. This system automatically calculates receiver function (RF) traces, Vp/Vs ratio (h-k stack) and surface waves dispersion (SWD) curves. These traces and curves are then used to calibrate the lithosphere seismic velocity models using a joint inversion scheme The results can be reviewed by an analyst, change processing parameters and selecting/neglecting RF traces and SWD curves used in lithosphere model calibration. The results to be obtained from this system will be used to generate and update a quasi-3D crustal model of Brazil's territory.

  12. Rapid Automatized Naming and Immediate Memory Functions in Chinese Children Who Read English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yi; Guo, Jian-Peng; Yang, Ling-Yan; Zhang, Dake; Ning, Huan; Richman, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined reading performance of 102 Chinese Mandarin-speaking 4th graders in their second language (L2, English) as a function of performance in their first language (L1, Chinese). The results revealed that for Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Rapid Alternating Stimulus (RAS) measures, the mean naming time decreased monotonically in…

  13. Rapid and automatic speech-specific learning mechanism in human neocortex.

    PubMed

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Leminen, Alina; Vainio, Martti; Shtyrov, Yury

    2015-09-01

    A unique feature of human communication system is our ability to rapidly acquire new words and build large vocabularies. However, its neurobiological foundations remain largely unknown. In an electrophysiological study optimally designed to probe this rapid formation of new word memory circuits, we employed acoustically controlled novel word-forms incorporating native and non-native speech sounds, while manipulating the subjects' attention on the input. We found a robust index of neurolexical memory-trace formation: a rapid enhancement of the brain's activation elicited by novel words during a short (~30min) perceptual exposure, underpinned by fronto-temporal cortical networks, and, importantly, correlated with behavioural learning outcomes. Crucially, this neural memory trace build-up took place regardless of focused attention on the input or any pre-existing or learnt semantics. Furthermore, it was found only for stimuli with native-language phonology, but not for acoustically closely matching non-native words. These findings demonstrate a specialised cortical mechanism for rapid, automatic and phonology-dependent formation of neural word memory circuits.

  14. Scheduling algorithms for automatic control systems for technological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernigovskiy, A. S.; Tsarev, R. Yu; Kapulin, D. V.

    2017-01-01

    Wide use of automatic process control systems and the usage of high-performance systems containing a number of computers (processors) give opportunities for creation of high-quality and fast production that increases competitiveness of an enterprise. Exact and fast calculations, control computation, and processing of the big data arrays – all of this requires the high level of productivity and, at the same time, minimum time of data handling and result receiving. In order to reach the best time, it is necessary not only to use computing resources optimally, but also to design and develop the software so that time gain will be maximal. For this purpose task (jobs or operations), scheduling techniques for the multi-machine/multiprocessor systems are applied. Some of basic task scheduling methods for the multi-machine process control systems are considered in this paper, their advantages and disadvantages come to light, and also some usage considerations, in case of the software for automatic process control systems developing, are made.

  15. Automatic Denoising and Unmixing in Hyperspectral Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Honghong

    This thesis addresses two important aspects in hyperspectral image processing: automatic hyperspectral image denoising and unmixing. The first part of this thesis is devoted to a novel automatic optimized vector bilateral filter denoising algorithm, while the remainder concerns nonnegative matrix factorization with deterministic annealing for unsupervised unmixing in remote sensing hyperspectral images. The need for automatic hyperspectral image processing has been promoted by the development of potent hyperspectral systems, with hundreds of narrow contiguous bands, spanning the visible to the long wave infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Due to the large volume of raw data generated by such sensors, automatic processing in the hyperspectral images processing chain is preferred to minimize human workload and achieve optimal result. Two of the mostly researched processing for such automatic effort are: hyperspectral image denoising, which is an important preprocessing step for almost all remote sensing tasks, and unsupervised unmixing, which decomposes the pixel spectra into a collection of endmember spectral signatures and their corresponding abundance fractions. Two new methodologies are introduced in this thesis to tackle the automatic processing problems described above. Vector bilateral filtering has been shown to provide good tradeoff between noise removal and edge degradation when applied to multispectral/hyperspectral image denoising. It has also been demonstrated to provide dynamic range enhancement of bands that have impaired signal to noise ratios. Typical vector bilateral filtering usage does not employ parameters that have been determined to satisfy optimality criteria. This thesis also introduces an approach for selection of the parameters of a vector bilateral filter through an optimization procedure rather than by ad hoc means. The approach is based on posing the filtering problem as one of nonlinear estimation and minimizing the Stein

  16. Automatic processing of unattended lexical information in visual oddball presentation: neurophysiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Shtyrov, Yury; Goryainova, Galina; Tugin, Sergei; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Shestakova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Previous electrophysiological studies of automatic language processing revealed early (100–200 ms) reflections of access to lexical characteristics of speech signal using the so-called mismatch negativity (MMN), a negative ERP deflection elicited by infrequent irregularities in unattended repetitive auditory stimulation. In those studies, lexical processing of spoken stimuli became manifest as an enhanced ERP in response to unattended real words, as opposed to phonologically matched but meaningless pseudoword stimuli. This lexical ERP enhancement was explained by automatic activation of word memory traces realized as distributed strongly intra-connected neuronal circuits, whose robustness guarantees memory trace activation even in the absence of attention on spoken input. Such an account would predict the automatic activation of these memory traces upon any presentation of linguistic information, irrespective of the presentation modality. As previous lexical MMN studies exclusively used auditory stimulation, we here adapted the lexical MMN paradigm to investigate early automatic lexical effects in the visual modality. In a visual oddball sequence, matched short word and pseudoword stimuli were presented tachistoscopically in perifoveal area outside the visual focus of attention, as the subjects' attention was concentrated on a concurrent non-linguistic visual dual task in the center of the screen. Using EEG, we found a visual analogue of the lexical ERP enhancement effect, with unattended written words producing larger brain response amplitudes than matched pseudowords, starting at ~100 ms. Furthermore, we also found significant visual MMN, reported here for the first time for unattended perifoveal lexical stimuli. The data suggest early automatic lexical processing of visually presented language which commences rapidly and can take place outside the focus of attention. PMID:23950740

  17. Eye-voice span during rapid automatized naming of digits and dice in Chinese normal and dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jinger; Yan, Ming; Laubrock, Jochen; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-11-01

    We measured Chinese dyslexic and control children's eye movements during rapid automatized naming (RAN) with alphanumeric (digits) and symbolic (dice surfaces) stimuli. Both types of stimuli required identical oral responses, controlling for effects associated with speech production. Results showed that naming dice was much slower than naming digits for both groups, but group differences in eye-movement measures and in the eye-voice span (i.e. the distance between the currently fixated item and the voiced item) were generally larger in digit-RAN than in dice-RAN. In addition, dyslexics were less efficient in parafoveal processing in these RAN tasks. Since the two RAN tasks required the same phonological output and on the assumption that naming dice is less practiced than naming digits in general, the results suggest that the translation of alphanumeric visual symbols into phonological codes is less efficient in dyslexic children. The dissociation of the print-to-sound conversion and phonological representation suggests that the degree of automaticity in translation from visual symbols to phonological codes in addition to phonological processing per se is also critical to understanding dyslexia.

  18. Cognitive effort and pupil dilation in controlled and automatic processes

    PubMed Central

    Querino, Emanuel; dos Santos, Lafaiete; Ginani, Giuliano; Nicolau, Eduardo; Miranda, Débora; Romano-Silva, Marco; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The Five Digits Test (FDT) is a Stroop paradigm test that aims to evaluate executive functions. It is composed of four parts, two of which are related to automatic and two of which are related to controlled processes. It is known that pupillary diameter increases as the task’s cognitive demand increases. In the present study, we evaluated whether the pupillary diameter could distinguish cognitive effort between automated and controlled cognitive processing during the FDT as the task progressed. As a control task, we used a simple reading paradigm with a similar visual aspect as the FDT. We then divided each of the four parts into two blocks in order to evaluate the differences between the first and second half of the task. Results indicated that, compared to a control task, the FDT required higher cognitive effort for each consecutive part. Moreover, the first half of every part of the FDT induced dilation more than the second. The differences in pupil dilation during the first half of the four FDT parts were statistically significant between the parts 2 and 4 (p=0.023), and between the parts 3 and 4 (p=0.006). These results provide further evidence that cognitive effort and pupil diameter can distinguish controlled from automatic processes. PMID:28123801

  19. Cognitive effort and pupil dilation in controlled and automatic processes.

    PubMed

    Querino, Emanuel; Dos Santos, Lafaiete; Ginani, Giuliano; Nicolau, Eduardo; Miranda, Débora; Romano-Silva, Marco; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The Five Digits Test (FDT) is a Stroop paradigm test that aims to evaluate executive functions. It is composed of four parts, two of which are related to automatic and two of which are related to controlled processes. It is known that pupillary diameter increases as the task's cognitive demand increases. In the present study, we evaluated whether the pupillary diameter could distinguish cognitive effort between automated and controlled cognitive processing during the FDT as the task progressed. As a control task, we used a simple reading paradigm with a similar visual aspect as the FDT. We then divided each of the four parts into two blocks in order to evaluate the differences between the first and second half of the task. Results indicated that, compared to a control task, the FDT required higher cognitive effort for each consecutive part. Moreover, the first half of every part of the FDT induced dilation more than the second. The differences in pupil dilation during the first half of the four FDT parts were statistically significant between the parts 2 and 4 (p=0.023), and between the parts 3 and 4 (p=0.006). These results provide further evidence that cognitive effort and pupil diameter can distinguish controlled from automatic processes.

  20. Using Dual-Task Methodology to Dissociate Automatic from Nonautomatic Processes Involved in Artificial Grammar Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Michelle A.; Conway, Christopher M.; Kellogg, Ronald T.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that both automatic and intentional processes contribute to the learning of grammar and fragment knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks. To explore the relative contribution of automatic and intentional processes to knowledge gained in AGL, we utilized dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic and…

  1. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1992-01-01

    A rotor assembly for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water, includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and including a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses.

  2. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1992-12-22

    A rotor assembly is described for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water. It includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and includes a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses. 34 figs.

  3. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  4. Automatic and effortful processing of self-statements in depression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Catharina E; Brennen, Tim; Holte, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Clark and Beck (1999) and Williams et al. (1997) have come up with quite different conclusions regarding which cognitive processes are most affected by negative self-schemata and negative knowledge structures. In order to increase the understanding of differences in effortful and automatic processing in depression, we compared never depressed (ND), previously depressed (PD) and clinically depressed (CD) individuals on free recall, recognition and fabrication of positive and negative self-statements. The results showed that: (i) overall NDs and PDs recalled more positive self-statements than CDs, whereas CDs correctly recognized more negative self-statements than NDs and PDs; and (ii) CDs and PDs fabricated more negative than positive self-statements, whereas no difference was obtained for NDs. The results seem to be in line with Clark and Beck's suggestions. However, there are several aspects of the present findings that make the picture more complicated.

  5. Digital signal processing algorithms for automatic voice recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botros, Nazeih M.

    1987-01-01

    The current digital signal analysis algorithms are investigated that are implemented in automatic voice recognition algorithms. Automatic voice recognition means, the capability of a computer to recognize and interact with verbal commands. The digital signal is focused on, rather than the linguistic, analysis of speech signal. Several digital signal processing algorithms are available for voice recognition. Some of these algorithms are: Linear Predictive Coding (LPC), Short-time Fourier Analysis, and Cepstrum Analysis. Among these algorithms, the LPC is the most widely used. This algorithm has short execution time and do not require large memory storage. However, it has several limitations due to the assumptions used to develop it. The other 2 algorithms are frequency domain algorithms with not many assumptions, but they are not widely implemented or investigated. However, with the recent advances in the digital technology, namely signal processors, these 2 frequency domain algorithms may be investigated in order to implement them in voice recognition. This research is concerned with real time, microprocessor based recognition algorithms.

  6. Paradoxical Evidence Integration in Rapid Decision Processes

    PubMed Central

    Rüter, Johannes; Marcille, Nicolas; Sprekeler, Henning; Gerstner, Wulfram; Herzog, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Decisions about noisy stimuli require evidence integration over time. Traditionally, evidence integration and decision making are described as a one-stage process: a decision is made when evidence for the presence of a stimulus crosses a threshold. Here, we show that one-stage models cannot explain psychophysical experiments on feature fusion, where two visual stimuli are presented in rapid succession. Paradoxically, the second stimulus biases decisions more strongly than the first one, contrary to predictions of one-stage models and intuition. We present a two-stage model where sensory information is integrated and buffered before it is fed into a drift diffusion process. The model is tested in a series of psychophysical experiments and explains both accuracy and reaction time distributions. PMID:22359494

  7. Automatic endpoint detection to support the systematic review process.

    PubMed

    Blake, Catherine; Lucic, Ana

    2015-08-01

    Preparing a systematic review can take hundreds of hours to complete, but the process of reconciling different results from multiple studies is the bedrock of evidence-based medicine. We introduce a two-step approach to automatically extract three facets - two entities (the agent and object) and the way in which the entities are compared (the endpoint) - from direct comparative sentences in full-text articles. The system does not require a user to predefine entities in advance and thus can be used in domains where entity recognition is difficult or unavailable. As with a systematic review, the tabular summary produced using the automatically extracted facets shows how experimental results differ between studies. Experiments were conducted using a collection of more than 2million sentences from three journals Diabetes, Carcinogenesis and Endocrinology and two machine learning algorithms, support vector machines (SVM) and a general linear model (GLM). F1 and accuracy measures for the SVM and GLM differed by only 0.01 across all three comparison facets in a randomly selected set of test sentences. The system achieved the best performance of 92% for objects, whereas the accuracy for both agent and endpoints was 73%. F1 scores were higher for objects (0.77) than for endpoints (0.51) or agents (0.47). A situated evaluation of Metformin, a drug to treat diabetes, showed system accuracy of 95%, 83% and 79% for the object, endpoint and agent respectively. The situated evaluation had higher F1 scores of 0.88, 0.64 and 0.62 for object, endpoint, and agent respectively. On average, only 5.31% of the sentences in a full-text article are direct comparisons, but the tabular summaries suggest that these sentences provide a rich source of currently underutilized information that can be used to accelerate the systematic review process and identify gaps where future research should be focused.

  8. Development of serial processing in reading and rapid naming.

    PubMed

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Altani, Angeliki; Georgiou, George K

    2013-12-01

    Serial rapid automatized naming (RAN) is more strongly related to reading fluency than naming of isolated words, suggesting that the implementation of serial processing may underlie the RAN-reading relationship. In this study, 107 Greek children from Grade 2 and 107 from Grade 6 were tested with discrete and serial naming of digits, objects, and words in 50-item arrays. The correlation between discrete and serial word reading was very high in Grade 2 but only moderate in Grade 6. In confirmatory factor analysis, a reading-naming latent structure fit the Grade 2 data best; in contrast, a serial-discrete structure fit the Grade 6 data. Thus, the superficial longitudinal stability of RAN-reading correlations belies vastly different patterns of interrelations, indicative of changes in the developing cognitive processes underlying both naming and reading. Word fluency tasks in Grade 2 are apparently accomplished largely as a series of isolated individual word naming trials even though multiple individual letters in each word may be processed in parallel. In contrast, specifically serial procedures are applied in Grade 6, presumably via simultaneous processing of multiple individual words at successive levels. It is proposed that this feat requires endogenous control of cognitive cascades.

  9. Using process mining for automatic support of clinical pathways design.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Valdivieso, Bernardo; Traver, Vicente; Benedi, Jose Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The creation of tools supporting the automatization of the standardization and continuous control of healthcare processes can become a significant helping tool for clinical experts and healthcare systems willing to reduce variability in clinical practice. The reduction in the complexity of design and deployment of standard Clinical Pathways can enhance the possibilities for effective usage of computer assisted guidance systems for professionals and assure the quality of the provided care. Several technologies have been used in the past for trying to support these activities but they have not been able to generate the disruptive change required to foster the general adoption of standardization in this domain due to the high volume of work, resources, and knowledge required to adequately create practical protocols that can be used in practice. This chapter proposes the use of the PALIA algorithm, based in Activity-Based process mining techniques, as a new technology to infer the actual processes from the real execution logs to be used in the design and quality control of healthcare processes.

  10. Eye-Voice Span during Rapid Automatized Naming of Digits and Dice in Chinese Normal and Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jinger; Yan, Ming; Laubrock, Jochen; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    We measured Chinese dyslexic and control children's eye movements during rapid automatized naming (RAN) with alphanumeric (digits) and symbolic (dice surfaces) stimuli. Both types of stimuli required identical oral responses, controlling for effects associated with speech production. Results showed that naming dice was much slower than naming…

  11. A Web-Based Assessment for Phonological Awareness, Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Learning to Read Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the equivalency of conventional and web-based tests in reading Chinese. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), reading accuracy, and reading fluency tests were administered to 93 grade 6 children in Taiwan with both test versions (paper-pencil and web-based). The results suggest that conventional and…

  12. The Impact of Rapid Automatized Naming and Phonological Awareness on the Reading Fluency of a Minority Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; Szente, Judit

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) on the reading fluency (RF) of students from traditionally underrepresented groups. The study included 86 participants attending 1st through 4th grade within an inner-city charter school located in a high-poverty, urban…

  13. How well Do Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Correlate with Chinese Reading Accuracy and Fluency? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Georgiou, George K.; Su, Mengmeng; Hua, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses on the relationship between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading have been conducted primarily in English, an atypical alphabetic orthography. Here, we aimed to examine the association between phonological awareness, RAN, and word reading in a nonalphabetic language (Chinese). A random-effects…

  14. Rapid, Potentially Automatable, Method Extract Biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to Detect and Identify BW Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-01

    status can sometimes be reflected in the infectious potential or drug resistance of those pathogens. For example, in Mycobacterium tuberculosis ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis , its antibiotic resistance and prediction of pathogenicity amongst Mycobacterium spp. based on signature lipid biomarkers ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rapid, Potentially Automatable, Method Extract Biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to Detect and Identify BW Agents 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  15. Childhood trauma exposure disrupts the automatic regulation of emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Marusak, Hilary A; Martin, Kayla R; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E

    2015-03-13

    Early-life trauma is one of the strongest risk factors for later emotional psychopathology. Although research in adults highlights that childhood trauma predicts deficits in emotion regulation that persist decades later, it is unknown whether neural and behavioral changes that may precipitate illness are evident during formative, developmental years. This study examined whether automatic regulation of emotional conflict is perturbed in a high-risk urban sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents. A total of 14 trauma-exposed and 16 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched comparison youth underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring an overlying emotion word. Engagement of the conflict regulation system was evaluated at neural and behavioral levels. Results showed that trauma-exposed youth failed to dampen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and engage amygdala-pregenual cingulate inhibitory circuitry during the regulation of emotional conflict, and were less able to regulate emotional conflict. In addition, trauma-exposed youth showed greater conflict-related amygdala reactivity that was associated with diminished levels of trait reward sensitivity. These data point to a trauma-related deficit in automatic regulation of emotional processing, and increase in sensitivity to emotional conflict in neural systems implicated in threat detection. Aberrant amygdala response to emotional conflict was related to diminished reward sensitivity that is emerging as a critical stress-susceptibility trait that may contribute to the emergence of mental illness during adolescence. These results suggest that deficits in conflict regulation for emotional material may underlie heightened risk for psychopathology in individuals that endure early-life trauma.

  16. Childhood Trauma Exposure Disrupts the Automatic Regulation of Emotional Processing

    PubMed Central

    Marusak, Hilary A; Martin, Kayla R; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E

    2015-01-01

    Early-life trauma is one of the strongest risk factors for later emotional psychopathology. Although research in adults highlights that childhood trauma predicts deficits in emotion regulation that persist decades later, it is unknown whether neural and behavioral changes that may precipitate illness are evident during formative, developmental years. This study examined whether automatic regulation of emotional conflict is perturbed in a high-risk urban sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents. A total of 14 trauma-exposed and 16 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched comparison youth underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring an overlying emotion word. Engagement of the conflict regulation system was evaluated at neural and behavioral levels. Results showed that trauma-exposed youth failed to dampen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and engage amygdala–pregenual cingulate inhibitory circuitry during the regulation of emotional conflict, and were less able to regulate emotional conflict. In addition, trauma-exposed youth showed greater conflict-related amygdala reactivity that was associated with diminished levels of trait reward sensitivity. These data point to a trauma-related deficit in automatic regulation of emotional processing, and increase in sensitivity to emotional conflict in neural systems implicated in threat detection. Aberrant amygdala response to emotional conflict was related to diminished reward sensitivity that is emerging as a critical stress-susceptibility trait that may contribute to the emergence of mental illness during adolescence. These results suggest that deficits in conflict regulation for emotional material may underlie heightened risk for psychopathology in individuals that endure early-life trauma. PMID:25413183

  17. Oscillatory EEG dynamics underlying automatic chunking during sentence processing.

    PubMed

    Bonhage, Corinna E; Meyer, Lars; Gruber, Thomas; Friederici, Angela D; Mueller, Jutta L

    2017-03-10

    Sentences are easier to remember than random word sequences, likely because linguistic regularities facilitate chunking of words into meaningful groups. The present electroencephalography study investigated the neural oscillations modulated by this so-called sentence superiority effect during the encoding and maintenance of sentence fragments versus word lists. We hypothesized a chunking-related modulation of neural processing during the encoding and retention of sentence fragments as compared to word lists. Time-frequency analysis revealed a two-fold oscillatory pattern for the memorization of sentences: Sentence encoding was accompanied by higher delta amplitude (4Hz), originating both from regions processing syntax as well as semantics (bilateral superior/middle temporal regions and fusiform gyrus). Subsequent sentence retention was reflected in decreased theta (6Hz) and beta/gamma (27-32Hz) amplitude instead. Notably, whether participants simply read or properly memorized the sentences did not impact chunking-related activity during encoding. Therefore, we argue that the sentence superiority effect is grounded in highly automatized language processing mechanisms, which generate meaningful memory chunks irrespective of task demands.

  18. Automatic movement error detection and correction processes in reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Brière, Julien; Proteau, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Manual aiming movements can be amended during their execution. Recent evidence suggests that error detection and correction are based on automatic and even reflexive processing of afferent information. In this study, we wanted to determine whether these processes are affected by the occurrence of successive events requiring adjustments of the originally planned movement. To reach our goal, we used a video-aiming task. For a small proportion of the trials, the cursor moved by the participant was translated laterally by 15 mm (cursor jump) soon after movement initiation. For some of the cursor-jump trials, a second cursor jump occurred 100 ms after the first one and canceled or doubled the initial cursor translation. Results showed that participants were able to cancel or double the size of the correction in response to the second cursor jump. More importantly, in double-jump trials, the correction latency for the first and second cursor jumps did not differ from that of single-jump trials. Moreover, the correction for the second cursor jump blended seamlessly with the correction for the first cursor jump. These observations suggest that the processes leading of a correction for a cursor jump do not interfere with incoming visual information.

  19. The Use of Small Business Administration Section 8(a) Contractors in Automatic Data Processing Acquisitions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL THE USE OF SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SECTION 8(a) CONTRACTORS IN AUTOMATIC DATA PROCESSING ACQUISITIONS...CENTER Department of Defensei^KS™"* WASHINGTON D.C. 20301-7100 053,35 The following acronyms are used in this report. ADP Automatic Data Processing...Of The Inspector General: The Use Of Small Business Administration Section 8(a) Contractors in Automatic Data Processing Acquisitions Corporate

  20. Guidelines for Automatic Data Processing Physical Security and Risk Management. Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    These guidelines provide a handbook for use by federal organizations in structuring physical security and risk management programs for their automatic data processing facilities. This publication discusses security analysis, natural disasters, supporting utilities, system reliability, procedural measures and controls, off-site facilities,…

  1. A Rapid Process for Fabricating Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Luo, Li-Siang

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a low-toxicity and environmentally-friendly material applied on devices, sensors or actuators for “green” usage. A porous ZnO film deposited by a rapid process of aerosol deposition (AD) was employed as the gas-sensitive material in a CO gas sensor to reduce both manufacturing cost and time, and to further extend the AD application for a large-scale production. The relative resistance change (ΔR/R) of the ZnO gas sensor was used for gas measurement. The fabricated ZnO gas sensors were measured with operating temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 180 °C, and CO concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensitivity and the response time presented good performance at increasing operating temperatures and CO concentrations. AD was successfully for applied for making ZnO gas sensors with great potential for achieving high deposition rates at low deposition temperatures, large-scale production and low cost. PMID:25010696

  2. Improved automatic tuning of PID controller for stable processes.

    PubMed

    Kumar Padhy, Prabin; Majhi, Somanath

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents an improved automatic tuning method for stable processes using a modified relay in the presence of static load disturbances and measurement noise. The modified relay consists of a standard relay in series with a PI controller of unity proportional gain. The integral time constant of the PI controller of the modified relay is chosen so as to ensure a minimum loop phase margin of 30( composite function). A limit cycle is then obtained using the modified relay. Hereafter, the PID controller is designed using the limit cycle output data. The derivative time constant is obtained by maintaining the above mentioned loop phase margin. Minimizing the distance of Nyquist curve of the loop transfer function from the imaginary axis of the complex plane gives the proportional gain. The integral time constant of the PID controller is set equal to the integral time constant of the PI controller of the modified relay. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified by simulation results.

  3. Automatic retrieval of bone fracture knowledge using natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew S; Maley, Joan; Biswal, Sandip

    2013-08-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract data from unstructured text into formal computer representations are valuable for creating robust, scalable methods to mine data in medical documents and radiology reports. As voice recognition (VR) becomes more prevalent in radiology practice, there is opportunity for implementing NLP in real time for decision-support applications such as context-aware information retrieval. For example, as the radiologist dictates a report, an NLP algorithm can extract concepts from the text and retrieve relevant classification or diagnosis criteria or calculate disease probability. NLP can work in parallel with VR to potentially facilitate evidence-based reporting (for example, automatically retrieving the Bosniak classification when the radiologist describes a kidney cyst). For these reasons, we developed and validated an NLP system which extracts fracture and anatomy concepts from unstructured text and retrieves relevant bone fracture knowledge. We implement our NLP in an HTML5 web application to demonstrate a proof-of-concept feedback NLP system which retrieves bone fracture knowledge in real time.

  4. N400 repetition effect in unidentifiable Chinese characters: evidence for automatic process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanhong; Huang, He; Mao, Liting

    2009-05-06

    A new matter of debate is whether N400 is exclusively sensitive to automatic or postlexical processes. Recent studies showing N400 modulation by masked primes support an automatic process account. However, these studies cannot directly prove an automatic process. Event-related brain potentials to blurred targets were recorded to substantiate N400 repetition (priming) effects as an index of pure automatic process during a matching task with Chinese characters. Highly blurred target characters, which were unidentifiable, as well as identifiable target characters were shown to elicit greater N400 when repeated, with N400 peak latency being longer for slightly blurred targets than for highly blurred targets. These results provide evidence that N400 is modulated directly by automatic processes rather than by postlexical processes.

  5. The Amenability of a Cataloging Process to Simulation by Automatic Techniques. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ann M.

    This study attempts to determine whether the human intellectual process of cataloging bibliographic materials, using the Anglo-American (AA-1967) and American Library Association (ALA-1949) cataloging codes, can be simulated by automatic techniques. The specific cataloging process is that which concerns selection of entry. Automatic techniques…

  6. Automatic and controlled stimulus processing in conflict tasks: Superimposed diffusion processes and delta functions.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Rolf; Schröter, Hannes; Leuthold, Hartmut; Birngruber, Teresa

    2015-05-01

    An elaborated diffusion process model (a Diffusion Model for Conflict Tasks, DMC) is introduced that combines conceptual features of standard diffusion models with the notion of controlled and automatic processes. DMC can account for a variety of distributional properties of reaction time (RT) in conflict tasks (e.g., Eriksen flanker, Simon, Stroop). Specifically, DMC is compatible with all observed shapes of delta functions, including negative-going delta functions that are particularly challenging for the class of standard diffusion models. Basically, DMC assumes that the activations of controlled and automatic processes superimpose to trigger a response. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the unfolding of automatic activation in time largely determines the shape of delta functions. Furthermore, the predictions of DMC are consistent with other phenomena observed in conflict tasks such as error rate patterns. In addition, DMC was successfully fitted to experimental data of the standard Eriksen flanker and the Simon task. Thus, the present paper reconciles the prominent and successful class of diffusion models with the empirical finding of negative-going delta functions.

  7. Are Automatic Imitation and Spatial Compatibility Mediated by Different Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard P.; Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Automatic imitation or "imitative compatibility" is thought to be mediated by the mirror neuron system and to be a laboratory model of the motor mimicry that occurs spontaneously in naturalistic social interaction. Imitative compatibility and spatial compatibility effects are known to depend on different stimulus dimensions--body…

  8. The Development of Automatic Associative Processes and Children's False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Marina C.; Howe, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated children's ability to generate associations and how automaticity of associative activation unfolds developmentally. Children generated associative responses using a single associate paradigm (Experiment 1) or a Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM)-like multiple associates paradigm (Experiment 2). The results indicated that children's…

  9. The Masked Semantic Priming Effect Is Task Dependent: Reconsidering the Automatic Spreading Activation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Semantic priming effects are popularly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process, according to which the activation of a node in a semantic network spreads automatically to interconnected nodes, preactivating a semantically related word. It is expected from this account that semantic priming effects should be routinely…

  10. Uav Data Processing for Rapid Mapping Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2015-08-01

    During disaster and emergency situations, geospatial data plays an important role to serve as a framework for decision support system. As one component of basic geospatial data, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable geospatial analysis within quite a number of societal challenges. The increasing role of geo-information in disaster management nowadays consequently needs to include geospatial aspects on its analysis. Therefore different geospatial datasets can be combined in order to produce reliable geospatial analysis especially in the context of disaster preparedness and emergency response. A very well-known issue in this context is the fast delivery of geospatial relevant data which is expressed by the term "Rapid Mapping". Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is the rising geospatial data platform nowadays that can be attractive for modelling and monitoring the disaster area with a low cost and timely acquisition in such critical period of time. Disaster-related object extraction is of special interest for many applications. In this paper, UAV-borne data has been used for supporting rapid mapping activities in combination with high resolution airborne Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) data. A real disaster instance from 2013 in conjunction with Mount Sinabung eruption, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, is used as the benchmark test for the rapid mapping activities presented in this paper. On this context, the reliable IFSAR dataset from airborne data acquisition in 2011 has been used as a comparable dataset for accuracy investigation and assessment purpose in 3 D reconstructions. After all, this paper presents a proper geo-referencing and feature extraction method of UAV data to support rapid mapping activities.

  11. Processing of intentional and automatic number magnitudes in children born prematurely: evidence from fMRI.

    PubMed

    Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Kremser, Christian; Starke, Marc; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Pupp-Peglow, Ulrike; Schocke, Michael; Kaufmann, Liane

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the neural correlates of intentional and automatic number processing (indexed by number comparison and physical Stroop task, respectively) in 6- and 7-year-old children born prematurely. Behavioral results revealed significant numerical distance and size congruity effects. Imaging results disclosed (1) largely overlapping fronto-parietal activation for intentional and automatic number processing, (2) a frontal to parietal shift of activation upon considering the risk factors gestational age and birth weight, and (3) a task-specific link between math proficiency and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal within distinct regions of the parietal lobes-indicating commonalities but also specificities of intentional and automatic number processing.

  12. Automatic Processing and the Unitization of Two Features.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    experiment, LaBerge (1973) showed that with practice two features could be automatically unitized to form a novel character. We wish to address a...different from a search for a target which requires identification of one of the features alone. Page 2 Indeed, LaBerge (1973) used a similar implicit...perception? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1978, 26, 498-507. LaBerge , D. Attention and the measurement of perceptual learning. Memory and

  13. Is rapid automatized naming related to reading and mathematics for the same reason(s)? A follow-up study from kindergarten to Grade 1.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, George K; Tziraki, Niki; Manolitsis, George; Fella, Argyro

    2013-07-01

    We examined (a) what rapid automatized naming (RAN) components (articulation time and/or pause time) predict reading and mathematics ability and (b) what processing skills involved in RAN (speed of processing, response inhibition, working memory, and/or phonological awareness) may explain its relationship with reading and mathematics. A sample of 72 children were followed from the beginning of kindergarten until the end of Grade 1 and were assessed on measures of RAN, general cognitive ability, speed of processing, attention, working memory, phonological awareness, reading, and mathematics. The results indicated that pause time was the critical component in both the RAN-reading and RAN-mathematics relationships and that it shared most of its predictive variance in reading and mathematics with speed of processing and working memory. Our findings further suggested that, unlike the relationship between RAN and reading fluency in Grade 1, there is nothing in the RAN task that is uniquely related to math.

  14. Implications of number-space synesthesia on the automaticity of numerical processing.

    PubMed

    Gertner, Limor; Henik, Avishai; Reznik, Daniel; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-05-01

    Number-space synesthetes visualize numbers in specific spatial configurations. Their spatial-numerical perceptions are assumed to be automatic in nature and have been found to affect performance in various numerical tasks. The current study tested whether synesthetic number-space associations can modulate the well-established Size Congruency Effect (SiCE), which is considered to be an indication for the automaticity of numerical processing. Two groups, number-space synesthetes and matched controls, were tested on a numerical Stroop task (Henik and Tzelgov, 1982). In separate blocks, participants were presented with two digits and asked to make comparative judgments regarding either numerical values (numerical comparison) or physical size (physical comparison). Both dimensions were manipulated orthogonally, creating three congruency levels: congruent (e.g., 2 7), incongruent (e.g., 2 7) and neutral (e.g., 2 2 and 2 7 for physical and numerical blocks, respectively). For the numerical block, both synesthetes and controls showed the classic SiCE, indicating similar automatic processing of physical magnitude. However, in the physical block, synesthetes showed a lack of automatic numerical magnitude processing when the numbers to be compared were presented incompatibly with their relative position on the synesthetic number-form. This finding strongly suggests that synesthetes' number-space perceptions affect their ability to automatically process the semantic meaning of numerals. The involvement of space in automatic magnitude processing for number-space synesthetes and non-synesthetes is discussed.

  15. Implications of number-space synesthesia on the automaticity of numerical processing

    PubMed Central

    Gertner, Limor; Henik, Avishai; Reznik, Daniel; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Number-space synesthetes visualize numbers in specific spatial configurations. Their spatial-numerical perceptions are assumed to be automatic in nature and have been found to affect performance in various numerical tasks. The current study tested whether synesthetic number-space associations can modulate the well-established Size Congruency Effect (SiCE), which is considered to be an indication for the automaticity of numerical processing. Two groups, number-space synesthetes and matched controls, were tested on a numerical Stroop task (Henik and Tzelgov, 1982). In separate blocks, participants were presented with two digits and asked to make comparative judgments regarding either numerical values (numerical comparison) or physical size (physical comparison). Both dimensions were manipulated orthogonally, creating three congruency levels: congruent (e.g., 2 7), incongruent (e.g., 2 7) and neutral (e.g., 2 2 and 2 7 for physical and numerical blocks, respectively). For the numerical block, both synesthetes and controls showed the classic SiCE, indicating similar automatic processing of physical magnitude. However, in the physical block, synesthetes showed a lack of automatic numerical magnitude processing when the numbers to be compared were presented incompatibly with their relative position on the synesthetic number-form. This finding strongly suggests that synesthetes’ number-space perceptions affect their ability to automatically process the semantic meaning of numerals. The involvement of space in automatic magnitude processing for number-space synesthetes and non-synesthetes is discussed. PMID:22578710

  16. 36 CFR 1260.50 - How are records at NARA reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process? 1260.50 Section 1260.50 Parks, Forests, and... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Automatic Declassification § 1260.50 How are records at NARA reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process? (a) Consistent with the requirements of section 3.3...

  17. 36 CFR 1260.50 - How are records at NARA reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process? 1260.50 Section 1260.50 Parks, Forests, and... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Automatic Declassification § 1260.50 How are records at NARA reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process? (a) Consistent with the requirements of section 3.3...

  18. 36 CFR 1260.50 - How are records at NARA reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process? 1260.50 Section 1260.50 Parks, Forests, and... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Automatic Declassification § 1260.50 How are records at NARA reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process? (a) Consistent with the requirements of section 3.3...

  19. TARGET: Rapid Capture of Process Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, C. J.; Ly, H. V.; Saito, T.; Loftin, R. B.

    1993-01-01

    TARGET (Task Analysis/Rule Generation Tool) represents a new breed of tool that blends graphical process flow modeling capabilities with the function of a top-down reporting facility. Since NASA personnel frequently perform tasks that are primarily procedural in nature, TARGET models mission or task procedures and generates hierarchical reports as part of the process capture and analysis effort. Historically, capturing knowledge has proven to be one of the greatest barriers to the development of intelligent systems. Current practice generally requires lengthy interactions between the expert whose knowledge is to be captured and the knowledge engineer whose responsibility is to acquire and represent the expert's knowledge in a useful form. Although much research has been devoted to the development of methodologies and computer software to aid in the capture and representation of some types of knowledge, procedural knowledge has received relatively little attention. In essence, TARGET is one of the first tools of its kind, commercial or institutional, that is designed to support this type of knowledge capture undertaking. This paper will describe the design and development of TARGET for the acquisition and representation of procedural knowledge. The strategies employed by TARGET to support use by knowledge engineers, subject matter experts, programmers and managers will be discussed. This discussion includes the method by which the tool employs its graphical user interface to generate a task hierarchy report. Next, the approach to generate production rules for incorporation in and development of a CLIPS based expert system will be elaborated. TARGET also permits experts to visually describe procedural tasks as a common medium for knowledge refinement by the expert community and knowledge engineer making knowledge consensus possible. The paper briefly touches on the verification and validation issues facing the CLIPS rule generation aspects of TARGET. A description of

  20. Automatic processing influences free recall: converging evidence from the process dissociation procedure and remember-know judgments.

    PubMed

    McCabe, David P; Roediger, Henry L; Karpicke, Jeffrey D

    2011-04-01

    Dual-process theories of retrieval suggest that controlled and automatic processing contribute to memory performance. Free recall tests are often considered pure measures of recollection, assessing only the controlled process. We report two experiments demonstrating that automatic processes also influence free recall. Experiment 1 used inclusion and exclusion tasks to estimate recollection and automaticity in free recall, adopting a new variant of the process dissociation procedure. Dividing attention during study selectively reduced the recollection estimate but did not affect the automatic component. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of Experiment 1, and subjects additionally reported remember-know-guess judgments during recall in the inclusion condition. In the latter task, dividing attention during study reduced remember judgments for studied items, but know responses were unaffected. Results from both methods indicated that free recall is partly driven by automatic processes. Thus, we conclude that retrieval in free recall tests is not driven solely by conscious recollection (or remembering) but also by automatic influences of the same sort believed to drive priming on implicit memory tests. Sometimes items come to mind without volition in free recall.

  1. Racial bias in pain perception and response: experimental examination of automatic and deliberate processes

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vani A.; Richeson, Jennifer A.; Paice, Judith A.; Muzyka, Michael; Chiao, Joan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Racial disparities in pain treatment pose a significant public health and scientific problem. Prior studies demonstrate clinicians and non-clinicians are less perceptive, and suggest less treatment for, the pain of African Americans, relative to European Americans. Here we investigate the effects of explicit/implicit patient race presentation, patient race, and perceiver race on pain perception and response. African American and European American participants rated pain perception, empathy, helping motivation, and treatment suggestion in response to vignettes about patients’ pain. Vignettes were accompanied by a rapid (implicit), or static (explicit) presentation of an African or European American patient’s face. Participants perceived and responded more to European American patients in the implicit prime condition, when the effect of patient race was below the level of conscious regulation. This effect was reversed when patient race was presented explicitly. Additionally, female participants perceived and responded more to the pain of all patients, relative to male participants, and in the implicit prime condition, African American participants were more perceptive and responsive than European Americans to the pain of all patients. Taken together, these results suggest that known disparities in pain treatment may be largely due to automatic (below the level of conscious regulation), rather than deliberate (subject to conscious regulation) biases. These biases were not associated with traditional implicit measures of racial attitudes, suggesting that biases in pain perception and response may be independent of general prejudice. Perspective Results suggest racial biases in pain perception and treatment are at least partially due to automatic processes. When the relevance of patient race is made explicit, however, biases are attenuated and even reversed. We also find preliminary evidence that African Americans may be more sensitive to the pain of others than

  2. A comparison of conscious and automatic memory processes for picture and word stimuli: a process dissociation analysis.

    PubMed

    McBride, Dawn M; Anne Dosher, Barbara

    2002-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate explanations of picture superiority effects previously found for several tasks. In a process dissociation procedure (Jacoby, 1991) with word stem completion, picture fragment completion, and category production tasks, conscious and automatic memory processes were compared for studied pictures and words with an independent retrieval model and a generate-source model. The predictions of a transfer appropriate processing account of picture superiority were tested and validated in "process pure" latent measures of conscious and unconscious, or automatic and source, memory processes. Results from both model fits verified that pictures had a conceptual (conscious/source) processing advantage over words for all tasks. The effects of perceptual (automatic/word generation) compatibility depended on task type, with pictorial tasks favoring pictures and linguistic tasks favoring words. Results show support for an explanation of the picture superiority effect that involves an interaction of encoding and retrieval processes.

  3. Syntax as a Reflex: Neurophysiological Evidence for Early Automaticity of Grammatical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Hasting, Anna S.; Carlyon, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    It has been a matter of debate whether the specifically human capacity to process syntactic information draws on attentional resources or is automatic. To address this issue, we recorded neurophysiological indicators of syntactic processing to spoken sentences while subjects were distracted to different degrees from language processing. Subjects…

  4. Test of a potential link between analytic and nonanalytic category learning and automatic, effortful processing.

    PubMed

    Tracy, J I; Pinsk, M; Helverson, J; Urban, G; Dietz, T; Smith, D J

    2001-08-01

    The link between automatic and effortful processing and nonanalytic and analytic category learning was evaluated in a sample of 29 college undergraduates using declarative memory, semantic category search, and pseudoword categorization tasks. Automatic and effortful processing measures were hypothesized to be associated with nonanalytic and analytic categorization, respectively. Results suggested that contrary to prediction strong criterion-attribute (analytic) responding on the pseudoword categorization task was associated with strong automatic, implicit memory encoding of frequency-of-occurrence information. Data are discussed in terms of the possibility that criterion-attribute category knowledge, once established, may be expressed with few attentional resources. The data indicate that attention resource requirements, even for the same stimuli and task, vary depending on the category rule system utilized. Also, the automaticity emerging from familiarity with analytic category exemplars is very different from the automaticity arising from extensive practice on a semantic category search task. The data do not support any simple mapping of analytic and nonanalytic forms of category learning onto the automatic and effortful processing dichotomy and challenge simple models of brain asymmetries for such procedures.

  5. Testing interactive effects of automatic and conflict control processes during response inhibition - A system neurophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Witold X; Beste, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In everyday life successful acting often requires to inhibit automatic responses that might not be appropriate in the current situation. These response inhibition processes have been shown to become aggravated with increasing automaticity of pre-potent response tendencies. Likewise, it has been shown that inhibitory processes are complicated by a concurrent engagement in additional cognitive control processes (e.g. conflicting monitoring). Therefore, opposing processes (i.e. automaticity and cognitive control) seem to strongly impact response inhibition. However, possible interactive effects of automaticity and cognitive control for the modulation of response inhibition processes have yet not been examined. In the current study we examine this question using a novel experimental paradigm combining a Go/NoGo with a Simon task in a system neurophysiological approach combining EEG recordings with source localization analyses. The results show that response inhibition is less accurate in non-conflicting than in conflicting stimulus-response mappings. Thus it seems that conflicts and the resulting engagement in conflict monitoring processes, as reflected in the N2 amplitude, may foster response inhibition processes. This engagement in conflict monitoring processes leads to an increase in cognitive control, as reflected by an increased activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate areas, while simultaneously the automaticity of response tendencies is decreased. Most importantly, this study suggests that the quality of conflict processes in anterior cingulate areas and especially the resulting interaction of cognitive control and automaticity of pre-potent response tendencies are important factors to consider, when it comes to the modulation of response inhibition processes.

  6. Flexible, rapid and automatic neocortical word form acquisition mechanism in children as revealed by neuromagnetic brain response dynamics.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Eino; Leminen, Alina; de Paoli, Stine; Bundgaard, Anette; Skjold Kingo, Osman; Krøjgaard, Peter; Shtyrov, Yury

    2017-04-04

    Children learn new words and word forms with ease, often acquiring a new word after very few repetitions. Recent neurophysiological research on word form acquisition in adults indicates that novel words can be acquired within minutes of repetitive exposure to them, regardless of the individual's focused attention on the speech input. Although it is well-known that children surpass adults in language acquisition, the developmental aspects of such rapid and automatic neural acquisition mechanisms remain unexplored. To address this open question, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to scrutinise brain dynamics elicited by spoken words and word-like sounds in healthy monolingual (Danish) children throughout a 20-minute repetitive passive exposure session. We found rapid neural dynamics manifested as an enhancement of early (~100 ms) brain activity over the short exposure session, with distinct spatiotemporal patterns for different novel sounds. For novel Danish word forms, signs of such enhancement were seen in the left temporal regions only, suggesting reliance on pre-existing language circuits for acquisition of novel word forms with native phonology. In contrast, exposure both to novel word forms with non-native phonology and to novel non-speech sounds led to activity enhancement in both left and right hemispheres, suggesting that more wide-spread cortical networks contribute to the build-up of memory traces for non-native and non-speech sounds. Similar studies in adults have previously reported more sluggish (~15-25minutes, as opposed to 4minutes in the present study) or non-existent neural dynamics for non-native sound acquisition, which might be indicative of a higher degree of plasticity in the children's brain. Overall, the results indicate a rapid and highly plastic mechanism for a dynamic build-up of memory traces for novel acoustic information in the children's brain that operates automatically and recruits bilateral temporal cortical circuits.

  7. Thermally grown oxide and diffusions for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1979-01-01

    A totally automated facility for semiconductor oxidation and diffusion was developed using a state-of-the-art diffusion furnace and high temperature grown oxides. Major innovations include: (1) a process controller specifically for semiconductor processing; (2) an automatic loading system to accept wafers from an air track, insert them into a quartz carrier and then place the carrier on a paddle for insertion into the furnace; (3) automatic unloading of the wafers back onto the air track, and (4) boron diffusion using diborane with plus or minus 5 percent uniformity. Processes demonstrated include Wet and dry oxidation for general use and for gate oxide, boron diffusion, phosphorous diffusion, and sintering.

  8. Degree of Consistent Training and the Development of Automatic Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-09

    processing as composed of two qualitatively different modes of processing ( LaBerge , 1973, 1975, 1976; Posner and Snyder, 1975; Norman, 1976; Shiffrin and...Psychology, 1971, 2, 229-237. LaBerge , D. Attention and the measurement of perceptual learning. Memory and Cognition, 1973, 1, 268-276. LaBerge , D...York: Academic Press, 1975. LaBerge , D. Perceptual learning and attention. In W. K. Estes (Ed.), Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Processes (Vol. 4

  9. Using Automatic Code Generation in the Attitude Control Flight Software Engineering Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Andrews, Stephen F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the attitude control subsystem flight software development process, identifies how the process has changed due to automatic code generation, analyzes each software development phase in detail, and concludes with a summary of our lessons learned.

  10. Processing Systems Optimization Through Automatic Design and Reorganization of Program Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunamaker, J. F., Jr.; And Others

    A methodology is described for an automatic design system initially defined in terms of logical processes or program modules. Processes and files are grouped and reorganized in such a way as to produce an optimal design with respect to a specific target machine. Performance criteria for the optimal design are defined in terms of transport volume…

  11. A new quantitative automatic method for the measurement of non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalographic amplitude variability.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Novelli, Luana; Terzano, Mario G; Parrino, Liborio; Bruni, Oliviero

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to arrange an automatic quantitative measure of the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal amplitude variability during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, correlated with the visually extracted cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) parameters. Ninety-eight polysomnographic EEG recordings of normal controls were used. A new algorithm based on the analysis of the EEG amplitude variability during NREM sleep was designed and applied to all recordings, which were also scored visually for CAP. All measurements obtained with the new algorithm correlated positively with corresponding CAP parameters. In particular, total CAP time correlated with total NREM variability time (r = 0.596; P < 1E-07), light sleep CAP time with light sleep variability time (r = 0.597; P < 1E-07) and slow wave sleep CAP time with slow wave sleep variability time (r = 0.809; P < 1E-07). Only the duration of CAP A phases showed a low correlation with the duration of variability events. Finally, the age-related modifications of CAP time and of NREM variability time were found to be very similar. The new method for the automatic analysis of NREM sleep amplitude variability presented here correlates significantly with visual CAP parameters; its application requires a minimum work time, compared to CAP analysis, and might be used in large studies involving numerous recordings in which NREM sleep EEG amplitude variability needs to be assessed.

  12. Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) of semiconductors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. J.; Jones, K. S.

    1993-01-01

    The progress achieved on the project entitled 'Rapid Thermal Processing of Semiconductors in Space' for a 12 month period of activity ending March 31, 1993 is summarized. The activity of this group is being performed under the direct auspices of the ROMPS program. The main objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate the use of advanced robotics in space with rapid thermal process (RTP) of semiconductors providing the test technology. Rapid thermal processing is an ideal processing step for demonstration purposes since it encompasses many of the characteristics of other processes used in solid state device manufacturing. Furthermore, a low thermal budget is becoming more important in existing manufacturing practice, while a low thermal budget is critical to successful processing in space. A secondary objective of this project is to determine the influence of microgravity on the rapid thermal process for a variety of operating modes. In many instances, this involves one or more fluid phases. The advancement of microgravity processing science is an important ancillary objective.

  13. Rapidity gaps in hard processes at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J.

    1996-09-01

    Latest results on jet production with rapidity gaps at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider are presented. Jet production via color-singlet exchange at high momenta transfer is observed as a class of events with low particle multiplicity (or rapidity gaps) between the two highest transverse energy jets. The particle multiplicity in various regions, and the dependencies on jet pseudorapidity separation and jet transverse energy are studied for these events. Results from two classes of dijet events with one or two forward rapidity gaps are also presented. The topology of these events is consistent with expectations for hard single diffraction and hard double pomeron exchange processes, respectively.

  14. Rapid visuomotor processing of phobic images in spider- and snake-fearful participants.

    PubMed

    Haberkamp, Anke; Schmidt, Filipp; Schmidt, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates enhanced visuomotor processing of phobic compared to fear-relevant and neutral stimuli. We used a response priming design to measure rapid, automatic motor activation by natural images (spiders, snakes, mushrooms, and flowers) in spider-fearful, snake-fearful, and control participants. We found strong priming effects in all tasks and conditions; however, results showed marked differences between groups. Most importantly, in the group of spider-fearful individuals, spider pictures had a strong and specific influence on even the fastest motor responses: Phobic primes entailed the largest priming effects, and phobic targets accelerated responses, both effects indicating speeded response activation by phobic images. In snake-fearful participants, this processing enhancement for phobic material was less pronounced and extended to both snake and spider images. We conclude that spider phobia leads to enhanced processing capacity for phobic images. We argue that this is enabled by long-term perceptual learning processes.

  15. Processing "the" in the Parafovea: Are Articles Skipped Automatically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    One of the words that readers of English skip most often is the definite article "the". Most accounts of reading assume that in order for a reader to skip a word, it must have received some lexical processing. The definite article is skipped so regularly, however, that the oculomotor system might have learned to skip the letter string…

  16. Automatic and Controlled Processing of Sequences of Events.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    average 40 msec/item to do the search and postulated a serial exhaustive model to account for these results. Atkinson , Holmgren, and Juola (1969) found...channels is increased. The last six experiments employ techniques similar to those used by Schneider and Shiffrin (1977) to determine if sequences of...processing utilized is a * question that still persists at this time. Furthermore, this early research led to the development of mechanistic models of

  17. Investigation of registration algorithms for the automatic tile processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamir, Dan E.

    1995-01-01

    The Robotic Tile Inspection System (RTPS), under development in NASA-KSC, is expected to automate the processes of post-flight re-water-proofing and the process of inspection of the Shuttle heat absorbing tiles. An important task of the robot vision sub-system is to register the 'real-world' coordinates with the coordinates of the robot model of the Shuttle tiles. The model coordinates relate to a tile data-base and pre-flight tile-images. In the registration process, current (post-flight) images are aligned with pre-flight images to detect the rotation and translation displacement required for the coordinate systems rectification. The research activities performed this summer included study and evaluation of the registration algorithm that is currently implemented by the RTPS, as well as, investigation of the utility of other registration algorithms. It has been found that the current algorithm is not robust enough. This algorithm has a success rate of less than 80% and is, therefore, not suitable for complying with the requirements of the RTPS. Modifications to the current algorithm has been developed and tested. These modifications can improve the performance of the registration algorithm in a significant way. However, this improvement is not sufficient to satisfy system requirements. A new algorithm for registration has been developed and tested. This algorithm presented very high degree of robustness with success rate of 96%.

  18. Ice images processing interface for automatic features extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, Pierre M.

    2001-02-01

    Canadian Coast Guard has the mandate to maintain the navigability of the St.-Lawrence seaway. It must prevent ice jam formation. Radar, sonar sensors and cameras are used to verify ice movement and keep a record of pertinent data. The cameras are placed along the seaway at strategic locations. Images are processed and saved for future reference. The Ice Images Processing Interface (IIPI) is an integral part of Ices Integrated System (IIS). This software processes images to extract the ice speed, concentration, roughness, and rate of flow. Ice concentration is computed from image segmentation using color models and a priori information. Speed is obtained from a region-matching algorithm. Both concentration and speed calculations are complex, since they require a calibration step involving on-site measurements. Color texture features provide ice roughness estimation. Rate of flow uses ice thickness, which is estimated from sonar sensors on the river floor. Our paper will present how we modeled and designed the IIPI, the issues involved and its future. For more reliable results, we suggest that meteorological data be provided, change in camera orientation be changed, sun reflections be anticipated, and more a priori information, such as radar images available at some sites, be included.

  19. A new tool for rapid and automatic estimation of earthquake source parameters and generation of seismic bulletins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    RISS S.r.l. is a Spin-off company recently born from the initiative of the research group constituting the Seismology Laboratory of the Department of Physics of the University of Naples Federico II. RISS is an innovative start-up, based on the decade-long experience in earthquake monitoring systems and seismic data analysis of its members and has the major goal to transform the most recent innovations of the scientific research into technological products and prototypes. With this aim, RISS has recently started the development of a new software, which is an elegant solution to manage and analyse seismic data and to create automatic earthquake bulletins. The software has been initially developed to manage data recorded at the ISNet network (Irpinia Seismic Network), which is a network of seismic stations deployed in Southern Apennines along the active fault system responsible for the 1980, November 23, MS 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. The software, however, is fully exportable and can be used to manage data from different networks, with any kind of station geometry or network configuration and is able to provide reliable estimates of earthquake source parameters, whichever is the background seismicity level of the area of interest. Here we present the real-time automated procedures and the analyses performed by the software package, which is essentially a chain of different modules, each of them aimed at the automatic computation of a specific source parameter. The P-wave arrival times are first detected on the real-time streaming of data and then the software performs the phase association and earthquake binding. As soon as an event is automatically detected by the binder, the earthquake location coordinates and the origin time are rapidly estimated, using a probabilistic, non-linear, exploration algorithm. Then, the software is able to automatically provide three different magnitude estimates. First, the local magnitude (Ml) is computed, using the peak-to-peak amplitude

  20. Fast Implementation of Matched Filter Based Automatic Alignment Image Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S; Rice, K; Taha, T

    2008-04-02

    Video images of laser beams imprinted with distinguishable features are used for alignment of 192 laser beams at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Algorithms designed to determine the position of these beams enable the control system to perform the task of alignment. Centroiding is a common approach used for determining the position of beams. However, real world beam images suffer from intensity fluctuation or other distortions which make such an approach susceptible to higher position measurement variability. Matched filtering used for identifying the beam position results in greater stability of position measurement compared to that obtained using the centroiding technique. However, this gain is achieved at the expense of extra processing time required for each beam image. In this work we explore the possibility of using a field programmable logic array (FPGA) to speed up these computations. The results indicate a performance improvement of 20 using the FPGA relative to a 3 GHz Pentium 4 processor.

  1. Rapid automatized naming and immediate memory functions in Chinese children who read English as a second language.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Guo, Jian-Peng; Yang, Ling-Yan; Zhang, Dake; Ning, Huan; Richman, Lynn C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined reading performance of 102 Chinese Mandarin-speaking 4th graders in their second language (L2, English) as a function of performance in their first language (L1, Chinese). The results revealed that for Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Rapid Alternating Stimulus (RAS) measures, the mean naming time decreased monotonically in high-achieving, average, and low-achieving readers. RAN and RAS differentiated poor readers from good and average readers but failed to differentiate between good and average readers. RAN deficits occurred in poor readers in both languages. Comparison of memory profiles revealed that patterns varied depending on the mode of stimulus presentation or response. Low-achieving readers performed poorly on a subtest involving visual components only and did relatively better on a subtest involving verbal components only. Poor readers in Chinese also encountered difficulties in learning English as a L2. RAN-character accounted for unique variance in two Chinese reading measures. RAN-letter explained unique variance in English mid-term reading grade. The unique variance captured by the Color Span Subtest 1 (visual-visual) was found in Chinese reading comprehension but not in English reading comprehension. Reading performance in L1 was predictive of reading performance in L2 and vice versa.

  2. Automatic solar feature detection using image processing and pattern recognition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Ming

    The objective of the research in this dissertation is to develop a software system to automatically detect and characterize solar flares, filaments and Corona Mass Ejections (CMEs), the core of so-called solar activity. These tools will assist us to predict space weather caused by violent solar activity. Image processing and pattern recognition techniques are applied to this system. For automatic flare detection, the advanced pattern recognition techniques such as Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Radial Basis Function (RBF), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) are used. By tracking the entire process of flares, the motion properties of two-ribbon flares are derived automatically. In the applications of the solar filament detection, the Stabilized Inverse Diffusion Equation (SIDE) is used to enhance and sharpen filaments; a new method for automatic threshold selection is proposed to extract filaments from background; an SVM classifier with nine input features is used to differentiate between sunspots and filaments. Once a filament is identified, morphological thinning, pruning, and adaptive edge linking methods are applied to determine filament properties. Furthermore, a filament matching method is proposed to detect filament disappearance. The automatic detection and characterization of flares and filaments have been successfully applied on Halpha full-disk images that are continuously obtained at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). For automatically detecting and classifying CMEs, the image enhancement, segmentation, and pattern recognition techniques are applied to Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C2 and C3 images. The processed LASCO and BBSO images are saved to file archive, and the physical properties of detected solar features such as intensity and speed are recorded in our database. Researchers are able to access the solar feature database and analyze the solar data efficiently and effectively. The detection and characterization system greatly improves

  3. Rapid learning-based video stereolization using graphic processing unit acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tian; Jung, Cheolkon; Wang, Lei; Kim, Joongkyu

    2016-09-01

    Video stereolization has received much attention in recent years due to the lack of stereoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) contents. Although video stereolization can enrich stereoscopic 3-D contents, it is hard to achieve automatic two-dimensional-to-3-D conversion with less computational cost. We proposed rapid learning-based video stereolization using a graphic processing unit (GPU) acceleration. We first generated an initial depth map based on learning from examples. Then, we refined the depth map using saliency and cross-bilateral filtering to make object boundaries clear. Finally, we performed depth-image-based-rendering to generate stereoscopic 3-D views. To accelerate the computation of video stereolization, we provided a parallelizable hybrid GPU-central processing unit (CPU) solution to be suitable for running on GPU. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is nearly 180 times faster than CPU-based processing and achieves a good performance comparable to the-state-of-the-art ones.

  4. Semi-Automatic Post-Processing for Improved Usability of Electure Podcasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Wolfgang; Welte, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Playing back recorded lectures on handheld devices offers interesting perspectives for learning, but suffers from small screen sizes. The purpose of this paper is to propose several semi-automatic post-processing steps in order to improve usability by providing a better readability and additional navigation functionality.…

  5. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 95.49 Security...

  6. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 95.49 Security...

  7. 48 CFR 245.608-72 - Screening excess automatic data processing equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening excess automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). 245.608-72 Section 245.608-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal...

  8. The Development of Automatic and Controlled Inhibitory Retrieval Processes in True and False Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, Lauren M.; Howe, Mark L.; Wimmer, Marina C.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the role of automatic and controlled inhibitory retrieval processes in true and false memory development in children and adults. Experiment 1 incorporated a directed forgetting task to examine controlled retrieval inhibition. Experiments 2 and 3 used a part-set cue and retrieval practice task to examine…

  9. Relatedness Proportion Effects in Semantic Categorization: Reconsidering the Automatic Spreading Activation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    Semantic priming effects at a short prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony are commonly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process. According to this view, the proportion of related trials should have no impact on the size of the semantic priming effect. Using a semantic categorization task ("Is this a living…

  10. The Development of Automatic Letter Processing Skills Related to Reading and Intellectual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, D. B.; And Others

    To determine the developmental level at which letter processing skills become automatic, an experiment was conducted using a variant of the visual search task. Subjects in grades one, two, and three and in college searched for target letters displayed on a cathode ray tube along with either visually confusable letters, acoustically confusable…

  11. Automatic Processing of Metallurgical Abstracts for the Purpose of Information Retrieval. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Jessica S.

    Objectives of this project were to develop and test a method for automatically processing the text of abstracts for a document retrieval system. The test corpus consisted of 768 abstracts from the metallurgical section of Chemical Abstracts (CA). The system, based on a subject indexing rational, had two components: (1) a stored dictionary of words…

  12. Understanding and shifting drug-related decisions: Contributions of automatic decision-making processes

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Kenneth M.; Bedi, Gillinder; Vadhan, Nehal P.

    2015-01-01

    While substance use is common, only a minority of individuals who use drugs or alcohol develop problematic use. An understanding of the factors underlying the transition from substance use to misuse may improve prevention and intervention efforts. A key feature of substance misuse is ongoing decisions to use drugs or alcohol despite escalating negative consequences. Research findings highlight the importance of both relatively automatic, associative cognitive processes and relatively controlled, deliberative, and rational-analytic cognitive processes, for understanding situational decisions to use drugs. In this review, we discuss several cognitive component processes that may contribute to decision-making that promotes substance use and misuse, with a focus on more automatic processes. A growing body of evidence indicates that relative differences in the strength of these component processes can account for individual differences in the transition from substance use to misuse, and may offer important avenues for developing novel intervention strategies. PMID:26084667

  13. Radiation-induced bystander effect: early process and rapid assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhi; Yu, K N; Hou, Jue; Liu, Qian; Han, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is a biological process that has received attention over the past two decades. RIBE refers to a plethora of biological effects in non-irradiated cells, including induction of genetic damages, gene expression, cell transformation, proliferation and cell death, which are initiated by receiving bystander signals released from irradiated cells. RIBE brings potential hazards to normal tissues in radiotherapy, and imparts a higher risk from low-dose radiation than we previously thought. Detection with proteins related to DNA damage and repair, cell cycle control, proliferation, etc. have enabled rapid assessment of RIBE in a number of research systems such as cultured cells, three-dimensional tissue models and animal models. Accumulated experimental data have suggested that RIBE may be initiated rapidly within a time frame as short as several minutes after radiation. These have led to the requirement of techniques capable of rapidly assessing RIBE itself as well as assessing the early processes involved.

  14. Dyslexia and Fluency: Parafoveal and Foveal Influences on Rapid Automatized Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Manon W.; Ashby, Jane; Branigan, Holly P.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to coordinate serial processing of multiple items is crucial for fluent reading but is known to be impaired in dyslexia. To investigate this impairment, we manipulated the orthographic and phonological similarity of adjacent letters online as dyslexic and nondyslexic readers named letters in a serial naming (RAN) task. Eye movements…

  15. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  16. Acute alcohol consumption impairs controlled but not automatic processes in a psychophysical pointing paradigm.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Kevin; Timney, Brian; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Such studies have shown that alcohol impairs performance on tasks requiring conscious, intentional control, while leaving automatic performance relatively intact. Here, we sought to extend these findings to aspects of visuomotor control by investigating the effects of alcohol in a visuomotor pointing paradigm that allowed us to separate the influence of controlled and automatic processes. Six male participants were assigned to an experimental "correction" condition in which they were instructed to point at a visual target as quickly and accurately as possible. On a small percentage of trials, the target "jumped" to a new location. On these trials, the participants' task was to amend their movement such that they pointed to the new target location. A second group of 6 participants were assigned to a "countermanding" condition, in which they were instructed to terminate their movements upon detection of target "jumps". In both the correction and countermanding conditions, participants served as their own controls, taking part in alcohol and no-alcohol conditions on separate days. Alcohol had no effect on participants' ability to correct movements "in flight", but impaired the ability to withhold such automatic corrections. Our data support the notion that alcohol selectively impairs controlled processes in the visuomotor domain.

  17. Intentional and automatic numerical processing as predictors of mathematical abilities in primary school children

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Violeta; Castillo, Alejandro; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Fuentes, Luis J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that numerical processing relates to mathematical performance, but it seems that such relationship is more evident for intentional than for automatic numerical processing. In the present study we assessed the relationship between the two types of numerical processing and specific mathematical abilities in a sample of 109 children in grades 1–6. Participants were tested in an ample range of mathematical tests and also performed both a numerical and a size comparison task. The results showed that numerical processing related to mathematical performance only when inhibitory control was involved in the comparison tasks. Concretely, we found that intentional numerical processing, as indexed by the numerical distance effect in the numerical comparison task, was related to mathematical reasoning skills only when the task-irrelevant dimension (the physical size) was incongruent; whereas automatic numerical processing, indexed by the congruency effect in the size comparison task, was related to mathematical calculation skills only when digits were separated by small distance. The observed double dissociation highlights the relevance of both intentional and automatic numerical processing in mathematical skills, but when inhibitory control is also involved. PMID:25873909

  18. Intentional and automatic numerical processing as predictors of mathematical abilities in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Pina, Violeta; Castillo, Alejandro; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Fuentes, Luis J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that numerical processing relates to mathematical performance, but it seems that such relationship is more evident for intentional than for automatic numerical processing. In the present study we assessed the relationship between the two types of numerical processing and specific mathematical abilities in a sample of 109 children in grades 1-6. Participants were tested in an ample range of mathematical tests and also performed both a numerical and a size comparison task. The results showed that numerical processing related to mathematical performance only when inhibitory control was involved in the comparison tasks. Concretely, we found that intentional numerical processing, as indexed by the numerical distance effect in the numerical comparison task, was related to mathematical reasoning skills only when the task-irrelevant dimension (the physical size) was incongruent; whereas automatic numerical processing, indexed by the congruency effect in the size comparison task, was related to mathematical calculation skills only when digits were separated by small distance. The observed double dissociation highlights the relevance of both intentional and automatic numerical processing in mathematical skills, but when inhibitory control is also involved.

  19. Using dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic from nonautomatic processes involved in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Michelle A; Conway, Christopher M; Kellogg, Ronald T

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that both automatic and intentional processes contribute to the learning of grammar and fragment knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks. To explore the relative contribution of automatic and intentional processes to knowledge gained in AGL, we utilized dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic and intentional grammar- and fragment-based knowledge in AGL at both acquisition and at test. Both experiments used a balanced chunk strength grammar to assure an equal proportion of fragment cues (i.e., chunks) in grammatical and nongrammatical test items. In Experiment 1, participants engaged in a working memory dual-task either during acquisition, test, or both acquisition and test. The results showed that participants performing the dual-task during acquisition learned the artificial grammar as well as the single-task group, presumably by relying on automatic learning mechanisms. A working memory dual-task at test resulted in attenuated grammar performance, suggesting a role for intentional processes for the expression of grammatical learning at test. Experiment 2 explored the importance of perceptual cues by changing letters between the acquisition and test phase; unlike Experiment 1, there was no significant learning of grammatical information for participants under dual-task conditions in Experiment 2, suggesting that intentional processing is necessary for successful acquisition and expression of grammar-based knowledge under transfer conditions. In sum, it appears that some aspects of learning in AGL are indeed relatively automatic, although the expression of grammatical information and the learning of grammatical patterns when perceptual similarity is eliminated both appear to require explicit resources.

  20. Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Predicting Early Development in Reading and Spelling: Results from a Cross-Linguistic Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) was investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230…

  1. [Application of automatic identification technology to monitor the entire process of medical management].

    PubMed

    Chen, Minya; Men, Yi

    2010-05-01

    With the development of the hospital information technology management, to improve the clinic service quality and reduce medical errors, automatic identification technology has been widely used in health care areas. This technology has been used in our hospital for patient identification, sample identification, drug identification and equipment identification. Combined with wireless networks, mobile terminals and middleware etc., making the whole process of clinic service closed-loop system. This application improves efficiency, reduces mistakes and puts whole clinical service management process under control.

  2. Automatic humidification system to support the assessment of food drying processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Hernández, B. D.; Carreño Olejua, A. R.; Castellanos Olarte, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    This work shows the main features of an automatic humidification system to provide drying air that match environmental conditions of different climate zones. This conditioned air is then used to assess the drying process of different agro-industrial products at the Automation and Control for Agro-industrial Processes Laboratory of the Pontifical Bolivarian University of Bucaramanga, Colombia. The automatic system allows creating and improving control strategies to supply drying air under specified conditions of temperature and humidity. The development of automatic routines to control and acquire real time data was made possible by the use of robust control systems and suitable instrumentation. The signals are read and directed to a controller memory where they are scaled and transferred to a memory unit. Using the IP address is possible to access data to perform supervision tasks. One important characteristic of this automatic system is the Dynamic Data Exchange Server (DDE) to allow direct communication between the control unit and the computer used to build experimental curves.

  3. On the consideration of automatic as well as controlled psychological processes in aggression.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    Without slighting the important role played by controlled psychological processes in human aggression, this paper recommends that considerable systematic attention should also be given to the operation of automatic processes in bringing about this behavior. The concepts of automaticity and impulsivity are discussed briefly and it is proposed that many impulsive actions, particularly antisocial ones, are due to failures of restraint after they were initiated involuntarily. A number of experiments are reviewed in which situational stimuli automatically instigated or heightened aggressive inclinations. These have to do with associations in hostility displacement, reactions to stigmatized persons, and association in aggressive reactions to media violence. The last-mentioned studies deal especially with factors affecting the selection of the target for aggression. In discussing these findings it is suggested that after the crucial situational features had automatically initiated the sequence of determinants, the aggression displayed could have been due either to a hostile appraisal of the target or the activation of aggression-related bodily reactions as well as hostile ideas. It is also hypothesized that in at least one of the studies, an experienced negative affect might have instigated the aggression independently of any appraisals.

  4. Oscillatory brain dynamics associated with the automatic processing of emotion in words.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the automaticity of processing the emotional aspects of words, and characterizes the oscillatory brain dynamics that accompany this automatic processing. Participants read emotionally negative, neutral and positive nouns while performing a color detection task in which only perceptual-level analysis was required. Event-related potentials and time frequency representations were computed from the concurrently measured EEG. Negative words elicited a larger P2 and a larger late positivity than positive and neutral words, indicating deeper semantic/evaluative processing of negative words. In addition, sustained alpha power suppressions were found for the emotional compared to neutral words, in the time range from 500 to 1000ms post-stimulus. These results suggest that sustained attention was allocated to the emotional words, whereas the attention allocated to the neutral words was released after an initial analysis. This seems to hold even when the emotional content of the words is task-irrelevant.

  5. Application of a novel automatic disintegration apparatus for the development and evaluation of a direct compression rapidly disintegrating tablet.

    PubMed

    Jung, Huijeong Ashley; Augsburger, Larry L

    2012-07-01

    An automatic disintegration tester was developed and used to explore disintegration mechanism and times of rapidly disintegrating tablets. DT50, the time required for a tablet to decrease in its thickness by half, allowed an unbiased determination of disintegration time. Calcium silicate concentration, Explotab® concentration, DiPac®/Xylitab® ratio as fillers, and compression pressure were evaluated using a central composite model design analysis for their DT50, tensile strength, and friability. Tablets that could reasonably be handled (friability <10%) could be produced. The expansion coefficient (n) and the exponential rate constant (k) for disintegrating tablets, originally measured by Caramella et al. using force kinetics, could be determined from axial displacement data measured directly without the need to assume that disintegration force generation was indicative of changes in tablet volume. The n values of tablets containing calcium silicate, Ditab® and/or Xylitab®, magnesium stearate, and Explotab® suggested that the amount of Explotab® was not a significant factor in determining the disintegration mechanism; however, the type of disintegrant used did alter the n value. Primojel® and Explotab®, which are in the same class of disintegrants, exhibited similar DT50, n, and k. Polyplasdone® XL exhibited a much higher n, while yielding faster DT50, suggesting that its performance is more dependent on facilitating the interfacial separation of particles. AcDiSol® showed no apparent moisture sensitivity in regards to disintegration efficiency. The use of the novel apparatus proved to be useful in measuring disintegration efficiency of rapidly disintegrating tablets and in providing valuable information on the disintegration phenomena.

  6. Dopamine depletion impairs gait automaticity by altering cortico-striatal and cerebellar processing in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gilat, Moran; Bell, Peter T; Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A; Georgiades, Matthew J; Hall, Julie M; Walton, Courtney C; Lewis, Simon J G; Shine, James M

    2017-03-03

    -scale network interactions during gait. A main effect of medication was found for functional connectivity within an attentional motor network and a significant condition by medication interaction for functional connectivity was found within the striatum. Furthermore, functional connectivity within the striatum correlated strongly with increasing step time variability during walk in the off state (r=0.616, p=0.002), but not in the on state (r=-0.233, p=0.284). Post-hoc analyses revealed that functional connectivity in the dopamine depleted state within an orbitofrontal-striatal limbic circuit was correlated with worse step time variability (r=0.653, p<0.001). Overall, this study demonstrates that dopamine ameliorates gait automaticity in Parkinson's disease by altering striatal, limbic and cerebellar processing, thereby informing future therapeutic avenues for gait and falls prevention.

  7. Rapid and automatic on-plate desalting protocol for MALDI-MS: using imprinted hydrophobic polymer template.

    PubMed

    Jia, Weitao; Wu, Huixia; Lu, Haojie; Li, Na; Zhang, Yang; Cai, Ruifang; Yang, Pengyuan

    2007-08-01

    A novel protocol of rapid and automatic on-plate desalting (OPD) and peptide concentration for 2-DE-MALDI-MS has been developed by the approach of templating the hydrophobic polymer solution over Kapton-etched mask. For the template technique, small hydrophobic polymer [linear poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), PMMA derivatized with fullerene-C60 (PMMA-C60), linear polystyrene (PSt), or PSt derivatized with fullerene-C60 (PSt-C60)] spots (990 microm od) are patterned at the centers of stainless MALDI plate wells (1400 microm id). Tryptic-peptide solution with no predesalting was dropped onto the central hydrophobic spots, resulting in a concentration of proteolytic peptides on the hydrophobic polymer surface with a reduced spot size. The dried peptide layer was then covered subsequently with over-volume matrix solution, causing the removal of redissolved salts from the spot center to the spot edge by means of a natural "outward flow." The proposed OPD protocol exhibited a dramatic enhancement in S/N up to 850 for 14 fmol BSA digests in the coexistence of 100 mM salts, compared with barely detectable peaks in ordinary way. This analysis has shown that the success rate of identification was increased by two-fold for low abundance proteins in the human liver tissue with no need for the conventional ZipPlate desalting strategy.

  8. [Usefulness and limitations of rapid automatized naming to predict reading difficulties after school entry in preschool children].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Masato; Uno, Akira; Haruhara, Noriko; Awaya, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the usability and limitations of Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) results in 6-year-old Japanese preschool children to estimate whether reading difficulties will be encountered after school entry. We administered a RAN task to 1,001 preschool children. Then after they had entered school, we performed follow-up surveys yearly to assess their reading performance when these children were in the first, second, third and fourth grades. Also, we examined Hiragana non-words and Kanji words at each time point to detect the children who were having difficulty with reading Hiragana and Kanji. Results by Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis showed that the RAN result in 6-year-old preschool children was predictive of Kanji reading difficulty in the lower grades of elementary school, especially in the second grade with a probability of 0.86, and the area under the curve showed a probability of 0.84 in the third grade. These results suggested that the RAN task was useful as a screening tool.

  9. Rapid prototype fabrication processes for high-performance thrust cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, K.; Chwiedor, T.; Diab, J.; Williams, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Thrust Cell Technologies Program (Air Force Phillips Laboratory Contract No. F04611-92-C-0050) is currently being performed by Rocketdyne to demonstrate advanced materials and fabrication technologies which can be utilized to produce low-cost, high-performance thrust cells for launch and space transportation rocket engines. Under Phase 2 of the Thrust Cell Technologies Program (TCTP), rapid prototyping and investment casting techniques are being employed to fabricate a 12,000-lbf thrust class combustion chamber for delivery and hot-fire testing at Phillips Lab. The integrated process of investment casting directly from rapid prototype patterns dramatically reduces design-to-delivery cycle time, and greatly enhances design flexibility over conventionally processed cast or machined parts.

  10. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication: A Rapid Metal Deposition Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing of structural metal parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data has been investigated by numerous researchers over the past decade. Researchers at NASA Langley REsearch Center are developing a new solid freeform fabrication process, electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF), as a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Thus far, this technique has been demonstrated on aluminum and titanium alloys of interest for aerospace structural applications nickel and ferrous based alloys are also planned. Deposits resulting from 2219 aluminum demonstrations have exhibited a range of grain morphologies depending upon the deposition parameters. These materials ave exhibited excellent tensile properties comparable to typical handbook data for wrought plate product after post-processing heat treatments. The EBF process is capable of bulk metal deposition at deposition rated in excess of 2500 cubic centimeters per hour (150 cubic inches per our) or finer detail at lower deposition rates, depending upon the desired application. This process offers the potential for rapidly adding structural details to simpler cast or forged structures rather than the conventional approach of machining large volumes of chips to produce a monolithic metallic structure. Selective addition of metal onto simpler blanks of material can have a significant effect on lead time reduction and lower material and machining costs.

  11. A rapid algorithm for robust and automatic extraction of the midsagittal plane of the human cerebrum from neuroimages based on local symmetry and outlier removal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingmao; Nowinski, Wieslaw L

    2003-12-01

    A rapid algorithm for robust, accurate, and automatic extraction of the midsagittal plane (MSP) of the human cerebrum from normal and pathological neuroimages is proposed. The MSP is defined as a plane formed from the interhemispheric fissure line segments having the dominant orientation. The algorithm extracts the MSP in four steps: (1) determine suitable axial slices for processing, (2) localize the fissure line segments on them, (3) select inliers from the extracted fissure line segments through histogram-based outlier removal, and (4) calculate the equation of the MSP from the selected inliers. The fissure line segments are localized by minimizing the local symmetry index characterizing anatomical properties of images in the vicinity of the interhemispheric fissure. A two-stage angular and distance outlier removal is introduced to handle abnormalities. The algorithm has been validated quantitatively with 125 structural MRI and CT cases from 10 centers on three continents by studying its accuracy; tolerance to rotation, noise, asymmetry, and bias field; sensitivity to parameters; and performance. A statistical relationship between algorithm accuracy and the data's adherence to planarity is also determined. The algorithm extracts the MSP below 6 s on Pentium 4 (2.4 GHz) with the average angular and distance errors of (0.40 degrees; 0.63 mm) for normal and (0.59 degrees; 0.73 mm) for pathological cases. The robustness to noise, asymmetry, rotation, and bias field is achieved by extracting the MSP based on the dominant orientation and local symmetry index. A low computational cost results from applying simple operations capturing intrinsic anatomic features, constraining the searching space to the local vicinity of the interhemispheric fissure, and formulating a noniterative algorithm with a coarse and fine fixed-step searching. In comparison to the existing methods, our algorithm is much faster, performs accurately and robustly for a wide range of diversified data

  12. Human Papillomavirus Infectious Entry and Trafficking Is a Rapid Process

    PubMed Central

    Broniarczyk, Justyna; Massimi, Paola; Bergant, Martina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous studies have indicated that human papillomavirus (HPV) infectious entry is slow, requiring many hours after initial infection for the virus to gain entry into the nucleus. However, intracellular transport pathways typically are very rapid, and in the context of a natural HPV infection in a wounded epithelium, such slow intracellular transport would seem to be at odds with a normal viral infection. Using synchronized cell populations, we show that HPV trafficking can be a rapid process. In cells that are infected in the late S-early G2/M phase of the cell cycle, HPV16 pseudovirion (PsV) reporter DNA gene expression is detectable by 8 h postinfection. Likewise, reporter DNA can be visualized within the nucleus in conjunction with PML nuclear bodies 1 h to 2 h postinfection in cells that are infected with PsVs just prior to mitotic entry. This demonstrates that endosomal trafficking of HPV is rapid, with mitosis being the main restriction on nuclear entry. IMPORTANCE HPV infectious entry appears to be slow and requires mitosis to occur before the incoming viral DNA can access the nucleus. In this study, we show that HPV trafficking in the cell actually is very rapid. This demonstrates that in the context of a normal virus infection, the cell cycle state will have a major influence on the time it takes for an incoming virus to enter the nucleus and initiate viral gene expression. PMID:26063434

  13. Implementation of Automatic Process of Edge Rotation Diagnostic System on J-TEXT Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zepin; Cheng, Zhifeng; Luo, Jian; Wang, Zhijiang; Zhang, Xiaolong; Hou, Saiying; Cheng, Cheng

    2014-08-01

    A spectral diagnostic control system (SDCS) is developed to implement automatic process of the edge rotation diagnostic system on the J-TEXT tokamak. The SDCS contains a control module, data operation module, data analysis module, and data upload module. The core of this system is a newly developed software “Spectra Assist”, which completes the whole process by coupling all related subroutines and servers. The results of data correction and calculated rotation are presented. In the daily discharge of J-TEXT, SDCS is proved to have a stable performance and high efficiency in completing the process of data acquisition, operation and results output.

  14. On the Automaticity of Emotion Processing in Words and Faces: Event-Related Brain Potentials Evidence from a Superficial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rellecke, Julian; Palazova, Marina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which emotional aspects of stimuli are processed automatically is controversial. Here, we assessed the automatic elicitation of emotion-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive, negative, and neutral words and facial expressions in an easy and superficial face-word discrimination task, for which the emotional valence was…

  15. A dual-task investigation of automaticity in visual word processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, R. S.; Remington, R. W.; Van Selst, M.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of activation models of visual word processing suggests that frequency-sensitive forms of lexical processing should proceed normally while unattended. This hypothesis was tested by having participants perform a speeded pitch discrimination task followed by lexical decisions or word naming. As the stimulus onset asynchrony between the tasks was reduced, lexical-decision and naming latencies increased dramatically. Word-frequency effects were additive with the increase, indicating that frequency-sensitive processing was subject to postponement while attention was devoted to the other task. Either (a) the same neural hardware shares responsibility for lexical processing and central stages of choice reaction time task processing and cannot perform both computations simultaneously, or (b) lexical processing is blocked in order to optimize performance on the pitch discrimination task. Either way, word processing is not as automatic as activation models suggest.

  16. Rapid modulation of sensory processing induced by stimulus conflict

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, L.G.; Smith, D.V.; Boehler, C.N.; Chen, W.D.; Woldorff, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Humans are constantly confronted with environmental stimuli that conflict with task goals and can interfere with successful behavior. Prevailing theories propose the existence of cognitive control mechanisms that can suppress the processing of conflicting input and enhance that of the relevant input. However, the temporal cascade of brain processes invoked in response to conflicting stimuli remains poorly understood. By examining evoked electrical brain responses in a novel, hemifield-specific, visual-flanker task, we demonstrate that task-irrelevant conflicting stimulus input is quickly detected in higher-level executive regions while simultaneously inducing rapid, recurrent modulation of sensory processing in the visual cortex. Importantly, however, both of these effects are larger for individuals with greater incongruency-related reaction time slowing. The combination of neural activation patterns and behavioral interference effects suggest that this initial sensory modulation induced by conflicting stimulus inputs reflects performance-degrading attentional distraction due to their incompatibility, rather than any rapid task-enhancing cognitive control mechanisms. The present findings thus provide neural evidence for a model in which attentional distraction is the key initial trigger for the temporal cascade of processes by which the human brain responds to conflicting stimulus input in the environment. PMID:20849233

  17. Is place-value processing in four-digit numbers fully automatic? Yes, but not always.

    PubMed

    García-Orza, Javier; Estudillo, Alejandro J; Calleja, Marina; Rodríguez, José Miguel

    2017-01-30

    Knowing the place-value of digits in multi-digit numbers allows us to identify, understand and distinguish between numbers with the same digits (e.g., 1492 vs. 1942). Research using the size congruency task has shown that the place-value in a string of three zeros and a non-zero digit (e.g., 0090) is processed automatically. In the present study, we explored whether place-value is also automatically activated when more complex numbers (e.g., 2795) are presented. Twenty-five participants were exposed to pairs of four-digit numbers that differed regarding the position of some digits and their physical size. Participants had to decide which of the two numbers was presented in a larger font size. In the congruent condition, the number shown in a bigger font size was numerically larger. In the incongruent condition, the number shown in a smaller font size was numerically larger. Two types of numbers were employed: numbers composed of three zeros and one non-zero digit (e.g., 0040-0400) and numbers composed of four non-zero digits (e.g., 2795-2759). Results showed larger congruency effects in more distant pairs in both type of numbers. Interestingly, this effect was considerably stronger in the strings composed of zeros. These results indicate that place-value coding is partially automatic, as it depends on the perceptual and numerical properties of the numbers to be processed.

  18. Image processing method and implementation for a laser automatic tracking extensometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qiuhong; Du, Xiao; Liu, Yanna; Yan, Liping; Chen, Benyong

    2012-01-01

    A laser automatic tracking extensometer for material deformation measurement based on CCD is proposed. The image processing methods of the laser mark localization and the automatic tracking of the mark line on the specimen are studied for the extensometer. First, geometrical mean filter (GMF), harmonic mean filter (HMF) and inverse harmonic mean filter (IHMF) using for the image processing are compared in order to select a suitable mean filter for removing noises from the specimen images, and then the GMF is adopted for the de-noising of the images. Second, Sobel operator is introduced to detect the edges of the specimen images. At last, the specimen images are reduced to eliminate unwanted background information by pruning. Hough transformation of pretreated specimen images is also studied and linking images algorithm is proposed based on the image gray distribution and the connectivity principle. The laser mark localization and the automatic tracking of the mark line on the specimen are then implemented. The experimental results show that the linking image algorithm is prior to Hough transformation on both recognition effect and recognition efficiency.

  19. The masked semantic priming effect is task dependent: Reconsidering the automatic spreading activation process.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2015-07-01

    Semantic priming effects are popularly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process, according to which the activation of a node in a semantic network spreads automatically to interconnected nodes, preactivating a semantically related word. It is expected from this account that semantic priming effects should be routinely observed when the prime identity is veiled from conscious awareness, but the extant literature on masked semantic priming effects is notoriously mixed. The authors use the same prime-target pairs in the lexical decision task and the semantic categorization task and show that although masking the prime eliminates the semantic priming effect in lexical decision, reliable semantic priming effects are observed with both masked and unmasked primes in the semantic categorization task. The authors explain this task dependence in terms of their account of semantic priming effects based on notions of evidence accumulation and source confusion and support their account by means of reaction time distribution analyses.

  20. Phonological priming in auditory word recognition: when both controlled and automatic processes are responsible for the effects.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Sophie

    2008-03-01

    The phonological priming paradigm provides an interesting methodological tool for studying various components of the speech recognition process. However, concerns about response biases distorting the effects have been repeatedly voiced. This article reviews the main studies on priming and aims to distinguish effects under automatic processes from those under some level of strategic control. Both controlled and automatic processes appear to be responsible for the effects observed in phonological priming experiments. Nonetheless, with careful procedures, it is possible to separate them.

  1. Automatic Translation of a Process Level Petri-Net to a Ladder Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen*, Yuval; Wang, Ming-En; Bidanda, Bopaya

    Major part of discrete industrial automation hardware is controlled by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). While Petri-nets (PNs) have been proposed by many researchers for modelling shop floor discrete control, the majority of the world PLCs are programmed using ladder diagrams (LD) and significant portion of them cannot be programmed using another language. This paper proposes hierarchical approach to translating PN to LD: for describing the high level process, it introduces automatic translation technique of process level PN, while utilizing a recently developed method (for translating PN to Boolean logic) for translating the embedded tasks to a LD. Interestingly, the generated LD code enables the reconstruction of the original Petri-net.

  2. Rapidly rotating spacetimes and collisional super-Penrose process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2016-05-01

    We consider generic axially symmetric rotating spacetimes and examine particle collisions in the ergoregion. The results are generic and agree with those obtained in the particular case of the rotating Teo wormhole in Tsukamoto and Bambi, Phys Rev D 91:104040, 2015. It is shown that for sufficiently rapid rotation, the energy of a particle escaping to infinity can become arbitrary large (so-called super-Penrose process). Moreover, this energy is typically much larger than the center-of mass energy of colliding particles. In this sense the situation differs radically from that for collisions near black holes.

  3. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  4. Low-complexity PDE-based approach for automatic microarray image processing.

    PubMed

    Belean, Bogdan; Terebes, Romulus; Bot, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Microarray image processing is known as a valuable tool for gene expression estimation, a crucial step in understanding biological processes within living organisms. Automation and reliability are open subjects in microarray image processing, where grid alignment and spot segmentation are essential processes that can influence the quality of gene expression information. The paper proposes a novel partial differential equation (PDE)-based approach for fully automatic grid alignment in case of microarray images. Our approach can handle image distortions and performs grid alignment using the vertical and horizontal luminance function profiles. These profiles are evolved using a hyperbolic shock filter PDE and then refined using the autocorrelation function. The results are compared with the ones delivered by state-of-the-art approaches for grid alignment in terms of accuracy and computational complexity. Using the same PDE formalism and curve fitting, automatic spot segmentation is achieved and visual results are presented. Considering microarray images with different spots layouts, reliable results in terms of accuracy and reduced computational complexity are achieved, compared with existing software platforms and state-of-the-art methods for microarray image processing.

  5. The Neural Signatures of Processing Semantic End Values in Automatic Number Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Pinhas, Michal; Buchman, Chananel; Lavro, Dmitri; Mesika, David; Tzelgov, Joseph; Berger, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The brain activity associated with processing numerical end values has received limited research attention. The present study explored the neural correlates associated with processing semantic end values under conditions of automatic number processing. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed the numerical Stroop task, in which they were asked to compare the physical size of pairs of numbers, while ignoring their numerical values. The smallest end value in the set, which is a task irrelevant factor, was manipulated between participant groups. We focused on the processing of the lower end values of 0 and 1 because these numbers were found to be automatically tagged as the “smallest.” Behavioral results showed that the size congruity effect was modulated by the presence of the smallest end value in the pair. ERP data revealed a spatially extended centro-parieto-occipital P3 that was enhanced for congruent versus incongruent trials. Importantly, over centro-parietal sites, the P3 congruity effect (congruent minus incongruent) was larger for pairs containing the smallest end value than for pairs containing non-smallest values. These differences in the congruency effect were localized to the precuneus. The presence of an end value within the pair also modulated P3 latency. Our results provide the first neural evidence for the encoding of numerical end values. They further demonstrate that the use of end values as anchors is a primary aspect of processing symbolic numerical information. PMID:26640436

  6. BRICORK: an automatic machine with image processing for the production of corks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Roger; Correia, Bento A. B.; Carvalho, Fernando D.; Rodrigues, Fernando C.

    1991-06-01

    The production of cork stoppers from raw cork strip is a manual and labour-intensive process in which a punch-operator quickly inspects all sides of the cork strip for defects and decides where to punch out stoppers. He then positions the strip underneath a rotating tubular cutter and punches out the stoppers one at a time. This procedure is somewhat subjective and prone to error, being dependent on the judgement and accuracy of the operator. This paper describes the machine being developed jointly by Mecanova, Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia (LNETI) and Empresa de Investiga&sigmafcoe Desenvolvimento de Electronica SA (EID) which automatically processes cork strip introduced by an unskilled operator. The machine uses both image processing and laser inspection techniques to examine the strip. Defects in the cork are detected and categorised in order to determine regions where stoppers may be punched. The precise locations are then automatically optimised for best usage of the raw material (quantity and quality of stoppers). In order to achieve the required speed of production these image processing techniques may be implemented in hardware. The paper presents results obtained using the vision system software under development together with descriptions of both the image processing and mechanical aspects of the proposed machine.

  7. Automatic segmentation of nerve structures in ultrasound images using Graph Cuts and Gaussian processes.

    PubMed

    Gil González, Julián; Álvarez, Mauricio A; Orozco, Álvaro A

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral Nerve Blocking (PNB), is a procedure used for performing regional anesthesia, that comprises the administration of anesthetic in the proximity of a nerve. Several techniques have been used with the purpose of locating nerve structures when the PNB procedure is performed: anatomical surface landmarks, elicitation of paresthesia, nerve stimulation and ultrasound imaging. Among those, ultrasound imaging has gained great attention because it is not invasive and offers an accurate location of the nerve and the structures around it. However, the segmentation of nerve structures in ultrasound images is a difficult task for the specialist, since such images are affected by echo perturbations and speckle noise. The development of systems for the automatic segmentation of nerve structures can aid the specialist for locating nerve structures accurately. In this paper we present a methodology for the automatic segmentation of nerve structures in ultrasound images. An initial step is carried out using Graph Cut segmentation in order to generate regions of interest; we then use machine learning techniques with the aim of segmenting the nerve structure; here, a specific non-linear Wavelet transform is used for the feature extraction stage, and Gaussian processes for the classification step. The methodology performance is measured in terms of accuracy and the dice coefficient. Results show that the implemented methodology can be used for automatically segmenting nerve structures.

  8. Adjustment of automatic control systems of production facilities at coal processing plants using multivariant physico- mathematical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, V. F.; Myshlyaev, L. P.; Makarov, G. V.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Burkova, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    The structure of multi-variant physical and mathematical models of control system is offered as well as its application for adjustment of automatic control system (ACS) of production facilities on the example of coal processing plant.

  9. Rapid loss of glacial ice reveals stream community assembly processes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lee E; Milner, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    Glacial retreat creates new habitat which is colonized and developed by plants and animals during the process of primary succession. While there has been much debate about the relative role of deterministic and stochastic processes during terrestrial succession, evidence from freshwater ecosystems remains minimal and a general consensus is lacking. Using a unique 27 years record of community assembly following glacial recession in southeast Alaska, we demonstrate significant change in the trait composition of stream invertebrate communities as catchment glacial cover decreased from ∼70% to zero. Functional diversity increased significantly as glacier cover decreased and taxonomic richness increased. Null modelling approaches led to a key finding that niche filtering processes were dominant when glacial cover was extensive, reflecting water temperature and dispersal constraints. Thereafter the community shifted towards co-occurrence of stochastic and deterministic assembly processes. A further novel discovery was that intrinsic functional redundancy developed throughout the study, particularly because new colonizers possessed similar traits to taxa already present. Rapid glacial retreat is occurring in Arctic and alpine environments worldwide and the assembly processes observed in this study provide new fundamental insights into how glacially influenced stream ecosystems will respond. The findings support tolerance as a key primary successional mechanism in this system, and have broader value for developing our understanding of how biological communities in river ecosystems assemble or restructure in response to environmental change.

  10. Effects of prosodic familiarity on the automatic processing of words in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Ylinen, Sari; Strelnikov, Kuzma; Huotilainen, Minna; Näätänen, Risto

    2009-09-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of prosodic familiarity on automatic word processing in the brain by comparing the mismatch negativity (MMN) components of the event-related brain potential (ERP) elicited by words and pseudowords with familiar and unfamiliar stress patterns. The results show that the MMN was elicited by a change from unfamiliar to familiar words and a change from a familiar to an unfamiliar word-stress pattern.When familiar words were accompanied by an unfamiliar stress pattern, the MMN response was significantly delayed in comparison with the familiar words with a familiar stress pattern, suggesting that an unfamiliar prosodic pattern increased the computational needs in word recognition but did not prevent it. In addition to the effects of familiarity on the MMN, we found a positive brain response peaking between 100 and 200 ms that could be associated with the processing of familiar auditory objects. The present results expand the understanding of the early stages of speech processing in the human brain by demonstrating how automatic word processing is affected by prosodic cues that play an important role in the segmentation of continuous speech.

  11. Automatic Processing of Chinese GF-1 Wide Field of View Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wan, Y.; Wang, B.; Kang, Y.; Xiong, J.

    2015-04-01

    The wide field of view (WFV) imaging instrument carried on the Chinese GF-1 satellite includes four cameras. Each camera has 200km swath-width that can acquire earth image at the same time and the observation can be repeated within only 4 days. This enables the applications of remote sensing imagery to advance from non-scheduled land-observation to periodically land-monitoring in the areas that use the images in such resolutions. This paper introduces an automatic data analysing and processing technique for the wide-swath images acquired by GF-1 satellite. Firstly, the images are validated by a self-adaptive Gaussian mixture model based cloud detection method to confirm whether they are qualified and suitable to be involved into the automatic processing workflow. Then the ground control points (GCPs) are quickly and automatically matched from the public geo-information products such as the rectified panchromatic images of Landsat-8. Before the geometric correction, the cloud detection results are also used to eliminate the invalid GCPs distributed in the cloud covered areas, which obviously reduces the ratio of blunders of GCPs. The geometric correction module not only rectifies the rational function models (RFMs), but also provides the self-calibration model and parameters for the non-linear distortion, and it is iteratively processed to detect blunders. The maximum geometric distortion in WFV image decreases from about 10-15 pixels to 1-2 pixels when compensated by self-calibration model. The processing experiments involve hundreds of WFV images of GF-1 satellite acquired from June to September 2013, which covers the whole mainland of China. All the processing work can be finished by one operator within 2 days on a desktop computer made up by a second-generation Intel Core-i7 CPU and a 4-solid-State-Disk array. The digital ortho maps (DOM) are automatically generated with 3 arc second Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The geometric accuracies of the

  12. Fluid Intelligence and Automatic Neural Processes in Facial Expression Perception: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Li, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between human fluid intelligence and social-emotional abilities has been a topic of considerable interest. The current study investigated whether adolescents with different intellectual levels had different automatic neural processing of facial expressions. Two groups of adolescent males were enrolled: a high IQ group and an average IQ group. Age and parental socioeconomic status were matched between the two groups. Participants counted the numbers of the central cross changes while paired facial expressions were presented bilaterally in an oddball paradigm. There were two experimental conditions: a happy condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and happy expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2), and a fearful condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and fearful expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2). Participants were required to concentrate on the primary task of counting the central cross changes and to ignore the expressions to ensure that facial expression processing was automatic. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained during the tasks. The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) components were analyzed to index the automatic neural processing of facial expressions. For the early vMMN (50–130 ms), the high IQ group showed more negative vMMN amplitudes than the average IQ group in the happy condition. For the late vMMN (320–450 ms), the high IQ group had greater vMMN responses than the average IQ group over frontal and occipito-temporal areas in the fearful condition, and the average IQ group evoked larger vMMN amplitudes than the high IQ group over occipito-temporal areas in the happy condition. The present study elucidated the close relationships between fluid intelligence and pre-attentive change detection on social-emotional information. PMID:26375031

  13. Fluid Intelligence and Automatic Neural Processes in Facial Expression Perception: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Li, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between human fluid intelligence and social-emotional abilities has been a topic of considerable interest. The current study investigated whether adolescents with different intellectual levels had different automatic neural processing of facial expressions. Two groups of adolescent males were enrolled: a high IQ group and an average IQ group. Age and parental socioeconomic status were matched between the two groups. Participants counted the numbers of the central cross changes while paired facial expressions were presented bilaterally in an oddball paradigm. There were two experimental conditions: a happy condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and happy expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2), and a fearful condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and fearful expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2). Participants were required to concentrate on the primary task of counting the central cross changes and to ignore the expressions to ensure that facial expression processing was automatic. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained during the tasks. The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) components were analyzed to index the automatic neural processing of facial expressions. For the early vMMN (50-130 ms), the high IQ group showed more negative vMMN amplitudes than the average IQ group in the happy condition. For the late vMMN (320-450 ms), the high IQ group had greater vMMN responses than the average IQ group over frontal and occipito-temporal areas in the fearful condition, and the average IQ group evoked larger vMMN amplitudes than the high IQ group over occipito-temporal areas in the happy condition. The present study elucidated the close relationships between fluid intelligence and pre-attentive change detection on social-emotional information.

  14. Automatic processing of induced events in the geothermal reservoirs Landau and Insheim, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbert, Kai; Küperkoch, Ludger; Meier, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Induced events can be a risk to local infrastructure that need to be understood and evaluated. They represent also a chance to learn more about the reservoir behavior and characteristics. Prior to the analysis, the waveform data must be processed consistently and accurately to avoid erroneous interpretations. In the framework of the MAGS2 project an automatic off-line event detection and a phase onset time determination algorithm are applied to induced seismic events in geothermal systems in Landau and Insheim, Germany. The off-line detection algorithm works based on a cross-correlation of continuous data taken from the local seismic network with master events. It distinguishes events between different reservoirs and within the individual reservoirs. Furthermore, it provides a location and magnitude estimation. Data from 2007 to 2014 are processed and compared with other detections using the SeisComp3 cross correlation detector and a STA/LTA detector. The detected events are analyzed concerning spatial or temporal clustering. Furthermore the number of events are compared to the existing detection lists. The automatic phase picking algorithm combines an AR-AIC approach with a cost function to find precise P1- and S1-phase onset times which can be used for localization and tomography studies. 800 induced events are processed, determining 5000 P1- and 6000 S1-picks. The phase onset times show a high precision with mean residuals to manual phase picks of 0s (P1) to 0.04s (S1) and standard deviations below ±0.05s. The received automatic picks are applied to relocate a selected number of events to evaluate influences on the location precision.

  15. A device for conducting a dynamic modes of UIAB therapy with automatic process testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barylo, Hryhoriy I.; Hotra, Zenon Yu.; Kozhukhar, Oleksandr T.; Ivakh, Mariya S.; Surtel, Wojciech; Maciejewski, Marcin

    2016-09-01

    The structure and circuit of the implemented device is using an environmentally friendly radiation sources and pulse photo stimulus modes with frequencies that correspond frequencies processes in BL to create bio resonance effects to accelerate the procedures. Proposed one of the possible hardware solutions are based on usage of dynamic irradiation modes and automatic continuous optical testing procedures UIAB and PP. The changes of the optical characteristics of BL provides the doctor continuous information on the effectiveness of the procedure on the patient's condition.

  16. Image Processing Method for Automatic Straight Line Travel of an Agricultural Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanawa, Keiji; Hamada, Yasuyuki; Makino, Eiji; Kaneko, Shunich

    This paper describes an image processing method for the detection of the lateral displacement of an agricultural vehicle, such as a tractor. It achieves this by tracking the movement of the ground on images while detecting a lamp placed at a target point in a field by means of a computer vision system mounted on the tractor. The aim of this technology is to enable tractors to automatically travel in a straight line with high accuracy towards the target lamp. Some experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Information processing requirements for on-board monitoring of automatic landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Karmarkar, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic procedure is presented for determining the information processing requirements for on-board monitoring of automatic landing systems. The monitoring system detects landing anomalies through use of appropriate statistical tests. The time-to-correct aircraft perturbations is determined from covariance analyses using a sequence of suitable aircraft/autoland/pilot models. The covariance results are used to establish landing safety and a fault recovery operating envelope via an event outcome tree. This procedure is demonstrated with examples using the NASA Terminal Configured Vehicle (B-737 aircraft). The procedure can also be used to define decision height, assess monitoring implementation requirements, and evaluate alternate autoland configurations.

  18. Age-related differences in the automatic processing of single letters: implications for selective attention.

    PubMed

    Daffner, Kirk R; Alperin, Brittany R; Mott, Katherine K; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2014-01-22

    Older adults exhibit diminished ability to inhibit the processing of visual stimuli that are supposed to be ignored. The extent to which age-related changes in early visual processing contribute to impairments in selective attention remains to be determined. Here, 103 adults, 18-85 years of age, completed a color selective attention task in which they were asked to attend to a specified color and respond to designated target letters. An optimal approach would be to initially filter according to color and then process letter forms in the attend color to identify targets. An asymmetric N170 ERP component (larger amplitude over left posterior hemisphere sites) was used as a marker of the early automatic processing of letter forms. Young and middle-aged adults did not generate an asymmetric N170 component. In contrast, young-old and old-old adults produced a larger N170 over the left hemisphere. Furthermore, older adults generated a larger N170 to letter than nonletter stimuli over the left, but not right hemisphere. More asymmetric N170 responses predicted greater allocation of late selection resources to target letters in the ignore color, as indexed by P3b amplitude. These results suggest that unlike their younger counterparts, older adults automatically process stimuli as letters early in the selection process, when it would be more efficient to attend to color only. The inability to ignore letters early in the processing stream helps explain the age-related increase in subsequent processing of target letter forms presented in the ignore color.

  19. FPGA based system for automatic cDNA microarray image processing.

    PubMed

    Belean, Bogdan; Borda, Monica; Le Gal, Bertrand; Terebes, Romulus

    2012-07-01

    Automation is an open subject in DNA microarray image processing, aiming reliable gene expression estimation. The paper presents a novel shock filter based approach for automatic microarray grid alignment. The proposed method brings up significantly reduced computational complexity compared to state of the art approaches, while similar results in terms of accuracy are achieved. Based on this approach, we also propose an FPGA based system for microarray image analysis that eliminates the shortcomings of existing software platforms: user intervention, increased computational time and cost. Our system includes application-specific architectures which involve algorithm parallelization, aiming fast and automated cDNA microarray image processing. The proposed automated image processing chain is implemented both on a general purpose processor and using the developed hardware architectures as co-processors in a FPGA based system. The comparative results included in the last section show that an important gain in terms of computational time is obtained using hardware based implementations.

  20. Semantic priming in the prime task effect: evidence of automatic semantic processing of distractors.

    PubMed

    Marí-Beffa, P; Fuentes, L J; Catena, A; Houghton, G

    2000-06-01

    The automaticity of the semantic processing of words has been questioned because of the reduction of semantic priming when the prime word is processed nonsemantically--for example, in letter search (the prime task effect). In two experiments, prime distractor words produced semantic priming in a subsequent lexical decision task, but with the direction of priming (positive or negative) depending on the prime task. Lexico-semantic tasks produced negative semantic priming, whereas letter search produced positive semantic priming. These results are discussed in terms of task-based inhibition. We argue that, given the results from the distractors, the absence of semantic priming does not indicate an absence of semantic activation but reflects the action of control processes on prepotent responses when less practiced responses are needed.

  1. Superior metallic alloys through rapid solidification processing (RSP) by design

    SciTech Connect

    Flinn, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    Rapid solidification processing using powder atomization methods and the control of minor elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon can provide metallic alloys with superior properties and performance compared to conventionally processing alloys. Previous studies on nickel- and iron-base superalloys have provided the baseline information to properly couple RSP with alloy composition, and, therefore, enable alloys to be designed for performance improvements. The RSP approach produces powders, which need to be consolidated into suitable monolithic forms. This normally involves canning, consolidation, and decanning of the powders. Canning/decanning is expensive and raises the fabrication cost significantly above that of conventional, ingot metallurgy production methods. The cost differential can be offset by the superior performance of the RSP metallic alloys. However, without the performance database, it is difficult to convince potential users to adopt the RSP approach. Spray casting of the atomized molten droplets into suitable preforms for subsequent fabrication can be cost competitive with conventional processing. If the fine and stable microstructural features observed for the RSP approach are preserved during spray casing, a cost competitive product can be obtained that has superior properties and performance that cannot be obtained by conventional methods.

  2. Materials processing by use of a Ti:Sapphire laser with automatically-adjustable pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, M.; Imahoko, T.; Ozono, K.; Obara, M.

    We have developed an automatic pulsewidth-adjustable femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser system that can generate an output of 50 fs-1 ps in duration, and sub-mJ/pulse at a repetition rate of 1 kpps. The automatic pulse compressor enables one to control the pulsewidth in the range of 50 fs-1 ps by use of a personal computer (PC). The compressor can change the distance in-between and the tilt angle of the grating pairs by use of two stepping motors and two piezo-electric transducer(PZT) driven actuators, respectively. Both are controlled by a PC. Therefore, not only control of the pulsewidth, but also of the optical chirp becomes easy. By use of this femtosecond laser system, we fabricated a waveguide in fused quartz. The numerical aperture is chosen to 0.007 to loosely focus the femtosecond laser. The fabricated waveguides are well controllable by the incident laser pulsewidth. We also demonstrated the ablation processing of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), which is a key component of human tooth and human bone for orthopedics and dentistry. With pulsewidth tunable output from 50 fs through 2 ps at 1 kpps, the chemical content of calcium and phosphorus is kept unchanged before and after 50-fs-2-ps laser ablation. We also demonstrated the precise ablation processing of human tooth enamel with 2 ps Ti:Sapphire laser.

  3. Automatic rice crop height measurement using a field server and digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Sritarapipat, Tanakorn; Rakwatin, Preesan; Kasetkasem, Teerasit

    2014-01-07

    Rice crop height is an important agronomic trait linked to plant type and yield potential. This research developed an automatic image processing technique to detect rice crop height based on images taken by a digital camera attached to a field server. The camera acquires rice paddy images daily at a consistent time of day. The images include the rice plants and a marker bar used to provide a height reference. The rice crop height can be indirectly measured from the images by measuring the height of the marker bar compared to the height of the initial marker bar. Four digital image processing steps are employed to automatically measure the rice crop height: band selection, filtering, thresholding, and height measurement. Band selection is used to remove redundant features. Filtering extracts significant features of the marker bar. The thresholding method is applied to separate objects and boundaries of the marker bar versus other areas. The marker bar is detected and compared with the initial marker bar to measure the rice crop height. Our experiment used a field server with a digital camera to continuously monitor a rice field located in Suphanburi Province, Thailand. The experimental results show that the proposed method measures rice crop height effectively, with no human intervention required.

  4. Abnormalities in Automatic Processing of Illness-Related Stimuli in Self-Rated Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Laura; Pintzinger, Nina M.; Tran, Ulrich S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate abnormalities in automatic information processing related to self- and observer-rated alexithymia, especially with regard to somatization, controlling for confounding variables such as depression and affect. Sample 89 healthy subjects (60% female), aged 19–71 years (M = 32.1). 58 subjects were additionally rated by an observer. Measures Alexithymia (self-rating: TAS-20, observer rating: OAS); automatic information processing (priming task including verbal [illness-related, negative, positive, neutral] and facial [negative, positive, neutral] stimuli); somatoform symptoms (SOMS-7T); confounders: depression (BDI), affect (PANAS). Results Higher self-reported alexithymia scores were associated with lower reaction times for negative (r = .19, p < .10) and positive (r = .26, p < .05) verbal primes when the target was illness-related. Self-reported alexithymia was correlated with number (r = .42, p < .01) and intensity of current somatoform symptoms (r = .36, p < .01), but unrelated to observer-rated alexithymia (r = .11, p = .42). Discussion Results indicate a faster allocation of attentional resources away from task-irrelevant information towards illness-related stimuli in alexithymia. Considering the close relationship between alexithymia and somatization, these findings are compatible with the theoretical view that alexithymics focus strongly on bodily sensations of emotional arousal. A single observer rating (OAS) does not seem to be an adequate alexithymia-measure in community samples. PMID:26090893

  5. Automatic emotion processing as a function of trait emotional awareness: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Lichev, Vladimir; Sacher, Julia; Ihme, Klas; Rosenberg, Nicole; Quirin, Markus; Lepsien, Jöran; Pampel, André; Rufer, Michael; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Kugel, Harald; Kersting, Anette; Villringer, Arno; Lane, Richard D; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    It is unclear whether reflective awareness of emotions is related to extent and intensity of implicit affective reactions. This study is the first to investigate automatic brain reactivity to emotional stimuli as a function of trait emotional awareness. To assess emotional awareness the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) was administered. During scanning, masked happy, angry, fearful and neutral facial expressions were presented to 46 healthy subjects, who had to rate the fit between artificial and emotional words. The rating procedure allowed assessment of shifts in implicit affectivity due to emotion faces. Trait emotional awareness was associated with increased activation in the primary somatosensory cortex, inferior parietal lobule, anterior cingulate gyrus, middle frontal and cerebellar areas, thalamus, putamen and amygdala in response to masked happy faces. LEAS correlated positively with shifts in implicit affect caused by masked happy faces. According to our findings, people with high emotional awareness show stronger affective reactivity and more activation in brain areas involved in emotion processing and simulation during the perception of masked happy facial expression than people with low emotional awareness. High emotional awareness appears to be characterized by an enhanced positive affective resonance to others at an automatic processing level.

  6. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-29

    conventional systems development techniques. It is not clear, however, exactly how rapid prototyping could be used in relation to conventional human...results show that a variety of task analysis approaches can be used to initiate rapid prototyping. Overall, it appears that rapid prototyping... It is not clear, however, that rapid prototyping could be used, or ts being used, in the same way as a mock-up. Williges and Hartson6

  7. Linking automatic evaluation to mood and information processing style: consequences for experienced affect, impression formation, and stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Tanya L; van Baaren, Rick B; Bargh, John A

    2006-02-01

    According to the feelings-as-information account, a person's mood state signals to him or her the valence of the current environment (N. Schwarz & G. Clore, 1983). However, the ways in which the environment automatically influences mood in the first place remain to be explored. The authors propose that one mechanism by which the environment influences affect is automatic evaluation, the nonconscious evaluation of environmental stimuli as good or bad. A first experiment demonstrated that repeated brief exposure to positive or negative stimuli (which leads to automatic evaluation) induces a corresponding mood in participants. In 3 additional studies, the authors showed that automatic evaluation affects information processing style. Experiment 4 showed that participants' mood mediates the effect of valenced brief primes on information processing.

  8. Automatic DNA Diagnosis for 1D Gel Electrophoresis Images using Bio-image Processing Technique

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background DNA gel electrophoresis is a molecular biology technique for separating different sizes of DNA fragments. Applications of DNA gel electrophoresis include DNA fingerprinting (genetic diagnosis), size estimation of DNA, and DNA separation for Southern blotting. Accurate interpretation of DNA banding patterns from electrophoretic images can be laborious and error prone when a large number of bands are interrogated manually. Although many bio-imaging techniques have been proposed, none of them can fully automate the typing of DNA owing to the complexities of migration patterns typically obtained. Results We developed an image-processing tool that automatically calls genotypes from DNA gel electrophoresis images. The image processing workflow comprises three main steps: 1) lane segmentation, 2) extraction of DNA bands and 3) band genotyping classification. The tool was originally intended to facilitate large-scale genotyping analysis of sugarcane cultivars. We tested the proposed tool on 10 gel images (433 cultivars) obtained from polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of PCR amplicons for detecting intron length polymorphisms (ILP) on one locus of the sugarcanes. These gel images demonstrated many challenges in automated lane/band segmentation in image processing including lane distortion, band deformity, high degree of noise in the background, and bands that are very close together (doublets). Using the proposed bio-imaging workflow, lanes and DNA bands contained within are properly segmented, even for adjacent bands with aberrant migration that cannot be separated by conventional techniques. The software, called GELect, automatically performs genotype calling on each lane by comparing with an all-banding reference, which was created by clustering the existing bands into the non-redundant set of reference bands. The automated genotype calling results were verified by independent manual typing by molecular biologists. Conclusions This work presents an

  9. Automatic pre-processing for an object-oriented distributed hydrological model using GRASS-GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzana, P.; Jankowfsky, S.; Branger, F.; Braud, I.; Vargas, X.; Hitschfeld, N.

    2012-04-01

    Landscapes are very heterogeneous, which impact the hydrological processes occurring in the catchments, especially in the modeling of peri-urban catchments. The Hydrological Response Units (HRUs), resulting from the intersection of different maps, such as land use, soil types and geology, and flow networks, allow the representation of these elements in an explicit way, preserving natural and artificial contours of the different layers. These HRUs are used as model mesh in some distributed object-oriented hydrological models, allowing the application of a topological oriented approach. The connectivity between polygons and polylines provides a detailed representation of the water balance and overland flow in these distributed hydrological models, based on irregular hydro-landscape units. When computing fluxes between these HRUs, the geometrical parameters, such as the distance between the centroid of gravity of the HRUs and the river network, and the length of the perimeter, can impact the realism of the calculated overland, sub-surface and groundwater fluxes. Therefore, it is necessary to process the original model mesh in order to avoid these numerical problems. We present an automatic pre-processing implemented in the open source GRASS-GIS software, for which several Python scripts or some algorithms already available were used, such as the Triangle software. First, some scripts were developed to improve the topology of the various elements, such as snapping of the river network to the closest contours. When data are derived with remote sensing, such as vegetation areas, their perimeter has lots of right angles that were smoothed. Second, the algorithms more particularly address bad-shaped elements of the model mesh such as polygons with narrow shapes, marked irregular contours and/or the centroid outside of the polygons. To identify these elements we used shape descriptors. The convexity index was considered the best descriptor to identify them with a threshold

  10. Temporal Satellite Images in The Process of Automatic Efficient Detection of Changes of the Baltic Sea Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalowska, Krystyna; Glowienka, Ewa; Hejmanowska, Beata

    2016-10-01

    The goal of the research was to perform tests aimed at assessing possibilities of utilising multi-temporal Landsat satellite images for automatic efficient detection of changes (e.g. accumulation and erosion) of the sea coastal zone. The research database was composed of Landsat satellite images, and standardized NDVI vegetation indexes from the years 1998 and 2015, as well as multi-temporal vector maps and aerial orthophotomaps. The result map of Change detection allowed to locate areas, in which diametrical changes in land coverage took place. Satellite images reflecting the condition of the examined area for twenty years enabled outlining changes of Baltic coastal zone, and then determining the rate and extent of transformations of examined part of coast (erosion and accumulation), and also made it possible to trace the migration of dunes. The analysis showed the range of shifting dune displacement in the years 1998-2015 amounts to ca. 180 m. On the examined section of seashore (32 km), the process of erosion and accumulation was detected respectively on the length of 21 km and 10 km along the coast. The changes of accumulation and erosion of the sea coast are easily identifiable and clearly visible. Properly conducted workflow of processing the satellite images have allowed the rapid and efficient detection of changes coastline, dunes and vegetation.

  11. Airplane numerical simulation for the rapid prototyping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roysdon, Paul F.

    Airplane Numerical Simulation for the Rapid Prototyping Process is a comprehensive research investigation into the most up-to-date methods for airplane development and design. Uses of modern engineering software tools, like MatLab and Excel, are presented with examples of batch and optimization algorithms which combine the computing power of MatLab with robust aerodynamic tools like XFOIL and AVL. The resulting data is demonstrated in the development and use of a full non-linear six-degrees-of-freedom simulator. The applications for this numerical tool-box vary from un-manned aerial vehicles to first-order analysis of manned aircraft. A Blended-Wing-Body airplane is used for the analysis to demonstrate the flexibility of the code from classic wing-and-tail configurations to less common configurations like the blended-wing-body. This configuration has been shown to have superior aerodynamic performance -- in contrast to their classic wing-and-tube fuselage counterparts -- and have reduced sensitivity to aerodynamic flutter as well as potential for increased engine noise abatement. Of course without a classic tail elevator to damp the nose up pitching moment, and the vertical tail rudder to damp the yaw and possible rolling aerodynamics, the challenges in lateral roll and yaw stability, as well as pitching moment are not insignificant. This thesis work applies the tools necessary to perform the airplane development and optimization on a rapid basis, demonstrating the strength of this tool through examples and comparison of the results to similar airplane performance characteristics published in literature.

  12. Automatic ultrasonic imaging system with adaptive-learning-network signal-processing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, L.J.; Aravanis, N.A.; Gouge, J.R. Jr.; Mucciardi, A.N.; Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1982-04-01

    A conventional pulse-echo imaging system has been modified to operate with a linear ultrasonic array and associated digital electronics to collect data from a series of defects fabricated in aircraft quality steel blocks. A thorough analysis of the defect responses recorded with this modified system has shown that considerable improvements over conventional imaging approaches can be obtained in the crucial areas of defect detection and characterization. A combination of advanced signal processing concepts with the Adaptive Learning Network (ALN) methodology forms the basis for these improvements. Use of established signal processing algorithms such as temporal and spatial beam-forming in concert with a sophisticated detector has provided a reliable defect detection scheme which can be implemented in a microprocessor-based system to operate in an automatic mode.

  13. ERPs Differentially Reflect Automatic and Deliberate Processing of the Functional Manipulability of Objects

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Christopher R.; Chen, Yvonne Y.; Singhal, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the functional properties of an object can interact with perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes. Previously we have found that a between-subjects manipulation of judgment instructions resulted in different manipulability-related memory biases in an incidental memory test. To better understand this effect we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while participants made judgments about images of objects that were either high or low in functional manipulability (e.g., hammer vs. ladder). Using a between-subjects design, participants judged whether they had seen the object recently (Personal Experience), or could manipulate the object using their hand (Functionality). We focused on the P300 and slow-wave event-related potentials (ERPs) as reflections of attentional allocation. In both groups, we observed higher P300 and slow wave amplitudes for high-manipulability objects at electrodes Pz and C3. As P300 is thought to reflect bottom-up attentional processes, this may suggest that the processing of high-manipulability objects recruited more attentional resources. Additionally, the P300 effect was greater in the Functionality group. A more complex pattern was observed at electrode C3 during slow wave: processing the high-manipulability objects in the Functionality instruction evoked a more positive slow wave than in the other three conditions, likely related to motor simulation processes. These data provide neural evidence that effects of manipulability on stimulus processing are further mediated by automatic vs. deliberate motor-related processing. PMID:27536224

  14. Automatic procedure for quasi-real time seismic data processing at Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Paolo; Ciaramella, Angelo; De Lauro, Enza; De Martino, Salvatore; Falanga, Mariarosaria; Petrosino, Simona

    2014-05-01

    The accuracy of automatic procedures for detecting seismic events and locating their sources is influenced by several factors such as errors in picking seismic phases often buried in the high-level ambient noise, network geometry and modelling errors. fundamental objective is the improvement of these procedures by developing accurate algorithms for quasi-real time seismic data processing, easily managed in observatory practice. Recently a robust automatic procedure has been implemented for detecting, onset picking and identifying signal phases in continuous seismic signal with an application at the seismicity recorded at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy) during the 2006 ground uplift (Ciaramella et al. 2011). An Independent Component Analysis based approach for the Blind Source Separation of convolutive mixtures (CICA) has been adopted to obtain a clear separation of low-energy Long Period events (LPs) from the high-level ambient noise allowing to compile a complete seismic catalogue and better quantify the seismic energy release. In this work, we apply CICA at the seismic signal continuously recorded during the entire 2006 at Campi Flegrei. First, we have performed tests on synthetic data in order to improve the reliability and the accuracy of the procedure. The performance test using very noisy synthetic data shows that the method works even in case of very poor quality data characterized by very low signal to noise ratio (SNR). Second, we have improved CICA automatic procedure recovering the information on the amplitudes of the extracted independent components. This is crucial for further analysis, starting from a prompt estimate of magnitude/energy of the highlighted events. Data used for the present analysis were collected by four broadband three-component seismic stations (ASB2, AMS2, TAGG, BGNG) belonging to the Campi Flegrei seismic monitoring network, managed by the 'Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia-Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV-OV)' (see for

  15. Automatic River Bed Grain Size Measurement Using Image Processing and Support Vector Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellugi, D.; Nelson, P. A.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    Gravel-bedded rivers cut through hilly and mountainous areas, driving landscape evolution and creating a diverse habitat upon which river food web ecosystems develop. Our understanding of the mechanics underlying important processes in fluvial geomorphology, hydrodynamics, and aquatic ecology inevitably requires knowledge about the grain size distribution of river bed material. Standard methods of sampling bed surface material may introduce errors due to biases and inadequate sample size. Alternative areal or volumetric sampling procedures are often impractical, particularly in coarse channel beds. Furthermore, all invasive sampling techniques can compromise laboratory flume experiments. These concerns suggest that there is a practical need for a reliable, automated, non-invasive procedure for obtaining the grain size distribution of bed surface material. Although considerable effort has been made to automatically generate grain size distributions using image processing and analysis techniques, the problem remains quite challenging: issues such as varying lighting conditions, partial immersion of particles in water, and heterogeneous mineralogy result in ambiguities that cannot be easily resolved. Feature extraction introduces further biases due to over- or under-segmentation of the image. Moreover, unless the grain distributions are fairly homogeneous between different locations, and images are collected in similar fashion, it is difficult to parametrize any such method in a transferable manner. In this study we present an image processing and machine learning procedure to automatically identify and measure grains from photographic images of gravel-bedded rivers. We apply the state-of-the-art of image segmentation techniques, making use of local cues such as brightness, color, and texture in a multi-scale approach. These cues are globalized using a graph partitioning method on the oriented contour signal. The resulting boundary probability signal is treated by a

  16. Automatically Detecting Failures in Natural Language Processing Tools for Online Community Text

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Andrea L; Huh, Jina; McDonald, David W; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and value of patient-generated health text are increasing, but processing such text remains problematic. Although existing biomedical natural language processing (NLP) tools are appealing, most were developed to process clinician- or researcher-generated text, such as clinical notes or journal articles. In addition to being constructed for different types of text, other challenges of using existing NLP include constantly changing technologies, source vocabularies, and characteristics of text. These continuously evolving challenges warrant the need for applying low-cost systematic assessment. However, the primarily accepted evaluation method in NLP, manual annotation, requires tremendous effort and time. Objective The primary objective of this study is to explore an alternative approach—using low-cost, automated methods to detect failures (eg, incorrect boundaries, missed terms, mismapped concepts) when processing patient-generated text with existing biomedical NLP tools. We first characterize common failures that NLP tools can make in processing online community text. We then demonstrate the feasibility of our automated approach in detecting these common failures using one of the most popular biomedical NLP tools, MetaMap. Methods Using 9657 posts from an online cancer community, we explored our automated failure detection approach in two steps: (1) to characterize the failure types, we first manually reviewed MetaMap’s commonly occurring failures, grouped the inaccurate mappings into failure types, and then identified causes of the failures through iterative rounds of manual review using open coding, and (2) to automatically detect these failure types, we then explored combinations of existing NLP techniques and dictionary-based matching for each failure cause. Finally, we manually evaluated the automatically detected failures. Results From our manual review, we characterized three types of failure: (1) boundary failures, (2) missed

  17. Rapid process development of chromatographic process using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry as a process analytical technology tool.

    PubMed

    Yan, Binjun; Chen, Teng; Xu, Zhilin; Qu, Haibin

    2014-06-01

    The concept of quality by design (QbD) is widely applied in the process development of pharmaceuticals. However, the additional cost and time have caused some resistance about QbD implementation. To show a possible solution, this work proposed a rapid process development method, which used direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for studying the chromatographic process of Ginkgo biloba L., as an example. The breakthrough curves were fast determined by DART-MS at-line. A high correlation coefficient of 0.9520 was found between the concentrations of ginkgolide A determined by DART-MS and HPLC. Based on the PAT tool, the impacts of process parameters on the adsorption capacity were discovered rapidly, which showed a decreased adsorption capacity with the increase of the flow rate. This work has shown the feasibility and advantages of integrating PAT into QbD implementation for rapid process development.

  18. Rapid and Effective Construction of Science Data Archives and Repositories using the OODT Process Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Apache OODT Process Control System, or PCS, is a suite of tailorable software components leveraged on NASA Earth and planetary science archives; on distributed information systems at the National Cancer Institute, in radio astronomy and astrophysics to prototype the next generation radio telescope, and in the collection of datasets relevant to regional climate modeling, snow hydrology and more broadly, climate change. The components provide flexible file management, workflow management, resource management, and associated client toolkits for automatically downloading remote content, identifying that content (based on MIME type identification, language identification, XML schema, etc.), ingesting it into an archive, and then integrating off-the-shelf science algorithms for processing the data for later dissemination. Recent developments within the PCS components include the inception of a JAX-RS based suite of REST web services providing health monitoring, pedigree and provenance tracking, and metadata transformation via known URL formats and schemas. Much of the information provided by the PCS is being used to rapidly construct science data archive user interfaces, command line tools, and other advanced services (data subsetting; regridding, etc.) In this talk, we will discuss the current state of the PCS components; their relevance on several recent Earth, planetary and astronomy projects, and the movement of the components into the open source Apache Software Foundation, where they are part of the larger OODT top level project.

  19. On-line monitoring of continuous beer fermentation process using automatic membrane inlet mass spectrometric system.

    PubMed

    Tarkiainen, Virpi; Kotiaho, Tapio; Mattila, Ismo; Virkajärvi, Ilkka; Aristidou, Aristos; Ketola, Raimo A

    2005-03-15

    A fully automatic membrane inlet mass spectrometric (MIMS) on-line instrumentation for the analysis of aroma compounds in continuous beer fermentation processes was constructed and tested. The instrumentation includes automatic filtration of the sample stream, flushing of all tubing between samples and pH control. The calibration standards can be measured periodically. The instrumentation has also an extra sample line that can be used for off-line sample collection or it can be connected to another on-line method. Detection limits for ethanol, acetic acid and eight organic beer aroma compounds were from mugl(-1) to low mgl(-1) levels and the standard deviations were less than 3.4%. The method has a good repeatability and linearity in the measurement range. Response times are shorter than or equal to 3min for all compounds except for ethyl caproate, which has a response time of 8min. In beer aroma compound analysis a good agreement between MIMS and static headspace gas chromatographic (HSGC) measurements was found. The effects of different matrix compounds commonly present in the fermentation media on the MIMS response to acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and ethanol were studied. Addition of yeast did not have any effect on the MIMS response of ethanol or ethyl acetate. Sugars, glucose and xylose, increased the MIMS response of all studied analytes only slightly, whereas salts, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate and sodium chloride, increased the MIMS response of all three studied compounds prominently. The system was used for on-line monitoring of continuous beer fermentation with immobilised yeast. The results show that with MIMS it is possible to monitor the changes in the continuous process as well as delays in the two-phase process.

  20. Lab experiments on the innovative rapid thick strip casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Richard; Senk, Dieter

    2012-05-01

    Rapid thick strip casting (RTSC) by Anton Hulek, Inventmetall®, is an innovative concept for the production of hot strips with a final as-cast thickness of about 25 mm before rolling. The innovation of the mechanism consists in a vertical mould performing a caterpillar motion. This moving mould has an unconventional parallelogram-shaped cross-section. The conventional rectangular shape is formed in the shaping machine, which is placed straight below the mould. Further elements of the technology are state-of-the-art. For the investigation of this new casting system theoretical calculations were complemented with practical experiments. The investigation focused mainly on two key aspects: the characteristics of the mould and the shaping process. For the practical analysis a static mould with three pairs of elements in laboratory scale was developed and commissioned by the Dept. of Ferrous Metallurgy @ RWTH Aachen University. The shaping experiments were carried out in model scale with two different materials and in variable boundary conditions. The results of these experiments delivered important mechanical as well as thermal informations about the casting system.

  1. An automatic detection method to the field wheat based on image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Cao, Zhiguo; Bai, Xiaodong; Yu, Zhenghong; Li, Yanan

    2013-10-01

    The automatic observation of the field crop attracts more and more attention recently. The use of image processing technology instead of the existing manual observation method can observe timely and manage consistently. It is the basis that extracting the wheat from the field wheat images. In order to improve accuracy of the wheat segmentation, a novel two-stage wheat image segmentation method is proposed. Training stage adjusts several key thresholds which will be used in segmentation stage to achieve the best segmentation results, and counts these thresholds. Segmentation stage compares the different values of color index to determine which class of each pixel is. To verify the superiority of the proposed algorithm, we compared our method with other crop segmentation methods. Experiment results shows that the proposed method has the best performance.

  2. Developing an Intelligent Automatic Appendix Extraction Method from Ultrasonography Based on Fuzzy ART and Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Song, Doo Heon; Han, Sang-suk

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound examination (US) does a key role in the diagnosis and management of the patients with clinically suspected appendicitis which is the most common abdominal surgical emergency. Among the various sonographic findings of appendicitis, outer diameter of the appendix is most important. Therefore, clear delineation of the appendix on US images is essential. In this paper, we propose a new intelligent method to extract appendix automatically from abdominal sonographic images as a basic building block of developing such an intelligent tool for medical practitioners. Knowing that the appendix is located at the lower organ area below the bottom fascia line, we conduct a series of image processing techniques to find the fascia line correctly. And then we apply fuzzy ART learning algorithm to the organ area in order to extract appendix accurately. The experiment verifies that the proposed method is highly accurate (successful in 38 out of 40 cases) in extracting appendix. PMID:26089963

  3. Automatic word processing hypnosis and cognitive therapy for psychosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rusk, Gregory

    2014-07-01

    Hallucinations are often perceived as auditory and visual experiences emanating from outside the mind and it is this belief by patients that is a powerfully convincing factor in maintaining psychotic symptoms and accompanying distress. One of the main tasks of cognitive therapy for psychosis is to help the person recognize that the hallucinations emerge from within their own mind for some meaningful reason. A change in meaning can change a person's affective and behavioral responses to hallucinatory phenomena. Automatic Word Processing (AWP) hypnosis is a novel way to help a person realize that the hallucinations they perceive as external and distressful are really internally generated phenomena often based upon his or her life experiences. The case presented here illustrates how AWP hypnosis helped a 13-year-old girl access the internal material that shaped the form and content of visual and auditory hallucinations and interfered with her social and academic functioning.

  4. Stereotype threat strengthens automatic recall and undermines controlled processes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Morisset, Pauline; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2012-07-01

    The threat of being judged stereotypically (stereotype threat) may impair memory performance in older adults, thereby producing inflated age differences in memory tasks. However, the underlying mechanisms of stereotype threat in older adults or other stigmatized groups remain poorly understood. Here, we offer evidence that stereotype threat consumes working memory resources in older adults. More important, using a process-dissociation procedure, we found, for the first time, that stereotype threat undermines the controlled use of memory and simultaneously intensifies automatic response tendencies. These findings indicate that competing models of stereotype threat are actually compatible and offer further reasons for researchers and practitioners to pay special attention to age-related stereotypes during standardized neuropsychological testing.

  5. Mapping forest vegetation with ERTS-1 MSS data and automatic data processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messmore, J.; Copeland, G. E.; Levy, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the intent of elucidating the forest mapping capabilities of ERTS-1 MSS data when analyzed with the aid of LARS' automatic data processing techniques. The site for this investigation was the Great Dismal Swamp, a 210,000 acre wilderness area located on the Middle Atlantic coastal plain. Due to inadequate ground truth information on the distribution of vegetation within the swamp, an unsupervised classification scheme was utilized. Initially pictureprints, resembling low resolution photographs, were generated in each of the four ERTS-1 channels. Data found within rectangular training fields was then clustered into 13 spectral groups and defined statistically. Using a maximum likelihood classification scheme, the unknown data points were subsequently classified into one of the designated training classes. Training field data was classified with a high degree of accuracy (greater than 95 percent), and progress is being made towards identifying the mapped spectral classes.

  6. Individual Differences in Children's Mathematical Competence Are Related to the Intentional but Not Automatic Processing of Arabic Numerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugden, Stephanie; Ansari, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role played by basic numerical magnitude processing in the typical and atypical development of mathematical skills. In this context, tasks measuring both the intentional and automatic processing of numerical magnitude have been employed to characterize how children's representation and…

  7. Inviting the Unconscious to Manifest: Process as a Product? Authentic Movement and Automatic Drawing Performed/Exhibited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesonen, Inari

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines two improvisational processes, Authentic Movement (AM) and automatic drawing (AD), the possibility of their presentation to the viewer and the meanings such presentation may bring to the work presented. Improvisation has traditionally been used in the process of creating a finished work of art rather than in the finished art…

  8. Individual differences in children's mathematical competence are related to the intentional but not automatic processing of Arabic numerals.

    PubMed

    Bugden, Stephanie; Ansari, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role played by basic numerical magnitude processing in the typical and atypical development of mathematical skills. In this context, tasks measuring both the intentional and automatic processing of numerical magnitude have been employed to characterize how children's representation and processing of numerical magnitude changes over developmental time. To date, however, there has been little effort to differentiate between different measures of 'number sense'. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between automatic and intentional measures of magnitude processing as well as their relationships to individual differences in children's mathematical achievement. A group of 119 children in 1st and 2nd grade were tested on the physical size congruity paradigm (automatic processing) as well as the number comparison paradigm to measure the ratio effect (intentional processing). The results reveal that measures of intentional and automatic processing are uncorrelated with one another, suggesting that these tasks tap into different levels of numerical magnitude processing in children. Furthermore, while children's performance on the number comparison paradigm was found to correlate with their mathematical achievement scores, no such correlations could be obtained for any of the measures typically derived from the physical size congruity task. These findings therefore suggest that different tasks measuring 'number sense' tap into different levels of numerical magnitude representation that may be unrelated to one another and have differential predictive power for individual differences in mathematical achievement.

  9. An Automatic Image Processing Workflow for Daily Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quality Assurance.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Juha I; Mäkelä, Teemu; Sofiev, Alexey; Salli, Eero

    2017-04-01

    The performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment is typically monitored with a quality assurance (QA) program. The QA program includes various tests performed at regular intervals. Users may execute specific tests, e.g., daily, weekly, or monthly. The exact interval of these measurements varies according to the department policies, machine setup and usage, manufacturer's recommendations, and available resources. In our experience, a single image acquired before the first patient of the day offers a low effort and effective system check. When this daily QA check is repeated with identical imaging parameters and phantom setup, the data can be used to derive various time series of the scanner performance. However, daily QA with manual processing can quickly become laborious in a multi-scanner environment. Fully automated image analysis and results output can positively impact the QA process by decreasing reaction time, improving repeatability, and by offering novel performance evaluation methods. In this study, we have developed a daily MRI QA workflow that can measure multiple scanner performance parameters with minimal manual labor required. The daily QA system is built around a phantom image taken by the radiographers at the beginning of day. The image is acquired with a consistent phantom setup and standardized imaging parameters. Recorded parameters are processed into graphs available to everyone involved in the MRI QA process via a web-based interface. The presented automatic MRI QA system provides an efficient tool for following the short- and long-term stability of MRI scanners.

  10. Phonemic awareness is a more important predictor of orthographic processing than rapid serial naming: Evidence from Russian

    PubMed Central

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the relationship between rapid serial naming (RSN) and orthographic processing in Russian, an asymmetrically transparent orthography. Ninety-six students (mean age = 13.73) completed tests of word and pseudoword reading fluency, spelling, orthographic choice, phonological choice, PA and RSN. PA was a better predictor of orthographic skills and pseudoword reading accuracy than RSN, which accounted for more variance in word and pseudoword reading fluency. Controlling for pseudoword reading fluency washed out RSN’s contribution to word reading fluency. These results extend previous findings questioning the role of RSN as an index of orthographic processing skills and support the idea that RSN taps into automaticity/efficiency of processing print-sound mappings. PMID:25435759

  11. Gap-free segmentation of vascular networks with automatic image processing pipeline.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Yang; Ghaffari, Mahsa; Alaraj, Ali; Flannery, Michael; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Linninger, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Current image processing techniques capture large vessels reliably but often fail to preserve connectivity in bifurcations and small vessels. Imaging artifacts and noise can create gaps and discontinuity of intensity that hinders segmentation of vascular trees. However, topological analysis of vascular trees require proper connectivity without gaps, loops or dangling segments. Proper tree connectivity is also important for high quality rendering of surface meshes for scientific visualization or 3D printing. We present a fully automated vessel enhancement pipeline with automated parameter settings for vessel enhancement of tree-like structures from customary imaging sources, including 3D rotational angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance venography, and computed tomography angiography. The output of the filter pipeline is a vessel-enhanced image which is ideal for generating anatomical consistent network representations of the cerebral angioarchitecture for further topological or statistical analysis. The filter pipeline combined with computational modeling can potentially improve computer-aided diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases by delivering biometrics and anatomy of the vasculature. It may serve as the first step in fully automatic epidemiological analysis of large clinical datasets. The automatic analysis would enable rigorous statistical comparison of biometrics in subject-specific vascular trees. The robust and accurate image segmentation using a validated filter pipeline would also eliminate operator dependency that has been observed in manual segmentation. Moreover, manual segmentation is time prohibitive given that vascular trees have more than thousands of segments and bifurcations so that interactive segmentation consumes excessive human resources. Subject-specific trees are a first step toward patient-specific hemodynamic simulations for assessing treatment outcomes.

  12. The role of automaticity and attention in neural processes underlying empathy for happiness, sadness, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Sylvia A; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the neural basis of empathy, relatively little is known about how empathic processes are affected by different attentional conditions. Thus, we examined whether instructions to empathize might amplify responses in empathy-related regions and whether cognitive load would diminish the involvement of these regions. Thirty-two participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session assessing empathic responses to individuals experiencing happy, sad, and anxious events. Stimuli were presented under three conditions: watching naturally, actively empathizing, and under cognitive load. Across analyses, we found evidence for a core set of neural regions that support empathic processes (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, DMPFC; medial prefrontal cortex, MPFC; temporoparietal junction, TPJ; amygdala; ventral anterior insula, AI; and septal area, SA). Two key regions-the ventral AI and SA-were consistently active across all attentional conditions, suggesting that they are automatically engaged during empathy. In addition, watching vs. empathizing with targets was not markedly different and instead led to similar subjective and neural responses to others' emotional experiences. In contrast, cognitive load reduced the subjective experience of empathy and diminished neural responses in several regions related to empathy and social cognition (DMPFC, MPFC, TPJ, and amygdala). The results reveal how attention impacts empathic processes and provides insight into how empathy may unfold in everyday interactions.

  13. A marked point process of rectangles and segments for automatic analysis of digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Ortner, Mathias; Descombe, Xavier; Zerubia, Josiane

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a framework for automatic feature extraction from images using stochastic geometry. Features in images are modeled as realizations of a spatial point process of geometrical shapes. This framework allows the incorporation of a priori knowledge on the spatial repartition of features. More specifically, we present a model based on the superposition of a process of segments and a process of rectangles. The former is dedicated to the detection of linear networks of discontinuities, while the latter aims at segmenting homogeneous areas. An energy is defined, favoring connections of segments, alignments of rectangles, as well as a relevant interaction between both types of objects. The estimation is performed by minimizing the energy using a simulated annealing algorithm. The proposed model is applied to the analysis of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). These images are raster data representing the altimetry of a dense urban area. We present results on real data provided by the IGN (French National Geographic Institute) consisting in low quality DEMs of various types.

  14. Monitoring infants by automatic video processing: A unified approach to motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Cattani, Luca; Alinovi, Davide; Ferrari, Gianluigi; Raheli, Riccardo; Pavlidis, Elena; Spagnoli, Carlotta; Pisani, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    A unified approach to contact-less and low-cost video processing for automatic detection of neonatal diseases characterized by specific movement patterns is presented. This disease category includes neonatal clonic seizures and apneas. Both disorders are characterized by the presence or absence, respectively, of periodic movements of parts of the body-e.g., the limbs in case of clonic seizures and the chest/abdomen in case of apneas. Therefore, one can analyze the data obtained from multiple video sensors placed around a patient, extracting relevant motion signals and estimating, using the Maximum Likelihood (ML) criterion, their possible periodicity. This approach is very versatile and allows to investigate various scenarios, including: a single Red, Green and Blue (RGB) camera, an RGB-depth sensor or a network of a few RGB cameras. Data fusion principles are considered to aggregate the signals from multiple sensors. In the case of apneas, since breathing movements are subtle, the video can be pre-processed by a recently proposed algorithm which is able to emphasize small movements. The performance of the proposed contact-less detection algorithms is assessed, considering real video recordings of newborns, in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, with respect to medical gold standard devices. The obtained results show that a video processing-based system can effectively detect the considered specific diseases, with increasing performance for increasing number of sensors.

  15. Examining the influence of psychopathy, hostility biases, and automatic processing on criminal offenders' Theory of Mind.

    PubMed

    Nentjes, Lieke; Bernstein, David; Arntz, Arnoud; van Breukelen, Gerard; Slaats, Mariëtte

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is a social perceptual skill that refers to the ability to take someone else's perspective and infer what others think. The current study examined the effect of potential hostility biases, as well as controlled (slow) versus automatic (fast) processing on ToM performance in psychopathy. ToM abilities (as assessed with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test; RMET; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001), was compared between 39 PCL-R diagnosed psychopathic offenders, 37 non-psychopathic offenders, and 26 nonoffender controls. Contrary to our hypothesis, psychopathic individuals presented with intact overall RMET performance when restrictions were imposed on how long task stimuli could be processed. In addition, psychopaths did not over-ascribe hostility to task stimuli (i.e., lack of hostility bias). However, there was a significant three-way interaction between hostility, processing speed, and psychopathy: when there was no time limit on stimulus presentation, psychopathic offenders made fewer errors in identifying more hostile eye stimuli compared to nonoffender controls, who seemed to be less accurate in detecting hostility. Psychopaths' more realistic appraisal of others' malevolent mental states is discussed in the light of theories that stress its potential adaptive function.

  16. Automatic screening and classification of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy using fuzzy image processing.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Sarni Suhaila; Palade, Vasile; Shuttleworth, James; Jayne, Chrisina

    2016-12-01

    Digital retinal imaging is a challenging screening method for which effective, robust and cost-effective approaches are still to be developed. Regular screening for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy diseases is necessary in order to identify the group at risk of visual impairment. This paper presents a novel automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in eye fundus images by employing fuzzy image processing techniques. The paper first introduces the existing systems for diabetic retinopathy screening, with an emphasis on the maculopathy detection methods. The proposed medical decision support system consists of four parts, namely: image acquisition, image preprocessing including four retinal structures localisation, feature extraction and the classification of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy. A combination of fuzzy image processing techniques, the Circular Hough Transform and several feature extraction methods are implemented in the proposed system. The paper also presents a novel technique for the macula region localisation in order to detect the maculopathy. In addition to the proposed detection system, the paper highlights a novel online dataset and it presents the dataset collection, the expert diagnosis process and the advantages of our online database compared to other public eye fundus image databases for diabetic retinopathy purposes.

  17. Is the rapid adaptation paradigm too rapid? Implications for face and object processing.

    PubMed

    Nemrodov, Dan; Itier, Roxane J

    2012-07-16

    Rapid adaptation is an adaptation procedure in which adaptors and test stimuli are presented in rapid succession. The current study tested the validity of this method for early ERP components by investigating the specificity of the adaptation effect on the face-sensitive N170 ERP component across multiple test stimuli. Experiments 1 and 2 showed identical response patterns for house and upright face test stimuli using the same adaptor stimuli. The results were also identical to those reported in a previous study using inverted face test stimuli (Nemrodov and Itier, 2011). In Experiment 3 all possible adaptor-test combinations between upright face, house, chair and car stimuli were used and no interaction between adaptor and test category, expected in the case of test-specific adaptation, was found. These results demonstrate that the rapid adaptation paradigm does not produce category-specific adaptation effects around 170-200 ms following test stimulus onset, a necessary condition for the interpretation of adaptation results. These results suggest the rapid categorical adaptation paradigm does not work.

  18. Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of SAR data for flood applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussul, Natalia; Skakun, Serhiy; Shelestov, Andrii

    2010-05-01

    More and more geosciences applications are being put on to the Grids. Due to the complexity of geosciences applications that is caused by complex workflow, the use of computationally intensive environmental models, the need of management and integration of heterogeneous data sets, Grid offers solutions to tackle these problems. Many geosciences applications, especially those related to the disaster management and mitigations require the geospatial services to be delivered in proper time. For example, information on flooded areas should be provided to corresponding organizations (local authorities, civil protection agencies, UN agencies etc.) no more than in 24 h to be able to effectively allocate resources required to mitigate the disaster. Therefore, providing infrastructure and services that will enable automatic generation of products based on the integration of heterogeneous data represents the tasks of great importance. In this paper we present Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) satellite images to derive flood products. In particular, we use SAR data acquired by ESA's ENVSAT satellite, and neural networks to derive flood extent. The data are provided in operational mode from ESA rolling archive (within ESA Category-1 grant). We developed a portal that is based on OpenLayers frameworks and provides access point to the developed services. Through the portal the user can define geographical region and search for the required data. Upon selection of data sets a workflow is automatically generated and executed on the resources of Grid infrastructure. For workflow execution and management we use Karajan language. The workflow of SAR data processing consists of the following steps: image calibration, image orthorectification, image processing with neural networks, topographic effects removal, geocoding and transformation to lat/long projection, and visualisation. These steps are executed by different software, and can be

  19. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  20. The Application of Automatic Data Processing and Quantitative Techniques to United States Army War College Course 1, The United States and the International Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    DATA PROCESSING, TEACHING METHODS), POLITICAL SCIENCE , EDUCATION , FEASIBILITY STUDIES, AUTOMATIC, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, ECONOMICS, GAME THEORY, SIMULATION, FOREIGN POLICY, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION MAKING, UNIVERSITIES.

  1. Recognising safety critical events: can automatic video processing improve naturalistic data analyses?

    PubMed

    Dozza, Marco; González, Nieves Pañeda

    2013-11-01

    New trends in research on traffic accidents include Naturalistic Driving Studies (NDS). NDS are based on large scale data collection of driver, vehicle, and environment information in real world. NDS data sets have proven to be extremely valuable for the analysis of safety critical events such as crashes and near crashes. However, finding safety critical events in NDS data is often difficult and time consuming. Safety critical events are currently identified using kinematic triggers, for instance searching for deceleration below a certain threshold signifying harsh braking. Due to the low sensitivity and specificity of this filtering procedure, manual review of video data is currently necessary to decide whether the events identified by the triggers are actually safety critical. Such reviewing procedure is based on subjective decisions, is expensive and time consuming, and often tedious for the analysts. Furthermore, since NDS data is exponentially growing over time, this reviewing procedure may not be viable anymore in the very near future. This study tested the hypothesis that automatic processing of driver video information could increase the correct classification of safety critical events from kinematic triggers in naturalistic driving data. Review of about 400 video sequences recorded from the events, collected by 100 Volvo cars in the euroFOT project, suggested that drivers' individual reaction may be the key to recognize safety critical events. In fact, whether an event is safety critical or not often depends on the individual driver. A few algorithms, able to automatically classify driver reaction from video data, have been compared. The results presented in this paper show that the state of the art subjective review procedures to identify safety critical events from NDS can benefit from automated objective video processing. In addition, this paper discusses the major challenges in making such video analysis viable for future NDS and new potential

  2. Rapid gas hydrate formation processes: Will they work?

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bernardo, Mark P.

    2010-06-07

    Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETL’s 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. The results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuousmore » formation of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve.« less

  3. Rapid gas hydrate formation processes: Will they work?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bernardo, Mark P.

    2010-06-07

    Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETL’s 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. The results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuous formation of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve.

  4. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC) Effects Reflect Controlled Rather than Automatic Mechanisms of Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Wioland, Norma; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2012-01-01

    This study compared automatic and controlled cognitive processes that underlie event-related potentials (ERPs) effects during speech perception. Sentences were presented to French native speakers, and the final word could be congruent or incongruent, and presented at one of four levels of degradation (using a modulation with pink noise): no degradation, mild degradation (2 levels), or strong degradation. We assumed that degradation impairs controlled more than automatic processes. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC) effects were defined as the differences between the corresponding wave amplitudes to incongruent words minus congruent words. Under mild degradation, where controlled sentence-level processing could still occur (as indicated by behavioral data), both N400 and LPC effects were delayed and the latter effect was reduced. Under strong degradation, where sentence processing was rather automatic (as indicated by behavioral data), no ERP effect remained. These results suggest that ERP effects elicited in complex contexts, such as sentences, reflect controlled rather than automatic mechanisms of speech processing. These results differ from the results of experiments that used word-pair or word-list paradigms. PMID:24961195

  5. Rapidly solidified ceramics: Processing, structure, and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kalonji, G.M.; O'Handley, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Since its initiation in September 1984, work under this contract has progressed in two areas: construction of a gas atomizer for rapid solidification of ceramics; and characterization of rapidly solidified materials in the SrO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, BaO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2}, and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2} systems. This report summarize this work.

  6. Rapid Prototyping of High Performance Signal Processing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, Nimish

    Advances in embedded systems for digital signal processing (DSP) are enabling many scientific projects and commercial applications. At the same time, these applications are key to driving advances in many important kinds of computing platforms. In this region of high performance DSP, rapid prototyping is critical for faster time-to-market (e.g., in the wireless communications industry) or time-to-science (e.g., in radio astronomy). DSP system architectures have evolved from being based on application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to incorporate reconfigurable off-the-shelf field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), the latest multiprocessors such as graphics processing units (GPUs), or heterogeneous combinations of such devices. We, thus, have a vast design space to explore based on performance trade-offs, and expanded by the multitude of possibilities for target platforms. In order to allow systematic design space exploration, and develop scalable and portable prototypes, model based design tools are increasingly used in design and implementation of embedded systems. These tools allow scalable high-level representations, model based semantics for analysis and optimization, and portable implementations that can be verified at higher levels of abstractions and targeted toward multiple platforms for implementation. The designer can experiment using such tools at an early stage in the design cycle, and employ the latest hardware at later stages. In this thesis, we have focused on dataflow-based approaches for rapid DSP system prototyping. This thesis contributes to various aspects of dataflow-based design flows and tools as follows: 1. We have introduced the concept of topological patterns, which exploits commonly found repetitive patterns in DSP algorithms to allow scalable, concise, and parameterizable representations of large scale dataflow graphs in high-level languages. We have shown how an underlying design tool can systematically exploit a high

  7. Evidence for the automatic processing of prelexical codes in an orthographic but not a phonological task.

    PubMed

    Slowiaczek, Louisa M; Kahan, Todd A

    2014-12-01

    The automatic activation of phonological and orthographic information in auditory and visual word processing was examined using a task-set procedure. Participants engaged in a phonological task (i.e., determining whether the letter "a" in a word sounded like /e/ or /æ/) or an orthographic task (i.e., determining whether the sound /s/ in a word was spelled with an "s" or a "c"). Participants were cued regarding which task to perform simultaneously with, or 750 ms before, a clear or degraded target. The stimulus clarity effect (i.e., clear words responded to faster than degraded words) was absorbed into the time that it took participants to identify the task on the basis of the cue in a simultaneous cue-target as compared to a delayed cue-target condition, but only for the orthographic task. These data are consistent with the claim that prelexical processing occurs in a capacity-free manner upon stimulus presentation when participants are trying to extract orthographic codes from words presented in the visual and auditory modalities. Such affirmative data were not obtained when participants attempted to extract phonological codes from words, since here the effects of stimulus clarity and cue delay were additive.

  8. On the Automatic Generation of Plans for Life Cycle Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing products for easy assembly and disassembly during their entire life cycles for purposes including product assembly, product upgrade, product servicing and repair, and product disposal is a process that involves many disciplines. In addition, finding the best solution often involves considering the design as a whole and by considering its intended life cycle. Different goals and manufacturing plan selection criteria, as compared to initial assembly, require re-visiting significant fundamental assumptions and methods that underlie current assembly planning techniques. Previous work in this area has been limited to either academic studies of issues in assembly planning or to applied studies of life cycle assembly processes that give no attention to automatic planning. It is believed that merging these two areas will result in a much greater ability to design for, optimize, and analyze the cycle assembly processes. The study of assembly planning is at the very heart of manufacturing research facilities and academic engineering institutions; and, in recent years a number of significant advances in the field of assembly planning have been made. These advances have ranged from the development of automated assembly planning systems, such as Sandia's Automated Assembly Analysis System Archimedes 3.0{copyright}, to the startling revolution in microprocessors and computer-controlled production tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), flexible manufacturing systems (EMS), and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). These results have kindled considerable interest in the study of algorithms for life cycle related assembly processes and have blossomed into a field of intense interest. The intent of this manuscript is to bring together the fundamental results in this area, so that the unifying principles and underlying concepts of algorithm design may more easily be implemented in practice.

  9. An Investigation of the Stroop Effect among Deaf Signers in English and Japanese: Automatic Processing or Memory Retrieval?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Mary; Moran, Aidan

    2007-01-01

    Most studies on the Stroop effect (unintentional automatic word processing) have been restricted to English speakers using vocal responses. Little is known about this effect with deaf signers. The study compared Stroop task responses among four different samples: deaf participants from a Japanese-language environment and from an English-language…

  10. Seeing race: N170 responses to race and their relation to automatic racial attitudes and controlled processing.

    PubMed

    Ofan, Renana H; Rubin, Nava; Amodio, David M

    2011-10-01

    We examined the relation between neural activity reflecting early face perception processes and automatic and controlled responses to race. Participants completed a sequential evaluative priming task, in which two-tone images of Black faces, White faces, and cars appeared as primes, followed by target words categorized as pleasant or unpleasant, while encephalography was recorded. Half of these participants were alerted that the task assessed racial prejudice and could reveal their personal bias ("alerted" condition). To assess face perception processes, the N170 component of the ERP was examined. For all participants, stronger automatic pro-White bias was associated with larger N170 amplitudes to Black than White faces. For participants in the alerted condition only, larger N170 amplitudes to Black versus White faces were also associated with less controlled processing on the word categorization task. These findings suggest that preexisting racial attitudes affect early face processing and that situational factors moderate the link between early face processing and behavior.

  11. Rapid Word Recognition as a Measure of Word-Level Automaticity and Its Relation to Other Measures of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Elizabeth M.; Gosky, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between rapid recognition of individual words (Word Recognition Test) and two measures of contextual reading: (1) grade-level Passage Reading Test (IRI passage) and (2) performance on standardized STAR Reading Test. To establish if time of presentation on the word recognition test was a factor in…

  12. SNPflow: A Lightweight Application for the Processing, Storing and Automatic Quality Checking of Genotyping Assays

    PubMed Central

    Schönherr, Sebastian; Neuner, Mathias; Forer, Lukas; Specht, Günther; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Kronenberg, Florian; Coassin, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play a prominent role in modern genetics. Current genotyping technologies such as Sequenom iPLEX, ABI TaqMan and KBioscience KASPar made the genotyping of huge SNP sets in large populations straightforward and allow the generation of hundreds of thousands of genotypes even in medium sized labs. While data generation is straightforward, the subsequent data conversion, storage and quality control steps are time-consuming, error-prone and require extensive bioinformatic support. In order to ease this tedious process, we developed SNPflow. SNPflow is a lightweight, intuitive and easily deployable application, which processes genotype data from Sequenom MassARRAY (iPLEX) and ABI 7900HT (TaqMan, KASPar) systems and is extendible to other genotyping methods as well. SNPflow automatically converts the raw output files to ready-to-use genotype lists, calculates all standard quality control values such as call rate, expected and real amount of replicates, minor allele frequency, absolute number of discordant replicates, discordance rate and the p-value of the HWE test, checks the plausibility of the observed genotype frequencies by comparing them to HapMap/1000-Genomes, provides a module for the processing of SNPs, which allow sex determination for DNA quality control purposes and, finally, stores all data in a relational database. SNPflow runs on all common operating systems and comes as both stand-alone version and multi-user version for laboratory-wide use. The software, a user manual, screenshots and a screencast illustrating the main features are available at http://genepi-snpflow.i-med.ac.at. PMID:23527209

  13. Automatic target classification of slow moving ground targets using space-time adaptive processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malas, John Alexander

    2002-04-01

    Air-to-ground surveillance radar technologies are increasingly being used by theater commanders to detect, track, and identify ground moving targets. New radar automatic target recognition (ATR) technologies are being developed to aid the pilot in assessing the ground combat picture. Most air-to-ground surveillance radars use Doppler filtering techniques to separate target returns from ground clutter. Unfortunately, Doppler filter techniques fall short on performance when target geometry and ground vehicle speed result in low line of sight velocities. New clutter filter techniques compatible with emerging advancements in wideband radar operation are needed to support surveillance modes of radar operation when targets enter this low velocity regime. In this context, space-time adaptive processing (STAP) in conjunction with other algorithms offers a class of signal processing that provide improved target detection, tracking, and classification in the presence of interference through the adaptive nulling of both ground clutter and/or jamming. Of particular interest is the ability of the radar to filter and process the complex target signature data needed to generate high range resolution (HRR) signature profiles on ground targets. A new approach is proposed which will allow air-to-ground target classification of slow moving vehicles in clutter. A wideband STAP approach for clutter suppression is developed which preserves the amplitude integrity of returns from multiple range bins consistent with the HRR ATR approach. The wideband STAP processor utilizes narrowband STAP principles to generate a series of adaptive sub-band filters. Each sub-band filter output is used to construct the complete filtered response of the ground target. The performance of this new approach is demonstrated and quantified through the implementation of a one dimensional template-based minimum mean squared error classifier. Successful minimum velocity identification is defined in terms of

  14. Forest point processes for the automatic extraction of networks in raster data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Alena; Lafarge, Florent; Brenner, Claus; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new stochastic approach for the automatic detection of network structures in raster data. We represent a network as a set of trees with acyclic planar graphs. We embed this model in the probabilistic framework of spatial point processes and determine the most probable configuration of trees by stochastic sampling. That is, different configurations are constructed randomly by modifying the graph parameters and by adding or removing nodes and edges to/ from the current trees. Each configuration is evaluated based on the probabilities for these changes and an energy function describing the conformity with a predefined model. By using the Reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler, an approximation of the global optimum of the energy function is iteratively reached. Although our main target application is the extraction of rivers and tidal channels in digital terrain models, experiments with other types of networks in images show the transferability to further applications. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations demonstrate the competitiveness of our approach with respect to existing algorithms.

  15. An automatic falling drop system based on multicommutation process for photometric chlorine determination in bleach.

    PubMed

    da Silva Borges, Sivanildo; Reis, Boaventura F

    2007-09-26

    In this work an automatic photometric procedure for the determination of chlorine in bleach samples employing N,N'-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) as chromogenic reagent is described. The procedure was based on a falling drop system where the analyte (Cl(2)) was collected by a DPD solution drop (50 microL) after its delivery from the sample bulk that was previously acidified. The flow system was designed based on the multicommutation process assembling a set of three-way solenoid valves, which under microcomputer control afforded facilities to handle sample and reagent solution in order to control analyte delivering and solution drop generation. The analyte volatilization was improved by coupling online a little heating device. The detection system comprised a green LED (515 nm) and a phototransistor. Aiming to prove the usefulness of the proposed procedure a set of bleach samples was analyzed. Comparing the results with those obtained with reference method no significant difference at 95% confidence level was observed. Other profitable features such as a linear response ranging from 15 up to 100 mgL(-1) Cl(2) (R=0.999); a detection limit of 4.5 mgL(-1) Cl(2) estimated based on the 3 sigma criterion; a relative standard deviation of 2.5% (n=10) using a typical bleach sample containing 25.0 mgL(-1) Cl(2); a consumption of 55 microg of DPD per determination; and a analytical frequency of 20 determinations per hour were also achieved.

  16. Automatic processing of wh- and NP-movement in agrammatic aphasia: Evidence from eyetracking

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia show deficits in comprehension of non-canonical wh-movement and NP-movement sentences. Previous work using eyetracking has found that agrammatic and unimpaired listeners show very similar patterns of automatic processing for wh-movement sentences. The current study attempts to replicate this finding for sentences with wh-movement (in object relatives in the current study) and to extend it to sentences with NP movement (passives). For wh-movement sentences, aphasic and control participants’ eye-movements differed most dramatically in late regions of the sentence and post-offset, with aphasic participants exhibiting lingering attention to a salient but grammatically impermissible competitor. The eye-movement differences between correct and incorrect trials for wh-movement sentences were similar, with incorrect trials also exhibiting competition from an impermissible interpretation late in the sentence. Furthermore, the two groups exhibited similar eye-movement patterns in response to passive NP-movement sentences, but showed little evidence of gap-filling for passives. The results suggest that aphasic and unimpaired individuals may generate similar representations during comprehension, but that aphasics are highly vulnerable to interference from alternative interpretations (Ferreira, 2003). PMID:20161014

  17. The impact of task rules on distracter processing: automatic categorization of irrelevant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Reisenauer, Renate; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2013-03-01

    The goal of the study was to investigate whether task rules are automatically applied to irrelevant distracters. In three experiments, subjects categorized target words which were superimposed on distracter pictures. The categorization rule was arbitrary and the distracters were not relevant at any point during the experiment. We found congruency effects for distracters that belonged to the task-relevant categories, but were never presented as target words. Responses were faster when target and distracter belonged to the same category, i.e., were mapped to the same response, than when they were mapped to different responses. Since the distracters were never responded to in the course of the experiment, interference caused by retrieval of S-R episodes cannot explain the results. Instead, we propose that even arbitrary categorization rules are applied to all suitable stimuli, including distracters. Results are taken as evidence that a currently relevant task rule enhances processing of target-related information thereby increasing interference by task related, but currently irrelevant information.

  18. Fidelity of Automatic Speech Processing for Adult and Child Talker Classifications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Automatic speech processing (ASP) has recently been applied to very large datasets of naturalistically collected, daylong recordings of child speech via an audio recorder worn by young children. The system developed by the LENA Research Foundation analyzes children's speech for research and clinical purposes, with special focus on of identifying and tagging family speech dynamics and the at-home acoustic environment from the auditory perspective of the child. A primary issue for researchers, clinicians, and families using the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) system is to what degree the segment labels are valid. This classification study evaluates the performance of the computer ASP output against 23 trained human judges who made about 53,000 judgements of classification of segments tagged by the LENA ASP. Results indicate performance consistent with modern ASP such as those using HMM methods, with acoustic characteristics of fundamental frequency and segment duration most important for both human and machine classifications. Results are likely to be important for interpreting and improving ASP output. PMID:27529813

  19. Effects of single cortisol administrations on human affect reviewed: Coping with stress through adaptive regulation of automatic cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Putman, Peter; Roelofs, Karin

    2011-05-01

    The human stress hormone cortisol may facilitate effective coping after psychological stress. In apparent agreement, administration of cortisol has been demonstrated to reduce fear in response to stressors. For anxious patients with phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder this has been ascribed to hypothetical inhibition of retrieval of traumatic memories. However, such stress-protective effects may also work via adaptive regulation of early cognitive processing of threatening information from the environment. This paper selectively reviews the available literature on effects of single cortisol administrations on affect and early cognitive processing of affectively significant information. The concluded working hypothesis is that immediate effects of high concentration of cortisol may facilitate stress-coping via inhibition of automatic processing of goal-irrelevant threatening information and through increased automatic approach-avoidance responses in early emotional processing. Limitations in the existing literature and suggestions for future directions are briefly discussed.

  20. Rapid process for producing transparent, monolithic porous glass

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.

    2006-02-14

    A process for making transparent porous glass monoliths from gels. The glass is produced much faster and in much larger sizes than present technology for making porous glass. The process reduces the cost of making large porous glass monoliths because: 1) the process does not require solvent exchange nor additives to the gel to increase the drying rates, 2) only moderate temperatures and pressures are used so relatively inexpensive equipment is needed, an 3) net-shape glass monoliths are possible using this process. The process depends on the use of temperature to control the partial pressure of the gel solvent in a closed vessel, resulting in controlled shrinking during drying.

  1. VACTIV: A graphical dialog based program for an automatic processing of line and band spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlokazov, V. B.

    2013-05-01

    The program VACTIV-Visual ACTIV-has been developed for an automatic analysis of spectrum-like distributions, in particular gamma-ray spectra or alpha-spectra and is a standard graphical dialog based Windows XX application, driven by a menu, mouse and keyboard. On the one hand, it was a conversion of an existing Fortran program ACTIV [1] to the DELPHI language; on the other hand, it is a transformation of the sequential syntax of Fortran programming to a new object-oriented style, based on the organization of event interactions. New features implemented in the algorithms of both the versions consisted in the following as peak model both an analytical function and a graphical curve could be used; the peak search algorithm was able to recognize not only Gauss peaks but also peaks with an irregular form; both narrow peaks (2-4 channels) and broad ones (50-100 channels); the regularization technique in the fitting guaranteed a stable solution in the most complicated cases of strongly overlapping or weak peaks. The graphical dialog interface of VACTIV is much more convenient than the batch mode of ACTIV. [1] V.B. Zlokazov, Computer Physics Communications, 28 (1982) 27-37. NEW VERSION PROGRAM SUMMARYProgram Title: VACTIV Catalogue identifier: ABAC_v2_0 Licensing provisions: no Programming language: DELPHI 5-7 Pascal. Computer: IBM PC series. Operating system: Windows XX. RAM: 1 MB Keywords: Nuclear physics, spectrum decomposition, least squares analysis, graphical dialog, object-oriented programming. Classification: 17.6. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ABAC_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 28 (1982) 27 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes. Nature of problem: Program VACTIV is intended for precise analysis of arbitrary spectrum-like distributions, e.g. gamma-ray and X-ray spectra and allows the user to carry out the full cycle of automatic processing of such spectra, i.e. calibration, automatic peak search

  2. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  3. A comparison of signal-processing front ends for automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, C. R., Jr.; Vo, H.-D. H.; Lippmann, R. P.

    1994-07-01

    The first stage of any system for automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a signal-processing front end that converts a sampled speech waveform into a more suitable representation for later processing. Several front ends are compared, three of which are based on knowledge about the human auditory system. The performance of an ASR system with these front ends was compared to a control mel filter bank (MFB)-based cepstral representation in clean speech and with speech degraded by noise and spectral variability. Using the TI-105 isolated word data base, it was found that auditory front ends performed comparably to MFB cepstra, sometimes slightly better in noise. With MFB cepstral recognition error rates ranging from 0.5% to 26.9%, depending on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), auditory models could perform as high as four percentage points better. With speech degraded by linear filtering, where MFB cepstra showed error rates ranging from 0.5% to 3.1%, auditory outputs could improve performance by as much as 0.4% for conditions with high baseline error rates. This performance gain comes at a significant computational expense-approximately one-third real time for MFB cepstra as opposed to as much as over 100 times real time for auditory models. These results disagree with previous studies that suggest considerably more improvement with auditory models. However, these earlier studies used a linear predictive coding (LPC)-based control front end, which is shown to perform significantly worse than MFB cepstra under noisy conditions (e.g., 2.7% error rate with mel-cepstra vs. 25.3% with LPC at 18-dB SNR). Data-reduction techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were also evaluated. PCA provided no gain in noise and slight gain with spectral variability.

  4. Using image processing technology combined with decision tree algorithm in laryngeal video stroboscope automatic identification of common vocal fold diseases.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey Kuo, Chung-Feng; Wang, Po-Chun; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wang, Hsing-Won; Lai, Chun-Yu

    2013-10-01

    This study used the actual laryngeal video stroboscope videos taken by physicians in clinical practice as the samples for experimental analysis. The samples were dynamic vocal fold videos. Image processing technology was used to automatically capture the image of the largest glottal area from the video to obtain the physiological data of the vocal folds. In this study, an automatic vocal fold disease identification system was designed, which can obtain the physiological parameters for normal vocal folds, vocal paralysis and vocal nodules from image processing according to the pathological features. The decision tree algorithm was used as the classifier of the vocal fold diseases. The identification rate was 92.6%, and the identification rate with an image recognition improvement processing procedure after classification can be improved to 98.7%. Hence, the proposed system has value in clinical practices.

  5. A simple method for rapidly processing HEU from weapons returns

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    A method based on the use of a high temperature fluidized bed for rapidly oxidizing, homogenizing and down-blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) from dismantled nuclear weapons is presented. This technology directly addresses many of the most important issues that inhibit progress in international commerce in HEU; viz., transaction verification, materials accountability, transportation and environmental safety. The equipment used to carry out the oxidation and blending is simple, inexpensive and highly portable. Mobile facilities to be used for point-of-sale blending and analysis of the product material are presented along with a phased implementation plan that addresses the conversion of HEU derived from domestic weapons and related waste streams as well as material from possible foreign sources such as South Africa or the former Soviet Union.

  6. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  7. Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D.; Rastogi, S.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1994-07-01

    The thermodynamic properties of coal under conditions of rapid heating have been determined using a combination of UTRC facilities including a proprietary rapid heating rate differential thermal analyzer (RHR-DTA), a microbomb calorimeter (MBC), an entrained flow reactor (EFR), an elemental analyzer (EA), and a FT-IR. The total heat of devolatilization, was measured for a HVA bituminous coal (PSOC 1451D, Pittsburgh No. 8) and a LV bituminous coal (PSOC 1516D, Lower Kittaning). For the HVA coal, the contributions of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization were measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars. Morphological characterization of coal and char samples was performed at the University of Pittsburgh using a PC-based image analysis system, BET apparatus, helium pcynometer, and mercury porosimeter. The bulk density, true density, CO{sub 2} surface area, pore volume distribution, and particle size distribution as a function of extent of reaction are reported for both the HVA and LV coal. Analyses of the data were performed to obtain the fractal dimension of the particles as well as estimates for the external surface area. The morphological data together with the thermodynamic data obtained in this investigation provides a complete database for a set of common, well characterized coal and char samples. This database can be used to improve the prediction of particle temperatures in coal devolatilization models. Such models are used both to obtain kinetic rates from fundamental studies and in predicting furnace performance with comprehensive coal combustion codes. Recommendations for heat capacity functions and heats of devolatilization for the HVA and LV coals are given. Results of sample particle temperature calculations using the recommended thermodynamic properties are provided.

  8. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Application of DLTS to silicon solar cell processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reehal, H. S.; Lesniak, M. P.; Hughes, A. E.

    1996-03-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has ben employed to study the cause of minority carrier lifetime degradation observed during the development phase of a single crystal silicon solar cell production process. Results on float-zone (FZ) samples showed that this was due to Fe unintentionally introduced at low levels (close to or below the detection limit of conventional analytical techniques) during cell processing and that DLTS of FZ wafers can be used as a highly sensitive monitor of process impurities. The DLTS spectra of processed FZ wafers showed a single trap, 0.53 eV away from the band edge and with a concentration of 0022-3727/29/3/063/img5, attributable to an Fe - B complex. The feature was not present before processing. In Czochralski (CZ) wafers the situation was more complex. Two major Fe related majority carriers traps were observed in both seed-end and crucible-end wafers taken through the complete process cycle. One was consistent with the Fe - B complex whilst the other (at 0.33 eV from the band edge) was identified as an Fe - O complex. The concentrations of these traps lay in the range 0022-3727/29/3/063/img6 and showed a less marked increase after processing. The observations are again consistent with an increase in the Fe level and also the different oxygen contents of the starting wafers.

  9. Rapid decompression of seeded melts for materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ning; Apfel, Robert E.

    1995-05-01

    A novel processing approach and experimental design to achieve as-cast bulk amorphous materials are investigated. By sudden decompression of a melt that is seeded with a volatile liquid, the dispersed ``foaming'' liquid vaporizes, taking its latent heat of vaporization from the melt, thereby homogeneously cooling the melt. Due to a high decompression rate, a sufficient cooling rate may be produced to yield an amorphous solid foam. The resulting ``foam glass'' is expected to be an open solid bulk structure that may possess glass properties and low density. These foam glass materials should be free of structural defects, and may have many potential applications. The ultimate goal for this form glass processing is to produce bulk amorphous metallic solids. This approach differs from other processes used in the production of metals with a porous structure. A description of the approach, the processing design and techniques, as well as some evaluation of foam processing with the organic p-terphenyl as a sample material are presented. Foam (p-terphenyl) is an open, porous, and yet interconnected structure, and can be made with a density as low as 12% of the original density of p-terphenyl. Extension of this principle to foam metallic glass processing is anticipated. Design of a more sophisticated apparatus for metal processing, currently in progress, is discussed.

  10. Automatic processing of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 mole fractions at the ICOS Atmosphere Thematic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazan, Lynn; Tarniewicz, Jérôme; Ramonet, Michel; Laurent, Olivier; Abbaris, Amara

    2016-09-01

    The Integrated Carbon Observation System Atmosphere Thematic Centre (ICOS ATC) automatically processes atmospheric greenhouse gases mole fractions of data coming from sites of the ICOS network. Daily transferred raw data files are automatically processed and archived. Data are stored in the ICOS atmospheric database, the backbone of the system, which has been developed with an emphasis on the traceability of the data processing. Many data products, updated daily, explore the data through different angles to support the quality control of the dataset performed by the principal operators in charge of the instruments. The automatic processing includes calibration and water vapor corrections as described in the paper. The mole fractions calculated in near-real time (NRT) are automatically revaluated as soon as a new instrument calibration is processed or when the station supervisors perform quality control. By analyzing data from 11 sites, we determined that the average calibration corrections are equal to 1.7 ± 0.3 µmol mol-1 for CO2 and 2.8 ± 3 nmol mol-1 for CH4. These biases are important to correct to avoid artificial gradients between stations that could lead to error in flux estimates when using atmospheric inversion techniques. We also calculated that the average drift between two successive calibrations separated by 15 days amounts to ±0.05 µmol mol-1 and ±0.7 nmol mol-1 for CO2 and CH4, respectively. Outliers are generally due to errors in the instrument configuration and can be readily detected thanks to the data products provided by the ATC. Several developments are still ongoing to improve the processing, including automated spike detection and calculation of time-varying uncertainties.

  11. The Ubiquity of the Rapid Neutron-capture Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Cowan, John J.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Lugaro, Maria; Simmerer, Jennifer; Farouqi, Khalil; Sneden, Christopher

    2010-12-01

    To better characterize the abundance patterns produced by the r-process, we have derived new abundances or upper limits for the heavy elements zinc (Zn, Z= 30), yttrium (Y, Z= 39), lanthanum (La, Z= 57), europium (Eu, Z= 63), and lead (Pb, Z= 82). Our sample of 161 metal-poor stars includes new measurements from 88 high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with the Tull Spectrograph on the 2.7 m Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory, and other abundances are adopted from the literature. We use models of the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars to characterize the high Pb/Eu ratios produced in the s-process at low metallicity, and our new observations then allow us to identify a sample of stars with no detectable s-process material. In these stars, we find no significant increase in the Pb/Eu ratios with increasing metallicity. This suggests that s-process material was not widely dispersed until the overall Galactic metallicity grew considerably, perhaps even as high as [Fe/H] =-1.4, in contrast with earlier studies that suggested a much lower mean metallicity. We identify a dispersion of at least 0.5 dex in [La/Eu] in metal-poor stars with [Eu/Fe] <+0.6 attributable to the r-process, suggesting that there is no unique "pure" r-process elemental ratio among pairs of rare earth elements. We confirm earlier detections of an anti-correlation between Y/Eu and Eu/Fe bookended by stars strongly enriched in the r-process (e.g., CS 22892-052) and those with deficiencies of the heavy elements (e.g., HD 122563). We can reproduce the range of Y/Eu ratios using simulations of high-entropy neutrino winds of core-collapse supernovae that include charged-particle and neutron-capture components of r-process nucleosynthesis. The heavy element abundance patterns in most metal-poor stars do not resemble that of CS 22892-052, but the presence of heavy elements such as Ba in nearly all metal-poor stars without s-process enrichment suggests that the r-process

  12. THE UBIQUITY OF THE RAPID NEUTRON-CAPTURE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Lugaro, Maria; Simmerer, Jennifer; Farouqi, Khalil

    2010-12-01

    To better characterize the abundance patterns produced by the r-process, we have derived new abundances or upper limits for the heavy elements zinc (Zn, Z= 30), yttrium (Y, Z= 39), lanthanum (La, Z= 57), europium (Eu, Z= 63), and lead (Pb, Z= 82). Our sample of 161 metal-poor stars includes new measurements from 88 high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with the Tull Spectrograph on the 2.7 m Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory, and other abundances are adopted from the literature. We use models of the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars to characterize the high Pb/Eu ratios produced in the s-process at low metallicity, and our new observations then allow us to identify a sample of stars with no detectable s-process material. In these stars, we find no significant increase in the Pb/Eu ratios with increasing metallicity. This suggests that s-process material was not widely dispersed until the overall Galactic metallicity grew considerably, perhaps even as high as [Fe/H] =-1.4, in contrast with earlier studies that suggested a much lower mean metallicity. We identify a dispersion of at least 0.5 dex in [La/Eu] in metal-poor stars with [Eu/Fe] <+0.6 attributable to the r-process, suggesting that there is no unique 'pure' r-process elemental ratio among pairs of rare earth elements. We confirm earlier detections of an anti-correlation between Y/Eu and Eu/Fe bookended by stars strongly enriched in the r-process (e.g., CS 22892-052) and those with deficiencies of the heavy elements (e.g., HD 122563). We can reproduce the range of Y/Eu ratios using simulations of high-entropy neutrino winds of core-collapse supernovae that include charged-particle and neutron-capture components of r-process nucleosynthesis. The heavy element abundance patterns in most metal-poor stars do not resemble that of CS 22892-052, but the presence of heavy elements such as Ba in nearly all metal-poor stars without s-process enrichment suggests that the r-process

  13. Sentinel-1 automatic processing chain for volcanic and seismic areas monitoring within the Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Claudio; Zinno, Ivana; Manunta, Michele; Lanari, Riccardo; Casu, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The microwave remote sensing scenario is rapidly evolving through development of new sensor technology for Earth Observation (EO). In particular, Sentinel-1A (S1A) is the first of a sensors' constellation designed to provide a satellite data stream for the Copernicus European program. Sentinel-1A has been specifically designed to provide, over land, Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) products to analyze and investigate Earth's surface displacements. S1A peculiarities include wide ground coverage (250 km of swath), C-band operational frequency and short revisit time (that will reduce from 12 to 6 days when the twin system Sentinel-1B will be placed in orbit during 2016). Such characteristics, together with the global coverage acquisition policy, make the Sentinel-1 constellation to be extremely suitable for volcanic and seismic areas studying and monitoring worldwide, thus allowing the generation of both ground displacement information with increasing rapidity and new geological understanding. The main acquisition mode over land is the so called Interferometric Wide Swath (IWS) that is based on the Terrain Observation by Progressive Scans (TOPS) technique and that guarantees the mentioned S1A large coverage characteristics at expense of a not trivial interferometric processing. Moreover, the satellite spatial coverage and the reduced revisit time will lead to an exponential increase of the data archives that, after the launch of Sentine-1B, will reach about 3TB per day. Therefore, the EO scientific community needs from the one hand automated and effective DInSAR tools able to address the S1A processing complexity, and from the other hand the computing and storage capacities to face out the expected large amount of data. Then, it is becoming more crucial to move processors and tools close to the satellite archives, being not efficient anymore the approach of downloading and processing data with in-house computing facilities. To address

  14. Methods for automatized detection of rapid changes in lateral boundary condition fields for NWP limited area models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, M.

    2015-08-01

    Three-hourly temporal resolution of lateral boundary data for limited area models (LAMs) can be too infrequent to resolve rapidly moving storms. This problem is expected to be worse with increasing horizontal resolution. In order to detect intensive disturbances in surface pressure moving rapidly through the model domain, a filtered surface pressure field (MCUF) is computed operationally in the ARPEGE global model of Météo France. The field is distributed in the coupling files along with conventional meteorological fields used for lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the operational forecast using limited area model ALADIN (Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational) in the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia (DHMZ). Here an analysis is performed of the MCUF field for the LACE coupling domain for the period from 23 January 2006, when it became available, until 15 November 2014. The MCUF field is a good indicator of rapidly moving pressure disturbances (RMPDs). Its spatial and temporal distribution can be associated with the usual cyclone tracks and areas known to be supporting cyclogenesis. An alternative set of coupling files from the IFS operational run in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is also available operationally in DHMZ with 3-hourly temporal resolution, but the MCUF field is not available. Here, several methods are tested that detect RMPDs in surface pressure a posteriori from the IFS model fields provided in the coupling files. MCUF is computed by running ALADIN on the coupling files from IFS. The error function is computed using one-time-step integration of ALADIN on the coupling files without initialization, initialized with digital filter initialization (DFI) or scale-selective DFI (SSDFI). Finally, the amplitude of changes in the mean sea level pressure is computed from the fields in the coupling files. The results are compared to the MCUF field of ARPEGE and the results of same

  15. Evaluating the Potential of Rtk-Uav for Automatic Point Cloud Generation in 3d Rapid Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazeli, H.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadrasjavan, F.

    2016-06-01

    During disaster and emergency situations, 3D geospatial data can provide essential information for decision support systems. The utilization of geospatial data using digital surface models as a basic reference is mandatory to provide accurate quick emergency response in so called rapid mapping activities. The recipe between accuracy requirements and time restriction is considered critical in this situations. UAVs as alternative platforms for 3D point cloud acquisition offer potentials because of their flexibility and practicability combined with low cost implementations. Moreover, the high resolution data collected from UAV platforms have the capabilities to provide a quick overview of the disaster area. The target of this paper is to experiment and to evaluate a low-cost system for generation of point clouds using imagery collected from a low altitude small autonomous UAV equipped with customized single frequency RTK module. The customized multi-rotor platform is used in this study. Moreover, electronic hardware is used to simplify user interaction with the UAV as RTK-GPS/Camera synchronization, and beside the synchronization, lever arm calibration is done. The platform is equipped with a Sony NEX-5N, 16.1-megapixel camera as imaging sensor. The lens attached to camera is ZEISS optics, prime lens with F1.8 maximum aperture and 24 mm focal length to deliver outstanding images. All necessary calibrations are performed and flight is implemented over the area of interest at flight height of 120 m above the ground level resulted in 2.38 cm GSD. Earlier to image acquisition, 12 signalized GCPs and 20 check points were distributed in the study area and measured with dualfrequency GPS via RTK technique with horizontal accuracy of σ = 1.5 cm and vertical accuracy of σ = 2.3 cm. results of direct georeferencing are compared to these points and experimental results show that decimeter accuracy level for 3D points cloud with proposed system is achievable, that is suitable

  16. Maturation of Rapid Auditory Temporal Processing and Subsequent Nonword Repetition Performance in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Allison M.; Reid, Corinne L.; Anderson, Mike; Richardson, Cassandra; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2012-01-01

    According to the rapid auditory processing theory, the ability to parse incoming auditory information underpins learning of oral and written language. There is wide variation in this low-level perceptual ability, which appears to follow a protracted developmental course. We studied the development of rapid auditory processing using event-related…

  17. Rapid Process Optimization: A Novel Process Improvement Methodology to Innovate Health Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    Wiler, Jennifer L; Bookman, Kelly; Birznieks, Derek B; Leeret, Robert; Koehler, April; Planck, Shauna; Zane, Richard

    2016-03-26

    Health care systems have utilized various process redesign methodologies to improve care delivery. This article describes the creation of a novel process improvement methodology, Rapid Process Optimization (RPO). This system was used to redesign emergency care delivery within a large academic health care system, which resulted in a decrease: (1) door-to-physician time (Department A: 54 minutes pre vs 12 minutes 1 year post; Department B: 20 minutes pre vs 8 minutes 3 months post), (2) overall length of stay (Department A: 228 vs 184; Department B: 202 vs 192), (3) discharge length of stay (Department A: 216 vs 140; Department B: 179 vs 169), and (4) left without being seen rates (Department A: 5.5% vs 0.0%; Department B: 4.1% vs 0.5%) despite a 47% increased census at Department A (34 391 vs 50 691) and a 4% increase at Department B (8404 vs 8753). The novel RPO process improvement methodology can inform and guide successful care redesign.

  18. A CityGML extension for traffic-sign objects that guides the automatic processing of data collected using Mobile Mapping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela-González, M.; Riveiro, B.; Arias-Sánchez, P.; González-Jorge, H.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.

    2014-11-01

    The rapid evolution of integral schemes, accounting for geometric and semantic data, has been importantly motivated by the advances in the last decade in mobile laser scanning technology; automation in data processing has also recently influenced the expansion of the new model concepts. This paper reviews some important issues involved in the new paradigms of city 3D modelling: an interoperable schema for city 3D modelling (cityGML) and mobile mapping technology to provide the features that composing the city model. This paper focuses in traffic signs, discussing their characterization using cityGML in order to ease the implementation of LiDAR technology in road management software, as well as analysing some limitations of the current technology in the labour of automatic detection and classification.

  19. Automatic instrument for chemical processing to detect microorganism in biological samples by measuring light reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelbaugh, B. N.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Colburn, M. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automated apparatus is reported for sequentially assaying urine samples for the presence of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that comprises a rotary table which carries a plurality of sample containing vials and automatically dispenses fluid reagents into the vials preparatory to injecting a light producing luciferase-luciferin mixture into the samples. The device automatically measures the light produced in each urine sample by a bioluminescence reaction of the free bacterial adenosine triphosphate with the luciferase-luciferin mixture. The light measured is proportional to the concentration of bacterial adenosine triphosphate which, in turn, is proportional to the number of bacteria present in the respective urine sample.

  20. Automatic and rapid identification of glycopeptides by nano-UPLC-LTQ-FT-MS and proteomic search engine.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Estela; Gay, Marina; Vilaseca, Marta

    2017-01-30

    Here we demonstrate the potential of nano-UPLC-LTQ-FT-MS and the Byonic™ proteomic search engine for the separation, detection, and identification of N- and O-glycopeptide glycoforms in standard glycoproteins. The use of a BEH C18 nanoACQUITY column allowed the separation of the glycopeptides present in the glycoprotein digest and a baseline-resolution of the glycoforms of the same glycopeptide on the basis of the number of sialic acids. Moreover, we evaluated several acquisition strategies in order to improve the detection and characterization of glycopeptide glycoforms with the maximum number of identification percentages. The proposed strategy is simple to set up with the technology platforms commonly used in proteomic labs. The method allows the straightforward and rapid obtention of a general glycosylated map of a given protein, including glycosites and their corresponding glycosylated structures. The MS strategy selected in this work, based on a gas phase fractionation approach, led to 136 unique peptides from four standard proteins, which represented 78% of the total number of peptides identified. Moreover, the method does not require an extra glycopeptide enrichment step, thus preventing the bias that this step could cause towards certain glycopeptide species. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003578.

  1. Rapid, potentially automatable, method extract biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to detect and identify BW agents

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.C. |; Burkhalter, R.S.; Smith, C.; Whitaker, K.W.

    1997-12-31

    The program proposes to concentrate on the rapid recovery of signature biomarkers based on automated high-pressure, high-temperature solvent extraction (ASE) and/or supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to produce lipids, nucleic acids and proteins sequentially concentrated and purified in minutes with yields especially from microeukaryotes, Gram-positive bacteria and spores. Lipids are extracted in higher proportions greater than classical one-phase, room temperature solvent extraction without major changes in lipid composition. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with or without derivatization, electrospray ionization (ESI) and highly specific detection by mass spectrometry (MS) particularly with (MS){sup n} provides the detection, identification and because the signature lipid biomarkers are both phenotypic as well as genotypic biomarkers, insights into potential infectivity of BW agents. Feasibility has been demonstrated with detection, identification, and determination of infectious potential of Cryptosporidium parvum at the sensitivity of a single oocyst (which is unculturable in vitro) and accurate identification and prediction, pathogenicity, and drug-resistance of Mycobacteria spp.

  2. Rapid rotation and mixing in active OB stars - Physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, Jean-Paul

    2011-07-01

    In the standard description of stellar interiors, O and B stars possess a thoroughly mixed convective core surrounded by a stable radiative envelope in which no mixing occurs. But as is well known, this model disagrees strongly with the spectroscopic diagnostic of these stars, which reveals the presence at their surface of chemical elements that have been synthesized in the core. Hence the radiation zone must be the seat of some mild mixing mechanisms. The most likely to operate there are linked with the rotation: these are the shear instabilites triggered by the differential rotation, and the meridional circulation caused by the changes in the rotation profile accompanying the non-homologous evolution of the star. In addition to these hydrodynamical processes, magnetic stresses may play an important role in active stars, which host a magnetic field. These physical processes will be critically examined, together with some others that have been suggested.

  3. Reading Aloud Is Not Automatic: Processing Capacity Is Required to Generate a Phonological Code from Print

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Michael; Besner, Derek

    2006-01-01

    The present experiments tested the claim that phonological recoding occurs "automatically" by assessing whether it uses central attention in the context of the psychological refractory period paradigm. Task 1 was a tone discrimination task and Task 2 was reading aloud. The joint effects of long-lag word repetition priming and stimulus onset…

  4. Using Automatic Speech Processing for Foreign Language Pronunciation Tutor: Some Issues and a Prototype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskenazi, Maxine

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the possible use of automatic speech recognition (ASR) for training students to improve their accents in a foreign language. Principles of good language training as well as the limits of the use of ASR and how to deal with them are discussed, and an example from the Carnegie Mellon FLUENCY system is used to show how such a system may…

  5. Systems and methods for rapid processing and storage of data

    DOEpatents

    Stalzer, Mark A.

    2017-01-24

    Systems and methods of building massively parallel computing systems using low power computing complexes in accordance with embodiments of the invention are disclosed. A massively parallel computing system in accordance with one embodiment of the invention includes at least one Solid State Blade configured to communicate via a high performance network fabric. In addition, each Solid State Blade includes a processor configured to communicate with a plurality of low power computing complexes interconnected by a router, and each low power computing complex includes at least one general processing core, an accelerator, an I/O interface, and cache memory and is configured to communicate with non-volatile solid state memory.

  6. Operational SAR Data Processing in GIS Environments for Rapid Disaster Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    DEM without the need of ground control points. This step includes radiometric calibration. (3) A subsequent change detection analysis generates the final map showing the extent of the flash flood on Nov. 5th 2010. The underlying algorithms are provided by three different sources: Geocoding & radiometric calibration (2) is a standard functionality from the commercial SARscape Toolbox for ArcGIS. This toolbox is extended by the filter tool (1), which is called from the SARscape modules in ENVI. The change detection analysis (3) is based on ENVI processing routines and scripted with IDL. (2) and (3) are integrated with ArcGIS using a predefined Python interface. These 3 processing steps are combined using the ArcGIS ModelBuilder to create a new model for rapid disaster mapping in ArcGIS, based on SAR data. Moreover, this model can be dissolved from its desktop environment and published to users across the ArcGIS Server enterprise. Thus disaster zones, e.g. after severe flooding, can be automatically identified and mapped to support local task forces - using an operational workflow for SAR image analysis, which can be executed by the responsible operators without SAR expert knowledge.

  7. Solution Deposited Precursors and Rapid Optical Processing Used in the Production of CIGS Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hersh, P. A.; Curtis, C. J.; Van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Habas, S. E.; Miedaner, A.; Ginley, D. S.; Stanbery, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we use the combination of solution deposited liquid precursors and rapid optical processing (ROP) to make CIGS. The ROP process takes less than 1 minute of heating to convert the precursor stack to CIGS. Device made with ROP rival performance of device processed using field assisted simultaneous synthesis and transfer FASST{reg_sign} processing.

  8. Pedestrians' intention to jaywalk: Automatic or planned? A study based on a dual-process model in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Zhang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the determining factors of Chinese pedestrians' intention to violate traffic laws using a dual-process model. This model divides the cognitive processes of intention formation into controlled analytical processes and automatic associative processes. Specifically, the process explained by the augmented theory of planned behavior (TPB) is controlled, whereas the process based on past behavior is automatic. The results of a survey conducted on 323 adult pedestrian respondents showed that the two added TPB variables had different effects on the intention to violate, i.e., personal norms were significantly related to traffic violation intention, whereas descriptive norms were non-significant predictors. Past behavior significantly but uniquely predicted the intention to violate: the results of the relative weight analysis indicated that the largest percentage of variance in pedestrians' intention to violate was explained by past behavior (42%). According to the dual-process model, therefore, pedestrians' intention formation relies more on habit than on cognitive TPB components and social norms. The implications of these findings for the development of intervention programs are discussed.

  9. Concept of using a benchmark part to evaluate rapid prototype processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cariapa, Vikram

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual benchmark part for guiding manufacturers and users of rapid prototyping technologies is proposed. This is based on a need to have some tool to evaluate the development of this technology and to assist the user in judiciously selecting a process. The benchmark part is designed to have unique product details and features. The extent to which a rapid prototyping process can reproduce these features becomes a measure of the capability of the process. Since rapid prototyping is a dynamic technology, this benchmark part should be used to continuously monitor process capability of existing and developing technologies. Development of this benchmark part is, therefore, based on an understanding of the properties required from prototypes and characteristics of various rapid prototyping processes and measuring equipment that is used for evaluation.

  10. Rapid tooling--a new approach to integrated product and process development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitinger, Frank

    1997-09-01

    Rapid prototyping technologies -- especially stereolithography and plastic laser sintering -- did substantially contribute in reducing product development times. But models that are produced by rapid prototyping technologies do not meet the requirements of functional prototypes, as neither the serial material nor the serial production processes are used. This concerns injection molding and pressure die-casting prototypes. Therefore rapid tooling techniques are necessary. The main emphasis of this presentation is on the significance of rapid tooling for integrated product and process development. This is discussed using the example of evolution tooling (tools that grow with the development status). Furthermore, a survey is presented of the most important rapid tooling processes that employ rapid prototyping technologies. A distinction is made here between the process chains for rapid prototyping and conversion processes and the direct manufacture of tool components. The IWB User Center (Anwenderzentrum) in Augsburg, Germany is the first European user of the indirect metal laser sintering process. In order to communicate what has been learned from initial experience with this procedure, sample tools that have been realized are described.

  11. Automatic parameter optimization in epsilon-filter for acoustical signal processing utilizing correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tomomi; Hashimoto, Shuji; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu

    2010-02-01

    epsilon-filter can reduce most kinds of noise from a single-channel noisy signal while preserving signals that vary drastically such as speech signals. It can reduce not only stationary noise but also nonstationary noise. However, it has some parameters whose values are set empirically. So far, there have been few studies to evaluate the appropriateness of the parameter settings for epsilon-filter. This paper employs the correlation coefficient of the filter output and the difference between the filter input and output as the evaluation function of the parameter setting. This paper also describes the algorithm to set the optimal parameter value of epsilon-filter automatically. To evaluate the adequateness of the obtained parameter, the mean absolute error is calculated. The experimental results show that the adequate parameter in epsilon-filter can be obtained automatically by using the proposed method.

  12. Automatic Sleep Scoring Based on Modular Rule-Based Reasoning Units and Signal Processing Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    scoring, rule-based reasoning, multi-staged I. INTRODUCTION Integrated analysis on the state of sleep through Polysomnography is crucial for...diagnosis for sleep related disease. But conventional analog-type Polysomnography systems need tremendous amount of papers and much labor of trained expert...In this sense to equip digital Polysomnography and its following automatic analysis system became trend. In the sleep analysis, sleep stage scoring is

  13. [Real-time automatic cloud detection during the process of taking aerial photographs].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xian-Jun; Wan, You-Chuan; Zheng, Shun-Yi; Yang, Yuan-Wei

    2014-07-01

    The present paper adopted a method based on the spectrum signatures with thresholds to detect cloud. Through analyzing the characteristic in the aspect of spectrum signatures of cloud, two effective signatures were explored, one was brightness signature I and the other was normalized difference signature P. Combined with corresponding thresholds, each spectrum condition can detect some cloud pixels. By composing the union of two spectrum conditions together, cloud can be detected more completely. In addition, the threshold was also very important to the accuracy of the detection result. In order to detect cloud efficiently, correctly and automatically, this paper proposed a new strategy about the assignment of thresholds to acquire suitable thresholds. Firstly, the images should be classified into three kinds of types which were images with no cloud, with thin cloud and with thick cloud. Secondly, different assignment methods of automatic thresholds of signatures would be adopted according to different types of images. For images with thick cloud, they would be further classified into three kinds by another standard and assigned by different thresholds integrated by automatic thresholds from other spectrum signatures. The automatic thresholds were acquired by Otsu algorithm and an improved Otsu algorithm. For images with thin cloud, the cloud would be detected by score algorithm. Due to this flexible strategy, cloud in images can be detected rightly and if there isn't cloud in images the detection will be null to show that there is no cloud. Compared to the detection results of other different methods, the contrast results show that the efficiency of the detection method proposed in this paper is high and the accuracy satisfies the demand of real-time evaluation and the application range is wider.

  14. Development of automatic movement analysis system for a small laboratory animal using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Satoshi; Kawasue, Kikuhito; Koshimoto, Chihiro

    2013-03-01

    Activity analysis in a small laboratory animal is an effective procedure for various bioscience fields. The simplest way to obtain animal activity data is just observation and recording manually, even though this is labor intensive and rather subjective. In order to analyze animal movement automatically and objectivity, expensive equipment is usually needed. In the present study, we develop animal activity analysis system by means of a template matching method with video recorded movements in laboratory animal at a low cost.

  15. Rapid e-Learning Tools Selection Process for Cognitive and Psychomotor Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, David Tawei; Huang, Yung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a decision making process for the selection of rapid e-learning tools that could match different learning domains. With the development of the Internet, the speed of information updates has become faster than ever. E-learning has rapidly become the mainstream for corporate training and academic instruction. In order to reduce…

  16. Automatic detection of ionospheric Alfvén resonances using signal and image processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggan, C. D.

    2014-08-01

    Induction coils permit the measurement of small and very rapid changes of the magnetic field. A new set of induction coils in the UK (at L = 3.2) record magnetic field changes over an effective frequency range of 0.1-40 Hz, encompassing phenomena such as the Schumann resonances, magnetospheric pulsations and ionospheric Alfvén resonances (IARs). The IARs typically manifest themselves as a series of spectral resonance structures (SRSs) within the 1-10 Hz frequency range, usually appearing as fine bands or fringes in spectrogram plots and occurring almost daily during local night-time, disappearing during the daylight hours. The behaviour of the occurrence in frequency (f) and the difference in frequency between fringes (Δf) varies throughout the year. In order to quantify the daily, seasonal and annual changes of the SRSs, we developed a new method based on signal and image processing techniques to identify the fringes and to quantify the values of f, Δf and other relevant parameters in the data set. The technique is relatively robust to noise though requires tuning of threshold parameters. We analyse 18 months of induction coil data to demonstrate the utility of the method.

  17. Rapid Naming and Phonemic Awareness in Children with Reading Disabilities and/or Specific Language Impairment: Differentiating Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Bartholomeus J. A.; Van den Bos, Kees P.; Van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.; Minnaert, Alexander E. M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess and compare the predictive values of group membership for rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonemic awareness (PA) in Dutch school children with and without reading disabilities (RD) or specific language impairment (SLI). Method: A composite word reading index and a formal SLI diagnosis were…

  18. Magnetoencephalography identifies rapid temporal processing deficit in autism and language impairment.

    PubMed

    Oram Cardy, Janis E; Flagg, Elissa J; Roberts, Wendy; Brian, Jessica; Roberts, Timothy P L

    2005-03-15

    Deficient rapid temporal processing may contribute to impaired language development by interfering with the processing of brief acoustic transitions crucial for speech perception. Using magnetoencephalography, evoked neural activity (M50, M100) to two 40 ms tones passively presented in rapid succession was recorded in 10 neurologically normal adults and 40 8-17-year-olds with autism, specific language impairment, Asperger syndrome or typical development. While 80% of study participants with intact language (Asperger syndrome, typical development, adults) showed identifiable responses to the second tone, which presented rapid temporal processing demands, 65% of study participants with impaired language (autism, specific language impairment) did not, despite having shown identifiable responses to the first tone. Rapid temporal processing impairments may be fundamentally associated with impairments in language rather than autism spectrum disorder.

  19. Development of Open source-based automatic shooting and processing UAV imagery for Orthoimage Using Smart Camera UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. W.; Jeong, H. H.; Kim, J. S.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, aerial photography with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system uses UAV and remote controls through connections of ground control system using bandwidth of about 430 MHz radio Frequency (RF) modem. However, as mentioned earlier, existing method of using RF modem has limitations in long distance communication. The Smart Camera equipments's LTE (long-term evolution), Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi to implement UAV that uses developed UAV communication module system carried out the close aerial photogrammetry with the automatic shooting. Automatic shooting system is an image capturing device for the drones in the area's that needs image capturing and software for loading a smart camera and managing it. This system is composed of automatic shooting using the sensor of smart camera and shooting catalog management which manages filmed images and information. Processing UAV imagery module used Open Drone Map. This study examined the feasibility of using the Smart Camera as the payload for a photogrammetric UAV system. The open soure tools used for generating Android, OpenCV (Open Computer Vision), RTKLIB, Open Drone Map.

  20. A Review of Automatic Methods Based on Image Processing Techniques for Tuberculosis Detection from Microscopic Sputum Smear Images.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Rani Oomman; Soman, Biju; Saini, Gagan; Rajan, Jeny

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body. TB remains one of the leading causes of death in developing countries, and its recent resurgences in both developed and developing countries warrant global attention. The number of deaths due to TB is very high (as per the WHO report, 1.5 million died in 2013), although most are preventable if diagnosed early and treated. There are many tools for TB detection, but the most widely used one is sputum smear microscopy. It is done manually and is often time consuming; a laboratory technician is expected to spend at least 15 min per slide, limiting the number of slides that can be screened. Many countries, including India, have a dearth of properly trained technicians, and they often fail to detect TB cases due to the stress of a heavy workload. Automatic methods are generally considered as a solution to this problem. Attempts have been made to develop automatic approaches to identify TB bacteria from microscopic sputum smear images. In this paper, we provide a review of automatic methods based on image processing techniques published between 1998 and 2014. The review shows that the accuracy of algorithms for the automatic detection of TB increased significantly over the years and gladly acknowledges that commercial products based on published works also started appearing in the market. This review could be useful to researchers and practitioners working in the field of TB automation, providing a comprehensive and accessible overview of methods of this field of research.

  1. The Importance of Rapid Auditory Processing Abilities to Early Language Development: Evidence from Converging Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jennifer J.; Choudhury, Naseem; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to process two or more rapidly presented, successive, auditory stimuli is believed to underlie successful language acquisition. Likewise, deficits in rapid auditory processing of both verbal and nonverbal stimuli are characteristic of individuals with developmental language disorders such as Specific Language Impairment. Auditory processing abilities are well developed in infancy, and thus such deficits should be detectable in infants. In the studies presented here, converging methodologies are used to examine such abilities in infants with and without a family history of language disorder. Behavioral measures, including assessments of infant information processing, and an EEG/event-related potential (ERP) paradigm are used concurrently. Results suggest that rapid auditory processing skills differ as a function of family history and are predictive of later language outcome. Further, these paradigms may prove to be sensitive tools for identifying children with poor processing skills in infancy and thus at a higher risk for developing a language disorder. PMID:11891639

  2. Characteristics of products generated by selective sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cariapa, Vikram

    1993-01-01

    The trend in the modern global economy towards free market policies has motivated companies to use rapid prototyping technologies to not only reduce product development cycle time but also to maintain their competitive edge. A rapid prototyping technology is one which combines computer aided design with computer controlled tracking of focussed high energy source (eg. lasers, heat) on modern ceramic powders, metallic powders, plastics or photosensitive liquid resins in order to produce prototypes or models. At present, except for the process of shape melting, most rapid prototyping processes generate products that are only dimensionally similar to those of the desired end product. There is an urgent need, therefore, to enhance the understanding of the characteristics of these processes in order to realize their potential for production. Currently, the commercial market is dominated by four rapid prototyping processes, namely selective laser sintering, stereolithography, fused deposition modelling and laminated object manufacturing. This phase of the research has focussed on the selective laser sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes. A theoretical model for these processes is under development. Different rapid prototyping sites supplied test specimens (based on ASTM 638-84, Type I) that have been measured and tested to provide a data base on surface finish, dimensional variation and ultimate tensile strength. Further plans call for developing and verifying the theoretical models by carefully designed experiments. This will be a joint effort between NASA and other prototyping centers to generate a larger database, thus encouraging more widespread usage by product designers.

  3. Age effects shrink when motor learning is predominantly supported by nondeclarative, automatic memory processes: evidence from golf putting.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Maquestiaux, François; Hartley, Alan A; Joubert, Sven; Didierjean, André; Masters, Rich S W

    2012-01-01

    Can motor learning be equivalent in younger and older adults? To address this question, 48 younger (M = 23.5 years) and 48 older (M = 65.0 years) participants learned to perform a golf-putting task in two different motor learning situations: one that resulted in infrequent errors or one that resulted in frequent errors. The results demonstrated that infrequent-error learning predominantly relied on nondeclarative, automatic memory processes whereas frequent-error learning predominantly relied on declarative, effortful memory processes: After learning, infrequent-error learners verbalized fewer strategies than frequent-error learners; at transfer, a concurrent, attention-demanding secondary task (tone counting) left motor performance of infrequent-error learners unaffected but impaired that of frequent-error learners. The results showed age-equivalent motor performance in infrequent-error learning but age deficits in frequent-error learning. Motor performance of frequent-error learners required more attention with age, as evidenced by an age deficit on the attention-demanding secondary task. The disappearance of age effects when nondeclarative, automatic memory processes predominated suggests that these processes are preserved with age and are available even early in motor learning.

  4. Automatic Processing of Digital Ionograms and Full Wave Solutions for the Profile Inversion Problem.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Korteweg - deVries Equation ," J. Math. Phys., 18, 2445 (1977). Kay, I., "The Inverse Scattering Problem," Report No. EM-74 of the Institute of Mathematical...3.2 Comparison of the IWKB Method with the Full-Wave Method for Profiles for Which the Full-Wave Equation can be Solved for Exactly 45 3.2.1 General...Section 2 describes the automatic scaling of Digisonde ionograms, and Section 3 investigates the possibility of solving the Schroedinger wave equation for

  5. Reflection on the Process of Open Sourcing Software Based on Ten Years of Development of RAPID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, C. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Yang, Z. L.; Habets, F.; Maidment, D.

    2015-12-01

    As the number and size of geoscience datasets persist in their constant rise, geoscientists increasingly express their yearning for further sharing of their data and software, and for facilitation of the associated academic credits. We present here our experience based on the open source development of an Earth System Model focusing on the propagation of water flow waves in large river networks: the Routing Application for Parallel computatIon of Discharge (RAPID). Since inception of RAPID ten years ago in January 2006, the community of its users has grown slowly but steadily, and now includes researchers in industry, academia, and government organizations. This growth of the RAPID users community can be explained - at least in part - by its open availability. However, despite an increasing support for open science (software and data), the mechanics of sharing still remain mysterious to many geoscientists… as they were for the authors. The purpose of this presentation is therefore to shed light on the steps involved in opening software and data based on a decade of experience related to the development and release of an Earth System Model. Three distinct steps of open sourcing are highlighted here: opening, exposing, and automatic testing. Each one of these steps is presented as an independent and tractable increment at various stages of development that is justified based on the size of the users community. Topics covered include software and data licenses, code and data repositories, unit testing, and continuous integration.

  6. The contribution of discrete-trial naming and visual recognition to rapid automatized naming deficits of dyslexic children with and without a history of language delay

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Filippo; Brizzolara, Daniela; Cristofani, Paola; Casalini, Claudia; Chilosi, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    Children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD) are impaired in Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) tasks, where subjects are asked to name arrays of high frequency items as quickly as possible. However the reasons why RAN speed discriminates DD from typical readers are not yet fully understood. Our study was aimed to identify some of the cognitive mechanisms underlying RAN-reading relationship by comparing one group of 32 children with DD with an age-matched control group of typical readers on a naming and a visual recognition task both using a discrete-trial methodology, in addition to a serial RAN task, all using the same stimuli (digits and colors). Results showed a significant slowness of DD children in both serial and discrete-trial naming (DN) tasks regardless of type of stimulus, but no difference between the two groups on the discrete-trial recognition task. Significant differences between DD and control participants in the RAN task disappeared when performance in the DN task was partialled out by covariance analysis for colors, but not for digits. The same pattern held in a subgroup of DD subjects with a history of early language delay (LD). By contrast, in a subsample of DD children without LD the RAN deficit was specific for digits and disappeared after slowness in DN was partialled out. Slowness in DN was more evident for LD than for noLD DD children. Overall, our results confirm previous evidence indicating a name-retrieval deficit as a cognitive impairment underlying RAN slowness in DD children. This deficit seems to be more marked in DD children with previous LD. Moreover, additional cognitive deficits specifically associated with serial RAN tasks have to be taken into account when explaining deficient RAN speed of these latter children. We suggest that partially different cognitive dysfunctions underpin superficially similar RAN impairments in different subgroups of DD subjects. PMID:25237301

  7. Automatic processing of an orientation map into a finite element mesh that conforms to grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dancette, S.; Browet, A.; Martin, G.; Willemet, M.; Delannay, L.

    2016-06-01

    A new procedure for microstructure-based finite element modeling of polycrystalline aggregates is presented. The proposed method relies (i) on an efficient graph-based community detection algorithm for crystallographic data segmentation and feature contour extraction and (ii) on the generation of selectively refined meshes conforming to grain boundaries. It constitutes a versatile and close to automatic environment for meshing complex microstructures. The procedure is illustrated with polycrystal microstructures characterized by orientation imaging microscopy. Hot deformation of a Duplex stainless steel is investigated based on ex-situ EBSD measurements performed on the same region of interest before and after deformation. A finite element mesh representing the initial microstructure is generated and then used in a crystal plasticity simulation of the plane strain compression. Simulation results and experiments are in relatively good agreement, confirming a large potential for such directly coupled experimental and modeling analyses, which is facilitated by the present image-based meshing procedure.

  8. Automatic calculation of electron density profiles from digital ionograms. III. Processing of bottomside ionograms

    SciTech Connect

    Reinisch, B.W.; Huang, X.

    1983-05-01

    It is noted that automatic scaling of bottomside Digisonde ionograms gives the E and F region echo traces with high accuracy. Polarization and incidence angle information in the ionogram makes it possible to extract the vertical ordinary polarization echo trace from quiet as well as disturbed ionograms. The scaling algorithm is tested with Digisonde ionograms from Goose Bay, Labrador, which reveal spread F about 50 percent of the time. In spite of these disturbed conditions, f0F2 is determined within 1/2 MHz for 475 ionograms out of 577 during January 1980. A profile inversion algorithm gives a calculation of the electron density profile from the autoscale h-prime(f) points. Parabolic profile shapes are assumed for the E region and for the valley between the E and the F layer. The F layer is approximated through a single sum of Chebyshev polynomials, and the entire profile is described by means of a set of 16 numerical values.

  9. Input Control Processes in Rapid Serial Visual Presentations: Target Selection and Distractor Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Watson, Derrick G.

    2006-01-01

    The attentional blink refers to the finding that the 2nd of 2 targets embedded in a stream of rapidly presented distractors is often missed. Whereas most theories of the attentional blink focus on limited-capacity processes that occur after target selection, the present work investigates the selection process itself. Identifying a target letter…

  10. Rapidly Solidified Alloys Made by Chill Block Melt-spinning Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebermann, H. H.

    1984-01-01

    Chill block melt-spinning (CBMS) processes are used to make rapidly solidified microcrystalline and amorphous alloy ribbon, flakes, etc. Fundamentals of CBMS processes are discussed in light of recent advances. Special regard is given to ribbon geometric defects (edge serrations, surface asperities, etc.). Photomicrographs of CBMS ribbon solidification microstructures are used to compare local solidification rates, especially in the vicinity of ribbon defects.

  11. A Telesurveillance System With Automatic Electrocardiogram Interpretation Based on Support Vector Machine and Rule-Based Processing

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Miao; Lai, Feipei; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Hung, Chi-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Telehealth care is a global trend affecting clinical practice around the world. To mitigate the workload of health professionals and provide ubiquitous health care, a comprehensive surveillance system with value-added services based on information technologies must be established. Objective We conducted this study to describe our proposed telesurveillance system designed for monitoring and classifying electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and to evaluate the performance of ECG classification. Methods We established a telesurveillance system with an automatic ECG interpretation mechanism. The system included: (1) automatic ECG signal transmission via telecommunication, (2) ECG signal processing, including noise elimination, peak estimation, and feature extraction, (3) automatic ECG interpretation based on the support vector machine (SVM) classifier and rule-based processing, and (4) display of ECG signals and their analyzed results. We analyzed 213,420 ECG signals that were diagnosed by cardiologists as the gold standard to verify the classification performance. Results In the clinical ECG database from the Telehealth Center of the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH), the experimental results showed that the ECG classifier yielded a specificity value of 96.66% for normal rhythm detection, a sensitivity value of 98.50% for disease recognition, and an accuracy value of 81.17% for noise detection. For the detection performance of specific diseases, the recognition model mainly generated sensitivity values of 92.70% for atrial fibrillation, 89.10% for pacemaker rhythm, 88.60% for atrial premature contraction, 72.98% for T-wave inversion, 62.21% for atrial flutter, and 62.57% for first-degree atrioventricular block. Conclusions Through connected telehealth care devices, the telesurveillance system, and the automatic ECG interpretation system, this mechanism was intentionally designed for continuous decision-making support and is reliable enough to reduce the

  12. Development of a high-precision image-processing automatic measurement system for MRI visceral fat images acquired using a binomial RF-excitation pulse.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Ryusuke; Azuma, Takashi; Kishimoto, Taizou; Hirata, Tazuko; Takizawa, Osamu; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Tsutsumi, Sadami

    2010-05-01

    Development of a rapid and accurate method for visceral fat measurement is an important task, given the recent increase in the number of patients with metabolic syndrome. In this study, we optimized the Fast Low Angle Shot (FLASH) sequence using a binominal radiofrequency excitation pulse, in which the acquisition time is short, and measured changes in the amount of visceral fat in subjects after a period of wearing clothes with a fat-reducing effect during walking. We solved the reproducibility problem associated with the number of slices, and developed automatic measurement software for high-precision separation and extraction of abdominal visceral fat images. This software was developed using intensity correction with the coil position, derivation of a threshold by histogram analysis and fat separation by template matching for abdominal images. The cross-sectional area of a single slice varies for every acquisition due to visceral organ movement, but the relative error largely converged for seven slices. The measured amount of abdominal fat tended to be consistent with changes in the body fat and waist circumference of the subjects. The correlation coefficients between automatic extraction using the measurement software and manual extraction were 0.9978 for subcutaneous fat and 0.9972 for visceral fat, showing very strong positive correlations. The consistency rates were 0.9502+/-0.0167 for subcutaneous fat and 0.9395+/-0.0147 for visceral fat, and the shapes of the regions were also extracted very accurately. These results show that the magnetic resonance imaging acquisition method and image processing system developed in this study are beneficial for measurement of abdominal visceral fat. Therefore, this method may have a major role in future diagnosis of metabolic syndrome.

  13. Electrophysiological Correlates of Rapid Auditory and Linguistic Processing in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Leonard, Laurence B.; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Brief tonal stimuli and spoken sentences were utilized to examine whether adolescents (aged 14;3-18;1) with specific language impairments (SLI) exhibit atypical neural activity for rapid auditory processing of non-linguistic stimuli and linguistic processing of verb-agreement and semantic constraints. Further, we examined whether the behavioral and electrophysiological indices for rapid auditory processing were correlated with those for linguistic processing. Fifteen adolescents with SLI and 15 adolescents with normal language met strict criteria for displaying consistent diagnoses from kindergarten through the eighth grade. The findings provide evidence that auditory processing for non-linguistic stimuli is atypical in a significant number of adolescents with SLI compared to peers with normal language and indicate that reduced efficiency in auditory processing in SLI is more vulnerable to rapid rates (200 ms ISI) of stimuli presentation (indexed by reduced accuracy, a tendency for longer RTs, reduced N100 over right anterior sites, and reduced amplitude P300). Many adolescents with SLI displayed reduced behavioral accuracy for detecting verb-agreement violations and semantic anomalies, along with less robust P600s elicited by verb-agreement violations. The results indicate that ERPs elicited by morphosyntactic aspects of language processing are atypical in many adolescents with SLI. Additionally, correlational analyses between behavioral and electrophysiological indices of processing non-linguistic stimuli and verb-agreement violations suggest that the integrity of neural functions for auditory processing may only account for a small proportion of the variance in morphosyntactic processing in some adolescents. PMID:20889197

  14. Rapid thermal processing in the manufacturing technology of contacts to InP-based photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Avishay

    1991-04-01

    Rapid thermal alloying and sintering of metal ohmic contacts such as AuBe PtTFi and W to InP-based materials is shown to perform with better electrical properties than the same contacts heated by means of conventional furnace. The metalsemiconductor interfacial reactions induced by the rapid thermal processing were much shallower than those formed during the conventional heating cycle at the same temperature however with a negligible influence on the overall stresses developed in the film. These results demonstrate the superiority of the rapid thermal processing over the conventional furnace heating in sintering the metal electrical contacts and its potential while integrated into the overall manufacturing process sequence of the InP based photonic devices.

  15. Automatic disease screening method using image processing for dried blood microfluidic drop stain pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Sikarwar, Basant S; Roy, Mukesh; Ranjan, Priya; Goyal, Ayush

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines programmed automatic recognition of infection from samples of dried stains of micro-scale drops of patient blood. This technique has the upside of being low-cost and less-intrusive and not requiring puncturing the patient with a needle for drawing blood, which is especially critical for infants and the matured. It also does not require expensive pathological blood test laboratory equipment. The method is shown in this work to be successful for ailment identification in patients suffering from tuberculosis and anaemia. Illness affects the physical properties of blood, which thus influence the samples of dried micro-scale blood drop stains. For instance, if a patient has a severe drop in platelet count, which is often the case of dengue or malaria patients, the blood's physical property of viscosity drops substantially, i.e. the blood is thinner. Thus, the blood micro-scale drop stain samples can be utilised for diagnosing maladies. This paper presents programmed automatic examination of the dried micro-scale drop blood stain designs utilising an algorithm based on pattern recognition. The samples of micro-scale blood drop stains of ordinary non-infected people are clearly recognisable as well as the samples of micro-scale blood drop stains of sick people, due to key distinguishing features. As a contextual analysis, the micro-scale blood drop stains of patients infected with tuberculosis have been contrasted with the micro-scale blood drop stains of typical normal healthy people. The paper dives into the fundamental flow mechanics behind how the samples of the dried micro-scale blood drop stain is shaped. What has been found is a thick ring like feature in the dried micro-scale blood drop stains of non-ailing people and thin shape like lines in the dried micro-scale blood drop stains of patients with anaemia or tuberculosis disease. The ring like feature at the periphery is caused by an outward stream conveying suspended particles to the edge

  16. A rapid and fully automatic method for the accurate determination of a wide carbon-chain range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (C4-C18) in human serum.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ke; Gao, Yan; Li, Yili; Fu, Jianjie; Zhang, Aiqian

    2016-11-04

    A rapid and fully automatic method for determining 21 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (with carbon chains ranging from C4 to C18, including 13 PFCAs, 5 PFSAs, 2 Cl-PFESAs, and PFOSA) in human serum samples was developed. The HPLC parameters, Turboflow column, mobile phase, sample injection volume, loading flow rate, and sample cleanup and elution time were optimized. 25μL serum sample was directly injected into the developed on-line Turboflow SPE HPLC-MS/MS system for analysis after dilution. Matrix effects were corrected due to the matrix removal efficiency of the Turboflow column and sufficient types of internal isotope standards that were used. The established method showed a good linearity (r(2)>0.99), rapid processing time (20min per sample), satisfactory recoveries (matrix spiked recoveries range from 84.6% to 114%) and precision (intra-day and inter-day RSDs ranged from 1.5% to 9.2% and from 1.1% to 7.0%, respectively). The limits of detection (LODs) of the 21 analyzed PFASs were between 0.008 and 0.19ngmL(-1). The LODs of short- and long-chain PFASs, such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxDA, and PFODA, were 0.008, 0.022, 0.15 and 0.19ngmL(-1), respectively; the spiked recoveries of these PFASs were 101, 105, 87.1, and 85.8%, respectively. Both the LODs and recoveries were better than previous studies. Further, serum PFASs concentrations detected by the presented on-line SPE method were consistent with the traditional off-line SPE method (r: 0.98-0.99), which verified the accuracy and applicability of the present method. The method shows good practical prospects in the analysis of trace per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in human serum.

  17. Does the learning of two symbolic sets of numbers affect the automaticity of number processing in children?

    PubMed

    Hochman Cohen, Hila; Berger, Andrea; Rubinsten, Orly; Henik, Avishai

    2014-05-01

    We explored the effects of learning two different symbolic sets of numerals (Arabic and Indian) on the development of automatic number processing. Children in the school we examined learn Indian numerals between first and third grades. In third grade, they switch to a new set of numerals (i.e., Arabic numbers). Participants in this study performed a numerical Stroop-like task in which they assessed the numerical value or physical size of stimuli varying along these two dimensions. Each participant saw either Arabic or Indian numerals. The results of the size congruity effect in the physical task, for both Indian and Arabic numerals, suggest that studying two sets of numerals interferes with the acquisition of an automatic association of a numerical symbol and magnitude. This is true both for the first learned set of numerals (i.e., Indian numerals) and for the second one (i.e., Arabic numerals). Furthermore, we found an absence of the distance effect, which further supports this conclusion. This learning program gave us the unique opportunity to examine the connection between symbolic sets and the mental representation of numbers in a novel fashion.

  18. Etna_NETVIS: A dedicated tool for automatically pre-processing high frequency data useful to extract geometrical parameters and track the evolution of the lava field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsella, Maria; Junior Valentino D'Aranno, Peppe; De Bonis, Roberto; Nardinocchi, Carla; Scifoni, Silvia; Scutti, Marianna; Sonnessa, Alberico; Wahbeh, Wissam; Biale, Emilio; Coltelli, Mauro; Pecora, Emilio; Prestifilippo, Michele; Proietti, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    In volcanic areas, where it could be difficult to gain access to the most critical zones for carrying out direct surveys, digital photogrammetry techniques are rarely experimented, although in many cases they proved to have remarkable potentialities, as the possibility to follow the evolution of volcanic (fracturing, vent positions, lava fields, lava front positions) and deformation processes (inflation/deflation and instability phenomena induced by volcanic activity). These results can be obtained, in the framework of standard surveillance activities, by acquiring multi-temporal datasets including Digital Orthophotos (DO) and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to be used for implementing a quantitative and comparative analysis. The frequency of the surveys can be intensified during emergency phases to implement a quasi real-time monitoring for supporting civil protection actions. The high level of accuracy and the short time required for image processing make digital photogrammetry a suitable tool for controlling the evolution of volcanic processes which are usually characterized by large and rapid mass displacements. In order to optimize and extend the existing permanent ground NEtwork of Thermal and VIsible Sensors located on Mt. Etna (Etna_NETVIS) and to improve the observation of the most active areas, an approach for monitoring surface sin-eruptive processes was implemented. A dedicated tool for automatically pre-processing high frequency data, useful to extract geometrical parameters as well as to track the evolution of the lava field, was developed and tested both in simulated and real scenarios. The tool allows to extract a coherent multi-temporal dataset of orthophotos useful to evaluate active flow area and to estimate effusion rates. Furthermore, Etna_NETVIS data were used to downscale the information derived from satellite data and/or to integrate the satellite datasets in case of incomplete coverage or missing acquisitions. This work was developed in the

  19. Automatic wire twister.

    PubMed

    Smith, J F; Rodeheaver, G T; Thacker, J G; Morgan, R F; Chang, D E; Fariss, B L; Edlich, R F

    1988-06-01

    This automatic wire twister used in surgery consists of a 6-inch needle holder attached to a twisting mechanism. The major advantage of this device is that it twists wires significantly more rapidly than the conventional manual techniques. Testing has found that the ultimate force required to disrupt the wires twisted by either the automatic wire twister or manual techniques did not differ significantly and was directly related to the number of twists. The automatic wire twister reduces the time needed for wire twisting without altering the security of the twisted wire.

  20. Stable amorphous cobalt nanoparticles formed by an in situ rapidly cooling microfluidic process.

    PubMed

    Song, Yujun; Henry, Laurence L; Yang, Wantai

    2009-09-01

    The controlled synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) with stable crystal structures and stable physical and chemical properties is a key issue for commercial applications. The use of a microfluidic reactor (MR) process has proven to be a flexible approach to control the fine crystal structures and the magnetic properties during the ripening and aging of the NPs. We have developed an in situ rapidly cooling microfluidic process (IRCMP) in which Co NPs with stable crystal structures and magnetic properties are synthesized by using elevated reaction temperatures followed by rapid quenching of the colloids to reduced temperatures. The Co NPs that are obtained by this process demonstrate stable crystal structures and stable magnetic properties for a much longer period of time (at least 3 months) than for Co NPs obtained by performing the reaction and the quenching processes at room temperature or under sonication.

  1. The Data-to-Action Framework: A Rapid Program Improvement Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakocs, Ronda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn; Freire, Kimberley E.

    2015-01-01

    Although health education programs may benefit from quality improvement methods, scant resources exist to help practitioners apply these methods for program improvement. The purpose of this article is to describe the Data-to-Action framework, a process that guides practitioners through rapid-feedback cycles in order to generate actionable data to…

  2. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER. SUPPLEMENT ON RAPID INFILTRATION AND OVERLAND FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is intended as a supplement to the 1981 Process Design Manual for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater (EPA/625/1-81/013). Throughout the document, the 1981 Manual will be referred to as the Manual. Part I in the text covers design of rapid infiltration systems and...

  3. The Rapid Benefit Indicators Approach: A Process for Assessing the Social Benefits of Ecological Restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Rapid Benefit Indicators (RBI) Approach is an easy-to-use process for assessing restoration sites using non-monetary benefit indicators. The RBI uses readily-available data to estimate and quantify benefits to people around an ecological restoration site. It is a five step as...

  4. Directional Effects between Rapid Auditory Processing and Phonological Awareness in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erin Phinney; Pennington, Bruce F.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Boada, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Deficient rapid auditory processing (RAP) has been associated with early language impairment and dyslexia. Using an auditory masking paradigm, children with language disabilities perform selectively worse than controls at detecting a tone in a backward masking (BM) condition (tone followed by white noise) compared to a forward masking…

  5. When wanting to change is not enough: automatic appetitive processes moderate the effects of a brief alcohol intervention in hazardous-drinking college students

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research indicates that brief motivational interventions are efficacious treatments for hazardous drinking. Little is known, however, about the psychological processes that may moderate intervention success. Based on growing evidence that drinking behavior may be influenced by automatic (nonvolitional) mental processes, the current study examined whether automatic alcohol-approach associations moderated the effect of a brief motivational intervention. Specifically, we examined whether the efficacy of a single-session intervention designed to increase motivation to reduce alcohol consumption would be moderated by the strength of participants’ automatic alcohol-approach associations. Methods Eighty-seven undergraduate hazardous drinkers participated for course credit. Participants completed an Implicit Association Test to measure automatic alcohol-approach associations, a baseline measure of readiness to change drinking behavior, and measures of alcohol involvement. Participants were then randomly assigned to either a brief (15-minute) motivational intervention or a control condition. Participants completed a measure of readiness to change drinking at the end of the first session and returned for a follow-up session six weeks later in which they reported on their drinking over the previous month. Results Compared with the control group, those in the intervention condition showed higher readiness to change drinking at the end of the baseline session but did not show decreased drinking quantity at follow-up. Automatic alcohol-approach associations moderated the effects of the intervention on change in drinking quantity. Among participants in the intervention group, those with weak automatic alcohol-approach associations showed greater reductions in the amount of alcohol consumed per occasion at follow-up compared with those with strong automatic alcohol-approach associations. Automatic appetitive associations with alcohol were not related with change in

  6. Evaluation of a rapid prototyping process for microsystems for silicon microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bange, Stefan; Herding, Mark; Woias, Peter

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade rapid prototyping has made a tremendous success in almost every branch of industrial fabrication. Almost every article of today"s life is pre-fabricated in a rapid process during its design. Functional rapid prototypes represent an increasing share, as they allow realistic functional tests of a component in an early stage of development. MEMS technology is still at the beginning of the rapid prototyping aera. Up to now, only a few conventional techniques, like stereolithography, have been downscaled to create rapid microprototypes with a limited choice of materials and geometries. Rapid prototyping of silicon is completely out of reach today. In this paper we propose a micro rapid prototyping concept for functional silicon microstructures. The process combines laser technology with standard processes of silicon microstructuring and has been evaluated with a metal-silicon layer system. First, noble metal is vapour deposited on top of a silicon wafer. The metal is subsequently structured with a laser, thus creating a mask, which can be transferred into the silicon by standard chemical etching procedures like KOH-etch. The advantage of this concept is that the time-consuming photomask generation is omitted completely, as the laser can be guided with CAD data. Moreover, the standard structuring process gives the opportunity to gain a microstructure with features equivalent to the final component. With laser ablation and KOH-etch two process steps are being carried out subsequently, which are inevitably linked to each other. Depending on the energy of the laser irradiation the ablation performance changes and, with it, the minimal structure width and the thermal melting zone at the edges of the mask openings. If the energy density is too high the crystalline structure of the silicon is destroyed by heat transfer and heat conduction. Hereby the anisotropic etch resistance is lost, which influences the following KOH-etch process. At the current

  7. Three-Dimensional Rapidly Scanning Laser Doppler Velocimeter with Low SNR Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-30

    Three-Dimensional Rapidly Scanning Laser Doppler Velocimeter with Low SNR Signal Processing 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Kevin A. Shinpaugh and Rog er L...curvature for concave mirror or lens surface s .................... object distance from lens s.. ................. image distance from lens SNR ...where the signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR ) of the PMT signal is 20 dB and signal processing is performed via the fast Fourier trasnform (FFT) with zero

  8. A Five-Year Plan for Meeting the Automatic Data Processing and Telecommunications Needs of the Federal Government. Volume l: Planning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.

    The first of two volumes, this document describes the planning process of a 5-year plan for meeting the telecommunications and automatic data processing (ADP) needs of the federal government, examines the planning efforts of several typical agencies, and explores issues involved in managing new technology as it evolves. For each agency,…

  9. The role of rapid solidification processing in the fabrication of fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, Ivan E.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced composite processing techniques for fiber reinforced metal matrix composites require the flexibility to meet several widespread objectives. The development of uniquely desired matrix microstructures and uniformly arrayed fiber spacing with sufficient bonding between fiber and matrix to transmit load between them without degradation to the fiber or matrix are the minimum requirements necessary of any fabrication process. For most applications these criteria can be met by fabricating composite monotapes which are then consolidated into composite panels or more complicated components such as fiber reinforced turbine blades. Regardless of the end component, composite monotapes are the building blocks from which near net shape composite structures can be formed. The most common methods for forming composite monotapes are the powder cloth, foil/fiber, plasma spray, and arc spray processes. These practices, however, employ rapid solidification techniques in processing of the composite matrix phase. Consequently, rapid solidification processes play a vital and yet generally overlooked role in composite fabrication. The future potential of rapid solidification processing is discussed.

  10. A fully automatic processing chain to produce Burn Scar Mapping products, using the full Landsat archive over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontoes, Charalampos; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Herekakis, Themistoklis; Michail, Dimitrios; Ieronymidi, Emmanuela

    2013-04-01

    Remote sensing tools for the accurate, robust and timely assessment of the damages inflicted by forest wildfires provide information that is of paramount importance to public environmental agencies and related stakeholders before, during and after the crisis. The Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing of the National Observatory of Athens (IAASARS/NOA) has developed a fully automatic single and/or multi date processing chain that takes as input archived Landsat 4, 5 or 7 raw images and produces precise diachronic burnt area polygons and damage assessments over the Greek territory. The methodology consists of three fully automatic stages: 1) the pre-processing stage where the metadata of the raw images are extracted, followed by the application of the LEDAPS software platform for calibration and mask production and the Automated Precise Orthorectification Package, developed by NASA, for image geo-registration and orthorectification, 2) the core-BSM (Burn Scar Mapping) processing stage which incorporates a published classification algorithm based on a series of physical indexes, the application of two filters for noise removal using graph-based techniques and the grouping of pixels classified as burnt to form the appropriate pixels clusters before proceeding to conversion from raster to vector, and 3) the post-processing stage where the products are thematically refined and enriched using auxiliary GIS layers (underlying land cover/use, administrative boundaries, etc.) and human logic/evidence to suppress false alarms and omission errors. The established processing chain has been successfully applied to the entire archive of Landsat imagery over Greece spanning from 1984 to 2012, which has been collected and managed in IAASARS/NOA. The number of full Landsat frames that were subject of process in the framework of the study was 415. These burn scar mapping products are generated for the first time to such a temporal and spatial

  11. Image processing and pattern recognition with CVIPtools MATLAB toolbox: automatic creation of masks for veterinary thermographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Deependra K.; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Lama, Norsang; Dahal, Rohini; Marino, Dominic J.; Sackman, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    CVIPtools is a software package for the exploration of computer vision and image processing developed in the Computer Vision and Image Processing Laboratory at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. CVIPtools is available in three variants - a) CVIPtools Graphical User Interface, b) CVIPtools C library and c) CVIPtools MATLAB toolbox, which makes it accessible to a variety of different users. It offers students, faculty, researchers and any user a free and easy way to explore computer vision and image processing techniques. Many functions have been implemented and are updated on a regular basis, the library has reached a level of sophistication that makes it suitable for both educational and research purposes. In this paper, the detail list of the functions available in the CVIPtools MATLAB toolbox are presented and how these functions can be used in image analysis and computer vision applications. The CVIPtools MATLAB toolbox allows the user to gain practical experience to better understand underlying theoretical problems in image processing and pattern recognition. As an example application, the algorithm for the automatic creation of masks for veterinary thermographic images is presented.

  12. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  13. Feature-Based Process Planning and Automatic Numerical Control Part Programming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    reduce tool changes The designbymanufacturing approach addresses the problems of manufactura bility and inconsistency of designs often seen...the overall production processes With increasing demand for unmanned machining such as in Flexible Manufacturing System FMS and Flexible

  14. Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE) acquisition plan for the medical sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An effective mechanism for meeting the SLSD/MSD data handling/processing requirements for Shuttle is discussed. The ability to meet these requirements depends upon the availability of a general purpose high speed digital computer system. This system is expected to implement those data base management and processing functions required across all SLSD/MSD programs during training, laboratory operations/analysis, simulations, mission operations, and post mission analysis/reporting.

  15. Operational SAR Data Processing in GIS Environments for Rapid Disaster Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meroni, A.; Bahr, T.

    2013-05-01

    Having access to SAR data can be highly important and critical especially for disaster mapping. Updating a GIS with contemporary information from SAR data allows to deliver a reliable set of geospatial information to advance civilian operations, e.g. search and rescue missions. Therefore, we present in this paper the operational processing of SAR data within a GIS environment for rapid disaster mapping. This is exemplified by the November 2010 flash flood in the Veneto region, Italy. A series of COSMO-SkyMed acquisitions was processed in ArcGIS® using a single-sensor, multi-mode, multi-temporal approach. The relevant processing steps were combined using the ArcGIS ModelBuilder to create a new model for rapid disaster mapping in ArcGIS, which can be accessed both via a desktop and a server environment.

  16. Properties of Nb3Al Wires Processed by Double Rapid Heating and Quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Kikuchi, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Banno, N.; Iijima, Y.; Nimori, S.; Takigawa, H.; Yoshida, M.; Tomita, K.; Kato, S.; Takao, T.; Nakamoto, T.; Nakagawa, K.

    We have been developing Nb3Al wires processed by rapid heating and quenching for a number of years as promising candidates for use in future high-field accelerator magnets. These wires have better strain and stress tolerances than Nb3Sn wires do, but to meet the demands of future accelerator magnet designs, it is necessary to further improve their performance. In particular,it is necessary to increase their non-copper critical current density in 12-20T fields. To pursue this goal, we introduced double rapid heating and quenching (DRHQ) treatment into the fabrication process for Nb3Al wires, and studied the mechanical and superconducting properties of the resulting DRHQ-processed wires.

  17. Reduction of chromium in Ni-base superalloys through element substitution and rapid solidification processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, H. D.; Muddl, B. C.

    1982-01-01

    The reduction in the use of Cr in Ni base superalloys by the combined approaches of both elemental substitution and rapid solidification processing is studied. The elements Si, Zr, Y and Hf were chosen as potential partial substitutes for Cr in Waspaloy and IN 713LC sine their separate addition to other alloys has previously resulted in enhanced oxidation resistance. The roles of Cr and these replacement elements in determining the microstructure and properties are evaluated. The elements Si, Zr, and Y and Hf are used as partial replacements for Cr in the base superalloys and these resultant alloys are processed using rapid solidification techniques. The mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of the processed materials are evaluated. The microstructure is characterized using state of the art techniques (e.g. analytical transmission electron microscopy), and the mechanism by which these structures are produced is determined.

  18. Decreasing pressure ulcer risk during hospital procedures: a rapid process improvement workshop.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Vicki; Pechacek, Judy; Maher, Travis; Wilde, Joy; Kula, Larry; Powell, Julie

    2011-01-01

    A 300-bed acute care community hospital used a 2-day "Rapid Process Improvement Workshop" to identify factors contributing to facility-acquired pressure ulcers (PU). The Rapid Process Improvement Workshop included key stakeholders from all procedural areas providing inpatient services and used standard components of rapid process improvement: data analysis, process flow charting, factor identification, and action plan development.On day 1, the discovery process revealed increased PU risk related to prolonged immobility when transporting patients for procedures, during imaging studies, and during the perioperative period. On day 2, action plans were developed that included communication of PU risk or presence of an ulcer,measures to shorten procedure times when clinically appropriate, implementation of prevention techniques during procedures, and recommendations for mattress upgrades. In addition, educational programs about PU prevention were developed, schedules for presentations were established, and an online power point presentation was completed and placed in a learning management system module. Finally, our nursing department amended a hospital wide handoff communication tool to include skin status and PU risk level. This tool is used in all patient handoff situations, including nonnursing departments such as radiology. Patients deemed at risk for ulcers were provided "Braden Risk" armbands to enhance interdepartmental awareness.

  19. Rapid prototyping of biodegradable microneedle arrays by integrating CO2 laser processing and polymer molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, K. T.; Chung, C. K.

    2016-06-01

    An integrated technology of CO2 laser processing and polymer molding has been demonstrated for the rapid prototyping of biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microneedle arrays. Rapid and low-cost CO2 laser processing was used for the fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio microneedle master mold instead of conventional time-consuming and expensive photolithography and etching processes. It is crucial to use flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to detach PLGA. However, the direct CO2 laser-ablated PDMS could generate poor surfaces with bulges, scorches, re-solidification and shrinkage. Here, we have combined the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ablation and two-step PDMS casting process to form a PDMS female microneedle mold to eliminate the problem of direct ablation. A self-assembled monolayer polyethylene glycol was coated to prevent stiction between the two PDMS layers during the peeling-off step in the PDMS-to-PDMS replication. Then the PLGA microneedle array was successfully released by bending the second-cast PDMS mold with flexibility and hydrophobic property. The depth of the polymer microneedles can range from hundreds of micrometers to millimeters. It is linked to the PMMA pattern profile and can be adjusted by CO2 laser power and scanning speed. The proposed integration process is maskless, simple and low-cost for rapid prototyping with a reusable mold.

  20. RapidSeis: Enabling User-Defined Seismological Waveform Data Processing over the Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Heath, Andy; Koestjer, Jos; Trani, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this JISC-funded pilot project was to remove perceived barriers to uptake of an application that performs analysis of seismic waveform data. The aim was to provide the seismological community with a simplified system that overcame important barriers such as installation and understanding of the analysis package, location and transfer of large amounts of input data and visualisation of results. The project combined the expertise of three distinct teams. The Orfeus Data Centre provided discovery services and access management to distributed earthquake waveform data and metadata, supported by technologies such as webservices, SPARQL/RDF and a JSR-168 portal framework based on the WSRP portlet architecture. Analysis and visualisation of the waveform data were performed by SDX (Seismic Data eXplorer) developed at the University of Liverpool. SDX formed the core processing engine - this application's functionality can be extended via user-defined algorithms coded as plugins. The processing engine was supported by several webservice-enabled modules used for data and plugin exchange. The user, data and processing infrastructure were connected using the Rapid framework created by the UK National e-Science Centre. Rapid generates intuitive interfaces to the processing core in the form of two self-contained JSR-168 remote portlets. One portlet facilitated plugin creation, whilst the other allowed execution of plugin code within the processing core running on a campus or national Grid infrastructure. The RapidSeis system was deployed within a community gateway: the NERIES web portal. Although RapidSeis originated within the seismological community we suggest it forms a framework which could be exploited in different domains or scientific gateways where users can discover data, store data within a cart and wish to apply specialised processing algorithms remotely through a web browser. Processing performed on Grid infrastructure is completely transparent: the

  1. Rapid Fabrication of Lightweight SiC Optics using Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiske, Peter S.

    2006-01-01

    Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) processing is a non-contact, plasma-based processing technology that can be used to generate damage-free optical surfaces. We have developed tools and processes using RAP that allow us to shape extremely lightweight mirror Surfaces made from extremely hard-to-machine materials (e.g. SiC). We will describe our latest results using RAP in combination with other technologies to produce finished lightweight SiC mirrors and also discuss applications for RAP in the rapid fabrication of mirror segments for reflective and grazing incidence telescopes.

  2. Rapid microscale in-gel processing and digestion of proteins using surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Ketav P; Ramarathinam, Sri H; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie; Purcell, Anthony W; Perlmutter, Patrick

    2010-06-21

    A new method for in-gel sample processing and tryptic digestion of proteins is described. Sample preparation, rehydration, in situ digestion and peptide extraction from gel slices are dramatically accelerated by treating the gel slice with surface acoustic waves (SAWs). Only 30 minutes total workflow time is required for this new method to produce base peak chromatograms (BPCs) of similar coverage and intensity to those observed for traditional processing and overnight digestion. Simple set up, good reproducibility, excellent peptide recoveries, rapid turnover of samples and high confidence protein identifications put this technology at the fore-front of the next generation of proteomics sample processing tools.

  3. Automatic Number Processing Independent of Language and Notation in Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorova, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Numbers are ubiquitous in life. At the same time, the symbols for numbers are highly abstract and their visual appearance does not carry any direct relation to their magnitude. This poses an important question for researchers interested in how numbers are mentally processed. Whereas research on numeric cognition suggests that culturally based…

  4. Underlying Skills of Oral and Silent Reading Fluency in Chinese: Perspective of Visual Rapid Processing

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Kwok, Rosa K. W.; Liu, Menglian; Liu, Hanlong; Huang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Reading fluency is a critical skill to improve the quality of our daily life and working efficiency. The majority of previous studies focused on oral reading fluency rather than silent reading fluency, which is a much more dominant reading mode that is used in middle and high school and for leisure reading. It is still unclear whether the oral and silent reading fluency involved the same underlying skills. To address this issue, the present study examined the relationship between the visual rapid processing and Chinese reading fluency in different modes. Fifty-eight undergraduate students took part in the experiment. The phantom contour paradigm and the visual 1-back task were adopted to measure the visual rapid temporal and simultaneous processing respectively. These two tasks reflected the temporal and spatial dimensions of visual rapid processing separately. We recorded the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task, as well as reaction time and accuracy in the visual 1-back task. Reading fluency was measured in both single-character and sentence levels. Fluent reading of single characters was assessed with a paper-and-pencil lexical decision task, and a sentence verification task was developed to examine reading fluency on a sentence level. The reading fluency test in each level was conducted twice (i.e., oral reading and silent reading). Reading speed and accuracy were recorded. The correlation analysis showed that the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task did not correlate with the scores of the reading fluency tests. Although, the reaction time in visual 1-back task correlated with the reading speed of both oral and silent reading fluency, the comparison of the correlation coefficients revealed a closer relationship between the visual rapid simultaneous processing and silent reading. Furthermore, the visual rapid simultaneous processing exhibited a significant contribution to reading fluency in silent mode but not in oral reading mode. These

  5. Rapid solidification processing of iron-base alloys for structural applications

    SciTech Connect

    Flinn, J.E.

    1991-09-01

    The response of iron-base alloys to rapid solidification is reviewed with an emphasis on the effects of processing on the microstructure and mechanical property behavior. The processing topics addressed are powder atomization, powder consolidation, joining, and thermal-mechanical exposure. The value of rapid solidification processing (RSP) lies in the ability to promote compositional homogeneity and retention of fine and stable (to high temperatures) microstructures. Achieving the maximum benefit from RSP requires proper application of the basic principles of composition control and rapid crystallization. This investigation has disclosed two very important facets of the RSP approach that can be applied using current technologies. Dissociated oxygen appears to play a significant role in stabilizing microstructural features. In conjunction with oxygen, vacancies trapped during crystallization provide a very stable matrix dispersion for enhanced strengthening. With a fundamental understanding of the response of iron-base alloys to RSP, alloys can be designed that will have substantially better properties and performance than their conventionally processed counterparts. 77 refs., 94 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. A cell-free expression and purification process for rapid production of protein biologics.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Challise J; Pendleton, Erik D; Sasmor, Henri H; Hicks, William L; Farnum, John B; Muto, Machiko; Amendt, Eric M; Schoborg, Jennifer A; Martin, Rey W; Clark, Lauren G; Anderson, Mark J; Choudhury, Alaksh; Fior, Raffaella; Lo, Yu-Hwa; Griffey, Richard H; Chappell, Stephen A; Jewett, Michael C; Mauro, Vincent P; Dresios, John

    2016-02-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis has emerged as a powerful technology for rapid and efficient protein production. Cell-free methods are also amenable to automation and such systems have been extensively used for high-throughput protein production and screening; however, current fluidic systems are not adequate for manufacturing protein biopharmaceuticals. In this work, we report on the initial development of a fluidic process for rapid end-to-end production of recombinant protein biologics. This process incorporates a bioreactor module that can be used with eukaryotic or prokaryotic lysates that are programmed for combined transcription/translation of an engineered DNA template encoding for specific protein targets. Purification of the cell-free expressed product occurs through a series of protein separation modules that are configurable for process-specific isolation of different proteins. Using this approach, we demonstrate production of two bioactive human protein therapeutics, erythropoietin and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in yeast and bacterial extracts, respectively, each within 24 hours. This process is flexible, scalable and amenable to automation for rapid production at the point-of-need of proteins with significant pharmaceutical, medical, or biotechnological value.

  7. Process monitoring using automatic physical measurement based on electrical and physical variability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shauly, Eitan N.; Levi, Shimon; Schwarzband, Ishai; Adan, Ofer; Latinsky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    A fully automated silicon-based methodology for systematic analysis of electrical features is shown. The system was developed for process monitoring and electrical variability reduction. A mapping step was created by dedicated structures such as static-random-access-memory (SRAM) array or standard cell library, or by using a simple design rule checking run-set. The resulting database was then used as an input for choosing locations for critical dimension scanning electron microscope images and for specific layout parameter extraction then was input to SPICE compact modeling simulation. Based on the experimental data, we identified two items that must be checked and monitored using the method described here: transistor's sensitivity to the distance between the poly end cap and edge of active area (AA) due to AA rounding, and SRAM leakage due to a too close N-well to P-well. Based on this example, for process monitoring and variability analyses, we extensively used this method to analyze transistor gates having different shapes. In addition, analysis for a large area of high density standard cell library was done. Another set of monitoring focused on a high density SRAM array is also presented. These examples provided information on the poly and AA layers, using transistor parameters such as leakage current and drive current. We successfully define "robust" and "less-robust" transistor configurations included in the library and identified unsymmetrical transistors in the SRAM bit-cells. These data were compared to data extracted from the same devices at the end of the line. Another set of analyses was done to samples after Cu M1 etch. Process monitoring information on M1 enclosed contact was extracted based on contact resistance as a feedback. Guidelines for the optimal M1 space for different layout configurations were also extracted. All these data showed the successful in-field implementation of our methodology as a useful process monitoring method.

  8. Automatic Short Essay Scoring Using Natural Language Processing to Extract Semantic Information in the Form of Propositions. CRESST Report 831

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre; Mousavi, Hamid; Iseli, Markus R.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core assessments emphasize short essay constructed-response items over multiple-choice items because they are more precise measures of understanding. However, such items are too costly and time consuming to be used in national assessments unless a way to score them automatically can be found. Current automatic essay-scoring techniques…

  9. Overview of the SOFIA Data Processing System: A generalized system for manual and automatic data processing at the SOFIA Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuping, Ralph; Krzaczek, Robert; Vacca, William D.; Charcos-Llorens, Miguel; Reach, William T.; Alles, Rosemary; Clarke, Melanie; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Radomski, James T.; Shenoy, Sachindev S.; Sandel, David; Omelian, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne astronomical observatory comprised of a 2.5-meter telescope mounted in the aft section of a Boeing 747SP aircraft. SOFIA is designed to execute observations at altitudes between 37,000 and 45,00 feet, above 99% of atmospheric water vapor. During routine operations, several instruments will be available to the astronomical community including cameras and spectrographs in the near- to far-IR. Raw data obtained in-flight require a significant amount of processing to correct for background emission (from both the telescope and atmosphere), remove instrumental artifacts, correct for atmospheric absorption, and apply both wavelength and flux calibration. In general, this processing is highly specific to the instrument and telescope. Once this post-processing is complete, the data can be used in scientific analysis and publications. In order to maximize the scientific output of the observatory, the SOFIA Science Center must provide these post-processed data sets to Guest Investigators in a timely manner. To meet this requirement, we have designed and built the SOFIA Data Processing System (DPS): an in-house set of tools and services that can be used in both automatic ("pipeline") and manual modes to process data from a variety of instruments. In this poster paper, we present an overview of the DPS concepts and architecture, as well as operational results from the first two SOFIA observing cycles (2013--2014).

  10. Tailoring Information Provision and Consent Processes to Research Contexts: The Value of Rapid Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Susan; Farsides, Bobbie; Ayele, Fasil Tekola

    2012-01-01

    Guidance requires that consent processes for research be appropriately tailored to their cultural context. This paper discusses the use of rapid assessments to identify cultural and ethical issues arising when explaining research in studies in The Gambia and Ethiopia. The assessments provided insights into appropriate ways of providing information to minimize the risk of stigmatizing vulnerable research populations; research participants’ views about the most important information to provide about research and their understandings of research; and perceived constraints upon reaching voluntary decisions about participation. These insights demonstrate that rapid assessments are a relatively quick and inexpensive intervention that can provide valuable information to assist in the tailoring of information provision and consent processes to research context while maintaining and enhancing participants’ fundamental protections. PMID:22378133

  11. Combining reactive sputtering and rapid thermal processing for synthesis and discovery of metal oxynitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Lan; Suram, Santosh K.; Becerra-Stasiewicz, Natalie; Mitrovic, Slobodan; Kan, Kevin; Jones, Ryan J. R.; Gregoire, John M.

    2015-05-27

    Recent efforts have demonstrated enhanced tailoring of material functionality with mixed-anion materials, yet exploratory research with mixed-anion chemistries is limited by the sensitivity of these materials to synthesis conditions. In order to synthesize a particular metal oxynitride compound by traditional reactive annealing we require specific, limited ranges of both oxygen and nitrogen chemical potentials in order to establish equilibrium between the solid-state material and a reactive atmosphere. While using Ta-O-N as an example system, we describe a combination of reactive sputter deposition and rapid thermal processing for synthesis of mixed-anion inorganic materials. Heuristic optimization of reactive gas pressures to attain a desired anion stoichiometry is discussed, and the ability of rapid thermal processing to enable amorphous to crystalline transitions without preferential anion loss is demonstrated through the controlled synthesis of nitride, oxide and oxynitride phases.

  12. Effect of Back Contact and Rapid Thermal Processing Conditions on Flexible CdTe Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Meysing, D. M.; Rance, Will L.; Burst, James M.; Reese, Matthew O.; Wolden, C. A.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Garner, S.; Barnes, Teresa M.

    2015-06-14

    Flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates can enable new applications that require high specific power, unique form-factors, and low manufacturing costs. To be successful, these cells must be cost competitive, have high efficiency, and have high reliability. Here we present back contact processing conditions that enabled us to achieve over 16% efficiency on flexible Corning (R) Willow (R) Glass substrates. We used co-evaporated ZnTe:Cu and Au as our back contact and used rapid thermal processing (RTP) to activate the back contact. Both the ZnTe to Cu ratio and the RTP activation temperature provide independent control over the device performance. We have investigated the influence of various RTP conditions to Cu activation and distribution. Current density-voltage, capacitance-voltage measurements along with device simulations were used to examine the device performance in terms of ZnTe to Cu ratio and rapid thermal activation temperature.

  13. Combining reactive sputtering and rapid thermal processing for synthesis and discovery of metal oxynitrides

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Lan; Suram, Santosh K.; Becerra-Stasiewicz, Natalie; ...

    2015-05-27

    Recent efforts have demonstrated enhanced tailoring of material functionality with mixed-anion materials, yet exploratory research with mixed-anion chemistries is limited by the sensitivity of these materials to synthesis conditions. In order to synthesize a particular metal oxynitride compound by traditional reactive annealing we require specific, limited ranges of both oxygen and nitrogen chemical potentials in order to establish equilibrium between the solid-state material and a reactive atmosphere. While using Ta-O-N as an example system, we describe a combination of reactive sputter deposition and rapid thermal processing for synthesis of mixed-anion inorganic materials. Heuristic optimization of reactive gas pressures to attainmore » a desired anion stoichiometry is discussed, and the ability of rapid thermal processing to enable amorphous to crystalline transitions without preferential anion loss is demonstrated through the controlled synthesis of nitride, oxide and oxynitride phases.« less

  14. Automatic Synthesis of UML Designs from Requirements in an Iterative Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Whittle, Jon; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is gaining wide popularity for the design of object-oriented systems. UML combines various object-oriented graphical design notations under one common framework. A major factor for the broad acceptance of UML is that it can be conveniently used in a highly iterative, Use Case (or scenario-based) process (although the process is not a part of UML). Here, the (pre-) requirements for the software are specified rather informally as Use Cases and a set of scenarios. A scenario can be seen as an individual trace of a software artifact. Besides first sketches of a class diagram to illustrate the static system breakdown, scenarios are a favorite way of communication with the customer, because scenarios describe concrete interactions between entities and are thus easy to understand. Scenarios with a high level of detail are often expressed as sequence diagrams. Later in the design and implementation stage (elaboration and implementation phases), a design of the system's behavior is often developed as a set of statecharts. From there (and the full-fledged class diagram), actual code development is started. Current commercial UML tools support this phase by providing code generators for class diagrams and statecharts. In practice, it can be observed that the transition from requirements to design to code is a highly iterative process. In this talk, a set of algorithms is presented which perform reasonable synthesis and transformations between different UML notations (sequence diagrams, Object Constraint Language (OCL) constraints, statecharts). More specifically, we will discuss the following transformations: Statechart synthesis, introduction of hierarchy, consistency of modifications, and "design-debugging".

  15. Development of Rapid Temporal Processing and Its Impact on Literacy Skills in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbrink, Claudia; Zimmer, Karin; Lachmann, Thomas; Dirichs, Martin; Kammer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In a longitudinal study, auditory and visual temporal order thresholds (TOTs) were investigated in primary school children (N = 236; mean age at first data point = 6;7) at the beginning of Grade 1 and the end of Grade 2 to test whether rapid temporal processing abilities predict reading and spelling at the end of Grades 1 and 2. Auditory and…

  16. Reduced Sensory Oscillatory Activity during Rapid Auditory Processing as a Correlate of Language-Learning Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Sabine; Friedman, Jennifer Thomas; Keil, Andreas; Benasich, April A.

    2010-01-01

    Successful language acquisition has been hypothesized to involve the ability to integrate rapidly presented, brief acoustic cues in sensory cortex. A body of work has suggested that this ability is compromised in language-learning impairment (LLI). The present research aimed to examine sensory integration during rapid auditory processing by means of electrophysiological measures of oscillatory brain activity using data from a larger longitudinal study. Twenty-nine children with LLI and control participants with typical language development (n=18) listened to tone doublets presented at a temporal interval that is essential for accurate speech processing (70-ms interstimulus interval). The children performed a deviant (pitch change of second tone) detection task, or listened passively. The electroencephalogram was recorded from 64 electrodes. Data were source-projected to the auditory cortices and submitted to wavelet analysis, resulting in time-frequency representations of electrocortical activity. Results show significantly reduced amplitude and phase-locking of early (45–75 ms) oscillations in the gamma-band range (29–52 Hz), specifically in the LLI group, for the second stimulus of the tone doublet. This suggests altered temporal organization of sensory oscillatory activity in LLI when processing rapid sequences. PMID:21822356

  17. Validation of a rapid DNA process with the RapidHIT(®) ID system using GlobalFiler(®) Express chemistry, a platform optimized for decentralized testing environments.

    PubMed

    Salceda, Susana; Barican, Arnaldo; Buscaino, Jacklyn; Goldman, Bruce; Klevenberg, Jim; Kuhn, Melissa; Lehto, Dennis; Lin, Frank; Nguyen, Phong; Park, Charles; Pearson, Francesca; Pittaro, Rick; Salodkar, Sayali; Schueren, Robert; Smith, Corey; Troup, Charles; Tsou, Dean; Vangbo, Mattias; Wunderle, Justus; King, David

    2017-05-01

    The RapidHIT(®) ID is a fully automated sample-to-answer system for short tandem repeat (STR)-based human identification. The RapidHIT ID has been optimized for use in decentralized environments and processes presumed single source DNA samples, generating Combined DNA Index System (CODIS)-compatible DNA profiles in less than 90min. The system is easy to use, requiring less than one minute of hands-on time. Profiles are reviewed using centralized linking software, RapidLINK™ (IntegenX, Pleasanton, CA), a software tool designed to collate DNA profiles from single or multiple RapidHIT ID systems at different geographic locations. The RapidHIT ID has been designed to employ GlobalFiler(®) Express and AmpFLSTR(®) NGMSElect™, Thermo Fisher Scientific (Waltham, MA) STR chemistries. The Developmental Validation studies were performed using GlobalFiler(®) Express with single source reference samples according to Scientific Working Group for DNA Analysis Methods guidelines. These results show that multiple RapidHIT ID systems networked with RapidLINK software form a highly reliable system for wide-scale deployment in locations such as police booking stations and border crossings enabling real-time testing of arrestees, potential human trafficking victims, and other instances where rapid turnaround is essential.

  18. Image processing for an automatic detection of defect signals from electromagnetic cartographies

    SciTech Connect

    Benoist, B.; Marqueste, L.; Birac, C.

    1994-12-31

    As the population of nuclear power plants ages, new defects are appearing in steam generator tubes (stress corrosion, corrosion pitting and intergranular corrosion). For more sophisticated expert appraisal of these defects, tubes can be examined by multifrequency eddy-current testing with an absolute coil (diameter value of 1 mm). A device, consisting of a push-puller mechanism and a motor-driven probe carrying this absolute coil, gives a helical movement to scan the inner surface of the tube. The signals obtained can be represented in the form of cartographies (3D representation in which the coordinates are the circumference, the length and amplitude of the X or Y component at a given frequency). The detection of defect signals by visual examination of these eddy-current cartographies is not always reproducible. The article describes an image processing procedure for the detection of defect signals which leads to a better reproductibility for more safety.

  19. Overview of the SOFIA Data Processing System: A Generalized System for Manual and Automatic Data Processing at the SOFIA Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuping, R. Y.; Krzaczek, R.; Vacca, W. D.; Charcos-Llorens, M.; Reach, W. T.; Alles, R.; Clarke, M.; Melchiorri, R.; Radomski, J.; Shenoy, S.; Sandel, D.; Omelian, E. B.

    2015-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne astronomical observatory comprised of a 2.5-meter telescope mounted in the aft section of a Boeing 747SP aircraft. During routine operations, several instruments will be available to the astronomical community including cameras and spectrographs in the near- to far-IR. Raw data obtained in-flight require a significant amount of processing to correct for background emission (from both the telescope and atmosphere), remove instrumental artifacts, correct for atmospheric absorption, and apply both wavelength and flux calibration. In general, this processing is highly specific to the instrument and telescope. In order to maximize the scientific output of the observatory, the SOFIA Science Center must provide these post-processed data sets to Guest Investigators in a timely manner. To meet this requirement, we have designed and built the SOFIA Data Processing System (DPS): an in-house set of tools and services that can be used in both automatic (“pipeline”) and manual modes to process data from a variety of instruments. Here we present an overview of the DPS concepts and architecture, as well as operational results from the first two SOFIA observing cycles (2013-2014).

  20. The application of computational simulation to design optimization of an axisymmetric rapid thermal processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, P.A.; Winters, W.S.; Kee, R.J.; Kermani, A.

    1994-08-01

    We are developing and applying computational models to guide the development of a rapid-thermal-processing system. This work concentrates on scale-up and commercialization of the axisymmetric, multiple-lamp-ring approach that was pioneered by Texas Instruments in the Microelectronics Manufacturing Science and Technology program. CVC Products intends to incorporate the tool into their open-architecture MESC compatible cluster environment. Integration of modeling into the product development process can reduce time-to-market and development costs, as well as improve tool performance.

  1. The MODIS Rapid Response Project: Near-Real-Time Processing for Fire Monitoring and Other Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descloitres, J.; Justice, C.; Sohlberg, R.; Giglio, L.; Schmaltz, J.; Seaton, J.; Davies, D.; Anyamba, A.; Hansen, M.; Carroll, M.; Sullivan, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board the Terra and Aqua satellites offers an unprecedented combination of daily spatial coverage, spatial resolution, and spectral characteristics. These capabilities make MODIS ideal to observe a variety of rapid events: active fires, floods, smoke transport, dust storms, severe storms, iceberg calving, and volcanic eruptions. The MODIS Rapid Response System (http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov) was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a rapid response to those events, with initial emphasis on active fire detection and 250m-resolution imagery. MODIS data for most of the Earth's land surface is processed just a few hours after data acquisition. A collaboration between NASA, the University of Maryland and the U.S.D.A. Forest Service has been developed to provide fire information derived from MODIS to federal fire managers. Active fire locations in the conterminous United States are produced by the MODIS Rapid Response System and communicated to the Forest Service within a few minutes of production. The MODIS Rapid Response processing was also adapted to Direct Broadcast to reduce the product turn-around to just minutes after data acquisition regionally. MODIS active fire locations are used by the Forest Service to generate regional fire maps over the United States, updated twice daily and provided to the fire managers to help them allocate firefighting resources. Active fire locations are also distributed in near-real-time to the Global Observation of Forest Cover (G.O.F.C.) user community through a web interface integrating MODIS active fire locations and Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) datasets. The suite of MODIS rapid fire products is currently being complemented with a Smoke Index product and a Burned Area product that will represent two new key tools available to the fire community. Finally a new collaboration with the U.S.D.A. Foreign Agricultural Service was

  2. Re-emerging conceptual integration: commentary on Berkowitz's "on the consideration of automatic as well as controlled psychological processes in aggression".

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Farzaneh

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, researchers in various areas of psychology have challenged the claims of a single mode of information processing, and developed dual-process models of social behaviors. Although these theories differ on a number of dimensions, they all share the basic assumption that two different modes of information processing operate in making decision and copying behavior. In essence, the common distinction in these perspectives is between controlled vs. automatic, conscious vs. unconscious, and affective vs. cognitive modes of processing. The purpose of Berkowitz's article is to go beyond the notion of automatic processes in order to use classic notions of conditioning and displacement to explain aggressive behavior. I assert that an explanatory framework for psychology of aggression must be anchored not only in the new but also classic theoretical paradigms. However, progress in psychology does not rest solely on the accumulation of theoretical insights. It demands a large body of empirical facts, with attention to incongruities, discordances, and conceptual clarifications.

  3. Rapid evolution of redox processes in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Lovley, D.R.; O'Neil, Kyle; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water chemistry data collected over a six-year period show that the distribution of contaminants and redox processes in a shallow petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer has changed rapidly over time. Shortly after a gasoline release occurred in 1990, high concentrations of benzene were present near the contaminant source area. In this contaminated zone, dissolved oxygen in ground water was depleted, and by 1994 Fe(III) reduction and sulfate reduction were the predominant terminal electron accepting processes. Significantly, dissolved methane was below measurable levels in 1994, indicating the absence of significant methanogenesis. By 1996, however, depletion of solid-phase Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides in aquifer sediments and depletion of dissolved sulfate in ground water resulted in the onset of methanogenesis. Between 1996 and 2000, water-chemistry data indicated that methanogenic metabolism became increasingly prevalent. Molecular analysis of 16S-rDNA extracted from sediments shows the presence of a more diverse methanogenic community inside as opposed to outside the plume core, and is consistent with water-chemistry data indicating a shift toward methanogenesis over time. This rapid evolution of redox processes reflects several factors including the large amounts of contaminants, relatively rapid ground water flow (???0.3 m/day [???1 foot/day]), and low concentrations of microbially reducible Fe(III) oxyhydroxides (???1 ??mol/g) initially present in aquifer sediments. These results illustrate that, under certain hydrologic conditions, redox conditions in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can change rapidly in time and space, and that the availability of solid-phase Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides affects this rate of change.

  4. Use of at-line spectrophotometry for the rapid definition of pilot-scale flocculation processes.

    PubMed

    Bou-Habib, G; Yeung, K; Titchener-Hooker, N J; Hoare, M

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally most downstream bioprocesses have been operated without real-time knowledge of product and key contaminants, yielding little confidence in their operation and the impact on subsequent operations. A rapid UV-vis spectral prediction technique has been successfully demonstrated for the at-line characterization of a large scale continuous flocculation process in terms of RNA, key protein contaminants, and cell debris. A comparison was made between the spectral predictions and retrospective wet chemical assays, and a highly linear correlation was obtained. The spectral analysis technique allowed for real-time system information, which was applied to control the flocculation process to maintain satisfactory process performance, even when subjected to given possible process disturbances.

  5. Rapid processing of urine specimens by urine screening and the AutoMicrobic system.

    PubMed Central

    Wadke, M; McDonnell, C; Ashton, J K

    1982-01-01

    A total of 1,500 clean-voided urine specimens were analyzed for the presence of bacteria by urine screening with the Autobac 1 system. The specimens found positive by this method were further processed on the same day for identification and for antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the AutoMicrobic system with the Enterobacteriaceae-plus Card and the General Susceptibility Card, respectively. The inocula for these tests were prepared from the centrifuged and washed growth in the eugonic broth aspirated from the Autobac cuvette chambers. Of 1,500 specimens that were analyzed, 183 contained single isolates of gram-negative bacilli. The results of these rapid procedures were compared with results for the same organisms isolated from urine specimens cultured by the conventional method. The data showed 92.3% agreement for identification and a correlation of 93.6% for antibiotic susceptibility between the two procedures. It is concluded that gram-negative bacilli can be rapidly identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility with a high degree of accuracy from the centrifuged eugonic broth after urine screening. These findings also suggest that the AutoMicrobic system provides a rapid and convenient method for same-day processing of positive urine cultures when combined with the urine screening procedure. PMID:6759524

  6. Product Development and its Comparative Analysis by SLA, SLS and FDM Rapid Prototyping Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhari, C. M.; Patil, V. D.

    2016-09-01

    To grab market and meeting deadlines has increased the scope of new methods in product design and development. Industries continuously strive to optimize the development cycles with high quality and cost efficient products to maintain market competitiveness. Thus the need of Rapid Prototyping Techniques (RPT) has started to play pivotal role in rapid product development cycle for complex product. Dimensional accuracy and surface finish are the corner stone of Rapid Prototyping (RP) especially if they are used for mould development. The paper deals with the development of part made with the help of Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Stereo-lithography (SLA) and Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) processes to benchmark and investigate on various parameters like material shrinkage rate, dimensional accuracy, time, cost and surface finish. This helps to conclude which processes can be proved to be effective and efficient in mould development. In this research work the emphasis was also given to the design stage of a product development to obtain an optimum design solution for an existing product.

  7. Image processing based automatic diagnosis of glaucoma using wavelet features of segmented optic disc from fundus image.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anushikha; Dutta, Malay Kishore; ParthaSarathi, M; Uher, Vaclav; Burget, Radim

    2016-02-01

    Glaucoma is a disease of the retina which is one of the most common causes of permanent blindness worldwide. This paper presents an automatic image processing based method for glaucoma diagnosis from the digital fundus image. In this paper wavelet feature extraction has been followed by optimized genetic feature selection combined with several learning algorithms and various parameter settings. Unlike the existing research works where the features are considered from the complete fundus or a sub image of the fundus, this work is based on feature extraction from the segmented and blood vessel removed optic disc to improve the accuracy of identification. The experimental results presented in this paper indicate that the wavelet features of the segmented optic disc image are clinically more significant in comparison to features of the whole or sub fundus image in the detection of glaucoma from fundus image. Accuracy of glaucoma identification achieved in this work is 94.7% and a comparison with existing methods of glaucoma detection from fundus image indicates that the proposed approach has improved accuracy of classification.

  8. Validating the performance of one-time decomposition for fMRI analysis using ICA with automatic target generation process.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shengnan; Zeng, Weiming; Wang, Nizhuan; Chen, Lei

    2013-07-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been proven to be effective for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. However, ICA decomposition requires to optimize the unmixing matrix iteratively whose initial values are generated randomly. Thus the randomness of the initialization leads to different ICA decomposition results. Therefore, just one-time decomposition for fMRI data analysis is not usually reliable. Under this circumstance, several methods about repeated decompositions with ICA (RDICA) were proposed to reveal the stability of ICA decomposition. Although utilizing RDICA has achieved satisfying results in validating the performance of ICA decomposition, RDICA cost much computing time. To mitigate the problem, in this paper, we propose a method, named ATGP-ICA, to do the fMRI data analysis. This method generates fixed initial values with automatic target generation process (ATGP) instead of being produced randomly. We performed experimental tests on both hybrid data and fMRI data to indicate the effectiveness of the new method and made a performance comparison of the traditional one-time decomposition with ICA (ODICA), RDICA and ATGP-ICA. The proposed method demonstrated that it not only could eliminate the randomness of ICA decomposition, but also could save much computing time compared to RDICA. Furthermore, the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) power analysis also denoted the better signal reconstruction performance of ATGP-ICA than that of RDICA.

  9. Paraglacial processes during rapid deglaciation: a question of time and space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Denis

    2013-04-01

    The paraglacial period is characterized by high rates of sediment delivery from slopes and into fluvial systems. This period of rapid response is triggered by the instability of unconsolidated glacigenic sediments and over steepened rock slopes, which have been debuttressed. In theory, the paraglacial period ends once sediment yields drop to rates typical of unglaciated catchments. Due to rapid climatic change, paraglacial processes occurred at a short time scale interval in glaciated margin areas all around the world, but especially in Arctic environments. Based on our own researches in Svalbard and Iceland and on literature review, we propose a lecture of two main paraglacial processes occurred during rapid deglaciation in previously glaciated areas: paraglacial denudation and paraglacial redistribution processes. (i) Paraglacial denudation processes are responsible of rock slope failures (such as sackungs, rock avalanches and various other landslide types…). Examples from north Iceland mass movements could be enlighten this question for the last deglaciation period and the beginning of the Holocene. (ii) Paraglacial of sediment redistribution processes could explain alluvial fans, terraces, valley-train deposits, outwash plains or "sandurs" with outburst floods or "jökulhlaups", coastal deposits… Examples from Svalbard and Iceland could be illustrated the question of time and space scales (i) gullying on freshly exposed moraines; (ii) sediments fluxes from source (glacier margin) to sink (fjord) and progradation of sandy coasts. Finally, the question of time scale for paraglacial processes depend of several internal and external parameters. First at all, paraglacial processes were controlled by ice melting and were dependent upon the presence of ice and, at another scale, upon the temporary abundance of glacially formed debris. In a time scale point of view, paraglacial processes were only a temporary condition and, paraglacial features themselves were

  10. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes

    PubMed Central

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C.; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690

  11. Rapid Automated Dissolution and Analysis Techniques for Radionuclides in Recycle Process Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Sudowe, Ralf; Roman, Audrey; Dailey, Ashlee; Go, Elaine

    2013-07-18

    The analysis of process samples for radionuclide content is an important part of current procedures for material balance and accountancy in the different process streams of a recycling plant. The destructive sample analysis techniques currently available necessitate a significant amount of time. It is therefore desirable to develop new sample analysis procedures that allow for a quick turnaround time and increased sample throughput with a minimum of deviation between samples. In particular, new capabilities for rapid sample dissolution and radiochemical separation are required. Most of the radioanalytical techniques currently employed for sample analysis are based on manual laboratory procedures. Such procedures are time- and labor-intensive, and not well suited for situations in which a rapid sample analysis is required and/or large number of samples need to be analyzed. To address this issue we are currently investigating radiochemical separation methods based on extraction chromatography that have been specifically optimized for the analysis of process stream samples. The influence of potential interferences present in the process samples as well as mass loading, flow rate and resin performance is being studied. In addition, the potential to automate these procedures utilizing a robotic platform is evaluated. Initial studies have been carried out using the commercially available DGA resin. This resin shows an affinity for Am, Pu, U, and Th and is also exhibiting signs of a possible synergistic effects in the presence of iron.

  12. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes of Chinese Compound Words in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hong-Wen; Yang, Ke-Yu; Yan, Hong-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Character order information is encoded at the initial stage of Chinese word processing, however, its time course remains underspecified. In this study, we assess the exact time course of the character decomposition and transposition processes of two-character Chinese compound words (canonical, transposed, or reversible words) compared with pseudowords using dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli appearing at 30 ms per character with no inter-stimulus interval. The results indicate that Chinese readers can identify words with character transpositions in rapid succession; however, a transposition cost is involved in identifying transposed words compared to canonical words. In RSVP reading, character order of words is more likely to be reversed during the period from 30 to 180 ms for canonical and reversible words, but the period from 30 to 240 ms for transposed words. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that the holistic representation of the base word is activated, however, the order of the two constituent characters is not strictly processed during the very early stage of visual word processing.

  13. Pt/Ti/n-InP nonalloyed ohmic contacts formed by rapid thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, A.; Weir, B. E.; Chu, S. N. G.; Thomas, P. M.; Soler, M.; Boone, T.; Dautremont-Smith, W. C.

    1990-04-01

    Low resistance nonalloyed ohmic contacts of e-gun evaporated Pt/Ti to S doped n-InP 5×1017, 1×1018, and 5×1018 cm-3 have been fabricated by rapid thermal processing. The contacts to the lower doped substrates (5×1017 and 1×1018 cm-3) were rectifying as-deposited as well as after heat treatment at temperatures lower than 350 °C. Higher processing temperatures stimulated the Schottky to ohmic contact conversion with minimum specific contact resistance of 1.5×10-5 and 5×10-6 Ω cm2, respectively, as a result of rapid thermal processing at 450 °C for 30 s. Heating at a temperature of 550 °C again yielded a Schottky contact. The contact to the 5×1018 cm-3 InP was ohmic as deposited with a specific contact resistance value of 1.1×10-4 Ω cm2. Supplying heat treatment to the contact caused a decrease of the specific contact resistance to a minimum of 8×10-7 Ω cm2 as a result of rapid thermal processing at 450 °C for 30 s. In all cases, this heat treatment caused a limited interfacial reactions between the Ti and the InP, and resulted in an almost abrupt interface. Heating at temperatures higher than 500 °C resulted in an interfacial intermixing and a mutual migration and reaction of the Ti and the semiconductor elements. The Pt/Ti bilayer structure was highly tensile as deposited (5×109 dyn cm-2) and became stress-free as a result of the interfacial reactions which took place while heating the samples to temperature of 400 °C or higher.

  14. Iron Oxide Films Prepared by Rapid Thermal Processing for Solar Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickman, B.; Bastos Fanta, A.; Burrows, A.; Hellman, A.; Wagner, J. B.; Iandolo, B.

    2017-01-01

    Hematite is a promising and extensively investigated material for various photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes for energy conversion and storage, in particular for oxidation reactions. Thermal treatments during synthesis of hematite are found to affect the performance of hematite electrodes considerably. Herein, we present hematite thin films fabricated via one-step oxidation of Fe by rapid thermal processing (RTP). In particular, we investigate the effect of oxidation temperature on the PEC properties of hematite. Films prepared at 750 °C show the highest activity towards water oxidation. These films show the largest average grain size and the highest charge carrier density, as determined from electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy analysis. We believe that the fast processing enabled by RTP makes this technique a preferred method for investigation of novel materials and architectures, potentially also on nanostructured electrodes, where retaining high surface area is crucial to maximize performance.

  15. Iron Oxide Films Prepared by Rapid Thermal Processing for Solar Energy Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Wickman, B.; Bastos Fanta, A.; Burrows, A.; Hellman, A.; Wagner, J. B.; Iandolo, B.

    2017-01-01

    Hematite is a promising and extensively investigated material for various photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes for energy conversion and storage, in particular for oxidation reactions. Thermal treatments during synthesis of hematite are found to affect the performance of hematite electrodes considerably. Herein, we present hematite thin films fabricated via one-step oxidation of Fe by rapid thermal processing (RTP). In particular, we investigate the effect of oxidation temperature on the PEC properties of hematite. Films prepared at 750 °C show the highest activity towards water oxidation. These films show the largest average grain size and the highest charge carrier density, as determined from electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy analysis. We believe that the fast processing enabled by RTP makes this technique a preferred method for investigation of novel materials and architectures, potentially also on nanostructured electrodes, where retaining high surface area is crucial to maximize performance. PMID:28091573

  16. Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams.

    PubMed

    Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M; Rebello, N Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants' attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants' verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers' attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions.

  17. Investigation of rapidly solidified aluminum by using diamond turning and a magnetorheological finishing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Abou-El-Hossein, Khaled; Otieno, Timothy

    2015-08-01

    The metal mirror has been widely used in optical application for a longtime. Especially the aluminum 6061 is often considered the preferred material for manufacturing optical components for ground-based astronomical applications. One reason for using this material is its high specific stiffness and excellent thermal properties. However, a large amount of data exists for this material and commercially available aluminum 6061 using single point diamond turning (SPDT) and polishing process can achieve surface roughness values of approximately 2 to 4 nm, which is adequate for applications that involve the infrared spectral range, but not for the shorter spectral range. A novel aluminum material, fabricated using a rapid solidification process that is equivalent to the conventional aluminum 6061 alloy grade has been used in optical applications in recent years because of its smaller grain size. In this study, the surface quality of the rapid solidification aluminum after single point diamond turning and followed by magnetorheological finish (MRF) process is investigated and compared with conventional aluminum 6061. Both the surface roughness Ra was evaluated using white light interferometers. Finally, indicators such as optimal fabrication parameter combination and optical performance are discussed.

  18. A prototype software methodology for the rapid evaluation of biomanufacturing process options.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Sunil; Francis, Richard; O'Donovan, Kieran; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J; Newcombe, Anthony R; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli

    2007-10-01

    A three-layered simulation methodology is described that rapidly evaluates biomanufacturing process options. In each layer, inferior options are screened out, while more promising candidates are evaluated further in the subsequent, more refined layer, which uses more rigorous models that require more data from time-consuming experimentation. Screening ensures laboratory studies are focused only on options showing the greatest potential. To simplify the screening, outputs of production level, cost and time are combined into a single value using multi-attribute-decision-making techniques. The methodology was illustrated by evaluating alternatives to an FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration)-approved process manufacturing rattlesnake antivenom. Currently, antivenom antibodies are recovered from ovine serum by precipitation/centrifugation and proteolyzed before chromatographic purification. Alternatives included increasing the feed volume, replacing centrifugation with microfiltration and replacing precipitation/centrifugation with a Protein G column. The best alternative used a higher feed volume and a Protein G step. By rapidly evaluating the attractiveness of options, the methodology facilitates efficient and cost-effective process development.

  19. The mathematical modeling of rapid solidification processing. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez-Miravete, E.

    1986-01-01

    The detailed formulation of and the results obtained from a continuum mechanics-based mathematical model of the planar flow melt spinning (PFMS) rapid solidification system are presented and discussed. The numerical algorithm proposed is capable of computing the cooling and freezing rates as well as the fluid flow and capillary phenomena which take place inside the molten puddle formed in the PFMS process. The FORTRAN listings of some of the most useful computer programs and a collection of appendices describing the basic equations used for the modeling are included.

  20. Rapid tooling for functional prototyping of metal mold processes: Literature review on cast tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, M.D.; Hochanadel, P.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report is a literature review on cast tooling with the general focus on AISI H13 tool steel. The review includes processing of both wrought and cast H13 steel along with the accompanying microstructures. Also included is the incorporation of new rapid prototyping technologies, such as Stereolithography and Selective Laser Sintering, into the investment casting of tool steel. The limiting property of using wrought or cast tool steel for die casting is heat checking. Heat checking is addressed in terms of testing procedures, theories regarding the mechanism, and microstructural aspects related to the cracking.

  1. Use of a programmable calculator for rapid, low-cost processing of echocardiographic records.

    PubMed

    Lust, R M; Boyer, B B; Lutherer, L O; Calvert, J E; Cooper, M W

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study was performed to determine the accuracy of a programmable calculator with supplemental digitizer in echocardiographic analysis. Twenty separate measurements were collected per heart beat from five different dogs, taking five heart beats from each dog. The measurements were made by an echocardiographic technician (ET), echocomputer (EC), and by a programmable calculator (HP). In a triple comparison (ET-HP, ET-EC, HP-EC) there were no significant differences in the values obtained, suggesting that the programmable calculator can provide a highly accurate and rapid means of processing echocardiographic measurements, thereby providing the advantages of the echocomputer without the cost of such a device.

  2. Rapid dune changes associated with overwash processes on the deltaic coast of South Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritchie, W.; Penland, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Caminada-Moreau barrier headland of South Louisiana is a low-profile beach and dune coastline that is transgressing rapidly over the surfaces of the abandoned Lafourche delta complex. With the passage of cold fronts (10-30 times per year) and hurricanes (once every 4 yrs), overwash events occur year round with varying degrees of frequency, intensity and geomorphological modification. This coastline consists of washover and dune surfaces that respond rapidly to overwash impact. The fine sand stored in washover deposits is easily reworked by aeolian processes into a variety of dune forms in the shore-zone that are vegetated rapidly. Geomorphological changes vary according to the position, ground elevation, and surface stability of the dunes. Independent factors are overwash surge elevations, beach gradient and the presence of pre-existing landforms. For ten years detailed surveys supplemented by aerial photographs and videotape surveys have recorded these changes. The analysis of these information sources provides insight into both the general evolution of this distinctive coastline and also the geomorphological interaction of dunes, beaches and washover deposits in different physiographic settings. ?? 1988.

  3. Small-scale manufacture of process cheese using a rapid visco analyzer.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, R; Metzger, L E

    2005-10-01

    Numerous formulation and processing parameters influence the functional properties of process cheese. Recently, a small-scale (25 g) manufacturing and analysis method was developed using a rapid visco analyzer (RVA), which was designed to evaluate the functional properties of process cheese when subjected to various formulations and processing conditions. Although this method successfully manufactured process cheese, there was a significant difference in the functional properties of the process cheese compared with process cheese manufactured on a pilot scale. In the present study, adjustments in the RVA methodology involving the RVA processing conditions, preblend preparation, and texture profile analysis (TPA) techniques for the final process cheese were investigated. Fourteen samples of pasteurized processed cheese food (PCF) were manufactured from 14 different preblends. Each pre-blend was prepared using 1 of the 14 different natural cheeses and was balanced for moisture, fat, and salt. Each of these 14 preblends was split into 3 portions and each portion was subjected to 3 different manufacturing treatments. The first treatment was manufactured in a pilot-scale Blentech twin screw (BTS) cooker, and the remaining 2 treatments were manufactured in an RVA with different processing profiles. The RVA treatments were produced in triplicate. The resulting process cheeses were analyzed for moisture and functional properties. Texture profile analysis and RVA melt analyses were performed on all PCF treatments. Additionally, for the RVA treatments, the data for time of emulsification and end apparent viscosity during RVA manufacture were collected and recorded. The functional properties of the PCF manufactured using the RVA treatments showed good correlation with the functional properties of the PCF produced on the pilot scale. Additionally, the end apparent viscosity during RVA manufacture was correlated with the functional properties of the process cheese. Consequently

  4. Rapid thermal processing — where has it been? Where is it going?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Carl

    1985-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is a method which uniformly heats and cools wafers in seconds. Since the process heats the whole wafer, the heating and cooling is limited by the thermal mass of the wafer and the heat transfer mechanism operating on the wafer. The main reason for considering RTP is to obtain improved dopant activation of implanted layers (due to the high wafer temperatures used) while minimizing dopant redistribution (due to short processing times at high temperature). This unique combination of high activation temperature and short processing time provides a degree of control over the thermal processing of wafers not available with standard diffusion furnaces and allows full activation of the dopant introduced by ion implantation without junction motion. Having this improved level of control over implant activation and dopant redistribution, several other important applications can be addressed as well. These applications include: PSG reflow; suicide and salicide processing; polysilicon annealing and drive-in doping from polysilicon; and controlled lattice damage repair. Results of the above applications indicate that activation with minimum dopant redistribution occurs in times less than ten seconds for wafer temperature > 1000°C, PSG reflows in times between 8 s and 30 s; refractory metal suicides can be formed and/or sintered in times on the order of 10 s. Processes are being developed in the other areas. For production applications RTP machines must also demonstrate: process uniformity and reproducibility (e.g., wafer temperature uniformity across the wafer and uniformity from wafer to wafer) and no slip. Slip is due to wafer temperature nonuniformity, plastic deformation of the wafer and/or oxygen concentration in the wafer. To achieve the required level of machine performance, accurate in situ wafer monitoring techniques are required which provide the necessary process/uniformity control without affecting the measured parameters.

  5. Absence of rapid sensory adaptation in neocortex during information processing states.

    PubMed

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A

    2004-02-05

    One prominent feature of sensory responses in neocortex is that they rapidly adapt to increases in frequency, a process called "sensory adaptation." Here we show that sensory adaptation mainly occurs during quiescent states such as anesthesia, slow-wave sleep, and awake immobility. In contrast, during behavior-ally activated states, sensory responses are already adapted. For instance, during learning of a behavioral task, when an animal is very alert and expectant, sensory adaptation is mostly absent. After learning occurs, and the task becomes routine, the level of alertness lessens and sensory adaptation becomes robust. The primary sensory thalamocortical pathway of alert and expectant animals is in the adapted state, which may be required for adequate sensory information processing.

  6. Response Surface Method for the Rapid Design of Process Parameters in Tube Hydroforming

    SciTech Connect

    Chebbah, M. S.; Hecini, M.; Naceur, H.; Belouettar, S.

    2007-05-17

    This paper deals with the optimization of tube hydroforming parameters in order reduce defects which may occur at the end of forming process such as necking and wrinkling. We propose a specific methodology based on the coupling between an inverse method for the rapid simulation of tube hydroforming process, and a Response Surface Method based on diffuse approximation. The response surfaces are built using Moving Least Squares approximations and constructed within a moving region of interest which moves across a predefined discrete grid of authorized experimental designs. An application of hydroforming of a bulge from aluminium alloy 6061-T6 tubing has been utilized to validate our methodology. The final design is validated with ABAQUS Explicit Dynamic commercial code.

  7. Overlearning hyperstabilizes a skill by rapidly making neurochemical processing inhibitory-dominant.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Kazuhisa; Sasaki, Yuka; Bang, Ji Won; Walsh, Edward G; Machizawa, Maro G; Tamaki, Masako; Chang, Li-Hung; Watanabe, Takeo

    2017-03-01

    Overlearning refers to the continued training of a skill after performance improvement has plateaued. Whether overlearning is beneficial is a question in our daily lives that has never been clearly answered. Here we report a new important role: overlearning in humans abruptly changes neurochemical processing, to hyperstabilize and protect trained perceptual learning from subsequent new learning. Usually, learning immediately after training is so unstable that it can be disrupted by subsequent new learning until after passive stabilization occurs hours later. However, overlearning so rapidly and strongly stabilizes the learning state that it not only becomes resilient against, but also disrupts, subsequent new learning. Such hyperstabilization is associated with an abrupt shift from glutamate-dominant excitatory to GABA-dominant inhibitory processing in early visual areas. Hyperstabilization contrasts with passive and slower stabilization, which is associated with a mere reduction of excitatory dominance to baseline levels. Using hyperstabilization may lead to efficient learning paradigms.

  8. Crystal growth of intermetallic clathrates: Floating zone process and ultra rapid crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokofiev, A.; Yan, X.; Ikeda, M.; Löffler, S.; Paschen, S.

    2014-09-01

    We studied the crystal growth process of type-I transition metal clathrates in two different regimes: a regime of moderate cooling rate, realized with the floating zone technique, and a regime of ultra rapid cooling, realized by the melt spinning technique. In the former regime, bulk Ba8AuxSi46-x and Ba8Cu4.8GaxGe41.2-x single crystals were grown. We investigated segregation effects of the constituting elements by measurements of the composition profiles along the growth direction. The compositional non-uniformity results in a spatial variation of the electrical resistivity which is discussed as well. Structural features of clathrates and their extremely low thermal conductivities imply specifics in growth behavior which manifest themselves most pronouncedly in a rapid crystallization process. Our melt spinning experiments on Ba8Au5Si41 and Ba8Ni3.5Si42.5 (and earlier on some other clathrates) have revealed surprisingly large grains of at least 1 μm. Because of the anomalously high growth rate of the clathrate phase the formation of impurity phases is considerably kinetically suppressed. We present our scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigations of melt spun samples and discuss structural, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the unusual clathrate nucleation and crystallization.

  9. Cognitive Predictors of Rapid Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Englund, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in rapid automatized naming (RAN) have been found to be a sensitive cognitive marker for children with dyslexia. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the construct validity and theoretical neuro-cognitive processes involved in RAN. Additionally, most studies investigating RAN include a narrow range of cognitive measures. The…

  10. Rapidly removing grinding damage layer on fused silica by inductively coupled plasma processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Heng; Zhou, Lin; Xie, Xuhui; Shi, Baolu; Xiong, Haobin

    2016-10-01

    During the conventional optical shaping process of fused silica, lapping is generally used to remove grinding damage layer. But this process is of low efficiency, it cannot meet the demand of large aperture optical components. Therefore, Inductively Coupled Plasma Processing (ICPP) was proposed to remove grinding damage layer instead of lapping. ICPP is a non-contact, deterministic figuring technology performed at atmospheric pressure. The process benefits from its ability to simultaneously remove sub-surface damage (SSD) while imparting the desired figure to the surface with high material remove rate. The removing damage capability of ICPP has preliminarily been confirmed on medium size optical surfaces made of fused silica, meanwhile serious edge warping was found. This paper focused on edge effect and a technique has been designed to compensate for these difficulties. Then it was demonstrated on a large aperture fused silica mirror (Long320mm×Wide370mm×High50mm), the removal depth was 30.2μm and removal rate got 6.6mm3/min. The results indicate that ICPP can rapidly remove damage layer on the fused silica induced by the previous grinding process and edge effect is effective controlled.

  11. Rapid processing of PET list-mode data for efficient uncertainty estimation and data analysis.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, P J; Thielemans, K; Schott, J M; Atkinson, D; Arridge, S R; Hutton, B F; Ourselin, S

    2016-07-07

    In this technical note we propose a rapid and scalable software solution for the processing of PET list-mode data, which allows the efficient integration of list mode data processing into the workflow of image reconstruction and analysis. All processing is performed on the graphics processing unit (GPU), making use of streamed and concurrent kernel execution together with data transfers between disk and CPU memory as well as CPU and GPU memory. This approach leads to fast generation of multiple bootstrap realisations, and when combined with fast image reconstruction and analysis, it enables assessment of uncertainties of any image statistic and of any component of the image generation process (e.g. random correction, image processing) within reasonable time frames (e.g. within five minutes per realisation). This is of particular value when handling complex chains of image generation and processing. The software outputs the following: (1) estimate of expected random event data for noise reduction; (2) dynamic prompt and random sinograms of span-1 and span-11 and (3) variance estimates based on multiple bootstrap realisations of (1) and (2) assuming reasonable count levels for acceptable accuracy. In addition, the software produces statistics and visualisations for immediate quality control and crude motion detection, such as: (1) count rate curves; (2) centre of mass plots of the radiodistribution for motion detection; (3) video of dynamic projection views for fast visual list-mode skimming and inspection; (4) full normalisation factor sinograms. To demonstrate the software, we present an example of the above processing for fast uncertainty estimation of regional SUVR (standard uptake value ratio) calculation for a single PET scan of (18)F-florbetapir using the Siemens Biograph mMR scanner.

  12. Rapid processing of PET list-mode data for efficient uncertainty estimation and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, P. J.; Thielemans, K.; Schott, J. M.; Atkinson, D.; Arridge, S. R.; Hutton, B. F.; Ourselin, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this technical note we propose a rapid and scalable software solution for the processing of PET list-mode data, which allows the efficient integration of list mode data processing into the workflow of image reconstruction and analysis. All processing is performed on the graphics processing unit (GPU), making use of streamed and concurrent kernel execution together with data transfers between disk and CPU memory as well as CPU and GPU memory. This approach leads to fast generation of multiple bootstrap realisations, and when combined with fast image reconstruction and analysis, it enables assessment of uncertainties of any image statistic and of any component of the image generation process (e.g. random correction, image processing) within reasonable time frames (e.g. within five minutes per realisation). This is of particular value when handling complex chains of image generation and processing. The software outputs the following: (1) estimate of expected random event data for noise reduction; (2) dynamic prompt and random sinograms of span-1 and span-11 and (3) variance estimates based on multiple bootstrap realisations of (1) and (2) assuming reasonable count levels for acceptable accuracy. In addition, the software produces statistics and visualisations for immediate quality control and crude motion detection, such as: (1) count rate curves; (2) centre of mass plots of the radiodistribution for motion detection; (3) video of dynamic projection views for fast visual list-mode skimming and inspection; (4) full normalisation factor sinograms. To demonstrate the software, we present an example of the above processing for fast uncertainty estimation of regional SUVR (standard uptake value ratio) calculation for a single PET scan of 18F-florbetapir using the Siemens Biograph mMR scanner.

  13. Efficient composite fabrication using electron-beam rapidly cured polymers engineered for several manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, T.C.; Crivello, J.V.

    1995-10-01

    Low cost, efficiently processed ultra high specific strength and stiffness graphite fiber reinforced polymeric composite materials are of great interest to commercial transportation, construction and aerospace industries for use in various components with enhanced degrees of weight reduction, corrosion/erosion resistance and fatigue resistance. 10 MeV Electron Beam cure processing has been found to increase the cure rate by an order of magnitude over thermally cured systems yet provide less molded in stresses and high T{sub g}s. However, a limited range of resins are available which are easily processed with low shrinkage and with performance properties equal or exceeding those of state of the art toughened epoxies and BMI`s. The technology, introduced by an academia-industry partnership sparked by Langley Research Center utilizes a cost effective, rapid curing polymeric composite processing technique which effectively reduces the need for expensive tooling and energy inefficient autoclave processing and can cure the laminate in seconds (compared to hours for thermal curing) in ambient or sub-ambient conditions. The process is based on electron beam (E-Beam) curing of a new series of (65 to 1,000,000 cPs.) specially formulated resins that have been shown to exhibit excellent mechanical and physical properties once cured. Fabrication processes utilizing these specially formulated and newly commercialized resins, (e.g. including Vacuum Assist Resin Transfer molding (VARTM), vacuum bag prepreg layup, pultrusion and filament winding grades) are engineered to cure with low shrinkage, provide excellent mechanical properties, be processed solventless (environmentally friendly) and are inherently non toxic.

  14. 12 CFR 925.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic membership. 925.4 Section 925.4 Banks... MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 925.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership... between the member and the Bank at the time of such conversion may continue. (b) Automatic membership...

  15. Sensor-based atomic layer deposition for rapid process learning and enhanced manufacturability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wei

    sensing results confirm the proposed surface reaction path and once again reveal the complexity of ALD processes. The impact of this work includes: (1) It explores new ALD reactor designs which enable the implementation of in-situ process sensors for rapid process learning and enhanced manufacturability; (2) It demonstrates in the first time that in-situ QMS can reveal detailed process dynamics and film growth kinetics in wafer-scale ALD process, and thus can be used for ALD film thickness metrology. (3) Based on results from two different processes carried out in two different reactors, it is clear that ALD is a more complicated process than normally believed or advertised, but real-time observation of the operational chemistries in ALD by in-situ sensors provides critical insight to the process and the basis for more effective process control for ALD applications.

  16. Automatic calibration of dial gauges based on computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Feng, Haiping; Kong, Ming

    2008-10-01

    Against the image characteristics of dial gauges, an automatic detection system of dial gauges is designed and implemented by using the technology of computer vision technology and digital image processing methods. Improved image subtraction method and adaptive threshold segmentation method is used for previous processing; a new method named as region-segmentation is proposed to partition the dial image, only the useful blocks of the dial image is processed no the other area, this method reduces the computation amount greatly, and improves the processing speed effectively. This method has been applied in the automatic detection system of dial gauges, which makes it possible for the detection of dial gauges to be finished intelligent, automatically and rapidly.

  17. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Aoki, H.

    1988-02-02

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an automatic transmission mechanism portion comprising a single planetary gear unit and a dual planetary gear unit; carriers of both of the planetary gear units that are integral with one another; an input means for inputting torque to the automatic transmission mechanism, clutches for operatively connecting predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units to the input means and braking means for restricting the rotation of predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units. The clutches are disposed adjacent one another at an end portion of the transmission for defining a clutch portion of the transmission; a first clutch portion which is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion for comprising the clutch portion when attached thereto; a second clutch portion that is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion in place of the first clutch portion for comprising the clutch portion when so attached. The first clutch portion comprising first clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a ring gear of the single planetary gear unit and a second clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a single gear of the automatic transmission mechanism portion. The second clutch portion comprising a the first clutch, the second clutch, and a third clutch for operatively connecting the input member to a ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit.

  18. Graphics Processing Unit-Based Bioheat Simulation to Facilitate Rapid Decision Making Associated with Cryosurgery Training.

    PubMed

    Keelan, Robert; Zhang, Hong; Shimada, Kenji; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the implementation of an efficient numerical technique for cryosurgery simulations on a graphics processing unit as an alternative means to accelerate runtime. This study is part of an ongoing effort to develop computerized training tools for cryosurgery, with prostate cryosurgery as a developmental model. The ability to perform rapid simulations of various test cases is critical to facilitate sound decision making associated with medical training. Consistent with clinical practice, the training tool aims at correlating the frozen region contour and the corresponding temperature field with the target region shape. The current study focuses on the feasibility of graphics processing unit-based computation using C++ accelerated massive parallelism, as one possible implementation. Benchmark results on a variety of computation platforms display between 3-fold acceleration (laptop) and 13-fold acceleration (gaming computer) of cryosurgery simulation, in comparison with the more common implementation on a multicore central processing unit. While the general concept of graphics processing unit-based simulations is not new, its application to phase-change problems, combined with the unique requirements for cryosurgery optimization, represents the core contribution of the current study.

  19. Rapid diversification of sperm precedence traits and processes among three sibling Drosophila species.

    PubMed

    Manier, Mollie K; Belote, John M; Berben, Kirstin S; Lüpold, Stefan; Ala-Honkola, Outi; Collins, William F; Pitnick, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Postcopulatory sexual selection is credited with driving rapid evolutionary diversification of reproductive traits and the formation of reproductive isolating barriers between species. This judgment, however, has largely been inferred rather than demonstrated due to general lack of knowledge about processes and traits underlying variation in competitive fertilization success. Here, we resolved processes determining sperm fate in twice-mated females, using transgenic Drosophila simulans and Drosophila mauritiana populations with fluorescently labeled sperm heads. Comparisons among these two species and Drosophila melanogaster revealed a shared motif in the mechanisms of sperm precedence, with postcopulatory sexual selection potentially occurring during any of the three discrete stages: (1) insemination; (2) sperm storage; and (3) sperm use for fertilization, and involving four distinct phenomena: (1) sperm transfer; (2) sperm displacement; (3) sperm ejection; and (4) sperm selection for fertilizations. Yet, underlying the qualitative similarities were significant quantitative differences in nearly every relevant character and process. We evaluate these species differences in light of concurrent investigations of within-population variation in competitive fertilization success and postmating/prezygotic reproductive isolation in hybrid matings between species to forge an understanding of the relationship between microevolutionary processes and macroevolutionary patterns as pertains to postcopulatory sexual selection in this group.

  20. Rac1 Activation in Podocytes Induces Rapid Foot Process Effacement and Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiyang; Suleiman, Hani; Kim, Alfred H. J.; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Dani, Adish; Akilesh, Shreeram

    2013-01-01

    The kidney's vital filtration function depends on the structural integrity of the glomerulus, the proximal portion of the nephron. Within the glomerulus, the architecturally complex podocyte forms the final cellular barrier to filtration. Injury to the podocyte results in a morphological change called foot process effacement, which is a ubiquitous feature of proteinuric diseases. The exact mechanism underlying foot process effacement is not known, but recently it has been proposed that this change might reflect activation of the Rac1 GTPase. To test this hypothesis, we generated a podocyte-specific, inducible transgenic mouse line that expressed constitutively active Rac1. When the Rac1 transgene was induced, we observed a rapid onset of proteinuria with focal foot process effacement. Using superresolution imaging, we verified that the induced transgene was expressed in damaged podocytes with altered foot process morphology. This work sheds new light on the complex balance of Rho GTPase signaling that is required for proper regulation of the podocyte cytoskeleton. PMID:24061480

  1. Rapid prototyping process using linear array of high-power laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Linquan; Cheng, Jun; Zhou, Hanchang

    2000-02-01

    Because of the weak points of the SLS spot Scanning process, a new rapid prototyping process -- SLS line scan using linear array of high power laser diodes regarded as energy sources is researched in this paper. A linear array with requisite length is formed by some high power laser diodes that can be derived individually. Beams of the linear array are transferred to the workplace and imaged some short and light lines by the corresponding optical collimators. They are lined up in a linear laser beam without separation whose length is equal to that of the linear array diodes. When sintering powdered material, the linear laser beam scans in one direction along x axis only. Only if the maximum line length is less than the y axial size of the workpiece, it is necessary that linear laser beam is lapped for some times in the y axis. The Scanning mode of x-y simultaneous guideways are used in this new system which differs entirely from the vibrating mirror scan. The scanning trace of the latter is an arc that will influence processing quality. This new process has higher efficiency and better quality than the traditional spot scanning method.

  2. Rapid automatic segmentation of the human cerebellum and its lobules (RASCAL)--implementation and application of the patch-based label-fusion technique with a template library to segment the human cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Weier, Katrin; Fonov, Vladimir; Lavoie, Karyne; Doyon, Julien; Collins, D Louis

    2014-10-01

    Reliable and fast segmentation of the human cerebellum with its complex architecture of lobes and lobules has been a challenge for the past decades. Emerging knowledge of the functional integration of the cerebellum in various sensori-motor and cognitive-behavioral circuits demands new automatic segmentation techniques, with accuracies similar to manual segmentations, but applicable to large subject numbers in a reasonable time frame. This article presents the development and application of a novel pipeline for rapid automatic segmentation of the human cerebellum and its lobules (RASCAL) combining patch-based label-fusion and a template library of manually labeled cerebella of 16 healthy controls from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) database. Leave-one-out experiments revealed a good agreement between manual and automatic segmentations (Dice kappa = 0.82). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to test reliability of segmented volumes and were highest (ICC > 0.9) for global measures (total and hemispherical grey and white matter) followed by larger lobules of the posterior lobe (ICC > 0.8). Further we applied the pipeline to all 152 young healthy controls of the ICBM database to look for hemispheric and gender differences. The results demonstrated larger native space volumes in men then women (mean (± SD) total cerebellar volume in women = 217 cm(3) (± 26), men = 259 cm(3) (± 29); P < 0.001). Significant gender-by-hemisphere interaction was only found in stereotaxic space volumes for white matter core (men > women) and anterior lobe volume (women > men). This new method shows great potential for the precise and efficient analysis of the cerebellum in large patient cohorts.

  3. Processing silicon microparticles recycled from wafer waste via Rapid Thermal Process for lithium-ion battery anode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hui-Gee; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2016-12-01

    A vast quantity of waste sludge is generated during the silicon wafers slicing process in semiconductor and photovoltaic industries. Turning the waste powder into high-value products is of strategic importance for industrial processes. The purified Si microparticles (Si-MP) are recycled by a simple and fast procedure, Rapid Thermal Process (RTP). A prominent anodic material of Si-MP/Carbon composite with porous structure is obtained via in-spaced carbonization of water-soluble binder sodium carboxymethyl cellulose during RTP. This strategy provides buffer space, which is constructed by carbon porous continuous conductive framework throughout the entire electrode, to resist local stress and intense volume variation. In addition, a sufficiently electrochemically stable solid-electrolyte interphase layer is accomplished with the coating of SiOx film and amorphous carbon on the surface of Si-MP. Under these circumstances, the enhanced electrodes achieve a first cycle efficiency of approximately 80% and a reversible charge capacity of 800 mAhg-1 over 100 cycles at 0.5 Ag-1 with good retention. Through a green and simple procedure, a remarkable Si-MP embedded carbon-matrix with porous structure is established to achieve commercially high performance Si-MP/C composite anodes and also to resolve the issues of waste disposal.

  4. Linking Automatic Evaluation to Mood and Information Processing Style: Consequences for Experienced Affect, Impression Formation, and Stereotyping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartrand, Tanya L.; van Baaren, Rick B.; Bargh, John A.

    2006-01-01

    According to the feelings-as-information account, a person's mood state signals to him or her the valence of the current environment (N. Schwarz & G. Clore, 1983). However, the ways in which the environment automatically influences mood in the first place remain to be explored. The authors propose that one mechanism by which the environment…

  5. Altered Automatic Face Processing in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence from Visual Evoked Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Takako; Kamio, Yoko; Yamasaki, Takao; Yasumoto, Sawa; Hirose, Shinichi; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have different automatic responses to faces than typically developing (TD) individuals. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 10 individuals with high-functioning ASD (HFASD) and 10 TD individuals. Visual stimuli consisted of upright and inverted faces (fearful and neutral) and objects…

  6. Electric Field Measurements During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, Monte G.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field program, a system of 6 electric field mills was flown on one of NASA's Global Hawk aircraft. We placed several mills on the aircraft to enable us to measure the vector electric field. We created a distributed, ethernet-connected system so that each sensor has its own embedded Linux system, complete with web server. This makes our current generation system fully "sensor web enabled." The Global Hawk has several unique qualities, but relevant to quality storm electric field measurements are high altitude (20 km) and long duration (20-30 hours) flights. There are several aircraft participating in the GRIP program, and coordinated measurements are happening. Lightning and electric field measurements will be used to study the relationships between lightning and other storm characteristics. It has been long understood that lightning can be used as a marker for strong convective activity. Past research and field programs suggest that lightning flash rate may serve as an indicator and precursor for rapid intensification change in tropical cyclones and hurricanes. We have the opportunity to sample hurricanes for many hours at a time and observe intensification (or de-intensification) periods. The electrical properties of hurricanes during such periods are not well known. American

  7. Controlling the freezing process: a robotic device for rapidly freezing biological tissues with millisecond time resolution.

    PubMed

    Tikunov, Boris A; Rome, Lawrence C

    2007-10-01

    A robotic cryogenic device was developed which allows freezing of thick biological tissues with millisecond time resolution. The device consists of two horizontally oriented hammers (pre-cooled with liquid N(2)) driven by two linear servo-motors. The tissue sample is bathed in Ringers contained in a chamber which drops rapidly out of the way just as the hammers approach. A third linear motor is vertically oriented, and permits the rapidly dropping chamber to smoothly decelerate. All movements were performed by the three motors and four solenoids controlled by a PC. Mechanical adjustments, that change the size of the gap between the hammers at the end position, permit the final thickness of the frozen tissue to be varied. Here we show that the freezing time increased with the square of the final thickness of the frozen bundle. However, when bundles of different original thicknesses (up to at least 1mm) were compressed to the same final thickness (e.g., 0.2mm), they exhibited nearly equal freezing times. Hence, by being able to adjust the final thickness of the frozen bundles, the device not only speeds the rate of freezing, but standardizes the freezing time for different diameter samples. This permits the use of freezing for accurate determination of the kinetics of cellular processes in biological tissue.

  8. Synchronous rapid start-up of the methanation and anammox processes in two-stage ASBRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Y.; Li, W. R.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The “methanation + anaerobic ammonia oxidation autotrophic denitrification” method was adopted by using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) and realized a satisfactory synchronous removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH4 +-N) in wastewater after 75 days operation. 90% of COD was removed at a COD load of 1.2 kg/(m3•d) and 90% of TN was removed at a TN load of 0.14 kg/(m3•d). The anammox reaction ratio was estimated to be 1: 1.32: 0.26. The results showed that synchronous rapid start-up of the methanation and anaerobic ammonia oxidation processes in two-stage ASBRs was feasible.

  9. New neurons clear the path of astrocytic processes for their rapid migration in the adult brain.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Naoko; Marín, Oscar; Koike, Masato; Hirota, Yuki; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Wu, Jane Y; Lu, Qiang; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Okano, Hideyuki; Rubenstein, John L R; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2010-07-29

    In the long-range neuronal migration of adult mammals, young neurons travel from the subventricular zone to the olfactory bulb, a long journey (millimeters to centimeters, depending on the species). How can these neurons migrate through the dense meshwork of neuronal and glial processes of the adult brain parenchyma? Previous studies indicate that young neurons achieve this by migrating in chains through astrocytic tunnels. Here, we report that young migrating neurons actively control the formation and maintenance of their own migration route. New neurons secrete the diffusible protein Slit1, whose receptor, Robo, is expressed on astrocytes. We show that the Slit-Robo pathway is required for morphologic and organizational changes in astrocytes that result in the formation and maintenance of the astrocytic tunnels. Through this neuron-glia interaction, the new neurons regulate the formation of the astrocytic meshwork that is needed to enable their rapid and directional migration in adult brain.

  10. Measurements of crystal growth kinetics at extreme deviations from equilibrium. [Rapid solidification processing

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, M.J.

    1993-05-07

    We have measured solute trapping of Sn in Al over a wide enough range of velocities to make a quantitative test of theory. The Continuous Growth Model of Aziz is the only one-parameter model that fits the data. We have also measured the diffusive speed - the growth rate at which interfacial partitioning is in mid-transition between equilibrium partitioning and complete solute trapping - for several solutes in A1. We have found an inverse correlation between the equilibrium partition coefficient and the diffusive speed. Taken together, these results give us heretofore unprecedented predictive capability in modeling rapid solidification processing. We have also examined theoretically short-range diffusion-limited growth, characteristic of incomplete solute trapping, and interface-limited growth, characteristic of complete solute trapping, in alloy solidification and have shown that the two regimes fall naturally out of a single unified theory of solidification.

  11. Processing of short auditory stimuli: the rapid audio sequential presentation paradigm (RASP).

    PubMed

    Suied, Clara; Agus, Trevor R; Thorpe, Simon J; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Human listeners seem to be remarkably able to recognise acoustic sound sources based on timbre cues. Here we describe a psychophysical paradigm to estimate the time it takes to recognise a set of complex sounds differing only in timbre cues: both in terms of the minimum duration of the sounds and the inferred neural processing time. Listeners had to respond to the human voice while ignoring a set of distractors. All sounds were recorded from natural sources over the same pitch range and equalised to the same duration and power. In a first experiment, stimuli were gated in time with a raised-cosine window of variable duration and random onset time. A voice/non-voice (yes/no) task was used. Performance, as measured by d', remained above chance for the shortest sounds tested (2 ms); d's above 1 were observed for durations longer than or equal to 8 ms. Then, we constructed sequences of short sounds presented in rapid succession. Listeners were asked to report the presence of a single voice token that could occur at a random position within the sequence. This method is analogous to the "rapid sequential visual presentation" paradigm (RSVP), which has been used to evaluate neural processing time for images. For 500-ms sequences made of 32-ms and 16-ms sounds, d' remained above chance for presentation rates of up to 30 sounds per second. There was no effect of the pitch relation between successive sounds: identical for all sounds in the sequence or random for each sound. This implies that the task was not determined by streaming or forward masking, as both phenomena would predict better performance for the random pitch condition. Overall, the recognition of familiar sound categories such as the voice seems to be surprisingly fast, both in terms of the acoustic duration required and of the underlying neural time constants.

  12. Accessing thermoplastic processing windows in metallic glasses using rapid capacitive discharge

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Harris, Thomas; Sun, Kerry; Tran, Thomas; Chang, Gregory; Schramm, Joseph P.; Demetriou, Marios D.; Johnson, William L.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the rapid-capacitive discharge approach to access optimal viscosity ranges in metallic glasses for thermoplastic processing is explored. Using high-speed thermal imaging, the heating uniformity and stability against crystallization of Zr35Ti30Cu7.5Be27.5 metallic glass heated deeply into the supercooled region is investigated. The method enables homogeneous volumetric heating of bulk samples throughout the entire supercooled liquid region at high rates (~105 K/s) sufficient to bypass crystallization throughout. The crystallization onsets at temperatures in the vicinity of the “crystallization nose” were identified and a Time-Temperature-Transformation diagram is constructed, revealing a “critical heating rate” for the metallic glass of ~1000 K/s. Thermoplastic process windows in the optimal viscosity range of 100–104 Pa·s are identified, being confined between the glass relaxation and the eutectic crystallization transition. Within this process window, near-net forging of a fine precision metallic glass part is demonstrated. PMID:25269892

  13. Rapid thermal processing chamber for in-situ x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Md. Imteyaz; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Yu, Jiafan; Pool, Vanessa L.; Van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Toney, Michael F.; Fields, Jeremy D.; Parilla, Philip A.; Ginley, David S.

    2015-01-15

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is widely used for processing a variety of materials, including electronics and photovoltaics. Presently, optimization of RTP is done primarily based on ex-situ studies. As a consequence, the precise reaction pathways and phase progression during the RTP remain unclear. More awareness of the reaction pathways would better enable process optimization and foster increased adoption of RTP, which offers numerous advantages for synthesis of a broad range of materials systems. To achieve this, we have designed and developed a RTP instrument that enables real-time collection of X-ray diffraction data with intervals as short as 100 ms, while heating with ramp rates up to 100 °Cs{sup −1}, and with a maximum operating temperature of 1200 °C. The system is portable and can be installed on a synchrotron beamline. The unique capabilities of this instrument are demonstrated with in-situ characterization of a Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} glass frit obtained during heating with ramp rates 5 °C s{sup −1} and 100 °C s{sup −1}, revealing numerous phase changes.

  14. Accessing thermoplastic processing windows in metallic glasses using rapid capacitive discharge.

    PubMed

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Harris, Thomas; Sun, Kerry; Tran, Thomas; Chang, Gregory; Schramm, Joseph P; Demetriou, Marios D; Johnson, William L

    2014-10-01

    The ability of the rapid-capacitive discharge approach to access optimal viscosity ranges in metallic glasses for thermoplastic processing is explored. Using high-speed thermal imaging, the heating uniformity and stability against crystallization of Zr35Ti30Cu7.5Be27.5 metallic glass heated deeply into the supercooled region is investigated. The method enables homogeneous volumetric heating of bulk samples throughout the entire supercooled liquid region at high rates (~10(5) K/s) sufficient to bypass crystallization throughout. The crystallization onsets at temperatures in the vicinity of the "crystallization nose" were identified and a Time-Temperature-Transformation diagram is constructed, revealing a "critical heating rate" for the metallic glass of ~1000 K/s. Thermoplastic process windows in the optimal viscosity range of 10(0)-10(4) Pa · s are identified, being confined between the glass relaxation and the eutectic crystallization transition. Within this process window, near-net forging of a fine precision metallic glass part is demonstrated.

  15. The Frequency of Rapid Pupil Dilations as a Measure of Linguistic Processing Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Demberg, Vera; Sayeed, Asad

    2016-01-01

    While it has long been known that the pupil reacts to cognitive load, pupil size has received little attention in cognitive research because of its long latency and the difficulty of separating effects of cognitive load from the light reflex or effects due to eye movements. A novel measure, the Index of Cognitive Activity (ICA), relates cognitive effort to the frequency of small rapid dilations of the pupil. We report here on a total of seven experiments which test whether the ICA reliably indexes linguistically induced cognitive load: three experiments in reading (a manipulation of grammatical gender match / mismatch, an experiment of semantic fit, and an experiment comparing locally ambiguous subject versus object relative clauses, all in German), three dual-task experiments with simultaneous driving and spoken language comprehension (using the same manipulations as in the single-task reading experiments), and a visual world experiment comparing the processing of causal versus concessive discourse markers. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect and time course of the ICA in language processing. All of our experiments support the idea that the ICA indexes linguistic processing difficulty. The effects of our linguistic manipulations on the ICA are consistent for reading and auditory presentation. Furthermore, our experiments show that the ICA allows for usage within a multi-task paradigm. Its robustness with respect to eye movements means that it is a valid measure of processing difficulty for usage within the visual world paradigm, which will allow researchers to assess both visual attention and processing difficulty at the same time, using an eye-tracker. We argue that the ICA is indicative of activity in the locus caeruleus area of the brain stem, which has recently also been linked to P600 effects observed in psycholinguistic EEG experiments. PMID:26799065

  16. Late Quaternary Climate Forcing of Rapid Sedimentation and Erosion Processes in the NW Himalaya (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookhagen, B.; Scherler, D.; Strecker, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    The intensity of the Asian summer-monsoon circulation varies over decadal to millennial time scales and is reflected in changes in surface processes, terrestrial environments, and marine sediment records. The impact of climatic forcing on the landscape’s response and associated erosion processes varies, depending on magnitude and size of the climatic events, as well as on the tectonic and geomorphologic preconditioning of the landscape. Here, we present new surface-exposure ages combined with previously published data to quantify erosion and process rates and their changes through the time. The NW Himalaya is located at the end of the monsoonal conveyer belt that transports moisture from the Bay of Bengal to the Sutlej Valley and farther west. Along the Himalaya, orographic barriers force out rainfall with peak amounts located consistently at a 3-km-radius relief of ~1 km. The tail and northward end of the rainfall distribution decays rapidly with only little or no moisture reaching the southern Tibetan Plateau. However, during a generally stronger monsoon circulation in the early Holocene called the Intensified Monsoon Phase rainfall reached the today arid regions of the northern Himalaya and southern Tibetan Plateau as documented in numerous terrestrial sediment archives. During this time period in the NW Himalaya, the presently arid, high-elevation areas have been impacted by flooding and heavy landsliding ultimately leading to a significant increase in sediment-flux rates. Some of the sediment material has been derived from glaciers. We show that the transiently-stored sediments in these valleys have been rapidly removed during the early Holocene at the onset of the Intensified Monsoon Phase. The limiting factor for sediment removal and transport on millennial timescales are large bedrock landslides that impounded the river network and formed intramontane basins lasting for several thousands of years. We suggest a feedback process between sediment removal and

  17. A New Mechanism in Electrochemical Process for Arsenic Oxidation: Production of H2O2 from Anodic O2 Reduction on the Cathode under Automatically Developed Alkaline Conditions.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ao; Yuan, Songhu; Zhang, Peng; Tong, Man

    2015-05-05

    Electrochemical cathodes are often used to reduce contaminants or produce oxidizing substances (i.e., H2O2). Alkaline conditions develop automatically around the cathode in electrochemical processes, and O2 diffuses onto the cathode easily. However, limited attention is paid to contaminant transformation by the reactive species produced on the cathode under oxic and alkaline conditions due to the inapplicability of pH for Fenton reaction. In this study, a new oxidation mechanism on the cathode is presented for contaminant transformation under automatically developed alkaline conditions. In an electrochemical sand column, 6.67 μM As(III) was oxidized by 36% when it passed through the cathode under the conditions of 30 mA current, an initial pH of 7.5 and a flow rate of 2 mL/min. Under the alkaline conditions (pH 10.0-11.0) that developed automatically around the cathode, the reduction potential of As(III) decreased greatly, allowing a pronounced oxidation by the small quantities of H2O2 produced from O2 reduction on the cathode. As(III) oxidation was further increased by the presence of soil pore water and groundwater solutes of HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+ and humic acid. The new oxidation mechanism found for the cathode under localized alkaline conditions supplements the fundamentals of contaminant transformation in electrochemical processes.

  18. A graphically oriented specification language for automatic code generation. GRASP/Ada: A Graphical Representation of Algorithms, Structure, and Processes for Ada, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II; Morrison, Kelly I.; May, Charles H., Jr.; Waddel, Kathryn C.

    1989-01-01

    The first phase of a three-phase effort to develop a new graphically oriented specification language which will facilitate the reverse engineering of Ada source code into graphical representations (GRs) as well as the automatic generation of Ada source code is described. A simplified view of the three phases of Graphical Representations for Algorithms, Structure, and Processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada) with respect to three basic classes of GRs is presented. Phase 1 concentrated on the derivation of an algorithmic diagram, the control structure diagram (CSD) (CRO88a) from Ada source code or Ada PDL. Phase 2 includes the generation of architectural and system level diagrams such as structure charts and data flow diagrams and should result in a requirements specification for a graphically oriented language able to support automatic code generation. Phase 3 will concentrate on the development of a prototype to demonstrate the feasibility of this new specification language.

  19. Rapid microassays for the measurement of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production by macrophages in culture using an automatic enzyme immunoassay reader.

    PubMed

    Pick, E; Mizel, D

    1981-01-01

    Two simple semiautomated microassays for the measurement of superoxide (O-2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production by cultured macrophages (MPs) are described. The measurement of O-2 is based on the reduction of ferricytochrome c as assayed by the increase in its absorbance at 550 nm. Quantitation of H2O2 is based on the horseradish peroxidase (HRPO)-dependent oxidation of phenol red which is assayed by its increased absorbance at 600 nm. MPs are cultured in monolayers in 96-well flat-bottom tissue culture plates and covered with 100 mul amounts per well of either a ferricytochrome c solution containing phenol red and HRPO. Following the addition of an agent eliciting an oxidative burst (OB) and incubation of the plates at 37 degrees C for various time intervals, the changes in the absorbance of ferricytochrome c and phenol red, respectively, are measured directly in the wells of the tissue culture plates with the cells in situ, by using an automatic 8-channel photometer which reads absorbances vertically through individual wells. This instrument, which was originally designed for reading enzyme immunoassays in microtitration plates, can be easily adapted for use in the above test, when fitted with interference filters with wave lengths of 550 nm (for the assay of O-2) and 600 nm (for the assay of H2O2). The principal advantages of this techniques are: the ability to perform the assays directly in the culture plates with cells in situ; the small amounts of cells and reagents needed; its sensitivity and reproducibility; the ease with which kinetic experiments can be done; the large number of samples which can be tested in parallel, and especially the speed and convenience offered by the automated reading and printout of absorbance values.

  20. Convergent Polishing: A Simple, Rapid, Full Aperture Polishing Process of High Quality Optical Flats & Spheres

    PubMed Central

    Suratwala, Tayyab; Steele, Rusty; Feit, Michael; Dylla-Spears, Rebecca; Desjardin, Richard; Mason, Dan; Wong, Lana; Geraghty, Paul; Miller, Phil; Shen, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Convergent Polishing is a novel polishing system and method for finishing flat and spherical glass optics in which a workpiece, independent of its initial shape (i.e., surface figure), will converge to final surface figure with excellent surface quality under a fixed, unchanging set of polishing parameters in a single polishing iteration. In contrast, conventional full aperture polishing methods require multiple, often long, iterative cycles involving polishing, metrology and process changes to achieve the desired surface figure. The Convergent Polishing process is based on the concept of workpiece-lap height mismatch resulting in pressure differential that decreases with removal and results in the workpiece converging to the shape of the lap. The successful implementation of the Convergent Polishing process is a result of the combination of a number of technologies to remove all sources of non-uniform spatial material removal (except for workpiece-lap mismatch) for surface figure convergence and to reduce the number of rogue particles in the system for low scratch densities and low roughness. The Convergent Polishing process has been demonstrated for the fabrication of both flats and spheres of various shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios on various glass materials. The practical impact is that high quality optical components can be fabricated more rapidly, more repeatedly, with less metrology, and with less labor, resulting in lower unit costs. In this study, the Convergent Polishing protocol is specifically described for fabricating 26.5 cm square fused silica flats from a fine ground surface to a polished ~λ/2 surface figure after polishing 4 hr per surface on a 81 cm diameter polisher. PMID:25489745

  1. Rapid Pattern Recognition of Three Dimensional Objects Using Parallel Processing Within a Hierarchy of Hexagonal Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Haojun

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes using parallel processing within a hierarchy of hexagonal grids to achieve rapid recognition of patterns. A seven-pixel basic hexagonal neighborhood, a sixty-one-pixel superneighborhood and pyramids of a 2-to-4 area ratio are employed. The hexagonal network achieves improved accuracy over the square network for object boundaries. The hexagonal grid with less directional sensitivity is a better approximation of the human vision grid, is more suited to natural scenes than the square grid and avoids the 4-neighbor/8-neighbor problem. Parallel processing in image analysis saves considerable time versus the traditional line-by-line method. Hexagonal parallel processing combines the optimum hexagonal geometry with the parallel structure. Our work has surveyed behavior and internal properties to construct the image on the different level of hexagonal pixel grids in a parallel computation scheme. A computer code has been developed to detect edges of digital images of real objects taken with a CCD camera within a hexagonal grid at any level. The algorithm uses the differences of the local gray level and those of its six neighbors, and is able to determine the boundary of a digital image in parallel. Also a series of algorithms and techniques have been built up to manage edge linking, feature extraction, etc. The digital images obtained from the improved CRS digital image processing system are a good approximation to the images which would be obtained with a real physical hexagonal grid. We envision that our work done within this little-known area will have some important applications in real-time machine vision. A parallel two-layer hexagonal-array retina has been designed to do pattern recognition using simple operations such as differencing, rationing, thresholding, etc. which may occur in the human retina and other biological vision systems.

  2. Who is in charge of patient safety? Work practice, work processes and utopian views of automatic drug dispensing systems.

    PubMed

    Balka, Ellen; Kahnamoui, Nicki; Nutland, Kelsey

    2007-06-01

    In June 2003, a large, Canadian tertiary care facility introduced automatic drug dispensing machines on all units when it opened up a new building. In this paper, we provide an overview of the automatic drug dispensing system (ADS) implementation at the hospital. Our findings, based on daily field observations and interviews during and after implementation, with regular follow-up visits to the field site illustrate how the introduction of the ADS brought to light work practices that sometimes compromised patient safety. We suggest that utopian views of automatic drug dispensing machines obfuscate the challenges inherent to implementing such systems, and deter stakeholders from performing rigorous evaluation of the costs (both social and economic) and benefits of investing in such systems. Our work contributes to debates about the socio-technical efficacy of automating medication dispensing and delivery, and suggests that the balance of power in the patient safety equation lies in the work context and implementation issues, and not just the technology. For technology implementations to be successful considering that technologies frequently cross over jurisdictional boundaries, planning and implementation have to be conducted at a system wide level.

  3. Validation of Contamination Control in Rapid Transfer Port Chambers for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shih-Cheng; Shiue, Angus; Liu, Han-Yang; Chiu, Rong-Ben

    2016-01-01

    There is worldwide concern with regard to the adverse effects of drug usage. However, contaminants can gain entry into a drug manufacturing process stream from several sources such as personnel, poor facility design, incoming ventilation air, machinery and other equipment for production, etc. In this validation study, we aimed to determine the impact and evaluate the contamination control in the preparation areas of the rapid transfer port (RTP) chamber during the pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. The RTP chamber is normally tested for airflow velocity, particle counts, pressure decay of leakage, and sterility. The air flow balance of the RTP chamber is affected by the airflow quantity and the height above the platform. It is relatively easy to evaluate the RTP chamber′s leakage by the pressure decay, where the system is charged with the air, closed, and the decay of pressure is measured by the time period. We conducted the determination of a vaporized H2O2 of a sufficient concentration to complete decontamination. The performance of the RTP chamber will improve safety and can be completely tested at an ISO Class 5 environment. PMID:27845748

  4. Rapid thermal processing of high-efficiency silicon solar cells with controlled in-situ annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Doshi, P.; Rohatgi, A.; Ropp, M.; Chen, Z.; Ruby, D.; Meier, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 17.1%, 16.4%, 14.8%, and 14.9% have been achieved on FZ, Cz, multicrystalline (mc-Si), and dendritic web (DW) silicon, respectively, using simplified, cost-effective rapid thermal processing (RTP). These represent the highest reported efficiencies for solar cells processed with simultaneous front and back diffusion with no conventional high-temperature furnace steps. Appropriate diffusion temperature coupled with the added in-situ anneal resulted in suitable minority-carrier lifetime and diffusion profiles for high-efficiency cells. The cooling rate associated with the in-situ anneal can improve the lifetime and lower the reverse saturation current density (J{sub 0}), however, this effect is material and base resistivity specific. PECVD antireflection (AR) coatings provided low reflectance and efficient front surface and bulk defect passivation. Conventional cells fabricated on FZ silicon by furnace diffusions and oxidations gave an efficiency of 18.8% due to greater short wavelength response and lower J{sub 0}.

  5. Rapid prototyping of update algorithm of discrete Fourier transform for real-time signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakad, Yogendra P.; Sherlock, Barry G.; Chatapuram, Krishnan V.; Bishop, Stephen

    2001-10-01

    An algorithm is developed in the companion paper, to update the existing DFT to represent the new data series that results when a new signal point is received. Updating the DFT in this way uses less computation than directly evaluating the DFT using the FFT algorithm, This reduces the computational order by a factor of log2 N. The algorithm is able to work in the presence of data window function, for use with rectangular window, the split triangular, Hanning, Hamming, and Blackman windows. In this paper, a hardware implementation of this algorithm, using FPGA technology, is outlined. Unlike traditional fully customized VLSI circuits, FPGAs represent a technical break through in the corresponding industry. The FPGA implements thousands of gates of logic in a single IC chip and it can be programmed by users at their site in a few seconds or less depending on the type of device used. The risk is low and the development time is short. The advantages have made FPGAs very popular for rapid prototyping of algorithms in the area of digital communication, digital signal processing, and image processing. Our paper addresses the related issues of implementation using hardware descriptive language in the development of the design and the subsequent downloading on the programmable hardware chip.

  6. Copper silicide formation by rapid thermal processing and induced room-temperature Si oxide growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setton, M.; Van der Spiegel, J.; Rothman, B.

    1990-07-01

    The growth of copper silicide has been studied by rapid thermal processing (RTP) of 500 Å of Cu on Si substrates. Interaction between the diffusing metal and Si starts at 250-300 °C. Annealing at higher temperatures yields complete silicidation to Cu3Si. This leads to strong modifications of the Auger line shapes of both Si and Cu. A plasmon peak located 20 eV below the main peak is the fingerprint in the Cu spectrum. Strong features at 80, 85.6, 89.2, and 93.2 eV as well as a 1 eV shift of the 90.4 eV peak appear in the Si L2,3VV spectrum. Whether for Cu films annealed in nitrogen or in vacuum, exposure of the silicide to air results in the growth of silicon oxide at room temperature and continues until the silicide layer is totally converted. This repeatable and controllable oxidation of silicon is accompanied by changes in resistivity and color reflecting the extent of the process. For Cu/CoSi2/Si structures, the cobalt silicide acts as a transport medium for the growth of the copper silicide and also serves as a cap preventing the oxidation of the final CoSi2/Cu3Si/Si contacts

  7. Validation of Contamination Control in Rapid Transfer Port Chambers for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shih-Cheng; Shiue, Angus; Liu, Han-Yang; Chiu, Rong-Ben

    2016-11-12

    There is worldwide concern with regard to the adverse effects of drug usage. However, contaminants can gain entry into a drug manufacturing process stream from several sources such as personnel, poor facility design, incoming ventilation air, machinery and other equipment for production, etc. In this validation study, we aimed to determine the impact and evaluate the contamination control in the preparation areas of the rapid transfer port (RTP) chamber during the pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. The RTP chamber is normally tested for airflow velocity, particle counts, pressure decay of leakage, and sterility. The air flow balance of the RTP chamber is affected by the airflow quantity and the height above the platform. It is relatively easy to evaluate the RTP chamber's leakage by the pressure decay, where the system is charged with the air, closed, and the decay of pressure is measured by the time period. We conducted the determination of a vaporized H₂O₂ of a sufficient concentration to complete decontamination. The performance of the RTP chamber will improve safety and can be completely tested at an ISO Class 5 environment.

  8. Acoustic-resonance spectrometry as a process analytical technology for rapid and accurate tablet identification.

    PubMed

    Medendorp, Joseph; Lodder, Robert A

    2006-03-01

    This research was performed to test the hypothesis that acoustic-resonance spectrometry (ARS) is able to rapidly and accurately differentiate tablets of similar size and shape. The US Food and Drug Administration frequently orders recalls of tablets because of labeling problems (eg, the wrong tablet appears in a bottle). A high-throughput, nondestructive method of online analysis and label comparison before shipping could obviate the need for recall or disposal of a batch of mislabeled drugs, thus saving a company considerable expense and preventing a major safety risk. ARS is accurate and precise as well as inexpensive and nondestructive, and the sensor, is constructed from readily available parts, suggesting utility as a process analytical technology (PAT). To test the classification ability of ARS, 5 common household tablets of similar size and shape were chosen for analysis (aspirin, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, vitamin C, and vitamin B12). The measures of successful tablet identification were intertablet distances in nonparametric multidimensional standard deviations (MSDs) greater than, 3 and intratablet MSDs less than 3, as calculated from an extended bootstrap erroradjusted single sample technique. The average intertablet MSD was 65.64, while the average intratablet MSD from cross-validation was 1.91. Tablet mass (r(2)=0.977), thickness (r(2)=0.977), and density (r(2)=0.900) were measured very accurately from the AR spectra, each with less than 10% error. Tablets were identified correctly with only 250 ms data collection time. These results demonstrate that ARS effectively identified and characterized the 5 types of tablets and could potentially serve as a rapid high-throughput online pharmaceutical sensor.

  9. Rapid assessment of the toxicity of oil sands process-affected waters using fish cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sansom, Bryan; Vo, Nguyen T K; Kavanagh, Richard; Hanner, Robert; Mackinnon, Michael; Dixon, D George; Lee, Lucy E J

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and reliable toxicity assessment of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) is needed to support oil sands reclamation projects. Conventional toxicity tests using whole animals are relatively slow, costly, and often subjective, while at the same time requiring the sacrifice of test organisms as is the case with lethal dosage/concentration assays. A nonlethal alternative, using fish cell lines, has been developed for its potential use in supporting oil sands reclamation planning and to help predict the viability of aquatic reclamation models such as end-pit lakes. This study employed six fish cell lines (WF-2, GFSk-S1, RTL-W1, RTgill-W1, FHML, FHMT) in 24 h viability assays for rapid fluorometric assessment of cellular integrity and functionality. Forty-nine test water samples collected from the surface of oil sands developments in the Athabasca Oil Sands deposit, north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, were evaluated in blind. Small subsample volumes (8 ml) were mixed with 2 ml of 5× concentrated exposure media and used for direct cell exposures. All cell line responses in terms of viability as measured by Alamar blue assay, correlated well with the naphthenic acids (NA) content in the samples (R (2) between 0.4519 and 0.6171; p<0.0001) when data comparisons were performed after the bioassays. NA or total acid-extractable organics group has been shown to be responsible for most of the acute toxicity of OSPW and our results further corroborate this. The multifish cell line bioassay provides a strong degree of reproducibility among tested cell lines and good relative sensitivity of the cell line bioassay as compared to available in vivo data that could lead to cost effective, high-throughput screening assays.

  10. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the

  11. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-02-16

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system.

  12. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  13. Crystallization of sputtered lead zirconate titanate films by rapid thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasant Kumar, C. V. R.; Pascual, R.; Sayer, M.

    1992-01-01

    A rapid thermal annealing (RTA) technique has been employed to process lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering. The films were fabricated by dc sputtering a multielement metal target in an oxygen ambient at a substrate temperature of 200 °C. A subsequent postdeposition RTA at 600 °C for 5 s crystallizes the films into a perovskite-type structure through various intermediate phases. Due to the short postdeposition processing times inherent in the RTA method, the initial nature of the as-grown films has a critical influence on the crystallization kinetics. The reaction sequence in the formation of perovskite PZT from the films deposited at low substrate temperatures by the sputtering technique has been evaluated, and various key factors influencing the crystallization of PZT have been identified. As-grown films are constituted of polycrystalline orthorhombic lead oxide in an amorphous matrix of titania and zirconia. During annealing lead oxide transforms into a cubic phase, and the lead oxide stoichiometry determines the processing route to PZT. In the case of lead-rich films, intermediate compounds of lead with titania and zirconia are observed, which react during the final stage of annealing at 600 °C to form PZT. In lead-deficient films, the formation of a pyrochlore phase has been observed, which crystallizes into perovskite at 750 °C. The Zr/Ti ratio also influences the crystallization sequence. In the case of Ti-rich PZT, the intermediate compounds initially involve a zirconium-rich rhombohedral PZT, with which residual titanium reacts to form tetragonal PZT. The films showed good ferroelectric and other electrical properties with a remanent polarization of 24 μC/cm2, coercive field of 32 kV/cm, ɛ'=950, tan δ=0.02, and σdc (300 K)=10-12 Ω-1 cm-1 with an activation energy between 0.9 and 1.4 eV.

  14. A RAPID Method for Blood Processing to Increase the Yield of Plasma Peptide Levels in Human Blood.

    PubMed

    Teuffel, Pauline; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Hofmann, Tobias; Prinz, Philip; Scharner, Sophie; Körner, Jan L; Grötzinger, Carsten; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas

    2016-04-28

    Research in the field of food intake regulation is gaining importance. This often includes the measurement of peptides regulating food intake. For the correct determination of a peptide's concentration, it should be stable during blood processing. However, this is not the case for several peptides which are quickly degraded by endogenous peptidases. Recently, we developed a blood processing method employing Reduced temperatures, Acidification, Protease inhibition, Isotopic exogenous controls and Dilution (RAPID) for the use in rats. Here, we have established this technique for the use in humans and investigated recovery, molecular form and circulating concentration of food intake regulatory hormones. The RAPID method significantly improved the recovery for (125)I-labeled somatostatin-28 (+39%), glucagon-like peptide-1 (+35%), acyl ghrelin and glucagon (+32%), insulin and kisspeptin (+29%), nesfatin-1 (+28%), leptin (+21%) and peptide YY3-36 (+19%) compared to standard processing (EDTA blood on ice, p <0.001). High performance liquid chromatography showed the elution of endogenous acyl ghrelin at the expected position after RAPID processing, while after standard processing 62% of acyl ghrelin were degraded resulting in an earlier peak likely representing desacyl ghrelin. After RAPID processing the acyl/desacyl ghrelin ratio in blood of normal weight subjects was 1:3 compared to 1:23 following standard processing (p = 0.03). Also endogenous kisspeptin levels were higher after RAPID compared to standard processing (+99%, p = 0.02). The RAPID blood processing method can be used in humans, yields higher peptide levels and allows for assessment of the correct molecular form.

  15. Meta-analytic moderators of experimental exposure to media portrayals of women on female appearance satisfaction: Social comparisons as automatic processes.

    PubMed

    Want, Stephen C

    2009-09-01

    Experimental exposure to idealized media portrayals of women is thought to induce social comparisons in female viewers and thereby to be generally detrimental to female viewers' satisfaction with their own appearance. Through meta-analysis, the present paper examines the impact of moderators of this effect, some identified and updated from a prior meta-analysis and some that have hitherto received little attention. Participants' pre-existing appearance concerns and the processing instructions participants were given when exposed to media portrayals were found to significantly moderate effect sizes. With regard to processing instructions, a novel and counter-intuitive pattern was revealed; effect sizes were smallest when participants were instructed to focus on the appearance of women in media portrayals, and largest when participants processed the portrayals on a distracting, non-appearance dimension. These results are interpreted through a framework that suggests that social comparisons are automatic processes, the effects of which can be modified through conscious processing.

  16. Does a Sensory Processing Deficit Explain Counting Accuracy on Rapid Visual Sequencing Tasks in Adults with and without Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Elizabeth G.; Wright, Craig M.; Norris, Karla; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The experiments conducted aimed to investigate whether reduced accuracy when counting stimuli presented in rapid temporal sequence in adults with dyslexia could be explained by a sensory processing deficit, a general slowing in processing speed or difficulties shifting attention between stimuli. To achieve these aims, the influence of the…

  17. Development of Rapid Identification and Risk Analysis of Moniliella Spp. in Acidic Processed Foods.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Motokazu; Hosoya, Kouichi; Shimizu-Imanishi, Yumi; Chibana, Hiroji; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The number of spoilage incidents in the food industry attributable to a species of the genus Moniliella has recently increased, but the risk of food spoilage has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to rapidly identify high-risk species and to conduct a risk analysis study of Moniliella spp. Acetic acid resistance of M. acetoabutens and ethanol resistance of M. suaveolens were higher than for other Moniliella species. All examined strains of M. acetoabutens developed a high tolerance to acetic acid by being cultured twice in liquid media containing low concentrations of acetic acid. These findings indicate that M. acetoabutens and M. suaveolens are high-risk species for food spoilage and must be discriminated from other fungi. We developed species-specific primers to identify M. acetoabutens and M. suaveolens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the D1/D2 domain of 28S rDNA. The PCR using the primer sets designed for M. acetoabutens (Mac_F1/R1) and M. suaveolens (Msu_F1/R1) was specific to the target species and did not detect other fungi involved in food spoilage or environmental contamination. This method is expected to be effective for the monitoring of raw materials and components of the food production process.

  18. Investigating the fluid dynamics of rapid processes within microfluidic devices using bright-field microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pirbodaghi, Tohid; Vigolo, Daniele; Akbari, Samin; deMello, Andrew

    2015-05-07

    The widespread application of microfluidic devices in the biological and chemical sciences requires the implementation of complex designs and geometries, which in turn leads to atypical fluid dynamic phenomena. Accordingly, a complete understanding of fluid dynamics in such systems is key in the facile engineering of novel and efficient analytical tools. Herein, we present an accurate approach for studying the fluid dynamics of rapid processes within microfluidic devices using bright-field microscopy with white light illumination and a standard high-speed camera. Specifically, we combine Ghost Particle Velocimetry and the detection of moving objects in automated video surveillance to track submicron size tracing particles via cross correlation between the speckle patterns of successive images. The efficacy of the presented technique is demonstrated by measuring the flow field over a square pillar (80 μm × 80 μm) in a 200 μm wide microchannel at high volumetric flow rates. Experimental results are in excellent agreement with those obtained via computational fluid dynamics simulations. The method is subsequently used to study the dynamics of droplet generation at a flow focusing microfluidic geometry. A unique feature of the presented technique is the ability to perform velocimetry analysis of high-speed phenomena, which is not possible using micron-resolution particle image velocimetry (μPIV) approaches based on confocal or fluorescence microscopy.

  19. Training in rapid auditory processing ameliorates auditory comprehension in aphasic patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Szelag, Elzbieta; Lewandowska, Monika; Wolak, Tomasz; Seniow, Joanna; Poniatowska, Renata; Pöppel, Ernst; Szymaszek, Aneta

    2014-03-15

    Experimental studies have often reported close associations between rapid auditory processing and language competency. The present study was aimed at improving auditory comprehension in aphasic patients following specific training in the perception of temporal order (TO) of events. We tested 18 aphasic patients showing both comprehension and TO perception deficits. Auditory comprehension was assessed by the Token Test, phonemic awareness and Voice-Onset-Time Test. The TO perception was assessed using auditory Temporal-Order-Threshold, defined as the shortest interval between two consecutive stimuli, necessary to report correctly their before-after relation. Aphasic patients participated in eight 45-minute sessions of either specific temporal training (TT, n=11) aimed to improve sequencing abilities, or control non-temporal training (NT, n=7) focussed on volume discrimination. The TT yielded improved TO perception; moreover, a transfer of improvement was observed from the time domain to the language domain, which was untrained during the training. The NT did not improve either the TO perception or comprehension in any language test. These results are in agreement with previous literature studies which proved ameliorated language competency following the TT in language-learning-impaired or dyslexic children. Our results indicated for the first time such benefits also in aphasic patients.

  20. Processing of pure Ti by rapid prototyping based on laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias-González, F.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Rapid prototyping based on laser cladding is an additive manufacturing (AM) process based on the overlapping of cladding tracks to produce functional components. Powder or wire are fed into a melting pool created using laser radiation as a heat source and the relative movement between the beam and the work piece makes possible to generate pieces layer-by-layer. This technique can be applied for any material which can be melted and the components can be manufactured directly according to a computer aided design (CAD) model. Additive manufacturing is particularly interesting to produce titanium components because, in this case, the loss of material produced by subtractive manufacturing methods is highly costly. Moreover, titanium and its alloys are widely used in biomedical, aircraft, chemical and marine industries due to their biocompatibility, excellent corrosion resistance and superior strength-to-weight ratio. In this research work, a near-infrared laser delivering a maximum power of 500W is used to produce pure titanium thin parts. Dimensions and surface morphology are characterized using Optical Microscopy (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), the hardness by nanoindentation and the composition by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The aim of this work is to establish the conditions under which satisfactory properties are obtained and to understand the relationship between microstructure/properties and deposition parameters.

  1. Influence of process parameters on the weld lines formation in rapid heat cycle molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorotto, Marco; Lucchetta, Giovanni

    2011-05-01

    The insufficient entanglement of the molecular chains at the v-notch of a weld line impairs the mechanical strength and the surface quality of a plastic product. The rapid heat cycle molding technology (RHCM) has been recently used to enhance surface appearance of the parts, by thermally cycling the mold surface temperature. The mold temperature is the key of RHCM technology because it significantly affects productivity, energy efficiency and the quality of the final polymer part. In this work the influence of mold temperature on the weld lines depth and roughness were studied. Three different materials were tested. To investigate the influence of process parameters, a special mold insert was designed and manufactured. Weld lines geometry and roughness were quantitatively characterized by means of a profilometer. Experimental results show that is possible to increase the temperature to 10° C lower than the glass transition to obtain a high-gloss parts without weld lines with a significant reduction of cycle time and energy consumption.

  2. Automatic analysis of microscopic images of red blood cell aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menichini, Pablo A.; Larese, Mónica G.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.

    2015-06-01

    Red blood cell aggregation is one of the most important factors in blood viscosity at stasis or at very low rates of flow. The basic structure of aggregates is a linear array of cell commonly termed as rouleaux. Enhanced or abnormal aggregation is seen in clinical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, producing alterations in the microcirculation, some of which can be analyzed through the characterization of aggregated cells. Frequently, image processing and analysis for the characterization of RBC aggregation were done manually or semi-automatically using interactive tools. We propose a system that processes images of RBC aggregation and automatically obtains the characterization and quantification of the different types of RBC aggregates. Present technique could be interesting to perform the adaptation as a routine used in hemorheological and Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories because this automatic method is rapid, efficient and economical, and at the same time independent of the user performing the analysis (repeatability of the analysis).

  3. Preliminary results of processing of Pulkovo series of photographic observations of double star 61 Cygni measured by automatic machine "Fantasy"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshanov, D. L.; Shakht, N. A.; Kisselev, A. A.; Polyakov, E. V.; Bronnikova, A. A.; Kanaev, I. I.

    2003-11-01

    Two long-term series of photographic observations of one of the nearest double star 61 Cygni have been obtained at Pulkovo by means of normal astrograph in 1895-2000 (I) and by means of 26'' refractor in 1958-2000 (II). All these observations have been measured by means automatic machine "Fantasy" with mean error of yearly positions 0.016'' and 0.008'' for I and II series correspondly. The periodic deviations with period 6.4 +/- 0.5 yr in the residuals in relative distances between components are noticed for series II.

  4. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cantiani, Chiara; Molteni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP) deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of non-verbal tone sequences. Participants were 46 children aged 8–14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia). Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ) (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length), and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children's performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children's difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older) children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs. short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs. long tones and for long vs. short ISIs predict non-word and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness. In conclusion, the relationship between non-verbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with subgroup

  5. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cantiani, Chiara; Molteni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP) deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of non-verbal tone sequences. Participants were 46 children aged 8-14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia). Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ) (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length), and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children's performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children's difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older) children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs. short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs. long tones and for long vs. short ISIs predict non-word and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness. In conclusion, the relationship between non-verbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with subgroup

  6. MATURE: A Model Driven bAsed Tool to Automatically Generate a langUage That suppoRts CMMI Process Areas spEcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musat, David; Castaño, Víctor; Calvo-Manzano, Jose A.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Many companies have achieved a higher quality in their processes by using CMMI. Process definition may be efficiently supported by software tools. A higher automation level will make process improvement and assessment activities easier to be adapted to customer needs. At present, automation of CMMI is based on tools that support practice definition in a textual way. These tools are often enhanced spreadsheets. In this paper, following the Model Driven Development paradigm (MDD), a tool that supports automatic generation of a language that can be used to specify process areas practices is presented. The generation is performed from a metamodel that represents CMMI. This tool, differently from others available, can be customized according to user needs. Guidelines to specify the CMMI metamodel are also provided. The paper also shows how this approach can support other assessment methods.

  7. Modeling of storm runoff and pollutant wash off processes during storm event in rapidly urbanizing catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H. P.; Yu, X. Y.; Khu, S. T.

    2009-04-01

    Many urban catchments in developing countries are undergoing fast economic growth, population expansion and land use/cover change. Due to the mixture of agricultural/industrial/residential land use or different urbanization level as well as lack of historical monitoring data in the developing area, storm-water runoff pollution modeling is faced with challenges of considerable spatial variations and data insufficiency. Shiyan Reservoir catchment is located in the rapidly urbanizing coastal region of Southeast China. It has six sub-catchments with largely different land use patterns and urbanization levels. A simple semi-distributed model was used to simulate the storm-water runoff pollution process during storm event in the catchment. The model adopted modified IHACRES model and exponential wash-off functions to describe storm-runoff and pollutant wash-off processes, respectively, in each of six sub-catchments. Temporary hydrological and water quality monitoring sites were set at the downstream section of each sub-catchment in Feb-May 2007, spanning non-rain and rain seasons. And the model was calibrated for storm-runoff and water quality data during two typical storm events with rainfall amount of 10mm/4hr and 73mm/5hr, respectively. The results indicated that the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficients are greater than 0.65 and 0.55 respectively for storm-runoff model calibration and validation. However although NS coefficients can reach 0.7~0.9 for pollutant wash-off model calibration based on measured data in each storm event, the simulation data can not fit well with the measured data in model validation. According to field survey observation, many litters and residuals were found to distribute in disorder in some sub-catchments or their drainage systems and to instantaneously wash off into the surface water when the rainfall amount and intensity are large enough. In order to improve storm-water runoff pollution simulation in the catchment, the variations of pollutant

  8. Processing of Mn-Al nanostructured magnets by spark plasma sintering and subsequent rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, P.; Vinod, V. T. P.; Černík, Miroslav; Selvapriya, A.; Chakravarty, Dibyendu; Kamat, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    The potential of spark plasma sintering (SPS) in combination with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for the processing of Mn-Al nanostructured magnets is explored in this study. Ferromagnetic α-Mn alloy powders were processed by high-energy ball milling using Mn (56 at%) and Al (44 at%) as constituent metal elements. The alloying action between Mn and Al due to intensive milling was studied by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscope; while the phase transformation kinetics was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The evolution of ferromagnetic properties in the as-milled powders was studied by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Among the Mn-Al alloy powders collected at various milling intervals, the 25 h milled Mn-Al powders showed a good combination of coercivity, Hc (11.3 kA/m) and saturation magnetization, Ms (5.0 A/m2/kg); accordingly, these powders were chosen for SPS. The SPS experiments were conducted at different temperatures: 773, 873 and 973 K and its effect on the density, phase composition and magnetic properties of the Mn-Al bulk samples were investigated. Upon increasing the SPS temperature from 773 to 973 K, the bulk density was found to increase from 3.6 to 4.0 g/cm3. The occurrence of equilibrium β-phase with significant amount of γ2-phase was obvious at all the SPS temperatures; however, crystallization of some amount of τ-phase was evident at 973 K. Irrespective of the SPS temperatures, all the samples demonstrated soft magnetic behavior with Hc and Ms values similar to those obtained for the 25 h milled powders. The magnetic properties of the SPSed samples were significantly improved upon subjecting them to RTA at 1100 K. Through the RTA process, Hc values of 75, 174 and 194 kA/m and Ms values of 19, 21 and 28 A/m2/kg were achieved for the samples SPSed at 773, 873 and 973 K, respectively. The possible reasons for the observed improvement in the magnetic properties of the SPSed

  9. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  10. Text Mining and Natural Language Processing Approaches for Automatic Categorization of Lay Requests to Web-Based Expert Forums

    PubMed Central

    Reincke, Ulrich; Michelmann, Hans Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Background Both healthy and sick people increasingly use electronic media to obtain medical information and advice. For example, Internet users may send requests to Web-based expert forums, or so-called “ask the doctor” services. Objective To automatically classify lay requests to an Internet medical expert forum using a combination of different text-mining strategies. Methods We first manually classified a sample of 988 requests directed to a involuntary childlessness forum on the German website “Rund ums Baby” (“Everything about Babies”) into one or more of 38 categories belonging to two dimensions (“subject matter” and “expectations”). After creating start and synonym lists, we calculated the average Cramer’s V statistic for the association of each word with each category. We also used principle component analysis and singular value decomposition as further text-mining strategies. With these measures we trained regression models and determined, on the basis of best regression models, for any request the probability of belonging to each of the 38 different categories, with a cutoff of 50%. Recall and precision of a test sample were calculated as a measure of quality for the automatic classification. Results According to the manual classification of 988 documents, 102 (10%) documents fell into the category “in vitro fertilization (IVF),” 81 (8%) into the category “ovulation,” 79 (8%) into “cycle,” and 57 (6%) into “semen analysis.” These were the four most frequent categories in the subject matter dimension (consisting of 32 categories). The expectation dimension comprised six categories; we classified 533 documents (54%) as “general information” and 351 (36%) as a wish for “treatment recommendations.” The generation of indicator variables based on the chi-square analysis and Cramer’s V proved to be the best approach for automatic classification in about half of the categories. In combination with the two other

  11. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.

    1988-02-16

    An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

  12. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, N.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

  13. 12 CFR 1263.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic membership. 1263.4 Section 1263.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for certain charter...

  14. 12 CFR 1263.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic membership. 1263.4 Section 1263.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for certain charter...

  15. 12 CFR 1263.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic membership. 1263.4 Section 1263.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for certain charter...

  16. 12 CFR 1263.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automatic membership. 1263.4 Section 1263.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 1263.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership for certain charter...

  17. Insight into the Physical and Dynamical Processes that Control Rapid Increases in Total Flash Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") have been observed for many decades. Lightning jumps have been well correlated to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The main focus of lightning jump work has been on the development of lightning algorithms to be used in real-time assessment of storm intensity. However, in these studies it is typically assumed that the updraft "increases" without direct measurements of the vertical motion, or specification of which updraft characteristic actually increases (e.g., average speed, maximum speed, or convective updraft volume). Therefore, an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling rapid increases in total flash rate to increases in updraft speed and volume must be understood in order to ultimately relate lightning occurrence to severe storm metrics. Herein, we use polarimetric, multi-Doppler, and lightning mapping array measurements to provide physical context as to why rapid increases in total lightning are closely tied to severe and hazardous weather.

  18. We really need to talk: adapting FDA processes to rapid change.

    PubMed

    Lykken, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly evolving realm of modern commerce strains traditional regulatory paradigms. This paper traces the historical evolution of FDA crisis-response regulation and provides examples of ways in which the definitions and procedures resulting from that past continue to be challenged by new products as market entrants, some in good faith and others not, take actions that create disconnects between actual product and marketing controls and those that consumers might expect. The paper then explores some of the techniques used by other federal agencies that have faced similar challenges in environments characterized by rapid innovation, and draws from this analysis suggestions for improvement of the FDA's warning letter system.

  19. Rapid volumetric temporal focusing multiphoton microscopy of neural activity: theory, image processing, and experimental realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dana, Hod; Marom, Anat; Kruger, Nimrod; Ellman, Aviv; Shoham, Shy

    2012-03-01

    The development of rapid volumetric imaging systems for functional multiphoton microscopy is essential for dynamical imaging of large-scale neuronal network activity. Here, we introduce a line-illuminating temporal-focusing microscope capable of rapid three-dimensional imaging at 10-20 volumes/sec, and study the system's characteristics both theoretically and experimentally. We demonstrate that our system is capable of functional volumetric calcium imaging of distributed neuronal activity patterns, and introduce a computational strategy for activity reconstruction in strongly scattering media.

  20. Rapidly solidified ceramics: Processing, structure, and magnetic properties. Progress report, September 1984--January 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Kalonji, G.M.; O`Handley, R.C.

    1985-12-31

    Since its initiation in September 1984, work under this contract has progressed in two areas: construction of a gas atomizer for rapid solidification of ceramics; and characterization of rapidly solidified materials in the SrO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, BaO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2}, and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2} systems. This report summarize this work.

  1. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.

    1989-03-21

    An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

  2. A novel GIS-based tool for estimating present-day ocean reference depth using automatically processed gridded bathymetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurecka, Mirosława; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Migoń, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computing the present-day value of the reference depth (dr) which is an essential input information for assessment of past sea-level changes. The method applies a novel automatic geoprocessing tool developed using Python script and ArcGIS, and uses recent data about ocean floor depth, sediment thickness, and age of oceanic crust. The procedure is multi-step and involves creation of a bathymetric dataset corrected for sediment loading and isostasy, delineation of subduction zones, computation of perpendicular sea-floor profiles, and statistical analysis of these profiles versus crust age. The analysis of site-specific situations near the subduction zones all around the world shows a number of instances where the depth of the oceanic crust stabilizes at a certain level before reaching the subduction zone, and this occurs at depths much lower than proposed in previous approaches to the reference depth issue. An analysis of Jurassic and Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere shows that the most probable interval at which the reference depth occurs is 5300-5800 m. This interval is broadly consistent with dr estimates determined using the Global Depth-Heatflow model (GDH1), but is significantly lower than dr estimates calculated on a basis of the Parsons-Sclater Model (PSM).

  3. Optimization of process parameters for dimensional accuracy in an area-forming rapid prototyping system using the Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Shih-Hsuan; Chen, Cheng-Chin; Chen, Kun-Ting; Su, Chun-Hao

    2015-03-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have been extensively applied to build products in recent decades. The area-forming rapid prototyping is an emerging RP technology with the advantages of a simple procedure with a short processing time. With the expansion in fields of application, the strictness on product quality has also increased. The dimensional accuracy of a product is one of the most critical quality characteristics. In order to improve the dimensional accuracy of a product from an area-forming RP system, this study optimizes the seven factors via the Taguchi method, and the result is verified with an extra sample.

  4. Are Automatic Conceptual Cores the Gold Standard of Semantic Processing? The Context-Dependence of Spatial Meaning in Grounded Congruency Effects.

    PubMed

    Lebois, Lauren A M; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2015-11-01

    According to grounded cognition, words whose semantics contain sensory-motor features activate sensory-motor simulations, which, in turn, interact with spatial responses to produce grounded congruency effects (e.g., processing the spatial feature of up for sky should be faster for up vs. down responses). Growing evidence shows these congruency effects do not always occur, suggesting instead that the grounded features in a word's meaning do not become active automatically across contexts. Researchers sometimes use this as evidence that concepts are not grounded, further concluding that grounded information is peripheral to the amodal cores of concepts. We first review broad evidence that words do not have conceptual cores, and that even the most salient features in a word's meaning are not activated automatically. Then, in three experiments, we provide further evidence that grounded congruency effects rely dynamically on context, with the central grounded features in a concept becoming active only when the current context makes them salient. Even when grounded features are central to a word's meaning, their activation depends on task conditions.

  5. Comparison of a semi-automatic annotation tool and a natural language processing application for the generation of clinical statement entries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Heng; Wu, Nai-Yuan; Lai, Wei-Shao; Liou, Der-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Electronic medical records with encoded entries should enhance the semantic interoperability of document exchange. However, it remains a challenge to encode the narrative concept and to transform the coded concepts into a standard entry-level document. This study aimed to use a novel approach for the generation of entry-level interoperable clinical documents. Methods Using HL7 clinical document architecture (CDA) as the example, we developed three pipelines to generate entry-level CDA documents. The first approach was a semi-automatic annotation pipeline (SAAP), the second was a natural language processing (NLP) pipeline, and the third merged the above two pipelines. We randomly selected 50 test documents from the i2b2 corpora to evaluate the performance of the three pipelines. Results The 50 randomly selected test documents contained 9365 words, including 588 Observation terms and 123 Procedure terms. For the Observation terms, the merged pipeline had a significantly higher F-measure than the NLP pipeline (0.89 vs 0.80, p<0.0001), but a similar F-measure to that of the SAAP (0.89 vs 0.87). For the Procedure terms, the F-measure was not significantly different among the three pipelines. Conclusions The combination of a semi-automatic annotation approach and the NLP application seems to be a solution for generating entry-level interoperable clinical documents. PMID:25332357

  6. The potential for early and rapid pathogen detection within poultry processing through hyperspectral microscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acquisition of hyperspectral microscopic images containing both spatial and spectral data has shown potential for the early and rapid optical classification of foodborne pathogens. A hyperspectral microscope with a metal halide light source and acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) collects 89 ...

  7. Optimization of process parameters for the rapid biosynthesis of hematite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Kumar; Sen, Shampa

    2016-06-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles are widely used in various applications including gas sensors, pigments owing to its low cost, environmental friendliness, non-toxicity and high resistance to corrosion. These nanoparticles were generally synthesized by different chemical methods. In the present study, nanoparticles were synthesized rapidly without heat treatment by biosynthesis approach using culture supernatant of Bacillus cereus SVK1. The physiochemical parameters for rapid synthesis were optimized by using UV-visible spectroscopy. The time taken for hematite nanoparticle synthesis was found to increase with the increasing concentration of the precursor. This might be due to the inadequate proportion of quantity of biomolecules present in the culture supernatant to the precursor which led to delayed bioreduction. Greater quantities of culture supernatant with respect to precursor lead to rapid synthesis of hematite nanoparticles. The nucleation of the hematite nucleus happens more easily when the solution pH was less than 10. The optimum parameters identified for the rapid biosynthesis of hematite nanoparticles were pH9, 37°C (temperature) and 1mM ferric chloride as precursor. The particles were well crystallized hexagonal structured hematite nanoparticles and are predominantly (110)-oriented. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to contain predominantly iron (73.47%) and oxygen (22.58%) as evidenced by Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis. Hematite nanoparticles of 15-40nm diameters were biosynthesized in 48h under optimized conditions, compared to 21days before optimization.

  8. Containerless processing and rapid solidification of Nb-Si alloys in the niobium-rich eutectic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmeister, W. H.; Bayuzick, R. J.; Robinson, M. B.; Bertero, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Containerless processing and rapid solidification techniques were used to process Nb-Si alloys in the Nb-rich eutectic range. Electromagnetically levitated drops were melted and subsequently splat-quenched from different temperatures. A variety of eutectic morphologies was obtained as a function of the degree of superheating or undercooling of the drops prior to splatting. Metallic glass was observed only in drops quenched from above the melting temperature. Microstructures of splats deeply undercooled prior to quenching were very fine and uniform. These results are discussed in terms of classic nucleation theory concepts and the expected heat evolution at different regions of the splat during the rapid quenching process. The locations of the coupled-zone boundaries for the alpha-Nb + Nb3Si eutectic are also suggested.

  9. Does a sensory processing deficit explain counting accuracy on rapid visual sequencing tasks in adults with and without dyslexia?

    PubMed

    Conlon, Elizabeth G; Wright, Craig M; Norris, Karla; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2011-06-01

    The experiments conducted aimed to investigate whether reduced accuracy when counting stimuli presented in rapid temporal sequence in adults with dyslexia could be explained by a sensory processing deficit, a general slowing in processing speed or difficulties shifting attention between stimuli. To achieve these aims, the influence of the inter-stimulus interval (ISI), stimulus duration, and sequence length were evaluated in two experiments. In the first that used skilled readers only, significantly more errors were found with presentation of long sequences when the ISI or stimulus durations were short. Experiment 2 used a wider range of ISIs and stimulus durations. Compared to skilled readers, a group with dyslexia had reduced accuracy on two-stimulus sequences when the ISI was short, but not when the ISI was long. Although reduced accuracy was found on all short and long sequences by the group with dyslexia, when performance on two-stimulus sequences was used as an index of sensory processing efficiency and controlled, group differences were found with presentation of stimuli of short duration only. We concluded that continuous, repetitive stimulation to the same visual area can produce a capacity limitation on rapid counting tasks in all readers when the ISIs or stimulus durations are short. While reduced accuracy on rapid sequential counting tasks can be explained by a sensory processing deficit when the stimulus duration is long, slower processing speed in the group with dyslexia explains the greater inaccuracy found as sequence length is increased when the stimulus duration is short.

  10. Speech perception, rapid temporal processing, and the left hemisphere: a case study of unilateral pure word deafness.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Martin, Randi C; Hamilton, A Cris; Joanisse, Marc F

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms and functional anatomy underlying the early stages of speech perception are still not well understood. One way to investigate the cognitive and neural underpinnings of speech perception is by investigating patients with speech perception deficits but with preserved ability in other domains of language. One such case is reported here: patient NL shows highly impaired speech perception despite normal hearing ability and preserved semantic knowledge, speaking, and reading ability, and is thus classified as a case of pure word deafness (PWD). NL has a left temporoparietal lesion without right hemisphere damage and DTI imaging suggests that he has preserved cross-hemispheric connectivity, arguing against an account of PWD as a disconnection of left lateralized language areas from auditory input. Two experiments investigated whether NL's speech perception deficit could instead result from an underlying problem with rapid temporal processing. Experiment 1 showed that NL has particular difficulty discriminating sounds that differ in terms of rapid temporal changes, be they speech or non-speech sounds. Experiment 2 employed an intensive training program designed to improve rapid temporal processing in language impaired children (Fast ForWord; Scientific Learning Corporation, Oakland, CA) and found that NL was able to improve his ability to discriminate rapid temporal differences in non-speech sounds, but not in speech sounds. Overall, these data suggest that patients with unilateral PWD may, in fact, have a deficit in (left lateralized) temporal processing ability, however they also show that a rapid temporal processing deficit is, by itself, unable to account for this patient's speech perception deficit.

  11. Speech perception, rapid temporal processing, and the left hemisphere: A case study of unilateral pure word deafness

    PubMed Central

    Slevc, L. Robert; Martin, Randi C.; Hamilton, A. Cris; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms and functional anatomy underlying the early stages of speech perception are still not well understood. One way to investigate the cognitive and neural underpinnings of speech perception is by investigating patients with speech perception deficits but with preserved ability in other domains of language. One such case is reported here: patient NL shows highly impaired speech perception despite normal hearing ability and preserved semantic knowledge, speaking, and reading ability, and is thus classified as a case of pure word deafness (PWD). NL has a left temporoparietal lesion without right hemisphere damage and DTI imaging suggests that he has preserved cross-hemispheric connectivity, arguing against an account of PWD as a disconnection of left lateralized language areas from auditory input. Two experiments investigated whether NL’s speech perception deficit could instead result from an underlying problem with rapid temporal processing. Experiment 1 showed that NL has particular difficulty discriminating sounds that differ in terms of rapid temporal changes, be they speech or non-speech sounds. Experiment 2 employed an intensive training program designed to improve rapid temporal processing in language impaired children (Fast ForWord; Scientific Learning Corporation, Oakland, CA) and found that NL was able to improve his ability to discriminate rapid temporal differences in non-speech sounds, but not in speech sounds. Overall, these data suggest that patients with unilateral PWD may, in fact, have a deficit in (left lateralized) temporal processing ability, however they also show that a rapid temporal processing deficit is, by itself, unable to account for this patient’s speech perception deficit. PMID:21093464

  12. Automatic dilution gaging of rapidly varying flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerk, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis showed that the discharges measured by dye-dilution techniques were generally within ± 10 percent of the discharges determined from ratings established by current-meter measurements. Larger differences were noted at the start of and on the rising limb of four hydrographs. Of the 20 storms monitored, dilution measurements on 17 were of acceptable accuracy. Peak discharges from the open-channel site ranged from 0 to 12 percent departures from the existing rating whereas the comparison of peak discharge at the storm sewer site ranged from 0 to 5 percent departures from the existing rating.

  13. Is VIRTU4L Larger than VIR7UAL? Automatic Processing of Number Quantity and Lexical Representations in Leet Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Orza, Javier; Comesaña, Montserrat; Piñeiro, Ana; Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that leet words (i.e., words in which some of the letters are replaced by visually similar digits; e.g., VIRTU4L) can be processed as their base words without much cost. However, it remains unclear whether the digits inserted in leet words are simply processed as letters or whether they are simultaneously processed as…

  14. Contributions to a neurophysiology of meaning: the interpretation of written messages could be an automatic stimulus-reaction mechanism before becoming conscious processing of information

    PubMed Central

    Convertini, Livia S.; Quatraro, Sabrina; Ressa, Stefania; Velasco, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Background. Even though the interpretation of natural language messages is generally conceived as the result of a conscious processing of the message content, the influence of unconscious factors is also well known. What is still insufficiently known is the way such factors work. We have tackled interpretation assuming it is a process, whose basic features are the same for the whole humankind, and employing a naturalistic approach (careful observation of phenomena in conditions the closest to “natural” ones, and precise description before and independently of data statistical analysis). Methodology. Our field research involved a random sample of 102 adults. We presented them with a complete real world-like case of written communication using unabridged message texts. We collected data (participants’ written reports on their interpretations) in controlled conditions through a specially designed questionnaire (closed and opened answers); then, we treated it through qualitative and quantitative methods. Principal Findings. We gathered some evidence that, in written message interpretation, between reading and the attribution of conscious meaning, an intermediate step could exist (we named it “disassembling”) which looks like an automatic reaction to the text words/expressions. Thus, the process of interpretation would be a discontinuous sequence of three steps having different natures: the initial “decoding” step (i.e., reading, which requires technical abilities), disassembling (the automatic reaction, an unconscious passage) and the final conscious attribution of meaning. If this is true, words and expressions would firstly function like physical stimuli, before being taken into account as symbols. Such hypothesis, once confirmed, could help explaining some links between the cultural (human communication) and the biological (stimulus-reaction mechanisms as the basis for meanings) dimension of humankind. PMID:26528419

  15. Internally- and externally-driven network transitions as a basis for automatic and strategic processes in semantic priming: theory and experimental validation

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Itamar; Shriki, Oren

    2014-01-01

    For the last four decades, semantic priming—the facilitation in recognition of a target word when it follows the presentation of a semantically related prime word—has been a central topic in research of human cognitive processing. Studies have drawn a complex picture of findings which demonstrated the sensitivity of this priming effect to a unique combination of variables, including, but not limited to, the type of relatedness between primes and targets, the prime-target Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA), the relatedness proportion (RP) in the stimuli list and the specific task subjects are required to perform. Automatic processes depending on the activation patterns of semantic representations in memory and controlled strategies adapted by individuals when attempting to maximize their recognition performance have both been implicated in contributing to the results. Lately, we have published a new model of semantic priming that addresses the majority of these findings within one conceptual framework. In our model, semantic memory is depicted as an attractor neural network in which stochastic transitions from one stored pattern to another are continually taking place due to synaptic depression mechanisms. We have shown how such transitions, in combination with a reinforcement-learning rule that adjusts their pace, resemble the classic automatic and controlled processes involved in semantic priming and account for a great number of the findings in the literature. Here, we review the core findings of our model and present new simulations that show how similar principles of parameter-adjustments could account for additional data not addressed in our previous studies, such as the relation between expectancy and inhibition in priming, target frequency and target degradation effects. Finally, we describe two human experiments that validate several key predictions of the model. PMID:24795670

  16. Internally- and externally-driven network transitions as a basis for automatic and strategic processes in semantic priming: theory and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Itamar; Shriki, Oren

    2014-01-01

    For the last four decades, semantic priming-the facilitation in recognition of a target word when it follows the presentation of a semantically related prime word-has been a central topic in research of human cognitive processing. Studies have drawn a complex picture of findings which demonstrated the sensitivity of this priming effect to a unique combination of variables, including, but not limited to, the type of relatedness between primes and targets, the prime-target Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA), the relatedness proportion (RP) in the stimuli list and the specific task subjects are required to perform. Automatic processes depending on the activation patterns of semantic representations in memory and controlled strategies adapted by individuals when attempting to maximize their recognition performance have both been implicated in contributing to the results. Lately, we have published a new model of semantic priming that addresses the majority of these findings within one conceptual framework. In our model, semantic memory is depicted as an attractor neural network in which stochastic transitions from one stored pattern to another are continually taking place due to synaptic depression mechanisms. We have shown how such transitions, in combination with a reinforcement-learning rule that adjusts their pace, resemble the classic automatic and controlled processes involved in semantic priming and account for a great number of the findings in the literature. Here, we review the core findings of our model and present new simulations that show how similar principles of parameter-adjustments could account for additional data not addressed in our previous studies, such as the relation between expectancy and inhibition in priming, target frequency and target degradation effects. Finally, we describe two human experiments that validate several key predictions of the model.

  17. Why Does Rapid Naming Predict Chinese Word Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shum, Kathy Kar-man; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2017-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) robustly predicts early reading abilities across languages, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study found that RAN associated significantly with processing speed but not with phonological awareness or orthographic knowledge in 89 Hong Kong Chinese second-graders. RAN overlaps more with processing…

  18. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hamane, M.; Ohri, H.

    1989-03-21

    This patent describes an automatic transmission connected between a drive shaft and a driven shaft and comprising: a planetary gear mechanism including a first gear driven by the drive shaft, a second gear operatively engaged with the first gear to transmit speed change output to the driven shaft, and a third gear operatively engaged with the second gear to control the operation thereof; centrifugally operated clutch means for driving the first gear and the second gear. It also includes a ratchet type one-way clutch for permitting rotation of the third gear in the same direction as that of the drive shaft but preventing rotation in the reverse direction; the clutch means comprising a ratchet pawl supporting plate coaxially disposed relative to the drive shaft and integrally connected to the third gear, the ratchet pawl supporting plate including outwardly projection radial projections united with one another at base portions thereof.

  19. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Meyman, U.

    1987-03-10

    An automatic transmission is described comprising wheel members each having discs defining an inner space therebetween; turnable blades and vane members located in the inner space between the discs of at least one of the wheel members, the turnable blades being mechanically connected with the vane members. Each of the turnable blades has an inner surface and an outer surface formed by circular cylindrical surfaces having a common axis, each of the turnable blades being turnable about the common axis of the circular cylindrical surfaces forming the inner and outer surfaces of the respective blade; levers turnable about the axes and supporting the blades; the discs having openings extending coaxially with the surfaces which describe the blades. The blades are partially received in the openings of the discs; and a housing accommodating the wheel members and the turnable blades and the vane members.

  20. Impact of rapid cooling process in ultrahigh-temperature oxidation of 4H-SiC(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sometani, Mitsuru; Nagai, Daisuke; Katsu, Yoshihito; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Takei, Manabu; Yonezawa, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Heiji

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a rapid water-quenching procedure with ultrahigh-temperature oxidation to avoid degradation of the high-quality SiO2/SiC interface formed by ultrahigh-temperature oxidation during the cooling process. A reduction in the interface state density was observed for the SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) interface formed by ultrahigh-temperature oxidation in dry O2 ambient using the water-quenching process, compared with other natural cooling processes. The oxidation temperature dependence of interface state density for the thermally grown SiO2/SiC structures formed using the water-quenching process revealed that degradation of the interface properties occurred not only during the cooling process but also during the continuous oxidation process at exceedingly high temperatures, above 1500 °C, in 100% dry O2 ambient at 1 atm.

  1. Rapid monitoring for the enhanced definition and control of a selective cell homogenate purification by a batch-flocculation process.

    PubMed

    Habib, G; Zhou, Y; Hoare, M

    2000-10-20

    Downstream-bioprocess operations, for example, selective flocculation, are inherently variable due to fluctuations in feed material, equipment performance, and quality of additives such as flocculating agents. Due to these fluctuations in operating conditions, some form of process control is essential for reproducible and satisfactory process performance and hence, product quality. Both product (alcohol dehydrogenase) and key contaminants (RNA, protein, cell debris) within a Saccharomyces cerevisiae system were monitored in real-time adopting an at-line enzymatic reaction and rapid UV-VIS spectral-analysis technique every 135 seconds. The real-time measurements were implemented within two control configurations to regulate the batch-flocculation process according to prespecified control objectives, using the flocculant dose as the sole manipulative variable. An adaptive, model-based control arrangement was studied, which combined the rapid measurements with a process model and two model parameter-identification techniques for real-time prediction of process behavior. Based on an up-to-date mathematical description of the flocculation system, process optimization was attained and subsequent feedback control to this optimum operating set point was reproducibly demonstrated with a 92% accuracy. A simpler control configuration was also investigated adopting the cell debris concentration as the control variable. Both control arrangements resulted in superior flocculation-process performances in terms of contaminant removal, product recovery, and excess flocculant usage compared to an uncontrolled system.

  2. [Classification of nerve cell forms in lamina IV of the visual cortex of albino rats using Nissel preparation with the help of automatic picture processing].

    PubMed

    Werner, L; Voss, K

    1979-01-01

    1) Using the automatical picture processing device "MORPHOQUANT", VEB Carl Zeiss Jena, layer IV of the adult albino rat's area 17 was investigated in Nissl-preparations to classify pyramidal and stellate cells on the basis of quantitative features. 2) A review is given about the applied computer programme. 3) 30 seconds are necessary for adjustment, measurement and statistical calculation. 4) Five features per neuron soma were registered and statistical calculated: neuron area in picture points (KOFL), mean value of extinction (EXTM), total extinction (EXTS), shape (i.e. dia ratio, DMVH), and the distribution of strong coloured particles (i.e. centricity, ZNTR). 5) High statistical significance could be achieved only with regard to the neuron area and the distribution of strong coloured particles. 6) The causes for different results obtained in previous and present measurements and the importance of differentiation between several types of neurones are discussed as well.

  3. A multi-station matched filter and coherent network processing approach to the automatic detection and relative location of seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Kværna, Tormod

    2014-05-01

    Correlation detectors facilitate seismic monitoring in the near vicinity of previously observed events at far lower detection thresholds than are possible using the methods applied in most existing processing pipelines. The use of seismic arrays has been demonstrated to be highly beneficial in pressing down the detection threshold, due to superior noise suppression, and also in eliminating vast numbers of false alarms by performing array processing on the multi-channel output of the correlation detectors. This last property means that it is highly desirable to run continuous detectors for sites of repeating seismic events on a single-array basis for many arrays across a global network. Spurious detections for a given signal template on a single array can however still occur when an unrelated wavefront crosses the array from a very similar direction to that of the master event wavefront. We present an algorithm which scans automatically the output from multiple stations - both array and 3-component - for coherence between the individual station correlator outputs that is consistent with a disturbance in the vicinity of the master event. The procedure results in a categorical rejection of an event hypothesis in the absence of support from stations other than the one generating the trigger and provides a fully automatic relative event location estimate when patterns in the correlation detector outputs are found to be consistent with a common event. This coherence-based approach removes the need to make explicit measurements of the time-differences for single stations and this eliminates a potential source of error. The method is demonstrated for the North Korea nuclear test site and the relative event location estimates obtained for the 2006, 2009, and 2013 events are compared with previous estimates from different station configurations.

  4. Rapid curing of solution-processed zinc oxide films by pulse-light annealing for thin-film transistor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Jaehoon; Hwang, Jaeeun; Kim, Hong Doo; Ryu, Jin Hwa; Lee, Kang Bok; Baek, Kyu Ha; Do, Lee-Mi; Choi, Jong Sun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a pulse-light annealing method is proposed for the rapid fabrication of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) thinfilm transistors (TFTs). Transistors that were fabricated by the pulse-light annealing method, with the annealing being carried out at 90℃ for 15 s, exhibited a mobility of 0.05 cm2/Vs and an on/off current ratio of 106. Such electrical properties are quite close to those of devices that are thermally annealed at 165℃ for 40 min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of ZnO films showed that the activation energy required to form a Zn-O bond is entirely supplied within 15 s of pulse-light exposure. We conclude that the pulse-light annealing method is viable for rapidly curing solution-processable oxide semiconductors for TFT applications.

  5. Sensory processing within cockroach antenna enables rapid implementation of feedback control for high-speed running maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Mongeau, Jean-Michel; Sponberg, Simon N; Miller, John P; Full, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    Animals are remarkably stable during high-speed maneuvers. As the speed of locomotion increases, neural bandwidth and processing delays can limit the ability to achieve and maintain stable control. Processing the information of sensory stimuli into a control signal within the sensor itself could enable rapid implementation of whole-body feedback control during high-speed locomotion. Here, we show that processing in antennal afferents is sufficient to act as the control signal for a fast sensorimotor loop. American cockroaches Periplaneta americana use their antennae to mediate escape running by tracking vertical surfaces such as walls. A control theoretic model of wall following predicts that stable control is possible if the animal can compute wall position (P) and velocity, its derivative (D). Previous whole-nerve recordings from the antenna during simulated turning experiments demonstrated a population response consistent with P and D encoding, and suggested that the response was synchronized with the timing of a turn executed while wall following. Here, we record extracellularly from individual mechanoreceptors distributed along the antenna and show that these receptors encode D and have distinct latencies and filtering properties. The summed output of these receptors can be used as a control signal for rapid steering maneuvers. The D encoding within the antenna in addition to the temporal filtering properties and P dependence of the population of afferents support a sensory-encoding notion from control theory. Our findings support the notion that peripheral sensory processing can enable rapid implementation of whole-body feedback control during rapid running maneuvers.

  6. Development and implementation of an automatic integration system for fibre optic sensors in the braiding process with the objective of online-monitoring of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufenbach, W.; Gude, M.; Czulak, A.; Kretschmann, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Increasing economic, political and ecological pressure leads to steadily rising percentage of modern processing and manufacturing processes for fibre reinforced polymers in industrial batch production. Component weights beneath a level achievable by classic construction materials, which lead to a reduced energy and cost balance during product lifetime, justify the higher fabrication costs. However, complex quality control and failure prediction slow down the substitution by composite materials. High-resolution fibre-optic sensors (FOS), due their low diameter, high measuring point density and simple handling, show a high applicability potential for an automated sensor-integration in manufacturing processes, and therefore the online monitoring of composite products manufactured in industrial scale. Integrated sensors can be used to monitor manufacturing processes, part tests as well as the component structure during product life cycle, which simplifies allows quality control during production and the optimization of single manufacturing processes.[1;2] Furthermore, detailed failure analyses lead to a enhanced understanding of failure processes appearing in composite materials. This leads to a lower wastrel number and products of a higher value and longer product life cycle, whereby costs, material and energy are saved. This work shows an automation approach for FOS-integration in the braiding process. For that purpose a braiding wheel has been supplemented with an appliance for automatic sensor application, which has been used to manufacture preforms of high-pressure composite vessels with FOS-networks integrated between the fibre layers. All following manufacturing processes (vacuum infiltration, curing) and component tests (quasi-static pressure test, programmed delamination) were monitored with the help of the integrated sensor networks. Keywords: SHM, high-pressure composite vessel, braiding, automated sensor integration, pressure test, quality control, optic

  7. Yield improvement for lost mould rapid infiltration forming process by a multistage fractional factorial split plot design.

    PubMed

    Yuangyai, Chumpol; Nembhard, Harriet Black; Hayes, Gregory; Antolino, Nicholas; Adair, James H

    2009-07-01

    Statistical design of experiments is widely used among scientists and engineers to understand influential factors in a laboratory or manufacturing process. One of the underlying principles of using the statistical design of experiments method is randomisation, each run of experimental settings will be determined completely unsystematically. In practice, especially in a complicated process that consists of multiple stages, randomisation may pose too high a burden on time and cost.In this study, the multistage fraction factorial split plot design is proposed for green yield improvement in a lost mould rapid infiltration process that has been developed to fabricate zirconia ceramic parts. This design allows a relaxation of the randomisation principle so that certain experimental runs can be carried out in convenient groups. The results indicate that the type of immersion chemical and mould coating play a role in improving process yield. Additionally, the results suggest that a mould infiltration machine should be used to improve the reproducibility of the process.

  8. Authentication of processed meat products by peptidomic analysis using rapid ambient mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Montowska, Magdalena; Alexander, Morgan R; Tucker, Gregory A; Barrett, David A

    2015-11-15

    We present the application of a novel ambient LESA-MS method for the authentication of processed meat products. A set of 25 species and protein-specific heat stable peptide markers has been detected in processed samples manufactured from beef, pork, horse, chicken and turkey meat. We demonstrate that several peptides derived from myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins are sufficiently resistant to processing to serve as specific markers of processed products. The LESA-MS technique required minimal sample preparation without fractionation and enabled the unambiguous and simultaneous identification of skeletal muscle proteins and peptides as well as other components of animal origin, including the milk protein such as casein alpha-S1, in whole meat product digests. We have identified, for the first time, six fast type II and five slow/cardiac type I MHC peptide markers in various processed meat products. The study demonstrates that complex mixtures of processed proteins/peptides can be examined effectively using this approach.

  9. SoilJ - An ImageJ plugin for semi-automatized image-processing of 3-D X-ray images of soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koestel, John

    2016-04-01

    3-D X-ray imaging is a formidable tool for quantifying soil structural properties which are known to be extremely diverse. This diversity necessitates the collection of large sample sizes for adequately representing the spatial variability of soil structure at a specific sampling site. One important bottleneck of using X-ray imaging is however the large amount of time required by a trained specialist to process the image data which makes it difficult to process larger amounts of samples. The software SoilJ aims at removing this bottleneck by automatizing most of the required image processing steps needed to analyze image data of cylindrical soil columns. SoilJ is a plugin of the free Java-based image-processing software ImageJ. The plugin is designed to automatically process all images located with a designated folder. In a first step, SoilJ recognizes the outlines of the soil column upon which the column is rotated to an upright position and placed in the center of the canvas. Excess canvas is removed from the images. Then, SoilJ samples the grey values of the column material as well as the surrounding air in Z-direction. Assuming that the column material (mostly PVC of aluminium) exhibits a spatially constant density, these grey values serve as a proxy for the image illumination at a specific Z-coordinate. Together with the grey values of the air they are used to correct image illumination fluctuations which often occur along the axis of rotation during image acquisition. SoilJ includes also an algorithm for beam-hardening artefact removal and extended image segmentation options. Finally, SoilJ integrates the morphology analyses plugins of BoneJ (Doube et al., 2006, BoneJ Free and extensible bone image analysis in ImageJ. Bone 47: 1076-1079) and provides an ASCII file summarizing these measures for each investigated soil column, respectively. In the future it is planned to integrate SoilJ into FIJI, the maintained and updated edition of ImageJ with selected

  10. A Rapid Cell Expansion Process for Production of Engineered Autologous CAR-T Cell Therapies.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tangying Lily; Pugach, Omar; Somerville, Robert; Rosenberg, Steven A; Kochendefer, James N; Better, Marc; Feldman, Steven A

    2016-12-01

    The treatment of B-cell malignancies by adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CD19 CAR-T) has proven to be a highly successful therapeutic modality in several clinical trials.(1-6) The anti-CD19 CAR-T cell production method used to support initial trials relied on numerous manual, open process steps, human serum, and 10 days of cell culture to achieve a clinical dose.(7) This approach limited the ability to support large multicenter clinical trials, as well as scale up for commercial cell production. Therefore, studies were completed to streamline and optimize the original National Cancer Institute production process by removing human serum from the process in order to minimize the risk of viral contamination, moving process steps from an open system to functionally closed system operations in order to minimize the risk of microbial contamination, and standardizing additional process steps in order to maximize process consistency. This study reports a procedure for generating CD19 CAR-T cells in 6 days, using a functionally closed manufacturing process and defined, serum-free medium. This method is able to produce CD19 CAR-T cells that are phenotypically and functionally indistinguishable from cells produced for clinical trials by the previously described production process.

  11. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jian; Chai, Xin Sheng; Zhu, Junyoung

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  12. Embodiment and second-language: automatic activation of motor responses during processing spatially associated L2 words and emotion L2 words in a vertical Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence suggests that understanding our first-language (L1) results in reactivation of experiential sensorimotor traces in the brain. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the involvement of these processes during second-language (L2) processing. Participants saw L1 or L2 words referring to entities with a typical location (e.g., star, mole) (Experiment 1 & 2) or to an emotion (e.g., happy, sad) (Experiment 3). Participants responded to the words' ink color with an upward or downward arm movement. Despite word meaning being fully task-irrelevant, L2 automatically activated motor responses similar to L1 even when L2 was acquired rather late in life (age >11). Specifically, words such as star facilitated upward, and words such as root facilitated downward responses. Additionally, words referring to positive emotions facilitated upward, and words referring to negative emotions facilitated downward responses. In summary our study suggests that reactivation of experiential traces is not limited to L1 processing.

  13. Rapid processing of chemosensor transients in a neuromorphic implementation of the insect macroglomerular complex

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Timothy C.; Karout, Salah; Rácz, Zoltán; Capurro, Alberto; Gardner, Julian W.; Cole, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We present a biologically-constrained neuromorphic spiking model of the insect antennal lobe macroglomerular complex that encodes concentration ratios of chemical components existing within a blend, implemented using a set of programmable logic neuronal modeling cores. Depending upon the level of inhibition and symmetry in its inhibitory connections, the model exhibits two dynamical regimes: fixed point attractor (winner-takes-all type), and limit cycle attractor (winnerless competition type) dynamics. We show that, when driven by chemosensor input in real-time, the dynamical trajectories of the model's projection neuron population activity accurately encode the concentration ratios of binary odor mixtures in both dynamical regimes. By deploying spike timing-dependent plasticity in a subset of the synapses in the model, we demonstrate that a Hebbian-like associative learning rule is able to organize weights into a stable configuration after exposure to a randomized training set comprising a variety of input ratios. Examining the resulting local interneuron weights in the model shows that each inhibitory neuron competes to represent possible ratios across the population, forming a ratiometric representation via mutual inhibition. After training the resulting dynamical trajectories of the projection neuron population activity show amplification and better separation in their response to inputs of different ratios. Finally, we demonstrate that by using limit cycle attractor dynamics, it is possible to recover and classify blend ratio information from the early transient phases of chemosensor responses in real-time more rapidly and accurately compared to a nearest-neighbor classifier applied to the normalized chemosensor data. Our results demonstrate the potential of biologically-constrained neuromorphic spiking models in achieving rapid and efficient classification of early phase chemosensor array transients with execution times well beyond biological timescales. PMID

  14. Analyzing Collaborative Learning Processes Automatically: Exploiting the Advances of Computational Linguistics in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Carolyn; Wang, Yi-Chia; Cui, Yue; Arguello, Jaime; Stegmann, Karsten; Weinberger, Armin; Fischer, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In this article we describe the emerging area of text classification research focused on the problem of collaborative learning process analysis both from a broad perspective and more specifically in terms of a publicly available tool set called TagHelper tools. Analyzing the variety of pedagogically valuable facets of learners' interactions is a…

  15. A three-dimensional image processing program for accurate, rapid, and semi-automated segmentation of neuronal somata with dense neurite outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Ross, James D.; Cullen, D. Kacy; Harris, James P.; LaPlaca, Michelle C.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) image analysis techniques provide a powerful means to rapidly and accurately assess complex morphological and functional interactions between neural cells. Current software-based identification methods of neural cells generally fall into two applications: (1) segmentation of cell nuclei in high-density constructs or (2) tracing of cell neurites in single cell investigations. We have developed novel methodologies to permit the systematic identification of populations of neuronal somata possessing rich morphological detail and dense neurite arborization throughout thick tissue or 3-D in vitro constructs. The image analysis incorporates several novel automated features for the discrimination of neurites and somata by initially classifying features in 2-D and merging these classifications into 3-D objects; the 3-D reconstructions automatically identify and adjust for over and under segmentation errors. Additionally, the platform provides for software-assisted error corrections to further minimize error. These features attain very accurate cell boundary identifications to handle a wide range of morphological complexities. We validated these tools using confocal z-stacks from thick 3-D neural constructs where neuronal somata had varying degrees of neurite arborization and complexity, achieving an accuracy of ≥95%. We demonstrated the robustness of these algorithms in a more complex arena through the automated segmentation of neural cells in ex vivo brain slices. These novel methods surpass previous techniques by improving the robustness and accuracy by: (1) the ability to process neurites and somata, (2) bidirectional segmentation correction, and (3) validation via software-assisted user input. This 3-D image analysis platform provides valuable tools for the unbiased analysis of neural tissue or tissue surrogates within a 3-D context, appropriate for the study of multi-dimensional cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. PMID

  16. Expedited Site Characterization: A rapid, cost-effective process for preremedial site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Jennings, T.V.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Hastings, B.; Meyer, W.T.; Rose, C.M.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a unique, cost- and time-effective, technically innovative process for preremedial site characterization, referred to as Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). The cost of the ESC field sampling process ranges from 1/10 to 1/5 of the cost of traditional site characterization. The time required for this ESC field activity is approximately 1/30 of that for current methods. Argonne`s preremedial site investigations based on this approach have been accepted by the appropriate regulatory agencies. The ESC process is flexible and neither site nor contaminant dependent. The process has been successfully tested and applied in site investigations of multiple contaminated landfills in New Mexico (for the US Department of the Interior`s Bureau of Land Management [BLM]) and at former grain storage facilities in Nebraska and Kansas, contaminated with carbon tetrachloride (for the Department of Agriculture`s Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC/USDA]). A working demonstration of this process was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development as a model of the methodology needed to accelerate site characterizations at DOE facilities. This report describes the application of the process in New Mexico, Nebraska and Kansas.

  17. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  18. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1990-01-01

    The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

  19. Automatic identification of human helminth eggs on microscopic fecal specimens using digital image processing and an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y S; Park, D K; Kim, H C; Choi, M H; Chai, J Y

    2001-06-01

    In order to automate routine fecal examination for parasitic diseases, we propose in this study a computer processing algorithm using digital image processing techniques and an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier. The morphometric characteristics of eggs of human parasites in fecal specimens were extracted from microscopic images through digital image processing. An ANN then identified the parasite species based on those characteristics. We selected four morphometric features based on three morphological characteristics representing shape, shell smoothness, and size. A total of 82 microscopic images containing seven common human helminth eggs were used. The first stage (ANN-1) of the proposed ANN classification system isolated eggs from confusing artifacts. The second stage (ANN-2) classified eggs by species. The performance of ANN was evaluated by the tenfold cross-validation method to obviate the dependency on the selection of training samples. Cross-validation results showed 86.1% average correct classification ratio for ANN-1 and 90.3% for ANN-2 with small variances of 46.0 and 39.0, respectively. The algorithm developed will be an essential part of a completely automated fecal examination system.

  20. A Rapid Turn-around, Scalable Big Data Processing Capability for the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) is an integrated LIDAR and Spectrometer measuring snow depth and rate of snow melt in the Sierra Nevadas, specifically, the Tuolumne River Basin, Sierra Nevada, California above the O'Shaughnessy Dam of the Hetch Hetchy reservoir, and the Uncompahgre Basin, Colorado, amongst other sites. The ASO data was delivered to water resource managers from the California Department of Water Resources in under 24 hours from the time that the Twin Otter aircraft landed in Mammoth Lakes, CA to the time disks were plugged in to the ASO Mobile Compute System (MCS) deployed at the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory (SNARL) near the airport. ASO performed weekly flights and each flight took between 500GB to 1 Terabyte of raw data, which was then processed from level 0 data products all the way to full level 4 maps of Snow Water Equivalent, albedo mosaics, and snow depth from LIDAR. These data were produced by Interactive Data analysis Language (IDL) algorithms which were then unobtrusively and automatically integrated into an Apache OODT and Apache Tika based Big Data processing system. Data movement was both electronic and physical including novel uses of LaCie 1 and 2 TeraByte (TB) data bricks and deployment in rugged terrain. The MCS was controlled remotely from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) in Pasadena, California on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Communication was aided through the use of novel Internet Relay Chat (IRC) command and control mechanisms and through the use of the Notifico open source communication tools. This talk will describe the high powered, and light-weight Big Data processing system that we developed for ASO and its implications more broadly for airborne missions at NASA and throughout the government. The lessons learned from ASO show the potential to have a large impact in the development of Big Data processing systems in the years