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Sample records for automatic rapid processing

  1. Deconstructing Rapid Automatized Naming: Component Processes and the Prediction of Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert; Pillay, Vanitha; Melidona, Santo

    2007-01-01

    This study explores 1) the components of rapid automatized naming (RAN) by first analyzing the factorial associations between RAN tasks and various nonword decoding and processing speed measures and secondly, by exploring which of these process latent variables are uniquely associated with literacy in 65 below-average readers and spellers. In…

  2. Intended actions and unexpected outcomes: automatic and controlled processing in a rapid motor task

    PubMed Central

    Cheyne, Douglas O.; Ferrari, Paul; Cheyne, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Human action involves a combination of controlled and automatic behavior. These processes may interact in tasks requiring rapid response selection or inhibition, where temporal constraints preclude timely intervention by conscious, controlled processes over automatized prepotent responses. Such contexts tend to produce frequent errors, but also rapidly executed correct responses, both of which may sometimes be perceived as surprising, unintended, or “automatic”. In order to identify neural processes underlying these two aspects of cognitive control, we measured neuromagnetic brain activity in 12 right-handed subjects during manual responses to rapidly presented digits, with an infrequent target digit that required switching response hand (bimanual task) or response finger (unimanual task). Automaticity of responding was evidenced by response speeding (shorter response times) prior to both failed and fast correct switches. Consistent with this automaticity interpretation of fast correct switches, we observed bilateral motor preparation, as indexed by suppression of beta band (15–30 Hz) oscillations in motor cortex, prior to processing of the switch cue in the bimanual task. In contrast, right frontal theta activity (4–8 Hz) accompanying correct switch responses began after cue onset, suggesting that it reflected controlled inhibition of the default response. Further, this activity was reduced on fast correct switch trials suggesting a more automatic mode of inhibitory control. We also observed post-movement (event-related negativity) ERN-like responses and theta band increases in medial and anterior frontal regions that were significantly larger on error trials, and may reflect a combination of error and delayed inhibitory signals. We conclude that both automatic and controlled processes are engaged in parallel during rapid motor tasks, and that the relative strength and timing of these processes may underlie both optimal task performance and subjective

  3. Component Processes Subserving Rapid Automatized Naming in Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Susana; Inacio, Filomena; Francisco, Ana; Faisca, Luis; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated which time components of rapid automatized naming (RAN) predict group differences between dyslexic and non-dyslexic readers (matched for age and reading level), and how these components relate to different reading measures. Subjects performed two RAN tasks (letters and objects), and data were analyzed through a…

  4. Measures of Information Processing in Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Their Relation To Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhaus, Graham; Foorman, Barbara R.; Francis, David J.; Carlson, Coleen D.

    2001-01-01

    Examined articulation and interarticulation (pause) times on Rapid Automatized Naming Tests for first- and second-graders. Found that pause and articulation times for RAN letters and objects were not reliably related, compared to RAN numbers articulation and pause durations. Subtest pause durations were differentially related to reading. RAN…

  5. Component Processes Subserving Rapid Automatized Naming in Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Susana; Inacio, Filomena; Francisco, Ana; Faisca, Luis; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated which time components of rapid automatized naming (RAN) predict group differences between dyslexic and non-dyslexic readers (matched for age and reading level), and how these components relate to different reading measures. Subjects performed two RAN tasks (letters and objects), and data were analyzed through a…

  6. Structured illumination microscopy and automatized image processing as a rapid diagnostic tool for podocyte effacement.

    PubMed

    Siegerist, Florian; Ribback, Silvia; Dombrowski, Frank; Amann, Kerstin; Zimmermann, Uwe; Endlich, Karlhans; Endlich, Nicole

    2017-09-13

    The morphology of podocyte foot processes is obligatory for renal function. Here we describe a method for the superresolution-visualization of podocyte foot processes using structured illumination microscopy of the slit diaphragm, which before has only been achieved by electron microscopy. As a proof of principle, we measured a mean foot process width of 0.249 ± 0.068 µm in healthy kidneys and a significant higher mean foot process width of 0.675 ± 0.256 µm in minimal change disease patients indicating effacement of foot processes. We then hypothesized that the slit length per glomerular capillary surface area (slit diaphragm density) could be used as an equivalent for the diagnosis of effacement. Using custom-made software we measured a mean value of 3.10 ± 0.27 µm(-1) in healthy subjects and 1.83 ± 0.49 µm(-1) in the minimal change disease patients. As foot process width was highly correlated with slit diaphragm density (R(2) = 0.91), we concluded that our approach is a valid method for the diagnosis of foot process effacement. In summary, we present a new technique to quantify podocyte damage, which combines superresolution microscopy with automatized image processing. Due to its diverse advantages, we propose this technique to be included into routine diagnostics of glomerular histopathology.

  7. ARP: Automatic rapid processing for the generation of problem dependent SAS2H/ORIGEN-s cross section libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Hermann, O.W.; Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    In this report, a methodology is described which serves as an alternative to the SAS2H path of the SCALE system to generate cross sections for point-depletion calculations with the ORIGEN-S code. ARP, Automatic Rapid Processing, is an algorithm that allows the generation of cross-section libraries suitable to the ORIGEN-S code by interpolation over pregenerated SAS2H libraries. The interpolations are carried out on the following variables: burnup, enrichment, and water density. The adequacy of the methodology is evaluated by comparing measured and computed spent fuel isotopic compositions for PWR and BWR systems.

  8. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, Anthony J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

  9. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  10. An integrated strategy for the rapid extraction and screening of phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylcholines using semi-automatic solid phase extraction and data processing technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenzhu; Zhang, Yani; Yin, Jia; Li, Yubo

    2016-08-26

    This study attempts to establish a comprehensive strategy for the rapid extraction and screening of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs) in biological samples using semi-automatic solid phase extraction (SPE) and data processing technology based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). First, the Ostro sample preparation method (i.e., semi-automatic SPE) was compared with the Bligh-Dyer method in terms of substance coverage, reproducibility and sample preparation time. Meanwhile, the screening method for PCs and LysoPCs was built through mass range screening, mass defect filtering and diagnostic fragments filtering. Then, the Ostro sample preparation method and the aforementioned screening method were combined under optimal conditions to establish a rapid extraction and screening platform. Finally, this developed method was validated and applied to the preparation and data analysis of tissue samples. Through a systematic evaluation, this developed method was shown to provide reliable and high-throughput experimental results and was suitable for the preparation and analysis of tissue samples. Our method provides a novel strategy for the rapid extraction and analysis of functional phospholipids. In addition, this study will promote further study of phospholipids in disease research.

  11. Why Is Rapid Automatized Naming Related to Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno; Cui, Ying; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine why rapid automatized naming (RAN) is related to reading by manipulating processes involved at the input, processing, and output stages of its production. In total, 65 children in Grade 2 and 65 in Grade 6 were assessed on serial and discrete RAN (Digits and Objects), Cancellation, RAN Yes/No, and oral…

  12. Why Is Rapid Automatized Naming Related to Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno; Cui, Ying; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine why rapid automatized naming (RAN) is related to reading by manipulating processes involved at the input, processing, and output stages of its production. In total, 65 children in Grade 2 and 65 in Grade 6 were assessed on serial and discrete RAN (Digits and Objects), Cancellation, RAN Yes/No, and oral…

  13. Automatic Seismic Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-04

    CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (end Sublitle) S. TYPE O REPORT & PERIOD COVERED FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT - ROUTINE AUTOM!ATIC SEISMIC ANALYSIS TECHNICAL PACKAGE 6...Seismic Analysis Package ARPA Order Number: 4199 Name of Contractor: ENSCO, Inc. 4 - Contract Number: F086 06-80-C-0021 Effective Date of Contract: 10...developed and demonstrated. This timing detector algorithm times the start time of signals and their envelope peaks. It was designed to measure the size

  14. A rapid automatic processing platform for bead label-assisted microarray analysis: application for genetic hearing-loss mutation detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiang; Song, Xiumei; Xiang, Guangxin; Feng, Zhengde; Guo, Hongju; Mei, Danyang; Zhang, Guohao; Wang, Dong; Mitchelson, Keith; Xing, Wanli; Cheng, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Molecular diagnostics using microarrays are increasingly being used in clinical diagnosis because of their high throughput, sensitivity, and accuracy. However, standard microarray processing takes several hours and involves manual steps during hybridization, slide clean up, and imaging. Here we describe the development of an integrated platform that automates these individual steps as well as significantly shortens the processing time and improves reproducibility. The platform integrates such key elements as a microfluidic chip, flow control system, temperature control system, imaging system, and automated analysis of clinical results. Bead labeling of microarray signals required a simple imaging system and allowed continuous monitoring of the microarray processing. To demonstrate utility, the automated platform was used to genotype hereditary hearing-loss gene mutations. Compared with conventional microarray processing procedures, the platform increases the efficiency and reproducibility of hybridization, speeding microarray processing through to result analysis. The platform also continuously monitors the microarray signals, which can be used to facilitate optimization of microarray processing conditions. In addition, the modular design of the platform lends itself to development of simultaneous processing of multiple microfluidic chips. We believe the novel features of the platform will benefit its use in clinical settings in which fast, low-complexity molecular genetic testing is required.

  15. Design for a Rapid Automatic Sync Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. O.; Gallo, A. J.

    1969-01-01

    System provides rapid command sync acquisition between widely separated transmitter-receivers. It is based on a rapid, automatic range-adjustment approach rather than the time-consuming cycle slipping or stepping techniques of conventional phase-locked loops.

  16. Literacy acquisition influences children's rapid automatized naming.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Robin L; Arnett, Anne B; Pennington, Bruce F; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Olson, Richard K

    2017-08-15

    Previous research has established that learning to read improves children's performance on reading-related phonological tasks, including phoneme awareness (PA) and nonword repetition. Few studies have investigated whether literacy acquisition also promotes children's rapid automatized naming (RAN). We tested the hypothesis that literacy acquisition should influence RAN in an international, longitudinal population sample of twins. Cross-lagged path models evaluated the relationships among literacy, PA, and RAN across four time points from pre-kindergarten through grade 4. Consistent with previous research, literacy showed bidirectional relationships with reading-related oral language skills. We found novel evidence for an effect of earlier literacy on later RAN, which was most evident in children at early phases of literacy development. In contrast, the influence of earlier RAN on later literacy was predominant among older children. These findings imply that the association between these two related skills is moderated by development. Implications for models of reading development and for dyslexia research are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Automatic Control of Personal Rapid Transit Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. D.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for automatic longitudinal control of a string of closely packed personal vehicles are outlined. Optimal control theory is used to design feedback controllers for strings of vehicles. An important modification of the usual optimal control scheme is the inclusion of jerk in the cost functional. While the inclusion of the jerk term was considered, the effect of its inclusion was not sufficiently studied. Adding the jerk term will increase passenger comfort.

  18. What automaticity deficit? Activation of lexical information by readers with dyslexia in a rapid automatized naming Stroop-switch task.

    PubMed

    Jones, Manon W; Snowling, Margaret J; Moll, Kristina

    2016-03-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with nondyslexic readers. We combined the RAN task with a Stroop-switch manipulation to test the automaticity of dyslexic and nondyslexic readers' lexical access directly within a fluency task. Participants named letters in 10 × 4 arrays while eye movements and speech responses were recorded. Upon fixation, specific letter font colors changed from black to a different color, whereupon the participant was required to rapidly switch from naming the letter to naming the letter color. We could therefore measure reading group differences on "automatic" lexical processing, insofar as it was task-irrelevant. Readers with dyslexia showed obligatory lexical processing and a timeline for recognition that was overall similar to typical readers, but a delay emerged in the output (naming) phase. Further delay was caused by visual-orthographic competition between neighboring stimuli. Our findings outline the specific processes involved when researchers speak of "impaired automaticity" in dyslexic readers' fluency, and are discussed in the context of the broader literature in this field. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Design Concept for a Rapid Automatic Sync Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. O.; Gallo, A. J.

    1968-01-01

    A design has been conceived for a system intended to provide rapid command sync acquisition between widely separated transmitter-receivers, such as between a spacecraft telemetry transmitter, and a ground-based receiver. Use of the system in commercial satellite communications would facilitate rapid sync acquisition between stations and regaining of data lock after interruption or equipment failure. The system is based on a rapid, automatic range-adjustment approach rather than the time-consuming cycle slipping or stepping techniques of conventional phase-locked loops.

  20. Automaticity in social-cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Bargh, John A; Schwader, Kay L; Hailey, Sarah E; Dyer, Rebecca L; Boothby, Erica J

    2012-12-01

    Over the past several years, the concept of automaticity of higher cognitive processes has permeated nearly all domains of psychological research. In this review, we highlight insights arising from studies in decision-making, moral judgments, close relationships, emotional processes, face perception and social judgment, motivation and goal pursuit, conformity and behavioral contagion, embodied cognition, and the emergence of higher-level automatic processes in early childhood. Taken together, recent work in these domains demonstrates that automaticity does not result exclusively from a process of skill acquisition (in which a process always begins as a conscious and deliberate one, becoming capable of automatic operation only with frequent use) - there are evolved substrates and early childhood learning mechanisms involved as well.

  1. Individual Differences in Automatic and Controlled Information Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    RD-Ri46 245 INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN AUTOMATIC AND CONTROLLED i/l INFORMATION PROCESSING(U) ILLINOIS UNIV CHAMPAIGN HUMAN ATTENTION RESEARCH LAB P L...declines rapidly as time -on- task increases (for both simple and relatively complex tasks). Based on these effects, traditional conceptions equating general

  2. Electrophysiological Evidence of Automatic Early Semantic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinojosa, Jose A.; Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Munoz, Francisco; Casado, Pilar; Pozo, Miguel A.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the automatic-controlled nature of early semantic processing by means of the Recognition Potential (RP), an event-related potential response that reflects lexical selection processes. For this purpose tasks differing in their processing requirements were used. Half of the participants performed a physical task involving a…

  3. Rapid Automatized Naming and Immediate Memory Functions in Chinese Mandarin-Speaking Elementary Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yi; Richman, Lynn C.; Yang, Ling-yan; Guo, Jian-peng

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate rapid automatized naming skills (RAN) and immediate memory processes in 243 Chinese Mandarin-speaking elementary readers (ranging from Grade 1 to Grade 5). For RAN subtests, the mean naming time decreased monotonically with grade level in good and average readers, and a similar trajectory was found in poor…

  4. What Automaticity Deficit? Activation of Lexical Information by Readers with Dyslexia in a Rapid Automatized Naming Stroop-Switch Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Manon W.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Moll, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with…

  5. What Automaticity Deficit? Activation of Lexical Information by Readers with Dyslexia in a Rapid Automatized Naming Stroop-Switch Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Manon W.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Moll, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with…

  6. Effective Scheduling of Looking and Talking During Rapid Automatized Naming

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Peter C.; Hoedemaker, Renske S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is strongly related to literacy gains in developing readers, reading disabilities and reading ability in children and adults. Because successful RAN performance depends on the close coordination of a number of abilities, it is unclear what specific skills drive this RAN-reading relationship. The current study used concurrent recordings of young adult participants’ vocalizations and eye movements during the RAN task to assess how individual variation in RAN performance depends on the coordination of visual and vocal processes. Results showed that fast RAN times are facilitated by having the eyes one or more items ahead of the current vocalization, as long as the eyes do not get so far ahead of the voice as to require a regressive eye movement to an earlier item. These data suggest that optimizing RAN performance is a problem of scheduling eye movements and vocalization given memory constraints and the efficiency of encoding and articulatory control. Both RAN completion time (conventionally used to indicate RAN performance) and eye-voice relations predicted some aspects of participants’ eye movements on a separate sentence reading task. However, eye-voice relations predicted additional features of first-pass reading that were not predicted by RAN completion time. This shows that measurement of eye-voice patterns can identify important aspects of individual variation in reading that are not identified by the standard measure of RAN performance. We argue that RAN performance predicts reading ability because both tasks entail challenges of scheduling cognitive and linguistic processes that operate simultaneously on multiple linguistic inputs. PMID:26689309

  7. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1993-01-12

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  8. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, Jr., G. Harold

    1993-01-01

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  9. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1991-05-02

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  10. Automatic Grid Processing of Large Photographic Plates (With 3 Figures)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, B.; Québatte, J.; West, R. M.

    In an earlier article (42.034.211), the authors have described a new method for the development of large photographic plates. This method, which is called grid processing, is based on the rapid motion of a metallic grid in the developer, very close to the emulsion surface. Experience has shown that this method is superior to the classical tray rocker. The authors here report the continuation of the tests, now with the aid of the prototype of an automatic grid processing machine.

  11. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Stuart J [Richland, WA; Cowley,; E, Wendy [Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Cramer, Nicholas O [Richland, WA

    2012-03-06

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  12. Response variability in rapid automatized naming predicts reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Li, James J; Cutting, Laurie E; Ryan, Matthew; Zilioli, Monica; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark

    2009-10-01

    A total of 37 children ages 8 to 14 years, screened for word-reading difficulties (23 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; 14 controls) completed oral reading and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tests. RAN trials were segmented into pause and articulation time and intraindividual variability. There were no group differences on reading or RAN variables. Color- and letter-naming pause times and number-naming articulation time were significant predictors of reading fluency. In contrast, number and letter pause variability were predictors of comprehension. Results support analysis of subcomponents of RAN and add to literature emphasizing intraindividual variability as a marker for response preparation, which has relevance to reading comprehension.

  13. Automatic Memory Processes in Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Debra Kosteski; And Others

    Automatic memory processes were investigated in 10 mild and moderately retarded persons (21 years old) and in 10 chronological age-matched college level and 10 mental age-matched elementary grade control subjects through use of a frequency estimation task. This task required the subjects to view a series of slides, then estimate how many times…

  14. Across-Notation Automatic Numerical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganor-Stern, Dana; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors explored the existence of across-notation automatic numerical processing using size comparison and same-different paradigms. Participants were Arabic speakers, who used 2 sets of numerical symbols--Arabic and Indian. They were presented with number pairs in the same notation (Arabic or Indian) or in different ones…

  15. VELA Network Evaluation and Automatic Processing Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-31

    VELA NETWORK EVALUATION AND AUTOMATIC PROCESSING RESEARCH William H. Swindell Texas Instruments, Incorporated Prepared for: Air Force Technical...Incorporated Equipment Group Dallas, Texas 75222 CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS Advanced Research Projects Agency Nuclear Monitor mg... RESEARCH 1. D D TEXAS INSTRUMENTS INCORPORATED Equipment Group Post Office Box 6015 Dallas, Texas 75222 Prepared for AIR FORCE TECHNICAL

  16. Rapid automatized naming, phonology and dyslexia in Polish children.

    PubMed

    Krasowicz-Kupis, Grazyna; Borkowska, Aneta R; Pietras, Izabela

    2009-09-01

    Many studies have showed that children with reading difficulties have deficits in both rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonological skills (PS). The double-deficit hypothesis suggests that phonological and naming-speed deficits are two separable causes of reading problems. The main goal of our study was to investigate naming speed in Polish fourth grade children with dyslexia. 33 dyslexic children (10 girls and 23 boys) and 30 good readers participated in the study. They were given the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children (WISC-R) and a battery of diagnostic tests for dyslexia for fourth-grade children, consisting of tests for single word reading, nonsense word reading, reading with word canceling, text comprehension, spelling on dictation, rapid automatic naming, phoneme elision, and phonological skills, as well as the Zetotest (a phonological memory test). The dyslexic children performed significantly more slowly than controls on the RAN tests, which suggests a generalized deficit in the speed of access to the mental lexicon. Significant correlations were found only between the RAN test and the text comprehension text. Among all the phonological measures applied in the study, slight but significant correlations were found only between phonological memory and speed naming. Dyslexic children with low speed naming abilities and high speed naming abilities showed no differences in phonological functions. Our results confirm the double-deficit hypothesis of dyslexia.

  17. Automatic/Control Processing and Attention.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    changes that occur with practice have lead many researchers to propose that qualitative changes occur in the processing (e.g., James, 1890; LaBerge ...functions are similar. Perception & Psychophvsics, 1972, 12, 378-3G4. (b) March 26, 19C2 Page 22 LaBerge , D. Acquisition of automatic processing in... LaBerge & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), Lasic Proc7’-.es in reading: Perception and comprehension. Hillsdale, N.J.: Schneider, W., & Shiffrin, R. M

  18. Automatic transformations in the inference process

    SciTech Connect

    Veroff, R. L.

    1980-07-01

    A technique for incorporating automatic transformations into processes such as the application of inference rules, subsumption, and demodulation provides a mechanism for improving search strategies for theorem proving problems arising from the field of program verification. The incorporation of automatic transformations into the inference process can alter the search space for a given problem, and is particularly useful for problems having broad rather than deep proofs. The technique can also be used to permit the generation of inferences that might otherwise be blocked and to build some commutativity or associativity into the unification process. Appropriate choice of transformations, and new literal clashing and unification algorithms for applying them, showed significant improvement on several real problems according to several distinct criteria. 22 references, 1 figure.

  19. Automatic draft reading based on image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujii, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hiromi; Iiguni, Youji

    2016-10-01

    In marine transportation, a draft survey is a means to determine the quantity of bulk cargo. Automatic draft reading based on computer image processing has been proposed. However, the conventional draft mark segmentation may fail when the video sequence has many other regions than draft marks and a hull, and the estimated waterline is inherently higher than the true one. To solve these problems, we propose an automatic draft reading method that uses morphological operations to detect draft marks and estimate the waterline for every frame with Canny edge detection and a robust estimation. Moreover, we emulate surveyors' draft reading process for getting the understanding of a shipper and a receiver. In an experiment in a towing tank, the draft reading error of the proposed method was <1 cm, showing the advantage of the proposed method. It is also shown that accurate draft reading has been achieved in a real-world scene.

  20. Automatic Processing of Navy Message Narrative.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-21

    1 Automatic Processing of Navy Message Narrative ELAME MARSH, JUDIT FROMCIBZ RALPH GRISHMAN, 0 HENRY HAmBURGER AND JoAN RACHENKo (0 Naw~ COW fojr...such as date-time groups. 2 I IM II II NRL REPORT 883 P 162305Z AUG 82 FM USS XXXXXXXX TO RUCLBDA/COMINEGRU TWO RUCBSAAICOMNAVSURFLANT NORFOLK VA ...RUCBSAA/CINCLANTFLT NORFOLK VA RUENAAAICNO WASHINGTON DC RUEOALAINAVSAFECEN NORFOLK VA RULSSAA/COMNAVSEASYSCOM WASHINGTON DC RULSSAA/CHNAVMAT WASHINGTON DC

  1. Towards automatic planning for manufacturing generative processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-05-24

    Generative process planning describes methods process engineers use to modify manufacturing/process plans after designs are complete. A completed design may be the result from the introduction of a new product based on an old design, an assembly upgrade, or modified product designs used for a family of similar products. An engineer designs an assembly and then creates plans capturing manufacturing processes, including assembly sequences, component joining methods, part costs, labor costs, etc. When new products originate as a result of an upgrade, component geometry may change, and/or additional components and subassemblies may be added to or are omitted from the original design. As a result process engineers are forced to create new plans. This is further complicated by the fact that the process engineer is forced to manually generate these plans for each product upgrade. To generate new assembly plans for product upgrades, engineers must manually re-specify the manufacturing plan selection criteria and re-run the planners. To remedy this problem, special-purpose assembly planning algorithms have been developed to automatically recognize design modifications and automatically apply previously defined manufacturing plan selection criteria and constraints.

  2. An information processing model of anxiety: automatic and strategic processes.

    PubMed

    Beck, A T; Clark, D A

    1997-01-01

    A three-stage schema-based information processing model of anxiety is described that involves: (a) the initial registration of a threat stimulus; (b) the activation of a primal threat mode; and (c) the secondary activation of more elaborative and reflective modes of thinking. The defining elements of automatic and strategic processing are discussed with the cognitive bias in anxiety reconceptualized in terms of a mixture of automatic and strategic processing characteristics depending on which stage of the information processing model is under consideration. The goal in the treatment of anxiety is to deactivate the more automatic primal threat mode and to strengthen more constructive reflective modes of thinking. Arguments are presented for the inclusion of verbal mediation as a necessary but not sufficient component in the cognitive and behavioral treatment of anxiety.

  3. Automatic document processing system with learning capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuhong; Ng, Peter A.

    2000-08-01

    This automatic document processing system proceeds from scanning a given paper-document into the system, automatic recognizing the document layout structure, classifying it as a particular document type, which is characterized in terms of attributes to form a frame template, and extracting the pertinent information from the document to form its corresponding frame instance, which is an effective digital form of the original document. The key attribute of the system is that it is a general-purpose system, which can be adapted easily to any application domains. A segmentation method based on the 'logical closeness' is proposed. A novel and natural representation of document layout structure -- Labeled Directed Weighted Graph (LDWG) and a methodology of transforming document segmentation into LDWG representation are described. To classify a given document, we compare its layout structure with the sample layout structures of various document types prestored in the knowledge base and then use logical structure to verify the initial matching from the first step. There is a weight associated with each component of the layout structure. During the learning stage, the system can adjust the weights automatically based on the human being's correction. Modified Perceptron Learning Algorithm (PLA) is applied.

  4. A Novel Automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test Reader Platform

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Haydar; Kayhan, Osman Semih

    2016-01-01

    A novel automatic Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) reader platform is designed to analyze and diagnose target disease by using existing consumer cameras of a laptop-computer or a tablet. The RDT reader is useable with numerous lateral immunochromatographic assays and similar biomedical tests. The system has two different components, which are 3D-printed, low-cost, tiny, and compact stand and a decision program named RDT-AutoReader 2.0. The program takes the image of RDT, crops the region of interest (ROI), and extracts the features from the control end test lines to classify the results as invalid, positive, or negative. All related patient's personal information, image of ROI, and the e-report are digitally saved and transferred to the related clinician. Condition of the patient and the progress of the disease can be monitored by using the saved data. The reader platform has been tested by taking image from used cassette RDTs of rotavirus (RtV)/adenovirus (AdV) and lateral flow strip RDTs of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) before discarding them. The created RDT reader can also supply real-time statistics of various illnesses by using databases and Internet. This can help to inhibit propagation of contagious diseases and to increase readiness against epidemic diseases worldwide. PMID:27190549

  5. Chemical etching for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical etching for automatic processing of integrated circuits is discussed. The wafer carrier and loading from a receiving air track into automatic furnaces and unloading onto a sending air track are included.

  6. Rapid Automatized Naming in Children with Dyslexia: Is Inhibitory Control Involved?

    PubMed

    Bexkens, Anika; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Tijms, Jurgen

    2015-08-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is widely seen as an important indicator of dyslexia. The nature of the cognitive processes involved in rapid naming is however still a topic of controversy. We hypothesized that in addition to the involvement of phonological processes and processing speed, RAN is a function of inhibition processes, in particular of interference control. A total 86 children with dyslexia and 31 normal readers were recruited. Our results revealed that in addition to phonological processing and processing speed, interference control predicts rapid naming in dyslexia, but in contrast to these other two cognitive processes, inhibition is not significantly associated with their reading and spelling skills. After variance in reading and spelling associated with processing speed, interference control and phonological processing was partialled out, naming speed was no longer consistently associated with the reading and spelling skills of children with dyslexia. Finally, dyslexic children differed from normal readers on naming speed, literacy skills, phonological processing and processing speed, but not on inhibition processes. Both theoretical and clinical interpretations of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    DOEpatents

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  8. An experimental comparison between rival theories of rapid automatized naming performance and its relationship to reading.

    PubMed

    Powell, Daisy; Stainthorp, Rhona; Stuart, Morag; Garwood, Holly; Quinlan, Philip

    2007-09-01

    Two studies investigated the degree to which the relationship between rapid automatized naming (RAN) performance and reading development is driven by shared phonological processes. Study 1 assessed RAN, phonological awareness, and reading performance in 1010 7- to 10-year-olds. Results showed that RAN deficits occurred in the absence of phonological awareness deficits. These were accompanied by modest reading delays. In structural equation modeling, solutions where RAN was subsumed within a phonological processing factor did not provide a good fit to the data, suggesting that processes outside phonology may drive RAN performance and its association with reading. Study 2 investigated Kail's proposal that speed of processing underlies this relationship. Children with single RAN deficits showed slower speed of processing than did closely matched controls performing normally on RAN. However, regression analysis revealed that RAN made a unique contribution to reading even after accounting for processing speed. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  9. Improving Algorithm for Automatic Spectra Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rackovic, K.; Nikolic, S.; Kotrc, P.

    2009-09-01

    Testing and improving of the computer program for automatic processing (flat-fielding) of a great number of solar spectra obtained with the horizontal heliospectrograph HSFA2 has been done. This program was developed in the Astronomical Institute of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in Ondřejov. An irregularity in its work has been discovered, i.e. the program didn't work for some of the spectra. To discover a cause of this error an algorithm has been developed, and a program for examination of the parallelism of reference hairs crossing the spectral slit on records of solar spectra has been made. The standard methods for data processing have been applied-calculating and analyzing higher-order moments of distribution of radiation intensity. The spectra with the disturbed parallelism of the reference hairs have been eliminated from further processing. In order to improve this algorithm of smoothing of spectra, isolation and removal of the harmonic made by a sunspot with multiple elementary transformations of ordinates (Labrouste's transformations) are planned. This project was accomplished at the first summer astronomy practice of students of the Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Serbia in 2007 in Ondřejov.

  10. Fast and automatic thermographic material identification for the recycling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haferkamp, Heinz; Burmester, Ingo

    1998-03-01

    Within the framework of the future closed loop recycling process the automatic and economical sorting of plastics is a decisive element. The at the present time available identification and sorting systems are not yet suitable for the sorting of technical plastics since essential demands, as the realization of high recognition reliability and identification rates considering the variety of technical plastics, can not be guaranteed. Therefore the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. in cooperation with the Hoerotron GmbH and the Preussag Noell GmbH has carried out investigations on a rapid thermographic and laser-supported material- identification-system for automatic material-sorting- systems. The automatic identification of different engineering plastics coming from electronic or automotive waste is possible. Identification rates up to 10 parts per second are allowed by the effort from fast IR line scanners. The procedure is based on the following principle: within a few milliseconds a spot on the relevant sample is heated by a CO2 laser. The samples different and specific chemical and physical material properties cause different temperature distributions on their surfaces that are measured by a fast IR-linescan system. This 'thermal impulse response' has to be analyzed by means of a computer system. Investigations have shown that it is possible to analyze more than 18 different sorts of plastics at a frequency of 10 Hz. Crucial for the development of such a system is the rapid processing of imaging data, the minimization of interferences caused by oscillating samples geometries, and a wide range of possible additives in plastics in question. One possible application area is sorting of plastics coming from car- and electronic waste recycling.

  11. Cognitive Mechanism Underlying the Relationship between Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading: A Longitudinal Study on Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Susanna S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming has been demonstrated as an important correlate of various reading outcomes. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying the RAN-reading relationship is not well understood. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate three major theoretical accounts for the RAN--reading relationship: phonological processing account,…

  12. Comparing the Relationships among Two Different Versions of Alphanumeric Rapid Automatized Naming and Word Level Reading Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Donald L.; Olson, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates whether two different versions of the serial rapid automatized naming (RAN) task, using similar alphanumeric stimuli, would differentially predict performance on word level reading skills. Indicates that the RAN-Alternative measure explained significantly more unique variance in word recognition and orthographic-processing skills than…

  13. Cognitive Mechanism Underlying the Relationship between Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading: A Longitudinal Study on Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Susanna S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming has been demonstrated as an important correlate of various reading outcomes. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying the RAN-reading relationship is not well understood. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate three major theoretical accounts for the RAN--reading relationship: phonological processing account,…

  14. Efficient Word Reading: Automaticity of Print-Related Skills Indexed by Rapid Automatized Naming through Cusp-Catastrophe Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Simos, Panagiotis; Mouzaki, Angeliki; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the moderating role of rapid automatized naming (RAN) in reading achievement through a cusp-catastrophe model grounded on nonlinear dynamic systems theory. Data were obtained from a community sample of 496 second through fourth graders who were followed longitudinally over 2 years and split into 2 random subsamples (validation…

  15. Efficient Word Reading: Automaticity of Print-Related Skills Indexed by Rapid Automatized Naming through Cusp-Catastrophe Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Simos, Panagiotis; Mouzaki, Angeliki; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the moderating role of rapid automatized naming (RAN) in reading achievement through a cusp-catastrophe model grounded on nonlinear dynamic systems theory. Data were obtained from a community sample of 496 second through fourth graders who were followed longitudinally over 2 years and split into 2 random subsamples (validation…

  16. Retinex processing for automatic image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2002-06-01

    In the last published concept (1986) for a Retinex computation, Edwin Land introduced a center/surround spatial form, which was inspired by the receptive field structures of neurophysiology. With this as our starting point we have over the years developed this concept into a full scale automatic image enhancement algorithm - the Multi-Scale Retinex with Color Restoration (MSRCR) which combines color constancy with local contrast/lightness enhancement to transform digital images into renditions that approach the realism of direct scene observation. The MSRCR algorithm has proven to be quite general purpose, and very resilient to common forms of image pre-processing such as reasonable ranges of gamma and contrast stretch transformations. More recently we have been exploring the fundamental scientific implications of this form of image processing, namely: (i) the visual inadequacy of the linear representation of digital images, (ii) the existence of a canonical or statistical ideal visual image, and (iii) new measures of visual quality based upon these insights derived from our extensive experience with MSRCR enhanced images. The lattermost serves as the basis for future schemes for automating visual assessment - a primitive first step in bringing visual intelligence to computers.

  17. Eye-voice span during rapid automatized naming: evidence of reduced automaticity in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and their siblings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents demonstrate impaired performance in rapid automatized naming (RAN), a task that recruits a variety of linguistic and executive processes. Though the basic processes that contribute to RAN differences remain unclear, eye-voice relationships, as measured through eye tracking, can provide insight into cognitive and perceptual processes contributing to RAN performance. For example, in RAN, eye-voice span (EVS), the distance ahead the eyes are when articulation of a target item's label begins, is an indirect measure of automaticity of the processes underlying RAN. The primary objective of this study was to investigate automaticity in naming processes, as indexed by EVS during RAN. The secondary objective was to characterize RAN difficulties in individuals with ASD and their siblings. Methods Participants (aged 15–33 years) included 21 individuals with ASD, 23 siblings of individuals with ASD, and 24 control subjects, group-matched on chronological age. Naming time, frequency of errors, and EVS were measured during a RAN task and compared across groups. Results A stepwise pattern of RAN performance was observed, with individuals with ASD demonstrating the slowest naming across all RAN conditions, controls demonstrating the fastest naming, and siblings demonstrating intermediate performance. Individuals with ASD exhibited smaller EVSs than controls on all RAN conditions, and siblings exhibited smaller EVSs during number naming (the most highly automatized type of naming). EVSs were correlated with naming times in controls only, and only in the more automatized conditions. Conclusions These results suggest that reduced automaticity in the component processes of RAN may underpin differences in individuals with ASD and their siblings. These findings also provide further support that RAN abilities are impacted by genetic liability to ASD. This study has important implications for understanding the

  18. The Interplay between Automatic and Control Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczyk, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews prominent reading theories in light of their accounts of how automatic and control processes combine to produce successful text comprehension, and the trade-offs between the two. Presents the Compensatory-Encoding Model of reading, which explicates how, when, and why automatic and control processes interact. Notes important educational…

  19. Automatic process control for the food industry: an introduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order to ensure food security in food manufacturing operations automatic process control is desired. With the operation of the automatic process control systems the deviation of the controlled variables from the standards can be consistently perceived, adjusted, and minimized to improve the proce...

  20. Distributed automatic control of technological processes in conditions of weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukhtenko, A. I.; Merkulov, V. I.; Samoylenko, Y. I.; Ladikov-Royev, Y. P.

    1986-01-01

    Some problems associated with the automatic control of liquid metal and plasma systems under conditions of weightlessness are examined, with particular reference to the problem of stability of liquid equilibrium configurations. The theoretical fundamentals of automatic control of processes in electrically conducting continuous media are outlined, and means of using electromagnetic fields for simulating technological processes in a space environment are discussed.

  1. RATS: Rapid Automatic Tissue Segmentation in rodent brain MRI.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Ipek; Zhang, Honghai; Rumple, Ashley; Sonka, Milan

    2014-01-15

    High-field MRI is a popular technique for the study of rodent brains. These datasets, while similar to human brain MRI in many aspects, present unique image processing challenges. We address a very common preprocessing step, skull-stripping, which refers to the segmentation of the brain tissue from the image for further processing. While several methods exist for addressing this problem, they are computationally expensive and often require interactive post-processing by an expert to clean up poorly segmented areas. This further increases total processing time per subject. We propose a novel algorithm, based on grayscale mathematical morphology and LOGISMOS-based graph segmentation, which is rapid, robust and highly accurate. Comparative results obtained on two challenging in vivo datasets, consisting of 22 T1-weighted rat brain images and 10 T2-weighted mouse brain images illustrate the robustness and excellent performance of the proposed algorithm, in a fraction of the computational time needed by existing algorithms. In comparison to current state-of-the-art methods, our approach achieved average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.92 ± 0.02 and average Hausdorff distance of 13.6 ± 5.2 voxels (vs. 0.85 ± 0.20, p<0.05 and 42.6 ± 22.9, p < 0.001) for the rat dataset, and 0.96 ± 0.01 and average Hausdorff distance of 21.6 ± 12.7 voxels (vs. 0.93 ± 0.01, p <0.001 and 33.7 ± 3.5, p <0.001) for the mouse dataset. The proposed algorithm took approximately 90s per subject, compared to 10-20 min for the neural-network based method and 30-90 min for the atlas-based method. RATS is a robust and computationally efficient method for accurate rodent brain skull-stripping even in challenging data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Automatic, Rapid Replanning of Satellite Operations for Space Situational Awareness (SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottler, D.; Mahan, K.

    An important component of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is knowledge of the status and tasking of blue forces (e.g. satellites and ground stations) and the rapid determination of the impacts of real or hypothetical changes and the ability to quickly replan based on those changes. For example, if an antenna goes down (either for benign reasons or from purposeful interference) determining which missions will be impacted is important. It is not simply the set of missions that were scheduled to utilize that antenna, because highly expert human schedulers will respond to the outage by intelligently replanning the real-time schedule. We have developed an automatic scheduling and deconfliction engine, called MIDAS (for Managed Intelligent Deconfliction And Scheduling) that interfaces to the current legacy system (ESD 2.7) which can perform this replanning function automatically. In addition to determining the impact of failed resources, MIDAS can also replan in response to a satellite under attack. In this situation, additional supports must be quickly scheduled and executed (while minimizing impacts to other missions). Because MIDAS is a fully automatic system, replacing a current human labor-intensive process, and provides very rapid turnaround (seconds) it can also be used by commanders to consider what-if questions and focus limited protection resources on the most critical resources. For example, the commander can determine the impact of a successful attack on one of two ground stations and place heavier emphasis on protecting the station whose loss would create the most severe impacts. The system is currently transitioning to operational use. The MIDAS system and its interface to the legacy ESD 2.7 system will be described along with the ConOps for different types of detailed operational scenarios.

  3. Mediating Effects of Working Memory in the Relation Between Rapid Automatized Naming and Chinese Reading Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiaoqian; Li, Guangze; Li, Rongbao

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the mediating role of working memory (WM) in the relation between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and Chinese reading comprehension. Three tasks assessing differentially visual and verbal components of WM were programmed by E-prime 2.0. Data collected from 55 Chinese college students were analyzed using correlations and hierarchical regression methods to determine the connection among RAN, reading comprehension, and WM components. Results showed that WM played a significant mediating role in the RAN-reading relation and that auditory WM made stronger contributions than visual WM. Taking into account of the multi-component nature of WM and the specificity of Chinese reading processing, this study discussed the mediating powers of the WM components, particularly auditory WM, further clarifying the possible components involved in the RAN-reading relation and thus providing some insight into the complicated Chinese reading process.

  4. Do We Process Frequency Information Automatically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Mary Ann; Foley, Hugh J.

    Two criteria for the automatic encoding of learning, instructional manipulation, and stimulus characteristics were studied in subjects who judged the frequency of occurrence of words, letters, and nonwords. In Experiment 1, six word lists were constructed with varying frequency of alphabet letters. A variety of instructions were presented (whether…

  5. Count Me In! on the Automaticity of Numerosity Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naparstek, Sharon; Henik, Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Extraction of numerosity (i.e., enumeration) is an essential component of mathematical abilities. The current study asked how automatic is the processing of numerosity and whether automatic activation is task dependent. Participants were presented with displays containing a variable number of digits and were asked to pay attention to the number of…

  6. Count Me In! on the Automaticity of Numerosity Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naparstek, Sharon; Henik, Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Extraction of numerosity (i.e., enumeration) is an essential component of mathematical abilities. The current study asked how automatic is the processing of numerosity and whether automatic activation is task dependent. Participants were presented with displays containing a variable number of digits and were asked to pay attention to the number of…

  7. Chemical vapor deposition for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition for automatic processing of integrated circuits including the wafer carrier and loading from a receiving air track into automatic furnaces and unloading on to a sending air track is discussed. Passivation using electron beam deposited quartz is also considered.

  8. Automatic Synthesis and Deployment of Intensional Kahn Process Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, Manuel; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Bharadwaj, Ramesh

    In this paper we introduce and study, theoretically, a clean slate "formal" foundational approach for developing and deploying high-assurance distributed embedded systems deployed in mission-critical applications. We propose a simple formal distributed asynchronous framework extending Kahn Process Networks with intensional specification. More precisely, we present a model-driven approach based on a platform-independent language and an intensional specification logic that allows us to synthesize distributed agents that can handle interactions with external resources asynchronously, ensure enforcement of information flow and security policies, and have the ability to deal with failures of resources. Our approach allows rapid development and automated deployment of formally verified embedded networked systems that provide guarantees that clients' requirements will be met and QoS guarantees will be respected. Moreover, it allows modeling (and programming) reliable distributed systems for multi-core hosts. Such a capability makes our framework suitable for next generation grid computing systems where multi-core individual hosts need to be utilized for improving scalability.Given an intensional logical specification of a distributed embedded system, that includes Quality of Service (QoS) requirements, a set of software resources and devices available in a network, and their formal interface specifications, a deductive system can automatically generate distributed extended Kahn processes and their deployment information in such a way that the application requirements - including QoS requirements - are guaranteed to be met. The generated processes use the inputs of the sensors/meters/probes and the management policies of the customer to generate real-time control decisions for managing the system. The processes are deployed automatically on a distributed network involving sensors/meters/probes tracking system parameters, actuators controlling devices, and diverse computing

  9. Automatic Information Processing and High Performance Skills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    transfer of training paradigm. In the present work, a strength-based model of automatism ( Shiffrin and Schneider, 1977) was contrasted with an instance...Verbal Behavior, iU, 717-721. Czerwinski, M. P. (1988). Differences between visual and memory search: Implications for models of attention. Unpublished...Society Twenty-Sixth Annual Meeting (pp. 10-14). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society. Shiffrin , R. M. (1988). Attention. In R. C. Atkinson , R. J

  10. Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading Performance: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araújo, Susana; Reis, Alexandra; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Faísca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that rapid naming skill is associated with reading ability has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. However, there is considerable variation in the literature concerning the magnitude of this relationship. The objective of the present study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the evidence on the relationship between rapid…

  11. Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading Performance: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araújo, Susana; Reis, Alexandra; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Faísca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that rapid naming skill is associated with reading ability has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. However, there is considerable variation in the literature concerning the magnitude of this relationship. The objective of the present study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the evidence on the relationship between rapid…

  12. Modeling the relationship between rapid automatized naming and literacy skills across languages varying in orthographic consistency.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, George K; Aro, Mikko; Liao, Chen-Huei; Parrila, Rauno

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to contrast the prominent theoretical explanations of the rapid automatized naming (RAN)-reading relationship across languages varying in orthographic consistency (Chinese, English, and Finnish) and (b) to examine whether the same accounts can explain the RAN-spelling relationship. In total, 304 Grade 4 children (102 Chinese-speaking Taiwanese children, 117 English-speaking Canadian children, and 85 Finnish-speaking children) were assessed on measures of RAN, speed of processing, phonological processing, orthographic processing, reading fluency, and spelling. The results of path analysis indicated that RAN had a strong direct effect on reading fluency that was of the same size across languages and that only in English was a small proportion of its predictive variance mediated by orthographic processing. In contrast, RAN did not exert a significant direct effect on spelling, and a substantial proportion of its predictive variance was mediated by phonological processing (in Chinese and Finnish) and orthographic processing (in English). Given that RAN predicted reading fluency equally well across languages and that phonological/orthographic processing had very little to do with this relationship, we argue that the reason why RAN is related to reading fluency should be sought in domain-general factors such as serial processing and articulation.

  13. Automatic Processing of Bathymetric Data from Multibeam Echosounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, B.

    2001-12-01

    Multibeam Echosounder data is a powerful method for rapidly mapping the seabed, either from the water surface or from a remote (or autonomous) vehicle. However, the data density of such systems can make data handling difficult, and most conventional processing schemes are subjective due to their reliance on human experience. We describe an automatic scheme for converting raw data to a preliminary gridded product without human interaction, using the estimated measurement error of the data to adjudge the reliability of each sounding and hence the weight that it should be given in the grid. Along with a propagation of information argument which implicitly defines the local bathymetry, the algorithm is able to track multiple estimates of depth to provide extra robustness (e.g., in the face of burst-mode instrument failure, or outlier data) and can continually update its estimate of the bathymetry as new data is presented, potentially from multiple sources or measurement systems. All depth hypotheses are maintained on-line so that human revision of the estimates is possible after the algorithm's best resolution is determined. We illustrate the algorithm on two datasets: a shallow water survey in Portsmouth, NH, and an intermediate depth survey on the west Florida shelf, Gulf of Mexico, where we also compare the surfaces generated by conventional processing methodologies. We conclude that our automatic algorithm provides robust processing, with the `value-added' products of an estimate of uncertainty in the bathymetry, and an indication of any problem regions in the data. The algorithm can integrate data much more quickly that it can currently be gathered, and provides an objective `best' assessment of depths. It also generates surfaces which are statistically similar to conventionally constructed products.

  14. Automatic processes in aggression: Conceptual and assessment issues.

    PubMed

    Bluemke, Matthias; Teige-Mocigemba, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This editorial to the special section "Automatic Processes in Aggression: Conceptual and Assessment Issues" introduces major research lines, all of which culminate in recent advances in the measurement of automatic components in aggressive behavior. Researchers of almost all psychological disciplines have stressed increasingly the importance of automatic components to gain a comprehensive psychological understanding of human behavior. This is reflected in current dual-process theories according to which both controlled processes and rather automatic processes elicit behavior in a synergistic or antagonistic way. As a consequence, complementing self-reports (assumed to assess predominantly controlled processes) by the use of implicit measures (assumed to assess predominantly automatic processes) has become common practice in various domains. We familiarize the reader with the three contributions that illuminate how such a distinction can further our understanding of human aggression. At the same time, it becomes evident that there is a long way that method-oriented researchers need to go before we can fully comprehend how to best measure automatic processes in aggression. We see the present special section as an invigorating call to contribute to this endeavor. Aggr. Behav. 41:44-50 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Automatic processes in aggression: Conceptual and assessment issues.

    PubMed

    Bluemke, Matthias; Teige-Mocigemba, Sarah

    2014-12-12

    This editorial to the special section "Automatic Processes in Aggression: Conceptual and Assessment Issues" introduces major research lines, all of which culminate in recent advances in the measurement of automatic components in aggressive behavior. Researchers of almost all psychological disciplines have stressed increasingly the importance of automatic components to gain a comprehensive psychological understanding of human behavior. This is reflected in current dual-process theories according to which both controlled processes and rather automatic processes elicit behavior in a synergistic or antagonistic way. As a consequence, complementing self-reports (assumed to assess predominantly controlled processes) by the use of implicit measures (assumed to assess predominantly automatic processes) has become common practice in various domains. We familiarize the reader with the three contributions that illuminate how such a distinction can further our understanding of human aggression. At the same time, it becomes evident that there is a long way that method-oriented researchers need to go before we can fully comprehend how to best measure automatic processes in aggression. We see the present special section as an invigorating call to contribute to this endeavor. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Relationship of Automatic Data Processing Training Curriculum and Methodology in the Federal Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    A conference, held in Washington, D. C., in 1967 by the Association for Educational Data Systems and the U.S. Office of Education, attempted to lay the groundwork for an efficient automatic data processing training program for the Federal Government utilizing new instructional methodologies. The rapid growth of computer applications and computer…

  17. Beyond behaviorism: on the automaticity of higher mental processes.

    PubMed

    Bargh, J A; Ferguson, M J

    2000-11-01

    The first 100 years of experimental psychology were dominated by 2 major schools of thought: behaviorism and cognitive science. Here the authors consider the common philosophical commitment to determinism by both schools, and how the radical behaviorists' thesis of the determined nature of higher mental processes is being pursued today in social cognition research on automaticity. In harmony with "dual process" models in contemporary cognitive science, which equate determined processes with those that are automatic and which require no intervening conscious choice or guidance, as opposed to "controlled" processes which do, the social cognition research on the automaticity of higher mental processes provides compelling evidence for the determinism of those processes. This research has revealed that social interaction, evaluation and judgment, and the operation of internal goal structures can all proceed without the intervention of conscious acts of will and guidance of the process.

  18. The Automatic and Controlled Processing of Temporal and Spatial Patterns.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    Schneider, 1977; Laberge , 1973, 1975). There is a need to expand automatic processing to inputs where an event is defined by a sequence of stimuli. In this...that found by LaBerge (1973). In the LaBerge experiment, subjects were tested on both familiar and unfamiliar characters. For the familiar characters... LaBerge argued that the separate features were unitized into letters automatically. For unfamiliar characters, subjects could not initially

  19. Examining the relationship between rapid automatized naming and arithmetic fluency in Chinese kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiaxin; Georgiou, George K; Zhang, Yiyun; Li, Yixun; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Xinlin

    2017-02-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been found to predict mathematics. However, the nature of their relationship remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine how RAN (numeric and non-numeric) predicts a subdomain of mathematics (arithmetic fluency) and (b) to examine what processing skills may account for the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship. A total of 160 third-year kindergarten Chinese children (83 boys and 77 girls, mean age=5.11years) were assessed on RAN (colors, objects, digits, and dice), nonverbal IQ, visual-verbal paired associate learning, phonological awareness, short-term memory, speed of processing, approximate number system acuity, and arithmetic fluency (addition and subtraction). The results indicated first that RAN was a significant correlate of arithmetic fluency and the correlations did not vary as a function of type of RAN or arithmetic fluency tasks. In addition, RAN continued to predict addition and subtraction fluency even after controlling for all other processing skills. Taken together, these findings challenge the existing theoretical accounts of the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship and suggest that, similar to reading fluency, multiple processes underlie the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mediating Effects of Working Memory in the Relation between Rapid Automatized Naming and Chinese Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Xiaoqian; Li, Guangze; Li, Rongbao

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of working memory (WM) in the relation between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and Chinese reading comprehension. Three tasks assessing differentially visual and verbal components of WM were programmed by E-prime 2.0. Data collected from 55 Chinese college students were analyzed using correlations and…

  1. Mediating Effects of Working Memory in the Relation between Rapid Automatized Naming and Chinese Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Xiaoqian; Li, Guangze; Li, Rongbao

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of working memory (WM) in the relation between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and Chinese reading comprehension. Three tasks assessing differentially visual and verbal components of WM were programmed by E-prime 2.0. Data collected from 55 Chinese college students were analyzed using correlations and…

  2. Neural Systems for Rapid Automatized Naming in Skilled Readers: Unraveling the RAN-Reading Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Maya; Katzir, Tamar; Wolf, Maryanne; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of children and adults with reading disabilities exhibit pronounced difficulties on naming-speed measures such as tests of rapid automatized naming (RAN). RAN tasks require speeded naming of serially presented stimuli and share key characteristics with reading, but different versions of the RAN task vary in their sensitivity: The RAN…

  3. Neural Systems for Rapid Automatized Naming in Skilled Readers: Unraveling the RAN-Reading Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Maya; Katzir, Tamar; Wolf, Maryanne; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of children and adults with reading disabilities exhibit pronounced difficulties on naming-speed measures such as tests of rapid automatized naming (RAN). RAN tasks require speeded naming of serially presented stimuli and share key characteristics with reading, but different versions of the RAN task vary in their sensitivity: The RAN…

  4. Automatic RST-based system for a rapid detection of man-made disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, Valerio; Corrado, Rosita; Filizzola, Carolina; Livia Grimaldi, Caterina Sara; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Marchese, Francesco; Pergola, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    Man-made disasters may cause injuries to citizens and damages to critical infrastructures. When it is not possible to prevent or foresee such disasters it is hoped at least to rapidly detect the accident in order to intervene as soon as possible to minimize damages. In this context, the combination of a Robust Satellite Technique (RST), able to identify for sure actual (i.e. no false alarm) accidents, and satellite sensors with high temporal resolution seems to assure both a reliable and a timely detection of abrupt Thermal Infrared (TIR) transients related to dangerous explosions. A processing chain, based on the RST approach, has been developed in the framework of the GMOSS and G-MOSAIC projects by DIFA-UNIBAS team, suitable for automatically identify on MSG-SEVIRI images harmful events. Maps of thermal anomalies are generated every 15 minutes (i.e. SEVIRI temporal repetition rate) over a selected area together with kml files (containing information on latitude and longitude of "thermally" anomalous SEVIRI pixel centre, time of image acquisition, relative intensity of anomalies, etc.) for a rapid visualization of the accident position even on Google Earth. Results achieved in the cases of gas pipelines recently exploded or attacked in Russia and in Iraq will be presented in this work.

  5. Chandra Automatic Processing Task Interface: An Adaptable System Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, J. D., Jr.; Plummer, D.

    2007-10-01

    The Chandra Automatic Processing Task Interface (CAPTAIN) is an operations interface to Chandra Automatic Processing (AP) that provides detail management and execution of the AP pipelines. In particular, this kind of management is used in Special Automatic Processing (SAP) where there is a need to select specific pipelines that require non-standard handling for reprocessing of a given data set. Standard AP currently contains approximately 200 pipelines with complex interactions between them. As AP has evolved over the life of the mission, so has the number and attributes of these pipelines. As a result, CAPTAIN provides a system architecture capable of managing and adapting to this evolving system. This adaptability has allowed CAPTAIN to also be used to initiate Chandra Source Catalog Automatic Processing (Level~3 AP) and positions it for use with future automatic processing systems. This paper describes the approach to the development of the CAPTAIN system architecture and the maintainable, extensible and reusable software architecture by which it is implemented.

  6. Semi-automatic process partitioning for parallel computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelbel, Charles; Mehrotra, Piyush; Vanrosendale, John

    1988-01-01

    On current multiprocessor architectures one must carefully distribute data in memory in order to achieve high performance. Process partitioning is the operation of rewriting an algorithm as a collection of tasks, each operating primarily on its own portion of the data, to carry out the computation in parallel. A semi-automatic approach to process partitioning is considered in which the compiler, guided by advice from the user, automatically transforms programs into such an interacting task system. This approach is illustrated with a picture processing example written in BLAZE, which is transformed into a task system maximizing locality of memory reference.

  7. Automatic processing system for shadowgraph and interference patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vereninov, I. A.; Lazarev, V. D.; Popov, S. S.; Tarasov, V. S.

    1987-01-01

    The design and operation of an automatic system for the processing of shadowgraph and interference images are described. The system includes a two-coordinate processing table with an optical system for the projection of transparent images onto the photodetector, an image filter in the photodetector field, and a device for controlling the movement of the table and transmitting information to the minicomputer.

  8. Control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed-processing model of the stroop effect. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.D.; Dunbar, K.; McClelland, J.L.

    1988-06-16

    A growing body of evidence suggests that traditional views of automaticity are in need of revision. For example, automaticity has often been treated as an all-or-none phenomenon, and traditional theories have held that automatic processes are independent of attention. Yet recent empirial data suggests that automatic processes are continuous, and furthermore are subject to attentional control. In this paper we present a model of attention which addresses these issues. Using a parallel distributed processing framework we propose that the attributes of automaticity depend upon the strength of a process and that strength increases with training. Using the Stroop effect as an example, we show how automatic processes are continuous and emerge gradually with practice. Specifically, we present a computational model of the Stroop task which simulates the time course of processing as well as the effects of learning.

  9. Scanning electron microscope automatic defect classification of process induced defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Scott; McGarvey, Steve

    2017-03-01

    utilization of a Hitachi RS4000 Defect Review SEM to perform Automatic Defect Classification with the objective of the total automated classification accuracy being greater than human based defect classification binning when the defects do not require multiple process step knowledge for accurate classification. The implementation of DRSEM ADC has the potential to improve the response time between defect detection and defect classification. Faster defect classification will allow for rapid response to yield anomalies that will ultimately reduce the wafer and/or the die yield.

  10. Alexithymia and automatic processing of emotional stimuli: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Suslow, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and the utilization of a cognitive style that is oriented toward external events, rather than intrapsychic experiences. Alexithymia is considered a vulnerability factor influencing onset and course of many psychiatric disorders. Even though emotions are, in general, elicited involuntarily and emerge without conscious effort, it is surprising that little attention in etiological considerations concerning alexithymia has been given to deficits in automatic emotion processing and their neurobiological bases. In this article, results from studies using behavioral or neurobiological research methods were systematically reviewed in which automatic processing of external emotional information was investigated as a function of alexithymia in healthy individuals. Twenty-two studies were identified through a literature search of Psycinfo, PubMed, and Web of Science databases from 1990 to 2016. The review reveals deficits in the automatic processing of emotional stimuli in alexithymia at a behavioral and neurobiological level. The vast majority of the reviewed studies examined visual processing. The alexithymia facets externally oriented thinking and difficulties identifying feelings were found to be related to impairments in the automatic processing of threat-related facial expressions. Alexithymic individuals manifest low reactivity to barely visible negative emotional stimuli in brain regions responsible for appraisal, encoding, and affective response, e.g. amygdala, occipitotemporal areas, and insula. Against this background, it appears plausible to assume that deficits in automatic emotion processing could be factors contributing to alexithymic personality characteristics. Directions for future research on alexithymia and automatic emotion perception are suggested.

  11. Automatic detection of rapid eye movements (REMs): A machine learning approach

    PubMed Central

    Yetton, Benjamin D.; Niknazar, Mohammad; Duggan, Katherine A.; McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Whitehurst, Lauren N.; Sattari, Negin; Mednick, Sara C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Rapid eye movements (REMs) are a defining feature of REM sleep. The number of discrete REMs over time, or REM density, has been investigated as a marker of clinical psychopathology and memory consolidation. However, human detection of REMs is a time-consuming and subjective process. Therefore, reliable, automated REM detection software is a valuable research tool. New method We developed an automatic REM detection algorithm combining a novel set of extracted features and the ‘AdaBoost’ classification algorithm to detect the presence of REMs in Electrooculogram data collected from the right and left outer canthi (ROC/LOC). Algorithm performance measures of Recall (percentage of REMs detected) and Precision (percentage of REMs detected that are true REMs) were calculated and compared to the gold standard of human detection by three expert sleep scorers. REM detection by four non-experts were also investigated and compared to expert raters and the algorithm. Results The algorithm performance (78.1% Recall, 82.6% Precision) surpassed that of the average (expert & non-expert) single human detection performance (76% Recall, 83% Precision). Agreement between non-experts (Cronbach Alpha = 0.65) is markedly lower than experts (Cronbach Alpha = 0.80). Comparison with existing method(s) By following reported methods, we implemented all previously published LOC and ROC based detection algorithms on our dataset. Our algorithm performance exceeded all others. Conclusions The automatic detection algorithm presented is a viable and efficient method of REM detection as it reliably matches the performance of human scorers and outperforms all other known LOC- and ROC-based detection algorithms. PMID:26642967

  12. The Caltech Tomography Database and Automatic Processing Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Ding, H. Jane; Oikonomou, Catherine M.; Jensen, Grant J.

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe the Caltech Tomography Database and automatic image processing pipeline, designed to process, store, display, and distribute electron tomographic data including tilt-series, sample information, data collection parameters, 3D reconstructions, correlated light microscope images, snapshots, segmentations, movies, and other associated files. Tilt-series are typically uploaded automatically during collection to a user’s “Inbox” and processed automatically, but can also be entered and processed in batches via scripts or file-by-file through an internet interface. As with the video website YouTube, each tilt-series is represented on the browsing page with a link to the full record, a thumbnail image and a video icon that delivers a movie of the tomogram in a pop-out window. Annotation tools allow users to add notes and snapshots. The database is fully searchable, and sets of tilt-series can be selected and re-processed, edited, or downloaded to a personal workstation. The results of further processing and snapshots of key results can be recorded in the database, automatically linked to the appropriate tilt-series. While the database is password-protected for local browsing and searching, datasets can be made public and individual files can be shared with collaborators over the Internet. Together these tools facilitate high-throughput tomography work by both individuals and groups. PMID:26087141

  13. The Caltech Tomography Database and Automatic Processing Pipeline.

    PubMed

    Ding, H Jane; Oikonomou, Catherine M; Jensen, Grant J

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe the Caltech Tomography Database and automatic image processing pipeline, designed to process, store, display, and distribute electron tomographic data including tilt-series, sample information, data collection parameters, 3D reconstructions, correlated light microscope images, snapshots, segmentations, movies, and other associated files. Tilt-series are typically uploaded automatically during collection to a user's "Inbox" and processed automatically, but can also be entered and processed in batches via scripts or file-by-file through an internet interface. As with the video website YouTube, each tilt-series is represented on the browsing page with a link to the full record, a thumbnail image and a video icon that delivers a movie of the tomogram in a pop-out window. Annotation tools allow users to add notes and snapshots. The database is fully searchable, and sets of tilt-series can be selected and re-processed, edited, or downloaded to a personal workstation. The results of further processing and snapshots of key results can be recorded in the database, automatically linked to the appropriate tilt-series. While the database is password-protected for local browsing and searching, datasets can be made public and individual files can be shared with collaborators over the Internet. Together these tools facilitate high-throughput tomography work by both individuals and groups.

  14. Automatic processing of spoken dialogue in the home hemodialysis domain.

    PubMed

    Lacson, Ronilda; Barzilay, Regina

    2005-01-01

    Spoken medical dialogue is a valuable source of information, and it forms a foundation for diagnosis, prevention and therapeutic management. However, understanding even a perfect transcript of spoken dialogue is challenging for humans because of the lack of structure and the verbosity of dialogues. This work presents a first step towards automatic analysis of spoken medical dialogue. The backbone of our approach is an abstraction of a dialogue into a sequence of semantic categories. This abstraction uncovers structure in informal, verbose conversation between a caregiver and a patient, thereby facilitating automatic processing of dialogue content. Our method induces this structure based on a range of linguistic and contextual features that are integrated in a supervised machine-learning framework. Our model has a classification accuracy of 73%, compared to 33% achieved by a majority baseline (p<0.01). This work demonstrates the feasibility of automatically processing spoken medical dialogue.

  15. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  16. Rapid prototyping in the development of image processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Fecht, Arno; Kelm, Claus Thomas

    2004-08-01

    This contribution presents a rapid prototyping approach for the real-time demonstration of image processing algorithms. As an example EADS/LFK has developed a basic IR target tracking system implementing this approach. Traditionally in research and industry time-independent simulation of image processing algorithms on a host computer is processed. This method is good for demonstrating the algorithms' capabilities. Rarely done is a time-dependent simulation or even a real-time demonstration on a target platform to prove the real-time capabilities. In 1D signal processing applications time-dependent simulation and real-time demonstration has already been used for quite a while. For time-dependent simulation Simulink from The MathWorks has established as an industry standard. Combined with The MathWorks' Real-Time Workshop the simulation model can be transferred to a real-time target processor. The executable is generated automatically by the Real-Time Workshop directly out of the simulation model. In 2D signal processing applications like image processing The Mathworks' Matlab is commonly used for time-independent simulation. To achieve time-dependent simulation and real-time demonstration capabilities the algorithms can be transferred to Simulink, which in fact runs on top of Matlab. Additionally to increase the performance Simulink models or parts of them can be transferred to Xilinx FPGAs using Xilinx' System Generator. With a single model and the automatic workflow both, a time-dependant simulation and the real-time demonstration, are covered leading to an easy and flexible rapid prototyping approach. EADS/LFK is going to use this approach for a wider spectrum of IR image processing applications like automatic target recognition or image based navigation or imaging laser radar target recognition.

  17. Automatic processing of multimodal tomography datasets.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Aaron D; Price, Stephen W T; Wadeson, Nicola; Basham, Mark; Beale, Andrew M; Ashton, Alun W; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Quinn, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    With the development of fourth-generation high-brightness synchrotrons on the horizon, the already large volume of data that will be collected on imaging and mapping beamlines is set to increase by orders of magnitude. As such, an easy and accessible way of dealing with such large datasets as quickly as possible is required in order to be able to address the core scientific problems during the experimental data collection. Savu is an accessible and flexible big data processing framework that is able to deal with both the variety and the volume of data of multimodal and multidimensional scientific datasets output such as those from chemical tomography experiments on the I18 microfocus scanning beamline at Diamond Light Source.

  18. Automatic processing of multimodal tomography datasets

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Aaron D.; Price, Stephen W. T.; Wadeson, Nicola; Basham, Mark; Beale, Andrew M.; Ashton, Alun W.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick. W.; Quinn, Paul. D.

    2017-01-01

    With the development of fourth-generation high-brightness synchrotrons on the horizon, the already large volume of data that will be collected on imaging and mapping beamlines is set to increase by orders of magnitude. As such, an easy and accessible way of dealing with such large datasets as quickly as possible is required in order to be able to address the core scientific problems during the experimental data collection. Savu is an accessible and flexible big data processing framework that is able to deal with both the variety and the volume of data of multimodal and multidimensional scientific datasets output such as those from chemical tomography experiments on the I18 microfocus scanning beamline at Diamond Light Source. PMID:28009564

  19. High-productivity automatic GTAW process

    SciTech Connect

    Imaizumi, H.; Kato, T.; Murakami, Y.

    1994-12-31

    Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has, since developed by AIRCO, spread globally as a weld process which assures a quality weld. However, the only drawback with GTAW is low productivity and we have challenged the subject in how we could improve that. To that end, we set the target of 3 times deposition rate as compared to conventional TIG. With conventional TIG arc, arc spread angle ranges 130{degrees} to 140{degrees}; to improve energy density, we have employed double flux TIG of SAF, France to converge the arc down to 80{degrees}. Consequently, energy density was upped to 4 times of conventional TIG, thus penetration depth and filler wire feed rated increased up to 2 to 4 times. We have succeeded in controlling cool-down in the molten pool, enabling the utilization of highly-converged TIG arc and preventing deposited metals burn-through for cleaner weld process, high-productivity GTAW. We find that: (1) The TIG arc spread angle is convergeable from 140{degrees} down to 80{degrees}; heat energy to be 3.5 times of that obtainable conventionally. (2) 65{emdash}80 g/min attained with 500A and C.S. in flat position, and 35{emdash}40 g/min., with all-position pipe weld. (3) 2{emdash}3 times efficiency improvement, obtained with work in C.S., S.S., and Inconel. (4) Excellent impact value obtainable despite heat-input increase. (5) Fume-less, spatterless, gouging-less and grindingless weld is obtainable; we were successful in improving the operational environment.

  20. Automatic recognition of lactating sow behaviors through depth image processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manual observation and classification of animal behaviors is laborious, time-consuming, and of limited ability to process large amount of data. A computer vision-based system was developed that automatically recognizes sow behaviors (lying, sitting, standing, kneeling, feeding, drinking, and shiftin...

  1. A Simple Blueprint for Automatic Boolean Query Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, G.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a new Boolean retrieval environment in which an extended soft Boolean logic is used to automatically construct queries from original natural language formulations provided by users. Experimental results that compare the retrieval effectiveness of this method to conventional Boolean and vector processing are discussed. (27 references)…

  2. A conceptual study of automatic and semi-automatic quality assurance techniques for round image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study conducted by Engineering and Economics Research (EER), Inc. under NASA Contract Number NAS5-27513. The study involved the development of preliminary concepts for automatic and semiautomatic quality assurance (QA) techniques for ground image processing. A distinction is made between quality assessment and the more comprehensive quality assurance which includes decision making and system feedback control in response to quality assessment.

  3. Automatic process control in anaerobic digestion technology: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that relies upon a synergistic effort of a diverse group of microbial communities for metabolizing diverse organic substrates. However, AD is highly sensitive to process disturbances, and thus it is advantageous to use online monitoring and process control techniques to efficiently operate AD process. A range of electrochemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic devices can be deployed for on-line monitoring and control of the AD process. While complexity of the control strategy ranges from a feedback control to advanced control systems, there are some debates on implementation of advanced instrumentations or advanced control strategies. Centralized AD plants could be the answer for the applications of progressive automatic control field. This article provides a critical overview of the available automatic control technologies that can be implemented in AD processes at different scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Attentional selection predicts rapid automatized naming ability in Chinese-speaking children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wang, Encong; Sun, Meirong; Tao, Ye; Gao, Xiaoyi; Guo, Jialiang; Zhao, Chenguang; Li, Hui; Qian, Qiujin; Wu, Zhanliang; Wang, Yufeng; Sun, Li; Song, Yan

    2017-04-20

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reported to have a significantly higher risk of showing reading difficulties or disorders. Here, we aimed to identify the relationship between electroencephalographic (EEG) marker of spatial attention and reading ability in Chinese children with ADHD. First, we demonstrated that rapid automatized naming (RAN) is a strong predictor of reading ability in Chinese-speaking children. Then, EEG data of 9-to 15-year-old children with ADHD (n = 38) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 36) were collected while the children performed a classical visual search task. Children with ADHD showed slower RAN speed than TD children. For event-related potentials (ERPs), children with ADHD showed a reduced target-evoked N2pc component, which predicted their poorer RAN performance. However, in TD children the early occipital P1 amplitude was negatively correlated with their RAN performance. The correlation between decreased N2pc and poor RAN performance in children with ADHD suggests that their reading problems may in part be due to impaired attentional selection. In contrast, in TD children, development in early visual processing co-occurs with improvements in reading ability.

  5. An examination of the rapid automatized naming-reading relationship using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cummine, J; Chouinard, B; Szepesvari, E; Georgiou, G K

    2015-10-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been established to be a strong predictor of reading. Yet, the neural correlates underlying the RAN-reading relationship remain unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine: (a) the extent to which RAN and reading activate similar brain regions (within subjects), (b) whether RAN and reading are directly related in the shared activity network outlined in (a), and (c) to what extent RAN neural activation predicts behavioral reading performance. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), university students (N=15; Mean age=20.6 years) were assessed on RAN (letters and digits) and single-word reading (words and non-words). The results revealed a common RAN-reading network that included regions associated with motor planning (cerebellum), semantic access (middle temporal gyrus), articulation (supplementary motor area, pre-motor), and grapheme-phoneme translation (supramarginal gyrus). We found differences between RAN and reading with respect to percent signal change (PSC) in phonological and orthographic regions, but not in articulatory regions. Significant correlations between the neural RAN and reading parameters were found primarily in motor/articulatory regions. Further, we found a unique relationship between in-scanner reading response time and RAN PSC in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Taken together, these findings support the notion that RAN and reading activate similar neural networks. However, the relationship between RAN and reading is primarily driven by commonalities in the motor-sequencing/articulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Applying an Automatic Image-Processing Method to Synoptic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlatov, Andrey G.; Vasil'eva, Valeria V.; Makarova, Valentina V.; Otkidychev, Pavel A.

    2014-04-01

    We used an automatic image-processing method to detect solar-activity features observed in white light at the Kislovodsk Solar Station. This technique was applied to automatically or semi-automatically detect sunspots and active regions. The results of this automated recognition were verified with statistical data available from other observatories and revealed a high detection accuracy. We also provide parameters of sunspot areas, of the umbra, and of faculae as observed in Solar Cycle 23 as well as the magnetic flux of these active elements, calculated at the Kislovodsk Solar Station, together with white-light images and magnetograms from the Michaelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO/MDI). The ratio of umbral and total sunspot areas during Solar Cycle 23 is ≈ 0.19. The area of sunspots of the leading polarity was approximately 2.5 times the area of sunspots of the trailing polarity.

  7. Towards Automatic Processing of Virtual City Models for Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piepereit, R.; Schilling, A.; Alam, N.; Wewetzer, M.; Pries, M.; Coors, V.

    2016-10-01

    Especially in the field of numerical simulations, such as flow and acoustic simulations, the interest in using virtual 3D models to optimize urban systems is increasing. The few instances in which simulations were already carried out in practice have been associated with an extremely high manual and therefore uneconomical effort for the processing of models. Using different ways of capturing models in Geographic Information System (GIS) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE), increases the already very high complexity of the processing. To obtain virtual 3D models suitable for simulation, we developed a tool for automatic processing with the goal to establish ties between the world of GIS and CAE. In this paper we introduce a way to use Coons surfaces for the automatic processing of building models in LoD2, and investigate ways to simplify LoD3 models in order to reduce unnecessary information for a numerical simulation.

  8. Current evidence for automatic Theory of Mind processing in adults.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Dana; Slaughter, Virginia P; Dux, Paul E

    2017-05-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is thought to play a key role in social information processing as it refers to the ability of individuals to represent the mental states of others (e.g., intentions, desires, beliefs). A provocative hypothesis has been put forward which espouses the existence of two ToM systems: one that is implicit and involves the automatic analysis of the belief states of others and another that is not automatic and is involved in explicitly reasoning about others' mental states. Recently, Phillips et al. (2015) have suggested that there is limited evidence for automatic ToM processing, after identifying a confound in a previous high-profile paper supporting the existence of this cognitive operation in infants and adults (Kovács, Téglás, & Endress, 2010). Here, we take a broader view of the literature and find, contrary to the conclusions of Phillips et al., that there is a substantial body of literature which demonstrates that adult humans are able to engage in unconscious and unintentional, and thus automatic, analyses of others' mental states. However, whether this ability is best described under a one, two or multiple systems ToM account remains to be determined.

  9. Automatization of the guiding process in the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molgo, J.; Álvarez, C.; Rodríguez-Losada, J. A.; Huertas, M.; Macías, R.; Guerra, D.; Ramos, F.; Gaggstatter, T.; Brito, H.; de Paz, H.

    2016-07-01

    The "Gran Telescopio Canarias" (GTC) is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). The GTC Control System (GCS) is continuously evolving to enhance the operational efficiency. In this work we present the new GCS subsystem to automatize the guiding setup process, both for Fast Guiding and for Slow Guiding. A set of restrictions (including vignetting and photometric computations) is used to select the stars appropriate for guiding, and a merit function is used to choose the best one. Then, the system computes the optical configuration that fits best the selected star, automatically performs the guide star acquisition process and it closes the guide loop.

  10. On the Learning of Distractors during Controlled and Automatic Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-04

    function of semantic, graphic and syntactic orienting tasks. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1973, 12, 471-480. LaBerge , D. Attention...and the measurement of perceptual learning. Memory and Cognition, 1973, 1, 268-278. LaBerge , D. Acquisition of automatic processing in perceptual and...Univ A. Stevens , Holt Beranek & Newman, Cambridge, 1A D. Stone, SUY, Albany P. Suppes, Stanford Uuiv H. Swaminathan, Univ of Massachusetts K. Tatsuoka

  11. Automatic Software Processing for Inventories of Nuclides (ASPIN)

    SciTech Connect

    Luca Gratton; J.M. Rammsy

    2001-10-22

    EQ6 users have difficulties tracking isotopic concentrations in a system with chemical and nuclear decay reactions. The capability to track isotopic concentrations is particularly important for simulating the degradation of the spent nuclear fuels. Isotopic tracking is necessary to evaluate the criticality risk associated with fissile material relocation inside of a disposal container. A code called ASPRIN (Automatic Software PRocessing, Inventories of Nuclides) was created to allow isotopic tracking using the results of EQ6 simulations.

  12. Subcortical amygdala pathways enable rapid face processing.

    PubMed

    Garvert, Mona M; Friston, Karl J; Dolan, Raymond J; Garrido, Marta I

    2014-11-15

    Human faces may signal relevant information and are therefore analysed rapidly and effectively by the brain. However, the precise mechanisms and pathways involved in rapid face processing are unclear. One view posits a role for a subcortical connection between early visual sensory regions and the amygdala, while an alternative account emphasises cortical mediation. To adjudicate between these functional architectures, we recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) evoked fields in human subjects to presentation of faces with varying emotional valence. Early brain activity was better explained by dynamic causal models containing a direct subcortical connection to the amygdala irrespective of emotional modulation. At longer latencies, models without a subcortical connection had comparable evidence. Hence, our results support the hypothesis that a subcortical pathway to the amygdala plays a role in rapid sensory processing of faces, in particular during early stimulus processing. This finding contributes to an understanding of the amygdala as a behavioural relevance detector.

  13. Automatic affective processing impairments in patients with deficit syndrome schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Gregory P; Allen, Daniel N; Duke, Lisa A; Ross, Sylvia A; Schwartz, Jason

    2008-07-01

    Affective impairments were examined in patients with and without deficit syndrome schizophrenia. Two Emotional Stroop tasks designed to measure automatic processing of emotional information were administered to deficit (n=15) and non-deficit syndrome (n=26) schizophrenia patients classified according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome, and matched non-patient control subjects (n=22). In comparison to non-deficit patients and controls, deficit syndrome patients demonstrated a lack of attention bias for positive information, and an elevated attentional lingering effect for negative information. These findings suggest that positive information fails to automatically capture attention of deficit syndrome patients, and that when negative information captures attention, it produces difficulty in disengagement Attentional abnormalities were significantly correlated with negative symptoms, such that more severe symptoms were associated with less attention bias for positive emotion and a greater lingering effect for negative information. Results are generally consistent with a mood-congruent processing abnormality and suggest that impaired automatic processing may be core to diminished emotional experience symptoms exhibited in deficit syndrome patients.

  14. Automatic and controlled processing in the corticocerebellar system.

    PubMed

    Ramnani, Narender

    2014-01-01

    During learning, performance changes often involve a transition from controlled processing in which performance is flexible and responsive to ongoing error feedback, but effortful and slow, to a state in which processing becomes swift and automatic. In this state, performance is unencumbered by the requirement to process feedback, but its insensitivity to feedback reduces its flexibility. Many properties of automatic processing are similar to those that one would expect of forward models, and many have suggested that these may be instantiated in cerebellar circuitry. Since hierarchically organized frontal lobe areas can both send and receive commands, I discuss the possibility that they can act both as controllers and controlled objects and that their behaviors can be independently modeled by forward models in cerebellar circuits. Since areas of the prefrontal cortex contribute to this hierarchically organized system and send outputs to the cerebellar cortex, I suggest that the cerebellum is likely to contribute to the automation of cognitive skills, and to the formation of habitual behavior which is resistant to error feedback. An important prerequisite to these ideas is that cerebellar circuitry should have access to higher order error feedback that signals the success or failure of cognitive processing. I have discussed the pathways through which such feedback could arrive via the inferior olive and the dopamine system. Cerebellar outputs inhibit both the inferior olive and the dopamine system. It is possible that learned representations in the cerebellum use this as a mechanism to suppress the processing of feedback in other parts of the nervous system. Thus, cerebellar processes that control automatic performance may be completed without triggering the engagement of controlled processes by prefrontal mechanisms. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed-processing account of the Stroop effect. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.D.; Dunbar, K.; McClelland, J.L.

    1989-11-22

    A growing body of evidence suggests that traditional views of automaticity are in need of revision. For example, automaticity has often been treated as an all-or-none phenomenon, and traditional theories have held that automatic processes are independent of attention. Yet recent empirical data suggest that automatic processes are continuous, and furthermore are subject to attentional control. In this paper we present a model of attention which addresses these issues. Using a parallel distributed processing framework we propose that the attributes of automaticity depend upon the strength of a processing pathway and that strength increases with training. Using the Stroop effect as an example, we show how automatic processes are continuous and emerge gradually with practice. Specifically, we present a computational model of the Stroop task which simulates the time course of processing as well as the effects of learning. This was accomplished by combining the cascade mechanism described by McClelland (1979) with the back propagation learning algorithm (Rumelhart, Hinton, Williams, 1986). The model is able to simulate performance in the standard Stroop task, as well as aspects of performance in variants of this task which manipulate SOA, response set, and degree of practice. In the discussion we contrast our model with other models, and indicate how it relates to many of the central issues in the literature on attention, automaticity, and interference.

  16. Image processing automatic interferometric calibration system for line scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Hector; Galvan, Carlos; Muñoz, J. A.

    2003-11-01

    An automatic calibration bench to calibrate line scales up to three meters has been developed at the Centro Nacional de Metrologia. It incorporates an heterodyne laser interferometer to follow the position of a carriage that support a microscope with a CCD camera. The images are processed using a novel robust algorithm to determine the center of each line. The carriage travels along guide ways and is commanded by a computer that controls the servomotor that moves it, allowing to complete the calibration automatically. The measurement and control software developed uses an image processing algorithm based on Gabor filters and robust statistics to discriminate between lines and unwanted features that may exist such as stain, scratches, rust, etc. It then calculates the absolute position of each line by coupling the reading of the carriage position given by the interferometer and the centerline position of the line in the image. Additionally, the software corrects the laser readings for ambient condition variations and controls the progress of the carriage. The mechanical design consists of a stiff bench with guide ways on which the carriage travels. Although the carriage travels in non-kinematic guide ways, the microscope and CCD camera sit on a plate that is kinematically supported. The movement is provided by a servomotor and transmitted by means of a screw. Uncertainty is expected to be between 3 and 10 um which is common to other similar systems. The gross advantage is the ability to calibrate automatically and discriminate defects on the scale.

  17. Automatic statistical processing of visual properties in simultanagnosia.

    PubMed

    Demeyere, Nele; Rzeskiewicz, Anna; Humphreys, Katharine A; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2008-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that, when operating in a distributed attention mode, the visual system automatically represents visual displays by their overall statistics, rather than their individual properties. Recent neuropsychological work shows partly preserved distributed attention in simultanagnosic patients, who are typically defined as only perceiving one object at a time. Here we assessed whether GK, a patient with simultanagnosia, shows averaging of stimulus properties when distributing his attention across a set of items. We manipulated different stimulus properties in two experiments: color shades and size. We found that, when GK was in a distributed mode of attention, he (incorrectly) identified the mean object from two classes of exemplars more than in a control condition, when only one exemplar class was present. Overall, this study suggests that automatic statistical processing of color and size is possible in simultanagnosia.

  18. Automatic detection and severity measurement of eczema using image processing.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Nafiul; Munia, Tamanna Tabassum Khan; Tavakolian, Kouhyar; Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nick; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2016-08-01

    Chronic skin diseases like eczema may lead to severe health and financial consequences for patients if not detected and controlled early. Early measurement of disease severity, combined with a recommendation for skin protection and use of appropriate medication can prevent the disease from worsening. Current diagnosis can be costly and time-consuming. In this paper, an automatic eczema detection and severity measurement model are presented using modern image processing and computer algorithm. The system can successfully detect regions of eczema and classify the identified region as mild or severe based on image color and texture feature. Then the model automatically measures skin parameters used in the most common assessment tool called "Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI)," by computing eczema affected area score, eczema intensity score, and body region score of eczema allowing both patients and physicians to accurately assess the affected skin.

  19. Rapid Business Process Discovery (R-BPD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Aditya; Koliadis, George; Chueng, Arthur

    Modeling is an important and time consuming part of the Business Process Management life-cycle. An analyst reviews existing documentation and queries relevant domain experts to construct both mental and concrete models of the domain. To aid this exercise, we propose the Rapid Business Process Discovery (R-BPD) framework and prototype tool that can query heterogeneous information resources (e.g. corporate documentation, web-content, code e.t.c.) and rapidly construct proto-models to be incrementally adjusted to correctness by an analyst. This constitutes a departure from building and constructing models toward just editing them. We believe this rapid mixed-initiative modeling will increase analyst productivity by significant orders of magnitude over traditional approaches. Furthermore, the possibility of using the approach in distributed and real-time settings seems appealing and may help in significantly improving the quality of the models being developed w.r.t. being consistent, complete, and concise.

  20. Verification and Validation in a Rapid Software Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Easterbrook, Steve M.

    1997-01-01

    The high cost of software production is driving development organizations to adopt more automated design and analysis methods such as rapid prototyping, computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools, and high-level code generators. Even developers of safety-critical software system have adopted many of these new methods while striving to achieve high levels Of quality and reliability. While these new methods may enhance productivity and quality in many cases, we examine some of the risks involved in the use of new methods in safety-critical contexts. We examine a case study involving the use of a CASE tool that automatically generates code from high-level system designs. We show that while high-level testing on the system structure is highly desirable, significant risks exist in the automatically generated code and in re-validating releases of the generated code after subsequent design changes. We identify these risks and suggest process improvements that retain the advantages of rapid, automated development methods within the quality and reliability contexts of safety-critical projects.

  1. Verification and Validation in a Rapid Software Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Easterbrook, Steve M.

    1997-01-01

    The high cost of software production is driving development organizations to adopt more automated design and analysis methods such as rapid prototyping, computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools, and high-level code generators. Even developers of safety-critical software system have adopted many of these new methods while striving to achieve high levels Of quality and reliability. While these new methods may enhance productivity and quality in many cases, we examine some of the risks involved in the use of new methods in safety-critical contexts. We examine a case study involving the use of a CASE tool that automatically generates code from high-level system designs. We show that while high-level testing on the system structure is highly desirable, significant risks exist in the automatically generated code and in re-validating releases of the generated code after subsequent design changes. We identify these risks and suggest process improvements that retain the advantages of rapid, automated development methods within the quality and reliability contexts of safety-critical projects.

  2. Decomposing the relation between Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and reading ability.

    PubMed

    Arnell, Karen M; Joanisse, Marc F; Klein, Raymond M; Busseri, Michael A; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-09-01

    The Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) test involves rapidly naming sequences of items presented in a visual array. RAN has generated considerable interest because RAN performance predicts reading achievement. This study sought to determine what elements of RAN are responsible for the shared variance between RAN and reading performance using a series of cognitive tasks and a latent variable modelling approach. Participants performed RAN measures, a test of reading speed and comprehension, and six tasks, which tapped various hypothesised components of the RAN. RAN shared 10% of the variance with reading comprehension and 17% with reading rate. Together, the decomposition tasks explained 52% and 39% of the variance shared between RAN and reading comprehension and between RAN and reading rate, respectively. Significant predictors suggested that working memory encoding underlies part of the relationship between RAN and reading ability.

  3. Automatic data processing and crustal modeling on Brazilian Seismograph Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L. P.; Chimpliganond, C.; Peres Rocha, M.; Franca, G.; Marotta, G. S.; Von Huelsen, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Brazilian Seismograph Network (RSBR) is a joint project of four Brazilian research institutions with the support of Petrobras and its main goal is to monitor the seismic activities, generate alerts of seismic hazard and provide data for Brazilian tectonic and structure research. Each institution operates and maintain their seismic network, sharing their data in an virtual private network. These networks have seismic stations transmitting in real time (or near real time) raw data to their respective data centers, where the seismogram files are then shared with other institutions. Currently RSBR has 57 broadband stations, some of them operating since 1994, transmitting data through mobile phone data networks or satellite links. Station management, data acquisition and storage and earthquake data processing at the Seismological Observatory of the University of Brasilia is automatically performed by SeisComP3 (SC3). However, the SC3 data processing is limited to event detection, location and magnitude. An automatic crustal modeling system was designed process raw seismograms and generate 1D S-velocity profiles. This system automatically calculates receiver function (RF) traces, Vp/Vs ratio (h-k stack) and surface waves dispersion (SWD) curves. These traces and curves are then used to calibrate the lithosphere seismic velocity models using a joint inversion scheme The results can be reviewed by an analyst, change processing parameters and selecting/neglecting RF traces and SWD curves used in lithosphere model calibration. The results to be obtained from this system will be used to generate and update a quasi-3D crustal model of Brazil's territory.

  4. Scheduling algorithms for automatic control systems for technological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernigovskiy, A. S.; Tsarev, R. Yu; Kapulin, D. V.

    2017-01-01

    Wide use of automatic process control systems and the usage of high-performance systems containing a number of computers (processors) give opportunities for creation of high-quality and fast production that increases competitiveness of an enterprise. Exact and fast calculations, control computation, and processing of the big data arrays – all of this requires the high level of productivity and, at the same time, minimum time of data handling and result receiving. In order to reach the best time, it is necessary not only to use computing resources optimally, but also to design and develop the software so that time gain will be maximal. For this purpose task (jobs or operations), scheduling techniques for the multi-machine/multiprocessor systems are applied. Some of basic task scheduling methods for the multi-machine process control systems are considered in this paper, their advantages and disadvantages come to light, and also some usage considerations, in case of the software for automatic process control systems developing, are made.

  5. Automatic Denoising and Unmixing in Hyperspectral Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Honghong

    This thesis addresses two important aspects in hyperspectral image processing: automatic hyperspectral image denoising and unmixing. The first part of this thesis is devoted to a novel automatic optimized vector bilateral filter denoising algorithm, while the remainder concerns nonnegative matrix factorization with deterministic annealing for unsupervised unmixing in remote sensing hyperspectral images. The need for automatic hyperspectral image processing has been promoted by the development of potent hyperspectral systems, with hundreds of narrow contiguous bands, spanning the visible to the long wave infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Due to the large volume of raw data generated by such sensors, automatic processing in the hyperspectral images processing chain is preferred to minimize human workload and achieve optimal result. Two of the mostly researched processing for such automatic effort are: hyperspectral image denoising, which is an important preprocessing step for almost all remote sensing tasks, and unsupervised unmixing, which decomposes the pixel spectra into a collection of endmember spectral signatures and their corresponding abundance fractions. Two new methodologies are introduced in this thesis to tackle the automatic processing problems described above. Vector bilateral filtering has been shown to provide good tradeoff between noise removal and edge degradation when applied to multispectral/hyperspectral image denoising. It has also been demonstrated to provide dynamic range enhancement of bands that have impaired signal to noise ratios. Typical vector bilateral filtering usage does not employ parameters that have been determined to satisfy optimality criteria. This thesis also introduces an approach for selection of the parameters of a vector bilateral filter through an optimization procedure rather than by ad hoc means. The approach is based on posing the filtering problem as one of nonlinear estimation and minimizing the Stein

  6. Automatic processing of unattended lexical information in visual oddball presentation: neurophysiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Shtyrov, Yury; Goryainova, Galina; Tugin, Sergei; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Shestakova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Previous electrophysiological studies of automatic language processing revealed early (100–200 ms) reflections of access to lexical characteristics of speech signal using the so-called mismatch negativity (MMN), a negative ERP deflection elicited by infrequent irregularities in unattended repetitive auditory stimulation. In those studies, lexical processing of spoken stimuli became manifest as an enhanced ERP in response to unattended real words, as opposed to phonologically matched but meaningless pseudoword stimuli. This lexical ERP enhancement was explained by automatic activation of word memory traces realized as distributed strongly intra-connected neuronal circuits, whose robustness guarantees memory trace activation even in the absence of attention on spoken input. Such an account would predict the automatic activation of these memory traces upon any presentation of linguistic information, irrespective of the presentation modality. As previous lexical MMN studies exclusively used auditory stimulation, we here adapted the lexical MMN paradigm to investigate early automatic lexical effects in the visual modality. In a visual oddball sequence, matched short word and pseudoword stimuli were presented tachistoscopically in perifoveal area outside the visual focus of attention, as the subjects' attention was concentrated on a concurrent non-linguistic visual dual task in the center of the screen. Using EEG, we found a visual analogue of the lexical ERP enhancement effect, with unattended written words producing larger brain response amplitudes than matched pseudowords, starting at ~100 ms. Furthermore, we also found significant visual MMN, reported here for the first time for unattended perifoveal lexical stimuli. The data suggest early automatic lexical processing of visually presented language which commences rapidly and can take place outside the focus of attention. PMID:23950740

  7. Automatic time-motion study of a multistep preoperative process.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Mark A; Seim, Andreas R; Fairbrother, Pamela; Egan, Marie T; Sandberg, Warren S

    2008-06-01

    Hospitals use time-motion studies to monitor process effectiveness and patient waiting. Manual tracking is labor-intensive and potentially influences system performance. New technology known as indoor positioning systems (IPS) may allow automatic monitoring of patient waiting and progress. The authors tested whether an IPS can track patients through a multistep preoperative process. The authors used an IPS between October 14, 2005, and June 13, 2006, to track patients in a multistep ambulatory preoperative process: needle localization and excisional biopsy of a breast lesion. The process was distributed across the ambulatory surgery and radiology departments of a large academic hospital. Direct observation of the process was used to develop a workflow template. The authors then developed software to convert the IPS data into usable time-motion data suitable for monitoring process efficiency over time. The authors assigned tags to 306 patients during the study period. Eighty patients never underwent the procedure or never had their tag affixed. One hundred seventy-seven (78%) of the remaining 226 patients successfully matched the workflow template. Process time stamps were automatically extracted from the successful matches, measuring time before radiology (mean +/- SD, 77 +/- 35 min), time in radiology (105 +/- 35 min), and time between radiology and operating room (80 +/- 60 min), which summed to total preoperative time (261 +/- 67 min). The authors have demonstrated that it is possible to use a combination of IPS technology and sequence alignment pattern matching software to automate the time-motion study of patients in a multidepartment, multistep process with the only day-of-surgery intervention being the application of a tag when the patient arrives.

  8. Rapid Automatized Naming and Immediate Memory Functions in Chinese Children Who Read English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yi; Guo, Jian-Peng; Yang, Ling-Yan; Zhang, Dake; Ning, Huan; Richman, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined reading performance of 102 Chinese Mandarin-speaking 4th graders in their second language (L2, English) as a function of performance in their first language (L1, Chinese). The results revealed that for Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Rapid Alternating Stimulus (RAS) measures, the mean naming time decreased monotonically in…

  9. Rapid and automatic speech-specific learning mechanism in human neocortex.

    PubMed

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Leminen, Alina; Vainio, Martti; Shtyrov, Yury

    2015-09-01

    A unique feature of human communication system is our ability to rapidly acquire new words and build large vocabularies. However, its neurobiological foundations remain largely unknown. In an electrophysiological study optimally designed to probe this rapid formation of new word memory circuits, we employed acoustically controlled novel word-forms incorporating native and non-native speech sounds, while manipulating the subjects' attention on the input. We found a robust index of neurolexical memory-trace formation: a rapid enhancement of the brain's activation elicited by novel words during a short (~30min) perceptual exposure, underpinned by fronto-temporal cortical networks, and, importantly, correlated with behavioural learning outcomes. Crucially, this neural memory trace build-up took place regardless of focused attention on the input or any pre-existing or learnt semantics. Furthermore, it was found only for stimuli with native-language phonology, but not for acoustically closely matching non-native words. These findings demonstrate a specialised cortical mechanism for rapid, automatic and phonology-dependent formation of neural word memory circuits.

  10. Cognitive effort and pupil dilation in controlled and automatic processes.

    PubMed

    Querino, Emanuel; Dos Santos, Lafaiete; Ginani, Giuliano; Nicolau, Eduardo; Miranda, Débora; Romano-Silva, Marco; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The Five Digits Test (FDT) is a Stroop paradigm test that aims to evaluate executive functions. It is composed of four parts, two of which are related to automatic and two of which are related to controlled processes. It is known that pupillary diameter increases as the task's cognitive demand increases. In the present study, we evaluated whether the pupillary diameter could distinguish cognitive effort between automated and controlled cognitive processing during the FDT as the task progressed. As a control task, we used a simple reading paradigm with a similar visual aspect as the FDT. We then divided each of the four parts into two blocks in order to evaluate the differences between the first and second half of the task. Results indicated that, compared to a control task, the FDT required higher cognitive effort for each consecutive part. Moreover, the first half of every part of the FDT induced dilation more than the second. The differences in pupil dilation during the first half of the four FDT parts were statistically significant between the parts 2 and 4 (p=0.023), and between the parts 3 and 4 (p=0.006). These results provide further evidence that cognitive effort and pupil diameter can distinguish controlled from automatic processes.

  11. Cognitive effort and pupil dilation in controlled and automatic processes

    PubMed Central

    Querino, Emanuel; dos Santos, Lafaiete; Ginani, Giuliano; Nicolau, Eduardo; Miranda, Débora; Romano-Silva, Marco; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The Five Digits Test (FDT) is a Stroop paradigm test that aims to evaluate executive functions. It is composed of four parts, two of which are related to automatic and two of which are related to controlled processes. It is known that pupillary diameter increases as the task’s cognitive demand increases. In the present study, we evaluated whether the pupillary diameter could distinguish cognitive effort between automated and controlled cognitive processing during the FDT as the task progressed. As a control task, we used a simple reading paradigm with a similar visual aspect as the FDT. We then divided each of the four parts into two blocks in order to evaluate the differences between the first and second half of the task. Results indicated that, compared to a control task, the FDT required higher cognitive effort for each consecutive part. Moreover, the first half of every part of the FDT induced dilation more than the second. The differences in pupil dilation during the first half of the four FDT parts were statistically significant between the parts 2 and 4 (p=0.023), and between the parts 3 and 4 (p=0.006). These results provide further evidence that cognitive effort and pupil diameter can distinguish controlled from automatic processes. PMID:28123801

  12. Using Dual-Task Methodology to Dissociate Automatic from Nonautomatic Processes Involved in Artificial Grammar Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Michelle A.; Conway, Christopher M.; Kellogg, Ronald T.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that both automatic and intentional processes contribute to the learning of grammar and fragment knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks. To explore the relative contribution of automatic and intentional processes to knowledge gained in AGL, we utilized dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic and…

  13. Using Dual-Task Methodology to Dissociate Automatic from Nonautomatic Processes Involved in Artificial Grammar Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Michelle A.; Conway, Christopher M.; Kellogg, Ronald T.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that both automatic and intentional processes contribute to the learning of grammar and fragment knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks. To explore the relative contribution of automatic and intentional processes to knowledge gained in AGL, we utilized dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic and…

  14. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1992-01-01

    A rotor assembly for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water, includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and including a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses.

  15. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1992-12-22

    A rotor assembly is described for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water. It includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and includes a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses. 34 figs.

  16. Eye-voice span during rapid automatized naming of digits and dice in Chinese normal and dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jinger; Yan, Ming; Laubrock, Jochen; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-11-01

    We measured Chinese dyslexic and control children's eye movements during rapid automatized naming (RAN) with alphanumeric (digits) and symbolic (dice surfaces) stimuli. Both types of stimuli required identical oral responses, controlling for effects associated with speech production. Results showed that naming dice was much slower than naming digits for both groups, but group differences in eye-movement measures and in the eye-voice span (i.e. the distance between the currently fixated item and the voiced item) were generally larger in digit-RAN than in dice-RAN. In addition, dyslexics were less efficient in parafoveal processing in these RAN tasks. Since the two RAN tasks required the same phonological output and on the assumption that naming dice is less practiced than naming digits in general, the results suggest that the translation of alphanumeric visual symbols into phonological codes is less efficient in dyslexic children. The dissociation of the print-to-sound conversion and phonological representation suggests that the degree of automaticity in translation from visual symbols to phonological codes in addition to phonological processing per se is also critical to understanding dyslexia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Automatic quantification of crack patterns by image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun; Tang, Chao-Sheng; Shi, Bin; Suo, Wen-Bin

    2013-08-01

    Image processing technologies are proposed to quantify crack patterns. On the basis of the technologies, a software "Crack Image Analysis System" (CIAS) has been developed. An image of soil crack network is used as an example to illustrate the image processing technologies and the operations of the CIAS. The quantification of the crack image involves the following three steps: image segmentation, crack identification and measurement. First, the image is converted to a binary image using a cluster analysis method; noise in the binary image is removed; and crack spaces are fused. Then, the medial axis of the crack network is extracted from the binary image, with which nodes and crack segments can be identified. Finally, various geometric parameters of the crack network can be calculated automatically, such as node number, crack number, clod area, clod perimeter, crack area, width, length, and direction. The thresholds used in the operations are specified by cluster analysis and other innovative methods. As a result, the objects (nodes, cracks and clods) in the crack network can be quantified automatically. The software may be used to study the generation and development of soil crack patterns and rock fractures.

  18. Automatic Data Processing to Achieve a Safe Telemedical Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Hernando, M. Elena; García-Sáez, Gema; Martínez-Sarriegui, Iñaki; Rodríguez-Herrero, Agustín; Pérez-Gandía, Carmen; Rigla, Mercedes; de Leiva, Alberto; Capel, Ismael; Pons, Belén; Gómez, Enrique J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of telemedicine for diabetes care has evolved over time, proving that it contributes to patient self-monitoring, improves glycemic control, and provides analysis tools for decision support. The timely development of a safe and robust ambulatory artificial pancreas should rely on a telemedicine architecture complemented with automatic data analysis tools able to manage all the possible high-risk situations and to guarantee the patient's safety. Methods The Intelligent Control Assistant system (INCA) telemedical artificial pancreas architecture is based on a mobile personal assistant integrated into a telemedicine system. The INCA supports four control strategies and implements an automatic data processing system for risk management (ADP-RM) providing short-term and medium-term risk analyses. The system validation comprises data from 10 type 1 pump-treated diabetic patients who participated in two randomized crossover studies, and it also includes in silico simulation and retrospective data analysis. Results The ADP-RM short-term risk analysis prevents hypoglycemic events by interrupting insulin infusion. The pump interruption has been implemented in silico and tested for a closed-loop simulation over 30 hours. For medium-term risk management, analysis of capillary blood glucose notified the physician with a total of 62 alarms during a clinical experiment (56% for hyperglycemic events). The ADP-RM system is able to filter anomalous continuous glucose records and to detect abnormal administration of insulin doses with the pump. Conclusions Automatic data analysis procedures have been tested as an essential tool to achieve a safe ambulatory telemedical artificial pancreas, showing their ability to manage short-term and medium-term risk situations. PMID:20144417

  19. Automatic data processing to achieve a safe telemedical artificial pancreas.

    PubMed

    Hernando, M Elena; García-Sáez, Gema; Martínez-Sarriegui, Iñaki; Rodríguez-Herrero, Agustín; Pérez-Gandía, Carmen; Rigla, Mercedes; de Leiva, Alberto; Capel, Ismael; Pons, Belén; Gómez, Enrique J

    2009-09-01

    The use of telemedicine for diabetes care has evolved over time, proving that it contributes to patient self-monitoring, improves glycemic control, and provides analysis tools for decision support. The timely development of a safe and robust ambulatory artificial pancreas should rely on a telemedicine architecture complemented with automatic data analysis tools able to manage all the possible high-risk situations and to guarantee the patient's safety. The Intelligent Control Assistant system (INCA) telemedical artificial pancreas architecture is based on a mobile personal assistant integrated into a telemedicine system. The INCA supports four control strategies and implements an automatic data processing system for risk management (ADP-RM) providing short-term and medium-term risk analyses. The system validation comprises data from 10 type 1 pump-treated diabetic patients who participated in two randomized crossover studies, and it also includes in silico simulation and retrospective data analysis. The ADP-RM short-term risk analysis prevents hypoglycemic events by interrupting insulin infusion. The pump interruption has been implemented in silico and tested for a closed-loop simulation over 30 hours. For medium-term risk management, analysis of capillary blood glucose notified the physician with a total of 62 alarms during a clinical experiment (56% for hyperglycemic events). The ADP-RM system is able to filter anomalous continuous glucose records and to detect abnormal administration of insulin doses with the pump. Automatic data analysis procedures have been tested as an essential tool to achieve a safe ambulatory telemedical artificial pancreas, showing their ability to manage short-term and medium-term risk situations. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. Automatic and effortful processing of self-statements in depression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Catharina E; Brennen, Tim; Holte, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Clark and Beck (1999) and Williams et al. (1997) have come up with quite different conclusions regarding which cognitive processes are most affected by negative self-schemata and negative knowledge structures. In order to increase the understanding of differences in effortful and automatic processing in depression, we compared never depressed (ND), previously depressed (PD) and clinically depressed (CD) individuals on free recall, recognition and fabrication of positive and negative self-statements. The results showed that: (i) overall NDs and PDs recalled more positive self-statements than CDs, whereas CDs correctly recognized more negative self-statements than NDs and PDs; and (ii) CDs and PDs fabricated more negative than positive self-statements, whereas no difference was obtained for NDs. The results seem to be in line with Clark and Beck's suggestions. However, there are several aspects of the present findings that make the picture more complicated.

  1. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  2. Automatic Record of IGO Game by Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Tadao; Ogisu, Takahiro; Kim, Jim Woo; Kozo, Okazaki

    Although an IGO record is a valuable work, it takes a lot of human laborious work. In this paper, we propose an automatic record system by image processing. First, we control a camera shutter by judging the time of brightness change which is caused by the action of the player's hand, capture the n-th image in order. The contrast among white stone, black stone and board depend on the brightness, which are affected by shadows , etc. To cope with the situation, we use a subtraction image between the board and n-th image. The stones are not always put on the centers of the intersection points and are often drifted when they are touched with another stones or the hand. Light reflects on the surface. The brightness of the image often changes. Therefore, we estimate the intersection points of highlighted and distorted board. The stones recognition are based on template matching using RMS errors and correlations. The results are classified automatically by the application of K-means clustering algorithm. We show the proposed algorithm's effectiveness by experiments.

  3. Digital signal processing algorithms for automatic voice recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botros, Nazeih M.

    1987-01-01

    The current digital signal analysis algorithms are investigated that are implemented in automatic voice recognition algorithms. Automatic voice recognition means, the capability of a computer to recognize and interact with verbal commands. The digital signal is focused on, rather than the linguistic, analysis of speech signal. Several digital signal processing algorithms are available for voice recognition. Some of these algorithms are: Linear Predictive Coding (LPC), Short-time Fourier Analysis, and Cepstrum Analysis. Among these algorithms, the LPC is the most widely used. This algorithm has short execution time and do not require large memory storage. However, it has several limitations due to the assumptions used to develop it. The other 2 algorithms are frequency domain algorithms with not many assumptions, but they are not widely implemented or investigated. However, with the recent advances in the digital technology, namely signal processors, these 2 frequency domain algorithms may be investigated in order to implement them in voice recognition. This research is concerned with real time, microprocessor based recognition algorithms.

  4. Paradoxical Evidence Integration in Rapid Decision Processes

    PubMed Central

    Rüter, Johannes; Marcille, Nicolas; Sprekeler, Henning; Gerstner, Wulfram; Herzog, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Decisions about noisy stimuli require evidence integration over time. Traditionally, evidence integration and decision making are described as a one-stage process: a decision is made when evidence for the presence of a stimulus crosses a threshold. Here, we show that one-stage models cannot explain psychophysical experiments on feature fusion, where two visual stimuli are presented in rapid succession. Paradoxically, the second stimulus biases decisions more strongly than the first one, contrary to predictions of one-stage models and intuition. We present a two-stage model where sensory information is integrated and buffered before it is fed into a drift diffusion process. The model is tested in a series of psychophysical experiments and explains both accuracy and reaction time distributions. PMID:22359494

  5. Automatic endpoint detection to support the systematic review process.

    PubMed

    Blake, Catherine; Lucic, Ana

    2015-08-01

    Preparing a systematic review can take hundreds of hours to complete, but the process of reconciling different results from multiple studies is the bedrock of evidence-based medicine. We introduce a two-step approach to automatically extract three facets - two entities (the agent and object) and the way in which the entities are compared (the endpoint) - from direct comparative sentences in full-text articles. The system does not require a user to predefine entities in advance and thus can be used in domains where entity recognition is difficult or unavailable. As with a systematic review, the tabular summary produced using the automatically extracted facets shows how experimental results differ between studies. Experiments were conducted using a collection of more than 2million sentences from three journals Diabetes, Carcinogenesis and Endocrinology and two machine learning algorithms, support vector machines (SVM) and a general linear model (GLM). F1 and accuracy measures for the SVM and GLM differed by only 0.01 across all three comparison facets in a randomly selected set of test sentences. The system achieved the best performance of 92% for objects, whereas the accuracy for both agent and endpoints was 73%. F1 scores were higher for objects (0.77) than for endpoints (0.51) or agents (0.47). A situated evaluation of Metformin, a drug to treat diabetes, showed system accuracy of 95%, 83% and 79% for the object, endpoint and agent respectively. The situated evaluation had higher F1 scores of 0.88, 0.64 and 0.62 for object, endpoint, and agent respectively. On average, only 5.31% of the sentences in a full-text article are direct comparisons, but the tabular summaries suggest that these sentences provide a rich source of currently underutilized information that can be used to accelerate the systematic review process and identify gaps where future research should be focused.

  6. Using process mining for automatic support of clinical pathways design.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Valdivieso, Bernardo; Traver, Vicente; Benedi, Jose Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The creation of tools supporting the automatization of the standardization and continuous control of healthcare processes can become a significant helping tool for clinical experts and healthcare systems willing to reduce variability in clinical practice. The reduction in the complexity of design and deployment of standard Clinical Pathways can enhance the possibilities for effective usage of computer assisted guidance systems for professionals and assure the quality of the provided care. Several technologies have been used in the past for trying to support these activities but they have not been able to generate the disruptive change required to foster the general adoption of standardization in this domain due to the high volume of work, resources, and knowledge required to adequately create practical protocols that can be used in practice. This chapter proposes the use of the PALIA algorithm, based in Activity-Based process mining techniques, as a new technology to infer the actual processes from the real execution logs to be used in the design and quality control of healthcare processes.

  7. Prosody's Contribution to Fluency: An Examination of the Theory of Automatic Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrauben, Julie E.

    2010-01-01

    LaBerge and Samuels' (1974) theory of automatic information processing in reading offers a model that explains how and where the processing of information occurs and the degree to which processing of information occurs. These processes are dependent upon two criteria: accurate word decoding and automatic word recognition. However, LaBerge and…

  8. Development of serial processing in reading and rapid naming.

    PubMed

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Altani, Angeliki; Georgiou, George K

    2013-12-01

    Serial rapid automatized naming (RAN) is more strongly related to reading fluency than naming of isolated words, suggesting that the implementation of serial processing may underlie the RAN-reading relationship. In this study, 107 Greek children from Grade 2 and 107 from Grade 6 were tested with discrete and serial naming of digits, objects, and words in 50-item arrays. The correlation between discrete and serial word reading was very high in Grade 2 but only moderate in Grade 6. In confirmatory factor analysis, a reading-naming latent structure fit the Grade 2 data best; in contrast, a serial-discrete structure fit the Grade 6 data. Thus, the superficial longitudinal stability of RAN-reading correlations belies vastly different patterns of interrelations, indicative of changes in the developing cognitive processes underlying both naming and reading. Word fluency tasks in Grade 2 are apparently accomplished largely as a series of isolated individual word naming trials even though multiple individual letters in each word may be processed in parallel. In contrast, specifically serial procedures are applied in Grade 6, presumably via simultaneous processing of multiple individual words at successive levels. It is proposed that this feat requires endogenous control of cognitive cascades.

  9. Childhood Trauma Exposure Disrupts the Automatic Regulation of Emotional Processing

    PubMed Central

    Marusak, Hilary A; Martin, Kayla R; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E

    2015-01-01

    Early-life trauma is one of the strongest risk factors for later emotional psychopathology. Although research in adults highlights that childhood trauma predicts deficits in emotion regulation that persist decades later, it is unknown whether neural and behavioral changes that may precipitate illness are evident during formative, developmental years. This study examined whether automatic regulation of emotional conflict is perturbed in a high-risk urban sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents. A total of 14 trauma-exposed and 16 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched comparison youth underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring an overlying emotion word. Engagement of the conflict regulation system was evaluated at neural and behavioral levels. Results showed that trauma-exposed youth failed to dampen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and engage amygdala–pregenual cingulate inhibitory circuitry during the regulation of emotional conflict, and were less able to regulate emotional conflict. In addition, trauma-exposed youth showed greater conflict-related amygdala reactivity that was associated with diminished levels of trait reward sensitivity. These data point to a trauma-related deficit in automatic regulation of emotional processing, and increase in sensitivity to emotional conflict in neural systems implicated in threat detection. Aberrant amygdala response to emotional conflict was related to diminished reward sensitivity that is emerging as a critical stress-susceptibility trait that may contribute to the emergence of mental illness during adolescence. These results suggest that deficits in conflict regulation for emotional material may underlie heightened risk for psychopathology in individuals that endure early-life trauma. PMID:25413183

  10. Childhood trauma exposure disrupts the automatic regulation of emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Marusak, Hilary A; Martin, Kayla R; Etkin, Amit; Thomason, Moriah E

    2015-03-13

    Early-life trauma is one of the strongest risk factors for later emotional psychopathology. Although research in adults highlights that childhood trauma predicts deficits in emotion regulation that persist decades later, it is unknown whether neural and behavioral changes that may precipitate illness are evident during formative, developmental years. This study examined whether automatic regulation of emotional conflict is perturbed in a high-risk urban sample of trauma-exposed children and adolescents. A total of 14 trauma-exposed and 16 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched comparison youth underwent functional MRI while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring an overlying emotion word. Engagement of the conflict regulation system was evaluated at neural and behavioral levels. Results showed that trauma-exposed youth failed to dampen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and engage amygdala-pregenual cingulate inhibitory circuitry during the regulation of emotional conflict, and were less able to regulate emotional conflict. In addition, trauma-exposed youth showed greater conflict-related amygdala reactivity that was associated with diminished levels of trait reward sensitivity. These data point to a trauma-related deficit in automatic regulation of emotional processing, and increase in sensitivity to emotional conflict in neural systems implicated in threat detection. Aberrant amygdala response to emotional conflict was related to diminished reward sensitivity that is emerging as a critical stress-susceptibility trait that may contribute to the emergence of mental illness during adolescence. These results suggest that deficits in conflict regulation for emotional material may underlie heightened risk for psychopathology in individuals that endure early-life trauma.

  11. Automatic movement error detection and correction processes in reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Brière, Julien; Proteau, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Manual aiming movements can be amended during their execution. Recent evidence suggests that error detection and correction are based on automatic and even reflexive processing of afferent information. In this study, we wanted to determine whether these processes are affected by the occurrence of successive events requiring adjustments of the originally planned movement. To reach our goal, we used a video-aiming task. For a small proportion of the trials, the cursor moved by the participant was translated laterally by 15 mm (cursor jump) soon after movement initiation. For some of the cursor-jump trials, a second cursor jump occurred 100 ms after the first one and canceled or doubled the initial cursor translation. Results showed that participants were able to cancel or double the size of the correction in response to the second cursor jump. More importantly, in double-jump trials, the correction latency for the first and second cursor jumps did not differ from that of single-jump trials. Moreover, the correction for the second cursor jump blended seamlessly with the correction for the first cursor jump. These observations suggest that the processes leading of a correction for a cursor jump do not interfere with incoming visual information.

  12. Oscillatory EEG dynamics underlying automatic chunking during sentence processing.

    PubMed

    Bonhage, Corinna E; Meyer, Lars; Gruber, Thomas; Friederici, Angela D; Mueller, Jutta L

    2017-03-10

    Sentences are easier to remember than random word sequences, likely because linguistic regularities facilitate chunking of words into meaningful groups. The present electroencephalography study investigated the neural oscillations modulated by this so-called sentence superiority effect during the encoding and maintenance of sentence fragments versus word lists. We hypothesized a chunking-related modulation of neural processing during the encoding and retention of sentence fragments as compared to word lists. Time-frequency analysis revealed a two-fold oscillatory pattern for the memorization of sentences: Sentence encoding was accompanied by higher delta amplitude (4Hz), originating both from regions processing syntax as well as semantics (bilateral superior/middle temporal regions and fusiform gyrus). Subsequent sentence retention was reflected in decreased theta (6Hz) and beta/gamma (27-32Hz) amplitude instead. Notably, whether participants simply read or properly memorized the sentences did not impact chunking-related activity during encoding. Therefore, we argue that the sentence superiority effect is grounded in highly automatized language processing mechanisms, which generate meaningful memory chunks irrespective of task demands.

  13. The Use of Small Business Administration Section 8(a) Contractors in Automatic Data Processing Acquisitions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL THE USE OF SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SECTION 8(a) CONTRACTORS IN AUTOMATIC DATA PROCESSING ACQUISITIONS...CENTER Department of Defensei^KS™"* WASHINGTON D.C. 20301-7100 053,35 The following acronyms are used in this report. ADP Automatic Data Processing...Of The Inspector General: The Use Of Small Business Administration Section 8(a) Contractors in Automatic Data Processing Acquisitions Corporate

  14. The Impact of Rapid Automatized Naming and Phonological Awareness on the Reading Fluency of a Minority Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; Szente, Judit

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) on the reading fluency (RF) of students from traditionally underrepresented groups. The study included 86 participants attending 1st through 4th grade within an inner-city charter school located in a high-poverty, urban…

  15. The Impact of Rapid Automatized Naming and Phonological Awareness on the Reading Fluency of a Minority Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; Szente, Judit

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) on the reading fluency (RF) of students from traditionally underrepresented groups. The study included 86 participants attending 1st through 4th grade within an inner-city charter school located in a high-poverty, urban…

  16. Eye-Voice Span during Rapid Automatized Naming of Digits and Dice in Chinese Normal and Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jinger; Yan, Ming; Laubrock, Jochen; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    We measured Chinese dyslexic and control children's eye movements during rapid automatized naming (RAN) with alphanumeric (digits) and symbolic (dice surfaces) stimuli. Both types of stimuli required identical oral responses, controlling for effects associated with speech production. Results showed that naming dice was much slower than naming…

  17. How well Do Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Correlate with Chinese Reading Accuracy and Fluency? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Georgiou, George K.; Su, Mengmeng; Hua, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses on the relationship between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading have been conducted primarily in English, an atypical alphabetic orthography. Here, we aimed to examine the association between phonological awareness, RAN, and word reading in a nonalphabetic language (Chinese). A random-effects…

  18. Eye-Voice Span during Rapid Automatized Naming of Digits and Dice in Chinese Normal and Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jinger; Yan, Ming; Laubrock, Jochen; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    We measured Chinese dyslexic and control children's eye movements during rapid automatized naming (RAN) with alphanumeric (digits) and symbolic (dice surfaces) stimuli. Both types of stimuli required identical oral responses, controlling for effects associated with speech production. Results showed that naming dice was much slower than naming…

  19. How well Do Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Correlate with Chinese Reading Accuracy and Fluency? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Georgiou, George K.; Su, Mengmeng; Hua, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses on the relationship between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading have been conducted primarily in English, an atypical alphabetic orthography. Here, we aimed to examine the association between phonological awareness, RAN, and word reading in a nonalphabetic language (Chinese). A random-effects…

  20. A Web-Based Assessment for Phonological Awareness, Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Learning to Read Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the equivalency of conventional and web-based tests in reading Chinese. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), reading accuracy, and reading fluency tests were administered to 93 grade 6 children in Taiwan with both test versions (paper-pencil and web-based). The results suggest that conventional and…

  1. Rapid, Potentially Automatable, Method Extract Biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to Detect and Identify BW Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-01

    status can sometimes be reflected in the infectious potential or drug resistance of those pathogens. For example, in Mycobacterium tuberculosis ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis , its antibiotic resistance and prediction of pathogenicity amongst Mycobacterium spp. based on signature lipid biomarkers ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rapid, Potentially Automatable, Method Extract Biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to Detect and Identify BW Agents 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  2. Guidelines for Automatic Data Processing Physical Security and Risk Management. Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    These guidelines provide a handbook for use by federal organizations in structuring physical security and risk management programs for their automatic data processing facilities. This publication discusses security analysis, natural disasters, supporting utilities, system reliability, procedural measures and controls, off-site facilities,…

  3. Rapid Prototyping in the Instructional Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Elizabeth Krick; Lee, Doris

    2001-01-01

    Discusses instructional design models and examines rapid prototyping, a model that combines computer design strategies, constructivist learning theory, and cognitive psychology. Highlights include limitations of linear models; instructional problems appropriate and those not appropriate for rapid prototyping; and rapid prototyping as a paradigm…

  4. A computer program for automatic recording and processing of renograms.

    PubMed

    Bellina, V; Barbina, V

    1975-03-01

    A program is described, which performs automatic uptake, plotting and processing of radio-hippuran renograms obtained from a gamma camera, using an on-line minicomputer system. The program is written in machine language for a ND 50/50 system equipped with a PDP8-L processor, but translation for other nuclear medicine EDP system is easy. Minimum configuration requirements are: (i) 4K processor with TTY; (ii) external clock; (iii) magnetic tape transport; and (iv) 4K + 4K buffered camera interface or additional 8K of storage plus camera interface. Camera interface is computer-controlled and includes two AD-converters, a display unit for buffer storage and interest-areas selection facility. Operation starts recording 40 scintiphotographs of 30 sec each. Then, kidney uptake curves are obtained by subtraction of blood and tissue background, and diagnostic parameters, such as the initial slope, the maximum uptake point and 50% activity time, are computed. The only manual intervention required is the computer-assisted selection of interest-areas of kidneys, and blood and tissue background. Time required is 20 min for uptake of renograms and 5 min for processing and output, thus allowing routine execution of good quality renography, including hardcopy printout of both kidney uptake curves and diagnostic paramerers.

  5. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND... automatic data processing (ADP) systems. Classified data or information may not be processed or produced on...

  6. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND... automatic data processing (ADP) systems. Classified data or information may not be processed or produced on...

  7. Automatic Control of Arc Process for Making Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.; Pulumbarit, Robert B.; Victor, Joe

    2004-01-01

    An automatic-control system has been devised for a process in which carbon nanotubes are produced in an arc between a catalyst-filled carbon anode and a graphite cathode. The control system includes a motor-driven screw that adjusts the distance between the electrodes. The system also includes a bridge circuit that puts out a voltage proportional to the difference between (1) the actual value of potential drop across the arc and (2) a reference value between 38 and 40 V (corresponding to a current of about 100 A) at which the yield of carbon nanotubes is maximized. Utilizing the fact that the potential drop across the arc increases with the interelectrode gap, the output of the bridge circuit is fed to a motor-control circuit that causes the motor to move the anode toward or away from the cathode if the actual potential drop is more or less, respectively, than the reference potential. Thus, the system regulates the interelectrode gap to maintain the optimum potential drop. The system also includes circuitry that records the potential drop across the arc and the relative position of the anode holder as function of time.

  8. Automatic retrieval of bone fracture knowledge using natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew S; Maley, Joan; Biswal, Sandip

    2013-08-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract data from unstructured text into formal computer representations are valuable for creating robust, scalable methods to mine data in medical documents and radiology reports. As voice recognition (VR) becomes more prevalent in radiology practice, there is opportunity for implementing NLP in real time for decision-support applications such as context-aware information retrieval. For example, as the radiologist dictates a report, an NLP algorithm can extract concepts from the text and retrieve relevant classification or diagnosis criteria or calculate disease probability. NLP can work in parallel with VR to potentially facilitate evidence-based reporting (for example, automatically retrieving the Bosniak classification when the radiologist describes a kidney cyst). For these reasons, we developed and validated an NLP system which extracts fracture and anatomy concepts from unstructured text and retrieves relevant bone fracture knowledge. We implement our NLP in an HTML5 web application to demonstrate a proof-of-concept feedback NLP system which retrieves bone fracture knowledge in real time.

  9. Improved automatic tuning of PID controller for stable processes.

    PubMed

    Kumar Padhy, Prabin; Majhi, Somanath

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents an improved automatic tuning method for stable processes using a modified relay in the presence of static load disturbances and measurement noise. The modified relay consists of a standard relay in series with a PI controller of unity proportional gain. The integral time constant of the PI controller of the modified relay is chosen so as to ensure a minimum loop phase margin of 30( composite function). A limit cycle is then obtained using the modified relay. Hereafter, the PID controller is designed using the limit cycle output data. The derivative time constant is obtained by maintaining the above mentioned loop phase margin. Minimizing the distance of Nyquist curve of the loop transfer function from the imaginary axis of the complex plane gives the proportional gain. The integral time constant of the PID controller is set equal to the integral time constant of the PI controller of the modified relay. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified by simulation results.

  10. Analysis of Rapid Acquisition Processes to Fulfill Future Urgent Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    do not provide an effective means for future rapid acquisition requirements, do not effectively promote the agility needed for rapid acquisition, and...the agility needed for rapid acquisition, and actually encumber the rapid acquisition process. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii...requirements. In addition, leadership changes do not effectively promote the agility needed for rapid acquisition and actually encumbers the rapid acquisition

  11. A Rapid Process for Fabricating Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Luo, Li-Siang

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a low-toxicity and environmentally-friendly material applied on devices, sensors or actuators for “green” usage. A porous ZnO film deposited by a rapid process of aerosol deposition (AD) was employed as the gas-sensitive material in a CO gas sensor to reduce both manufacturing cost and time, and to further extend the AD application for a large-scale production. The relative resistance change (ΔR/R) of the ZnO gas sensor was used for gas measurement. The fabricated ZnO gas sensors were measured with operating temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 180 °C, and CO concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensitivity and the response time presented good performance at increasing operating temperatures and CO concentrations. AD was successfully for applied for making ZnO gas sensors with great potential for achieving high deposition rates at low deposition temperatures, large-scale production and low cost. PMID:25010696

  12. N400 repetition effect in unidentifiable Chinese characters: evidence for automatic process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanhong; Huang, He; Mao, Liting

    2009-05-06

    A new matter of debate is whether N400 is exclusively sensitive to automatic or postlexical processes. Recent studies showing N400 modulation by masked primes support an automatic process account. However, these studies cannot directly prove an automatic process. Event-related brain potentials to blurred targets were recorded to substantiate N400 repetition (priming) effects as an index of pure automatic process during a matching task with Chinese characters. Highly blurred target characters, which were unidentifiable, as well as identifiable target characters were shown to elicit greater N400 when repeated, with N400 peak latency being longer for slightly blurred targets than for highly blurred targets. These results provide evidence that N400 is modulated directly by automatic processes rather than by postlexical processes.

  13. The Amenability of a Cataloging Process to Simulation by Automatic Techniques. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ann M.

    This study attempts to determine whether the human intellectual process of cataloging bibliographic materials, using the Anglo-American (AA-1967) and American Library Association (ALA-1949) cataloging codes, can be simulated by automatic techniques. The specific cataloging process is that which concerns selection of entry. Automatic techniques…

  14. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property Management... Personal Property § 109-45.309-54 Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). ADPE shall be made available...

  15. 41 CFR 109-43.307-53 - Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). 109-43.307-53 Section 109-43.307-53 Public Contracts and Property Management....307-53 Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). All ADPE shall be sanitized before being...

  16. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property Management... Personal Property § 109-45.309-54 Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). ADPE shall be made available...

  17. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property Management... Personal Property § 109-45.309-54 Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). ADPE shall be made available...

  18. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property Management... Personal Property § 109-45.309-54 Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). ADPE shall be made available...

  19. 41 CFR 109-43.307-53 - Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). 109-43.307-53 Section 109-43.307-53 Public Contracts and Property Management....307-53 Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). All ADPE shall be sanitized before being...

  20. 41 CFR 109-45.309-54 - Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). 109-45.309-54 Section 109-45.309-54 Public Contracts and Property Management... Personal Property § 109-45.309-54 Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE). ADPE shall be made available...

  1. 41 CFR 109-43.307-53 - Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). 109-43.307-53 Section 109-43.307-53 Public Contracts and Property Management....307-53 Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). All ADPE shall be sanitized before being...

  2. 41 CFR 109-43.307-53 - Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). 109-43.307-53 Section 109-43.307-53 Public Contracts and Property Management....307-53 Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). All ADPE shall be sanitized before being...

  3. 41 CFR 109-43.307-53 - Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). 109-43.307-53 Section 109-43.307-53 Public Contracts and Property Management....307-53 Automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). All ADPE shall be sanitized before being...

  4. Controlled versus automatic processes: which is dominant to safety? The moderating effect of inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Ding, Weidong; Lu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end.

  5. Using suggestion to modulate automatic processes: from Stroop to McGurk and beyond.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Michael; Aubert Bonn, Noémie; Fischer, Alexandra; Kashem, Irene Farah; Raz, Amir

    2013-02-01

    Cognitive scientists typically classify cognitive processes as either controlled or automatic. Whereas controlled processes are slow and effortful, automatic processes are fast and involuntary. Over the past decade, we have propelled a research trajectory investigating how top-down influence in the form of suggestion can allow individuals to modulate the automaticity of cognitive processes. Here we present an overarching array of converging findings that collectively indicate that certain individuals can derail involuntary processes, such as reading, by "unringing" the proverbial bell. We examine replications of these effects from both our own laboratory and independent groups, and extend our Stroop findings to several other well-established automatic paradigms, including the McGurk effect. We thus demonstrate how, in the case of highly suggestible individuals, suggestion seems to wield control over a process that is likely even more automatic than the Stroop effect. Finally, we present findings from two novel experimental paradigms exploring the potential of shifting automaticity in the opposite direction - i.e., transforming, without practice, a controlled task into one that is automatic. Drawing on related evidence from the neuroscience of contemplative practices, we discuss how these findings pave the road to a more scientific understanding of voluntary control and automaticity, and expound on their possible experimental and therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Controlled versus Automatic Processes: Which Is Dominant to Safety? The Moderating Effect of Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Ding, Weidong; Lu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end. PMID:24520338

  7. A rapid manual processing technique for resource-limited small laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Jali, Pramod K; Donoghue, Mandana; Gadiwan, Mohsin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical pathology is an integral part of diagnosis and management planning in patient care. In the absence of widespread automation, many small laboratories are unable to provide this service due to lack of time. Currently, the shortest processing schedule for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues is 16 working hours; most small laboratories cannot complete the rapid schedules within the average 8–9 working hours. Thus, the availability of an 8–9 h processing schedule that provide satisfactory results can help many small laboratories in routinely providing surgical pathology services. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new rapid processing schedule and compare it with two existing rapid processing schedules. Materials and Methods: This animal study tested a new rapid processing schedule suggested by authors with overnight preprocessing in 60% isopropyl alcohol followed by an 8 h processing schedule. This was tested and compared with the rapid processing schedules described by Godkar's (11 h) and Bancroft's (2 working days). A routinely used automatic tissue processor long cycle (17 h) was the control. Each schedule was used on 20 tongue specimens. The prepared slides were evaluated for surface area and linear tissue shrinkage, ease of sectioning, quality of hematoxylin and eosin staining, histological appearance and artifacts. Results: No statistical differences were found between schedules. Overall total average performance ranking placed Bancroft's schedule as the best with only 27.9% of the sections processed and stained showing any shortcomings, followed closely by the test schedule suggested by authors (28.7%), Godkar's (31.8%) and the automatic processor schedule/control (33.3%). Conclusion: The test results indicated that the schedule devised by authors is an effective rapid processing cycle that produces diagnostic quality histological results when compared with other conventional processing schedules for small tissue blocks

  8. Automatic and controlled stimulus processing in conflict tasks: Superimposed diffusion processes and delta functions.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Rolf; Schröter, Hannes; Leuthold, Hartmut; Birngruber, Teresa

    2015-05-01

    An elaborated diffusion process model (a Diffusion Model for Conflict Tasks, DMC) is introduced that combines conceptual features of standard diffusion models with the notion of controlled and automatic processes. DMC can account for a variety of distributional properties of reaction time (RT) in conflict tasks (e.g., Eriksen flanker, Simon, Stroop). Specifically, DMC is compatible with all observed shapes of delta functions, including negative-going delta functions that are particularly challenging for the class of standard diffusion models. Basically, DMC assumes that the activations of controlled and automatic processes superimpose to trigger a response. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the unfolding of automatic activation in time largely determines the shape of delta functions. Furthermore, the predictions of DMC are consistent with other phenomena observed in conflict tasks such as error rate patterns. In addition, DMC was successfully fitted to experimental data of the standard Eriksen flanker and the Simon task. Thus, the present paper reconciles the prominent and successful class of diffusion models with the empirical finding of negative-going delta functions.

  9. Automatic indexing of abstracts via natural-language processing using a simple thesaurus.

    PubMed

    Evans, D A; Hersh, W R; Monarch, I A; Lefferts, R G; Handerson, S K

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe CLARIT processing as an approach to automatic indexing. They also explore two elements of the indexing process, identifying concepts in text and selecting concepts to reflect the perspective of a domain.

  10. A system for classifying wood-using industries and recording statistics for automatic data processing.

    Treesearch

    E.W. Fobes; R.W. Rowe

    1968-01-01

    A system for classifying wood-using industries and recording pertinent statistics for automatic data processing is described. Forms and coding instructions for recording data of primary processing plants are included.

  11. Rapid Semi-Automatic Segmentation of the Spinal Cord from Magnetic Resonance Images: Application in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Horsfield, Mark A.; Sala, Stefania; Neema, Mohit; Absinta, Martina; Bakshi, Anshika; Sormani, Maria Pia; Rocca, Maria A.; Bakshi, Rohit; Filippi, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    A new semi-automatic method for segmenting the spinal cord from MR images is presented. The method is based on an active surface (AS) model of the cord surface, with intrinsic smoothness constraints. The model is initialized by the user marking the approximate cord center-line on a few representative slices, and the compact surface parametrization results in a rapid segmentation, taking on the order of one minute. Using 3-D acquired T1-weighted images of the cervical spine from human controls and patients with multiple sclerosis, the intra- and inter-observer reproducibilities were evaluated, and compared favorably with an existing cord segmentation method. While the AS method overestimated the cord area by approximately 14% compared to manual outlining, correlations between cord cross-sectional area and clinical disability scores confirmed the relevance of the new method in measuring cord atrophy in multiple sclerosis. Segmentation of the cord from 2-D multi-slice T2-weighted images is also demonstrated over the cervical and thoracic region. Since the cord center-line is an intrinsic parameter extracted as part of the segmentation process, the image can be resampled such that the center-line forms one coordinate axis of a new image, allowing simple visualization of the cord structure and pathology; this could find wider application in standard radiological practice. PMID:20060481

  12. Automatic Neural Processing of Disorder-Related Stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder: Faces and More

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Claudia; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Straube, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with automatic information processing biases resulting in hypersensitivity to signals of social threat such as negative facial expressions. However, the nature and extent of automatic processes in SAD on the behavioral and neural level is not entirely clear yet. The present review summarizes neuroscientific findings on automatic processing of facial threat but also other disorder-related stimuli such as emotional prosody or negative words in SAD. We review initial evidence for automatic activation of the amygdala, insula, and sensory cortices as well as for automatic early electrophysiological components. However, findings vary depending on tasks, stimuli, and neuroscientific methods. Only few studies set out to examine automatic neural processes directly and systematic attempts are as yet lacking. We suggest that future studies should: (1) use different stimulus modalities, (2) examine different emotional expressions, (3) compare findings in SAD with other anxiety disorders, (4) use more sophisticated experimental designs to investigate features of automaticity systematically, and (5) combine different neuroscientific methods (such as functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology). Finally, the understanding of neural automatic processes could also provide hints for therapeutic approaches. PMID:23745116

  13. The Development of Automatic Associative Processes and Children's False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Marina C.; Howe, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated children's ability to generate associations and how automaticity of associative activation unfolds developmentally. Children generated associative responses using a single associate paradigm (Experiment 1) or a Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM)-like multiple associates paradigm (Experiment 2). The results indicated that children's…

  14. Are Automatic Imitation and Spatial Compatibility Mediated by Different Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard P.; Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Automatic imitation or "imitative compatibility" is thought to be mediated by the mirror neuron system and to be a laboratory model of the motor mimicry that occurs spontaneously in naturalistic social interaction. Imitative compatibility and spatial compatibility effects are known to depend on different stimulus dimensions--body…

  15. The Development of Automatic Associative Processes and Children's False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Marina C.; Howe, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated children's ability to generate associations and how automaticity of associative activation unfolds developmentally. Children generated associative responses using a single associate paradigm (Experiment 1) or a Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM)-like multiple associates paradigm (Experiment 2). The results indicated that children's…

  16. Are Automatic Imitation and Spatial Compatibility Mediated by Different Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard P.; Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Automatic imitation or "imitative compatibility" is thought to be mediated by the mirror neuron system and to be a laboratory model of the motor mimicry that occurs spontaneously in naturalistic social interaction. Imitative compatibility and spatial compatibility effects are known to depend on different stimulus dimensions--body…

  17. The Masked Semantic Priming Effect Is Task Dependent: Reconsidering the Automatic Spreading Activation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Semantic priming effects are popularly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process, according to which the activation of a node in a semantic network spreads automatically to interconnected nodes, preactivating a semantically related word. It is expected from this account that semantic priming effects should be routinely…

  18. The Masked Semantic Priming Effect Is Task Dependent: Reconsidering the Automatic Spreading Activation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Semantic priming effects are popularly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process, according to which the activation of a node in a semantic network spreads automatically to interconnected nodes, preactivating a semantically related word. It is expected from this account that semantic priming effects should be routinely…

  19. Automatic system of production, transfer and processing of coin targets for the production of metallic radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicioli, M.; Ouadi, A.; Marchand, P.; Foehrenbacher, T.; Schuler, J.; Dick-Schuler, N.; Brasse, D.

    2017-05-01

    The work presented in this paper gathers three main technical developments aiming at 1) optimizing nuclide production by the mean of solid targets 2) automatically transferring coin targets from vault to hotcell without human intervention 3) processing target dilution and purification in hotcell automatically. This system has been installed on a ACSI TR24 cyclotron in Strasbourg France.

  20. Processing of intentional and automatic number magnitudes in children born prematurely: evidence from fMRI.

    PubMed

    Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Kremser, Christian; Starke, Marc; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Pupp-Peglow, Ulrike; Schocke, Michael; Kaufmann, Liane

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the neural correlates of intentional and automatic number processing (indexed by number comparison and physical Stroop task, respectively) in 6- and 7-year-old children born prematurely. Behavioral results revealed significant numerical distance and size congruity effects. Imaging results disclosed (1) largely overlapping fronto-parietal activation for intentional and automatic number processing, (2) a frontal to parietal shift of activation upon considering the risk factors gestational age and birth weight, and (3) a task-specific link between math proficiency and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal within distinct regions of the parietal lobes-indicating commonalities but also specificities of intentional and automatic number processing.

  1. Uav Data Processing for Rapid Mapping Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2015-08-01

    During disaster and emergency situations, geospatial data plays an important role to serve as a framework for decision support system. As one component of basic geospatial data, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable geospatial analysis within quite a number of societal challenges. The increasing role of geo-information in disaster management nowadays consequently needs to include geospatial aspects on its analysis. Therefore different geospatial datasets can be combined in order to produce reliable geospatial analysis especially in the context of disaster preparedness and emergency response. A very well-known issue in this context is the fast delivery of geospatial relevant data which is expressed by the term "Rapid Mapping". Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is the rising geospatial data platform nowadays that can be attractive for modelling and monitoring the disaster area with a low cost and timely acquisition in such critical period of time. Disaster-related object extraction is of special interest for many applications. In this paper, UAV-borne data has been used for supporting rapid mapping activities in combination with high resolution airborne Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) data. A real disaster instance from 2013 in conjunction with Mount Sinabung eruption, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, is used as the benchmark test for the rapid mapping activities presented in this paper. On this context, the reliable IFSAR dataset from airborne data acquisition in 2011 has been used as a comparable dataset for accuracy investigation and assessment purpose in 3 D reconstructions. After all, this paper presents a proper geo-referencing and feature extraction method of UAV data to support rapid mapping activities.

  2. Automatic Processing and the Unitization of Two Features.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    experiment, LaBerge (1973) showed that with practice two features could be automatically unitized to form a novel character. We wish to address a...different from a search for a target which requires identification of one of the features alone. Page 2 Indeed, LaBerge (1973) used a similar implicit...perception? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1978, 26, 498-507. LaBerge , D. Attention and the measurement of perceptual learning. Memory and

  3. Is rapid automatized naming related to reading and mathematics for the same reason(s)? A follow-up study from kindergarten to Grade 1.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, George K; Tziraki, Niki; Manolitsis, George; Fella, Argyro

    2013-07-01

    We examined (a) what rapid automatized naming (RAN) components (articulation time and/or pause time) predict reading and mathematics ability and (b) what processing skills involved in RAN (speed of processing, response inhibition, working memory, and/or phonological awareness) may explain its relationship with reading and mathematics. A sample of 72 children were followed from the beginning of kindergarten until the end of Grade 1 and were assessed on measures of RAN, general cognitive ability, speed of processing, attention, working memory, phonological awareness, reading, and mathematics. The results indicated that pause time was the critical component in both the RAN-reading and RAN-mathematics relationships and that it shared most of its predictive variance in reading and mathematics with speed of processing and working memory. Our findings further suggested that, unlike the relationship between RAN and reading fluency in Grade 1, there is nothing in the RAN task that is uniquely related to math.

  4. Cell Processing Engineering for Regenerative Medicine : Noninvasive Cell Quality Estimation and Automatic Cell Processing.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Mutsumi

    2016-01-01

    The cell processing engineering including automatic cell processing and noninvasive cell quality estimation of adherent mammalian cells for regenerative medicine was reviewed. Automatic cell processing necessary for the industrialization of regenerative medicine was introduced. The cell quality such as cell heterogeneity should be noninvasively estimated before transplantation to patient, because cultured cells are usually not homogeneous but heterogeneous and most protocols of regenerative medicine are autologous system. The differentiation level could be estimated by two-dimensional cell morphology analysis using a conventional phase-contrast microscope. The phase-shifting laser microscope (PLM) could determine laser phase shift at all pixel in a view, which is caused by the transmitted laser through cell, and might be more noninvasive and more useful than the atomic force microscope and digital holographic microscope. The noninvasive determination of the laser phase shift of a cell using a PLM was carried out to determine the three-dimensional cell morphology and estimate the cell cycle phase of each adhesive cell and the mean proliferation activity of a cell population. The noninvasive discrimination of cancer cells from normal cells by measuring the phase shift was performed based on the difference in cytoskeleton density. Chemical analysis of the culture supernatant was also useful to estimate the differentiation level of a cell population. A probe beam, an infrared beam, and Raman spectroscopy are useful for diagnosing the viability, apoptosis, and differentiation of each adhesive cell.

  5. Implications of number-space synesthesia on the automaticity of numerical processing.

    PubMed

    Gertner, Limor; Henik, Avishai; Reznik, Daniel; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-05-01

    Number-space synesthetes visualize numbers in specific spatial configurations. Their spatial-numerical perceptions are assumed to be automatic in nature and have been found to affect performance in various numerical tasks. The current study tested whether synesthetic number-space associations can modulate the well-established Size Congruency Effect (SiCE), which is considered to be an indication for the automaticity of numerical processing. Two groups, number-space synesthetes and matched controls, were tested on a numerical Stroop task (Henik and Tzelgov, 1982). In separate blocks, participants were presented with two digits and asked to make comparative judgments regarding either numerical values (numerical comparison) or physical size (physical comparison). Both dimensions were manipulated orthogonally, creating three congruency levels: congruent (e.g., 2 7), incongruent (e.g., 2 7) and neutral (e.g., 2 2 and 2 7 for physical and numerical blocks, respectively). For the numerical block, both synesthetes and controls showed the classic SiCE, indicating similar automatic processing of physical magnitude. However, in the physical block, synesthetes showed a lack of automatic numerical magnitude processing when the numbers to be compared were presented incompatibly with their relative position on the synesthetic number-form. This finding strongly suggests that synesthetes' number-space perceptions affect their ability to automatically process the semantic meaning of numerals. The involvement of space in automatic magnitude processing for number-space synesthetes and non-synesthetes is discussed.

  6. Implications of number-space synesthesia on the automaticity of numerical processing

    PubMed Central

    Gertner, Limor; Henik, Avishai; Reznik, Daniel; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Number-space synesthetes visualize numbers in specific spatial configurations. Their spatial-numerical perceptions are assumed to be automatic in nature and have been found to affect performance in various numerical tasks. The current study tested whether synesthetic number-space associations can modulate the well-established Size Congruency Effect (SiCE), which is considered to be an indication for the automaticity of numerical processing. Two groups, number-space synesthetes and matched controls, were tested on a numerical Stroop task (Henik and Tzelgov, 1982). In separate blocks, participants were presented with two digits and asked to make comparative judgments regarding either numerical values (numerical comparison) or physical size (physical comparison). Both dimensions were manipulated orthogonally, creating three congruency levels: congruent (e.g., 2 7), incongruent (e.g., 2 7) and neutral (e.g., 2 2 and 2 7 for physical and numerical blocks, respectively). For the numerical block, both synesthetes and controls showed the classic SiCE, indicating similar automatic processing of physical magnitude. However, in the physical block, synesthetes showed a lack of automatic numerical magnitude processing when the numbers to be compared were presented incompatibly with their relative position on the synesthetic number-form. This finding strongly suggests that synesthetes’ number-space perceptions affect their ability to automatically process the semantic meaning of numerals. The involvement of space in automatic magnitude processing for number-space synesthetes and non-synesthetes is discussed. PMID:22578710

  7. Localized rapid heating process for precision chalcogenide glass molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; He, Peng; Yu, Jianfeng; Lee, L. James; Yi, Allen Y.

    2015-10-01

    Precision glass molding is an important process for high volume optical fabrication. However, conventional glass molding is a bulk heating process that usually requires a long thermal cycle, where molding assembly and other mechanical parts are heated and cooled together. This often causes low efficiency and other heating and cooling related problems, such as large thermal expansion in both the molds and molded optics. To cope with this issue, we developed a localized rapid heating process to effectively heat only very small part of the glass. This localized rapid heating study utilized a fused silica wafer coated with a thin graphene layer to heat only the surface of the glass. The graphene coating functions as an electrical resistant heater when a power source was applied across the thin film coating, generating heat on and near the coating. The feasibility of this process was validated by both experiments and numerical simulation. To demonstrate the advantages of the localized rapid heating, both localized rapid heating process and bulk heating process were performed and carefully compared. The uniformity and quality of the molded sample by localized rapid heating process was also demonstrated. In summary, localized rapid heating process by using graphene coated fused silica wafer was characterized and can be readily implemented in replication of micro scale chalcogenide glasses. A fused silica wafer coated with a thin graphene layer was utilized for localized rapid heating only the surface of the glass. The graphene coating functions as an electrical resistant heater when a power source was applied across the thin film coating, generating high temperature on and near the coating. This process is fast and efficient since only interested areas are heated without affecting the entire glass substrate or the mold assembly. The uniformity and quality of the molded sample by localized rapid heating process was demonstrated by comparing both localized rapid heating

  8. 36 CFR 1260.50 - How are records at NARA reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process? 1260.50 Section 1260.50 Parks, Forests, and... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Automatic Declassification § 1260.50 How are records at NARA reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process? (a) Consistent with the requirements of section 3.3...

  9. 36 CFR 1260.50 - How are records at NARA reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process? 1260.50 Section 1260.50 Parks, Forests, and... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Automatic Declassification § 1260.50 How are records at NARA reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process? (a) Consistent with the requirements of section 3.3...

  10. 36 CFR 1260.50 - How are records at NARA reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process? 1260.50 Section 1260.50 Parks, Forests, and... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Automatic Declassification § 1260.50 How are records at NARA reviewed as part of the automatic declassification process? (a) Consistent with the requirements of section 3.3...

  11. Automatic processing influences free recall: converging evidence from the process dissociation procedure and remember-know judgments.

    PubMed

    McCabe, David P; Roediger, Henry L; Karpicke, Jeffrey D

    2011-04-01

    Dual-process theories of retrieval suggest that controlled and automatic processing contribute to memory performance. Free recall tests are often considered pure measures of recollection, assessing only the controlled process. We report two experiments demonstrating that automatic processes also influence free recall. Experiment 1 used inclusion and exclusion tasks to estimate recollection and automaticity in free recall, adopting a new variant of the process dissociation procedure. Dividing attention during study selectively reduced the recollection estimate but did not affect the automatic component. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of Experiment 1, and subjects additionally reported remember-know-guess judgments during recall in the inclusion condition. In the latter task, dividing attention during study reduced remember judgments for studied items, but know responses were unaffected. Results from both methods indicated that free recall is partly driven by automatic processes. Thus, we conclude that retrieval in free recall tests is not driven solely by conscious recollection (or remembering) but also by automatic influences of the same sort believed to drive priming on implicit memory tests. Sometimes items come to mind without volition in free recall.

  12. Effortful versus automatic emotional processing in schizophrenia: Insights from a face-vignette task.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Regan E; Rastogi, Anuj; Christensen, Bruce K

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive emotional responding relies on dual automatic and effortful processing streams. Dual-stream models of schizophrenia (SCZ) posit a selective deficit in neural circuits that govern goal-directed, effortful processes versus reactive, automatic processes. This imbalance suggests that when patients are confronted with competing automatic and effortful emotional response cues, they will exhibit diminished effortful responding and intact, possibly elevated, automatic responding compared to controls. This prediction was evaluated using a modified version of the face-vignette task (FVT). Participants viewed emotional faces (automatic response cue) paired with vignettes (effortful response cue) that signalled a different emotion category and were instructed to discriminate the manifest emotion. Patients made less vignette and more face responses than controls. However, the relationship between group and FVT responding was moderated by IQ and reading comprehension ability. These results replicate and extend previous research and provide tentative support for abnormal conflict resolution between automatic and effortful emotional processing predicted by dual-stream models of SCZ.

  13. A comparison of conscious and automatic memory processes for picture and word stimuli: a process dissociation analysis.

    PubMed

    McBride, Dawn M; Anne Dosher, Barbara

    2002-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate explanations of picture superiority effects previously found for several tasks. In a process dissociation procedure (Jacoby, 1991) with word stem completion, picture fragment completion, and category production tasks, conscious and automatic memory processes were compared for studied pictures and words with an independent retrieval model and a generate-source model. The predictions of a transfer appropriate processing account of picture superiority were tested and validated in "process pure" latent measures of conscious and unconscious, or automatic and source, memory processes. Results from both model fits verified that pictures had a conceptual (conscious/source) processing advantage over words for all tasks. The effects of perceptual (automatic/word generation) compatibility depended on task type, with pictorial tasks favoring pictures and linguistic tasks favoring words. Results show support for an explanation of the picture superiority effect that involves an interaction of encoding and retrieval processes.

  14. Racial bias in pain perception and response: experimental examination of automatic and deliberate processes

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vani A.; Richeson, Jennifer A.; Paice, Judith A.; Muzyka, Michael; Chiao, Joan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Racial disparities in pain treatment pose a significant public health and scientific problem. Prior studies demonstrate clinicians and non-clinicians are less perceptive, and suggest less treatment for, the pain of African Americans, relative to European Americans. Here we investigate the effects of explicit/implicit patient race presentation, patient race, and perceiver race on pain perception and response. African American and European American participants rated pain perception, empathy, helping motivation, and treatment suggestion in response to vignettes about patients’ pain. Vignettes were accompanied by a rapid (implicit), or static (explicit) presentation of an African or European American patient’s face. Participants perceived and responded more to European American patients in the implicit prime condition, when the effect of patient race was below the level of conscious regulation. This effect was reversed when patient race was presented explicitly. Additionally, female participants perceived and responded more to the pain of all patients, relative to male participants, and in the implicit prime condition, African American participants were more perceptive and responsive than European Americans to the pain of all patients. Taken together, these results suggest that known disparities in pain treatment may be largely due to automatic (below the level of conscious regulation), rather than deliberate (subject to conscious regulation) biases. These biases were not associated with traditional implicit measures of racial attitudes, suggesting that biases in pain perception and response may be independent of general prejudice. Perspective Results suggest racial biases in pain perception and treatment are at least partially due to automatic processes. When the relevance of patient race is made explicit, however, biases are attenuated and even reversed. We also find preliminary evidence that African Americans may be more sensitive to the pain of others than

  15. TARGET: Rapid Capture of Process Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, C. J.; Ly, H. V.; Saito, T.; Loftin, R. B.

    1993-01-01

    TARGET (Task Analysis/Rule Generation Tool) represents a new breed of tool that blends graphical process flow modeling capabilities with the function of a top-down reporting facility. Since NASA personnel frequently perform tasks that are primarily procedural in nature, TARGET models mission or task procedures and generates hierarchical reports as part of the process capture and analysis effort. Historically, capturing knowledge has proven to be one of the greatest barriers to the development of intelligent systems. Current practice generally requires lengthy interactions between the expert whose knowledge is to be captured and the knowledge engineer whose responsibility is to acquire and represent the expert's knowledge in a useful form. Although much research has been devoted to the development of methodologies and computer software to aid in the capture and representation of some types of knowledge, procedural knowledge has received relatively little attention. In essence, TARGET is one of the first tools of its kind, commercial or institutional, that is designed to support this type of knowledge capture undertaking. This paper will describe the design and development of TARGET for the acquisition and representation of procedural knowledge. The strategies employed by TARGET to support use by knowledge engineers, subject matter experts, programmers and managers will be discussed. This discussion includes the method by which the tool employs its graphical user interface to generate a task hierarchy report. Next, the approach to generate production rules for incorporation in and development of a CLIPS based expert system will be elaborated. TARGET also permits experts to visually describe procedural tasks as a common medium for knowledge refinement by the expert community and knowledge engineer making knowledge consensus possible. The paper briefly touches on the verification and validation issues facing the CLIPS rule generation aspects of TARGET. A description of

  16. Tidal analysis and Arrival Process Mining Using Automatic Identification System (AIS) Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    AIS ) Data Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry Brandan M. Scully January 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is...17-2 January 2017 Tidal Analysis and Arrival Process Mining Using Automatic Identification System ( AIS ) Data Brandan M. Scully Coastal and...from Automatic Identification System ( AIS ) data. This work employs the methodology presented by Mitchell and Scully (2014) for inferring tidal

  17. Comparison between an automatic and a visual scoring method of the chin muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Raffaele; Gagnon, Jean-François; Postuma, Ronald B; Rundo, Francesco; Montplaisir, Jacques Y

    2014-06-01

    To compare two different methods, one visual and the other automatic, for the quantification of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RSWA) in the diagnosis of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Seventy-four RBD patients (mean age, 62.14±9.67 years) and 75 normal controls (mean age, 61.04±12.13 years) underwent one night video-polysomnographic recording. The chin electromyogram (EMG) during REM sleep was analyzed by means of a previously published visual method quantifying the percentage of 30s epochs scored as tonic (abnormal, > or =30%) and that of 2s mini-epochs containing phasic EMG events (abnormal, > or =15%). For the computer quantitative analysis we used the automatic scoring algorithm known as the atonia index (abnormal, <0.8). The percentage correct classification, sensitivity, specificity, and Cohen kappa were calculated. The atonia index correctly classified 82.6% of subjects, similar to the percentage of correct classifications with individual components of the visual analysis (83.2% each for tonic and phasic), and the combined visual parameters (85.9%). The sensitivity and specificity of automatic analysis (84% and 81%) was similar to the combined visual analysis (89% and 83%). The correlation coefficient between the automatic atonia index and the percentage of visual tonic EMG was high (r = -0.886, P<0.00001), with moderately high correlation with the percentage of phasic EMG (r = -0.690, P<0.00001). The agreement between atonia index and the visual parameters (individual or combined) was approximately 85% with Cohen's kappa, ranging from 0.638 to 0.693. Sensitivity, specificity, and correct classifications were high with both methods. Moreover, there was general agreement between methods, with Cohen's kappa values in the 'good' range. Given the considerable practical advantages of automatic quantification of REM atonia, automatic quantification may be a useful alternative to visual scoring methods in otherwise uncomplicated polysomnograms

  18. Syntax as a Reflex: Neurophysiological Evidence for Early Automaticity of Grammatical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Hasting, Anna S.; Carlyon, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    It has been a matter of debate whether the specifically human capacity to process syntactic information draws on attentional resources or is automatic. To address this issue, we recorded neurophysiological indicators of syntactic processing to spoken sentences while subjects were distracted to different degrees from language processing. Subjects…

  19. Syntax as a Reflex: Neurophysiological Evidence for Early Automaticity of Grammatical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Hasting, Anna S.; Carlyon, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    It has been a matter of debate whether the specifically human capacity to process syntactic information draws on attentional resources or is automatic. To address this issue, we recorded neurophysiological indicators of syntactic processing to spoken sentences while subjects were distracted to different degrees from language processing. Subjects…

  20. Test of a potential link between analytic and nonanalytic category learning and automatic, effortful processing.

    PubMed

    Tracy, J I; Pinsk, M; Helverson, J; Urban, G; Dietz, T; Smith, D J

    2001-08-01

    The link between automatic and effortful processing and nonanalytic and analytic category learning was evaluated in a sample of 29 college undergraduates using declarative memory, semantic category search, and pseudoword categorization tasks. Automatic and effortful processing measures were hypothesized to be associated with nonanalytic and analytic categorization, respectively. Results suggested that contrary to prediction strong criterion-attribute (analytic) responding on the pseudoword categorization task was associated with strong automatic, implicit memory encoding of frequency-of-occurrence information. Data are discussed in terms of the possibility that criterion-attribute category knowledge, once established, may be expressed with few attentional resources. The data indicate that attention resource requirements, even for the same stimuli and task, vary depending on the category rule system utilized. Also, the automaticity emerging from familiarity with analytic category exemplars is very different from the automaticity arising from extensive practice on a semantic category search task. The data do not support any simple mapping of analytic and nonanalytic forms of category learning onto the automatic and effortful processing dichotomy and challenge simple models of brain asymmetries for such procedures.

  1. Testing interactive effects of automatic and conflict control processes during response inhibition - A system neurophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Witold X; Beste, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In everyday life successful acting often requires to inhibit automatic responses that might not be appropriate in the current situation. These response inhibition processes have been shown to become aggravated with increasing automaticity of pre-potent response tendencies. Likewise, it has been shown that inhibitory processes are complicated by a concurrent engagement in additional cognitive control processes (e.g. conflicting monitoring). Therefore, opposing processes (i.e. automaticity and cognitive control) seem to strongly impact response inhibition. However, possible interactive effects of automaticity and cognitive control for the modulation of response inhibition processes have yet not been examined. In the current study we examine this question using a novel experimental paradigm combining a Go/NoGo with a Simon task in a system neurophysiological approach combining EEG recordings with source localization analyses. The results show that response inhibition is less accurate in non-conflicting than in conflicting stimulus-response mappings. Thus it seems that conflicts and the resulting engagement in conflict monitoring processes, as reflected in the N2 amplitude, may foster response inhibition processes. This engagement in conflict monitoring processes leads to an increase in cognitive control, as reflected by an increased activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate areas, while simultaneously the automaticity of response tendencies is decreased. Most importantly, this study suggests that the quality of conflict processes in anterior cingulate areas and especially the resulting interaction of cognitive control and automaticity of pre-potent response tendencies are important factors to consider, when it comes to the modulation of response inhibition processes.

  2. A new method of automatic processing of seismic waves: waveform modeling by using Hidden Markov Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodera, Y.; Sakai, S.

    2012-12-01

    Development of a method of automatic processing of seismic waves is needed since there are limitations to manually picking out earthquake events from seismograms. However, there is no practical method to automatically detect arrival times of P and S waves in seismograms. One typical example of previously proposed methods is automatic detection by using AR model (e.g. Kitagawa et al., 2004). This method seems not to be effective for seismograms contaminated with spike noise, because it cannot distinguish non-stationary signals generated by earthquakes from those generated by noise. The difficulty of distinguishing the signals is caused by the fact that the automatic detection system has a lack of information on time series variation of seismic waves. We expect that an automatic detection system that includes the information on seismic waves is more effective for seismograms contaminated with noise. So we try to adapt Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to construct seismic wave models and establish a new automatic detection method. HMM has been widely used in many fields such as voice recognition (e.g. Bishop, 2006). With the use of HMM, P- or S-waveform models that include envelops can be constructed directly and semi-automatically from lots of observed waveform data of P or S waves. These waveform models are expected to become more robust if the quantity of observation data increases. We have constructed seismic wave models based on HMM from seismograms observed in Ashio, Japan. By using these models, we have tried automatic detection of arrival times of earthquake events in Ashio. Results show that automatic detection based on HMM is more effective for seismograms contaminated with noise than that based on AR model.

  3. Thermally grown oxide and diffusions for automatic processing of integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1979-01-01

    A totally automated facility for semiconductor oxidation and diffusion was developed using a state-of-the-art diffusion furnace and high temperature grown oxides. Major innovations include: (1) a process controller specifically for semiconductor processing; (2) an automatic loading system to accept wafers from an air track, insert them into a quartz carrier and then place the carrier on a paddle for insertion into the furnace; (3) automatic unloading of the wafers back onto the air track, and (4) boron diffusion using diborane with plus or minus 5 percent uniformity. Processes demonstrated include Wet and dry oxidation for general use and for gate oxide, boron diffusion, phosphorous diffusion, and sintering.

  4. ASAP (Automatic Software for ASL Processing): A toolbox for processing Arterial Spin Labeling images.

    PubMed

    Mato Abad, Virginia; García-Polo, Pablo; O'Daly, Owen; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Zelaya, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The method of Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) has experienced a significant rise in its application to functional imaging, since it is the only technique capable of measuring blood perfusion in a truly non-invasive manner. Currently, there are no commercial packages for processing ASL data and there is no recognized standard for normalizing ASL data to a common frame of reference. This work describes a new Automated Software for ASL Processing (ASAP) that can automatically process several ASL datasets. ASAP includes functions for all stages of image pre-processing: quantification, skull-stripping, co-registration, partial volume correction and normalization. To assess the applicability and validity of the toolbox, this work shows its application in the study of hypoperfusion in a sample of healthy subjects at risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease. ASAP requires limited user intervention, minimizing the possibility of random and systematic errors, and produces cerebral blood flow maps that are ready for statistical group analysis. The software is easy to operate and results in excellent quality of spatial normalization. The results found in this evaluation study are consistent with previous studies that find decreased perfusion in Alzheimer's patients in similar regions and demonstrate the applicability of ASAP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Degree of Consistent Training and the Development of Automatic Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-09

    processing as composed of two qualitatively different modes of processing ( LaBerge , 1973, 1975, 1976; Posner and Snyder, 1975; Norman, 1976; Shiffrin and...Psychology, 1971, 2, 229-237. LaBerge , D. Attention and the measurement of perceptual learning. Memory and Cognition, 1973, 1, 268-276. LaBerge , D...York: Academic Press, 1975. LaBerge , D. Perceptual learning and attention. In W. K. Estes (Ed.), Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Processes (Vol. 4

  6. Flexible, rapid and automatic neocortical word form acquisition mechanism in children as revealed by neuromagnetic brain response dynamics.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Eino; Leminen, Alina; de Paoli, Stine; Bundgaard, Anette; Skjold Kingo, Osman; Krøjgaard, Peter; Shtyrov, Yury

    2017-04-04

    Children learn new words and word forms with ease, often acquiring a new word after very few repetitions. Recent neurophysiological research on word form acquisition in adults indicates that novel words can be acquired within minutes of repetitive exposure to them, regardless of the individual's focused attention on the speech input. Although it is well-known that children surpass adults in language acquisition, the developmental aspects of such rapid and automatic neural acquisition mechanisms remain unexplored. To address this open question, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to scrutinise brain dynamics elicited by spoken words and word-like sounds in healthy monolingual (Danish) children throughout a 20-minute repetitive passive exposure session. We found rapid neural dynamics manifested as an enhancement of early (~100 ms) brain activity over the short exposure session, with distinct spatiotemporal patterns for different novel sounds. For novel Danish word forms, signs of such enhancement were seen in the left temporal regions only, suggesting reliance on pre-existing language circuits for acquisition of novel word forms with native phonology. In contrast, exposure both to novel word forms with non-native phonology and to novel non-speech sounds led to activity enhancement in both left and right hemispheres, suggesting that more wide-spread cortical networks contribute to the build-up of memory traces for non-native and non-speech sounds. Similar studies in adults have previously reported more sluggish (~15-25minutes, as opposed to 4minutes in the present study) or non-existent neural dynamics for non-native sound acquisition, which might be indicative of a higher degree of plasticity in the children's brain. Overall, the results indicate a rapid and highly plastic mechanism for a dynamic build-up of memory traces for novel acoustic information in the children's brain that operates automatically and recruits bilateral temporal cortical circuits.

  7. Using Automatic Code Generation in the Attitude Control Flight Software Engineering Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Andrews, Stephen F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the attitude control subsystem flight software development process, identifies how the process has changed due to automatic code generation, analyzes each software development phase in detail, and concludes with a summary of our lessons learned.

  8. Processing Systems Optimization Through Automatic Design and Reorganization of Program Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunamaker, J. F., Jr.; And Others

    A methodology is described for an automatic design system initially defined in terms of logical processes or program modules. Processes and files are grouped and reorganized in such a way as to produce an optimal design with respect to a specific target machine. Performance criteria for the optimal design are defined in terms of transport volume…

  9. Automatic auditory intelligence: an expression of the sensory-cognitive core of cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Näätänen, Risto; Astikainen, Piia; Ruusuvirta, Timo; Huotilainen, Minna

    2010-09-01

    In this article, we present a new view on the nature of cognitive processes suggesting that there is a common core, viz., automatic sensory-cognitive processes that form the basis for higher-order cognitive processes. It has been shown that automatic sensory-cognitive processes are shared by humans and various other species and occur at different developmental stages and even in different states of consciousness. This evidence, based on the automatic electrophysiological change-detection response mismatch negativity (MMN), its magnetoencephalographic equivalent MMNm, and behavioral data, indicates that in audition surprisingly complex processes occur automatically and mainly in the sensory-specific cortical regions. These processes include, e.g. stimulus anticipation and extrapolation, sequential stimulus-rule extraction, and pattern and pitch-interval encoding. Furthermore, these complex perceptual-cognitive processes, first found in waking adults, occur similarly even in sleeping newborns, anesthetized animals, and deeply sedated adult humans, suggesting that they form the common perceptual-cognitive core of cognitive processes in general. Although the present evidence originates mainly from the auditory modality, it is likely that analogous evidence could be obtained from other sensory modalities when measures corresponding to those used in the study of the auditory modality become available.

  10. Exploring the Developmental Changes in Automatic Two-Digit Number Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Au, Terry K.; Tang, Joey

    2011-01-01

    Even when two-digit numbers are irrelevant to the task at hand, adults process them. Do children process numbers automatically, and if so, what kind of information is activated? In a novel dot-number Stroop task, children (Grades 1-5) and adults were shown two different two-digit numbers made up of dots. Participants were asked to select the…

  11. Using Automatic Code Generation in the Attitude Control Flight Software Engineering Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Andrews, Stephen F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the attitude control subsystem flight software development process, identifies how the process has changed due to automatic code generation, analyzes each software development phase in detail, and concludes with a summary of our lessons learned.

  12. A new quantitative automatic method for the measurement of non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalographic amplitude variability.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Novelli, Luana; Terzano, Mario G; Parrino, Liborio; Bruni, Oliviero

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to arrange an automatic quantitative measure of the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal amplitude variability during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, correlated with the visually extracted cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) parameters. Ninety-eight polysomnographic EEG recordings of normal controls were used. A new algorithm based on the analysis of the EEG amplitude variability during NREM sleep was designed and applied to all recordings, which were also scored visually for CAP. All measurements obtained with the new algorithm correlated positively with corresponding CAP parameters. In particular, total CAP time correlated with total NREM variability time (r = 0.596; P < 1E-07), light sleep CAP time with light sleep variability time (r = 0.597; P < 1E-07) and slow wave sleep CAP time with slow wave sleep variability time (r = 0.809; P < 1E-07). Only the duration of CAP A phases showed a low correlation with the duration of variability events. Finally, the age-related modifications of CAP time and of NREM variability time were found to be very similar. The new method for the automatic analysis of NREM sleep amplitude variability presented here correlates significantly with visual CAP parameters; its application requires a minimum work time, compared to CAP analysis, and might be used in large studies involving numerous recordings in which NREM sleep EEG amplitude variability needs to be assessed.

  13. Automatic-controlled information processing and error detection in a simulated pharmacy-verification task.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Sean; Grasha, Anthony F; Matthews, Gerald; Schafer, John

    2003-08-01

    The relationships between attentional variables and information-processing demands of pharmacy dispensing tasks that contribute to difficulties in cognitive performance are not well-known. In the present study, a psychological approach to medical dispensing errors, the cognitive-systems performance model of Grasha, was employed to evaluate the contributions of individual differences in attention and alterations in visual task information on simulated pharmacy-verification performance, perceived workload, and self-reported stress. 73 college-age volunteers completed a pretest battery containing psychological measures of automatic and controlled information processing, and one-week later spent 265 min. completing the end visual-inspection process for 200 simulated prescriptions, 27% of which contained artificially inserted errors. Evidence suggesting that both automatic and controlled processes underlie performance of a simulated pharmacy-verification task was obtained. Individual differences in controlled information processing were mildly predictive of detection accuracy, while contrary to expectations, automatic processing scores did not produce significant relationships. Detection associated with experimental alterations in font size (12-pt. vs 6-pt.) of critical prescription label information was partially in line with expectations from the cognitive-systems performance model, while additional visual enhancements via a magnification/illumination device yielded mixed results. Finally, reports of perceived workload (NASA Task Load Index) and specific patterns of self-reported stress (Dundee Stress State Questionnaire) were consistent with a three-tier behavioral framework offered recently by Matthews, Davies, Westerman, and Stammers for predicting behaviors along the automatic-controlled continuum.

  14. Processing "the" in the Parafovea: Are Articles Skipped Automatically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    One of the words that readers of English skip most often is the definite article "the". Most accounts of reading assume that in order for a reader to skip a word, it must have received some lexical processing. The definite article is skipped so regularly, however, that the oculomotor system might have learned to skip the letter string…

  15. Automatic Semantic Processing in a Picture-Word Interference Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosinski, Richard R.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Presents two experiments which measured latencies in a picture-word interference task to assess semantic processing. Results suggest that picture-word interference is partly semantically based and that children and adults experience an equivalent amount of semantic interference. (Author/SDH)

  16. Processing "the" in the Parafovea: Are Articles Skipped Automatically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    One of the words that readers of English skip most often is the definite article "the". Most accounts of reading assume that in order for a reader to skip a word, it must have received some lexical processing. The definite article is skipped so regularly, however, that the oculomotor system might have learned to skip the letter string…

  17. The development of automatic and controlled inhibitory retrieval processes in true and false recall.

    PubMed

    Knott, Lauren M; Howe, Mark L; Wimmer, Marina C; Dewhurst, Stephen A

    2011-05-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the role of automatic and controlled inhibitory retrieval processes in true and false memory development in children and adults. Experiment 1 incorporated a directed forgetting task to examine controlled retrieval inhibition. Experiments 2 and 3 used a part-set cue and retrieval practice task to examine automatic retrieval inhibition. In the first experiment, the forget cue had no effect on false recall for adults but reduced false recall for children. In Experiments 2 and 3, both tasks caused retrieval impairments for true and false recall, and this occurred for all age groups. Implicit inhibition, which occurs outside of our conscious control, appears early in childhood. However, because young children do not process false memories as automatically as adults, explicit inhibition can reduce false memory output. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a rapid method for the automatic classification of biological agents' fluorescence spectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carestia, Mariachiara; Pizzoferrato, Roberto; Gelfusa, Michela; Cenciarelli, Orlando; Ludovici, Gian Marco; Gabriele, Jessica; Malizia, Andrea; Murari, Andrea; Vega, Jesus; Gaudio, Pasquale

    2015-11-01

    Biosecurity and biosafety are key concerns of modern society. Although nanomaterials are improving the capacities of point detectors, standoff detection still appears to be an open issue. Laser-induced fluorescence of biological agents (BAs) has proved to be one of the most promising optical techniques to achieve early standoff detection, but its strengths and weaknesses are still to be fully investigated. In particular, different BAs tend to have similar fluorescence spectra due to the ubiquity of biological endogenous fluorophores producing a signal in the UV range, making data analysis extremely challenging. The Universal Multi Event Locator (UMEL), a general method based on support vector regression, is commonly used to identify characteristic structures in arrays of data. In the first part of this work, we investigate fluorescence emission spectra of different simulants of BAs and apply UMEL for their automatic classification. In the second part of this work, we elaborate a strategy for the application of UMEL to the discrimination of different BAs' simulants spectra. Through this strategy, it has been possible to discriminate between these BAs' simulants despite the high similarity of their fluorescence spectra. These preliminary results support the use of SVR methods to classify BAs' spectral signatures.

  19. Image processing tool for automatic feature recognition and quantification

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xing; Stoddard, Ryan J.

    2017-05-02

    A system for defining structures within an image is described. The system includes reading of an input file, preprocessing the input file while preserving metadata such as scale information and then detecting features of the input file. In one version the detection first uses an edge detector followed by identification of features using a Hough transform. The output of the process is identified elements within the image.

  20. Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) of semiconductors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. J.; Jones, K. S.

    1993-01-01

    The progress achieved on the project entitled 'Rapid Thermal Processing of Semiconductors in Space' for a 12 month period of activity ending March 31, 1993 is summarized. The activity of this group is being performed under the direct auspices of the ROMPS program. The main objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate the use of advanced robotics in space with rapid thermal process (RTP) of semiconductors providing the test technology. Rapid thermal processing is an ideal processing step for demonstration purposes since it encompasses many of the characteristics of other processes used in solid state device manufacturing. Furthermore, a low thermal budget is becoming more important in existing manufacturing practice, while a low thermal budget is critical to successful processing in space. A secondary objective of this project is to determine the influence of microgravity on the rapid thermal process for a variety of operating modes. In many instances, this involves one or more fluid phases. The advancement of microgravity processing science is an important ancillary objective.

  1. Investigation of registration algorithms for the automatic tile processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamir, Dan E.

    1995-01-01

    The Robotic Tile Inspection System (RTPS), under development in NASA-KSC, is expected to automate the processes of post-flight re-water-proofing and the process of inspection of the Shuttle heat absorbing tiles. An important task of the robot vision sub-system is to register the 'real-world' coordinates with the coordinates of the robot model of the Shuttle tiles. The model coordinates relate to a tile data-base and pre-flight tile-images. In the registration process, current (post-flight) images are aligned with pre-flight images to detect the rotation and translation displacement required for the coordinate systems rectification. The research activities performed this summer included study and evaluation of the registration algorithm that is currently implemented by the RTPS, as well as, investigation of the utility of other registration algorithms. It has been found that the current algorithm is not robust enough. This algorithm has a success rate of less than 80% and is, therefore, not suitable for complying with the requirements of the RTPS. Modifications to the current algorithm has been developed and tested. These modifications can improve the performance of the registration algorithm in a significant way. However, this improvement is not sufficient to satisfy system requirements. A new algorithm for registration has been developed and tested. This algorithm presented very high degree of robustness with success rate of 96%.

  2. Ice images processing interface for automatic features extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, Pierre M.

    2001-02-01

    Canadian Coast Guard has the mandate to maintain the navigability of the St.-Lawrence seaway. It must prevent ice jam formation. Radar, sonar sensors and cameras are used to verify ice movement and keep a record of pertinent data. The cameras are placed along the seaway at strategic locations. Images are processed and saved for future reference. The Ice Images Processing Interface (IIPI) is an integral part of Ices Integrated System (IIS). This software processes images to extract the ice speed, concentration, roughness, and rate of flow. Ice concentration is computed from image segmentation using color models and a priori information. Speed is obtained from a region-matching algorithm. Both concentration and speed calculations are complex, since they require a calibration step involving on-site measurements. Color texture features provide ice roughness estimation. Rate of flow uses ice thickness, which is estimated from sonar sensors on the river floor. Our paper will present how we modeled and designed the IIPI, the issues involved and its future. For more reliable results, we suggest that meteorological data be provided, change in camera orientation be changed, sun reflections be anticipated, and more a priori information, such as radar images available at some sites, be included.

  3. Rapid visuomotor processing of phobic images in spider- and snake-fearful participants.

    PubMed

    Haberkamp, Anke; Schmidt, Filipp; Schmidt, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates enhanced visuomotor processing of phobic compared to fear-relevant and neutral stimuli. We used a response priming design to measure rapid, automatic motor activation by natural images (spiders, snakes, mushrooms, and flowers) in spider-fearful, snake-fearful, and control participants. We found strong priming effects in all tasks and conditions; however, results showed marked differences between groups. Most importantly, in the group of spider-fearful individuals, spider pictures had a strong and specific influence on even the fastest motor responses: Phobic primes entailed the largest priming effects, and phobic targets accelerated responses, both effects indicating speeded response activation by phobic images. In snake-fearful participants, this processing enhancement for phobic material was less pronounced and extended to both snake and spider images. We conclude that spider phobia leads to enhanced processing capacity for phobic images. We argue that this is enabled by long-term perceptual learning processes.

  4. ExcelAutomat: a tool for systematic processing of files as applied to quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Laloo, Jalal Z A; Laloo, Nassirah; Rhyman, Lydia; Ramasami, Ponnadurai

    2017-07-01

    The processing of the input and output files of quantum chemical calculations often necessitates a spreadsheet as a key component of the workflow. Spreadsheet packages with a built-in programming language editor can automate the steps involved and thus provide a direct link between processing files and the spreadsheet. This helps to reduce user-interventions as well as the need to switch between different programs to carry out each step. The ExcelAutomat tool is the implementation of this method in Microsoft Excel (MS Excel) using the default Visual Basic for Application (VBA) programming language. The code in ExcelAutomat was adapted to work with the platform-independent open-source LibreOffice Calc, which also supports VBA. ExcelAutomat provides an interface through the spreadsheet to automate repetitive tasks such as merging input files, splitting, parsing and compiling data from output files, and generation of unique filenames. Selected extracted parameters can be retrieved as variables which can be included in custom codes for a tailored approach. ExcelAutomat works with Gaussian files and is adapted for use with other computational packages including the non-commercial GAMESS. ExcelAutomat is available as a downloadable MS Excel workbook or as a LibreOffice workbook.

  5. ExcelAutomat: a tool for systematic processing of files as applied to quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laloo, Jalal Z. A.; Laloo, Nassirah; Rhyman, Lydia; Ramasami, Ponnadurai

    2017-07-01

    The processing of the input and output files of quantum chemical calculations often necessitates a spreadsheet as a key component of the workflow. Spreadsheet packages with a built-in programming language editor can automate the steps involved and thus provide a direct link between processing files and the spreadsheet. This helps to reduce user-interventions as well as the need to switch between different programs to carry out each step. The ExcelAutomat tool is the implementation of this method in Microsoft Excel (MS Excel) using the default Visual Basic for Application (VBA) programming language. The code in ExcelAutomat was adapted to work with the platform-independent open-source LibreOffice Calc, which also supports VBA. ExcelAutomat provides an interface through the spreadsheet to automate repetitive tasks such as merging input files, splitting, parsing and compiling data from output files, and generation of unique filenames. Selected extracted parameters can be retrieved as variables which can be included in custom codes for a tailored approach. ExcelAutomat works with Gaussian files and is adapted for use with other computational packages including the non-commercial GAMESS. ExcelAutomat is available as a downloadable MS Excel workbook or as a LibreOffice workbook.

  6. Rapidity gaps in hard processes at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J.

    1996-09-01

    Latest results on jet production with rapidity gaps at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider are presented. Jet production via color-singlet exchange at high momenta transfer is observed as a class of events with low particle multiplicity (or rapidity gaps) between the two highest transverse energy jets. The particle multiplicity in various regions, and the dependencies on jet pseudorapidity separation and jet transverse energy are studied for these events. Results from two classes of dijet events with one or two forward rapidity gaps are also presented. The topology of these events is consistent with expectations for hard single diffraction and hard double pomeron exchange processes, respectively.

  7. Real-time hyperspectral processing for automatic nonferrous material sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picón, Artzai; Ghita, Ovidiu; Bereciartua, Aranzazu; Echazarra, Jone; Whelan, Paul F.; Iriondo, Pedro M.

    2012-01-01

    The application of hyperspectral sensors in the development of machine vision solutions has become increasingly popular as the spectral characteristics of the imaged materials are better modeled in the hyperspectral domain than in the standard trichromatic red, green, blue data. While there is no doubt that the availability of detailed spectral information is opportune as it opens the possibility to construct robust image descriptors, it also raises a substantial challenge when this high-dimensional data is used in the development of real-time machine vision systems. To alleviate the computational demand, often decorrelation techniques are commonly applied prior to feature extraction. While this approach has reduced to some extent the size of the spectral descriptor, data decorrelation alone proved insufficient in attaining real-time classification. This fact is particularly apparent when pixel-wise image descriptors are not sufficiently robust to model the spectral characteristics of the imaged materials, a case when the spatial information (or textural properties) also has to be included in the classification process. The integration of spectral and spatial information entails a substantial computational cost, and as a result the prospects of real-time operation for the developed machine vision system are compromised. To answer this requirement, in this paper we have reengineered the approach behind the integration of the spectral and spatial information in the material classification process to allow the real-time sorting of the nonferrous fractions that are contained in the waste of electric and electronic equipment scrap.

  8. Fast Implementation of Matched Filter Based Automatic Alignment Image Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S; Rice, K; Taha, T

    2008-04-02

    Video images of laser beams imprinted with distinguishable features are used for alignment of 192 laser beams at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Algorithms designed to determine the position of these beams enable the control system to perform the task of alignment. Centroiding is a common approach used for determining the position of beams. However, real world beam images suffer from intensity fluctuation or other distortions which make such an approach susceptible to higher position measurement variability. Matched filtering used for identifying the beam position results in greater stability of position measurement compared to that obtained using the centroiding technique. However, this gain is achieved at the expense of extra processing time required for each beam image. In this work we explore the possibility of using a field programmable logic array (FPGA) to speed up these computations. The results indicate a performance improvement of 20 using the FPGA relative to a 3 GHz Pentium 4 processor.

  9. Native language shapes automatic neural processing of speech.

    PubMed

    Intartaglia, Bastien; White-Schwoch, Travis; Meunier, Christine; Roman, Stéphane; Kraus, Nina; Schön, Daniele

    2016-08-01

    The development of the phoneme inventory is driven by the acoustic-phonetic properties of one's native language. Neural representation of speech is known to be shaped by language experience, as indexed by cortical responses, and recent studies suggest that subcortical processing also exhibits this attunement to native language. However, most work to date has focused on the differences between tonal and non-tonal languages that use pitch variations to convey phonemic categories. The aim of this cross-language study is to determine whether subcortical encoding of speech sounds is sensitive to language experience by comparing native speakers of two non-tonal languages (French and English). We hypothesized that neural representations would be more robust and fine-grained for speech sounds that belong to the native phonemic inventory of the listener, and especially for the dimensions that are phonetically relevant to the listener such as high frequency components. We recorded neural responses of American English and French native speakers, listening to natural syllables of both languages. Results showed that, independently of the stimulus, American participants exhibited greater neural representation of the fundamental frequency compared to French participants, consistent with the importance of the fundamental frequency to convey stress patterns in English. Furthermore, participants showed more robust encoding and more precise spectral representations of the first formant when listening to the syllable of their native language as compared to non-native language. These results align with the hypothesis that language experience shapes sensory processing of speech and that this plasticity occurs as a function of what is meaningful to a listener. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Automatic solar feature detection using image processing and pattern recognition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Ming

    The objective of the research in this dissertation is to develop a software system to automatically detect and characterize solar flares, filaments and Corona Mass Ejections (CMEs), the core of so-called solar activity. These tools will assist us to predict space weather caused by violent solar activity. Image processing and pattern recognition techniques are applied to this system. For automatic flare detection, the advanced pattern recognition techniques such as Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Radial Basis Function (RBF), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) are used. By tracking the entire process of flares, the motion properties of two-ribbon flares are derived automatically. In the applications of the solar filament detection, the Stabilized Inverse Diffusion Equation (SIDE) is used to enhance and sharpen filaments; a new method for automatic threshold selection is proposed to extract filaments from background; an SVM classifier with nine input features is used to differentiate between sunspots and filaments. Once a filament is identified, morphological thinning, pruning, and adaptive edge linking methods are applied to determine filament properties. Furthermore, a filament matching method is proposed to detect filament disappearance. The automatic detection and characterization of flares and filaments have been successfully applied on Halpha full-disk images that are continuously obtained at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). For automatically detecting and classifying CMEs, the image enhancement, segmentation, and pattern recognition techniques are applied to Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C2 and C3 images. The processed LASCO and BBSO images are saved to file archive, and the physical properties of detected solar features such as intensity and speed are recorded in our database. Researchers are able to access the solar feature database and analyze the solar data efficiently and effectively. The detection and characterization system greatly improves

  11. The Development of Automatic Letter Processing Skills Related to Reading and Intellectual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, D. B.; And Others

    To determine the developmental level at which letter processing skills become automatic, an experiment was conducted using a variant of the visual search task. Subjects in grades one, two, and three and in college searched for target letters displayed on a cathode ray tube along with either visually confusable letters, acoustically confusable…

  12. The Development of Automatic and Controlled Inhibitory Retrieval Processes in True and False Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, Lauren M.; Howe, Mark L.; Wimmer, Marina C.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the role of automatic and controlled inhibitory retrieval processes in true and false memory development in children and adults. Experiment 1 incorporated a directed forgetting task to examine controlled retrieval inhibition. Experiments 2 and 3 used a part-set cue and retrieval practice task to examine…

  13. Automatic Processing of Metallurgical Abstracts for the Purpose of Information Retrieval. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Jessica S.

    Objectives of this project were to develop and test a method for automatically processing the text of abstracts for a document retrieval system. The test corpus consisted of 768 abstracts from the metallurgical section of Chemical Abstracts (CA). The system, based on a subject indexing rational, had two components: (1) a stored dictionary of words…

  14. Children's and Adults' Automatic Processing of Proportion in a Stroop-Like Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ying; Hu, Qingfen; Wu, Di; Yang, Shuqi

    2015-01-01

    This current study examined human children's and adults' automatic processing of proportion using a Stroop-like paradigm. Preschool children and university students compared the areas of two sectors that varied not only in absolute areas but also in the proportions they occupied in their original rounds. A congruity effect was found in both age…

  15. The Use of Cognitive Processing Strategies and Linguistic Cues for Efficient Automatic Language Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavers, V. F.; Burley, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a method of automatic language identification based on the cognitive processing strategies humans use. Proposes that correctly parametrized, prosodic information, which might be associated with a language in which the listener has little familiarity, is an important discriminating feature. (Author/VWL)

  16. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 95.49 Security...

  17. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 95.49 Security...

  18. 48 CFR 245.608-72 - Screening excess automatic data processing equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening excess automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). 245.608-72 Section 245.608-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal...

  19. Automatic Processing of Perceptual-Linguistic Stimuli in Second Grade Achieving and Non-Achieving Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swallow, Rose-Marie

    This study examined automatic processing of perceptual stimuli (auditory, visual, auditory-visual) and of linguistic units (morphological rules, grammatical structures, and syntactical control). Sixty average (85-115 IQ), Caucasian, middle class, eight-year-old boys were selected from La Habra School District second grades. The testing instruments…

  20. Relatedness Proportion Effects in Semantic Categorization: Reconsidering the Automatic Spreading Activation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    Semantic priming effects at a short prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony are commonly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process. According to this view, the proportion of related trials should have no impact on the size of the semantic priming effect. Using a semantic categorization task ("Is this a living…

  1. The Development of Automatic and Controlled Inhibitory Retrieval Processes in True and False Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, Lauren M.; Howe, Mark L.; Wimmer, Marina C.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the role of automatic and controlled inhibitory retrieval processes in true and false memory development in children and adults. Experiment 1 incorporated a directed forgetting task to examine controlled retrieval inhibition. Experiments 2 and 3 used a part-set cue and retrieval practice task to examine…

  2. Semi-Automatic Post-Processing for Improved Usability of Electure Podcasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Wolfgang; Welte, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Playing back recorded lectures on handheld devices offers interesting perspectives for learning, but suffers from small screen sizes. The purpose of this paper is to propose several semi-automatic post-processing steps in order to improve usability by providing a better readability and additional navigation functionality.…

  3. Automatic Processing of Metallurgical Abstracts for the Purpose of Information Retrieval. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Jessica S.

    Objectives of this project were to develop and test a method for automatically processing the text of abstracts for a document retrieval system. The test corpus consisted of 768 abstracts from the metallurgical section of Chemical Abstracts (CA). The system, based on a subject indexing rational, had two components: (1) a stored dictionary of words…

  4. Relatedness Proportion Effects in Semantic Categorization: Reconsidering the Automatic Spreading Activation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    Semantic priming effects at a short prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony are commonly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process. According to this view, the proportion of related trials should have no impact on the size of the semantic priming effect. Using a semantic categorization task ("Is this a living…

  5. Understanding and shifting drug-related decisions: Contributions of automatic decision-making processes

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Kenneth M.; Bedi, Gillinder; Vadhan, Nehal P.

    2015-01-01

    While substance use is common, only a minority of individuals who use drugs or alcohol develop problematic use. An understanding of the factors underlying the transition from substance use to misuse may improve prevention and intervention efforts. A key feature of substance misuse is ongoing decisions to use drugs or alcohol despite escalating negative consequences. Research findings highlight the importance of both relatively automatic, associative cognitive processes and relatively controlled, deliberative, and rational-analytic cognitive processes, for understanding situational decisions to use drugs. In this review, we discuss several cognitive component processes that may contribute to decision-making that promotes substance use and misuse, with a focus on more automatic processes. A growing body of evidence indicates that relative differences in the strength of these component processes can account for individual differences in the transition from substance use to misuse, and may offer important avenues for developing novel intervention strategies. PMID:26084667

  6. Automatic Classification of Extensive Aftershock Sequences Using Empirical Matched Field Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Harris, David B.; Kværna, Tormod; Dodge, Douglas A.

    2013-04-01

    The aftershock sequences that follow large earthquakes create considerable problems for data centers attempting to produce comprehensive event bulletins in near real-time. The greatly increased number of events which require processing can overwhelm analyst resources and reduce the capacity for analyzing events of monitoring interest. This exacerbates a potentially reduced detection capability at key stations, due the noise generated by the sequence, and a deterioration in the quality of the fully automatic preliminary event bulletins caused by the difficulty in associating the vast numbers of closely spaced arrivals over the network. Considerable success has been enjoyed by waveform correlation methods for the automatic identification of groups of events belonging to the same geographical source region, facilitating the more time-efficient analysis of event ensembles as opposed to individual events. There are, however, formidable challenges associated with the automation of correlation procedures. The signal generated by a very large earthquake seldom correlates well enough with the signals generated by far smaller aftershocks for a correlation detector to produce statistically significant triggers at the correct times. Correlation between events within clusters of aftershocks is significantly better, although the issues of when and how to initiate new pattern detectors are still being investigated. Empirical Matched Field Processing (EMFP) is a highly promising method for detecting event waveforms suitable as templates for correlation detectors. EMFP is a quasi-frequency-domain technique that calibrates the spatial structure of a wavefront crossing a seismic array in a collection of narrow frequency bands. The amplitude and phase weights that result are applied in a frequency-domain beamforming operation that compensates for scattering and refraction effects not properly modeled by plane-wave beams. It has been demonstrated to outperform waveform correlation as a

  7. Multiple Regression Analysis Approach To The Automatic Design Of Adaptive Image Processing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsu, N.

    1984-01-01

    Multiple regression analysis for modeling the correspondence between a set of input variates and an output variate or a set of variates seems to be one of the most promising and direct approaches to automatically designing adaptive (or learning) systems for image pro-cessing and computer vision. Some approaches are shown with experimental results, such as automatic design of adaptive filters for image enhancement and restoration by giving the input image and the desired out-put image as a pair. The advantage of such an approach is the capability to simulate in an automatic and gen-eral way the functional "black boxes" (solutions) which are imposed by real problems regard-less of their inner detail, while the usual approaches are based on the so-called trial and error methods where any method proposed is repeatedly tried and checked for its results.

  8. A new tool for rapid and automatic estimation of earthquake source parameters and generation of seismic bulletins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    RISS S.r.l. is a Spin-off company recently born from the initiative of the research group constituting the Seismology Laboratory of the Department of Physics of the University of Naples Federico II. RISS is an innovative start-up, based on the decade-long experience in earthquake monitoring systems and seismic data analysis of its members and has the major goal to transform the most recent innovations of the scientific research into technological products and prototypes. With this aim, RISS has recently started the development of a new software, which is an elegant solution to manage and analyse seismic data and to create automatic earthquake bulletins. The software has been initially developed to manage data recorded at the ISNet network (Irpinia Seismic Network), which is a network of seismic stations deployed in Southern Apennines along the active fault system responsible for the 1980, November 23, MS 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. The software, however, is fully exportable and can be used to manage data from different networks, with any kind of station geometry or network configuration and is able to provide reliable estimates of earthquake source parameters, whichever is the background seismicity level of the area of interest. Here we present the real-time automated procedures and the analyses performed by the software package, which is essentially a chain of different modules, each of them aimed at the automatic computation of a specific source parameter. The P-wave arrival times are first detected on the real-time streaming of data and then the software performs the phase association and earthquake binding. As soon as an event is automatically detected by the binder, the earthquake location coordinates and the origin time are rapidly estimated, using a probabilistic, non-linear, exploration algorithm. Then, the software is able to automatically provide three different magnitude estimates. First, the local magnitude (Ml) is computed, using the peak-to-peak amplitude

  9. Portable automatic bioaerosol sampling system for rapid on-site detection of targeted airborne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Usachev, Evgeny V; Pankova, Anna V; Rafailova, Elina A; Pyankov, Oleg V; Agranovski, Igor E

    2012-10-26

    Bioaerosols could cause various severe human and animal diseases and their opportune and qualitative precise detection and control is becoming a significant scientific and technological topic for consideration. Over the last few decades bioaerosol detection has become an important bio-defense related issue. Many types of portable and stationary bioaerosol samplers have been developed and, in some cases, integrated into automated detection systems utilizing various microbiological techniques for analysis of collected microbes. This paper describes a personal sampler used in conjunction with a portable real-time PCR technique. It was found that a single fluorescent dye could be successfully used in multiplex format for qualitative detection of numerous targeted bioaerosols in one PCR tube making the suggested technology a reliable "first alert" device. This approach has been specifically developed and successfully verified for rapid detection of targeted microorganisms by portable PCR devices, which is especially important under field conditions, where the number of microorganisms of interest usually exceeds the number of available PCR reaction tubes. The approach allows detecting targeted microorganisms and triggering some corresponding sanitary and quarantine procedures to localize possible spread of dangerous infections. Following detailed analysis of the sample under controlled laboratory conditions could be used to exactly identify which particular microorganism out of a targeted group has been rapidly detected in the field. It was also found that the personal sampler has a collection efficiency higher than 90% even for small-sized viruses (>20 nm) and stable performance over extended operating periods. In addition, it was found that for microorganisms used in this project (bacteriophages MS2 and T4) elimination of nucleic acids isolation and purification steps during sample preparation does not lead to the system sensitivity reduction, which is extremely

  10. Rapid learning-based video stereolization using graphic processing unit acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tian; Jung, Cheolkon; Wang, Lei; Kim, Joongkyu

    2016-09-01

    Video stereolization has received much attention in recent years due to the lack of stereoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) contents. Although video stereolization can enrich stereoscopic 3-D contents, it is hard to achieve automatic two-dimensional-to-3-D conversion with less computational cost. We proposed rapid learning-based video stereolization using a graphic processing unit (GPU) acceleration. We first generated an initial depth map based on learning from examples. Then, we refined the depth map using saliency and cross-bilateral filtering to make object boundaries clear. Finally, we performed depth-image-based-rendering to generate stereoscopic 3-D views. To accelerate the computation of video stereolization, we provided a parallelizable hybrid GPU-central processing unit (CPU) solution to be suitable for running on GPU. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is nearly 180 times faster than CPU-based processing and achieves a good performance comparable to the-state-of-the-art ones.

  11. Rapid automatized naming and immediate memory functions in Chinese children who read English as a second language.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Guo, Jian-Peng; Yang, Ling-Yan; Zhang, Dake; Ning, Huan; Richman, Lynn C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined reading performance of 102 Chinese Mandarin-speaking 4th graders in their second language (L2, English) as a function of performance in their first language (L1, Chinese). The results revealed that for Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Rapid Alternating Stimulus (RAS) measures, the mean naming time decreased monotonically in high-achieving, average, and low-achieving readers. RAN and RAS differentiated poor readers from good and average readers but failed to differentiate between good and average readers. RAN deficits occurred in poor readers in both languages. Comparison of memory profiles revealed that patterns varied depending on the mode of stimulus presentation or response. Low-achieving readers performed poorly on a subtest involving visual components only and did relatively better on a subtest involving verbal components only. Poor readers in Chinese also encountered difficulties in learning English as a L2. RAN-character accounted for unique variance in two Chinese reading measures. RAN-letter explained unique variance in English mid-term reading grade. The unique variance captured by the Color Span Subtest 1 (visual-visual) was found in Chinese reading comprehension but not in English reading comprehension. Reading performance in L1 was predictive of reading performance in L2 and vice versa.

  12. Acute alcohol consumption impairs controlled but not automatic processes in a psychophysical pointing paradigm.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Kevin; Timney, Brian; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Such studies have shown that alcohol impairs performance on tasks requiring conscious, intentional control, while leaving automatic performance relatively intact. Here, we sought to extend these findings to aspects of visuomotor control by investigating the effects of alcohol in a visuomotor pointing paradigm that allowed us to separate the influence of controlled and automatic processes. Six male participants were assigned to an experimental "correction" condition in which they were instructed to point at a visual target as quickly and accurately as possible. On a small percentage of trials, the target "jumped" to a new location. On these trials, the participants' task was to amend their movement such that they pointed to the new target location. A second group of 6 participants were assigned to a "countermanding" condition, in which they were instructed to terminate their movements upon detection of target "jumps". In both the correction and countermanding conditions, participants served as their own controls, taking part in alcohol and no-alcohol conditions on separate days. Alcohol had no effect on participants' ability to correct movements "in flight", but impaired the ability to withhold such automatic corrections. Our data support the notion that alcohol selectively impairs controlled processes in the visuomotor domain.

  13. Intentional and automatic numerical processing as predictors of mathematical abilities in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Pina, Violeta; Castillo, Alejandro; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Fuentes, Luis J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that numerical processing relates to mathematical performance, but it seems that such relationship is more evident for intentional than for automatic numerical processing. In the present study we assessed the relationship between the two types of numerical processing and specific mathematical abilities in a sample of 109 children in grades 1-6. Participants were tested in an ample range of mathematical tests and also performed both a numerical and a size comparison task. The results showed that numerical processing related to mathematical performance only when inhibitory control was involved in the comparison tasks. Concretely, we found that intentional numerical processing, as indexed by the numerical distance effect in the numerical comparison task, was related to mathematical reasoning skills only when the task-irrelevant dimension (the physical size) was incongruent; whereas automatic numerical processing, indexed by the congruency effect in the size comparison task, was related to mathematical calculation skills only when digits were separated by small distance. The observed double dissociation highlights the relevance of both intentional and automatic numerical processing in mathematical skills, but when inhibitory control is also involved.

  14. Intentional and automatic numerical processing as predictors of mathematical abilities in primary school children

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Violeta; Castillo, Alejandro; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Fuentes, Luis J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that numerical processing relates to mathematical performance, but it seems that such relationship is more evident for intentional than for automatic numerical processing. In the present study we assessed the relationship between the two types of numerical processing and specific mathematical abilities in a sample of 109 children in grades 1–6. Participants were tested in an ample range of mathematical tests and also performed both a numerical and a size comparison task. The results showed that numerical processing related to mathematical performance only when inhibitory control was involved in the comparison tasks. Concretely, we found that intentional numerical processing, as indexed by the numerical distance effect in the numerical comparison task, was related to mathematical reasoning skills only when the task-irrelevant dimension (the physical size) was incongruent; whereas automatic numerical processing, indexed by the congruency effect in the size comparison task, was related to mathematical calculation skills only when digits were separated by small distance. The observed double dissociation highlights the relevance of both intentional and automatic numerical processing in mathematical skills, but when inhibitory control is also involved. PMID:25873909

  15. The Rapid Benefit Indicators Approach: A Process for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Rapid Benefit Indicators (RBI) Approach is an easy-to-use process for assessing restoration sites using non-monetary benefit indicators. The RBI uses readily-available data to estimate and quantify benefits to people around an ecological restoration site. It is a five step assessment process, applied at the site scale. It is intended to be used by federal, state, or local managers; or by members of interest groups or funding organizations. This document is a one page fact sheet describing the Rapid Benefit Indicators Approach the Guidebook for the approach: "Assessing the Benefits of Wetland Restoration: A Rapid Benefit Indicators Approach for Decision Makers." Its purpose is to introduce the approach and Guidebook to its potential audience.

  16. Using dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic from nonautomatic processes involved in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Michelle A; Conway, Christopher M; Kellogg, Ronald T

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that both automatic and intentional processes contribute to the learning of grammar and fragment knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks. To explore the relative contribution of automatic and intentional processes to knowledge gained in AGL, we utilized dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic and intentional grammar- and fragment-based knowledge in AGL at both acquisition and at test. Both experiments used a balanced chunk strength grammar to assure an equal proportion of fragment cues (i.e., chunks) in grammatical and nongrammatical test items. In Experiment 1, participants engaged in a working memory dual-task either during acquisition, test, or both acquisition and test. The results showed that participants performing the dual-task during acquisition learned the artificial grammar as well as the single-task group, presumably by relying on automatic learning mechanisms. A working memory dual-task at test resulted in attenuated grammar performance, suggesting a role for intentional processes for the expression of grammatical learning at test. Experiment 2 explored the importance of perceptual cues by changing letters between the acquisition and test phase; unlike Experiment 1, there was no significant learning of grammatical information for participants under dual-task conditions in Experiment 2, suggesting that intentional processing is necessary for successful acquisition and expression of grammar-based knowledge under transfer conditions. In sum, it appears that some aspects of learning in AGL are indeed relatively automatic, although the expression of grammatical information and the learning of grammatical patterns when perceptual similarity is eliminated both appear to require explicit resources.

  17. [Application of automatic identification technology to monitor the entire process of medical management].

    PubMed

    Chen, Minya; Men, Yi

    2010-05-01

    With the development of the hospital information technology management, to improve the clinic service quality and reduce medical errors, automatic identification technology has been widely used in health care areas. This technology has been used in our hospital for patient identification, sample identification, drug identification and equipment identification. Combined with wireless networks, mobile terminals and middleware etc., making the whole process of clinic service closed-loop system. This application improves efficiency, reduces mistakes and puts whole clinical service management process under control.

  18. Task Versus Component Consistency in the Development of Automatic Processes: Consistent Attending Versus Consistent Responding.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    are two qualitatively different forms of human information processing (James, 1890; Hasher & Zacks, 1979; LaBerge , 1973, 1975; Logan, 1978, 1979...Kristofferson, M. W. When item recognition and visual search functions are similar. Perception & Psychophysics, 1972, 12, 379-384. LaBerge , D. Attention and...the measurement of perceptual learning. Hemory and3 Conition, 1973, 1, 263-276. LaBerge , D. Acquisition of automatic processing in purceptual and

  19. Dyslexia and Fluency: Parafoveal and Foveal Influences on Rapid Automatized Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Manon W.; Ashby, Jane; Branigan, Holly P.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to coordinate serial processing of multiple items is crucial for fluent reading but is known to be impaired in dyslexia. To investigate this impairment, we manipulated the orthographic and phonological similarity of adjacent letters online as dyslexic and nondyslexic readers named letters in a serial naming (RAN) task. Eye movements…

  20. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  1. Cyclical Population Dynamics of Automatic Versus Controlled Processing: An Evolutionary Pendulum.

    PubMed

    Rand, David G; Tomlin, Damon; Bear, Adam; Ludvig, Elliot A; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2017-07-13

    Psychologists, neuroscientists, and economists often conceptualize decisions as arising from processes that lie along a continuum from automatic (i.e., "hardwired" or overlearned, but relatively inflexible) to controlled (less efficient and effortful, but more flexible). Control is central to human cognition, and plays a key role in our ability to modify the world to suit our needs. Given its advantages, reliance on controlled processing may seem predestined to increase within the population over time. Here, we examine whether this is so by introducing an evolutionary game theoretic model of agents that vary in their use of automatic versus controlled processes, and in which cognitive processing modifies the environment in which the agents interact. We find that, under a wide range of parameters and model assumptions, cycles emerge in which the prevalence of each type of processing in the population oscillates between 2 extremes. Rather than inexorably increasing, the emergence of control often creates conditions that lead to its own demise by allowing automaticity to also flourish, thereby undermining the progress made by the initial emergence of controlled processing. We speculate that this observation may have relevance for understanding similar cycles across human history, and may lend insight into some of the circumstances and challenges currently faced by our species. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Automatic perceptual simulation of first language meanings during second language sentence processing in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Nikola; Williams, John N

    2014-01-01

    Research supports the claim that, when understanding language, people perform mental simulation using those parts of the brain which support sensation, action, and emotion. A major criticism of the findings quoted as evidence for embodied simulation, however, is that they could be a result of conscious image generation strategies. Here we exploit the well-known fact that bilinguals routinely and automatically activate both their languages during comprehension to test whether this automatic process is, in turn, modulated by embodied simulatory processes. Dutch participants heard English sentences containing interlingual homophones and implying specific distance relations, and had to subsequently respond to pictures of objects matching or mismatching this implied distance. Participants were significantly slower to reject critical items when their perceptual features matched said distance relationship. These results suggest that bilinguals not only activate task-irrelevant meanings of interlingual homophones, but also automatically simulate these meanings in a detailed perceptual fashion. Our study supports the claim that embodied simulation is not due to participants' conscious strategies, but is an automatic component of meaning construction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Automatic humidification system to support the assessment of food drying processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Hernández, B. D.; Carreño Olejua, A. R.; Castellanos Olarte, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    This work shows the main features of an automatic humidification system to provide drying air that match environmental conditions of different climate zones. This conditioned air is then used to assess the drying process of different agro-industrial products at the Automation and Control for Agro-industrial Processes Laboratory of the Pontifical Bolivarian University of Bucaramanga, Colombia. The automatic system allows creating and improving control strategies to supply drying air under specified conditions of temperature and humidity. The development of automatic routines to control and acquire real time data was made possible by the use of robust control systems and suitable instrumentation. The signals are read and directed to a controller memory where they are scaled and transferred to a memory unit. Using the IP address is possible to access data to perform supervision tasks. One important characteristic of this automatic system is the Dynamic Data Exchange Server (DDE) to allow direct communication between the control unit and the computer used to build experimental curves.

  4. On the consideration of automatic as well as controlled psychological processes in aggression.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    Without slighting the important role played by controlled psychological processes in human aggression, this paper recommends that considerable systematic attention should also be given to the operation of automatic processes in bringing about this behavior. The concepts of automaticity and impulsivity are discussed briefly and it is proposed that many impulsive actions, particularly antisocial ones, are due to failures of restraint after they were initiated involuntarily. A number of experiments are reviewed in which situational stimuli automatically instigated or heightened aggressive inclinations. These have to do with associations in hostility displacement, reactions to stigmatized persons, and association in aggressive reactions to media violence. The last-mentioned studies deal especially with factors affecting the selection of the target for aggression. In discussing these findings it is suggested that after the crucial situational features had automatically initiated the sequence of determinants, the aggression displayed could have been due either to a hostile appraisal of the target or the activation of aggression-related bodily reactions as well as hostile ideas. It is also hypothesized that in at least one of the studies, an experienced negative affect might have instigated the aggression independently of any appraisals.

  5. Study on Morphological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming through Word Reading and Comprehension in Normal and Disabled Reading Arabic-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layes, Smail; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the role and extent of the involvement of morphological awareness (MA) in contrast to rapid automatized naming (RAN) in word reading and comprehension of Arabic as a morphologically based orthography. We gave measures of word reading, reading comprehension, MA, and RAN in addition to a nonverbal mental ability test to 3 groups…

  6. Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Predicting Early Development in Reading and Spelling: Results from a Cross-Linguistic Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) was investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230…

  7. Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Predicting Early Development in Reading and Spelling: Results from a Cross-Linguistic Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) was investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230…

  8. Prejudice and perception: the role of automatic and controlled processes in misperceiving a weapon.

    PubMed

    Payne, B K

    2001-08-01

    Two experiments used a priming paradigm to investigate the influence of racial cues on the perceptual identification of weapons. In Experiment 1, participants identified guns faster when primed with Black faces compared with White faces. In Experiment 2, participants were required to respond quickly, causing the racial bias to shift from reaction time to accuracy. Participants misidentified tools as guns more often when primed with a Black face than with a White face. L. L. Jacoby's (1991) process dissociation procedure was applied to demonstrate that racial primes influenced automatic (A) processing, but not controlled (C) processing. The response deadline reduced the C estimate but not the A estimate. The motivation to control prejudice moderated the relationship between explicit prejudice and automatic bias. Implications are discussed on applied and theoretical levels.

  9. Oscillatory brain dynamics associated with the automatic processing of emotion in words.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the automaticity of processing the emotional aspects of words, and characterizes the oscillatory brain dynamics that accompany this automatic processing. Participants read emotionally negative, neutral and positive nouns while performing a color detection task in which only perceptual-level analysis was required. Event-related potentials and time frequency representations were computed from the concurrently measured EEG. Negative words elicited a larger P2 and a larger late positivity than positive and neutral words, indicating deeper semantic/evaluative processing of negative words. In addition, sustained alpha power suppressions were found for the emotional compared to neutral words, in the time range from 500 to 1000ms post-stimulus. These results suggest that sustained attention was allocated to the emotional words, whereas the attention allocated to the neutral words was released after an initial analysis. This seems to hold even when the emotional content of the words is task-irrelevant.

  10. The critical incident stress debriefing process for the Los Angeles County Fire Department: automatic and effective.

    PubMed

    Hokanson, M; Wirth, B

    2000-01-01

    Los Angeles County Fire Department has one of the oldest Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) programs in the country. One core component for the LACoFD has been the Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD). Two important questions for the emergency managers are: 1) Do individuals find a significant difference in symptom reduction for events that were debriefed? 2) Does helpfulness of a debriefing for a specific individual correlate with recommending the process for others? A Department-wide evaluative survey was conducted in 1996 to determine the satisfaction and effectiveness of the debriefing program. Individuals reported a significant difference in the speed of symptom reduction for incidents that were debriefed versus incidents that were not debriefed. The majority of individuals would recommend the debriefing process to others regardless of whether they personally found the process helpful or not. Based on this, the recommendations are to continue the debriefing process for specific events and to make the process mandatory; furthermore, it is recommended that the term "mandatory" be changed to "automatic." By using the term "automatic," debriefings become standard operating procedures. By doing so, a method to protect the psychological welfare of emergency personnel becomes as automatic as putting on safety protection equipment [International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 2000, 2(4), 249-257].

  11. Dopamine depletion impairs gait automaticity by altering cortico-striatal and cerebellar processing in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gilat, Moran; Bell, Peter T; Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A; Georgiades, Matthew J; Hall, Julie M; Walton, Courtney C; Lewis, Simon J G; Shine, James M

    2017-03-03

    -scale network interactions during gait. A main effect of medication was found for functional connectivity within an attentional motor network and a significant condition by medication interaction for functional connectivity was found within the striatum. Furthermore, functional connectivity within the striatum correlated strongly with increasing step time variability during walk in the off state (r=0.616, p=0.002), but not in the on state (r=-0.233, p=0.284). Post-hoc analyses revealed that functional connectivity in the dopamine depleted state within an orbitofrontal-striatal limbic circuit was correlated with worse step time variability (r=0.653, p<0.001). Overall, this study demonstrates that dopamine ameliorates gait automaticity in Parkinson's disease by altering striatal, limbic and cerebellar processing, thereby informing future therapeutic avenues for gait and falls prevention.

  12. Cognitive regulation of smoking behavior within a cigarette: Automatic and nonautomatic processes.

    PubMed

    Motschman, Courtney A; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2016-06-01

    There has been limited research on cognitive processes governing smoking behavior in individuals who are tobacco dependent. In a replication (Baxter & Hinson, 2001) and extension, this study examined the theory (Tiffany, 1990) that drug use may be controlled by automatic processes that develop over repeated use. Heavy and occasional cigarette smokers completed a button-press reaction time (RT) task while concurrently smoking a cigarette, pretending to smoke a lit cigarette, or not smoking. Slowed RT during the button-press task indexed the cognitive disruption associated with nonautomatic control of behavior. Occasional smokers' RTs were slowed when smoking or pretending to smoke compared with when not smoking. Heavy smokers' RTs were slowed when pretending to smoke versus not smoking; however, their RTs were similarly fast when smoking compared with not smoking. The results indicated that smoking behavior was more highly regulated by controlled, nonautomatic processes among occasional smokers and by automatic processes among heavy smokers. Patterns of RT across the interpuff interval indicated that occasional smokers were significantly slowed in anticipation of and immediately after puffing onset, whereas heavy smokers were only slowed significantly after puffing onset. These findings suggest that the entirety of the smoking sequence becomes automatized, with the behaviors leading up to puffing becoming more strongly regulated by automatic processes with experience. These results have relevance to theories on the cognitive regulation of cigarette smoking and support the importance of interventions that focus on routinized behaviors that individuals engage in during and leading up to drug use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Application of a novel automatic disintegration apparatus for the development and evaluation of a direct compression rapidly disintegrating tablet.

    PubMed

    Jung, Huijeong Ashley; Augsburger, Larry L

    2012-07-01

    An automatic disintegration tester was developed and used to explore disintegration mechanism and times of rapidly disintegrating tablets. DT50, the time required for a tablet to decrease in its thickness by half, allowed an unbiased determination of disintegration time. Calcium silicate concentration, Explotab® concentration, DiPac®/Xylitab® ratio as fillers, and compression pressure were evaluated using a central composite model design analysis for their DT50, tensile strength, and friability. Tablets that could reasonably be handled (friability <10%) could be produced. The expansion coefficient (n) and the exponential rate constant (k) for disintegrating tablets, originally measured by Caramella et al. using force kinetics, could be determined from axial displacement data measured directly without the need to assume that disintegration force generation was indicative of changes in tablet volume. The n values of tablets containing calcium silicate, Ditab® and/or Xylitab®, magnesium stearate, and Explotab® suggested that the amount of Explotab® was not a significant factor in determining the disintegration mechanism; however, the type of disintegrant used did alter the n value. Primojel® and Explotab®, which are in the same class of disintegrants, exhibited similar DT50, n, and k. Polyplasdone® XL exhibited a much higher n, while yielding faster DT50, suggesting that its performance is more dependent on facilitating the interfacial separation of particles. AcDiSol® showed no apparent moisture sensitivity in regards to disintegration efficiency. The use of the novel apparatus proved to be useful in measuring disintegration efficiency of rapidly disintegrating tablets and in providing valuable information on the disintegration phenomena.

  14. Automatic and rapid identification of glycopeptides by nano-UPLC-LTQ-FT-MS and proteomic search engine.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Estela; Gay, Marina; Vilaseca, Marta

    2017-01-30

    Here we demonstrate the potential of nano-UPLC-LTQ-FT-MS and the Byonic™ proteomic search engine for the separation, detection, and identification of N- and O-glycopeptide glycoforms in standard glycoproteins. The use of a BEH C18 nanoACQUITY column allowed the separation of the glycopeptides present in the glycoprotein digest and a baseline-resolution of the glycoforms of the same glycopeptide on the basis of the number of sialic acids. Moreover, we evaluated several acquisition strategies in order to improve the detection and characterization of glycopeptide glycoforms with the maximum number of identification percentages. The proposed strategy is simple to set up with the technology platforms commonly used in proteomic labs. The method allows the straightforward and rapid obtention of a general glycosylated map of a given protein, including glycosites and their corresponding glycosylated structures. The MS strategy selected in this work, based on a gas phase fractionation approach, led to 136 unique peptides from four standard proteins, which represented 78% of the total number of peptides identified. Moreover, the method does not require an extra glycopeptide enrichment step, thus preventing the bias that this step could cause towards certain glycopeptide species. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003578. We propose a simple and high-throughput glycoproteomics-based methodology that allows the separation of glycopeptide glycoforms on the basis of the number of sialic acids, and their automatic and rapid identification without prior knowledge of protein glycosites or type and structure of the glycans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid and automatic on-plate desalting protocol for MALDI-MS: using imprinted hydrophobic polymer template.

    PubMed

    Jia, Weitao; Wu, Huixia; Lu, Haojie; Li, Na; Zhang, Yang; Cai, Ruifang; Yang, Pengyuan

    2007-08-01

    A novel protocol of rapid and automatic on-plate desalting (OPD) and peptide concentration for 2-DE-MALDI-MS has been developed by the approach of templating the hydrophobic polymer solution over Kapton-etched mask. For the template technique, small hydrophobic polymer [linear poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), PMMA derivatized with fullerene-C60 (PMMA-C60), linear polystyrene (PSt), or PSt derivatized with fullerene-C60 (PSt-C60)] spots (990 microm od) are patterned at the centers of stainless MALDI plate wells (1400 microm id). Tryptic-peptide solution with no predesalting was dropped onto the central hydrophobic spots, resulting in a concentration of proteolytic peptides on the hydrophobic polymer surface with a reduced spot size. The dried peptide layer was then covered subsequently with over-volume matrix solution, causing the removal of redissolved salts from the spot center to the spot edge by means of a natural "outward flow." The proposed OPD protocol exhibited a dramatic enhancement in S/N up to 850 for 14 fmol BSA digests in the coexistence of 100 mM salts, compared with barely detectable peaks in ordinary way. This analysis has shown that the success rate of identification was increased by two-fold for low abundance proteins in the human liver tissue with no need for the conventional ZipPlate desalting strategy.

  16. [Usefulness and limitations of rapid automatized naming to predict reading difficulties after school entry in preschool children].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Masato; Uno, Akira; Haruhara, Noriko; Awaya, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the usability and limitations of Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) results in 6-year-old Japanese preschool children to estimate whether reading difficulties will be encountered after school entry. We administered a RAN task to 1,001 preschool children. Then after they had entered school, we performed follow-up surveys yearly to assess their reading performance when these children were in the first, second, third and fourth grades. Also, we examined Hiragana non-words and Kanji words at each time point to detect the children who were having difficulty with reading Hiragana and Kanji. Results by Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis showed that the RAN result in 6-year-old preschool children was predictive of Kanji reading difficulty in the lower grades of elementary school, especially in the second grade with a probability of 0.86, and the area under the curve showed a probability of 0.84 in the third grade. These results suggested that the RAN task was useful as a screening tool.

  17. Growth in Rapid Automatized Naming from Grades K – 8 in Children with Math or Reading Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is widely used to identify reading disabilities (RD) and has recently been considered a potential predictor of risk for mathematics disabilities (MLD). Here we longitudinally examine RAN performance from grades K to 8, to view how growth on RAN response time (RT) differs for children with RD vs. MLD. Across all participants, there was significant stability of RAN performance for all three subtests. For all three subtests, there was significant between-child variability in RTs at kindergarten and Grade 8; for select combinations of subtests, there was also between child variability in difference scores over time. Relative to typically achieving peers, children with MLD or RD were slower on all three subtests at kindergarten, but these deficits were most pronounced for children with MLD vs. RD at kindergarten, and more persistent through 8th grade for children with RD. RAN numbers and letters performance was closely related in the RD group, more so than in the MLD group, despite deficits on both subtests across groups. Our findings prompt us to consider that empirically guided modifications of RAN may be needed for extending its use to evaluating risk for MLD. PMID:23449728

  18. Development of rapid gas heating process for semifinished steel products

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, L.K. ); Chan, I.S. ); Nelson, J.G. )

    1994-09-01

    The metal heating industry associates quality and high efficiency with electrical induction heating. The ability of induction to rapidly heat product has been a key difference between electrical and combustion heating methods. Conventional gas-fired furnaces rely on radiation from refractory structures to transfer heat to the product. As the metal approaches its target temperature, the rate of heat transfer flows significantly because the temperature difference between the metal and refractory is small. The heating rates of conventional furnaces are typically below those achieved with induction. Despite this, conventional gas-fired furnaces remain the mainstay of the metals industry because of lower capital and operating costs, and greater operating flexibility and reliability than induction systems. Today, there exists a gas-based rapid heating process, Rapidfire, that is capable of achieving considerably higher heating rates than conventional furnaces. Oxygen natural gas fired rapid heating has been developed by Air Products and Chemicals with funding from the Gas Research Institute. This technology is able to provide the end user with heating capabilities similar to induction, but with the flexibility and operating costs typically associated with gas-fired systems. A novel oxygen-natural gas based, rapid heating technology, Rapidfire, has been developed capable of achieving five to six times higher heating rates (200 to 400 F/min for 3 to 4-in. diameter bars) than conventional combustion processes. Anticipated applications include forging, transfer bar edge heating, bar/slab preheating and direct rolling (eg, 2-in. thin cast slabs).

  19. Speedup for quantum optimal control from automatic differentiation based on graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Nelson; Abdelhafez, Mohamed; Koch, Jens; Schuster, David

    2017-04-01

    We implement a quantum optimal control algorithm based on automatic differentiation and harness the acceleration afforded by graphics processing units (GPUs). Automatic differentiation allows us to specify advanced optimization criteria and incorporate them in the optimization process with ease. We show that the use of GPUs can speedup calculations by more than an order of magnitude. Our strategy facilitates efficient numerical simulations on affordable desktop computers and exploration of a host of optimization constraints and system parameters relevant to real-life experiments. We demonstrate optimization of quantum evolution based on fine-grained evaluation of performance at each intermediate time step, thus enabling more intricate control on the evolution path, suppression of departures from the truncated model subspace, as well as minimization of the physical time needed to perform high-fidelity state preparation and unitary gates.

  20. Controlled and Automatic Processing during Tasks Requiring Sustained Attention. A New Approach to Vigilance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-09

    A7-AC8M 151 ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN HUMAN ATTENTION RES-ETC P/S 5/10 CONTROLLED AND AUTOMATIC PROCESSING DURING TASKS REQUIRING SUST--ETC(U...REQUIRING SUSTAINED ATTENTION : A NEW APPROACH TO VIGILANCE Arthur D. Fisk and Walter Schneider REPORTN LEtt1 DTIC ELECTS 6 " ’ .A -¢-C ’, HUMAN... ATTENTION RESEARCH LABORATORY ~Psychology Department ,l ’ U niversity of Illinois -Champaign, Illinois 61820 C-> This research was sponsored by the

  1. Rapid prototype fabrication processes for high-performance thrust cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, K.; Chwiedor, T.; Diab, J.; Williams, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Thrust Cell Technologies Program (Air Force Phillips Laboratory Contract No. F04611-92-C-0050) is currently being performed by Rocketdyne to demonstrate advanced materials and fabrication technologies which can be utilized to produce low-cost, high-performance thrust cells for launch and space transportation rocket engines. Under Phase 2 of the Thrust Cell Technologies Program (TCTP), rapid prototyping and investment casting techniques are being employed to fabricate a 12,000-lbf thrust class combustion chamber for delivery and hot-fire testing at Phillips Lab. The integrated process of investment casting directly from rapid prototype patterns dramatically reduces design-to-delivery cycle time, and greatly enhances design flexibility over conventionally processed cast or machined parts.

  2. Automatic reconstruction of a bacterial regulatory network using Natural Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Penagos, Carlos; Salgado, Heladia; Martínez-Flores, Irma; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2007-08-07

    Manual curation of biological databases, an expensive and labor-intensive process, is essential for high quality integrated data. In this paper we report the implementation of a state-of-the-art Natural Language Processing system that creates computer-readable networks of regulatory interactions directly from different collections of abstracts and full-text papers. Our major aim is to understand how automatic annotation using Text-Mining techniques can complement manual curation of biological databases. We implemented a rule-based system to generate networks from different sets of documents dealing with regulation in Escherichia coli K-12. Performance evaluation is based on the most comprehensive transcriptional regulation database for any organism, the manually-curated RegulonDB, 45% of which we were able to recreate automatically. From our automated analysis we were also able to find some new interactions from papers not already curated, or that were missed in the manual filtering and review of the literature. We also put forward a novel Regulatory Interaction Markup Language better suited than SBML for simultaneously representing data of interest for biologists and text miners. Manual curation of the output of automatic processing of text is a good way to complement a more detailed review of the literature, either for validating the results of what has been already annotated, or for discovering facts and information that might have been overlooked at the triage or curation stages.

  3. Automatic reconstruction of a bacterial regulatory network using Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Penagos, Carlos; Salgado, Heladia; Martínez-Flores, Irma; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Background Manual curation of biological databases, an expensive and labor-intensive process, is essential for high quality integrated data. In this paper we report the implementation of a state-of-the-art Natural Language Processing system that creates computer-readable networks of regulatory interactions directly from different collections of abstracts and full-text papers. Our major aim is to understand how automatic annotation using Text-Mining techniques can complement manual curation of biological databases. We implemented a rule-based system to generate networks from different sets of documents dealing with regulation in Escherichia coli K-12. Results Performance evaluation is based on the most comprehensive transcriptional regulation database for any organism, the manually-curated RegulonDB, 45% of which we were able to recreate automatically. From our automated analysis we were also able to find some new interactions from papers not already curated, or that were missed in the manual filtering and review of the literature. We also put forward a novel Regulatory Interaction Markup Language better suited than SBML for simultaneously representing data of interest for biologists and text miners. Conclusion Manual curation of the output of automatic processing of text is a good way to complement a more detailed review of the literature, either for validating the results of what has been already annotated, or for discovering facts and information that might have been overlooked at the triage or curation stages. PMID:17683642

  4. Implementation of Automatic Process of Edge Rotation Diagnostic System on J-TEXT Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zepin; Cheng, Zhifeng; Luo, Jian; Wang, Zhijiang; Zhang, Xiaolong; Hou, Saiying; Cheng, Cheng

    2014-08-01

    A spectral diagnostic control system (SDCS) is developed to implement automatic process of the edge rotation diagnostic system on the J-TEXT tokamak. The SDCS contains a control module, data operation module, data analysis module, and data upload module. The core of this system is a newly developed software “Spectra Assist”, which completes the whole process by coupling all related subroutines and servers. The results of data correction and calculated rotation are presented. In the daily discharge of J-TEXT, SDCS is proved to have a stable performance and high efficiency in completing the process of data acquisition, operation and results output.

  5. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-29

    qr-..2. 9 Rapid prototyping or ’virtual prototyping’ of human- machine interfaces offers the possibility of putting the human operator ’in the loop...facilitates an iterative approach to the development of the human- machine interface, and that is most applicable to the early stages of systems...factors engineering (HFE) process re- commended for the development of human- machine systems is based on a series of increasin¥ly detailed analyses of

  6. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication: A Rapid Metal Deposition Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing of structural metal parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data has been investigated by numerous researchers over the past decade. Researchers at NASA Langley REsearch Center are developing a new solid freeform fabrication process, electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF), as a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Thus far, this technique has been demonstrated on aluminum and titanium alloys of interest for aerospace structural applications nickel and ferrous based alloys are also planned. Deposits resulting from 2219 aluminum demonstrations have exhibited a range of grain morphologies depending upon the deposition parameters. These materials ave exhibited excellent tensile properties comparable to typical handbook data for wrought plate product after post-processing heat treatments. The EBF process is capable of bulk metal deposition at deposition rated in excess of 2500 cubic centimeters per hour (150 cubic inches per our) or finer detail at lower deposition rates, depending upon the desired application. This process offers the potential for rapidly adding structural details to simpler cast or forged structures rather than the conventional approach of machining large volumes of chips to produce a monolithic metallic structure. Selective addition of metal onto simpler blanks of material can have a significant effect on lead time reduction and lower material and machining costs.

  7. Automatic construction of image inspection algorithm by using image processing network programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Yuichiro; Aoki, Kimiya

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss a method for automatic programming of inspection image processing. In the industrial field, automatic program generators or expert systems are expected to shorten a period required for developing a new appearance inspection system. So-called "image processing expert system" have been studied for over the nearly 30 years. We are convinced of the need to adopt a new idea. Recently, a novel type of evolutionary algorithms, called genetic network programming (GNP), has been proposed. In this study, we use GNP as a method to create an inspection image processing logic. GNP develops many directed graph structures, and shows excellent ability of formulating complex problems. We have converted this network program model to Image Processing Network Programming (IPNP). IPNP selects an appropriate image processing command based on some characteristics of input image data and processing log, and generates a visual inspection software with series of image processing commands. It is verified from experiments that the proposed method is able to create some inspection image processing programs. In the basic experiment with 200 test images, the success rate of detection of target region was 93.5%.

  8. On the Automaticity of Emotion Processing in Words and Faces: Event-Related Brain Potentials Evidence from a Superficial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rellecke, Julian; Palazova, Marina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which emotional aspects of stimuli are processed automatically is controversial. Here, we assessed the automatic elicitation of emotion-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive, negative, and neutral words and facial expressions in an easy and superficial face-word discrimination task, for which the emotional valence was…

  9. On the Automaticity of Emotion Processing in Words and Faces: Event-Related Brain Potentials Evidence from a Superficial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rellecke, Julian; Palazova, Marina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which emotional aspects of stimuli are processed automatically is controversial. Here, we assessed the automatic elicitation of emotion-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive, negative, and neutral words and facial expressions in an easy and superficial face-word discrimination task, for which the emotional valence was…

  10. A rapid algorithm for robust and automatic extraction of the midsagittal plane of the human cerebrum from neuroimages based on local symmetry and outlier removal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingmao; Nowinski, Wieslaw L

    2003-12-01

    A rapid algorithm for robust, accurate, and automatic extraction of the midsagittal plane (MSP) of the human cerebrum from normal and pathological neuroimages is proposed. The MSP is defined as a plane formed from the interhemispheric fissure line segments having the dominant orientation. The algorithm extracts the MSP in four steps: (1) determine suitable axial slices for processing, (2) localize the fissure line segments on them, (3) select inliers from the extracted fissure line segments through histogram-based outlier removal, and (4) calculate the equation of the MSP from the selected inliers. The fissure line segments are localized by minimizing the local symmetry index characterizing anatomical properties of images in the vicinity of the interhemispheric fissure. A two-stage angular and distance outlier removal is introduced to handle abnormalities. The algorithm has been validated quantitatively with 125 structural MRI and CT cases from 10 centers on three continents by studying its accuracy; tolerance to rotation, noise, asymmetry, and bias field; sensitivity to parameters; and performance. A statistical relationship between algorithm accuracy and the data's adherence to planarity is also determined. The algorithm extracts the MSP below 6 s on Pentium 4 (2.4 GHz) with the average angular and distance errors of (0.40 degrees; 0.63 mm) for normal and (0.59 degrees; 0.73 mm) for pathological cases. The robustness to noise, asymmetry, rotation, and bias field is achieved by extracting the MSP based on the dominant orientation and local symmetry index. A low computational cost results from applying simple operations capturing intrinsic anatomic features, constraining the searching space to the local vicinity of the interhemispheric fissure, and formulating a noniterative algorithm with a coarse and fine fixed-step searching. In comparison to the existing methods, our algorithm is much faster, performs accurately and robustly for a wide range of diversified data

  11. Automatic and intentional number processing both rely on intact right parietal cortex: a combined FMRI and neuronavigated TMS study.

    PubMed

    Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Bien, Nina; Sack, Alexander T

    2012-01-01

    Practice and training usually lead to performance increase in a given task. In addition, a shift from intentional toward more automatic processing mechanisms is often observed. It is currently debated whether automatic and intentional processing is subserved by the same or by different mechanism(s), and whether the same or different regions in the brain are recruited. Previous correlational evidence provided by behavioral, neuroimaging, modeling, and neuropsychological studies addressing this question yielded conflicting results. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to compare the causal influence of disrupting either left or right parietal cortex during automatic and intentional numerical processing, as reflected by the size congruity effect and the numerical distance effect, respectively. We found a functional hemispheric asymmetry within parietal cortex with only the TMS-induced right parietal disruption impairing both automatic and intentional numerical processing. In contrast, disrupting the left parietal lobe with TMS, or applying sham stimulation, did not affect performance during automatic or intentional numerical processing. The current results provide causal evidence for the functional relevance of right, but not left, parietal cortex for intentional, and automatic numerical processing, implying that at least within the parietal cortices, automatic, and intentional numerical processing rely on the same underlying hemispheric lateralization.

  12. A dual-task investigation of automaticity in visual word processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, R. S.; Remington, R. W.; Van Selst, M.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of activation models of visual word processing suggests that frequency-sensitive forms of lexical processing should proceed normally while unattended. This hypothesis was tested by having participants perform a speeded pitch discrimination task followed by lexical decisions or word naming. As the stimulus onset asynchrony between the tasks was reduced, lexical-decision and naming latencies increased dramatically. Word-frequency effects were additive with the increase, indicating that frequency-sensitive processing was subject to postponement while attention was devoted to the other task. Either (a) the same neural hardware shares responsibility for lexical processing and central stages of choice reaction time task processing and cannot perform both computations simultaneously, or (b) lexical processing is blocked in order to optimize performance on the pitch discrimination task. Either way, word processing is not as automatic as activation models suggest.

  13. A dual-task investigation of automaticity in visual word processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, R. S.; Remington, R. W.; Van Selst, M.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of activation models of visual word processing suggests that frequency-sensitive forms of lexical processing should proceed normally while unattended. This hypothesis was tested by having participants perform a speeded pitch discrimination task followed by lexical decisions or word naming. As the stimulus onset asynchrony between the tasks was reduced, lexical-decision and naming latencies increased dramatically. Word-frequency effects were additive with the increase, indicating that frequency-sensitive processing was subject to postponement while attention was devoted to the other task. Either (a) the same neural hardware shares responsibility for lexical processing and central stages of choice reaction time task processing and cannot perform both computations simultaneously, or (b) lexical processing is blocked in order to optimize performance on the pitch discrimination task. Either way, word processing is not as automatic as activation models suggest.

  14. Human Papillomavirus Infectious Entry and Trafficking Is a Rapid Process

    PubMed Central

    Broniarczyk, Justyna; Massimi, Paola; Bergant, Martina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous studies have indicated that human papillomavirus (HPV) infectious entry is slow, requiring many hours after initial infection for the virus to gain entry into the nucleus. However, intracellular transport pathways typically are very rapid, and in the context of a natural HPV infection in a wounded epithelium, such slow intracellular transport would seem to be at odds with a normal viral infection. Using synchronized cell populations, we show that HPV trafficking can be a rapid process. In cells that are infected in the late S-early G2/M phase of the cell cycle, HPV16 pseudovirion (PsV) reporter DNA gene expression is detectable by 8 h postinfection. Likewise, reporter DNA can be visualized within the nucleus in conjunction with PML nuclear bodies 1 h to 2 h postinfection in cells that are infected with PsVs just prior to mitotic entry. This demonstrates that endosomal trafficking of HPV is rapid, with mitosis being the main restriction on nuclear entry. IMPORTANCE HPV infectious entry appears to be slow and requires mitosis to occur before the incoming viral DNA can access the nucleus. In this study, we show that HPV trafficking in the cell actually is very rapid. This demonstrates that in the context of a normal virus infection, the cell cycle state will have a major influence on the time it takes for an incoming virus to enter the nucleus and initiate viral gene expression. PMID:26063434

  15. Lateralized automatic auditory processing of phonetic versus musical information: a PET study.

    PubMed

    Tervaniemi, M; Medvedev, S V; Alho, K; Pakhomov, S V; Roudas, M S; Van Zuijen, T L; Näätänen, R

    2000-06-01

    Previous positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies show that during attentive listening, processing of phonetic information is associated with higher activity in the left auditory cortex than in the right auditory cortex while the opposite is true for musical information. The present PET study determined whether automatically activated neural mechanisms for phonetic and musical information are lateralized. To this end, subjects engaged in a visual word classification task were presented with phonetic sound sequences consisting of frequent (P = 0.8) and infrequent (P = 0.2) phonemes and with musical sound sequences consisting of frequent (P = 0.8) and infrequent (P = 0.2) chords. The phonemes and chords were matched in spectral complexity as well as in the magnitude of frequency difference between the frequent and infrequent sounds (/e/ vs. /o/; A major vs. A minor). In addition, control sequences, consisting of either frequent (/e/; A major) or infrequent sounds (/o/; A minor) were employed in separate blocks. When sound sequences consisted of intermixed frequent and infrequent sounds, automatic phonetic processing was lateralized to the left hemisphere and musical to the right hemisphere. This lateralization, however, did not occur in control blocks with one type of sound (frequent or infrequent). The data thus indicate that automatic activation of lateralized neuronal circuits requires sound comparison based on short-term sound representations.

  16. Is place-value processing in four-digit numbers fully automatic? Yes, but not always.

    PubMed

    García-Orza, Javier; Estudillo, Alejandro J; Calleja, Marina; Rodríguez, José Miguel

    2017-01-30

    Knowing the place-value of digits in multi-digit numbers allows us to identify, understand and distinguish between numbers with the same digits (e.g., 1492 vs. 1942). Research using the size congruency task has shown that the place-value in a string of three zeros and a non-zero digit (e.g., 0090) is processed automatically. In the present study, we explored whether place-value is also automatically activated when more complex numbers (e.g., 2795) are presented. Twenty-five participants were exposed to pairs of four-digit numbers that differed regarding the position of some digits and their physical size. Participants had to decide which of the two numbers was presented in a larger font size. In the congruent condition, the number shown in a bigger font size was numerically larger. In the incongruent condition, the number shown in a smaller font size was numerically larger. Two types of numbers were employed: numbers composed of three zeros and one non-zero digit (e.g., 0040-0400) and numbers composed of four non-zero digits (e.g., 2795-2759). Results showed larger congruency effects in more distant pairs in both type of numbers. Interestingly, this effect was considerably stronger in the strings composed of zeros. These results indicate that place-value coding is partially automatic, as it depends on the perceptual and numerical properties of the numbers to be processed.

  17. Automatic mouse ultrasound detector (A-MUD): A new tool for processing rodent vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Reitschmidt, Doris; Noll, Anton; Balazs, Peter; Penn, Dustin J.

    2017-01-01

    House mice (Mus musculus) emit complex ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during social and sexual interactions, which have features similar to bird song (i.e., they are composed of several different types of syllables, uttered in succession over time to form a pattern of sequences). Manually processing complex vocalization data is time-consuming and potentially subjective, and therefore, we developed an algorithm that automatically detects mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (Automatic Mouse Ultrasound Detector or A-MUD). A-MUD is a script that runs on STx acoustic software (S_TOOLS-STx version 4.2.2), which is free for scientific use. This algorithm improved the efficiency of processing USV files, as it was 4–12 times faster than manual segmentation, depending upon the size of the file. We evaluated A-MUD error rates using manually segmented sound files as a ‘gold standard’ reference, and compared them to a commercially available program. A-MUD had lower error rates than the commercial software, as it detected significantly more correct positives, and fewer false positives and false negatives. The errors generated by A-MUD were mainly false negatives, rather than false positives. This study is the first to systematically compare error rates for automatic ultrasonic vocalization detection methods, and A-MUD and subsequent versions will be made available for the scientific community. PMID:28727808

  18. Image processing method and implementation for a laser automatic tracking extensometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qiuhong; Du, Xiao; Liu, Yanna; Yan, Liping; Chen, Benyong

    2012-01-01

    A laser automatic tracking extensometer for material deformation measurement based on CCD is proposed. The image processing methods of the laser mark localization and the automatic tracking of the mark line on the specimen are studied for the extensometer. First, geometrical mean filter (GMF), harmonic mean filter (HMF) and inverse harmonic mean filter (IHMF) using for the image processing are compared in order to select a suitable mean filter for removing noises from the specimen images, and then the GMF is adopted for the de-noising of the images. Second, Sobel operator is introduced to detect the edges of the specimen images. At last, the specimen images are reduced to eliminate unwanted background information by pruning. Hough transformation of pretreated specimen images is also studied and linking images algorithm is proposed based on the image gray distribution and the connectivity principle. The laser mark localization and the automatic tracking of the mark line on the specimen are then implemented. The experimental results show that the linking image algorithm is prior to Hough transformation on both recognition effect and recognition efficiency.

  19. The Automatic Conservative: Ideology-Based Attentional Asymmetries in the Processing of Valenced Information

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Luciana; Castelli, Luigi; Macchiella, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Research has widely explored the differences between conservatives and liberals, and it has been also recently demonstrated that conservatives display different reactions toward valenced stimuli. However, previous studies have not yet fully illuminated the cognitive underpinnings of these differences. In the current work, we argued that political ideology is related to selective attention processes, so that negative stimuli are more likely to automatically grab the attention of conservatives as compared to liberals. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that negative (vs. positive) information impaired the performance of conservatives, more than liberals, in an Emotional Stroop Task. This finding was confirmed in Experiment 2 and in Experiment 3 employing a Dot-Probe Task, demonstrating that threatening stimuli were more likely to attract the attention of conservatives. Overall, results support the conclusion that people embracing conservative views of the world display an automatic selective attention for negative stimuli. PMID:22096486

  20. The masked semantic priming effect is task dependent: Reconsidering the automatic spreading activation process.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2015-07-01

    Semantic priming effects are popularly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process, according to which the activation of a node in a semantic network spreads automatically to interconnected nodes, preactivating a semantically related word. It is expected from this account that semantic priming effects should be routinely observed when the prime identity is veiled from conscious awareness, but the extant literature on masked semantic priming effects is notoriously mixed. The authors use the same prime-target pairs in the lexical decision task and the semantic categorization task and show that although masking the prime eliminates the semantic priming effect in lexical decision, reliable semantic priming effects are observed with both masked and unmasked primes in the semantic categorization task. The authors explain this task dependence in terms of their account of semantic priming effects based on notions of evidence accumulation and source confusion and support their account by means of reaction time distribution analyses.

  1. Automatic calculation of tree diameter from stereoscopic image pairs using digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu

    2012-06-20

    Automatic operations play an important role in societies by saving time and improving efficiency. In this paper, we apply the digital image processing method to the field of lumbering to automatically calculate tree diameters in order to reduce culler work and enable a third party to verify tree diameters. To calculate the cross-sectional diameter of a tree, the image was first segmented by the marker-controlled watershed transform algorithm based on the hue saturation intensity (HSI) color model. Then, the tree diameter was obtained by measuring the area of every isolated region in the segmented image. Finally, the true diameter was calculated by multiplying the diameter computed in the image and the scale, which was derived from the baseline and disparity of correspondence points from stereoscopic image pairs captured by rectified configuration cameras.

  2. Phonological priming in auditory word recognition: when both controlled and automatic processes are responsible for the effects.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Sophie

    2008-03-01

    The phonological priming paradigm provides an interesting methodological tool for studying various components of the speech recognition process. However, concerns about response biases distorting the effects have been repeatedly voiced. This article reviews the main studies on priming and aims to distinguish effects under automatic processes from those under some level of strategic control. Both controlled and automatic processes appear to be responsible for the effects observed in phonological priming experiments. Nonetheless, with careful procedures, it is possible to separate them.

  3. Radiation-induced bystander effect: early process and rapid assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhi; Yu, K N; Hou, Jue; Liu, Qian; Han, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is a biological process that has received attention over the past two decades. RIBE refers to a plethora of biological effects in non-irradiated cells, including induction of genetic damages, gene expression, cell transformation, proliferation and cell death, which are initiated by receiving bystander signals released from irradiated cells. RIBE brings potential hazards to normal tissues in radiotherapy, and imparts a higher risk from low-dose radiation than we previously thought. Detection with proteins related to DNA damage and repair, cell cycle control, proliferation, etc. have enabled rapid assessment of RIBE in a number of research systems such as cultured cells, three-dimensional tissue models and animal models. Accumulated experimental data have suggested that RIBE may be initiated rapidly within a time frame as short as several minutes after radiation. These have led to the requirement of techniques capable of rapidly assessing RIBE itself as well as assessing the early processes involved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Automatic Translation of a Process Level Petri-Net to a Ladder Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen*, Yuval; Wang, Ming-En; Bidanda, Bopaya

    Major part of discrete industrial automation hardware is controlled by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). While Petri-nets (PNs) have been proposed by many researchers for modelling shop floor discrete control, the majority of the world PLCs are programmed using ladder diagrams (LD) and significant portion of them cannot be programmed using another language. This paper proposes hierarchical approach to translating PN to LD: for describing the high level process, it introduces automatic translation technique of process level PN, while utilizing a recently developed method (for translating PN to Boolean logic) for translating the embedded tasks to a LD. Interestingly, the generated LD code enables the reconstruction of the original Petri-net.

  5. Rapid modulation of sensory processing induced by stimulus conflict

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, L.G.; Smith, D.V.; Boehler, C.N.; Chen, W.D.; Woldorff, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Humans are constantly confronted with environmental stimuli that conflict with task goals and can interfere with successful behavior. Prevailing theories propose the existence of cognitive control mechanisms that can suppress the processing of conflicting input and enhance that of the relevant input. However, the temporal cascade of brain processes invoked in response to conflicting stimuli remains poorly understood. By examining evoked electrical brain responses in a novel, hemifield-specific, visual-flanker task, we demonstrate that task-irrelevant conflicting stimulus input is quickly detected in higher-level executive regions while simultaneously inducing rapid, recurrent modulation of sensory processing in the visual cortex. Importantly, however, both of these effects are larger for individuals with greater incongruency-related reaction time slowing. The combination of neural activation patterns and behavioral interference effects suggest that this initial sensory modulation induced by conflicting stimulus inputs reflects performance-degrading attentional distraction due to their incompatibility, rather than any rapid task-enhancing cognitive control mechanisms. The present findings thus provide neural evidence for a model in which attentional distraction is the key initial trigger for the temporal cascade of processes by which the human brain responds to conflicting stimulus input in the environment. PMID:20849233

  6. Automatic Processing Of Doppler Laser Interferometry Records Using Image Processing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Alain; Jesne, Pascal; Nicolaizeau, Marc; Beullier, Jacques

    1985-02-01

    The more and more intensive use of Fabry-Perot velocimeters to study impact phenomena is leading to more and more films to be processed. Thus, engineers having to deal with this increasing plenty were asking for automatic tools in order to analyse optical records. A software package named ARIDEL has been written so as to fulfil this requirement. When looking at the DLI films, one can notice several points : a) Traces are very bright and large at the beginning of the film, and become less and less bright and therefore less and less large when time is going on. b) Traces vanish, most of the time on one side of the fringes and sometimes on both sides ; they may appear again later on. c) There are artifacts from place to place, leading to false detections. d) Optical density of the background may not be constant, especially at the beginning of the film. e) Velocity variations can make a new fringe appear or a previous one disappear. f) At the very beginning of the dynamic part of the record, it is impossible to know the exact jump of fringes without any outcoming information. Analysing computational errors due to discrete data (round-off noise), one can find out a sampling criterion allowing to get the maximum information from the film at the lowest computer memory allocation. After the film has been digitized and the image stored in the computer memory, ARIDEL software computes a new but binary image using a self adaptative threshold. The ring widths on this new image are too large and have to be skeletonized, assuming that for each side of every fringes the luminous flux is symmetrical. The static part of the record (reference rings) is detected, the axis of symmetry computed and the diameter of the reference rings measured. At this point, the program can find out the origin of the dynamic part of the record or allow the user to fix it by himself. Estimation of the initial velocity value has to be given. Most of the time, the program is working with the two innermost

  7. The Neural Signatures of Processing Semantic End Values in Automatic Number Comparisons.

    PubMed

    Pinhas, Michal; Buchman, Chananel; Lavro, Dmitri; Mesika, David; Tzelgov, Joseph; Berger, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The brain activity associated with processing numerical end values has received limited research attention. The present study explored the neural correlates associated with processing semantic end values under conditions of automatic number processing. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed the numerical Stroop task, in which they were asked to compare the physical size of pairs of numbers, while ignoring their numerical values. The smallest end value in the set, which is a task irrelevant factor, was manipulated between participant groups. We focused on the processing of the lower end values of 0 and 1 because these numbers were found to be automatically tagged as the "smallest." Behavioral results showed that the size congruity effect was modulated by the presence of the smallest end value in the pair. ERP data revealed a spatially extended centro-parieto-occipital P3 that was enhanced for congruent versus incongruent trials. Importantly, over centro-parietal sites, the P3 congruity effect (congruent minus incongruent) was larger for pairs containing the smallest end value than for pairs containing non-smallest values. These differences in the congruency effect were localized to the precuneus. The presence of an end value within the pair also modulated P3 latency. Our results provide the first neural evidence for the encoding of numerical end values. They further demonstrate that the use of end values as anchors is a primary aspect of processing symbolic numerical information.

  8. Low-complexity PDE-based approach for automatic microarray image processing.

    PubMed

    Belean, Bogdan; Terebes, Romulus; Bot, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Microarray image processing is known as a valuable tool for gene expression estimation, a crucial step in understanding biological processes within living organisms. Automation and reliability are open subjects in microarray image processing, where grid alignment and spot segmentation are essential processes that can influence the quality of gene expression information. The paper proposes a novel partial differential equation (PDE)-based approach for fully automatic grid alignment in case of microarray images. Our approach can handle image distortions and performs grid alignment using the vertical and horizontal luminance function profiles. These profiles are evolved using a hyperbolic shock filter PDE and then refined using the autocorrelation function. The results are compared with the ones delivered by state-of-the-art approaches for grid alignment in terms of accuracy and computational complexity. Using the same PDE formalism and curve fitting, automatic spot segmentation is achieved and visual results are presented. Considering microarray images with different spots layouts, reliable results in terms of accuracy and reduced computational complexity are achieved, compared with existing software platforms and state-of-the-art methods for microarray image processing.

  9. The Neural Signatures of Processing Semantic End Values in Automatic Number Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Pinhas, Michal; Buchman, Chananel; Lavro, Dmitri; Mesika, David; Tzelgov, Joseph; Berger, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The brain activity associated with processing numerical end values has received limited research attention. The present study explored the neural correlates associated with processing semantic end values under conditions of automatic number processing. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed the numerical Stroop task, in which they were asked to compare the physical size of pairs of numbers, while ignoring their numerical values. The smallest end value in the set, which is a task irrelevant factor, was manipulated between participant groups. We focused on the processing of the lower end values of 0 and 1 because these numbers were found to be automatically tagged as the “smallest.” Behavioral results showed that the size congruity effect was modulated by the presence of the smallest end value in the pair. ERP data revealed a spatially extended centro-parieto-occipital P3 that was enhanced for congruent versus incongruent trials. Importantly, over centro-parietal sites, the P3 congruity effect (congruent minus incongruent) was larger for pairs containing the smallest end value than for pairs containing non-smallest values. These differences in the congruency effect were localized to the precuneus. The presence of an end value within the pair also modulated P3 latency. Our results provide the first neural evidence for the encoding of numerical end values. They further demonstrate that the use of end values as anchors is a primary aspect of processing symbolic numerical information. PMID:26640436

  10. BRICORK: an automatic machine with image processing for the production of corks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Roger; Correia, Bento A. B.; Carvalho, Fernando D.; Rodrigues, Fernando C.

    1991-06-01

    The production of cork stoppers from raw cork strip is a manual and labour-intensive process in which a punch-operator quickly inspects all sides of the cork strip for defects and decides where to punch out stoppers. He then positions the strip underneath a rotating tubular cutter and punches out the stoppers one at a time. This procedure is somewhat subjective and prone to error, being dependent on the judgement and accuracy of the operator. This paper describes the machine being developed jointly by Mecanova, Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia (LNETI) and Empresa de Investiga&sigmafcoe Desenvolvimento de Electronica SA (EID) which automatically processes cork strip introduced by an unskilled operator. The machine uses both image processing and laser inspection techniques to examine the strip. Defects in the cork are detected and categorised in order to determine regions where stoppers may be punched. The precise locations are then automatically optimised for best usage of the raw material (quantity and quality of stoppers). In order to achieve the required speed of production these image processing techniques may be implemented in hardware. The paper presents results obtained using the vision system software under development together with descriptions of both the image processing and mechanical aspects of the proposed machine.

  11. Automatic segmentation of nerve structures in ultrasound images using Graph Cuts and Gaussian processes.

    PubMed

    Gil González, Julián; Álvarez, Mauricio A; Orozco, Álvaro A

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral Nerve Blocking (PNB), is a procedure used for performing regional anesthesia, that comprises the administration of anesthetic in the proximity of a nerve. Several techniques have been used with the purpose of locating nerve structures when the PNB procedure is performed: anatomical surface landmarks, elicitation of paresthesia, nerve stimulation and ultrasound imaging. Among those, ultrasound imaging has gained great attention because it is not invasive and offers an accurate location of the nerve and the structures around it. However, the segmentation of nerve structures in ultrasound images is a difficult task for the specialist, since such images are affected by echo perturbations and speckle noise. The development of systems for the automatic segmentation of nerve structures can aid the specialist for locating nerve structures accurately. In this paper we present a methodology for the automatic segmentation of nerve structures in ultrasound images. An initial step is carried out using Graph Cut segmentation in order to generate regions of interest; we then use machine learning techniques with the aim of segmenting the nerve structure; here, a specific non-linear Wavelet transform is used for the feature extraction stage, and Gaussian processes for the classification step. The methodology performance is measured in terms of accuracy and the dice coefficient. Results show that the implemented methodology can be used for automatically segmenting nerve structures.

  12. Neural Signatures of Controlled and Automatic Retrieval Processes in Memory-based Decision-making.

    PubMed

    Khader, Patrick H; Pachur, Thorsten; Weber, Lilian A E; Jost, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Decision-making often requires retrieval from memory. Drawing on the neural ACT-R theory [Anderson, J. R., Fincham, J. M., Qin, Y., & Stocco, A. A central circuit of the mind. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 136-143, 2008] and other neural models of memory, we delineated the neural signatures of two fundamental retrieval aspects during decision-making: automatic and controlled activation of memory representations. To disentangle these processes, we combined a paradigm developed to examine neural correlates of selective and sequential memory retrieval in decision-making with a manipulation of associative fan (i.e., the decision options were associated with one, two, or three attributes). The results show that both the automatic activation of all attributes associated with a decision option and the controlled sequential retrieval of specific attributes can be traced in material-specific brain areas. Moreover, the two facets of memory retrieval were associated with distinct activation patterns within the frontoparietal network: The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was found to reflect increasing retrieval effort during both automatic and controlled activation of attributes. In contrast, the superior parietal cortex only responded to controlled retrieval, arguably reflecting the sequential updating of attribute information in working memory. This dissociation in activation pattern is consistent with ACT-R and constitutes an important step toward a neural model of the retrieval dynamics involved in memory-based decision-making.

  13. Development and evaluation of an automatic acne lesion detection program using digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Min, Seonguk; Kong, Hyoun-joong; Yoon, Chiyul; Kim, Hee Chan; Suh, Dae Hun

    2013-02-01

    Existing acne grading methods, which depend on overall impression, require a long training period and there is a high degree of variability among raters, including trained dermatologists. The use of lesion count provides fair reproducibility but the method is time consuming. New technologies in photographic equipment and software allow solutions to the problem of acne evaluation. This study was conducted to develop the automatic acne lesion program and evaluation of its usefulness. We made the conditions to optimize characterization of acne lesions and developed the counting program. Twenty-five volunteers with acne lesions were enrolled. Automated lesion counting for five subtypes of acne (papule, nodule, pustule, whitehead comedone, and blackhead comedone) was performed with image processing. The usefulness of the automatic lesion count program was assessed by a comparison with manual counting performed by an expert dermatologist. In a comparison with manual counting performed by an expert dermatologist, the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the lesion-counting program was greater than 70% for papules, nodules, pustules, and whitehead comedo. In a comparison with manual counting, findings with the use of the lesion-counting program were well correlated for papules, nodules, pustules, and whitehead comedo (r > 0.9). Automatic lesion-counting program can be a useful tool for acne severity evaluation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Rapidly dissolving repaglinide powders produced by the ultra-rapid freezing process.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Troy; Mattucci, Michal E; Crisp, M Todd; Johnston, Keith P; Williams, Robert O

    2007-07-20

    The objective of the study was to produce rapidly dissolving formulations of the poorly water-soluble drug repaglinide using an innovative new technology, ultra-rapid freezing (URF), and to investigate the influence of excipient type on repaglinide stability. Repaglinide compositions containing different types and levels of excipients and different drug potencies (50%-86%) were produced by the URF technology. Repaglinide/excipient solutions were frozen on a cryogenic substrate, collected, and lyophilized to form a dry powder. Surfactants, including sodium dodecyl sulfate, and alkalizing agents such as diethanolamine (DEA) and tromethamine (TRIS) were incorporated into the compositions. Forced degradation of repaglinide was conducted under stressed conditions (eg, elevated temperature, exposure to peroxide) to determine the stability of the drug in such environments. The solubility of repaglinide increased as a function of increasing pH; therefore, incorporation of an alkalizing agent into the URF formulations increased the drug's solubility. Drug instability resulted when the drug was exposed to pH values above 9.0. URF formulations containing alkalizing agents showed no degradation or spontaneous recrystallization in the formulation, indicating that increased stability was afforded by processing. URF processing created nanostructured drug/excipient particles with higher dissolution rates than were achieved for unprocessed drug. Alkalizing agents such as TRIS and DEA, present at levels of 25% to 33% wt/wt in the formulations, did not cause degradation of the drug when processed using URF. URF processing, therefore, yielded fast-dissolving formulations that were physically and chemically stable, resistant to alkali degradation or spontaneous recrystallization in the formulation.

  15. Automatic Mapping Of Large Signal Processing Systems To A Parallel Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Printz, Harry; Kung, H. T.; Mummert, Todd; Scherer, Paul M.

    1989-12-01

    Since the spring of 1988, Carnegie Mellon University and the Naval Air Development Center have been working together to implement several large signal processing systems on the Warp parallel computer. In the course of this work, we have developed a prototype of a software tool that can automatically and efficiently map signal processing systems to distributed-memory parallel machines, such as Warp. We have used this tool to produce Warp implementations of small test systems. The automatically generated programs compare favorably with hand-crafted code. We believe this tool will be a significant aid in the creation of high speed signal processing systems. We assume that signal processing systems have the following characteristics: •They can be described by directed graphs of computational tasks; these graphs may contain thousands of task vertices. • Some tasks can be parallelized in a systolic or data-partitioned manner, while others cannot be parallelized at all. • The side effects of each task, if any, are limited to changes in local variables. • Each task has a data-independent execution time bound, which may be expressed as a function of the way it is parallelized, and the number of processors it is mapped to. In this paper we describe techniques to automatically map such systems to Warp-like parallel machines. We identify and address key issues in gracefully combining different parallel programming styles, in allocating processor, memory and communication bandwidth, and in generating and scheduling efficient parallel code. When iWarp, the VLSI version of the Warp machine, becomes available in 1990, we will extend this tool to generate efficient code for very large applications, which may require as many as 3000 iWarp processors, with an aggregate peak performance of 60 gigaflops.

  16. Rapidly rotating spacetimes and collisional super-Penrose process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2016-05-01

    We consider generic axially symmetric rotating spacetimes and examine particle collisions in the ergoregion. The results are generic and agree with those obtained in the particular case of the rotating Teo wormhole in Tsukamoto and Bambi, Phys Rev D 91:104040, 2015. It is shown that for sufficiently rapid rotation, the energy of a particle escaping to infinity can become arbitrary large (so-called super-Penrose process). Moreover, this energy is typically much larger than the center-of mass energy of colliding particles. In this sense the situation differs radically from that for collisions near black holes.

  17. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  18. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  19. Adjustment of automatic control systems of production facilities at coal processing plants using multivariant physico- mathematical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, V. F.; Myshlyaev, L. P.; Makarov, G. V.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Burkova, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    The structure of multi-variant physical and mathematical models of control system is offered as well as its application for adjustment of automatic control system (ACS) of production facilities on the example of coal processing plant.

  20. Missile signal processing common computer architecture for rapid technology upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinkin, Daniel V.; Rutledge, Edward; Monticciolo, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Interceptor missiles process IR images to locate an intended target and guide the interceptor towards it. Signal processing requirements have increased as the sensor bandwidth increases and interceptors operate against more sophisticated targets. A typical interceptor signal processing chain is comprised of two parts. Front-end video processing operates on all pixels of the image and performs such operations as non-uniformity correction (NUC), image stabilization, frame integration and detection. Back-end target processing, which tracks and classifies targets detected in the image, performs such algorithms as Kalman tracking, spectral feature extraction and target discrimination. In the past, video processing was implemented using ASIC components or FPGAs because computation requirements exceeded the throughput of general-purpose processors. Target processing was performed using hybrid architectures that included ASICs, DSPs and general-purpose processors. The resulting systems tended to be function-specific, and required custom software development. They were developed using non-integrated toolsets and test equipment was developed along with the processor platform. The lifespan of a system utilizing the signal processing platform often spans decades, while the specialized nature of processor hardware and software makes it difficult and costly to upgrade. As a result, the signal processing systems often run on outdated technology, algorithms are difficult to update, and system effectiveness is impaired by the inability to rapidly respond to new threats. A new design approach is made possible three developments; Moore's Law - driven improvement in computational throughput; a newly introduced vector computing capability in general purpose processors; and a modern set of open interface software standards. Today's multiprocessor commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) platforms have sufficient throughput to support interceptor signal processing requirements. This application

  1. Effects of prosodic familiarity on the automatic processing of words in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Ylinen, Sari; Strelnikov, Kuzma; Huotilainen, Minna; Näätänen, Risto

    2009-09-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of prosodic familiarity on automatic word processing in the brain by comparing the mismatch negativity (MMN) components of the event-related brain potential (ERP) elicited by words and pseudowords with familiar and unfamiliar stress patterns. The results show that the MMN was elicited by a change from unfamiliar to familiar words and a change from a familiar to an unfamiliar word-stress pattern.When familiar words were accompanied by an unfamiliar stress pattern, the MMN response was significantly delayed in comparison with the familiar words with a familiar stress pattern, suggesting that an unfamiliar prosodic pattern increased the computational needs in word recognition but did not prevent it. In addition to the effects of familiarity on the MMN, we found a positive brain response peaking between 100 and 200 ms that could be associated with the processing of familiar auditory objects. The present results expand the understanding of the early stages of speech processing in the human brain by demonstrating how automatic word processing is affected by prosodic cues that play an important role in the segmentation of continuous speech.

  2. Automatic Processing of Chinese GF-1 Wide Field of View Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wan, Y.; Wang, B.; Kang, Y.; Xiong, J.

    2015-04-01

    The wide field of view (WFV) imaging instrument carried on the Chinese GF-1 satellite includes four cameras. Each camera has 200km swath-width that can acquire earth image at the same time and the observation can be repeated within only 4 days. This enables the applications of remote sensing imagery to advance from non-scheduled land-observation to periodically land-monitoring in the areas that use the images in such resolutions. This paper introduces an automatic data analysing and processing technique for the wide-swath images acquired by GF-1 satellite. Firstly, the images are validated by a self-adaptive Gaussian mixture model based cloud detection method to confirm whether they are qualified and suitable to be involved into the automatic processing workflow. Then the ground control points (GCPs) are quickly and automatically matched from the public geo-information products such as the rectified panchromatic images of Landsat-8. Before the geometric correction, the cloud detection results are also used to eliminate the invalid GCPs distributed in the cloud covered areas, which obviously reduces the ratio of blunders of GCPs. The geometric correction module not only rectifies the rational function models (RFMs), but also provides the self-calibration model and parameters for the non-linear distortion, and it is iteratively processed to detect blunders. The maximum geometric distortion in WFV image decreases from about 10-15 pixels to 1-2 pixels when compensated by self-calibration model. The processing experiments involve hundreds of WFV images of GF-1 satellite acquired from June to September 2013, which covers the whole mainland of China. All the processing work can be finished by one operator within 2 days on a desktop computer made up by a second-generation Intel Core-i7 CPU and a 4-solid-State-Disk array. The digital ortho maps (DOM) are automatically generated with 3 arc second Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The geometric accuracies of the

  3. Automatic processing of induced events in the geothermal reservoirs Landau and Insheim, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbert, Kai; Küperkoch, Ludger; Meier, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Induced events can be a risk to local infrastructure that need to be understood and evaluated. They represent also a chance to learn more about the reservoir behavior and characteristics. Prior to the analysis, the waveform data must be processed consistently and accurately to avoid erroneous interpretations. In the framework of the MAGS2 project an automatic off-line event detection and a phase onset time determination algorithm are applied to induced seismic events in geothermal systems in Landau and Insheim, Germany. The off-line detection algorithm works based on a cross-correlation of continuous data taken from the local seismic network with master events. It distinguishes events between different reservoirs and within the individual reservoirs. Furthermore, it provides a location and magnitude estimation. Data from 2007 to 2014 are processed and compared with other detections using the SeisComp3 cross correlation detector and a STA/LTA detector. The detected events are analyzed concerning spatial or temporal clustering. Furthermore the number of events are compared to the existing detection lists. The automatic phase picking algorithm combines an AR-AIC approach with a cost function to find precise P1- and S1-phase onset times which can be used for localization and tomography studies. 800 induced events are processed, determining 5000 P1- and 6000 S1-picks. The phase onset times show a high precision with mean residuals to manual phase picks of 0s (P1) to 0.04s (S1) and standard deviations below ±0.05s. The received automatic picks are applied to relocate a selected number of events to evaluate influences on the location precision.

  4. Fluid Intelligence and Automatic Neural Processes in Facial Expression Perception: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Li, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between human fluid intelligence and social-emotional abilities has been a topic of considerable interest. The current study investigated whether adolescents with different intellectual levels had different automatic neural processing of facial expressions. Two groups of adolescent males were enrolled: a high IQ group and an average IQ group. Age and parental socioeconomic status were matched between the two groups. Participants counted the numbers of the central cross changes while paired facial expressions were presented bilaterally in an oddball paradigm. There were two experimental conditions: a happy condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and happy expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2), and a fearful condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and fearful expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2). Participants were required to concentrate on the primary task of counting the central cross changes and to ignore the expressions to ensure that facial expression processing was automatic. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained during the tasks. The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) components were analyzed to index the automatic neural processing of facial expressions. For the early vMMN (50–130 ms), the high IQ group showed more negative vMMN amplitudes than the average IQ group in the happy condition. For the late vMMN (320–450 ms), the high IQ group had greater vMMN responses than the average IQ group over frontal and occipito-temporal areas in the fearful condition, and the average IQ group evoked larger vMMN amplitudes than the high IQ group over occipito-temporal areas in the happy condition. The present study elucidated the close relationships between fluid intelligence and pre-attentive change detection on social-emotional information. PMID:26375031

  5. Fluid Intelligence and Automatic Neural Processes in Facial Expression Perception: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Li, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jiannong

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between human fluid intelligence and social-emotional abilities has been a topic of considerable interest. The current study investigated whether adolescents with different intellectual levels had different automatic neural processing of facial expressions. Two groups of adolescent males were enrolled: a high IQ group and an average IQ group. Age and parental socioeconomic status were matched between the two groups. Participants counted the numbers of the central cross changes while paired facial expressions were presented bilaterally in an oddball paradigm. There were two experimental conditions: a happy condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and happy expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2), and a fearful condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and fearful expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2). Participants were required to concentrate on the primary task of counting the central cross changes and to ignore the expressions to ensure that facial expression processing was automatic. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained during the tasks. The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) components were analyzed to index the automatic neural processing of facial expressions. For the early vMMN (50-130 ms), the high IQ group showed more negative vMMN amplitudes than the average IQ group in the happy condition. For the late vMMN (320-450 ms), the high IQ group had greater vMMN responses than the average IQ group over frontal and occipito-temporal areas in the fearful condition, and the average IQ group evoked larger vMMN amplitudes than the high IQ group over occipito-temporal areas in the happy condition. The present study elucidated the close relationships between fluid intelligence and pre-attentive change detection on social-emotional information.

  6. Rapid odor processing in the honeybee antennal lobe network.

    PubMed

    Krofczik, Sabine; Menzel, Randolf; Nawrot, Martin P

    2008-01-01

    In their natural environment, many insects need to identify and evaluate behaviorally relevant odorants on a rich and dynamic olfactory background. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that bees recognize learned odors within <200 ms, indicating a rapid processing of olfactory input in the sensory pathway. We studied the role of the honeybee antennal lobe network in constructing a fast and reliable code of odor identity using in vivo intracellular recordings of individual projection neurons (PNs) and local interneurons (LNs). We found a complementary ensemble code where odor identity is encoded in the spatio-temporal pattern of response latencies as well as in the pattern of activated and inactivated PN firing. This coding scheme rapidly reaches a stable representation within 50-150 ms after stimulus onset. Testing an odor mixture versus its individual compounds revealed different representations in the two morphologically distinct types of lateral- and median PNs (l- and m-PNs). Individual m-PNs mixture responses were dominated by the most effective compound (elemental representation) whereas l-PNs showed suppressed responses to the mixture but not to its individual compounds (synthetic representation). The onset of inhibition in the membrane potential of l-PNs coincided with the responses of putative inhibitory interneurons that responded significantly faster than PNs. Taken together, our results suggest that processing within the LN network of the AL is an essential component of constructing the antennal lobe population code.

  7. Information processing requirements for on-board monitoring of automatic landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Karmarkar, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic procedure is presented for determining the information processing requirements for on-board monitoring of automatic landing systems. The monitoring system detects landing anomalies through use of appropriate statistical tests. The time-to-correct aircraft perturbations is determined from covariance analyses using a sequence of suitable aircraft/autoland/pilot models. The covariance results are used to establish landing safety and a fault recovery operating envelope via an event outcome tree. This procedure is demonstrated with examples using the NASA Terminal Configured Vehicle (B-737 aircraft). The procedure can also be used to define decision height, assess monitoring implementation requirements, and evaluate alternate autoland configurations.

  8. An integrated exhaust gas analysis system with self-contained data processing and automatic calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Summers, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    An integrated gas analysis system designed to operate in automatic, semiautomatic, and manual modes from a remote control panel is described. The system measures the carbon monoxide, oxygen, water vapor, total hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. A pull through design provides increased reliability and eliminates the need for manual flow rate adjustment and pressure correction. The system contains two microprocessors to range the analyzers, calibrate the system, process the raw data to units of concentration, and provides information to the facility research computer and to the operator through terminal and the control panels. After initial setup, the system operates for several hours without significant operator attention.

  9. Carrying on or giving in: the role of automatic processes in overcoming ego depletion.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Hugo J E M; Martijn, Carolien; Greb, Judith; Merckelbach, Harald; de Vries, Nanne K

    2007-06-01

    Research has shown that repeated exercise of self-control leads to impaired performance on subsequent self-control tasks, a phenomenon labelled ego depletion. The current research investigates the influence of automatic processes on self-control performance. Study 1 shows that activation of persistence leads to stable self-control performance and may help to overcome effects of ego depletion. Initially depleted participants kept their physical self-control performances constant when primed with persistence. If such a prime was absent, self-control performance of depleted participants decreased indicating ego depletion. Using a different manipulation, these findings were replicated in Study 2.

  10. Image Processing Method for Automatic Straight Line Travel of an Agricultural Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanawa, Keiji; Hamada, Yasuyuki; Makino, Eiji; Kaneko, Shunich

    This paper describes an image processing method for the detection of the lateral displacement of an agricultural vehicle, such as a tractor. It achieves this by tracking the movement of the ground on images while detecting a lamp placed at a target point in a field by means of a computer vision system mounted on the tractor. The aim of this technology is to enable tractors to automatically travel in a straight line with high accuracy towards the target lamp. Some experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. A device for conducting a dynamic modes of UIAB therapy with automatic process testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barylo, Hryhoriy I.; Hotra, Zenon Yu.; Kozhukhar, Oleksandr T.; Ivakh, Mariya S.; Surtel, Wojciech; Maciejewski, Marcin

    2016-09-01

    The structure and circuit of the implemented device is using an environmentally friendly radiation sources and pulse photo stimulus modes with frequencies that correspond frequencies processes in BL to create bio resonance effects to accelerate the procedures. Proposed one of the possible hardware solutions are based on usage of dynamic irradiation modes and automatic continuous optical testing procedures UIAB and PP. The changes of the optical characteristics of BL provides the doctor continuous information on the effectiveness of the procedure on the patient's condition.

  12. Age-related differences in the automatic processing of single letters: implications for selective attention.

    PubMed

    Daffner, Kirk R; Alperin, Brittany R; Mott, Katherine K; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2014-01-22

    Older adults exhibit diminished ability to inhibit the processing of visual stimuli that are supposed to be ignored. The extent to which age-related changes in early visual processing contribute to impairments in selective attention remains to be determined. Here, 103 adults, 18-85 years of age, completed a color selective attention task in which they were asked to attend to a specified color and respond to designated target letters. An optimal approach would be to initially filter according to color and then process letter forms in the attend color to identify targets. An asymmetric N170 ERP component (larger amplitude over left posterior hemisphere sites) was used as a marker of the early automatic processing of letter forms. Young and middle-aged adults did not generate an asymmetric N170 component. In contrast, young-old and old-old adults produced a larger N170 over the left hemisphere. Furthermore, older adults generated a larger N170 to letter than nonletter stimuli over the left, but not right hemisphere. More asymmetric N170 responses predicted greater allocation of late selection resources to target letters in the ignore color, as indexed by P3b amplitude. These results suggest that unlike their younger counterparts, older adults automatically process stimuli as letters early in the selection process, when it would be more efficient to attend to color only. The inability to ignore letters early in the processing stream helps explain the age-related increase in subsequent processing of target letter forms presented in the ignore color.

  13. Rapid loss of glacial ice reveals stream community assembly processes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lee E; Milner, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    Glacial retreat creates new habitat which is colonized and developed by plants and animals during the process of primary succession. While there has been much debate about the relative role of deterministic and stochastic processes during terrestrial succession, evidence from freshwater ecosystems remains minimal and a general consensus is lacking. Using a unique 27 years record of community assembly following glacial recession in southeast Alaska, we demonstrate significant change in the trait composition of stream invertebrate communities as catchment glacial cover decreased from ∼70% to zero. Functional diversity increased significantly as glacier cover decreased and taxonomic richness increased. Null modelling approaches led to a key finding that niche filtering processes were dominant when glacial cover was extensive, reflecting water temperature and dispersal constraints. Thereafter the community shifted towards co-occurrence of stochastic and deterministic assembly processes. A further novel discovery was that intrinsic functional redundancy developed throughout the study, particularly because new colonizers possessed similar traits to taxa already present. Rapid glacial retreat is occurring in Arctic and alpine environments worldwide and the assembly processes observed in this study provide new fundamental insights into how glacially influenced stream ecosystems will respond. The findings support tolerance as a key primary successional mechanism in this system, and have broader value for developing our understanding of how biological communities in river ecosystems assemble or restructure in response to environmental change.

  14. NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott A.; Kakar, Ramesh; Zipser, Edward; Heymsfield, Gerald; Albers, Cerese; Brown, Shannon; Durden, Stephen; Guimond, Stephen; Halverson, Jeffery; Heymsfield, Andrew; hide

    2013-01-01

    In August–September 2010, NASA, NOAA, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) conducted separate but closely coordinated hurricane field campaigns, bringing to bear a combined seven aircraft with both new and mature observing technologies. NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment, the subject of this article, along with NOAA's Intensity Forecasting Experiment (IFEX) and NSF's Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud-Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) experiment, obtained unprecedented observations of the formation and intensification of tropical cyclones. The major goal of GRIP was to better understand the physical processes that control hurricane formation and intensity change, specifically the relative roles of environmental and inner-core processes. A key focus of GRIP was the application of new technologies to address this important scientific goal, including the first ever use of the unmanned Global Hawk aircraft for hurricane science operations. NASA and NOAA conducted coordinated flights to thoroughly sample the rapid intensification (RI) of Hurricanes Earl and Karl. The tri-agency aircraft teamed up to perform coordinated flights for the genesis of Hurricane Karl and Tropical Storm Matthew and the non-redevelopment of the remnants of Tropical Storm Gaston. The combined GRIP–IFEX–PREDICT datasets, along with remote sensing data from a variety of satellite platforms [Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Aqua, Terra, CloudSat, and Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO)], will contribute to advancing understanding of hurricane formation and intensification. This article summarizes the GRIP experiment, the missions flown, and some preliminary findings.

  15. FPGA based system for automatic cDNA microarray image processing.

    PubMed

    Belean, Bogdan; Borda, Monica; Le Gal, Bertrand; Terebes, Romulus

    2012-07-01

    Automation is an open subject in DNA microarray image processing, aiming reliable gene expression estimation. The paper presents a novel shock filter based approach for automatic microarray grid alignment. The proposed method brings up significantly reduced computational complexity compared to state of the art approaches, while similar results in terms of accuracy are achieved. Based on this approach, we also propose an FPGA based system for microarray image analysis that eliminates the shortcomings of existing software platforms: user intervention, increased computational time and cost. Our system includes application-specific architectures which involve algorithm parallelization, aiming fast and automated cDNA microarray image processing. The proposed automated image processing chain is implemented both on a general purpose processor and using the developed hardware architectures as co-processors in a FPGA based system. The comparative results included in the last section show that an important gain in terms of computational time is obtained using hardware based implementations.

  16. Assessing the automaticity of moral processing: Efficient coding of moral information during narrative comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Fionnuala C.; Wilde, Gemma; Ogden, Neil; Barnard, Philip J.; Calder, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    A long-standing theoretical debate concerns the involvement of principled reasoning versus relatively automatic intuitive-emotional processing in moral cognition. To address this, we investigated whether the mental models formed during story comprehension contain a moral dimension and whether this process is affected by cognitive load. A total of 72 participants read stories about fictional characters in a range of moral situations, such as a husband being tempted to commit adultery. Each story concluded with a “moral” or “immoral” target sentence. Consistent with a framework of efficient extraction of moral information, participants took significantly longer to read immoral than moral target sentences. Moreover, the magnitude of this effect was not compromised by cognitive load. Our findings provide evidence of efficient coding of moral dimensions during narrative comprehension and demonstrate that this process does not require cognitively intense forms of principled reasoning. PMID:18720279

  17. Semantic priming in the prime task effect: evidence of automatic semantic processing of distractors.

    PubMed

    Marí-Beffa, P; Fuentes, L J; Catena, A; Houghton, G

    2000-06-01

    The automaticity of the semantic processing of words has been questioned because of the reduction of semantic priming when the prime word is processed nonsemantically--for example, in letter search (the prime task effect). In two experiments, prime distractor words produced semantic priming in a subsequent lexical decision task, but with the direction of priming (positive or negative) depending on the prime task. Lexico-semantic tasks produced negative semantic priming, whereas letter search produced positive semantic priming. These results are discussed in terms of task-based inhibition. We argue that, given the results from the distractors, the absence of semantic priming does not indicate an absence of semantic activation but reflects the action of control processes on prepotent responses when less practiced responses are needed.

  18. Automatic emotion processing as a function of trait emotional awareness: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Lichev, Vladimir; Sacher, Julia; Ihme, Klas; Rosenberg, Nicole; Quirin, Markus; Lepsien, Jöran; Pampel, André; Rufer, Michael; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Kugel, Harald; Kersting, Anette; Villringer, Arno; Lane, Richard D; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    It is unclear whether reflective awareness of emotions is related to extent and intensity of implicit affective reactions. This study is the first to investigate automatic brain reactivity to emotional stimuli as a function of trait emotional awareness. To assess emotional awareness the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) was administered. During scanning, masked happy, angry, fearful and neutral facial expressions were presented to 46 healthy subjects, who had to rate the fit between artificial and emotional words. The rating procedure allowed assessment of shifts in implicit affectivity due to emotion faces. Trait emotional awareness was associated with increased activation in the primary somatosensory cortex, inferior parietal lobule, anterior cingulate gyrus, middle frontal and cerebellar areas, thalamus, putamen and amygdala in response to masked happy faces. LEAS correlated positively with shifts in implicit affect caused by masked happy faces. According to our findings, people with high emotional awareness show stronger affective reactivity and more activation in brain areas involved in emotion processing and simulation during the perception of masked happy facial expression than people with low emotional awareness. High emotional awareness appears to be characterized by an enhanced positive affective resonance to others at an automatic processing level.

  19. Abnormalities in Automatic Processing of Illness-Related Stimuli in Self-Rated Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Laura; Pintzinger, Nina M.; Tran, Ulrich S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate abnormalities in automatic information processing related to self- and observer-rated alexithymia, especially with regard to somatization, controlling for confounding variables such as depression and affect. Sample 89 healthy subjects (60% female), aged 19–71 years (M = 32.1). 58 subjects were additionally rated by an observer. Measures Alexithymia (self-rating: TAS-20, observer rating: OAS); automatic information processing (priming task including verbal [illness-related, negative, positive, neutral] and facial [negative, positive, neutral] stimuli); somatoform symptoms (SOMS-7T); confounders: depression (BDI), affect (PANAS). Results Higher self-reported alexithymia scores were associated with lower reaction times for negative (r = .19, p < .10) and positive (r = .26, p < .05) verbal primes when the target was illness-related. Self-reported alexithymia was correlated with number (r = .42, p < .01) and intensity of current somatoform symptoms (r = .36, p < .01), but unrelated to observer-rated alexithymia (r = .11, p = .42). Discussion Results indicate a faster allocation of attentional resources away from task-irrelevant information towards illness-related stimuli in alexithymia. Considering the close relationship between alexithymia and somatization, these findings are compatible with the theoretical view that alexithymics focus strongly on bodily sensations of emotional arousal. A single observer rating (OAS) does not seem to be an adequate alexithymia-measure in community samples. PMID:26090893

  20. Reliability modelling of redundant safety systems without automatic diagnostics incorporating common cause failures and process demand.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Siamak; Sriramula, Srinivas

    2017-09-16

    Redundant safety systems are commonly used in the process industry to respond to hazardous events. In redundant systems composed of identical units, Common Cause Failures (CCFs) can significantly influence system performance with regards to reliability and safety. However, their impact has been overlooked due to the inherent complexity of modelling common cause induced failures. This article develops a reliability model for a redundant safety system using Markov analysis approach. The proposed model incorporates process demands in conjunction with CCF for the first time and evaluates their impacts on the reliability quantification of safety systems without automatic diagnostics. The reliability of the Markov model is quantified by considering the Probability of Failure on Demand (PFD) as a measure for low demand systems. The safety performance of the model is analysed using Hazardous Event Frequency (HEF) to evaluate the frequency of entering a hazardous state that will lead to an accident if the situation is not controlled. The utilisation of Markov model for a simple case study of a pressure protection system is demonstrated and it is shown that the proposed approach gives a sufficiently accurate result for all demand rates, durations, component failure rates and corresponding repair rates for low demand mode of operation. The Markov model proposed in this paper assumes the absence of automatic diagnostics, along with multiple stage repair strategy for CCFs and restoration of the system from hazardous state to the "as good as new" state. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Automatic emotion processing as a function of trait emotional awareness: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Lichev, Vladimir; Sacher, Julia; Ihme, Klas; Rosenberg, Nicole; Quirin, Markus; Lepsien, Jöran; Pampel, André; Rufer, Michael; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Kugel, Harald; Kersting, Anette; Villringer, Arno; Lane, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether reflective awareness of emotions is related to extent and intensity of implicit affective reactions. This study is the first to investigate automatic brain reactivity to emotional stimuli as a function of trait emotional awareness. To assess emotional awareness the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) was administered. During scanning, masked happy, angry, fearful and neutral facial expressions were presented to 46 healthy subjects, who had to rate the fit between artificial and emotional words. The rating procedure allowed assessment of shifts in implicit affectivity due to emotion faces. Trait emotional awareness was associated with increased activation in the primary somatosensory cortex, inferior parietal lobule, anterior cingulate gyrus, middle frontal and cerebellar areas, thalamus, putamen and amygdala in response to masked happy faces. LEAS correlated positively with shifts in implicit affect caused by masked happy faces. According to our findings, people with high emotional awareness show stronger affective reactivity and more activation in brain areas involved in emotion processing and simulation during the perception of masked happy facial expression than people with low emotional awareness. High emotional awareness appears to be characterized by an enhanced positive affective resonance to others at an automatic processing level. PMID:25140051

  2. Materials processing by use of a Ti:Sapphire laser with automatically-adjustable pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, M.; Imahoko, T.; Ozono, K.; Obara, M.

    We have developed an automatic pulsewidth-adjustable femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser system that can generate an output of 50 fs-1 ps in duration, and sub-mJ/pulse at a repetition rate of 1 kpps. The automatic pulse compressor enables one to control the pulsewidth in the range of 50 fs-1 ps by use of a personal computer (PC). The compressor can change the distance in-between and the tilt angle of the grating pairs by use of two stepping motors and two piezo-electric transducer(PZT) driven actuators, respectively. Both are controlled by a PC. Therefore, not only control of the pulsewidth, but also of the optical chirp becomes easy. By use of this femtosecond laser system, we fabricated a waveguide in fused quartz. The numerical aperture is chosen to 0.007 to loosely focus the femtosecond laser. The fabricated waveguides are well controllable by the incident laser pulsewidth. We also demonstrated the ablation processing of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), which is a key component of human tooth and human bone for orthopedics and dentistry. With pulsewidth tunable output from 50 fs through 2 ps at 1 kpps, the chemical content of calcium and phosphorus is kept unchanged before and after 50-fs-2-ps laser ablation. We also demonstrated the precise ablation processing of human tooth enamel with 2 ps Ti:Sapphire laser.

  3. Automatic Rice Crop Height Measurement Using a Field Server and Digital Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Sritarapipat, Tanakorn; Rakwatin, Preesan; Kasetkasem, Teerasit

    2014-01-01

    Rice crop height is an important agronomic trait linked to plant type and yield potential. This research developed an automatic image processing technique to detect rice crop height based on images taken by a digital camera attached to a field server. The camera acquires rice paddy images daily at a consistent time of day. The images include the rice plants and a marker bar used to provide a height reference. The rice crop height can be indirectly measured from the images by measuring the height of the marker bar compared to the height of the initial marker bar. Four digital image processing steps are employed to automatically measure the rice crop height: band selection, filtering, thresholding, and height measurement. Band selection is used to remove redundant features. Filtering extracts significant features of the marker bar. The thresholding method is applied to separate objects and boundaries of the marker bar versus other areas. The marker bar is detected and compared with the initial marker bar to measure the rice crop height. Our experiment used a field server with a digital camera to continuously monitor a rice field located in Suphanburi Province, Thailand. The experimental results show that the proposed method measures rice crop height effectively, with no human intervention required. PMID:24451465

  4. Automatic rice crop height measurement using a field server and digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Sritarapipat, Tanakorn; Rakwatin, Preesan; Kasetkasem, Teerasit

    2014-01-07

    Rice crop height is an important agronomic trait linked to plant type and yield potential. This research developed an automatic image processing technique to detect rice crop height based on images taken by a digital camera attached to a field server. The camera acquires rice paddy images daily at a consistent time of day. The images include the rice plants and a marker bar used to provide a height reference. The rice crop height can be indirectly measured from the images by measuring the height of the marker bar compared to the height of the initial marker bar. Four digital image processing steps are employed to automatically measure the rice crop height: band selection, filtering, thresholding, and height measurement. Band selection is used to remove redundant features. Filtering extracts significant features of the marker bar. The thresholding method is applied to separate objects and boundaries of the marker bar versus other areas. The marker bar is detected and compared with the initial marker bar to measure the rice crop height. Our experiment used a field server with a digital camera to continuously monitor a rice field located in Suphanburi Province, Thailand. The experimental results show that the proposed method measures rice crop height effectively, with no human intervention required.

  5. Linking automatic evaluation to mood and information processing style: consequences for experienced affect, impression formation, and stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Tanya L; van Baaren, Rick B; Bargh, John A

    2006-02-01

    According to the feelings-as-information account, a person's mood state signals to him or her the valence of the current environment (N. Schwarz & G. Clore, 1983). However, the ways in which the environment automatically influences mood in the first place remain to be explored. The authors propose that one mechanism by which the environment influences affect is automatic evaluation, the nonconscious evaluation of environmental stimuli as good or bad. A first experiment demonstrated that repeated brief exposure to positive or negative stimuli (which leads to automatic evaluation) induces a corresponding mood in participants. In 3 additional studies, the authors showed that automatic evaluation affects information processing style. Experiment 4 showed that participants' mood mediates the effect of valenced brief primes on information processing. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Linking Automatic Evaluation to Mood and Information Processing Style: Consequences for Experienced Affect, Impression Formation, and Stereotyping

    PubMed Central

    Chartrand, Tanya L.; van Baaren, Rick B.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    According to the feelings-as-information account, a person’s mood state signals to him or her the valence of the current environment (N. Schwarz & G. Clore, 1983). However, the ways in which the environment automatically influences mood in the first place remain to be explored. The authors propose that one mechanism by which the environment influences affect is automatic evaluation, the nonconscious evaluation of environmental stimuli as good or bad. A first experiment demonstrated that repeated brief exposure to positive or negative stimuli (which leads to automatic evaluation) induces a corresponding mood in participants. In 3 additional studies, the authors showed that automatic evaluation affects information processing style. Experiment 4 showed that participants’ mood mediates the effect of valenced brief primes on information processing. PMID:16478316

  7. Superior metallic alloys through rapid solidification processing (RSP) by design

    SciTech Connect

    Flinn, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    Rapid solidification processing using powder atomization methods and the control of minor elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon can provide metallic alloys with superior properties and performance compared to conventionally processing alloys. Previous studies on nickel- and iron-base superalloys have provided the baseline information to properly couple RSP with alloy composition, and, therefore, enable alloys to be designed for performance improvements. The RSP approach produces powders, which need to be consolidated into suitable monolithic forms. This normally involves canning, consolidation, and decanning of the powders. Canning/decanning is expensive and raises the fabrication cost significantly above that of conventional, ingot metallurgy production methods. The cost differential can be offset by the superior performance of the RSP metallic alloys. However, without the performance database, it is difficult to convince potential users to adopt the RSP approach. Spray casting of the atomized molten droplets into suitable preforms for subsequent fabrication can be cost competitive with conventional processing. If the fine and stable microstructural features observed for the RSP approach are preserved during spray casing, a cost competitive product can be obtained that has superior properties and performance that cannot be obtained by conventional methods.

  8. Automatic DNA Diagnosis for 1D Gel Electrophoresis Images using Bio-image Processing Technique.

    PubMed

    Intarapanich, Apichart; Kaewkamnerd, Saowaluck; Shaw, Philip J; Ukosakit, Kittipat; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tongsima, Sissades

    2015-01-01

    DNA gel electrophoresis is a molecular biology technique for separating different sizes of DNA fragments. Applications of DNA gel electrophoresis include DNA fingerprinting (genetic diagnosis), size estimation of DNA, and DNA separation for Southern blotting. Accurate interpretation of DNA banding patterns from electrophoretic images can be laborious and error prone when a large number of bands are interrogated manually. Although many bio-imaging techniques have been proposed, none of them can fully automate the typing of DNA owing to the complexities of migration patterns typically obtained. We developed an image-processing tool that automatically calls genotypes from DNA gel electrophoresis images. The image processing workflow comprises three main steps: 1) lane segmentation, 2) extraction of DNA bands and 3) band genotyping classification. The tool was originally intended to facilitate large-scale genotyping analysis of sugarcane cultivars. We tested the proposed tool on 10 gel images (433 cultivars) obtained from polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of PCR amplicons for detecting intron length polymorphisms (ILP) on one locus of the sugarcanes. These gel images demonstrated many challenges in automated lane/band segmentation in image processing including lane distortion, band deformity, high degree of noise in the background, and bands that are very close together (doublets). Using the proposed bio-imaging workflow, lanes and DNA bands contained within are properly segmented, even for adjacent bands with aberrant migration that cannot be separated by conventional techniques. The software, called GELect, automatically performs genotype calling on each lane by comparing with an all-banding reference, which was created by clustering the existing bands into the non-redundant set of reference bands. The automated genotype calling results were verified by independent manual typing by molecular biologists. This work presents an automated genotyping tool from DNA

  9. Automatic DNA Diagnosis for 1D Gel Electrophoresis Images using Bio-image Processing Technique

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background DNA gel electrophoresis is a molecular biology technique for separating different sizes of DNA fragments. Applications of DNA gel electrophoresis include DNA fingerprinting (genetic diagnosis), size estimation of DNA, and DNA separation for Southern blotting. Accurate interpretation of DNA banding patterns from electrophoretic images can be laborious and error prone when a large number of bands are interrogated manually. Although many bio-imaging techniques have been proposed, none of them can fully automate the typing of DNA owing to the complexities of migration patterns typically obtained. Results We developed an image-processing tool that automatically calls genotypes from DNA gel electrophoresis images. The image processing workflow comprises three main steps: 1) lane segmentation, 2) extraction of DNA bands and 3) band genotyping classification. The tool was originally intended to facilitate large-scale genotyping analysis of sugarcane cultivars. We tested the proposed tool on 10 gel images (433 cultivars) obtained from polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of PCR amplicons for detecting intron length polymorphisms (ILP) on one locus of the sugarcanes. These gel images demonstrated many challenges in automated lane/band segmentation in image processing including lane distortion, band deformity, high degree of noise in the background, and bands that are very close together (doublets). Using the proposed bio-imaging workflow, lanes and DNA bands contained within are properly segmented, even for adjacent bands with aberrant migration that cannot be separated by conventional techniques. The software, called GELect, automatically performs genotype calling on each lane by comparing with an all-banding reference, which was created by clustering the existing bands into the non-redundant set of reference bands. The automated genotype calling results were verified by independent manual typing by molecular biologists. Conclusions This work presents an

  10. Automatic pre-processing for an object-oriented distributed hydrological model using GRASS-GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzana, P.; Jankowfsky, S.; Branger, F.; Braud, I.; Vargas, X.; Hitschfeld, N.

    2012-04-01

    Landscapes are very heterogeneous, which impact the hydrological processes occurring in the catchments, especially in the modeling of peri-urban catchments. The Hydrological Response Units (HRUs), resulting from the intersection of different maps, such as land use, soil types and geology, and flow networks, allow the representation of these elements in an explicit way, preserving natural and artificial contours of the different layers. These HRUs are used as model mesh in some distributed object-oriented hydrological models, allowing the application of a topological oriented approach. The connectivity between polygons and polylines provides a detailed representation of the water balance and overland flow in these distributed hydrological models, based on irregular hydro-landscape units. When computing fluxes between these HRUs, the geometrical parameters, such as the distance between the centroid of gravity of the HRUs and the river network, and the length of the perimeter, can impact the realism of the calculated overland, sub-surface and groundwater fluxes. Therefore, it is necessary to process the original model mesh in order to avoid these numerical problems. We present an automatic pre-processing implemented in the open source GRASS-GIS software, for which several Python scripts or some algorithms already available were used, such as the Triangle software. First, some scripts were developed to improve the topology of the various elements, such as snapping of the river network to the closest contours. When data are derived with remote sensing, such as vegetation areas, their perimeter has lots of right angles that were smoothed. Second, the algorithms more particularly address bad-shaped elements of the model mesh such as polygons with narrow shapes, marked irregular contours and/or the centroid outside of the polygons. To identify these elements we used shape descriptors. The convexity index was considered the best descriptor to identify them with a threshold

  11. Temporal Satellite Images in The Process of Automatic Efficient Detection of Changes of the Baltic Sea Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalowska, Krystyna; Glowienka, Ewa; Hejmanowska, Beata

    2016-10-01

    The goal of the research was to perform tests aimed at assessing possibilities of utilising multi-temporal Landsat satellite images for automatic efficient detection of changes (e.g. accumulation and erosion) of the sea coastal zone. The research database was composed of Landsat satellite images, and standardized NDVI vegetation indexes from the years 1998 and 2015, as well as multi-temporal vector maps and aerial orthophotomaps. The result map of Change detection allowed to locate areas, in which diametrical changes in land coverage took place. Satellite images reflecting the condition of the examined area for twenty years enabled outlining changes of Baltic coastal zone, and then determining the rate and extent of transformations of examined part of coast (erosion and accumulation), and also made it possible to trace the migration of dunes. The analysis showed the range of shifting dune displacement in the years 1998-2015 amounts to ca. 180 m. On the examined section of seashore (32 km), the process of erosion and accumulation was detected respectively on the length of 21 km and 10 km along the coast. The changes of accumulation and erosion of the sea coast are easily identifiable and clearly visible. Properly conducted workflow of processing the satellite images have allowed the rapid and efficient detection of changes coastline, dunes and vegetation.

  12. Automatic ultrasonic imaging system with adaptive-learning-network signal-processing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, L.J.; Aravanis, N.A.; Gouge, J.R. Jr.; Mucciardi, A.N.; Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1982-04-01

    A conventional pulse-echo imaging system has been modified to operate with a linear ultrasonic array and associated digital electronics to collect data from a series of defects fabricated in aircraft quality steel blocks. A thorough analysis of the defect responses recorded with this modified system has shown that considerable improvements over conventional imaging approaches can be obtained in the crucial areas of defect detection and characterization. A combination of advanced signal processing concepts with the Adaptive Learning Network (ALN) methodology forms the basis for these improvements. Use of established signal processing algorithms such as temporal and spatial beam-forming in concert with a sophisticated detector has provided a reliable defect detection scheme which can be implemented in a microprocessor-based system to operate in an automatic mode.

  13. ERPs Differentially Reflect Automatic and Deliberate Processing of the Functional Manipulability of Objects

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Christopher R.; Chen, Yvonne Y.; Singhal, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the functional properties of an object can interact with perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes. Previously we have found that a between-subjects manipulation of judgment instructions resulted in different manipulability-related memory biases in an incidental memory test. To better understand this effect we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while participants made judgments about images of objects that were either high or low in functional manipulability (e.g., hammer vs. ladder). Using a between-subjects design, participants judged whether they had seen the object recently (Personal Experience), or could manipulate the object using their hand (Functionality). We focused on the P300 and slow-wave event-related potentials (ERPs) as reflections of attentional allocation. In both groups, we observed higher P300 and slow wave amplitudes for high-manipulability objects at electrodes Pz and C3. As P300 is thought to reflect bottom-up attentional processes, this may suggest that the processing of high-manipulability objects recruited more attentional resources. Additionally, the P300 effect was greater in the Functionality group. A more complex pattern was observed at electrode C3 during slow wave: processing the high-manipulability objects in the Functionality instruction evoked a more positive slow wave than in the other three conditions, likely related to motor simulation processes. These data provide neural evidence that effects of manipulability on stimulus processing are further mediated by automatic vs. deliberate motor-related processing. PMID:27536224

  14. Automatic procedure for quasi-real time seismic data processing at Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Paolo; Ciaramella, Angelo; De Lauro, Enza; De Martino, Salvatore; Falanga, Mariarosaria; Petrosino, Simona

    2014-05-01

    The accuracy of automatic procedures for detecting seismic events and locating their sources is influenced by several factors such as errors in picking seismic phases often buried in the high-level ambient noise, network geometry and modelling errors. fundamental objective is the improvement of these procedures by developing accurate algorithms for quasi-real time seismic data processing, easily managed in observatory practice. Recently a robust automatic procedure has been implemented for detecting, onset picking and identifying signal phases in continuous seismic signal with an application at the seismicity recorded at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy) during the 2006 ground uplift (Ciaramella et al. 2011). An Independent Component Analysis based approach for the Blind Source Separation of convolutive mixtures (CICA) has been adopted to obtain a clear separation of low-energy Long Period events (LPs) from the high-level ambient noise allowing to compile a complete seismic catalogue and better quantify the seismic energy release. In this work, we apply CICA at the seismic signal continuously recorded during the entire 2006 at Campi Flegrei. First, we have performed tests on synthetic data in order to improve the reliability and the accuracy of the procedure. The performance test using very noisy synthetic data shows that the method works even in case of very poor quality data characterized by very low signal to noise ratio (SNR). Second, we have improved CICA automatic procedure recovering the information on the amplitudes of the extracted independent components. This is crucial for further analysis, starting from a prompt estimate of magnitude/energy of the highlighted events. Data used for the present analysis were collected by four broadband three-component seismic stations (ASB2, AMS2, TAGG, BGNG) belonging to the Campi Flegrei seismic monitoring network, managed by the 'Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia-Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV-OV)' (see for

  15. Automatic River Bed Grain Size Measurement Using Image Processing and Support Vector Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellugi, D.; Nelson, P. A.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    Gravel-bedded rivers cut through hilly and mountainous areas, driving landscape evolution and creating a diverse habitat upon which river food web ecosystems develop. Our understanding of the mechanics underlying important processes in fluvial geomorphology, hydrodynamics, and aquatic ecology inevitably requires knowledge about the grain size distribution of river bed material. Standard methods of sampling bed surface material may introduce errors due to biases and inadequate sample size. Alternative areal or volumetric sampling procedures are often impractical, particularly in coarse channel beds. Furthermore, all invasive sampling techniques can compromise laboratory flume experiments. These concerns suggest that there is a practical need for a reliable, automated, non-invasive procedure for obtaining the grain size distribution of bed surface material. Although considerable effort has been made to automatically generate grain size distributions using image processing and analysis techniques, the problem remains quite challenging: issues such as varying lighting conditions, partial immersion of particles in water, and heterogeneous mineralogy result in ambiguities that cannot be easily resolved. Feature extraction introduces further biases due to over- or under-segmentation of the image. Moreover, unless the grain distributions are fairly homogeneous between different locations, and images are collected in similar fashion, it is difficult to parametrize any such method in a transferable manner. In this study we present an image processing and machine learning procedure to automatically identify and measure grains from photographic images of gravel-bedded rivers. We apply the state-of-the-art of image segmentation techniques, making use of local cues such as brightness, color, and texture in a multi-scale approach. These cues are globalized using a graph partitioning method on the oriented contour signal. The resulting boundary probability signal is treated by a

  16. Automatically Detecting Failures in Natural Language Processing Tools for Online Community Text

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Andrea L; Huh, Jina; McDonald, David W; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and value of patient-generated health text are increasing, but processing such text remains problematic. Although existing biomedical natural language processing (NLP) tools are appealing, most were developed to process clinician- or researcher-generated text, such as clinical notes or journal articles. In addition to being constructed for different types of text, other challenges of using existing NLP include constantly changing technologies, source vocabularies, and characteristics of text. These continuously evolving challenges warrant the need for applying low-cost systematic assessment. However, the primarily accepted evaluation method in NLP, manual annotation, requires tremendous effort and time. Objective The primary objective of this study is to explore an alternative approach—using low-cost, automated methods to detect failures (eg, incorrect boundaries, missed terms, mismapped concepts) when processing patient-generated text with existing biomedical NLP tools. We first characterize common failures that NLP tools can make in processing online community text. We then demonstrate the feasibility of our automated approach in detecting these common failures using one of the most popular biomedical NLP tools, MetaMap. Methods Using 9657 posts from an online cancer community, we explored our automated failure detection approach in two steps: (1) to characterize the failure types, we first manually reviewed MetaMap’s commonly occurring failures, grouped the inaccurate mappings into failure types, and then identified causes of the failures through iterative rounds of manual review using open coding, and (2) to automatically detect these failure types, we then explored combinations of existing NLP techniques and dictionary-based matching for each failure cause. Finally, we manually evaluated the automatically detected failures. Results From our manual review, we characterized three types of failure: (1) boundary failures, (2) missed

  17. Airplane numerical simulation for the rapid prototyping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roysdon, Paul F.

    Airplane Numerical Simulation for the Rapid Prototyping Process is a comprehensive research investigation into the most up-to-date methods for airplane development and design. Uses of modern engineering software tools, like MatLab and Excel, are presented with examples of batch and optimization algorithms which combine the computing power of MatLab with robust aerodynamic tools like XFOIL and AVL. The resulting data is demonstrated in the development and use of a full non-linear six-degrees-of-freedom simulator. The applications for this numerical tool-box vary from un-manned aerial vehicles to first-order analysis of manned aircraft. A Blended-Wing-Body airplane is used for the analysis to demonstrate the flexibility of the code from classic wing-and-tail configurations to less common configurations like the blended-wing-body. This configuration has been shown to have superior aerodynamic performance -- in contrast to their classic wing-and-tube fuselage counterparts -- and have reduced sensitivity to aerodynamic flutter as well as potential for increased engine noise abatement. Of course without a classic tail elevator to damp the nose up pitching moment, and the vertical tail rudder to damp the yaw and possible rolling aerodynamics, the challenges in lateral roll and yaw stability, as well as pitching moment are not insignificant. This thesis work applies the tools necessary to perform the airplane development and optimization on a rapid basis, demonstrating the strength of this tool through examples and comparison of the results to similar airplane performance characteristics published in literature.

  18. On-line monitoring of continuous beer fermentation process using automatic membrane inlet mass spectrometric system.

    PubMed

    Tarkiainen, Virpi; Kotiaho, Tapio; Mattila, Ismo; Virkajärvi, Ilkka; Aristidou, Aristos; Ketola, Raimo A

    2005-03-15

    A fully automatic membrane inlet mass spectrometric (MIMS) on-line instrumentation for the analysis of aroma compounds in continuous beer fermentation processes was constructed and tested. The instrumentation includes automatic filtration of the sample stream, flushing of all tubing between samples and pH control. The calibration standards can be measured periodically. The instrumentation has also an extra sample line that can be used for off-line sample collection or it can be connected to another on-line method. Detection limits for ethanol, acetic acid and eight organic beer aroma compounds were from mugl(-1) to low mgl(-1) levels and the standard deviations were less than 3.4%. The method has a good repeatability and linearity in the measurement range. Response times are shorter than or equal to 3min for all compounds except for ethyl caproate, which has a response time of 8min. In beer aroma compound analysis a good agreement between MIMS and static headspace gas chromatographic (HSGC) measurements was found. The effects of different matrix compounds commonly present in the fermentation media on the MIMS response to acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and ethanol were studied. Addition of yeast did not have any effect on the MIMS response of ethanol or ethyl acetate. Sugars, glucose and xylose, increased the MIMS response of all studied analytes only slightly, whereas salts, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate and sodium chloride, increased the MIMS response of all three studied compounds prominently. The system was used for on-line monitoring of continuous beer fermentation with immobilised yeast. The results show that with MIMS it is possible to monitor the changes in the continuous process as well as delays in the two-phase process.

  19. Rapid process development of chromatographic process using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry as a process analytical technology tool.

    PubMed

    Yan, Binjun; Chen, Teng; Xu, Zhilin; Qu, Haibin

    2014-06-01

    The concept of quality by design (QbD) is widely applied in the process development of pharmaceuticals. However, the additional cost and time have caused some resistance about QbD implementation. To show a possible solution, this work proposed a rapid process development method, which used direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for studying the chromatographic process of Ginkgo biloba L., as an example. The breakthrough curves were fast determined by DART-MS at-line. A high correlation coefficient of 0.9520 was found between the concentrations of ginkgolide A determined by DART-MS and HPLC. Based on the PAT tool, the impacts of process parameters on the adsorption capacity were discovered rapidly, which showed a decreased adsorption capacity with the increase of the flow rate. This work has shown the feasibility and advantages of integrating PAT into QbD implementation for rapid process development.

  20. Automatic simulation of a sequence of hot-former forging processes by a rigid-thermoviscoplastic finite element method

    SciTech Connect

    Joun, M.S.; Moon, H.K.; Shivpuri, R.

    1998-10-01

    A fully automatic forging simulation technique in hot-former forging is presented in this paper. A rigid-thermoviscoplastic finite element method is employed together with automatic simulation techniques. A realistic analysis model of the hot-former forging processes is given with emphasis on thermal analysis and simulation automation. The whole processes including forming, dwelling, ejecting, and transferring are considered in the analysis model and various cooling conditions are embedded in the analysis model. The approach is applied to a sequence of three-stage hot former forging process. Nonisothermal analysis results are compared with isothermal ones and the effect of heat transfer on predicted metal flows is discussed.

  1. Music training enhances the automatic neural processing of foreign speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Intartaglia, Bastien; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina; Schön, Daniele

    2017-10-03

    Growing evidence shows that music and language experience affect the neural processing of speech sounds throughout the auditory system. Recent work mainly focused on the benefits induced by musical practice on the processing of native language or tonal foreign language, which rely on pitch processing. The aim of the present study was to take this research a step further by investigating the effect of music training on processing English sounds by foreign listeners. We recorded subcortical electrophysiological responses to an English syllable in three groups of participants: native speakers, non-native nonmusicians, and non-native musicians. Native speakers had enhanced neural processing of the formant frequencies of speech, compared to non-native nonmusicians, suggesting that automatic encoding of these relevant speech cues are sensitive to language experience. Most strikingly, in non-native musicians, neural responses to the formant frequencies did not differ from those of native speakers, suggesting that musical training may compensate for the lack of language experience by strengthening the neural encoding of important acoustic information. Language and music experience seem to induce a selective sensory gain along acoustic dimensions that are functionally-relevant-here, formant frequencies that are crucial for phoneme discrimination.

  2. P3BSseq: parallel processing pipeline software for automatic analysis of bisulfite sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Luu, Phuc-Loi; Gerovska, Daniela; Arrospide-Elgarresta, Mikel; Retegi-Carrión, Sugoi; Schöler, Hans R; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J

    2017-02-01

    Bisulfite sequencing (BSseq) processing is among the most cumbersome next generation sequencing (NGS) applications. Though some BSseq processing tools are available, they are scattered, require puzzling parameters and are running-time and memory-usage demanding. We developed P3BSseq, a parallel processing pipeline for fast, accurate and automatic analysis of BSseq reads that trims, aligns, annotates, records the intermediate results, performs bisulfite conversion quality assessment, generates BED methylome and report files following the NIH standards. P3BSseq outperforms the known BSseq mappers regarding running time, computer hardware requirements (processing power and memory use) and is optimized to process the upcoming, extended BSseq reads. We optimized the P3BSseq parameters for directional and non-directional libraries, and for single-end and paired-end reads of Whole Genome and Reduced Representation BSseq. P3BSseq is a user-friendly streamlined solution for BSseq upstream analysis, requiring only basic computer and NGS knowledge. P3BSseq binaries and documentation are available at: http://sourceforge.net/p/p3bsseq/wiki/Home/ mararabra@yahoo.co.uk Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. Rapid and Effective Construction of Science Data Archives and Repositories using the OODT Process Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Apache OODT Process Control System, or PCS, is a suite of tailorable software components leveraged on NASA Earth and planetary science archives; on distributed information systems at the National Cancer Institute, in radio astronomy and astrophysics to prototype the next generation radio telescope, and in the collection of datasets relevant to regional climate modeling, snow hydrology and more broadly, climate change. The components provide flexible file management, workflow management, resource management, and associated client toolkits for automatically downloading remote content, identifying that content (based on MIME type identification, language identification, XML schema, etc.), ingesting it into an archive, and then integrating off-the-shelf science algorithms for processing the data for later dissemination. Recent developments within the PCS components include the inception of a JAX-RS based suite of REST web services providing health monitoring, pedigree and provenance tracking, and metadata transformation via known URL formats and schemas. Much of the information provided by the PCS is being used to rapidly construct science data archive user interfaces, command line tools, and other advanced services (data subsetting; regridding, etc.) In this talk, we will discuss the current state of the PCS components; their relevance on several recent Earth, planetary and astronomy projects, and the movement of the components into the open source Apache Software Foundation, where they are part of the larger OODT top level project.

  4. An automatic detection method to the field wheat based on image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Cao, Zhiguo; Bai, Xiaodong; Yu, Zhenghong; Li, Yanan

    2013-10-01

    The automatic observation of the field crop attracts more and more attention recently. The use of image processing technology instead of the existing manual observation method can observe timely and manage consistently. It is the basis that extracting the wheat from the field wheat images. In order to improve accuracy of the wheat segmentation, a novel two-stage wheat image segmentation method is proposed. Training stage adjusts several key thresholds which will be used in segmentation stage to achieve the best segmentation results, and counts these thresholds. Segmentation stage compares the different values of color index to determine which class of each pixel is. To verify the superiority of the proposed algorithm, we compared our method with other crop segmentation methods. Experiment results shows that the proposed method has the best performance.

  5. Mapping forest vegetation with ERTS-1 MSS data and automatic data processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messmore, J.; Copeland, G. E.; Levy, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the intent of elucidating the forest mapping capabilities of ERTS-1 MSS data when analyzed with the aid of LARS' automatic data processing techniques. The site for this investigation was the Great Dismal Swamp, a 210,000 acre wilderness area located on the Middle Atlantic coastal plain. Due to inadequate ground truth information on the distribution of vegetation within the swamp, an unsupervised classification scheme was utilized. Initially pictureprints, resembling low resolution photographs, were generated in each of the four ERTS-1 channels. Data found within rectangular training fields was then clustered into 13 spectral groups and defined statistically. Using a maximum likelihood classification scheme, the unknown data points were subsequently classified into one of the designated training classes. Training field data was classified with a high degree of accuracy (greater than 95 percent), and progress is being made towards identifying the mapped spectral classes.

  6. Stereotype threat strengthens automatic recall and undermines controlled processes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Morisset, Pauline; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2012-07-01

    The threat of being judged stereotypically (stereotype threat) may impair memory performance in older adults, thereby producing inflated age differences in memory tasks. However, the underlying mechanisms of stereotype threat in older adults or other stigmatized groups remain poorly understood. Here, we offer evidence that stereotype threat consumes working memory resources in older adults. More important, using a process-dissociation procedure, we found, for the first time, that stereotype threat undermines the controlled use of memory and simultaneously intensifies automatic response tendencies. These findings indicate that competing models of stereotype threat are actually compatible and offer further reasons for researchers and practitioners to pay special attention to age-related stereotypes during standardized neuropsychological testing.

  7. Developing an Intelligent Automatic Appendix Extraction Method from Ultrasonography Based on Fuzzy ART and Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Song, Doo Heon; Han, Sang-suk

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound examination (US) does a key role in the diagnosis and management of the patients with clinically suspected appendicitis which is the most common abdominal surgical emergency. Among the various sonographic findings of appendicitis, outer diameter of the appendix is most important. Therefore, clear delineation of the appendix on US images is essential. In this paper, we propose a new intelligent method to extract appendix automatically from abdominal sonographic images as a basic building block of developing such an intelligent tool for medical practitioners. Knowing that the appendix is located at the lower organ area below the bottom fascia line, we conduct a series of image processing techniques to find the fascia line correctly. And then we apply fuzzy ART learning algorithm to the organ area in order to extract appendix accurately. The experiment verifies that the proposed method is highly accurate (successful in 38 out of 40 cases) in extracting appendix. PMID:26089963

  8. Automatic word processing hypnosis and cognitive therapy for psychosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rusk, Gregory

    2014-07-01

    Hallucinations are often perceived as auditory and visual experiences emanating from outside the mind and it is this belief by patients that is a powerfully convincing factor in maintaining psychotic symptoms and accompanying distress. One of the main tasks of cognitive therapy for psychosis is to help the person recognize that the hallucinations emerge from within their own mind for some meaningful reason. A change in meaning can change a person's affective and behavioral responses to hallucinatory phenomena. Automatic Word Processing (AWP) hypnosis is a novel way to help a person realize that the hallucinations they perceive as external and distressful are really internally generated phenomena often based upon his or her life experiences. The case presented here illustrates how AWP hypnosis helped a 13-year-old girl access the internal material that shaped the form and content of visual and auditory hallucinations and interfered with her social and academic functioning.

  9. [Automatic information processing, the frontal system and blunted affect. From clinical dimensions to cognitive processes toward a psychobiological explanation of temperament].

    PubMed

    Partiot, A; Pierson, A; Renault, B; Widlöcher, D; Jouvent, R

    1994-01-01

    Several theorists have drawn a distinction between automatic and attentional or controlled processing. Hasher and Zacks (1979), were the very first to argue that effortful processes are reduced under conditions of stress including depression. They suggested that, in these conditions, no such deficit occurs in automatic processing. Then, Weingartner and co-workers provided some experiments which seemed to support such an interpretation of the cognitive dysfunction in depressed patients. However, some recent data do not fit with this well admitted theoretical framework. The purpose of our article is to try to clarify this issue both from a theoretical and from a methodological point of view. First, we make a critical review of the most recent results in three fields of experimentation related to the "automatic versus controlled" topic: 1) The classical neuropsychology of memory which manipulates the level of effort required to perform the tasks. Confusion arises when theories at the process level are tested with reference to data collected at the task level. The transparency assumption could be false: Impairment in an effort-demanding task could be due to a defect in automatic processes and it is possible to hypothesize that the more automatic processes are deficient, the more controlled processes are saturated and the effort demanding task impaired. The emergence of controlled processes could depend on the level of automaticity and the regulation of automatic processes could be determinant for the ability of the subject to make associations. 2) The recent studies on implicit memory in depression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Lab experiments on the innovative rapid thick strip casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Richard; Senk, Dieter

    2012-05-01

    Rapid thick strip casting (RTSC) by Anton Hulek, Inventmetall®, is an innovative concept for the production of hot strips with a final as-cast thickness of about 25 mm before rolling. The innovation of the mechanism consists in a vertical mould performing a caterpillar motion. This moving mould has an unconventional parallelogram-shaped cross-section. The conventional rectangular shape is formed in the shaping machine, which is placed straight below the mould. Further elements of the technology are state-of-the-art. For the investigation of this new casting system theoretical calculations were complemented with practical experiments. The investigation focused mainly on two key aspects: the characteristics of the mould and the shaping process. For the practical analysis a static mould with three pairs of elements in laboratory scale was developed and commissioned by the Dept. of Ferrous Metallurgy @ RWTH Aachen University. The shaping experiments were carried out in model scale with two different materials and in variable boundary conditions. The results of these experiments delivered important mechanical as well as thermal informations about the casting system.

  11. Individual differences in children's mathematical competence are related to the intentional but not automatic processing of Arabic numerals.

    PubMed

    Bugden, Stephanie; Ansari, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role played by basic numerical magnitude processing in the typical and atypical development of mathematical skills. In this context, tasks measuring both the intentional and automatic processing of numerical magnitude have been employed to characterize how children's representation and processing of numerical magnitude changes over developmental time. To date, however, there has been little effort to differentiate between different measures of 'number sense'. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between automatic and intentional measures of magnitude processing as well as their relationships to individual differences in children's mathematical achievement. A group of 119 children in 1st and 2nd grade were tested on the physical size congruity paradigm (automatic processing) as well as the number comparison paradigm to measure the ratio effect (intentional processing). The results reveal that measures of intentional and automatic processing are uncorrelated with one another, suggesting that these tasks tap into different levels of numerical magnitude processing in children. Furthermore, while children's performance on the number comparison paradigm was found to correlate with their mathematical achievement scores, no such correlations could be obtained for any of the measures typically derived from the physical size congruity task. These findings therefore suggest that different tasks measuring 'number sense' tap into different levels of numerical magnitude representation that may be unrelated to one another and have differential predictive power for individual differences in mathematical achievement.

  12. Inviting the Unconscious to Manifest: Process as a Product? Authentic Movement and Automatic Drawing Performed/Exhibited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesonen, Inari

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines two improvisational processes, Authentic Movement (AM) and automatic drawing (AD), the possibility of their presentation to the viewer and the meanings such presentation may bring to the work presented. Improvisation has traditionally been used in the process of creating a finished work of art rather than in the finished art…

  13. Individual Differences in Children's Mathematical Competence Are Related to the Intentional but Not Automatic Processing of Arabic Numerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugden, Stephanie; Ansari, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role played by basic numerical magnitude processing in the typical and atypical development of mathematical skills. In this context, tasks measuring both the intentional and automatic processing of numerical magnitude have been employed to characterize how children's representation and…

  14. Individual Differences in Children's Mathematical Competence Are Related to the Intentional but Not Automatic Processing of Arabic Numerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugden, Stephanie; Ansari, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role played by basic numerical magnitude processing in the typical and atypical development of mathematical skills. In this context, tasks measuring both the intentional and automatic processing of numerical magnitude have been employed to characterize how children's representation and…

  15. Inviting the Unconscious to Manifest: Process as a Product? Authentic Movement and Automatic Drawing Performed/Exhibited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesonen, Inari

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines two improvisational processes, Authentic Movement (AM) and automatic drawing (AD), the possibility of their presentation to the viewer and the meanings such presentation may bring to the work presented. Improvisation has traditionally been used in the process of creating a finished work of art rather than in the finished art…

  16. An Automatic Image Processing Workflow for Daily Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quality Assurance.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Juha I; Mäkelä, Teemu; Sofiev, Alexey; Salli, Eero

    2017-04-01

    The performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment is typically monitored with a quality assurance (QA) program. The QA program includes various tests performed at regular intervals. Users may execute specific tests, e.g., daily, weekly, or monthly. The exact interval of these measurements varies according to the department policies, machine setup and usage, manufacturer's recommendations, and available resources. In our experience, a single image acquired before the first patient of the day offers a low effort and effective system check. When this daily QA check is repeated with identical imaging parameters and phantom setup, the data can be used to derive various time series of the scanner performance. However, daily QA with manual processing can quickly become laborious in a multi-scanner environment. Fully automated image analysis and results output can positively impact the QA process by decreasing reaction time, improving repeatability, and by offering novel performance evaluation methods. In this study, we have developed a daily MRI QA workflow that can measure multiple scanner performance parameters with minimal manual labor required. The daily QA system is built around a phantom image taken by the radiographers at the beginning of day. The image is acquired with a consistent phantom setup and standardized imaging parameters. Recorded parameters are processed into graphs available to everyone involved in the MRI QA process via a web-based interface. The presented automatic MRI QA system provides an efficient tool for following the short- and long-term stability of MRI scanners.

  17. Electronic manufacturing process improvement (EMPI) for automatic winding of quadrupole fiber optic gyro sensor coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, Gregory S.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this EMPI program was to design an Automatic Coil Winding Station (ACWS) for winding Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) sensor coils through the use of TQM, QFD, etc., followed by use of Taguchi an other statistical techniques to optimize the coil winding process. Four phases were involved: Process Definition, Critical Factor Identification, Variability Reduction, and SPC Implementation. Winding FOG coils is both difficult and fragile in that it is a quadrupole wind - as apposed to the conventional thread wind - compounded by the requirement for low tension precision, high-fiber packing density, and always risk of damage to the delicate fiber itself. The critical factor identification in the quadrupole winding process was reduced to fiber crossover - a significant detrimental influence on gyro performance - which, in turn, was closely identified with fiber gap control. The station was completed and deployed to the field where production coils are currently being wound. The ACWS not only lowered the required labor skill but succeeded in reducing the winding cycle time to 1 hour (from 24 hours) and touch labor time to 0.3 hours (from 24 hours) while improving the yield and performance through improved process control.

  18. Gaussian processes: a method for automatic QSAR modeling of ADME properties.

    PubMed

    Obrezanova, Olga; Csanyi, Gabor; Gola, Joelle M R; Segall, Matthew D

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the application of the Gaussian Process method for the prediction of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties. On the basis of a Bayesian probabilistic approach, the method is widely used in the field of machine learning but has rarely been applied in quantitative structure-activity relationship and ADME modeling. The method is suitable for modeling nonlinear relationships, does not require subjective determination of the model parameters, works for a large number of descriptors, and is inherently resistant to overtraining. The performance of Gaussian Processes compares well with and often exceeds that of artificial neural networks. Due to these features, the Gaussian Processes technique is eminently suitable for automatic model generation-one of the demands of modern drug discovery. Here, we describe the basic concept of the method in the context of regression problems and illustrate its application to the modeling of several ADME properties: blood-brain barrier, hERG inhibition, and aqueous solubility at pH 7.4. We also compare Gaussian Processes with other modeling techniques.

  19. Predator Acquisition Program Transition from Rapid to Standard Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    At the start of the war, there was no consistent rapid acquisition strategy approach in place to meet the emerging warfighter needs. As a result...that Congress was “interested in the rapid, flexible, and innovative acquisition approaches that hallmark Big Safari, and it strongly urges the

  20. Application of Solidification Theory to Rapid Solidification Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Rapid Solidification Microstructures in Al-Ag Alloys 15 from Electron Beam Melting Studies Metallic Glass Formation 18 3. Appendix - Papers Resulting...alloy system having retrograde solidus in phase diagram. o Experimentally achieved enhanced solid solubility from electron beam melting and...3) electron beam melting and rapid resolidification studies in Al-Ag alloys, and (4) investigations of critical velocities for metallic glass

  1. Gap-free segmentation of vascular networks with automatic image processing pipeline.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Yang; Ghaffari, Mahsa; Alaraj, Ali; Flannery, Michael; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Linninger, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Current image processing techniques capture large vessels reliably but often fail to preserve connectivity in bifurcations and small vessels. Imaging artifacts and noise can create gaps and discontinuity of intensity that hinders segmentation of vascular trees. However, topological analysis of vascular trees require proper connectivity without gaps, loops or dangling segments. Proper tree connectivity is also important for high quality rendering of surface meshes for scientific visualization or 3D printing. We present a fully automated vessel enhancement pipeline with automated parameter settings for vessel enhancement of tree-like structures from customary imaging sources, including 3D rotational angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance venography, and computed tomography angiography. The output of the filter pipeline is a vessel-enhanced image which is ideal for generating anatomical consistent network representations of the cerebral angioarchitecture for further topological or statistical analysis. The filter pipeline combined with computational modeling can potentially improve computer-aided diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases by delivering biometrics and anatomy of the vasculature. It may serve as the first step in fully automatic epidemiological analysis of large clinical datasets. The automatic analysis would enable rigorous statistical comparison of biometrics in subject-specific vascular trees. The robust and accurate image segmentation using a validated filter pipeline would also eliminate operator dependency that has been observed in manual segmentation. Moreover, manual segmentation is time prohibitive given that vascular trees have more than thousands of segments and bifurcations so that interactive segmentation consumes excessive human resources. Subject-specific trees are a first step toward patient-specific hemodynamic simulations for assessing treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A marked point process of rectangles and segments for automatic analysis of digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Ortner, Mathias; Descombe, Xavier; Zerubia, Josiane

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a framework for automatic feature extraction from images using stochastic geometry. Features in images are modeled as realizations of a spatial point process of geometrical shapes. This framework allows the incorporation of a priori knowledge on the spatial repartition of features. More specifically, we present a model based on the superposition of a process of segments and a process of rectangles. The former is dedicated to the detection of linear networks of discontinuities, while the latter aims at segmenting homogeneous areas. An energy is defined, favoring connections of segments, alignments of rectangles, as well as a relevant interaction between both types of objects. The estimation is performed by minimizing the energy using a simulated annealing algorithm. The proposed model is applied to the analysis of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). These images are raster data representing the altimetry of a dense urban area. We present results on real data provided by the IGN (French National Geographic Institute) consisting in low quality DEMs of various types.

  3. Monitoring infants by automatic video processing: A unified approach to motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Cattani, Luca; Alinovi, Davide; Ferrari, Gianluigi; Raheli, Riccardo; Pavlidis, Elena; Spagnoli, Carlotta; Pisani, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    A unified approach to contact-less and low-cost video processing for automatic detection of neonatal diseases characterized by specific movement patterns is presented. This disease category includes neonatal clonic seizures and apneas. Both disorders are characterized by the presence or absence, respectively, of periodic movements of parts of the body-e.g., the limbs in case of clonic seizures and the chest/abdomen in case of apneas. Therefore, one can analyze the data obtained from multiple video sensors placed around a patient, extracting relevant motion signals and estimating, using the Maximum Likelihood (ML) criterion, their possible periodicity. This approach is very versatile and allows to investigate various scenarios, including: a single Red, Green and Blue (RGB) camera, an RGB-depth sensor or a network of a few RGB cameras. Data fusion principles are considered to aggregate the signals from multiple sensors. In the case of apneas, since breathing movements are subtle, the video can be pre-processed by a recently proposed algorithm which is able to emphasize small movements. The performance of the proposed contact-less detection algorithms is assessed, considering real video recordings of newborns, in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, with respect to medical gold standard devices. The obtained results show that a video processing-based system can effectively detect the considered specific diseases, with increasing performance for increasing number of sensors.

  4. Utilization of Expert Knowledge in a Multi-Objective Hydrologic Model Automatic Calibration Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quebbeman, J.; Park, G. H.; Carney, S.; Day, G. N.; Micheletty, P. D.

    2016-12-01

    Spatially distributed continuous simulation hydrologic models have a large number of parameters for potential adjustment during the calibration process. Traditional manual calibration approaches of such a modeling system is extremely laborious, which has historically motivated the use of automatic calibration procedures. With a large selection of model parameters, achieving high degrees of objective space fitness - measured with typical metrics such as Nash-Sutcliffe, Kling-Gupta, RMSE, etc. - can easily be achieved using a range of evolutionary algorithms. A concern with this approach is the high degree of compensatory calibration, with many similarly performing solutions, and yet grossly varying parameter set solutions. To help alleviate this concern, and mimic manual calibration processes, expert knowledge is proposed for inclusion within the multi-objective functions, which evaluates the parameter decision space. As a result, Pareto solutions are identified with high degrees of fitness, but also create parameter sets that maintain and utilize available expert knowledge resulting in more realistic and consistent solutions. This process was tested using the joint SNOW-17 and Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting method (SAC-SMA) within the Animas River basin in Colorado. Three different elevation zones, each with a range of parameters, resulted in over 35 model parameters simultaneously calibrated. As a result, high degrees of fitness were achieved, in addition to the development of more realistic and consistent parameter sets such as those typically achieved during manual calibration procedures.

  5. The role of automaticity and attention in neural processes underlying empathy for happiness, sadness, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Sylvia A; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the neural basis of empathy, relatively little is known about how empathic processes are affected by different attentional conditions. Thus, we examined whether instructions to empathize might amplify responses in empathy-related regions and whether cognitive load would diminish the involvement of these regions. Thirty-two participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session assessing empathic responses to individuals experiencing happy, sad, and anxious events. Stimuli were presented under three conditions: watching naturally, actively empathizing, and under cognitive load. Across analyses, we found evidence for a core set of neural regions that support empathic processes (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, DMPFC; medial prefrontal cortex, MPFC; temporoparietal junction, TPJ; amygdala; ventral anterior insula, AI; and septal area, SA). Two key regions-the ventral AI and SA-were consistently active across all attentional conditions, suggesting that they are automatically engaged during empathy. In addition, watching vs. empathizing with targets was not markedly different and instead led to similar subjective and neural responses to others' emotional experiences. In contrast, cognitive load reduced the subjective experience of empathy and diminished neural responses in several regions related to empathy and social cognition (DMPFC, MPFC, TPJ, and amygdala). The results reveal how attention impacts empathic processes and provides insight into how empathy may unfold in everyday interactions.

  6. Examining the influence of psychopathy, hostility biases, and automatic processing on criminal offenders' Theory of Mind.

    PubMed

    Nentjes, Lieke; Bernstein, David; Arntz, Arnoud; van Breukelen, Gerard; Slaats, Mariëtte

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is a social perceptual skill that refers to the ability to take someone else's perspective and infer what others think. The current study examined the effect of potential hostility biases, as well as controlled (slow) versus automatic (fast) processing on ToM performance in psychopathy. ToM abilities (as assessed with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test; RMET; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001), was compared between 39 PCL-R diagnosed psychopathic offenders, 37 non-psychopathic offenders, and 26 nonoffender controls. Contrary to our hypothesis, psychopathic individuals presented with intact overall RMET performance when restrictions were imposed on how long task stimuli could be processed. In addition, psychopaths did not over-ascribe hostility to task stimuli (i.e., lack of hostility bias). However, there was a significant three-way interaction between hostility, processing speed, and psychopathy: when there was no time limit on stimulus presentation, psychopathic offenders made fewer errors in identifying more hostile eye stimuli compared to nonoffender controls, who seemed to be less accurate in detecting hostility. Psychopaths' more realistic appraisal of others' malevolent mental states is discussed in the light of theories that stress its potential adaptive function.

  7. Automatic screening and classification of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy using fuzzy image processing.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Sarni Suhaila; Palade, Vasile; Shuttleworth, James; Jayne, Chrisina

    2016-12-01

    Digital retinal imaging is a challenging screening method for which effective, robust and cost-effective approaches are still to be developed. Regular screening for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy diseases is necessary in order to identify the group at risk of visual impairment. This paper presents a novel automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in eye fundus images by employing fuzzy image processing techniques. The paper first introduces the existing systems for diabetic retinopathy screening, with an emphasis on the maculopathy detection methods. The proposed medical decision support system consists of four parts, namely: image acquisition, image preprocessing including four retinal structures localisation, feature extraction and the classification of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy. A combination of fuzzy image processing techniques, the Circular Hough Transform and several feature extraction methods are implemented in the proposed system. The paper also presents a novel technique for the macula region localisation in order to detect the maculopathy. In addition to the proposed detection system, the paper highlights a novel online dataset and it presents the dataset collection, the expert diagnosis process and the advantages of our online database compared to other public eye fundus image databases for diabetic retinopathy purposes.

  8. Automatic Information Processing and High Performance Skills: Acquisition, Transfer, and Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    training techniques based on information processing theory. Captain Michael T. Lawless served as the AFHRL/LRG, Wright-Patterson AFB, contract monitor. ii...tasks used typically in the visual search/detection literature (e.g., Schneider & Shiffrin, 1977; Sperling, Budiansky, Spivak , & Johnson, 1971). However...Sperling, G., Budiansky, J., Spivak , J. G., & Johnson, M. C. (1971). Extremely rapid visual search: The maximum rate of scanning letter for the presence

  9. Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of SAR data for flood applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussul, Natalia; Skakun, Serhiy; Shelestov, Andrii

    2010-05-01

    More and more geosciences applications are being put on to the Grids. Due to the complexity of geosciences applications that is caused by complex workflow, the use of computationally intensive environmental models, the need of management and integration of heterogeneous data sets, Grid offers solutions to tackle these problems. Many geosciences applications, especially those related to the disaster management and mitigations require the geospatial services to be delivered in proper time. For example, information on flooded areas should be provided to corresponding organizations (local authorities, civil protection agencies, UN agencies etc.) no more than in 24 h to be able to effectively allocate resources required to mitigate the disaster. Therefore, providing infrastructure and services that will enable automatic generation of products based on the integration of heterogeneous data represents the tasks of great importance. In this paper we present Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) satellite images to derive flood products. In particular, we use SAR data acquired by ESA's ENVSAT satellite, and neural networks to derive flood extent. The data are provided in operational mode from ESA rolling archive (within ESA Category-1 grant). We developed a portal that is based on OpenLayers frameworks and provides access point to the developed services. Through the portal the user can define geographical region and search for the required data. Upon selection of data sets a workflow is automatically generated and executed on the resources of Grid infrastructure. For workflow execution and management we use Karajan language. The workflow of SAR data processing consists of the following steps: image calibration, image orthorectification, image processing with neural networks, topographic effects removal, geocoding and transformation to lat/long projection, and visualisation. These steps are executed by different software, and can be

  10. Phonemic awareness is a more important predictor of orthographic processing than rapid serial naming: Evidence from Russian

    PubMed Central

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the relationship between rapid serial naming (RSN) and orthographic processing in Russian, an asymmetrically transparent orthography. Ninety-six students (mean age = 13.73) completed tests of word and pseudoword reading fluency, spelling, orthographic choice, phonological choice, PA and RSN. PA was a better predictor of orthographic skills and pseudoword reading accuracy than RSN, which accounted for more variance in word and pseudoword reading fluency. Controlling for pseudoword reading fluency washed out RSN’s contribution to word reading fluency. These results extend previous findings questioning the role of RSN as an index of orthographic processing skills and support the idea that RSN taps into automaticity/efficiency of processing print-sound mappings. PMID:25435759

  11. The Application of Automatic Data Processing and Quantitative Techniques to United States Army War College Course 1, The United States and the International Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    DATA PROCESSING, TEACHING METHODS), POLITICAL SCIENCE , EDUCATION , FEASIBILITY STUDIES, AUTOMATIC, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, ECONOMICS, GAME THEORY, SIMULATION, FOREIGN POLICY, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION MAKING, UNIVERSITIES.

  12. Recognising safety critical events: can automatic video processing improve naturalistic data analyses?

    PubMed

    Dozza, Marco; González, Nieves Pañeda

    2013-11-01

    New trends in research on traffic accidents include Naturalistic Driving Studies (NDS). NDS are based on large scale data collection of driver, vehicle, and environment information in real world. NDS data sets have proven to be extremely valuable for the analysis of safety critical events such as crashes and near crashes. However, finding safety critical events in NDS data is often difficult and time consuming. Safety critical events are currently identified using kinematic triggers, for instance searching for deceleration below a certain threshold signifying harsh braking. Due to the low sensitivity and specificity of this filtering procedure, manual review of video data is currently necessary to decide whether the events identified by the triggers are actually safety critical. Such reviewing procedure is based on subjective decisions, is expensive and time consuming, and often tedious for the analysts. Furthermore, since NDS data is exponentially growing over time, this reviewing procedure may not be viable anymore in the very near future. This study tested the hypothesis that automatic processing of driver video information could increase the correct classification of safety critical events from kinematic triggers in naturalistic driving data. Review of about 400 video sequences recorded from the events, collected by 100 Volvo cars in the euroFOT project, suggested that drivers' individual reaction may be the key to recognize safety critical events. In fact, whether an event is safety critical or not often depends on the individual driver. A few algorithms, able to automatically classify driver reaction from video data, have been compared. The results presented in this paper show that the state of the art subjective review procedures to identify safety critical events from NDS can benefit from automated objective video processing. In addition, this paper discusses the major challenges in making such video analysis viable for future NDS and new potential

  13. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC) Effects Reflect Controlled Rather than Automatic Mechanisms of Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Wioland, Norma; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2012-01-01

    This study compared automatic and controlled cognitive processes that underlie event-related potentials (ERPs) effects during speech perception. Sentences were presented to French native speakers, and the final word could be congruent or incongruent, and presented at one of four levels of degradation (using a modulation with pink noise): no degradation, mild degradation (2 levels), or strong degradation. We assumed that degradation impairs controlled more than automatic processes. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC) effects were defined as the differences between the corresponding wave amplitudes to incongruent words minus congruent words. Under mild degradation, where controlled sentence-level processing could still occur (as indicated by behavioral data), both N400 and LPC effects were delayed and the latter effect was reduced. Under strong degradation, where sentence processing was rather automatic (as indicated by behavioral data), no ERP effect remained. These results suggest that ERP effects elicited in complex contexts, such as sentences, reflect controlled rather than automatic mechanisms of speech processing. These results differ from the results of experiments that used word-pair or word-list paradigms. PMID:24961195

  14. Is the rapid adaptation paradigm too rapid? Implications for face and object processing.

    PubMed

    Nemrodov, Dan; Itier, Roxane J

    2012-07-16

    Rapid adaptation is an adaptation procedure in which adaptors and test stimuli are presented in rapid succession. The current study tested the validity of this method for early ERP components by investigating the specificity of the adaptation effect on the face-sensitive N170 ERP component across multiple test stimuli. Experiments 1 and 2 showed identical response patterns for house and upright face test stimuli using the same adaptor stimuli. The results were also identical to those reported in a previous study using inverted face test stimuli (Nemrodov and Itier, 2011). In Experiment 3 all possible adaptor-test combinations between upright face, house, chair and car stimuli were used and no interaction between adaptor and test category, expected in the case of test-specific adaptation, was found. These results demonstrate that the rapid adaptation paradigm does not produce category-specific adaptation effects around 170-200 ms following test stimulus onset, a necessary condition for the interpretation of adaptation results. These results suggest the rapid categorical adaptation paradigm does not work.

  15. Evidence for the automatic processing of prelexical codes in an orthographic but not a phonological task.

    PubMed

    Slowiaczek, Louisa M; Kahan, Todd A

    2014-12-01

    The automatic activation of phonological and orthographic information in auditory and visual word processing was examined using a task-set procedure. Participants engaged in a phonological task (i.e., determining whether the letter "a" in a word sounded like /e/ or /æ/) or an orthographic task (i.e., determining whether the sound /s/ in a word was spelled with an "s" or a "c"). Participants were cued regarding which task to perform simultaneously with, or 750 ms before, a clear or degraded target. The stimulus clarity effect (i.e., clear words responded to faster than degraded words) was absorbed into the time that it took participants to identify the task on the basis of the cue in a simultaneous cue-target as compared to a delayed cue-target condition, but only for the orthographic task. These data are consistent with the claim that prelexical processing occurs in a capacity-free manner upon stimulus presentation when participants are trying to extract orthographic codes from words presented in the visual and auditory modalities. Such affirmative data were not obtained when participants attempted to extract phonological codes from words, since here the effects of stimulus clarity and cue delay were additive.

  16. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  17. On the Automatic Generation of Plans for Life Cycle Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing products for easy assembly and disassembly during their entire life cycles for purposes including product assembly, product upgrade, product servicing and repair, and product disposal is a process that involves many disciplines. In addition, finding the best solution often involves considering the design as a whole and by considering its intended life cycle. Different goals and manufacturing plan selection criteria, as compared to initial assembly, require re-visiting significant fundamental assumptions and methods that underlie current assembly planning techniques. Previous work in this area has been limited to either academic studies of issues in assembly planning or to applied studies of life cycle assembly processes that give no attention to automatic planning. It is believed that merging these two areas will result in a much greater ability to design for, optimize, and analyze the cycle assembly processes. The study of assembly planning is at the very heart of manufacturing research facilities and academic engineering institutions; and, in recent years a number of significant advances in the field of assembly planning have been made. These advances have ranged from the development of automated assembly planning systems, such as Sandia's Automated Assembly Analysis System Archimedes 3.0{copyright}, to the startling revolution in microprocessors and computer-controlled production tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), flexible manufacturing systems (EMS), and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). These results have kindled considerable interest in the study of algorithms for life cycle related assembly processes and have blossomed into a field of intense interest. The intent of this manuscript is to bring together the fundamental results in this area, so that the unifying principles and underlying concepts of algorithm design may more easily be implemented in practice.

  18. Rapid gas hydrate formation processes: Will they work?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bernardo, Mark P.

    2010-06-07

    Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETL’s 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. The results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuous formation of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve.

  19. Rapid gas hydrate formation processes: Will they work?

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bernardo, Mark P.

    2010-06-07

    Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETL’s 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. The results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuousmore » formation of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve.« less

  20. An Investigation of the Stroop Effect among Deaf Signers in English and Japanese: Automatic Processing or Memory Retrieval?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Mary; Moran, Aidan

    2007-01-01

    Most studies on the Stroop effect (unintentional automatic word processing) have been restricted to English speakers using vocal responses. Little is known about this effect with deaf signers. The study compared Stroop task responses among four different samples: deaf participants from a Japanese-language environment and from an English-language…

  1. An Investigation of the Stroop Effect among Deaf Signers in English and Japanese: Automatic Processing or Memory Retrieval?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Mary; Moran, Aidan

    2007-01-01

    Most studies on the Stroop effect (unintentional automatic word processing) have been restricted to English speakers using vocal responses. Little is known about this effect with deaf signers. The study compared Stroop task responses among four different samples: deaf participants from a Japanese-language environment and from an English-language…

  2. Rapidly solidified ceramics: Processing, structure, and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kalonji, G.M.; O'Handley, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Since its initiation in September 1984, work under this contract has progressed in two areas: construction of a gas atomizer for rapid solidification of ceramics; and characterization of rapidly solidified materials in the SrO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, BaO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2}, and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2} systems. This report summarize this work.

  3. Seeing race: N170 responses to race and their relation to automatic racial attitudes and controlled processing.

    PubMed

    Ofan, Renana H; Rubin, Nava; Amodio, David M

    2011-10-01

    We examined the relation between neural activity reflecting early face perception processes and automatic and controlled responses to race. Participants completed a sequential evaluative priming task, in which two-tone images of Black faces, White faces, and cars appeared as primes, followed by target words categorized as pleasant or unpleasant, while encephalography was recorded. Half of these participants were alerted that the task assessed racial prejudice and could reveal their personal bias ("alerted" condition). To assess face perception processes, the N170 component of the ERP was examined. For all participants, stronger automatic pro-White bias was associated with larger N170 amplitudes to Black than White faces. For participants in the alerted condition only, larger N170 amplitudes to Black versus White faces were also associated with less controlled processing on the word categorization task. These findings suggest that preexisting racial attitudes affect early face processing and that situational factors moderate the link between early face processing and behavior.

  4. Rapid Prototyping of High Performance Signal Processing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, Nimish

    Advances in embedded systems for digital signal processing (DSP) are enabling many scientific projects and commercial applications. At the same time, these applications are key to driving advances in many important kinds of computing platforms. In this region of high performance DSP, rapid prototyping is critical for faster time-to-market (e.g., in the wireless communications industry) or time-to-science (e.g., in radio astronomy). DSP system architectures have evolved from being based on application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to incorporate reconfigurable off-the-shelf field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), the latest multiprocessors such as graphics processing units (GPUs), or heterogeneous combinations of such devices. We, thus, have a vast design space to explore based on performance trade-offs, and expanded by the multitude of possibilities for target platforms. In order to allow systematic design space exploration, and develop scalable and portable prototypes, model based design tools are increasingly used in design and implementation of embedded systems. These tools allow scalable high-level representations, model based semantics for analysis and optimization, and portable implementations that can be verified at higher levels of abstractions and targeted toward multiple platforms for implementation. The designer can experiment using such tools at an early stage in the design cycle, and employ the latest hardware at later stages. In this thesis, we have focused on dataflow-based approaches for rapid DSP system prototyping. This thesis contributes to various aspects of dataflow-based design flows and tools as follows: 1. We have introduced the concept of topological patterns, which exploits commonly found repetitive patterns in DSP algorithms to allow scalable, concise, and parameterizable representations of large scale dataflow graphs in high-level languages. We have shown how an underlying design tool can systematically exploit a high

  5. SNPflow: A Lightweight Application for the Processing, Storing and Automatic Quality Checking of Genotyping Assays

    PubMed Central

    Schönherr, Sebastian; Neuner, Mathias; Forer, Lukas; Specht, Günther; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Kronenberg, Florian; Coassin, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play a prominent role in modern genetics. Current genotyping technologies such as Sequenom iPLEX, ABI TaqMan and KBioscience KASPar made the genotyping of huge SNP sets in large populations straightforward and allow the generation of hundreds of thousands of genotypes even in medium sized labs. While data generation is straightforward, the subsequent data conversion, storage and quality control steps are time-consuming, error-prone and require extensive bioinformatic support. In order to ease this tedious process, we developed SNPflow. SNPflow is a lightweight, intuitive and easily deployable application, which processes genotype data from Sequenom MassARRAY (iPLEX) and ABI 7900HT (TaqMan, KASPar) systems and is extendible to other genotyping methods as well. SNPflow automatically converts the raw output files to ready-to-use genotype lists, calculates all standard quality control values such as call rate, expected and real amount of replicates, minor allele frequency, absolute number of discordant replicates, discordance rate and the p-value of the HWE test, checks the plausibility of the observed genotype frequencies by comparing them to HapMap/1000-Genomes, provides a module for the processing of SNPs, which allow sex determination for DNA quality control purposes and, finally, stores all data in a relational database. SNPflow runs on all common operating systems and comes as both stand-alone version and multi-user version for laboratory-wide use. The software, a user manual, screenshots and a screencast illustrating the main features are available at http://genepi-snpflow.i-med.ac.at. PMID:23527209

  6. Automatic analysis (aa): efficient neuroimaging workflows and parallel processing using Matlab and XML.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Rhodri; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; Mitchell, Daniel J; Wild, Conor J; Auer, Tibor; Linke, Annika C; Peelle, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen neuroimaging data sets becoming richer, with larger cohorts of participants, a greater variety of acquisition techniques, and increasingly complex analyses. These advances have made data analysis pipelines complicated to set up and run (increasing the risk of human error) and time consuming to execute (restricting what analyses are attempted). Here we present an open-source framework, automatic analysis (aa), to address these concerns. Human efficiency is increased by making code modular and reusable, and managing its execution with a processing engine that tracks what has been completed and what needs to be (re)done. Analysis is accelerated by optional parallel processing of independent tasks on cluster or cloud computing resources. A pipeline comprises a series of modules that each perform a specific task. The processing engine keeps track of the data, calculating a map of upstream and downstream dependencies for each module. Existing modules are available for many analysis tasks, such as SPM-based fMRI preprocessing, individual and group level statistics, voxel-based morphometry, tractography, and multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPA). However, aa also allows for full customization, and encourages efficient management of code: new modules may be written with only a small code overhead. aa has been used by more than 50 researchers in hundreds of neuroimaging studies comprising thousands of subjects. It has been found to be robust, fast, and efficient, for simple-single subject studies up to multimodal pipelines on hundreds of subjects. It is attractive to both novice and experienced users. aa can reduce the amount of time neuroimaging laboratories spend performing analyses and reduce errors, expanding the range of scientific questions it is practical to address.

  7. Automatic analysis (aa): efficient neuroimaging workflows and parallel processing using Matlab and XML

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, Rhodri; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; Mitchell, Daniel J.; Wild, Conor J.; Auer, Tibor; Linke, Annika C.; Peelle, Jonathan E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen neuroimaging data sets becoming richer, with larger cohorts of participants, a greater variety of acquisition techniques, and increasingly complex analyses. These advances have made data analysis pipelines complicated to set up and run (increasing the risk of human error) and time consuming to execute (restricting what analyses are attempted). Here we present an open-source framework, automatic analysis (aa), to address these concerns. Human efficiency is increased by making code modular and reusable, and managing its execution with a processing engine that tracks what has been completed and what needs to be (re)done. Analysis is accelerated by optional parallel processing of independent tasks on cluster or cloud computing resources. A pipeline comprises a series of modules that each perform a specific task. The processing engine keeps track of the data, calculating a map of upstream and downstream dependencies for each module. Existing modules are available for many analysis tasks, such as SPM-based fMRI preprocessing, individual and group level statistics, voxel-based morphometry, tractography, and multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPA). However, aa also allows for full customization, and encourages efficient management of code: new modules may be written with only a small code overhead. aa has been used by more than 50 researchers in hundreds of neuroimaging studies comprising thousands of subjects. It has been found to be robust, fast, and efficient, for simple-single subject studies up to multimodal pipelines on hundreds of subjects. It is attractive to both novice and experienced users. aa can reduce the amount of time neuroimaging laboratories spend performing analyses and reduce errors, expanding the range of scientific questions it is practical to address. PMID:25642185

  8. Automatic target classification of slow moving ground targets using space-time adaptive processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malas, John Alexander

    2002-04-01

    Air-to-ground surveillance radar technologies are increasingly being used by theater commanders to detect, track, and identify ground moving targets. New radar automatic target recognition (ATR) technologies are being developed to aid the pilot in assessing the ground combat picture. Most air-to-ground surveillance radars use Doppler filtering techniques to separate target returns from ground clutter. Unfortunately, Doppler filter techniques fall short on performance when target geometry and ground vehicle speed result in low line of sight velocities. New clutter filter techniques compatible with emerging advancements in wideband radar operation are needed to support surveillance modes of radar operation when targets enter this low velocity regime. In this context, space-time adaptive processing (STAP) in conjunction with other algorithms offers a class of signal processing that provide improved target detection, tracking, and classification in the presence of interference through the adaptive nulling of both ground clutter and/or jamming. Of particular interest is the ability of the radar to filter and process the complex target signature data needed to generate high range resolution (HRR) signature profiles on ground targets. A new approach is proposed which will allow air-to-ground target classification of slow moving vehicles in clutter. A wideband STAP approach for clutter suppression is developed which preserves the amplitude integrity of returns from multiple range bins consistent with the HRR ATR approach. The wideband STAP processor utilizes narrowband STAP principles to generate a series of adaptive sub-band filters. Each sub-band filter output is used to construct the complete filtered response of the ground target. The performance of this new approach is demonstrated and quantified through the implementation of a one dimensional template-based minimum mean squared error classifier. Successful minimum velocity identification is defined in terms of

  9. Fidelity of Automatic Speech Processing for Adult and Child Talker Classifications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Automatic speech processing (ASP) has recently been applied to very large datasets of naturalistically collected, daylong recordings of child speech via an audio recorder worn by young children. The system developed by the LENA Research Foundation analyzes children's speech for research and clinical purposes, with special focus on of identifying and tagging family speech dynamics and the at-home acoustic environment from the auditory perspective of the child. A primary issue for researchers, clinicians, and families using the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) system is to what degree the segment labels are valid. This classification study evaluates the performance of the computer ASP output against 23 trained human judges who made about 53,000 judgements of classification of segments tagged by the LENA ASP. Results indicate performance consistent with modern ASP such as those using HMM methods, with acoustic characteristics of fundamental frequency and segment duration most important for both human and machine classifications. Results are likely to be important for interpreting and improving ASP output. PMID:27529813

  10. The impact of task rules on distracter processing: automatic categorization of irrelevant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Reisenauer, Renate; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2013-03-01

    The goal of the study was to investigate whether task rules are automatically applied to irrelevant distracters. In three experiments, subjects categorized target words which were superimposed on distracter pictures. The categorization rule was arbitrary and the distracters were not relevant at any point during the experiment. We found congruency effects for distracters that belonged to the task-relevant categories, but were never presented as target words. Responses were faster when target and distracter belonged to the same category, i.e., were mapped to the same response, than when they were mapped to different responses. Since the distracters were never responded to in the course of the experiment, interference caused by retrieval of S-R episodes cannot explain the results. Instead, we propose that even arbitrary categorization rules are applied to all suitable stimuli, including distracters. Results are taken as evidence that a currently relevant task rule enhances processing of target-related information thereby increasing interference by task related, but currently irrelevant information.

  11. Forest point processes for the automatic extraction of networks in raster data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Alena; Lafarge, Florent; Brenner, Claus; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new stochastic approach for the automatic detection of network structures in raster data. We represent a network as a set of trees with acyclic planar graphs. We embed this model in the probabilistic framework of spatial point processes and determine the most probable configuration of trees by stochastic sampling. That is, different configurations are constructed randomly by modifying the graph parameters and by adding or removing nodes and edges to/ from the current trees. Each configuration is evaluated based on the probabilities for these changes and an energy function describing the conformity with a predefined model. By using the Reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler, an approximation of the global optimum of the energy function is iteratively reached. Although our main target application is the extraction of rivers and tidal channels in digital terrain models, experiments with other types of networks in images show the transferability to further applications. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations demonstrate the competitiveness of our approach with respect to existing algorithms.

  12. An automatic falling drop system based on multicommutation process for photometric chlorine determination in bleach.

    PubMed

    da Silva Borges, Sivanildo; Reis, Boaventura F

    2007-09-26

    In this work an automatic photometric procedure for the determination of chlorine in bleach samples employing N,N'-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) as chromogenic reagent is described. The procedure was based on a falling drop system where the analyte (Cl(2)) was collected by a DPD solution drop (50 microL) after its delivery from the sample bulk that was previously acidified. The flow system was designed based on the multicommutation process assembling a set of three-way solenoid valves, which under microcomputer control afforded facilities to handle sample and reagent solution in order to control analyte delivering and solution drop generation. The analyte volatilization was improved by coupling online a little heating device. The detection system comprised a green LED (515 nm) and a phototransistor. Aiming to prove the usefulness of the proposed procedure a set of bleach samples was analyzed. Comparing the results with those obtained with reference method no significant difference at 95% confidence level was observed. Other profitable features such as a linear response ranging from 15 up to 100 mgL(-1) Cl(2) (R=0.999); a detection limit of 4.5 mgL(-1) Cl(2) estimated based on the 3 sigma criterion; a relative standard deviation of 2.5% (n=10) using a typical bleach sample containing 25.0 mgL(-1) Cl(2); a consumption of 55 microg of DPD per determination; and a analytical frequency of 20 determinations per hour were also achieved.

  13. Automatic processing of wh- and NP-movement in agrammatic aphasia: Evidence from eyetracking

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Michael Walsh; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia show deficits in comprehension of non-canonical wh-movement and NP-movement sentences. Previous work using eyetracking has found that agrammatic and unimpaired listeners show very similar patterns of automatic processing for wh-movement sentences. The current study attempts to replicate this finding for sentences with wh-movement (in object relatives in the current study) and to extend it to sentences with NP movement (passives). For wh-movement sentences, aphasic and control participants’ eye-movements differed most dramatically in late regions of the sentence and post-offset, with aphasic participants exhibiting lingering attention to a salient but grammatically impermissible competitor. The eye-movement differences between correct and incorrect trials for wh-movement sentences were similar, with incorrect trials also exhibiting competition from an impermissible interpretation late in the sentence. Furthermore, the two groups exhibited similar eye-movement patterns in response to passive NP-movement sentences, but showed little evidence of gap-filling for passives. The results suggest that aphasic and unimpaired individuals may generate similar representations during comprehension, but that aphasics are highly vulnerable to interference from alternative interpretations (Ferreira, 2003). PMID:20161014

  14. Effects of single cortisol administrations on human affect reviewed: Coping with stress through adaptive regulation of automatic cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Putman, Peter; Roelofs, Karin

    2011-05-01

    The human stress hormone cortisol may facilitate effective coping after psychological stress. In apparent agreement, administration of cortisol has been demonstrated to reduce fear in response to stressors. For anxious patients with phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder this has been ascribed to hypothetical inhibition of retrieval of traumatic memories. However, such stress-protective effects may also work via adaptive regulation of early cognitive processing of threatening information from the environment. This paper selectively reviews the available literature on effects of single cortisol administrations on affect and early cognitive processing of affectively significant information. The concluded working hypothesis is that immediate effects of high concentration of cortisol may facilitate stress-coping via inhibition of automatic processing of goal-irrelevant threatening information and through increased automatic approach-avoidance responses in early emotional processing. Limitations in the existing literature and suggestions for future directions are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid Word Recognition as a Measure of Word-Level Automaticity and Its Relation to Other Measures of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Elizabeth M.; Gosky, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between rapid recognition of individual words (Word Recognition Test) and two measures of contextual reading: (1) grade-level Passage Reading Test (IRI passage) and (2) performance on standardized STAR Reading Test. To establish if time of presentation on the word recognition test was a factor in…

  16. VACTIV: A graphical dialog based program for an automatic processing of line and band spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlokazov, V. B.

    2013-05-01

    The program VACTIV-Visual ACTIV-has been developed for an automatic analysis of spectrum-like distributions, in particular gamma-ray spectra or alpha-spectra and is a standard graphical dialog based Windows XX application, driven by a menu, mouse and keyboard. On the one hand, it was a conversion of an existing Fortran program ACTIV [1] to the DELPHI language; on the other hand, it is a transformation of the sequential syntax of Fortran programming to a new object-oriented style, based on the organization of event interactions. New features implemented in the algorithms of both the versions consisted in the following as peak model both an analytical function and a graphical curve could be used; the peak search algorithm was able to recognize not only Gauss peaks but also peaks with an irregular form; both narrow peaks (2-4 channels) and broad ones (50-100 channels); the regularization technique in the fitting guaranteed a stable solution in the most complicated cases of strongly overlapping or weak peaks. The graphical dialog interface of VACTIV is much more convenient than the batch mode of ACTIV. [1] V.B. Zlokazov, Computer Physics Communications, 28 (1982) 27-37. NEW VERSION PROGRAM SUMMARYProgram Title: VACTIV Catalogue identifier: ABAC_v2_0 Licensing provisions: no Programming language: DELPHI 5-7 Pascal. Computer: IBM PC series. Operating system: Windows XX. RAM: 1 MB Keywords: Nuclear physics, spectrum decomposition, least squares analysis, graphical dialog, object-oriented programming. Classification: 17.6. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ABAC_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 28 (1982) 27 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes. Nature of problem: Program VACTIV is intended for precise analysis of arbitrary spectrum-like distributions, e.g. gamma-ray and X-ray spectra and allows the user to carry out the full cycle of automatic processing of such spectra, i.e. calibration, automatic peak search

  17. Rapid processing of biopsy specimens for examination by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Todd, W J; Burgdorfer, W

    1982-01-01

    A rapid method for embedding biopsies and other small specimens for examination by electron microscopy is described. This method is based on an embedding medium consisting of vinyl cyclohexane dioxide and cyanoacrylate which infiltrates into small specimens and polymerizes to form a cured specimen block within 15 minutes. Fixation, dehydration, infiltration and curing of specimens are all accomplished with 1 hour. The embedded specimens are relatively easy to section, stain by commonly employed electron-dense stains and are very stable under the electron beam. All specimens studied including blood, bacteria, and biopsy samples retained the salient ultrastructural features commonly preserved during lengthy methods of embedding. This method is designed for diagnostic laboratories that require rapid results.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D.

    1993-03-01

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic and morphological properties of coal associated with rapid heating decomposition pathways is essential to progress in coal utilization technology. Specifically, knowledge of the heat of devolatilization, surface area and density of coal as a function of rank characteristics, temperature and extent of devolatilization in the context of rapid heating conditions is required both, for the fundamental determination of kinetic parameters of coal devolatilization, and to refine existing devolatilization sub-models used in comprehensive coal combustion codes. The objective of this research is to obtain data on the thermodynamic properties and morphology of coal under conditions of rapid heating. Specifically, the total heat of devolatilization, external surface area, BET surface area and true density will be measured for representative coal samples. In addition, for one coal, the contribution of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization will be measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars. Calibration of the heated grid calorimeter (Task 2) was completed this reporting period. Several refinements to the heated grid apparatus have been implemented which allow quantitative determination of sample heat capacity at high heating rates.

  19. A comparison of signal-processing front ends for automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, C. R., Jr.; Vo, H.-D. H.; Lippmann, R. P.

    1994-07-01

    The first stage of any system for automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a signal-processing front end that converts a sampled speech waveform into a more suitable representation for later processing. Several front ends are compared, three of which are based on knowledge about the human auditory system. The performance of an ASR system with these front ends was compared to a control mel filter bank (MFB)-based cepstral representation in clean speech and with speech degraded by noise and spectral variability. Using the TI-105 isolated word data base, it was found that auditory front ends performed comparably to MFB cepstra, sometimes slightly better in noise. With MFB cepstral recognition error rates ranging from 0.5% to 26.9%, depending on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), auditory models could perform as high as four percentage points better. With speech degraded by linear filtering, where MFB cepstra showed error rates ranging from 0.5% to 3.1%, auditory outputs could improve performance by as much as 0.4% for conditions with high baseline error rates. This performance gain comes at a significant computational expense-approximately one-third real time for MFB cepstra as opposed to as much as over 100 times real time for auditory models. These results disagree with previous studies that suggest considerably more improvement with auditory models. However, these earlier studies used a linear predictive coding (LPC)-based control front end, which is shown to perform significantly worse than MFB cepstra under noisy conditions (e.g., 2.7% error rate with mel-cepstra vs. 25.3% with LPC at 18-dB SNR). Data-reduction techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were also evaluated. PCA provided no gain in noise and slight gain with spectral variability.

  20. Rapid process for producing transparent, monolithic porous glass

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.

    2006-02-14

    A process for making transparent porous glass monoliths from gels. The glass is produced much faster and in much larger sizes than present technology for making porous glass. The process reduces the cost of making large porous glass monoliths because: 1) the process does not require solvent exchange nor additives to the gel to increase the drying rates, 2) only moderate temperatures and pressures are used so relatively inexpensive equipment is needed, an 3) net-shape glass monoliths are possible using this process. The process depends on the use of temperature to control the partial pressure of the gel solvent in a closed vessel, resulting in controlled shrinking during drying.

  1. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  2. Adaptive process control for a rapid thermal processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilhac, Jean-Marie R.; Ganibal, Christian; Bordeneuve, J.; Dahhou, B.; Amat, L.; Picard, Antoni

    1991-04-01

    PD (Proportional Integrated Derivative) controllers applied to temperature regulation in a rapid thermal processor are first presented. The setting method of the control parameters together with the corresponding experimental results is given. Evidence in favour of parameter dynamic adjustment is demonstrated. A new algorithm based upon parameter scheduling and providing enlarged control capability is then presented and tested with various wafers and processors. At last insights about closed loop self-tuning using Generalized Predictive Control algorithm are given and the corresponding results discussed. 1.

  3. Using image processing technology combined with decision tree algorithm in laryngeal video stroboscope automatic identification of common vocal fold diseases.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey Kuo, Chung-Feng; Wang, Po-Chun; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wang, Hsing-Won; Lai, Chun-Yu

    2013-10-01

    This study used the actual laryngeal video stroboscope videos taken by physicians in clinical practice as the samples for experimental analysis. The samples were dynamic vocal fold videos. Image processing technology was used to automatically capture the image of the largest glottal area from the video to obtain the physiological data of the vocal folds. In this study, an automatic vocal fold disease identification system was designed, which can obtain the physiological parameters for normal vocal folds, vocal paralysis and vocal nodules from image processing according to the pathological features. The decision tree algorithm was used as the classifier of the vocal fold diseases. The identification rate was 92.6%, and the identification rate with an image recognition improvement processing procedure after classification can be improved to 98.7%. Hence, the proposed system has value in clinical practices.

  4. Automatic processing of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 mole fractions at the ICOS Atmosphere Thematic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazan, Lynn; Tarniewicz, Jérôme; Ramonet, Michel; Laurent, Olivier; Abbaris, Amara

    2016-09-01

    The Integrated Carbon Observation System Atmosphere Thematic Centre (ICOS ATC) automatically processes atmospheric greenhouse gases mole fractions of data coming from sites of the ICOS network. Daily transferred raw data files are automatically processed and archived. Data are stored in the ICOS atmospheric database, the backbone of the system, which has been developed with an emphasis on the traceability of the data processing. Many data products, updated daily, explore the data through different angles to support the quality control of the dataset performed by the principal operators in charge of the instruments. The automatic processing includes calibration and water vapor corrections as described in the paper. The mole fractions calculated in near-real time (NRT) are automatically revaluated as soon as a new instrument calibration is processed or when the station supervisors perform quality control. By analyzing data from 11 sites, we determined that the average calibration corrections are equal to 1.7 ± 0.3 µmol mol-1 for CO2 and 2.8 ± 3 nmol mol-1 for CH4. These biases are important to correct to avoid artificial gradients between stations that could lead to error in flux estimates when using atmospheric inversion techniques. We also calculated that the average drift between two successive calibrations separated by 15 days amounts to ±0.05 µmol mol-1 and ±0.7 nmol mol-1 for CO2 and CH4, respectively. Outliers are generally due to errors in the instrument configuration and can be readily detected thanks to the data products provided by the ATC. Several developments are still ongoing to improve the processing, including automated spike detection and calculation of time-varying uncertainties.

  5. Sentinel-1 automatic processing chain for volcanic and seismic areas monitoring within the Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, Claudio; Zinno, Ivana; Manunta, Michele; Lanari, Riccardo; Casu, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The microwave remote sensing scenario is rapidly evolving through development of new sensor technology for Earth Observation (EO). In particular, Sentinel-1A (S1A) is the first of a sensors' constellation designed to provide a satellite data stream for the Copernicus European program. Sentinel-1A has been specifically designed to provide, over land, Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) products to analyze and investigate Earth's surface displacements. S1A peculiarities include wide ground coverage (250 km of swath), C-band operational frequency and short revisit time (that will reduce from 12 to 6 days when the twin system Sentinel-1B will be placed in orbit during 2016). Such characteristics, together with the global coverage acquisition policy, make the Sentinel-1 constellation to be extremely suitable for volcanic and seismic areas studying and monitoring worldwide, thus allowing the generation of both ground displacement information with increasing rapidity and new geological understanding. The main acquisition mode over land is the so called Interferometric Wide Swath (IWS) that is based on the Terrain Observation by Progressive Scans (TOPS) technique and that guarantees the mentioned S1A large coverage characteristics at expense of a not trivial interferometric processing. Moreover, the satellite spatial coverage and the reduced revisit time will lead to an exponential increase of the data archives that, after the launch of Sentine-1B, will reach about 3TB per day. Therefore, the EO scientific community needs from the one hand automated and effective DInSAR tools able to address the S1A processing complexity, and from the other hand the computing and storage capacities to face out the expected large amount of data. Then, it is becoming more crucial to move processors and tools close to the satellite archives, being not efficient anymore the approach of downloading and processing data with in-house computing facilities. To address

  6. A simple method for rapidly processing HEU from weapons returns

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    A method based on the use of a high temperature fluidized bed for rapidly oxidizing, homogenizing and down-blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) from dismantled nuclear weapons is presented. This technology directly addresses many of the most important issues that inhibit progress in international commerce in HEU; viz., transaction verification, materials accountability, transportation and environmental safety. The equipment used to carry out the oxidation and blending is simple, inexpensive and highly portable. Mobile facilities to be used for point-of-sale blending and analysis of the product material are presented along with a phased implementation plan that addresses the conversion of HEU derived from domestic weapons and related waste streams as well as material from possible foreign sources such as South Africa or the former Soviet Union.

  7. The rapid-dispersal approximation in radiative atomic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudbery, A.

    1988-11-01

    We discuss the assumption that in the decay of an unstable system the decay products rapidly disperse immediately after their formation. This assumption, a version of the Weisskopf-Wigner assumption of a broad energy spectrum, makes it possible to obtain detailed expressions for the time development of the decaying system. It is shown to follow from quantum electrodynamics, with no further assumptions, for spontaneous emission by atoms. It is used to give simple and intuitive treatments of spontaneous emission and resonance fluorescence, in the Schrödinger picture and with the focus on photons rather than electromagnetic field values. The time dependence of the lineshape is discussed, and it is shown that the effect of detection of photons at finite times after emission is to give an overall lineshape which is not Lorentzian.

  8. Rapid decompression of seeded melts for materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ning; Apfel, Robert E.

    1995-05-01

    A novel processing approach and experimental design to achieve as-cast bulk amorphous materials are investigated. By sudden decompression of a melt that is seeded with a volatile liquid, the dispersed ``foaming'' liquid vaporizes, taking its latent heat of vaporization from the melt, thereby homogeneously cooling the melt. Due to a high decompression rate, a sufficient cooling rate may be produced to yield an amorphous solid foam. The resulting ``foam glass'' is expected to be an open solid bulk structure that may possess glass properties and low density. These foam glass materials should be free of structural defects, and may have many potential applications. The ultimate goal for this form glass processing is to produce bulk amorphous metallic solids. This approach differs from other processes used in the production of metals with a porous structure. A description of the approach, the processing design and techniques, as well as some evaluation of foam processing with the organic p-terphenyl as a sample material are presented. Foam (p-terphenyl) is an open, porous, and yet interconnected structure, and can be made with a density as low as 12% of the original density of p-terphenyl. Extension of this principle to foam metallic glass processing is anticipated. Design of a more sophisticated apparatus for metal processing, currently in progress, is discussed.

  9. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Application of DLTS to silicon solar cell processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reehal, H. S.; Lesniak, M. P.; Hughes, A. E.

    1996-03-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has ben employed to study the cause of minority carrier lifetime degradation observed during the development phase of a single crystal silicon solar cell production process. Results on float-zone (FZ) samples showed that this was due to Fe unintentionally introduced at low levels (close to or below the detection limit of conventional analytical techniques) during cell processing and that DLTS of FZ wafers can be used as a highly sensitive monitor of process impurities. The DLTS spectra of processed FZ wafers showed a single trap, 0.53 eV away from the band edge and with a concentration of 0022-3727/29/3/063/img5, attributable to an Fe - B complex. The feature was not present before processing. In Czochralski (CZ) wafers the situation was more complex. Two major Fe related majority carriers traps were observed in both seed-end and crucible-end wafers taken through the complete process cycle. One was consistent with the Fe - B complex whilst the other (at 0.33 eV from the band edge) was identified as an Fe - O complex. The concentrations of these traps lay in the range 0022-3727/29/3/063/img6 and showed a less marked increase after processing. The observations are again consistent with an increase in the Fe level and also the different oxygen contents of the starting wafers.

  10. Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D.; Rastogi, S.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1994-07-01

    The thermodynamic properties of coal under conditions of rapid heating have been determined using a combination of UTRC facilities including a proprietary rapid heating rate differential thermal analyzer (RHR-DTA), a microbomb calorimeter (MBC), an entrained flow reactor (EFR), an elemental analyzer (EA), and a FT-IR. The total heat of devolatilization, was measured for a HVA bituminous coal (PSOC 1451D, Pittsburgh No. 8) and a LV bituminous coal (PSOC 1516D, Lower Kittaning). For the HVA coal, the contributions of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization were measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars. Morphological characterization of coal and char samples was performed at the University of Pittsburgh using a PC-based image analysis system, BET apparatus, helium pcynometer, and mercury porosimeter. The bulk density, true density, CO{sub 2} surface area, pore volume distribution, and particle size distribution as a function of extent of reaction are reported for both the HVA and LV coal. Analyses of the data were performed to obtain the fractal dimension of the particles as well as estimates for the external surface area. The morphological data together with the thermodynamic data obtained in this investigation provides a complete database for a set of common, well characterized coal and char samples. This database can be used to improve the prediction of particle temperatures in coal devolatilization models. Such models are used both to obtain kinetic rates from fundamental studies and in predicting furnace performance with comprehensive coal combustion codes. Recommendations for heat capacity functions and heats of devolatilization for the HVA and LV coals are given. Results of sample particle temperature calculations using the recommended thermodynamic properties are provided.

  11. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  12. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  13. Automatic instrument for chemical processing to detect microorganism in biological samples by measuring light reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelbaugh, B. N.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Colburn, M. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automated apparatus is reported for sequentially assaying urine samples for the presence of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that comprises a rotary table which carries a plurality of sample containing vials and automatically dispenses fluid reagents into the vials preparatory to injecting a light producing luciferase-luciferin mixture into the samples. The device automatically measures the light produced in each urine sample by a bioluminescence reaction of the free bacterial adenosine triphosphate with the luciferase-luciferin mixture. The light measured is proportional to the concentration of bacterial adenosine triphosphate which, in turn, is proportional to the number of bacteria present in the respective urine sample.

  14. Modified technique of automatic and automated tuning of thermal-engineering process controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetana, A. Z.

    2009-04-01

    A technique of automatic optimization of tuning parameters of the closed-loop automatic control system in the course of operation of the latter is presented. This technique is based on the use of a new correlation for calculating tuning parameters of controllers from the coefficients of a transfer function of the object to be controlled. Simple analytical dependences are given that do not require large computer capacities and can easily be incorporated into a microprocessor-based controller, which in this case is converted into a self-tuning device.

  15. The Ubiquity of the Rapid Neutron-capture Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Cowan, John J.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Lugaro, Maria; Simmerer, Jennifer; Farouqi, Khalil; Sneden, Christopher

    2010-12-01

    To better characterize the abundance patterns produced by the r-process, we have derived new abundances or upper limits for the heavy elements zinc (Zn, Z= 30), yttrium (Y, Z= 39), lanthanum (La, Z= 57), europium (Eu, Z= 63), and lead (Pb, Z= 82). Our sample of 161 metal-poor stars includes new measurements from 88 high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with the Tull Spectrograph on the 2.7 m Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory, and other abundances are adopted from the literature. We use models of the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars to characterize the high Pb/Eu ratios produced in the s-process at low metallicity, and our new observations then allow us to identify a sample of stars with no detectable s-process material. In these stars, we find no significant increase in the Pb/Eu ratios with increasing metallicity. This suggests that s-process material was not widely dispersed until the overall Galactic metallicity grew considerably, perhaps even as high as [Fe/H] =-1.4, in contrast with earlier studies that suggested a much lower mean metallicity. We identify a dispersion of at least 0.5 dex in [La/Eu] in metal-poor stars with [Eu/Fe] <+0.6 attributable to the r-process, suggesting that there is no unique "pure" r-process elemental ratio among pairs of rare earth elements. We confirm earlier detections of an anti-correlation between Y/Eu and Eu/Fe bookended by stars strongly enriched in the r-process (e.g., CS 22892-052) and those with deficiencies of the heavy elements (e.g., HD 122563). We can reproduce the range of Y/Eu ratios using simulations of high-entropy neutrino winds of core-collapse supernovae that include charged-particle and neutron-capture components of r-process nucleosynthesis. The heavy element abundance patterns in most metal-poor stars do not resemble that of CS 22892-052, but the presence of heavy elements such as Ba in nearly all metal-poor stars without s-process enrichment suggests that the r-process

  16. THE UBIQUITY OF THE RAPID NEUTRON-CAPTURE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Lugaro, Maria; Simmerer, Jennifer; Farouqi, Khalil

    2010-12-01

    To better characterize the abundance patterns produced by the r-process, we have derived new abundances or upper limits for the heavy elements zinc (Zn, Z= 30), yttrium (Y, Z= 39), lanthanum (La, Z= 57), europium (Eu, Z= 63), and lead (Pb, Z= 82). Our sample of 161 metal-poor stars includes new measurements from 88 high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with the Tull Spectrograph on the 2.7 m Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory, and other abundances are adopted from the literature. We use models of the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars to characterize the high Pb/Eu ratios produced in the s-process at low metallicity, and our new observations then allow us to identify a sample of stars with no detectable s-process material. In these stars, we find no significant increase in the Pb/Eu ratios with increasing metallicity. This suggests that s-process material was not widely dispersed until the overall Galactic metallicity grew considerably, perhaps even as high as [Fe/H] =-1.4, in contrast with earlier studies that suggested a much lower mean metallicity. We identify a dispersion of at least 0.5 dex in [La/Eu] in metal-poor stars with [Eu/Fe] <+0.6 attributable to the r-process, suggesting that there is no unique 'pure' r-process elemental ratio among pairs of rare earth elements. We confirm earlier detections of an anti-correlation between Y/Eu and Eu/Fe bookended by stars strongly enriched in the r-process (e.g., CS 22892-052) and those with deficiencies of the heavy elements (e.g., HD 122563). We can reproduce the range of Y/Eu ratios using simulations of high-entropy neutrino winds of core-collapse supernovae that include charged-particle and neutron-capture components of r-process nucleosynthesis. The heavy element abundance patterns in most metal-poor stars do not resemble that of CS 22892-052, but the presence of heavy elements such as Ba in nearly all metal-poor stars without s-process enrichment suggests that the r-process

  17. A CityGML extension for traffic-sign objects that guides the automatic processing of data collected using Mobile Mapping technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela-González, M.; Riveiro, B.; Arias-Sánchez, P.; González-Jorge, H.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.

    2014-11-01

    The rapid evolution of integral schemes, accounting for geometric and semantic data, has been importantly motivated by the advances in the last decade in mobile laser scanning technology; automation in data processing has also recently influenced the expansion of the new model concepts. This paper reviews some important issues involved in the new paradigms of city 3D modelling: an interoperable schema for city 3D modelling (cityGML) and mobile mapping technology to provide the features that composing the city model. This paper focuses in traffic signs, discussing their characterization using cityGML in order to ease the implementation of LiDAR technology in road management software, as well as analysing some limitations of the current technology in the labour of automatic detection and classification.

  18. Methods for automatized detection of rapid changes in lateral boundary condition fields for NWP limited area models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, M.

    2015-08-01

    Three-hourly temporal resolution of lateral boundary data for limited area models (LAMs) can be too infrequent to resolve rapidly moving storms. This problem is expected to be worse with increasing horizontal resolution. In order to detect intensive disturbances in surface pressure moving rapidly through the model domain, a filtered surface pressure field (MCUF) is computed operationally in the ARPEGE global model of Météo France. The field is distributed in the coupling files along with conventional meteorological fields used for lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the operational forecast using limited area model ALADIN (Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational) in the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia (DHMZ). Here an analysis is performed of the MCUF field for the LACE coupling domain for the period from 23 January 2006, when it became available, until 15 November 2014. The MCUF field is a good indicator of rapidly moving pressure disturbances (RMPDs). Its spatial and temporal distribution can be associated with the usual cyclone tracks and areas known to be supporting cyclogenesis. An alternative set of coupling files from the IFS operational run in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is also available operationally in DHMZ with 3-hourly temporal resolution, but the MCUF field is not available. Here, several methods are tested that detect RMPDs in surface pressure a posteriori from the IFS model fields provided in the coupling files. MCUF is computed by running ALADIN on the coupling files from IFS. The error function is computed using one-time-step integration of ALADIN on the coupling files without initialization, initialized with digital filter initialization (DFI) or scale-selective DFI (SSDFI). Finally, the amplitude of changes in the mean sea level pressure is computed from the fields in the coupling files. The results are compared to the MCUF field of ARPEGE and the results of same

  19. Rapid Process Optimization: A Novel Process Improvement Methodology to Innovate Health Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    Wiler, Jennifer L; Bookman, Kelly; Birznieks, Derek B; Leeret, Robert; Koehler, April; Planck, Shauna; Zane, Richard

    2016-03-26

    Health care systems have utilized various process redesign methodologies to improve care delivery. This article describes the creation of a novel process improvement methodology, Rapid Process Optimization (RPO). This system was used to redesign emergency care delivery within a large academic health care system, which resulted in a decrease: (1) door-to-physician time (Department A: 54 minutes pre vs 12 minutes 1 year post; Department B: 20 minutes pre vs 8 minutes 3 months post), (2) overall length of stay (Department A: 228 vs 184; Department B: 202 vs 192), (3) discharge length of stay (Department A: 216 vs 140; Department B: 179 vs 169), and (4) left without being seen rates (Department A: 5.5% vs 0.0%; Department B: 4.1% vs 0.5%) despite a 47% increased census at Department A (34 391 vs 50 691) and a 4% increase at Department B (8404 vs 8753). The novel RPO process improvement methodology can inform and guide successful care redesign.

  20. Maturation of Rapid Auditory Temporal Processing and Subsequent Nonword Repetition Performance in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Allison M.; Reid, Corinne L.; Anderson, Mike; Richardson, Cassandra; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2012-01-01

    According to the rapid auditory processing theory, the ability to parse incoming auditory information underpins learning of oral and written language. There is wide variation in this low-level perceptual ability, which appears to follow a protracted developmental course. We studied the development of rapid auditory processing using event-related…

  1. Maturation of Rapid Auditory Temporal Processing and Subsequent Nonword Repetition Performance in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Allison M.; Reid, Corinne L.; Anderson, Mike; Richardson, Cassandra; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2012-01-01

    According to the rapid auditory processing theory, the ability to parse incoming auditory information underpins learning of oral and written language. There is wide variation in this low-level perceptual ability, which appears to follow a protracted developmental course. We studied the development of rapid auditory processing using event-related…

  2. Evaluating the Potential of Rtk-Uav for Automatic Point Cloud Generation in 3d Rapid Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazeli, H.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadrasjavan, F.

    2016-06-01

    During disaster and emergency situations, 3D geospatial data can provide essential information for decision support systems. The utilization of geospatial data using digital surface models as a basic reference is mandatory to provide accurate quick emergency response in so called rapid mapping activities. The recipe between accuracy requirements and time restriction is considered critical in this situations. UAVs as alternative platforms for 3D point cloud acquisition offer potentials because of their flexibility and practicability combined with low cost implementations. Moreover, the high resolution data collected from UAV platforms have the capabilities to provide a quick overview of the disaster area. The target of this paper is to experiment and to evaluate a low-cost system for generation of point clouds using imagery collected from a low altitude small autonomous UAV equipped with customized single frequency RTK module. The customized multi-rotor platform is used in this study. Moreover, electronic hardware is used to simplify user interaction with the UAV as RTK-GPS/Camera synchronization, and beside the synchronization, lever arm calibration is done. The platform is equipped with a Sony NEX-5N, 16.1-megapixel camera as imaging sensor. The lens attached to camera is ZEISS optics, prime lens with F1.8 maximum aperture and 24 mm focal length to deliver outstanding images. All necessary calibrations are performed and flight is implemented over the area of interest at flight height of 120 m above the ground level resulted in 2.38 cm GSD. Earlier to image acquisition, 12 signalized GCPs and 20 check points were distributed in the study area and measured with dualfrequency GPS via RTK technique with horizontal accuracy of σ = 1.5 cm and vertical accuracy of σ = 2.3 cm. results of direct georeferencing are compared to these points and experimental results show that decimeter accuracy level for 3D points cloud with proposed system is achievable, that is suitable

  3. Reading Aloud Is Not Automatic: Processing Capacity Is Required to Generate a Phonological Code from Print

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Michael; Besner, Derek

    2006-01-01

    The present experiments tested the claim that phonological recoding occurs "automatically" by assessing whether it uses central attention in the context of the psychological refractory period paradigm. Task 1 was a tone discrimination task and Task 2 was reading aloud. The joint effects of long-lag word repetition priming and stimulus onset…

  4. Using Automatic Speech Processing for Foreign Language Pronunciation Tutor: Some Issues and a Prototype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskenazi, Maxine

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the possible use of automatic speech recognition (ASR) for training students to improve their accents in a foreign language. Principles of good language training as well as the limits of the use of ASR and how to deal with them are discussed, and an example from the Carnegie Mellon FLUENCY system is used to show how such a system may…

  5. Automatic Weed Control System For Transplanted Processing Tomatoes Using X-ray Stem Sensing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A stem detection system was developed for automatic weed control in transplanted tomato fields. A portable x-ray source projected an x-ray beam perpendicular to the crop row and parallel to the soil surface. The plant’s main stem absorbs x-ray energy, decreasing the detected signal and allowing ste...

  6. Rapid rotation and mixing in active OB stars - Physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, Jean-Paul

    2011-07-01

    In the standard description of stellar interiors, O and B stars possess a thoroughly mixed convective core surrounded by a stable radiative envelope in which no mixing occurs. But as is well known, this model disagrees strongly with the spectroscopic diagnostic of these stars, which reveals the presence at their surface of chemical elements that have been synthesized in the core. Hence the radiation zone must be the seat of some mild mixing mechanisms. The most likely to operate there are linked with the rotation: these are the shear instabilites triggered by the differential rotation, and the meridional circulation caused by the changes in the rotation profile accompanying the non-homologous evolution of the star. In addition to these hydrodynamical processes, magnetic stresses may play an important role in active stars, which host a magnetic field. These physical processes will be critically examined, together with some others that have been suggested.

  7. Rapid, potentially automatable, method extract biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to detect and identify BW agents

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.C. |; Burkhalter, R.S.; Smith, C.; Whitaker, K.W.

    1997-12-31

    The program proposes to concentrate on the rapid recovery of signature biomarkers based on automated high-pressure, high-temperature solvent extraction (ASE) and/or supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to produce lipids, nucleic acids and proteins sequentially concentrated and purified in minutes with yields especially from microeukaryotes, Gram-positive bacteria and spores. Lipids are extracted in higher proportions greater than classical one-phase, room temperature solvent extraction without major changes in lipid composition. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with or without derivatization, electrospray ionization (ESI) and highly specific detection by mass spectrometry (MS) particularly with (MS){sup n} provides the detection, identification and because the signature lipid biomarkers are both phenotypic as well as genotypic biomarkers, insights into potential infectivity of BW agents. Feasibility has been demonstrated with detection, identification, and determination of infectious potential of Cryptosporidium parvum at the sensitivity of a single oocyst (which is unculturable in vitro) and accurate identification and prediction, pathogenicity, and drug-resistance of Mycobacteria spp.

  8. Automatic processing of facial affects in patients with borderline personality disorder: associations with symptomatology and comorbid disorders.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Dukalski, Bibiana; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Instability of affects and interpersonal relations are important features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Interpersonal problems of individuals suffering from BPD might develop based on abnormalities in the processing of facial affects and high sensitivity to negative affective expressions. The aims of the present study were to examine automatic evaluative shifts and latencies as a function of masked facial affects in patients with BPD compared to healthy individuals. As BPD comorbidity rates for mental and personality disorders are high, we investigated also the relationships of affective processing characteristics with specific borderline symptoms and comorbidity. Twenty-nine women with BPD and 38 healthy women participated in the study. The majority of patients suffered from additional Axis I disorders and/or additional personality disorders. In the priming experiment, angry, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces that had to be evaluated. Evaluative decisions and response latencies were registered. Borderline-typical symptomatology was assessed with the Borderline Symptom List. In the total sample, valence-congruent evaluative shifts and delays of evaluative decision due to facial affect were observed. No between-group differences were obtained for evaluative decisions and latencies. The presence of comorbid anxiety disorders was found to be positively correlated with evaluative shifting owing to masked happy primes, regardless of baseline-neutral or no facial expression condition. The presence of comorbid depressive disorder, paranoid personality disorder, and symptoms of social isolation and self-aggression were significantly correlated with response delay due to masked angry faces, regardless of baseline. In the present affective priming study, no abnormalities in the automatic recognition and processing of facial affects were observed in BPD patients compared to healthy individuals

  9. Rapid feedback processing in human nucleus accumbens and motor thalamus.

    PubMed

    Schüller, Thomas; Gruendler, Theo O J; Jocham, Gerhard; Klein, Tilmann A; Timmermann, Lars; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Kuhn, Jens; Ullsperger, Markus

    2015-04-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and thalamus are integral parts in models of feedback processing. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been successfully employed to alleviate symptoms of psychiatric conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome (TS). Common target structures are the NAcc and the ventral anterior and ventro-lateral nuclei (VA/VL) of the thalamus, for OCD and TS, respectively. The feedback related negativity (FRN) is an event-related potential associated with feedback processing reflecting posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) activity. Here we report on three cases where we recorded scalp EEG and local field potentials (LFP) from externalized electrodes located in the NAcc or thalamus (VA/VL) while patients engaged in a modified time estimation task, known to engage feedback processing and elicit the FRN. Additionally, scalp EEG were recorded from 29 healthy participants (HP) engaged in the same task. The signal in all structures (pMFC, NAcc, and thalamus) was differently modulated by positive and negative feedback. LFP activity in the NAcc showed a biphasic time course after positive feedback during the FRN time interval. Negative feedback elicited a much weaker and later response. In the thalamus a monophasic modulation was recorded during the FRN time interval. Again, this modulation was more pronounced after positive performance feedback compared to negative feedback. In channels outside the target area no modulation was observed. The surface-FRN was reliably elicited on a group level in HP and showed no significant difference following negative feedback between patients and HP. German Clinical Trial Register: Neurocognitive specification of dysfunctions within basal ganglia-cortex loops and their therapeutic modulation by deep brain stimulation in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome, http://www.drks.de/DRKS00005316. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Systems and methods for rapid processing and storage of data

    DOEpatents

    Stalzer, Mark A.

    2017-01-24

    Systems and methods of building massively parallel computing systems using low power computing complexes in accordance with embodiments of the invention are disclosed. A massively parallel computing system in accordance with one embodiment of the invention includes at least one Solid State Blade configured to communicate via a high performance network fabric. In addition, each Solid State Blade includes a processor configured to communicate with a plurality of low power computing complexes interconnected by a router, and each low power computing complex includes at least one general processing core, an accelerator, an I/O interface, and cache memory and is configured to communicate with non-volatile solid state memory.

  11. Pedestrians' intention to jaywalk: Automatic or planned? A study based on a dual-process model in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Zhang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the determining factors of Chinese pedestrians' intention to violate traffic laws using a dual-process model. This model divides the cognitive processes of intention formation into controlled analytical processes and automatic associative processes. Specifically, the process explained by the augmented theory of planned behavior (TPB) is controlled, whereas the process based on past behavior is automatic. The results of a survey conducted on 323 adult pedestrian respondents showed that the two added TPB variables had different effects on the intention to violate, i.e., personal norms were significantly related to traffic violation intention, whereas descriptive norms were non-significant predictors. Past behavior significantly but uniquely predicted the intention to violate: the results of the relative weight analysis indicated that the largest percentage of variance in pedestrians' intention to violate was explained by past behavior (42%). According to the dual-process model, therefore, pedestrians' intention formation relies more on habit than on cognitive TPB components and social norms. The implications of these findings for the development of intervention programs are discussed.

  12. Operational SAR Data Processing in GIS Environments for Rapid Disaster Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    DEM without the need of ground control points. This step includes radiometric calibration. (3) A subsequent change detection analysis generates the final map showing the extent of the flash flood on Nov. 5th 2010. The underlying algorithms are provided by three different sources: Geocoding & radiometric calibration (2) is a standard functionality from the commercial SARscape Toolbox for ArcGIS. This toolbox is extended by the filter tool (1), which is called from the SARscape modules in ENVI. The change detection analysis (3) is based on ENVI processing routines and scripted with IDL. (2) and (3) are integrated with ArcGIS using a predefined Python interface. These 3 processing steps are combined using the ArcGIS ModelBuilder to create a new model for rapid disaster mapping in ArcGIS, based on SAR data. Moreover, this model can be dissolved from its desktop environment and published to users across the ArcGIS Server enterprise. Thus disaster zones, e.g. after severe flooding, can be automatically identified and mapped to support local task forces - using an operational workflow for SAR image analysis, which can be executed by the responsible operators without SAR expert knowledge.

  13. Rapid and continuous analyte processing in droplet microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Strey, Helmut; Kimmerling, Robert; Bakowski, Tomasz

    2017-04-18

    The compositions and methods described herein are designed to introduce functionalized microparticles into droplets that can be manipulated in microfluidic devices by fields, including electric (dielectrophoretic) or magnetic fields, and extracted by splitting a droplet to separate the portion of the droplet that contains the majority of the microparticles from the part that is largely devoid of the microparticles. Within the device, channels are variously configured at Y- or T junctions that facilitate continuous, serial isolation and dilution of analytes in solution. The devices can be limited in the sense that they can be designed to output purified analytes that are then further analyzed in separate machines or they can include additional channels through which purified analytes can be further processed and analyzed.

  14. Automatic parameter optimization in epsilon-filter for acoustical signal processing utilizing correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tomomi; Hashimoto, Shuji; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu

    2010-02-01

    epsilon-filter can reduce most kinds of noise from a single-channel noisy signal while preserving signals that vary drastically such as speech signals. It can reduce not only stationary noise but also nonstationary noise. However, it has some parameters whose values are set empirically. So far, there have been few studies to evaluate the appropriateness of the parameter settings for epsilon-filter. This paper employs the correlation coefficient of the filter output and the difference between the filter input and output as the evaluation function of the parameter setting. This paper also describes the algorithm to set the optimal parameter value of epsilon-filter automatically. To evaluate the adequateness of the obtained parameter, the mean absolute error is calculated. The experimental results show that the adequate parameter in epsilon-filter can be obtained automatically by using the proposed method.

  15. Solution Deposited Precursors and Rapid Optical Processing Used in the Production of CIGS Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hersh, P. A.; Curtis, C. J.; Van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Habas, S. E.; Miedaner, A.; Ginley, D. S.; Stanbery, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we use the combination of solution deposited liquid precursors and rapid optical processing (ROP) to make CIGS. The ROP process takes less than 1 minute of heating to convert the precursor stack to CIGS. Device made with ROP rival performance of device processed using field assisted simultaneous synthesis and transfer FASST{reg_sign} processing.

  16. [Real-time automatic cloud detection during the process of taking aerial photographs].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xian-Jun; Wan, You-Chuan; Zheng, Shun-Yi; Yang, Yuan-Wei

    2014-07-01

    The present paper adopted a method based on the spectrum signatures with thresholds to detect cloud. Through analyzing the characteristic in the aspect of spectrum signatures of cloud, two effective signatures were explored, one was brightness signature I and the other was normalized difference signature P. Combined with corresponding thresholds, each spectrum condition can detect some cloud pixels. By composing the union of two spectrum conditions together, cloud can be detected more completely. In addition, the threshold was also very important to the accuracy of the detection result. In order to detect cloud efficiently, correctly and automatically, this paper proposed a new strategy about the assignment of thresholds to acquire suitable thresholds. Firstly, the images should be classified into three kinds of types which were images with no cloud, with thin cloud and with thick cloud. Secondly, different assignment methods of automatic thresholds of signatures would be adopted according to different types of images. For images with thick cloud, they would be further classified into three kinds by another standard and assigned by different thresholds integrated by automatic thresholds from other spectrum signatures. The automatic thresholds were acquired by Otsu algorithm and an improved Otsu algorithm. For images with thin cloud, the cloud would be detected by score algorithm. Due to this flexible strategy, cloud in images can be detected rightly and if there isn't cloud in images the detection will be null to show that there is no cloud. Compared to the detection results of other different methods, the contrast results show that the efficiency of the detection method proposed in this paper is high and the accuracy satisfies the demand of real-time evaluation and the application range is wider.

  17. Development of automatic movement analysis system for a small laboratory animal using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Satoshi; Kawasue, Kikuhito; Koshimoto, Chihiro

    2013-03-01

    Activity analysis in a small laboratory animal is an effective procedure for various bioscience fields. The simplest way to obtain animal activity data is just observation and recording manually, even though this is labor intensive and rather subjective. In order to analyze animal movement automatically and objectivity, expensive equipment is usually needed. In the present study, we develop animal activity analysis system by means of a template matching method with video recorded movements in laboratory animal at a low cost.

  18. Automatic Sleep Scoring Based on Modular Rule-Based Reasoning Units and Signal Processing Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    scoring, rule-based reasoning, multi-staged I. INTRODUCTION Integrated analysis on the state of sleep through Polysomnography is crucial for...diagnosis for sleep related disease. But conventional analog-type Polysomnography systems need tremendous amount of papers and much labor of trained expert...In this sense to equip digital Polysomnography and its following automatic analysis system became trend. In the sleep analysis, sleep stage scoring is

  19. Automatic classification of atypical lymphoid B cells using digital blood image processing.

    PubMed

    Alférez, S; Merino, A; Mujica, L E; Ruiz, M; Bigorra, L; Rodellar, J

    2014-08-01

    There are automated systems for digital peripheral blood (PB) cell analysis, but they operate most effectively in nonpathological blood samples. The objective of this work was to design a methodology to improve the automatic classification of abnormal lymphoid cells. We analyzed 340 digital images of individual lymphoid cells from PB films obtained in the CellaVision DM96:150 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, 100 hairy cell leukemia (HCL) cells, and 90 normal lymphocytes (N). We implemented the Watershed Transformation to segment the nucleus, the cytoplasm, and the peripheral cell region. We extracted 44 features and then the clustering Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) was applied in two steps for the lymphocyte classification. The images were automatically clustered in three groups, one of them with 98% of the HCL cells. The set of the remaining cells was clustered again using FCM and texture features. The two new groups contained 83.3% of the N cells and 71.3% of the CLL cells, respectively. The approach has been able to automatically classify with high precision three types of lymphoid cells. The addition of more descriptors and other classification techniques will allow extending the classification to other classes of atypical lymphoid cells. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Concept of using a benchmark part to evaluate rapid prototype processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cariapa, Vikram

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual benchmark part for guiding manufacturers and users of rapid prototyping technologies is proposed. This is based on a need to have some tool to evaluate the development of this technology and to assist the user in judiciously selecting a process. The benchmark part is designed to have unique product details and features. The extent to which a rapid prototyping process can reproduce these features becomes a measure of the capability of the process. Since rapid prototyping is a dynamic technology, this benchmark part should be used to continuously monitor process capability of existing and developing technologies. Development of this benchmark part is, therefore, based on an understanding of the properties required from prototypes and characteristics of various rapid prototyping processes and measuring equipment that is used for evaluation.

  1. Automatic detection of ionospheric Alfvén resonances using signal and image processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggan, C. D.

    2014-08-01

    Induction coils permit the measurement of small and very rapid changes of the magnetic field. A new set of induction coils in the UK (at L = 3.2) record magnetic field changes over an effective frequency range of 0.1-40 Hz, encompassing phenomena such as the Schumann resonances, magnetospheric pulsations and ionospheric Alfvén resonances (IARs). The IARs typically manifest themselves as a series of spectral resonance structures (SRSs) within the 1-10 Hz frequency range, usually appearing as fine bands or fringes in spectrogram plots and occurring almost daily during local night-time, disappearing during the daylight hours. The behaviour of the occurrence in frequency (f) and the difference in frequency between fringes (Δf) varies throughout the year. In order to quantify the daily, seasonal and annual changes of the SRSs, we developed a new method based on signal and image processing techniques to identify the fringes and to quantify the values of f, Δf and other relevant parameters in the data set. The technique is relatively robust to noise though requires tuning of threshold parameters. We analyse 18 months of induction coil data to demonstrate the utility of the method.

  2. Evaluation of novel process indicators for rapid monitoring of hydrogen peroxide decontamination processes.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Neil P; Clifford, Melanie; Sutton, J Mark

    2017-05-15

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on stainless steel discs are routinely used as Biological Indicators (BIs) for the validation of hydrogen peroxide bio-decontamination processes. Given ongoing concerns about the reliability and response time of BIs, we explored the potential for an enzyme-based approach decontamination process evaluation. Thermostable adenylate kinase (tAK) enzyme was coated onto a solid support and exposed to hydrogen peroxide vapour, in parallel with standard commercial 6-log BIs, during a series of vapour-phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) cycles in a flexible film isolator. The exposed BIs were enumerated to define the degree of kill at different time intervals and the results compared to the tAK values, as determined by measuring ATP produced by residual active enzyme. Both BIs and the tAK indicators exhibited a biphasic inactivation profile during the process. There was significant variance between individual cycles, with some cycles showing complete inactivation of the BIs to the limit of detection of the assay, within 6 minutes, whilst BIs in some cycles were inactivated at a time greater than 12 minutes. The log-kill of the BIs at intermediate time points were plotted and compared to the fully quantifiable measurements derived from the tAK indicators at the same time points. The results demonstrated very similar inactivation profiles for the enzyme and for the BIs, thus it was possible to define a relationship between relative light units (RLU) measurement and BI kill. This indicates that it is possible to use tAK measurement as a direct measure of VPHP bio-decontamination performance, expressed in terms of log reduction. Since tAK measurement can be achieved within a few minutes of VPHP cycle completion, compared with a minimum of 7 days for the evaluation of BI growth, this offers a potentially valuable tool for rapid VPHP bio-decontamination cycle development and subsequent re-qualification. Copyright © 2017, Parenteral Drug

  3. Rapid tooling--a new approach to integrated product and process development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitinger, Frank

    1997-09-01

    Rapid prototyping technologies -- especially stereolithography and plastic laser sintering -- did substantially contribute in reducing product development times. But models that are produced by rapid prototyping technologies do not meet the requirements of functional prototypes, as neither the serial material nor the serial production processes are used. This concerns injection molding and pressure die-casting prototypes. Therefore rapid tooling techniques are necessary. The main emphasis of this presentation is on the significance of rapid tooling for integrated product and process development. This is discussed using the example of evolution tooling (tools that grow with the development status). Furthermore, a survey is presented of the most important rapid tooling processes that employ rapid prototyping technologies. A distinction is made here between the process chains for rapid prototyping and conversion processes and the direct manufacture of tool components. The IWB User Center (Anwenderzentrum) in Augsburg, Germany is the first European user of the indirect metal laser sintering process. In order to communicate what has been learned from initial experience with this procedure, sample tools that have been realized are described.

  4. Rapid e-Learning Tools Selection Process for Cognitive and Psychomotor Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, David Tawei; Huang, Yung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a decision making process for the selection of rapid e-learning tools that could match different learning domains. With the development of the Internet, the speed of information updates has become faster than ever. E-learning has rapidly become the mainstream for corporate training and academic instruction. In order to reduce…

  5. Rapid e-Learning Tools Selection Process for Cognitive and Psychomotor Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, David Tawei; Huang, Yung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a decision making process for the selection of rapid e-learning tools that could match different learning domains. With the development of the Internet, the speed of information updates has become faster than ever. E-learning has rapidly become the mainstream for corporate training and academic instruction. In order to reduce…

  6. Development of Open source-based automatic shooting and processing UAV imagery for Orthoimage Using Smart Camera UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. W.; Jeong, H. H.; Kim, J. S.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, aerial photography with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system uses UAV and remote controls through connections of ground control system using bandwidth of about 430 MHz radio Frequency (RF) modem. However, as mentioned earlier, existing method of using RF modem has limitations in long distance communication. The Smart Camera equipments's LTE (long-term evolution), Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi to implement UAV that uses developed UAV communication module system carried out the close aerial photogrammetry with the automatic shooting. Automatic shooting system is an image capturing device for the drones in the area's that needs image capturing and software for loading a smart camera and managing it. This system is composed of automatic shooting using the sensor of smart camera and shooting catalog management which manages filmed images and information. Processing UAV imagery module used Open Drone Map. This study examined the feasibility of using the Smart Camera as the payload for a photogrammetric UAV system. The open soure tools used for generating Android, OpenCV (Open Computer Vision), RTKLIB, Open Drone Map.

  7. A Review of Automatic Methods Based on Image Processing Techniques for Tuberculosis Detection from Microscopic Sputum Smear Images.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Rani Oomman; Soman, Biju; Saini, Gagan; Rajan, Jeny

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body. TB remains one of the leading causes of death in developing countries, and its recent resurgences in both developed and developing countries warrant global attention. The number of deaths due to TB is very high (as per the WHO report, 1.5 million died in 2013), although most are preventable if diagnosed early and treated. There are many tools for TB detection, but the most widely used one is sputum smear microscopy. It is done manually and is often time consuming; a laboratory technician is expected to spend at least 15 min per slide, limiting the number of slides that can be screened. Many countries, including India, have a dearth of properly trained technicians, and they often fail to detect TB cases due to the stress of a heavy workload. Automatic methods are generally considered as a solution to this problem. Attempts have been made to develop automatic approaches to identify TB bacteria from microscopic sputum smear images. In this paper, we provide a review of automatic methods based on image processing techniques published between 1998 and 2014. The review shows that the accuracy of algorithms for the automatic detection of TB increased significantly over the years and gladly acknowledges that commercial products based on published works also started appearing in the market. This review could be useful to researchers and practitioners working in the field of TB automation, providing a comprehensive and accessible overview of methods of this field of research.

  8. Rapid and automatic chemical identification of the medicinal flower buds of Lonicera plants by the benchtop and hand-held Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianbo; Guo, Baolin; Yan, Rui; Sun, Suqin; Zhou, Qun

    2017-07-01

    With the utilization of the hand-held equipment, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a promising analytical technique to minimize the time cost for the chemical identification of herbal materials. This research examines the feasibility of the hand-held FT-IR spectrometer for the on-site testing of herbal materials, using Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF) and Lonicerae Flos (LF) as examples. Correlation-based linear discriminant models for LJF and LF are established based on the benchtop and hand-held FT-IR instruments. The benchtop FT-IR models can exactly recognize all articles of LJF and LF. Although a few LF articles are misjudged at the sub-class level, the hand-held FT-IR models are able to exactly discriminate LJF and LF. As a direct and label-free analytical technique, FT-IR spectroscopy has great potential in the rapid and automatic chemical identification of herbal materials either in laboratories or in fields. This is helpful to prevent the spread and use of adulterated herbal materials in time.

  9. Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Predicting Early Development in Reading and Spelling: Results from a Cross-Linguistic Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) were investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230 Scandinavian children were followed longitudinally between kindergarten and 2nd grade. PA and RAN were measured in kindergarten and Grade 1, while word recognition, phonological decoding, and spelling were measured in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. In general, high stability was observed for the various reading and spelling measures, such that little additional variance was left open for PA and RAN. However, results demonstrated that RAN was more related to reading than spelling across orthographies, with the opposite pattern shown for PA. In addition, tests of measurement invariance show that the factor loadings of each observed indicator on the latent PA factor was the same across U.S./Australia and Scandinavia. Similar findings were obtained for RAN. In general, tests of structural invariance show that models of early literacy development are highly transferable across languages. PMID:21359098

  10. Magnetoencephalography identifies rapid temporal processing deficit in autism and language impairment.

    PubMed

    Oram Cardy, Janis E; Flagg, Elissa J; Roberts, Wendy; Brian, Jessica; Roberts, Timothy P L

    2005-03-15

    Deficient rapid temporal processing may contribute to impaired language development by interfering with the processing of brief acoustic transitions crucial for speech perception. Using magnetoencephalography, evoked neural activity (M50, M100) to two 40 ms tones passively presented in rapid succession was recorded in 10 neurologically normal adults and 40 8-17-year-olds with autism, specific language impairment, Asperger syndrome or typical development. While 80% of study participants with intact language (Asperger syndrome, typical development, adults) showed identifiable responses to the second tone, which presented rapid temporal processing demands, 65% of study participants with impaired language (autism, specific language impairment) did not, despite having shown identifiable responses to the first tone. Rapid temporal processing impairments may be fundamentally associated with impairments in language rather than autism spectrum disorder.

  11. Age effects shrink when motor learning is predominantly supported by nondeclarative, automatic memory processes: evidence from golf putting.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Maquestiaux, François; Hartley, Alan A; Joubert, Sven; Didierjean, André; Masters, Rich S W

    2012-01-01

    Can motor learning be equivalent in younger and older adults? To address this question, 48 younger (M = 23.5 years) and 48 older (M = 65.0 years) participants learned to perform a golf-putting task in two different motor learning situations: one that resulted in infrequent errors or one that resulted in frequent errors. The results demonstrated that infrequent-error learning predominantly relied on nondeclarative, automatic memory processes whereas frequent-error learning predominantly relied on declarative, effortful memory processes: After learning, infrequent-error learners verbalized fewer strategies than frequent-error learners; at transfer, a concurrent, attention-demanding secondary task (tone counting) left motor performance of infrequent-error learners unaffected but impaired that of frequent-error learners. The results showed age-equivalent motor performance in infrequent-error learning but age deficits in frequent-error learning. Motor performance of frequent-error learners required more attention with age, as evidenced by an age deficit on the attention-demanding secondary task. The disappearance of age effects when nondeclarative, automatic memory processes predominated suggests that these processes are preserved with age and are available even early in motor learning.

  12. Automatic Processing of Digital Ionograms and Full Wave Solutions for the Profile Inversion Problem.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Korteweg - deVries Equation ," J. Math. Phys., 18, 2445 (1977). Kay, I., "The Inverse Scattering Problem," Report No. EM-74 of the Institute of Mathematical...3.2 Comparison of the IWKB Method with the Full-Wave Method for Profiles for Which the Full-Wave Equation can be Solved for Exactly 45 3.2.1 General...Section 2 describes the automatic scaling of Digisonde ionograms, and Section 3 investigates the possibility of solving the Schroedinger wave equation for

  13. Cardiorespiratory concerns shape brain responses during automatic panic-related scene processing in patients with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Feldker, Katharina; Heitmann, Carina Yvonne; Neumeister, Paula; Brinkmann, Leonie; Bruchmann, Maximillan; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Straube, Thomas

    2017-09-26

    Increased automatic processing of threat-related stimuli has been proposed as a key element in panic disorder. Little is known about the neural basis of automatic processing, in particular to task-irrelevant, panic-related, ecologically valid stimuli, or about the association between brain activation and symptomatology in patients with panic disorder. The present event-related fMRI study compared brain responses to task-irrelevant, panic-related and neutral visual stimuli in medication-free patients with panic disorder and healthy controls. Panic-related and neutral scenes were presented while participants performed a spatially nonoverlapping bar orientation task. Correlation analyses investigated the association between brain responses and panic-related aspects of symptomatology, measured using the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI). We included 26 patients with panic disorder and 26 heatlhy controls in our analysis. Compared with controls, patients with panic disorder showed elevated activation in the amygdala, brainstem, thalamus, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and midcingulate cortex in response to panic-related versus neutral task-irrelevant stimuli. Furthermore, fear of cardiovascular symptoms (a subcomponent of the ASI) was associated with insula activation, whereas fear of respiratory symptoms was associated with brainstem hyperactivation in patients with panic disorder. The additional implementation of measures of autonomic activation, such as pupil diameter, heart rate, or electrodermal activity, would have been informative during the fMRI scan as well as during the rating procedure. Results reveal a neural network involved in the processing of panic-related distractor stimuli in patients with panic disorder and suggest an automatic weighting of panic-related information depending on the magnitude of cardiovascular and respiratory symptoms. Insula and brainstem activations show function-related associations with specific components of panic symptomatology.

  14. The Importance of Rapid Auditory Processing Abilities to Early Language Development: Evidence from Converging Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jennifer J.; Choudhury, Naseem; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to process two or more rapidly presented, successive, auditory stimuli is believed to underlie successful language acquisition. Likewise, deficits in rapid auditory processing of both verbal and nonverbal stimuli are characteristic of individuals with developmental language disorders such as Specific Language Impairment. Auditory processing abilities are well developed in infancy, and thus such deficits should be detectable in infants. In the studies presented here, converging methodologies are used to examine such abilities in infants with and without a family history of language disorder. Behavioral measures, including assessments of infant information processing, and an EEG/event-related potential (ERP) paradigm are used concurrently. Results suggest that rapid auditory processing skills differ as a function of family history and are predictive of later language outcome. Further, these paradigms may prove to be sensitive tools for identifying children with poor processing skills in infancy and thus at a higher risk for developing a language disorder. PMID:11891639

  15. Characteristics of products generated by selective sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cariapa, Vikram

    1993-01-01

    The trend in the modern global economy towards free market policies has motivated companies to use rapid prototyping technologies to not only reduce product development cycle time but also to maintain their competitive edge. A rapid prototyping technology is one which combines computer aided design with computer controlled tracking of focussed high energy source (eg. lasers, heat) on modern ceramic powders, metallic powders, plastics or photosensitive liquid resins in order to produce prototypes or models. At present, except for the process of shape melting, most rapid prototyping processes generate products that are only dimensionally similar to those of the desired end product. There is an urgent need, therefore, to enhance the understanding of the characteristics of these processes in order to realize their potential for production. Currently, the commercial market is dominated by four rapid prototyping processes, namely selective laser sintering, stereolithography, fused deposition modelling and laminated object manufacturing. This phase of the research has focussed on the selective laser sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes. A theoretical model for these processes is under development. Different rapid prototyping sites supplied test specimens (based on ASTM 638-84, Type I) that have been measured and tested to provide a data base on surface finish, dimensional variation and ultimate tensile strength. Further plans call for developing and verifying the theoretical models by carefully designed experiments. This will be a joint effort between NASA and other prototyping centers to generate a larger database, thus encouraging more widespread usage by product designers.

  16. Comparative analyses of different variants of standard ground for automatic control systems of technical processes of oil and gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromakov, E. I.; Gazizov, A. T.; Lukin, V. P.; Chimrov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyses efficiency (interference resistance) of standard TT, TN, IT networks in control links of automatic control systems (ACS) of technical processes (TP) of oil and gas production. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is a standard term used to describe the interference in grounding circuits. Improved EMC of ACS TP can significantly reduce risks and costs of malfunction of equipment that could have serious consequences. It has been proved that an IT network is the best type of grounds for protection of ACS TP in real life conditions. It allows reducing the interference down to the level that is stated in standards of oil and gas companies.

  17. Controlling the COD removal of an A-stage pilot study with instrumentation and automatic process control.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark W; Elliott, Matt; DeArmond, Jon; Kinyua, Maureen; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

    2017-06-01

    The pursuit of fully autotrophic nitrogen removal via the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) pathway has led to an increased interest in carbon removal technologies, particularly the A-stage of the adsorption/bio-oxidation (A/B) process. The high-rate operation of the A-stage and lack of automatic process control often results in wide variations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal that can ultimately impact nitrogen removal in the downstream B-stage process. This study evaluated the use dissolved oxygen (DO) and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) based automatic control strategies through the use of in situ on-line sensors in the A-stage of an A/B pilot study. The objective of using these control strategies was to reduce the variability of COD removal by the A-stage and thus the variability of the effluent C/N. The use of cascade DO control in the A-stage did not impact COD removal at the conditions tested in this study, likely because the bulk DO concentration (>0.5 mg/L) was maintained above the half saturation coefficient of heterotrophic organisms for DO. MLSS-based solids retention time (SRT) control, where MLSS was used as a surrogate for SRT, did not significantly reduce the effluent C/N variability but it was able to reduce COD removal variation in the A-stage by 90%.

  18. Cognition and balance control: does processing of explicit contextual cues of impending perturbations modulate automatic postural responses?

    PubMed

    Coelho, Daniel Boari; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2017-08-01

    Processing of predictive contextual cues of an impending perturbation is thought to induce adaptive postural responses. Cueing in previous research has been provided through repeated perturbations with a constant foreperiod. This experimental strategy confounds explicit predictive cueing with adaptation and non-specific properties of temporal cueing. Two experiments were performed to assess those factors separately. To perturb upright balance, the base of support was suddenly displaced backwards in three amplitudes: 5, 10 and 15 cm. In Experiment 1, we tested the effect of cueing the amplitude of the impending postural perturbation by means of visual signals, and the effect of adaptation to repeated exposures by comparing block versus random sequences of perturbation. In Experiment 2, we evaluated separately the effects of cueing the characteristics of an impending balance perturbation and cueing the timing of perturbation onset. Results from Experiment 1 showed that the block sequence of perturbations led to increased stability of automatic postural responses, and modulation of magnitude and onset latency of muscular responses. Results from Experiment 2 showed that only the condition cueing timing of platform translation onset led to increased balance stability and modulation of onset latency of muscular responses. Conversely, cueing platform displacement amplitude failed to induce any effects on automatic postural responses in both experiments. Our findings support the interpretation of improved postural responses via optimized sensorimotor processes, at the same time that cast doubt on the notion that cognitive processing of explicit contextual cues advancing the magnitude of an impending perturbation can preset adaptive postural responses.

  19. Reflection on the Process of Open Sourcing Software Based on Ten Years of Development of RAPID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, C. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Yang, Z. L.; Habets, F.; Maidment, D.

    2015-12-01

    As the number and size of geoscience datasets persist in their constant rise, geoscientists increasingly express their yearning for further sharing of their data and software, and for facilitation of the associated academic credits. We present here our experience based on the open source development of an Earth System Model focusing on the propagation of water flow waves in large river networks: the Routing Application for Parallel computatIon of Discharge (RAPID). Since inception of RAPID ten years ago in January 2006, the community of its users has grown slowly but steadily, and now includes researchers in industry, academia, and government organizations. This growth of the RAPID users community can be explained - at least in part - by its open availability. However, despite an increasing support for open science (software and data), the mechanics of sharing still remain mysterious to many geoscientists… as they were for the authors. The purpose of this presentation is therefore to shed light on the steps involved in opening software and data based on a decade of experience related to the development and release of an Earth System Model. Three distinct steps of open sourcing are highlighted here: opening, exposing, and automatic testing. Each one of these steps is presented as an independent and tractable increment at various stages of development that is justified based on the size of the users community. Topics covered include software and data licenses, code and data repositories, unit testing, and continuous integration.

  20. Automatic calculation of electron density profiles from digital ionograms. III. Processing of bottomside ionograms

    SciTech Connect

    Reinisch, B.W.; Huang, X.

    1983-05-01

    It is noted that automatic scaling of bottomside Digisonde ionograms gives the E and F region echo traces with high accuracy. Polarization and incidence angle information in the ionogram makes it possible to extract the vertical ordinary polarization echo trace from quiet as well as disturbed ionograms. The scaling algorithm is tested with Digisonde ionograms from Goose Bay, Labrador, which reveal spread F about 50 percent of the time. In spite of these disturbed conditions, f0F2 is determined within 1/2 MHz for 475 ionograms out of 577 during January 1980. A profile inversion algorithm gives a calculation of the electron density profile from the autoscale h-prime(f) points. Parabolic profile shapes are assumed for the E region and for the valley between the E and the F layer. The F layer is approximated through a single sum of Chebyshev polynomials, and the entire profile is described by means of a set of 16 numerical values.