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Sample records for automatic readout micrometer

  1. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  2. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  3. Automatic readout for nuclear emulsions in muon radiography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, A.; Bozza, C.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Kose, U.; Lauria, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Miyamoto, S.; Montesi, C.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Russo, A.; Sirignano, C.; Stellacci, S. M.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear emulsions are an effective choice in many scenarios of volcano radiography by cosmic-ray muons. They are cheap and emulsion-based detectors require no on-site power supply. Nuclear emulsion films provide sub-micrometric tracking precision and intrinsic angular accuracy better than 1 mrad. Imaging the inner structure of a volcano requires that the cosmic-ray absorption map be measured on wide angular range. High-absorption directions can be probed by allowing for large statistics, which implies a large overall flux, i.e. wide surface for the detector. A total area of the order of a few m2 is nowadays typical, thanks to the automatic readout tools originally developed for high-energy physics experiments such as CHORUS, PEANUT, OPERA. The European Scanning System is now being used to read out nuclear emulsion films exposed to cosmic rays on the side of volcanoes. The structure of the system is described in detail with respect to both hardware and software. Its present scanning speed of 20 cm2/h/side/microscope is suitable to fulfil the needs of the current exposures of nuclear emulsion films for muon radiograph, but it is worth to notice that applications in volcano imaging are among the driving forces pushing to increase the performances of the system. Preliminary results for the Unzen volcano of a joint effort by research groups in Italy and Japan show that the current system is already able to provide signal/background ratio in the range 100÷10000:1, depending on the quality cuts set in the off-line data analysis. The size of the smallest detectable structures in that experimental setup is constrained by the available statistics in the region of highest absorption to about 50 mrad, or 22 m under the top of the mountain. Another exposure is currently taking data at the Stromboli volcano. Readout of the exposed films is expected to begin in March 2012, and preliminary results will be available soon after. An effort by several universities and INFN has

  4. Focal plane infrared readout circuit with automatic background suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Shaw, Timothy J. (Inventor); Wrigley, Chris J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A circuit for reading out a signal from an infrared detector includes a current-mode background-signal subtracting circuit having a current memory which can be enabled to sample and store a dark level signal from the infrared detector during a calibration phase. The signal stored by the current memory is subtracted from a signal received from the infrared detector during an imaging phase. The circuit also includes a buffered direct injection input circuit and a differential voltage readout section. By performing most of the background signal estimation and subtraction in a current mode, a low gain can be provided by the buffered direct injection input circuit to keep the gain of the background signal relatively small, while a higher gain is provided by the differential voltage readout circuit. An array of such readout circuits can be used in an imager having an array of infrared detectors. The readout circuits can provide a high effective handling capacity.

  5. Conversion factors between human and automatic readouts of CDMAM phantom images of CR mammography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figl, Michael; Homolka, Peter; Osanna-Elliott, Angelika; Semturs, Friedrich; Kaar, Marcus; Hummel, Johann

    2016-09-01

    In mammography screening, profound assessment of technical image quality is imperative. The European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening (EPQCM) suggests using an alternate fixed choice contrast-detail phantom-like CDMAM. For the evaluation of technical image quality, human or automated readouts can be used. For automatic evaluation, a software (cdcom) is provided by EUREF. If the automated readout indicates unacceptable image quality, additional human readout may be performed overriding the automated readout. As the latter systematically results in higher image quality ratings, conversion factors between both methods are regularly applied. Since most image quality issues with mammography systems arise within CR systems, an assessment restricted to CR systems with data from the Austrian Reference Center in the mammography screening program has been conducted. Forty-five CR systems were evaluated. Human readouts were performed with a randomisation software to avoid bias due to learning effects. Additional automatic evaluation allowed for the computation of conversion factors between human and automatic readouts. These factors were substantially lower compared to those suggested by EUREF, namely 1.21 compared to 1.62 (EUREF UK method) and 1.42 (EUREF EU method) for 0.1 mm, and 1.40 compared to 1.83 (EUREF UK) and 1.73 (EUREF EU) for 0.25 mm structure size, respectively. Using either of these factors to adjust patient dose in order to comply with image quality requirements results in differences in the dose increase of up to 90%. This necessitates a consensus on their proper application and limits the validity of the assessment methods. Clear criteria for CR systems based on appropriate studies should be promoted.

  6. Conversion factors between human and automatic readouts of CDMAM phantom images of CR mammography systems.

    PubMed

    Figl, Michael; Homolka, Peter; Osanna-Elliott, Angelika; Semturs, Friedrich; Kaar, Marcus; Hummel, Johann

    2016-09-21

    In mammography screening, profound assessment of technical image quality is imperative. The European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening (EPQCM) suggests using an alternate fixed choice contrast-detail phantom-like CDMAM. For the evaluation of technical image quality, human or automated readouts can be used. For automatic evaluation, a software (cdcom) is provided by EUREF. If the automated readout indicates unacceptable image quality, additional human readout may be performed overriding the automated readout. As the latter systematically results in higher image quality ratings, conversion factors between both methods are regularly applied. Since most image quality issues with mammography systems arise within CR systems, an assessment restricted to CR systems with data from the Austrian Reference Center in the mammography screening program has been conducted. Forty-five CR systems were evaluated. Human readouts were performed with a randomisation software to avoid bias due to learning effects. Additional automatic evaluation allowed for the computation of conversion factors between human and automatic readouts. These factors were substantially lower compared to those suggested by EUREF, namely 1.21 compared to 1.62 (EUREF UK method) and 1.42 (EUREF EU method) for 0.1 mm, and 1.40 compared to 1.83 (EUREF UK) and 1.73 (EUREF EU) for 0.25 mm structure size, respectively. Using either of these factors to adjust patient dose in order to comply with image quality requirements results in differences in the dose increase of up to 90%. This necessitates a consensus on their proper application and limits the validity of the assessment methods. Clear criteria for CR systems based on appropriate studies should be promoted.

  7. Automatic interferometer with digital readout for refractometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Kinder, W; Neumann, J; Plesse, H; Torge, R

    1968-02-01

    The paper describes an interference refractometer for liquids and gases which operates automatically and reads out in digital or analog form. A compensating technique using white light is used for measurement. Zero adjustment is achieved by rotating the compensator and capturing the zero-order white light fringe by photoelectric means. Measurement of the path difference compensated by the compensator is based on electronic interpolation and counting of interference fringes by optointerferometric means, a time division multiplex technique with pulse amplitude modulation being used to obtain the electrical fringe signals.

  8. A simple readout electronics for automatic power controlled self-mixing laser diode systems.

    PubMed

    Cattini, Stefano; Rovati, Luigi

    2008-08-01

    The paper describes a simple electronic circuit to drive a laser diode for self-mixing interferometry. The network integrates a stable commercial automatic power controller and a current mirror based readout of the interferometric signal. The first prototype version of the circuit has been realized and characterized. The system allows easily performing precise interferometric measurements with no thermostatic circuitry to stabilize the laser diode temperature and an automatic control gain network to compensate emitted optical power fluctuations. To achieve this result, in the paper a specific calibration procedure to be performed is described.

  9. A CMOS readout integrated circuit with automatic deselecting function for IRFPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shanshan; Ding, Ruijun; Pang, Yulin; Chen, Zhe

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, a readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is presented for improving the operability of the LWIR arrays by using a super-pixel detector format scheme, identifying and deselecting the bad elements automatically. This ROIC features an input stage based on buffered direct injection (BDI) structure, which uses a differential stage to provide the inverting gain to improve linearity and to provide tight control of the detector bias. The threshold voltage of bad element de-selection is adjustable and the circuit could de-select the bad element automatically. The simulation result show that the bad sub-element de-selection precision is up to nearly 0.2nA when the threshold current is about 590.8nA. We analyze the errors affecting the precision and the calculated precision is 2nA. Finally, we discuss the bad sub-element de-selection precision in different integrating time.

  10. New conversion factors between human and automatic readouts of the CDMAM phantom for CR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Johann; Homolka, Peter; Osanna-Elliot, Angelika; Kaar, Marcus; Semtrus, Friedrich; Figl, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Mammography screenings demand for profound image quality (IQ) assessment to guarantee their screening success. The European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening (EPQCM) suggests a contrast detail phantom such as the CDMAM phantom to evaluate IQ. For automatic evaluation a software is provided by the EUREF. As human and automatic readouts differ systematically conversion factors were published by the official reference organisation (EUREF). As we experienced a significant difference for these factors for Computed Radiography (CR) systems we developed an objectifying analysis software which presents the cells including the gold disks randomly in thickness and rotation. This allows to overcome the problem of an inevitable learning effect where observers know the position of the disks in advance. Applying this software, 45 computed radiography (CR) systems were evaluated and the conversion factors between human and automatic readout determined. The resulting conversion factors were compared with the ones resulting from the two methods published by EUREF. We found our conversion factors to be substantially lower than those suggested by EUREF, in particular 1.21 compared to 1.42 (EUREF EU method) and 1.62 (EUREF UK method) for 0.1 mm, and 1.40 compared to 1.73 (EUREF EU) and 1.83 (EUREF UK) for 0.25 mm disc diameter, respectively. This can result in a dose increase of up to 90% using either of these factors to adjust patient dose in order to fulfill image quality requirements. This suggests the need of an agreement on their proper application and limits the validity of the assessment methods. Therefore, we want to stress the need for clear criteria for CR systems based on appropriate studies.

  11. Fully integrated low-noise readout circuit with automatic offset cancellation loop for capacitive microsensors.

    PubMed

    Song, Haryong; Park, Yunjong; Kim, Hyungseup; Cho, Dong-Il Dan; Ko, Hyoungho

    2015-10-14

    Capacitive sensing schemes are widely used for various microsensors; however, such microsensors suffer from severe parasitic capacitance problems. This paper presents a fully integrated low-noise readout circuit with automatic offset cancellation loop (AOCL) for capacitive microsensors. The output offsets of the capacitive sensing chain due to the parasitic capacitances and process variations are automatically removed using AOCL. The AOCL generates electrically equivalent offset capacitance and enables charge-domain fine calibration using a 10-bit R-2R digital-to-analog converter, charge-transfer switches, and a charge-storing capacitor. The AOCL cancels the unwanted offset by binary-search algorithm based on 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) logic. The chip is implemented using 0.18 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process with an active area of 1.76 mm². The power consumption is 220 μW with 3.3 V supply. The input parasitic capacitances within the range of -250 fF to 250 fF can be cancelled out automatically, and the required calibration time is lower than 10 ms.

  12. Fully Integrated Low-Noise Readout Circuit with Automatic Offset Cancellation Loop for Capacitive Microsensors

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haryong; Park, Yunjong; Kim, Hyungseup; Cho, Dong-il Dan; Ko, Hyoungho

    2015-01-01

    Capacitive sensing schemes are widely used for various microsensors; however, such microsensors suffer from severe parasitic capacitance problems. This paper presents a fully integrated low-noise readout circuit with automatic offset cancellation loop (AOCL) for capacitive microsensors. The output offsets of the capacitive sensing chain due to the parasitic capacitances and process variations are automatically removed using AOCL. The AOCL generates electrically equivalent offset capacitance and enables charge-domain fine calibration using a 10-bit R-2R digital-to-analog converter, charge-transfer switches, and a charge-storing capacitor. The AOCL cancels the unwanted offset by binary-search algorithm based on 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) logic. The chip is implemented using 0.18 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process with an active area of 1.76 mm2. The power consumption is 220 μW with 3.3 V supply. The input parasitic capacitances within the range of −250 fF to 250 fF can be cancelled out automatically, and the required calibration time is lower than 10 ms. PMID:26473877

  13. Factors for conversion between human and automatic read-outs of CDMAM images

    SciTech Connect

    Figl, Michael; Hoffmann, Rainer; Kaar, Marcus; Semturs, Friedrich; Brasik, Natasa; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Homolka, Peter; Hummel, Johann

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: According to the European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening (EPQCM) image quality of digital mammography devices has to be assessed using human evaluation of the CDMAM contrast-detail phantom. This is accomplished by the determination of threshold thicknesses of gold disks with different diameters (0.08-2 mm) and revealed to be very time consuming. Therefore a software solution based on a nonprewhitening matched filter (NPW) model was developed at University of Nijmegen. Factors for the conversion from automatic to human readouts have been determined by Young et al.[Proc. SPIE 614206, 1-13 (2006) and Proc. SPIE 6913, 69131C1 (2008)] using a huge amount of data of both human and automatic readouts. These factors depend on the observer groups and are purely phenomenological. The authors present an alternative approach to determine the factors by using the Rose observer model. Methods: Their method uses the Rose theory which gives a relationship between threshold contrast, diameter of the object and number of incident photons. To estimate the conversion factors for the five diameters from 0.2 to 0.5 mm they exposed with five different current-time products which resulted in 25 equations with five unknowns. Results: The theoretical conversion factors (in dependence of the diameters) amounted to be 1.61 {+-} 0.02 (0.2 mm diameter), 1.67 {+-} 0.02 (0.25 mm), 1.85 {+-} 0.02 (0.31 mm), 2.09 {+-} 0.02 (0.4 mm), and 2.28 {+-} 0.02 (0.5 mm). The corresponding phenomenological factors found in literature are 1.74 (0.2 mm), 1.78 (0.25 mm), 1.83 (0.31 mm), 1.88 (0.4 mm), and 1.93 (0.5 mm). Conclusions: They transferred the problem of determining the factors to a well known observer model which has been examined for many years and is also well established. This method reveals to be reproduceable and produces factors comparable to the phenomenological ones.

  14. Filar Micrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyle, Bob; Argyle, R. W.

    The measurement of double stars is central to the theme of this book and there are many ways of doing this, but this chapter is dedicated to the use of the filar micrometer which has been used seriously since the time of William Herschel. For a thorough discussion of the history and development of the filar micrometer see the paper by Brooks(1991). Much of our knowledge of longer period visual binaries depends on micrometric measures over the last 200 years. The filar micrometer is by far the most well-known device for measuring double stars. Its design remains largely the same as the original instrument which was first applied to an astronomical telescope by the Englishman William Gascoigne (ca. 1620-1644) in the late 1630s. The aim is to use fine threads located in the focal plane of the telescope lens or mirror to measure the relative position of the fainter component of a double star with respect to the brighter, regarding the latter as fixed for this purpose. This is done by the measurement of the angle which the line joining the two stars makes with the N reference in the eyepiece and the angular separation of the fainter star (B) from the brighter (A) in seconds of arc. These quantities are usually known as theta ( θ ) and rho ( ρ ) respectively and are defined in Chap. 1 .

  15. Optical contact micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Steven D.

    2014-08-19

    Certain examples provide optical contact micrometers and methods of use. An example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable lenses to receive an object and immobilize the object in a position. The example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable mirrors positioned with respect to the pair of lenses to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses. The example optical contact micrometer includes a microscope to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses via the mirrors; and an interferometer to obtain one or more measurements of the object.

  16. Traveling digital counters for micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, C. T.; Moore, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Five digit micrometer readings are made directly and quickly with no loss of precision. It is virtually impossible for micrometer to be misread. Digitized micrometer can also be used for reptitive measurements.

  17. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  18. Concatenated logic circuits based on a three-way DNA junction: a keypad-lock security system with visible readout and an automatic reset function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junhua; Zhou, Shungui; Wen, Junlin

    2015-01-07

    Concatenated logic circuits operating as a biocomputing keypad-lock security system with an automatic reset function have been successfully constructed on the basis of toehold-mediated strand displacement and three-way-DNA-junction architecture. In comparison with previously reported keypad locks, the distinctive advantage of the proposed security system is that it can be reset and cycled spontaneously a large number of times without an external stimulus, thus making practical applications possible. By the use of a split-G-quadruplex DNAzyme as the signal reporter, the output of the keypad lock can be recognized readily by the naked eye. The "lock" is opened only when the inputs are introduced in an exact order. This requirement provides defense against illegal invasion to protect information at the molecular scale.

  19. Airborne astronomy with a 150 micrometer - 500 micrometer heterodyne spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes work done under NASA Grant NAG2-254 awarded to the University of California. The project goal was to build a far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer for NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and to use this instrument to observe atomic and molecular spectral lines from the interstellar medium. This goal was successfully achieved; the spectrometer is now in routine use aboard the KAO. Detections of particular note have been the 370 micrometers line of neutral atomic carbon, the 158 micrometers transition of ionized carbon, many of the high-J rotational lines of 12CO and 13CO between J=9-8 and J=22-21, the 119 micron ground-state rotational line of OH, and the 219 micron ground-state rotational line of H2D(+). All of these lines were observed at spectral resolutions exceeding 1 part in 10(exp 6), thereby allowing accurate line shapes and Doppler velocities to be measured.

  20. Level Indicator On A Tubular Inside Micrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1995-01-01

    Leveling helps to ensure accurate measurements. Attachment helpful because in some situations that involve measurement of large, tight-tolerance inside dimensions, inside micrometers not held level between contact point give inaccurate readings. User adjusts position and orientation of micrometer and verifies level by observing bubble in level indicator. Upon feeling correct drag between micrometer tips and workpiece, user confident that tool used correctly and accurate measurement obtained.

  1. Photon counting micrometer and video CCD.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tie, Qiongxian; Li, Chennfei

    The structure and observational method of the photon counting slotted micrometer are proposed. The micrometer is made up of a piece of slotted plate and a photomultiplier. The photon counting micrometer is replaced by a video CCD for regular trial observation and as a test for the equipment of one scientific CCD, because the micrometer transmission in the instrumental vertical angle transmission mechanism is dull, and the telescope is not able to observe regularly since the optical axis changes greatly as the telescope points to different vertical distance. The video CCD is fixed in the course of observation, recording a picture every forty milliseconds, or one hundred pictures within four seconds, resulting in simultaneously after smoothing treatment the moment and stellar zenith distance when a star passes through the meridian or prime vertical.

  2. Automatic water inventory, collecting, and dispensing unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Williams, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Two cylindrical tanks with piston bladders and associated components for automatic filling and emptying use liquid inventory readout devices in control of water flow. Unit provides for adaptive water collection, storage, and dispensation in weightlessness environment.

  3. High throughput optical readout of dense arrays of nanomechanical systems for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, N. F.; Kosaka, P. M.; Tamayo, J.; Ramírez, J.; Ahumada, O.; Mertens, J.; Hien, T. D.; Rijn, C. V.; Calleja, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present an instrument based on the scanning of a laser beam and the measurement of the reflected beam deflection that enables the readout of arrays of nanomechanical systems without limitation in the geometry of the sample, with high sensitivity and a spatial resolution of few micrometers. The measurement of nanoscale deformations on surfaces of cm2 is performed automatically, with minimal need of user intervention for optical alignment. To exploit the capability of the instrument for high throughput biological and chemical sensing, we have designed and fabricated a two-dimensional array of 128 cantilevers. As a proof of concept, we measure the nanometer-scale bending of the 128 cantilevers, previously coated with a thin gold layer, induced by the adsorption and self-assembly on the gold surface of several self-assembled monolayers. The instrument is able to provide the static and dynamic responses of cantilevers with subnanometer resolution and at a rate of up to ten cantilevers per second. The instrumentation and the fabricated chip enable applications for the analysis of complex biological systems and for artificial olfaction.

  4. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

    1998-08-11

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

  5. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Dahlon D.; Thelen, Jr., Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

  6. Medipix2 parallel readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, V.; Marzeddu, R.; Randaccio, P.

    2003-08-01

    A fast parallel readout system based on a PCI board has been developed in the framework of the Medipix collaboration. The readout electronics consists of two boards: the motherboard directly interfacing the Medipix2 chip, and the PCI board with digital I/O ports 32 bits wide. The device driver and readout software have been developed at low level in Assembler to allow fast data transfer and image reconstruction. The parallel readout permits a transfer rate up to 64 Mbytes/s. http://medipix.web.cern ch/MEDIPIX/

  7. Wideband 1.064 micrometer detector evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S. I.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of several candidate detectors for use as communications detectors in a 400 Mbps 1.064 micrometers laser communication system was evaluated. The results of communication system Bit Error Rate (BER) testing for the best detector of each type are summarized. Complete testing data of each type detector is presented. The 400 Mbps 1.064 micrometers communication system receiver test bed is described. The best communication system results for each detector type are included. Performance comparisons are made at 0.000001 BER, the specification level chosen for satellite laser communication links. The data is presented in two groups. The first indicates the best performance levels that can be expected on normal space laser communication system operation. The second cites the best performance levels which can be achieved by focusing the signal to diffraction limited spots on the photosensitive area.

  8. SNO+ Readout Electronics Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonventre, Richard; Shokair, Timothy; Knapik, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The SNO+ experiment is designed to explore several topics in neutrino physics including neutrinoless double beta decay, reactor antineutrinos, and low energy solar neutrinos. SNO+ uses the existing Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector, with the heavy water target replaced with liquid scintillator. The new target requires an upgrade to the command and control electronics to handle the higher rates expected with scintillation light as compared to Cherenkov light. The readout electronics have been upgraded to autonomously push data to a central data acquisition computer over ethernet from each of the 19 front end crates. The autonomous readout is achieved with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) with an embedded processor. Inside the FPGA fabric a state machine is configured to pull data across the VME-like bus of each crate. A small C program, making use of the open source Light Weight IP (LWIP) libraries, is run directly on the hardware (with no operating system) to push the data via TCP/IP. The hybrid combination of `high-level' C code and a `low-level' VHDL state machine is a cost effective and flexible solution for reading out individual front end crates.

  9. Compensated digital readout family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, David E.; Skow, Michael

    1991-01-01

    ISC has completed test on an IC which has 32 channels of amplifiers, low pass anti-aliasing filters, 13-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converters with non-uniformity correction per channel and a digital multiplexer. The single slope class of A/D conversion is described, as are the unique variations required for incorporation of this technique for use with on-focal plane detector readout electronics. This paper describes the architecture used to implement the digital on-focal plane signal processing functions. Results from measured data on a test IC are presented for a circuit containing these functions operating at a sensor frame rate of 1000 hertz.

  10. The PAUCam readout electronics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Jorge; Illa, José M.; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; de Vicente, Juan; Castilla, Javier; Casas, Ricard

    2016-08-01

    The PAUCam is an optical camera with a wide field of view of 1 deg x 1 deg and up to 46 narrow and broad band filters. The camera is already installed on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in the Canary Islands, Spain and successfully commissioned during the first period of 2015. The paper presents the main results from the readout electronics commissioning tests and include an overview of the whole readout electronics system, its configuration and current performance.

  11. Copper-micrometer-sized diamond nanostructured composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, D.; Livramento, V.; Shohoji, N.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Correia, J. B.; Carvalho, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Reinforcement of a copper matrix with diamond enables tailoring the properties demanded for thermal management applications at high temperature, such as the ones required for heat sink materials in low activated nuclear fusion reactors. For an optimum compromise between thermal conductivity and mechanical properties, a novel approach based on multiscale diamond dispersions is proposed: a Cu-nanodiamond composite produced by milling is used as a nanostructured matrix for further dispersion of micrometer-sized diamond (μDiamond). A series of Cu-nanodiamond mixtures have been milled to establish a suitable nanodiamond fraction. A refined matrix with homogeneously dispersed nanoparticles was obtained with 4 at.% μDiamond for posterior mixture with microdiamond and subsequent consolidation. Preliminary consolidation by hot extrusion of a mixture of pure copper and μDiamond has been carried out to define optimal processing parameters. The materials produced were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements.

  12. Micrometer glass nozzles for flow focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanero, J. M.; Gañán-Calvo, A. M.; Acero, A. J.; Vega, E. J.

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the use of flame-shaped glass micro-nozzles for ultra-fine liquid atomization by flow focusing (DePonte et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 195505), which may have great importance in very varied technological fields, such as biotechnology, biomedicine and analytical chemistry. Some advantages offered by these nozzles over the original plate orifice configuration (Gañán-Calvo 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 285) are: (i) they are extraordinarily smooth even at the micrometer scale, (ii) one can readily obtain nozzles with neck diameters in the range of a few tens of microns, (iii) they demand gas flow rates significantly smaller than those required by the plate orifice configuration and (iv) they are transparent. However, highly demanding applications require a precise characterization of their three-dimensional shape by non-destructive means. This characterization cannot be obtained straightforwardly from optical transmission or electron microscopy mainly due to optical distortion. We propose in this paper a method for measuring the shape and size of micrometer nozzles formed inside millimetric and submillimetric capillaries made of transparent materials. The inside of the capillary is colored, and the capillary is put in a liquid bath with almost the same refractive index as that of the capillary to eliminate optical distortion. The nozzle image, acquired with a microscope using back-light illumination to get a silhouette effect, is processed to locate the contours of the nozzle with sub-pixel resolution. To determine the three-dimensional shape of the nozzle, the capillary is rotated in front of the camera. The method provides precise results for nozzle sizes down to a few microns.

  13. GBT based readout in the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, J.; Byszuk, A. P.; Emschermann, D.; Kasinski, K.; Müller, W. F. J.; Schmidt, C. J.; Szczygiel, R.; Zabolotny, W. M.

    2017-02-01

    The CBM experiment at FAIR will use GBTX and Versatile Link based readout systems for several of its subdetectors. The paper describes the GBT based readout concept in CBM, emphasizing the common features among systems. Particular choices and features of the readout are motivated mainly by the requirements in the readout of the silicon tracking system (STS). Common developments like a common CBM readout board are presented. The prototype board provides full GBT functionality for all systems, can be interfaced to various prototype readout chains and be refined for later detector specific versions.

  14. Focal plane infrared readout circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An infrared imager, such as a spectrometer, includes multiple infrared photodetectors and readout circuits for reading out signals from the photodetectors. Each readout circuit includes a buffered direct injection input circuit including a differential amplifier with active feedback provided through an injection transistor. The differential amplifier includes a pair of input transistors, a pair of cascode transistors and a current mirror load. Photocurrent from a photodetector can be injected onto an integration capacitor in the readout circuit with high injection efficiency at high speed. A high speed, low noise, wide dynamic range linear infrared multiplexer array for reading out infrared detectors with large capacitances can be achieved even when short exposure times are used. The effect of image lag can be reduced.

  15. Thermopile detector radiation hard readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaalema, Stephen; Van Duyne, Stephen; Gates, James L.; Foote, Marc C.

    2010-08-01

    The NASA Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) conceptual payload contains a thermal instrument with six different spectral bands ranging from 8μm to 100μm. The thermal instrument is based on multiple linear arrays of thermopile detectors that are intrinsically radiation hard; however, the thermopile CMOS readout needs to be hardened to tolerate the radiation sources of the JEO mission. Black Forest Engineering is developing a thermopile readout to tolerate the JEO mission radiation sources. The thermal instrument and ROIC process/design techniques are described to meet the JEO mission requirements.

  16. Linear readout of object manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, SueYeon; Lee, Daniel D.; Sompolinsky, Haim

    2016-06-01

    Objects are represented in sensory systems by continuous manifolds due to sensitivity of neuronal responses to changes in physical features such as location, orientation, and intensity. What makes certain sensory representations better suited for invariant decoding of objects by downstream networks? We present a theory that characterizes the ability of a linear readout network, the perceptron, to classify objects from variable neural responses. We show how the readout perceptron capacity depends on the dimensionality, size, and shape of the object manifolds in its input neural representation.

  17. Comparison of 8 to 12 Micrometer and 3 to 5 Micrometer CVF Transmissometer Data with LOWTRAN Calculations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-26

    STANDARS -963-A " .:- A 9 ..A . . . . . . ". . _’.". ". . . - - ’. - . . - . - . - " ,, . - . , .,,-’ . . - . ,.X...Micrometer and 3 to 5 Micrometer CVF Transmissometer Data With LOWTRAN Calculations F. X. KNEIZYS W. 0. GALLERY R. R. GRUENZEL S. A. CLOUGH W. C. MARTIN J. H...Facility, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio with a circular variable filter ((’VI) transmissometer. The data cover the spectral regions from 8- to

  18. Automatic inspection of leather surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelzleitner, Wolfgang; Niel, Albert

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes the key elements of a system for detecting quality defects on leather surfaces. The inspection task must treat defects like scars, mite nests, warts, open fissures, healed scars, holes, pin holes, and fat folds. The industrial detection of these defects is difficult because of the large dimensions of the leather hides (2 m X 3 m), and the small dimensions of the defects (150 micrometers X 150 micrometers ). Pattern recognition approaches suffer from the fact that defects are hidden on an irregularly textured background, and can be hardly seen visually by human graders. We describe the methods tested for automatic classification using image processing, which include preprocessing, local feature description of texture elements, and final segmentation and grading of defects. We conclude with a statistical evaluation of the recognition error rate, and an outlook on the expected industrial performance.

  19. Nanosecond monolithic CMOS readout cell

    DOEpatents

    Souchkov, Vitali V.

    2004-08-24

    A pulse shaper is implemented in monolithic CMOS with a delay unit formed of a unity gain buffer. The shaper is formed of a difference amplifier having one input connected directly to an input signal and a second input connected to a delayed input signal through the buffer. An elementary cell is based on the pulse shaper and a timing circuit which gates the output of an integrator connected to the pulse shaper output. A detector readout system is formed of a plurality of elementary cells, each connected to a pixel of a pixel array, or to a microstrip of a plurality of microstrips, or to a detector segment.

  20. Micrometer-Scale Photochromic Recording on Amorphous Diarylethene Film and Nondestructive Readout Using Near-Field IR Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Atsushi; Saito, Masaaki; Yokojima, Satoshi; Murakami, Akinori; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Irie, Masahiro; Uchida, Kingo

    2006-09-01

    An amorphous photochromic recording film was prepared by spin coating a solution of a diarylethene derivative having bulky m-terphenyl groups. Near-field IR detection was carried out to read out the photochromic recording spots recorded by green laser irradiation on the film, and a spot with a diameter of approximately 5 μm was nondestructively read out by the technique. The spot size was smaller than the wavelengths used for the read out, indicating the advantage of using the near-field technique.

  1. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  2. High sensitivity infrared 10.6 micrometer heterodyne receiver development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented for a study on the design of an infrared 10.6-micrometer quantum-noise-limited optical receiver subsystem. Performance measurements of the HgCdTe photomixer preamplifier combination were carried out for photomixer temperatures up to 152 K and a photomixer frequency response of up to 420 MHz was obtained. Results of temperature and bias cycling of HgCdTe photomixers are reported. Design considerations for an operational 10.6 micrometer heterodyne receiver are presented. These consist of design data on required laser LO illumination, heat load levels for photomixer cooler, photomixer uniformity and the effects of photomixer impedance match on receiver sensitivity. Analysis and measurements of 10.6 micrometer heterodyne detection in an extrinsic photoconductive (p-type) HgCdTe photomixer are also presented.

  3. 0.4-3.5-micrometer Observations of 4179 Toutatis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, E. S.; Britt, D. T.; Bell, J. F.; Binzel, R. P.; Lebofsky, L. A.

    1993-07-01

    We obtained nearly simultaneous observations of 4179 Toutatis over a 0.3-3.5 micrometer wavelength range on 4 January 1993 UT. Howell obtained a 1.2-2.5 micrometer spectrophotometry using the Multiple Mirror Telescope in Arizona. Britt and Bell obtained narrowband photometry in the 3-micrometer region as well as broadband JHK photometry from the Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii. Binzel measured the visible spectrum using a CCD spectrograph at the McGraw-Hill Observatory in Arizona. Using V photometry reported by Pravec in the Czech Republic on adjacent nights [1], we were able to combine all these spectral regions. The rotation period of this object is approximately 10 days, so the time differences between the measurements of different spectral regions are negligible. Tholen has classified 4179 Toutatis as an S-type asteroid based on visible photometry. We measure a pyroxene absorption band near 2 micrometers, present in most S-type asteroid spectra. Unfortunately, a gap in spectral coverage prevents us from determining the characteristics of the 1-micrometer absorption band accurately. The spectral slope as measured from 1.25 to 2.2 micrometers is 6-10%, which is modest compared to other S-type asteroids. The spectrum of this asteroid is similar to other near-Earth S-type asteroids that have been observed in the near-infrared wavelength region. On 4 January 1993, 4179 Toutatis was 0.182 AU from the Earth, and 1.158 AU from the Sun. At this solar distance, the thermal emission contributes substantially to the flux at 3 micrometers. The determination of thermal emission is complicated by the slow rotation rate and the irregular shape of this object that was revealed by radar observations [2]. Preliminary results suggest that no 3-micrometer absorption feature is present, indicating that this object is anhydrous. Using these spectral data, we will compare 4179 Toutatis to other S-type asteroids, both in the main belt and the near-Earth environment. References

  4. Readout electronics for LGAD sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, O.; Franch, N.; Canals, J.; Palacio, F.; López, M.; Vilà, A.; Diéguez, A.; Carulla, M.; Flores, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Merlos, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an ASIC fabricated in 180 nm CMOS technology from AMS with the very front-end electronics used to readout LGAD sensors is presented as well as its experimental results. The front-end has the typical architecture for Si-strip readout, i.e., preamplification stage with a Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) followed by a CR-RC shaper. Both amplifiers are based on a folded cascode structure with a PMOS input transistor and the shaper only uses passive elements for the feedback stage. The CSA has programmable gain and a configurable input stage in order to adapt to the different input capacitance of the LGAD sensors (pixelated, short and long strips) and to the different input signal (depending on the gain of the LGAD). The fabricated prototype has an area of 0.865 mm × 0.965 mm and includes the biasing circuit for the CSA and the shaper, 4 analog channels (CSA+shaper) and programmable charge injection circuits included for testing purposes. Noise and power analysis performed during simulation fixed the size of the input transistor to W/L = 860 μm/0.2 μm. The shaping time is fixed by design at 1 us and, in this ASIC version, the feedback elements of the shaper are passive, which means that the area of the shaper can be reduced using active elements in future versions. Finally, the different gains of the CSA have been selected to maintain an ENC below 400 electrons for a detector capacitor of 20 pF, with a power consumption of 150 μ W per channel.

  5. High-Energy 2-Micrometers Doppler Lidar for Wind Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Petros, Mulugeta; Yu, Jirong; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy 2-micrometer wavelength lasers have been incorporated in a prototype coherent Doppler lidar to test component technologies and explore applications for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Design of the lidar is presented including aspects in the laser transmitter, receiver, photodetector, and signal processing. Calibration tests and sample atmospheric data are presented on wind and aerosol profiling.

  6. 2 Micrometers InAsSb Quantum-dot Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Yueming; Uhl, David; Keo, Sam

    2004-01-01

    InAsSb quantum-dot lasers near 2 micrometers were demonstrated in cw operation at room temperature with a threshold current density of 733 A,/cm(sup 2), output power of 3 mW/facet and a differential quantum efficiency of 13%.

  7. Central FPGA-based destination and load control in the LHCb MHz event readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsson, R.

    2012-10-01

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz. A set of 320 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at total rate of 24.6 MHz at a bandwidth usage of up to 70 GB/s over a commercial switching network based on Gigabit Ethernet to a distributed event building and high-level trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. An FPGA-based central master module, partly operating at the LHC bunch clock frequency of 40.08 MHz and partly at a double clock speed, is in charge of the entire trigger and readout control from the front-end electronics up to the high-level trigger farm. One FPGA is dedicated to controlling the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load control and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also allows the vital task of fast central monitoring and automatic recovery in-flight of failing nodes while maintaining dead-time and event loss at a minimum. This paper demonstrates the strength and suitability of implementing this real-time task for a very large distributed system in an FPGA where no random delays are introduced, and where extreme reliability and accurate event accounting are fundamental requirements. It was in use during the entire commissioning phase of LHCb and has been in faultless operation during the first two years of physics luminosity data taking.

  8. 11 micrometer emissivities and droplet radii for marine stratocumulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Gang; Lin, Xijian; Coakley, James A.

    1994-01-01

    The results of a new multispectral infrared retrieval scheme for obtaining fractional cloud cover and 11 micrometer emissivity with those of the spatial coherence method which obtains fractional cloud cover assuming that the clouds are opaque at infrared wavelengths. Both methods are applied to 4-km NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer global area coverage data for 250-km-scale regions containing single-layered marine stratocumulus off the coast of South America. The average 11 micrometer emissivity for low level clouds is found to be between 0.70 and 0.85. The low emissivity is evidently due to the thinning of clouds at their edges. Semitransparent cloud edges evidently make up a substantial portion of the area covered by such clouds. This result indicates that cloud cover obtained using the spatial coherence method is underestimated by 0.1 to 0.2, as has been claimed in a previous study. The fractional cloud cover for the ensemble of 250-km-scale regions studied here increased slightly from 0.60 for daytime observations to 0.63 for nighttime observations. The 11 micrometer emissivity also increased slightly, but about half of the increase was related to the increase in cloud cover and a decrease in the relative area covered by cloud edge material. Presumably, the other half was due to an increase in cloud liquid water. Cloud height showed no significant change. The average effective droplet radius increased from 9.3 micrometers for daytime observations to 10.2 micrometers at night.

  9. BESIII ETOF upgrade readout electronics commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Zhuang; Dai, Hong-Liang; Wu, Zhi; Heng, Yue-Kun; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Ping; Ji, Xiao-Lu; Li, Cheng; Sun, Wei-Jia; Wang, Si-Yu; Wang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    It is proposed to upgrade the endcap time-of-flight (ETOF) of the Beijing Spectrometer III (BESIII) with a multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC), aiming at an overall time resolution of about 80 ps. After completing the entire readout electronics system, some experiments, such as heat radiation, radiation hardness and large-current beam tests, have been carried out to confirm the reliability and stability of the readout electronics. An on-detector test of the readout electronics has also been performed with the beam at the BEPCII E3 line. The test results indicate that the readout electronics system fulfills its design requirements. Supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences (1G201331231172010)

  10. Back-Side Readout Silicon Photomultiplier.

    PubMed

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E

    2012-07-19

    We present a novel structure for the back-side readout silicon photomultipler (SiPM). Current SiPMs are front-illuminated structures with front-side readout, which have relatively small geometric fill factor leading to degradation in their photon detection efficiency (PDE). Back-side readout devices will provide an advantageous solution to achieve high PDE. We designed and investigated a novel structure that would allow back-side readout while creating a region of high electric field optimized for avalanche breakdown. In addition, this structure has relatively high fill factor and also allow direct coupling of individual micro-cell of the SiPM to application-specific integrated circuits. We will discuss the performance that can be attained with this structure through device simulation and the process flow that can be used to fabricate this structure through process simulation.

  11. Micrometer- and Nanometer-Sized Polymeric Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granstrom, Magnus; Berggren, Magnus; Inganas, Olle

    1995-03-01

    A method for the fabrication of micrometer- and submicrometer-sized polymeric light-emitting diodes is presented. Such diodes have a variety of applications. Light sources of dimensions around 100 nanometers are required for subwavelength, near-field optical microscopy. Another possible application is patterning on the micrometer and nanometer scale. The diodes have been made in the form of a sandwich structure, with the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene) polymerized in the pores of commercially available microfiltration membranes defining the hole-injecting contacts, poly[3-(4-octylphenyl)-2,2'-bithiophene] as the light-emitting layer, and a thin film of calcium-aluminum as the electron injector.

  12. Satellite Direct Readout: Opportunities for Science Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    AD-A276 257 1UIIIIIlii 253860-1-X (R) SATELLITE DIRECT READOUT: OPPORTUNITIES FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION Thomas W. Wagner February 1994 C, Submitted to...Their Classroom ..................... 10 LIST OF TABLES 1. Summary Statement of Work .............................. 1 2. Science Education Goals and...with emphasis on newly emerging national Science Education Standards. Section 3 provides the specifications of the portable ERIM Direct Readout

  13. Readout and DAQ for Pixel Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platkevic, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Data readout and acquisition control of pixel detectors demand the transfer of significantly a large amounts of bits between the detector and the computer. For this purpose dedicated interfaces are used which are designed with focus on features like speed, small dimensions or flexibility of use such as digital signal processors, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and USB communication ports. This work summarizes the readout and DAQ system built for state-of-the-art pixel detectors of the Medipix family.

  14. 10.6 Micrometer Gradient Index Optical Component Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    meters. If the wavelength of the instant radiation is 0.05 micrometers, then 40 interference fringes will be seen in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer ...80 will be observed in a Twyman -Green configuration). Thus, 40 fringes will be seen over a distance of 5 millimeters (the depth of the gradient) or 8...techniques but to introduce a modulation with two frequencies. The system, called a harmonic interferometer , has been described elsewhere [1]. The

  15. Color lensless digital holographic microscopy with micrometer resolution.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2012-05-15

    Color digital lensless holographic microscopy with micrometer resolution is presented. Multiwavelength illumination of a biological sample and a posteriori color composition of the amplitude images individually reconstructed are used to obtain full-color representation of the microscopic specimen. To match the sizes of the reconstructed holograms for each wavelength, a reconstruction algorithm that allows for choosing the pixel size at the reconstruction plane independently of the wavelength and the reconstruction distance is used. The method is illustrated with experimental results.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of micrometer Cu/PVP architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Huajuan; Zhao, Yanbao; Sun, Lei

    2011-08-15

    Graphical abstract: A simple method for the synthesis of novel micrometer flower-like Cu/PVP architectures was introduced. Highlights: {yields} Micrometer flower-like copper/polyvinylpyrrolidone architectures were obtained by a simple chemical route. {yields} The amount of N{sub 2}H{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, the reaction temperature, the molar ratio of CuCl{sub 2} to PVP and different molecular weights of PVP play an important role in the controlling the morphology of the Cu/PVP architectures. {yields} A possible mechanism of the formation of Cu/PVP architectures was discussed. -- Abstract: Micrometer-sized flower-like Cu/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) architectures are synthesized by the reduction of copper (II) salt with hydrazine hydrate in aqueous solution in the presence of PVP capping agent. The resulting Cu/PVP architectures are investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Cu/PVP flowers have uniform morphologies with an average diameter of 10 {mu}m, made of several intercrossing plates. The formation of Cu/PVP flowers is a new kinetic control process, and the factors such as the amount of N{sub 2}H{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, reaction temperature, molar ratio of CuCl{sub 2} to PVP and molecular weight of PVP have significant effect on the morphology of Cu/PVP architectures. A possible mechanism of the formation of micrometer Cu/PVP architectures was discussed.

  17. Fabrication of an Absorber-Coupled MKID Detector and Readout for Sub-Millimeter and Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari-David; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We have fabricated absorber-coupled microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) arrays for sub-millimeter and far-infrared astronomy. Each detector array is comprised of lambda/2 stepped impedance resonators, a 1.5 micrometer thick silicon membrane, and 380 micrometer thick silicon walls. The resonators consist of parallel plate aluminum transmission lines coupled to low impedance Nb microstrip traces of variable length, which set the resonant frequency of each resonator. This allows for multiplexed microwave readout and, consequently, good spatial discrimination between pixels in the array. The Al transmission lines simultaneously act to absorb optical power and are designed to have a surface impedance and filling fraction so as to match the impedance of free space. Our novel fabrication techniques demonstrate high fabrication yield of MKID arrays on large single crystal membranes and sub-micron front-to-back alignment of the microstrip circuit.

  18. Study of the spatial resolution for binary readout detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonamine, R.; Maerschalk, T.; Lentdecker, G. De

    2016-07-01

    Often the binary readout is proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume to be readout at the price of a somewhat reduced spatial resolution compared to an analogue readout. We have been studying single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout using simulations as well as analytical approaches. In this note we show that the detector geometry could be optimized to offer an equivalent spatial resolution than with an analogue readout.

  19. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Aoki, H.

    1988-02-02

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an automatic transmission mechanism portion comprising a single planetary gear unit and a dual planetary gear unit; carriers of both of the planetary gear units that are integral with one another; an input means for inputting torque to the automatic transmission mechanism, clutches for operatively connecting predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units to the input means and braking means for restricting the rotation of predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units. The clutches are disposed adjacent one another at an end portion of the transmission for defining a clutch portion of the transmission; a first clutch portion which is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion for comprising the clutch portion when attached thereto; a second clutch portion that is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion in place of the first clutch portion for comprising the clutch portion when so attached. The first clutch portion comprising first clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a ring gear of the single planetary gear unit and a second clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a single gear of the automatic transmission mechanism portion. The second clutch portion comprising a the first clutch, the second clutch, and a third clutch for operatively connecting the input member to a ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit.

  20. Additive Manufacturing of Metal Structures at the Micrometer Scale.

    PubMed

    Hirt, Luca; Reiser, Alain; Spolenak, Ralph; Zambelli, Tomaso

    2017-01-04

    Currently, the focus of additive manufacturing (AM) is shifting from simple prototyping to actual production. One driving factor of this process is the ability of AM to build geometries that are not accessible by subtractive fabrication techniques. While these techniques often call for a geometry that is easiest to manufacture, AM enables the geometry required for best performance to be built by freeing the design process from restrictions imposed by traditional machining. At the micrometer scale, the design limitations of standard fabrication techniques are even more severe. Microscale AM thus holds great potential, as confirmed by the rapid success of commercial micro-stereolithography tools as an enabling technology for a broad range of scientific applications. For metals, however, there is still no established AM solution at small scales. To tackle the limited resolution of standard metal AM methods (a few tens of micrometers at best), various new techniques aimed at the micrometer scale and below are presently under development. Here, we review these recent efforts. Specifically, we feature the techniques of direct ink writing, electrohydrodynamic printing, laser-assisted electrophoretic deposition, laser-induced forward transfer, local electroplating methods, laser-induced photoreduction and focused electron or ion beam induced deposition. Although these methods have proven to facilitate the AM of metals with feature sizes in the range of 0.1-10 µm, they are still in a prototype stage and their potential is not fully explored yet. For instance, comprehensive studies of material availability and material properties are often lacking, yet compulsory for actual applications. We address these items while critically discussing and comparing the potential of current microscale metal AM techniques.

  1. Spontaneous formation of micrometer-size inorganic peapods.

    PubMed

    Roy, Soumyajit; Rijneveld-Ockers, Maria T; Groenewold, Jan; Kuipers, Bonny W M; Meeldijk, Hans; Kegel, Willem K

    2007-05-08

    We show that polyoxometalate (ammonium phosphomolybdate) Keggin in aqueous dispersions upon sonication spontaneously transforms into micrometer-sized, peapod-shaped structures. The formation of these peapods is preceded by the generation of spherical aggregates. The particles have been characterized experimentally by time-resolved dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning TEM with a high-angle annular dark field detector (STEM-HAADF) for energy-dispersive X-ray (STEM/EDX) elemental analyses. A pathway for the phenomenon is proposed.

  2. Spectral contents readout of birefringent sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redner, Alex S.

    1989-01-01

    The technical objective of this research program was to develop a birefringent sensor, capable of measuring strain/stress up to 2000 F and a readout system based on Spectral Contents analysis. As a result of the research work, a data acquisition system was developed, capable of measuring strain birefringence in a sensor at 2000 F, with multi-point static and dynamic capabilities. The system uses a dedicated spectral analyzer for evaluation of stress-birefringence and a PC-based readout. Several sensor methods were evaluated. Fused silica was found most satisfactory. In the final evaluation, measurements were performed up to 2000 F and the system performance exceeded expectations.

  3. Gravity Probe B gyroscope readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhlfelder, B.; Lockhart, J.; Aljabreen, H.; Clarke, B.; Gutt, G.; Luo, M.

    2015-11-01

    We describe the Gravity Probe B London-moment readout system successfully used on-orbit to measure two gyroscope spin axis drift rates predicted by general relativity. The system couples the magnetic signal of a spinning niobium-coated rotor into a low noise superconducting quantum interference device. We describe the multi-layered magnetic shield needed to attenuate external fields that would otherwise degrade readout performance. We discuss the ∼35 nrad/yr drift rate sensitivity that was achieved on-orbit.

  4. Surface forces of colloidal particles from micrometer to nanometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jeong-Min

    2003-10-01

    Surface forces of colloidal particles play critical roles in the macroscopic behavior of particulate systems such as dispersion and coagulation, adhesion and coating, and the rheological behavior of ceramic slurries. As particle size is decreased from micrometer to nanometer range, surface forces are increasingly important. Polyelectrolytes are the chemical additives commonly used to efficiently control the stabilization of the colloidal system. Their conformations on the solid surfaces as well as the interactions between the adsorbed polyelectrolytes are important issues in colloidal processing. Most experimental and theoretical approaches to the surface forces are based on particle sizes in the micrometer range. However, nanoparticles at close proximity or high solids loading are expected to show different behavior than what can be estimated from conventional theories such as continuum or mean field theories. My study examined the effect of pH, ionic strength, and molecular weight of the polyelectrolytes on the surface forces of colloidal particles by the interplay with the adsorption, turbidity, and direct surface force measurement in terms of the conformation on the solid surfaces. The colloid probe technique based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) is well established for micron size particles; and could be extended for nanosize particles by using carbon nanotubes as proximal probes. Nanotubes with their high aspect ratio avoid the contribution from cone shapes that happens with AFM tips. The difference in particle size significantly influences surface forces for sterically dispersed colloidal systems.

  5. Improved Readout For Micromagnet/Hall-Effect Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.

    1993-01-01

    Two improved readout circuits for micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access memories designed to eliminate current shunts introducing errors into outputs of older readout circuits. Incorporate additional switching transistors to isolate Hall sensors as needed.

  6. Microstructural and Compositional Relations of Granitoid Clasts in Lunar Breccias at the Micrometer to Sub-Micrometer Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Simon, J. I.; Mills, R. D.; Ross, D. K.; Tappa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Lunar granitoid lithologies have long been of interest for the information they provide on processes leading to silicic melt compositions on the Moon. The extraction of such melts over time affects the distribution and budget of incompatible materials (i.e., radiogenic heat producing elements and volatiles) of the lunar interior. We have recently shown that in addition to their high concentrations of incompatible lithophile elements, some granitoid clasts in lunar breccias have significant indigenous water contents in their alkali feldspars. This raises the importance of lunar granitoid materials in the expanding search for mineralogic/petrologic hosts of indigenous lunar water-related species. We are undertaking a detailed survey of the petrologic/mineralogical relations of granitoid clasts in lunar breccias to achieve a better understanding of the potential of these diverse assemblages as hosts for volatiles, and as candidates for additional isotope chronology studies. Our preliminary results reported here based on high-resolution field-emission SEM, EPMA and TEM studies uncover immense complexity in these materials at the micrometer to sub-micrometer scale that heretofore have not been fully documented.

  7. A microstrip detector with delay line readout

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, A.F. , BP 220, 38043 Grenoble CNPq Riekel, C.; Wattecamps, P. , BP 220, 38043 Grenoble )

    1992-01-01

    Principal limitations of position sensitive gasfilled detectors for x-ray synchrotron radiation applications are the counting rate and the positional resolution. Improvements in both areas are expected with microstrip technology. First results of a linear position sensitive microstrip detector with delay line readout are shown, and the possibility to achieve two-dimensional localization is evaluated.

  8. Raman-based microarray readout: a review.

    PubMed

    Haisch, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    For a quarter of a century, microarrays have been part of the routine analytical toolbox. Label-based fluorescence detection is still the commonest optical readout strategy. Since the 1990s, a continuously increasing number of label-based as well as label-free experiments on Raman-based microarray readout concepts have been reported. This review summarizes the possible concepts and methods and their advantages and challenges. A common label-based strategy is based on the binding of selective receptors as well as Raman reporter molecules to plasmonic nanoparticles in a sandwich immunoassay, which results in surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals of the reporter molecule. Alternatively, capture of the analytes can be performed by receptors on a microarray surface. Addition of plasmonic nanoparticles again leads to a surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal, not of a label but directly of the analyte. This approach is mostly proposed for bacteria and cell detection. However, although many promising readout strategies have been discussed in numerous publications, rarely have any of them made the step from proof of concept to a practical application, let alone routine use. Graphical Abstract Possible realization of a SERS (Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering) system for microarray readout.

  9. PANDA straw tube detectors and readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzempek, P.

    2016-07-01

    PANDA is a detector under construction dedicated to studies of production and interaction of particles in the charmonium mass range using antiproton beams in the momentum range of 1.5 - 15 GeV/c at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. PANDA consists of two spectrometers: a Target Spectrometer with a superconducting solenoid and a Forward Spectrometer using a large dipole magnet and covering the most forward angles (Θ < 10 °). In both spectrometers, the particle's trajectories in the magnetic field are measured using self-supporting straw tube detectors. The expected high count rates, reaching up to 1 MHz/straw, are one of the main challenges for the detectors and associated readout electronics. The paper presents the readout chain of the tracking system and the results of tests performed with realistic prototype setups. The readout chain consists of a newly developed ASIC chip (PASTTREC < PANDASTTReadoutChip >) with amplification, signal shaping, tail cancellation, discriminator stages and Time Readout Boards as digitizer boards.

  10. Microwave multiplex readout for superconducting sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Becker, D.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Fowler, J.; Gard, J.; Giachero, A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Hilton, G.; Maino, M.; Mates, J.; Puiu, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Reintsema, C.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L.

    2016-07-01

    The absolute neutrino mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in both particle physics and cosmology. The calorimetric measurement of the energy released in a nuclear beta decay is a powerful tool to determine the effective electron-neutrino mass. In the last years, the progress on low temperature detector technologies has allowed to design large scale experiments aiming at pushing down the sensitivity on the neutrino mass below 1 eV. Even with outstanding performances in both energy ( eV on keV) and time resolution ( 1 μs) on the single channel, a large number of detectors working in parallel is required to reach a sub-eV sensitivity. Microwave frequency domain readout is the best available technique to readout large array of low temperature detectors, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) or Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). In this way a multiplex factor of the order of thousands can be reached, limited only by the bandwidth of the available commercial fast digitizers. This microwave multiplexing system will be used to readout the HOLMES detectors, an array of 1000 microcalorimeters based on TES sensors in which the 163Ho will be implanted. HOLMES is a new experiment for measuring the electron neutrino mass by means of the electron capture (EC) decay of 163Ho. We present here the microwave frequency multiplex which will be used in the HOLMES experiment and the microwave frequency multiplex used to readout the MKID detectors developed in Milan as well.

  11. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  12. Daily weather direct readout microprocessor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davisson, L. D.; Davisson, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    The work completed included a study of the requirements and hardware and software implementation techniques for NIMBUS ESMR and TWERLE direct readout applications using microprocessors. Many microprocessors were studied for this application. Because of the available Interdata development capabilities, it was concluded that future implementations be on an Interdata microprocessor which was found adequate for the task.

  13. The (C2) 158 micrometer emission from the Horsehead nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, S.; Jaffe, D. T.; Howe, J. E.; Geis, N.; Herrmann, F.; Madden, S. C.; Poglitsch, A.; Stacey, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    The C II 158 micrometer line and the several rotational lines of CO, CO-13, and CS toward selected positions in the Horsehead extinction region in IC 434 are mapped. The observations show that the region has a gas density of about 10,000 cu cm and an external UV (Ultraviolet) flux to 20 to 100 times the average interstellar UV field. Although this is a regime where the C+ emission varies rapidly with UV intensity, fine structure line emission from gas with this range of physical conditions were not investigated previously. Comparisons of results with models of photodissociation regions show that existing plane parallel photodissociation region models are in general agreement with the observed intensity. It is not necessary to invoke a clumpy structure in the boundary layer to explain the observations, but the overall geometry of the cloud is important in determining the distribution of C+ emission.

  14. Diffusion of micrometer-sized soft particles in confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Benjamin; Aptowicz, Kevin

    We investigate the diffusion of micrometer sized poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) gel particles in confinement. The influence of confinement on the transport of small particles is becoming increasingly important for microfluidics and bio-fluidics. Analytical solutions to this problem are limited to very unique geometries or gross approximations. Computational methods have provided more insight into the problem as well as experimental investigations. However, most research has focused on the hard-sphere problem. In this work, we will explore the diffusion of soft particles in confinement. The dynamics of the particles confined between two parallel walls is captured with video-microscopy. In addition, we use a recently developed technique to measurement confinement of particles in-situ with a precision of 1%. This poster will present some preliminary results of how confinement affects the diffusion of these soft particles. We acknowledge support from Grant DMR-1206231.

  15. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  16. Micrometer-Precise Determination of the Thin Electrolyte Layer of a Spectroelectrochemical Cell by Microelectrode Approach Curves.

    PubMed

    Hiltrop, Dennis; Masa, Justus; Botz, Alexander J R; Lindner, Armin; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Muhler, Martin

    2017-03-31

    A spectroelectrochemical cell is presented that allows investigations of electrochemical reactions by means of attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The electrode holder for the working (WE), counter and reference electrode as mounted in the IR spectrometer cause the formation of a thin electrolyte layer between the internal reflection element (IRE) and the surface of the WE. The thickness of this thin electrolyte layer (dTL) was estimated by performing a scanning electrochemical microscopy-(SECM) like approach of a Pt microelectrode (ME), which was leveled with the WE toward the IRE surface. The precise lowering of the ME/WE plane toward the IRE was enabled by a micrometer screw. The approach curve was recorded in negative feedback mode of SECM and revealed the contact point of the ME and WE on the IRE, which was used as reference point to perform the electro-oxidation of ethanol over a drop-casted Pd/NCNT catalyst on the WE at different thin-layer thicknesses by cyclic voltammetry. The reaction products were detected in the liquid electrolyte by IR spectroscopy, and the effect of variations in dTL on the current densities and IR spectra were analyzed and discussed. The obtained data identify dTL as an important variable in thin-layer experiments with electrochemical reactions and FTIR readout.

  17. GEMMA and GEMINI, two dedicated mixed-signal ASICs for Triple-GEM detectors readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzotta, A.; Croci, G.; Costantini, A.; De Matteis, M.; Tagnani, D.; Corradi, G.; Murtas, F.; Gorini, G.; Baschirotto, A.

    2016-03-01

    GEMMA and GEMINI, two integrated-circuit front-ends for the Triple-GEM detector are presented. These two ASICs aim to improve detector readout performance in terms of count rate, adaptability, portability and power consumption. GEMMA target is to embed counting, timing and spectroscopic measurements in a single 8-channel device, managing a detector capacitance up to 15 pF. On the other hand, GEMINI is dedicated to counting measurements, embedding 16 channels with a detector capacitance up to 40 pF. Both prototypes, fabricated in 130 nm and 180 nm CMOS respectively, feature an automatic on-chip calibration circuit, compensating for process/temperature variations.

  18. Micrometer-resolved film dosimetry using a microscope in microbeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bartzsch, Stefan Oelfke, Uwe; Lott, Johanna; Welsch, Katrin; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a still preclinical tumor therapy approach that uses arrays of a few tens of micrometer wide parallel beams separated by a few 100 μm. The production, measurement, and planning of such radiation fields are a challenge up to now. Here, the authors investigate the feasibility of radiochromic film dosimetry in combination with a microscopic readout as a tool to validate peak and valley doses in MRT, which is an important requirement for a future clinical application of the therapy. Methods: Gafchromic{sup ®} HD-810 and HD-V2 films are exposed to MRT fields at the biomedical beamline ID17 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and are afterward scanned with a microscope. The measured dose is compared with Monte Carlo calculations. Image analysis tools and film handling protocols are developed that allow accurate and reproducible dosimetry. The performance of HD-810 and HD-V2 films is compared and a detailed analysis of the resolution, noise, and energy dependence is carried out. Measurement uncertainties are identified and analyzed. Results: The dose was measured with a resolution of 5 × 1000 μm{sup 2} and an accuracy of 5% in the peak and between 10% and 15% in the valley region. As main causes for dosimetry uncertainties, statistical noise, film inhomogeneities, and calibration errors were identified. Calibration errors strongly increase at low doses and exceeded 3% for doses below 50 and 70 Gy for HD-V2 and HD-810 films, respectively. While the grain size of both film types is approximately 2 μm, the statistical noise in HD-V2 is much higher than in HD-810 films. However, HD-810 films show a higher energy dependence at low photon energies. Conclusions: Both film types are appropriate for dosimetry in MRT and the microscope is superior to the microdensitometer used before at the ESRF with respect to resolution and reproducibility. However, a very careful analysis of the image data is required

  19. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.

    1988-02-16

    An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

  20. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, N.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

  1. Characterization of the CDMS Ionization Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Arran

    2007-10-01

    Current cosmological models predict that a large portion of the total mass of the universe, about eighty percent, consists of putative dark matter. Theory predicts this dark matter may be in the form of particles constantly passing through the Earth. A class of these particles may interact with ordinary matter, earning the name weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs). The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) aims to directly detect the existence of WIMPs. CDMS has designed ZIP (Z-dependent Ionization & Phonon) detectors which measure phonon production and ionization of an interaction, making it possible to determine the interacting particle. The low-energy threshold of the ZIP detectors is determined by the signal-to-noise ratio of the ionization readout. A characterization of the signal-to-noise ratio of the ionization readout, along with possible modifications for improved sensitivity will be presented.

  2. Design of a ballistic fluxon qubit readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr Kidiyarova-Shevchenko, Anna; Fedorov, Arkady; Shnirman, Alexander; Il'ichev, Evgeny; Schön, Gerd

    2007-11-01

    A detailed design is given for a flux qubit readout using ballistic fluxons. In this scheme, fluxons propagate through an underdamped Josephson transmission line (JTL) coupled to the qubit, whose state affects the fluxon propagation time. For strong qubit-JTL coupling, and far from the symmetry point, a qubit can be measured with fidelity greater than 99% and measurement time of 4 ns. The readout circuit requires additional rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) interface circuitry to launch and receive the delayed flux solitons. The parameters of this driver and receiver have been optimized to produce low fluxon speed at launch and impedance matching at the receiver. The delayed solitons are compared to a reference line using a detector with time resolution of better than 16 ps. Both the JTL and RSFQ interface were designed for the Nb 30 A cm-2 process developed at VTT, Finland, with postdeposition of the Al qubit at IPHT, Germany.

  3. Characterization of Silicon Detector Readout Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.

    2015-07-22

    Configuration and calibration of the front-end electronics typical of many silicon detector configurations were investigated in a lab activity based on a pair of strip sensors interfaced with FSSR2 read-out chips and an FPGA. This simple hardware configuration, originally developed for a telescope at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility, was used to measure thresholds and noise on individual readout channels and to study the influence that different configurations of the front-end electronics had on the observed levels of noise in the system. An understanding of the calibration and operation of this small detector system provided an opportunity to explore the architecture of larger systems such as those currently in use at LHC experiments.

  4. VCSELs for interferometric readout of MEMS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serkland, Darwin K.; Geib, Kent M.; Peake, Gregory M.; Keeler, Gordon A.; Shaw, Michael J.; Baker, Michael S.; Okandan, Murat

    2016-03-01

    We report on the development of single-frequency VCSELs (vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers) for sensing the position of a moving MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) object with resolution much less than 1nm. Position measurement is the basis of many different types of MEMS sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure sensors. Typically, by switching from a traditional capacitive electronic readout to an interferometric optical readout, the resolution can be improved by an order of magnitude with a corresponding improvement in MEMS sensor performance. Because the VCSEL wavelength determines the scale of the position measurement, laser wavelength (frequency) stability is desirable. This paper discusses the impact of VCSEL amplitude and frequency noise on the position measurement.

  5. Readout electrode assembly for measuring biological impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. D.; Moody, D. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The invention comprises of a pair of readout ring electrodes which are used in conjunction with apparatus for measuring the electrical impedance between different points in the body of a living animal to determine the amount of blood flow therebetween. The readout electrodes have independently adjustable diameters to permit attachment around different parts of the body between which it is desired to measure electric impedance. The axial spacing between the electrodes is adjusted by a pair of rods which have a first pair of ends fixedly attached to one electrode and a second pair of ends slidably attached to the other electrode. Indicia are provided on the outer surface of the ring electrodes and on the surface of the rods to permit measurement of the circumference and spacing between the ring electrodes.

  6. LSST camera readout chip ASPIC: test tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antilogus, P.; Bailly, Ph; Jeglot, J.; Juramy, C.; Lebbolo, H.; Martin, D.; Moniez, M.; Tocut, V.; Wicek, F.

    2012-02-01

    The LSST camera will have more than 3000 video-processing channels. The readout of this large focal plane requires a very compact readout chain. The correlated ''Double Sampling technique'', which is generally used for the signal readout of CCDs, is also adopted for this application and implemented with the so called ''Dual Slope integrator'' method. We have designed and implemented an ASIC for LSST: the Analog Signal Processing asIC (ASPIC). The goal is to amplify the signal close to the output, in order to maximize signal to noise ratio, and to send differential outputs to the digitization. Others requirements are that each chip should process the output of half a CCD, that is 8 channels and should operate at 173 K. A specific Back End board has been designed especially for lab test purposes. It manages the clock signals, digitizes the analog differentials outputs of ASPIC and stores data into a memory. It contains 8 ADCs (18 bits), 512 kwords memory and an USB interface. An FPGA manages all signals from/to all components on board and generates the timing sequence for ASPIC. Its firmware is written in Verilog and VHDL languages. Internals registers permit to define various tests parameters of the ASPIC. A Labview GUI allows to load or update these registers and to check a proper operation. Several series of tests, including linearity, noise and crosstalk, have been performed over the past year to characterize the ASPIC at room and cold temperature. At present, the ASPIC, Back-End board and CCD detectors are being integrated to perform a characterization of the whole readout chain.

  7. Study of spacecraft direct readout meteorological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R.; Elam, W.; Hoedemaker, R.

    1973-01-01

    Characteristics are defined of the next generation direct readout meteorological satellite system with particular application to Tiros N. Both space and ground systems are included. The recommended space system is composed of four geosynchronous satellites and two low altitude satellites in sun-synchronous orbit. The goesynchronous satellites transmit to direct readout ground stations via a shared S-band link, relayed FOFAX satellite cloud cover pictures (visible and infrared) and weather charts (WEFAX). Basic sensor data is transmitted to regional Data Utilization Stations via the same S-band link. Basic sensor data consists of 0.5 n.m. sub-point resolution data in the 0.55 - 0.7 micron spectral region, and 4.0 n.m. resolution data in the 10.5 - 12.6 micron spectral region. The two low altitude satellites in sun-synchronous orbit provide data to direct readout ground stations via a 137 MHz link, a 400 Mhz link, and an S-band link.

  8. Cryogenic readout techniques for germanium detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Benato, G.; Cattadori, C.; Di Vacri, A.; Ferri, E.

    2015-07-01

    High Purity Germanium detectors are used in many applications, from nuclear and astro-particle physics, to homeland security or environment protection. Although quite standard configurations are often used, with cryostats, charge sensitive amplifiers and analog or digital acquisition systems all commercially available, it might be the case that a few specific applications, e.g. satellites, portable devices, cryogenic physics experiments, etc. also require the development of a few additional or complementary techniques. An interesting case is for sure GERDA, the Germanium Detector Array experiment, searching for neutrino-less double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN - Italy. In GERDA the entire detector array, composed of semi-coaxial and BEGe naked crystals, is operated suspended inside a cryostat filled with liquid argon, that acts not only as cooling medium and but also as an active shield, thanks to its scintillation properties. These peculiar circumstances, together with the additional requirement of a very low radioactive background from all the materials adjacent to the detectors, clearly introduce significant constraints on the design of the Ge front-end readout electronics. All the Ge readout solutions developed within the framework of the GERDA collaboration, for both Phase I and Phase II, will be briefly reviewed, with their relative strength and weakness compared together and with respect to ideal Ge readout. Finally, the digital processing techniques developed by the GERDA collaboration for energy estimation of Ge detector signals will be recalled. (authors)

  9. XAMPS Detectors Readout ASIC for LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragone, A; Pratte, J.F.; Rehak, P.; Carini, G.A.; Herbst, R.; O'Connor, P.; Siddons, D.P.; /BNL, NSLS

    2008-12-18

    An ASIC for the readout of signals from X-ray Active Matrix Pixel Sensor (XAMPS) detectors to be used at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is presented. The X-ray Pump Probe (XPP) instrument, for which the ASIC has been designed, requires a large input dynamic range on the order of 104 photons at 8 keV with a resolution of half a photon FWHM. Due to the size of the pixel and the length of the readout line, large input capacitance is expected, leading to stringent requirement on the noise optimization. Furthermore, the large number of pixels needed for a good position resolution and the fixed LCLS beam period impose limitations on the time available for the single pixel readout. Considering the periodic nature of the LCLS beam, the ASIC developed for this application is a time-variant system providing low-noise charge integration, filtering and correlated double sampling. In order to cope with the large input dynamic range a charge pump scheme implementing a zero-balance measurement method has been introduced. It provides an on chip 3-bit coarse digital conversion of the integrated charge. The residual charge is sampled using correlated double sampling into analog memory and measured with the required resolution. The first 64 channel prototype of the ASIC has been fabricated in TSMC CMOS 0.25 {micro}m technology. In this paper, the ASIC architecture and performances are presented.

  10. Qubit readout with the Josephson Photomultiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeill, Guilhem

    Recent demonstrations of error correction in many qubit circuits, as well as efforts to build a logical qubit, have shown the need for a simple and scalable superconducting quantum bit (qubit) readout. Current solutions based on heterodyne detection and cryogenic amplification of microwave readout tones may prove difficult to scale, while photon counting presents an attractive alternative. However, the development of counters operating at these frequencies has proved technically challenging. In this thesis, we describe the development of the Josephson Photomultiplier (JPM), a microwave photon counting circuit. We discuss the JPM theoretically, and describe the fabrication of the JPM using standard thin film lithography techniques. We measure its properties as a microwave photon counter using a qubit as an in-situ calibrated source of photons. We measure a JPM quantum efficiency at the few percent level. We then use the JPM to perform readout of a transmon qubit in both the dispersive and bright regimes. We observe raw measurement fidelities of 35% and 62% respectively. We discuss how the JPM and measurement protocol could be further optimized to achieve fidelities in excess of 90%.

  11. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.

    1989-03-21

    An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

  12. Pneumatic System for Concentration of Micrometer-Size Lunar Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David; Cooper, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    A report describes a size-sorting method to separate and concentrate micrometer- size dust from a broad size range of particles without using sieves, fluids, or other processes that may modify the composition or the surface properties of the dust. The system consists of four processing units connected in series by tubing. Samples of dry particulates such as lunar soil are introduced into the first unit, a fluidized bed. The flow of introduced nitrogen fluidizes the particulates and preferentially moves the finer grain sizes on to the next unit, a flat plate impactor, followed by a cyclone separator, followed by a Nuclepore polycarbonate filter to collect the dust. By varying the gas flow rate and the sizes of various orifices in the system, the size of the final and intermediate particles can be varied to provide the desired products. The dust can be collected from the filter. In addition, electron microscope grids can be placed on the Nuclepore filter for direct sampling followed by electron microscope characterization of the dust without further handling.

  13. Experimental Study on Electrical Breakdown for Devices with Micrometer Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Guodong; Cheng, Yonghong; Dong, Chengye; Wu, Kai

    2014-12-01

    The understanding of electrical breakdown in atmospheric air across micrometer gaps is critically important for the insulation design of micro & nano electronic devices. In this paper, planar aluminum electrodes with gaps ranging from 2 μm to 40 μm were fabricated by microelectromechanical system technology. The influence factors including gap width and surface dielectric states were experimentally investigated using the home-built test and measurement system. Results showed that for SiO2 layers the current sustained at 2-3 nA during most of the pre-breakdown period, and then rose rapidly to 10-30 nA just before breakdown due to field electron emission, followed by the breakdown. The breakdown voltage curves demonstrated three stages: (1) a constantly decreasing region (the gap width d < 5 μm), where the field emission effect played an important role just near breakdown, supplying enough initial electrons for the breakdown process; (2) a plateau region with a near constant breakdown potential (5 μm < d < 10 μm) (3) a region for large gaps that adhered to Paschen's curve (d > 10 μm). And the surface dielectric states including the surface resistivity and secondary electron yield were verified to be related to the propagation of discharge due to the interaction between initial electrons and dielectrics.

  14. Flow and evaporation in single micrometer and nanometer scale pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Velasco, A. E.; Yang, C.; Siwy, Z. S.; Taborek, P.; Toimil-Molares, M. E.

    2014-07-21

    We report measurements of pressure driven flow of fluids entering vacuum through a single pipe of micrometer or nanometer scale diameter. Nanopores were fabricated by etching a single ion track in polymer or mica foils. A calibrated mass spectrometer was used to measure the flow rates of nitrogen and helium through pipes with diameter ranging from 10 μm to 31 nm. The flow of gaseous and liquid nitrogen was studied near 77 K, while the flow of helium was studied from the lambda point (2.18 K) to above the critical point (5.2 K). Flow rates were controlled by changing the pressure drop across the pipe in the range 0–31 atm. When the pressure in the pipe reached the saturated vapor pressure, an abrupt flow transition was observed. A simple viscous flow model is used to determine the position of the liquid/vapor interface in the pipe. The observed mass flow rates are consistent with no slip boundary conditions.

  15. Cryogenic Fourier transform infrared spectrometer from 4 to 20 micrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Simon G.; Woods, Solomon I.; Jung, Timothy M.; Carter, Adriaan C.

    2010-07-01

    We describe the design and performance of a cryogenic Fourier transform spectrometer (Cryo-FTS) operating at a temperature of approximately 15 K. The instrument is based on a porch-swing scanning mirror design with active alignment stabilization using a fiber-optic coupled diode laser and voice-coil actuator mechanism. It has a KBr beamsplitter and has been integrated into an infrared radiometer containing a calibrated Si:As blocked impurity band (BIB) detector. Due to its low operating temperature, the spectrometer exhibits very small thermal background signal and low drift. Data from tests of basic spectrometer function, such as modulation efficiency, scan jitter, spectral range, and spectral resolution are presented. We also present results from measurements of faint point-like sources in a low background environment, including background, signal offset and gain, and spectral noise equivalent power, and discuss the possible use of the instrument for spectral characterization of ground-based infrared astronomy calibration sources. The Cryo-FTS is presently limited to wavelengths below 25 micrometers but can be in principle extended to longer wavelengths with changes in beamsplitter and detector.

  16. Maximal adaptive-decision speedups in quantum-state readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anjou, Benjamin; Kuret, Loutfi; Childress, Lilian; Coish, William A.

    The average time T required for high-fidelity readout of quantum states can be significantly reduced via a real-time adaptive decision rule. An adaptive decision rule stops the readout as soon as a desired level of confidence has been achieved, as opposed to setting a fixed readout time tf. The performance of the adaptive decision is characterized by the ``adaptive-decision speedup'', tf / T . In this work, we reformulate this readout problem in terms of the first-passage time of a particle undergoing stochastic motion. This formalism allows us to theoretically establish the maximum achievable adaptive-decision speedups for several physical two-state readout implementations. We show that for two common readout schemes (the Gaussian latching readout and a readout relying on state-dependent decay), the speedup is bounded by 4 and 2, respectively, in the limit of high single-shot readout fidelity. We experimentally study the achievable speedup in a real-world scenario by applying the adaptive decision rule to a readout of the nitrogen-vacancy-center (NV-center) charge state. We find a speedup of ~ 2 with our experimental parameters. Our results should lead to immediate improvements in nano-scale magnetometry based on spin-to-charge conversion of the NV-center spin. We acknowledge support from NSERC, INTRIQ, CIFAR and the Walter C. Sumner Foundation.

  17. Nucleosome organization of the yeast 2-micrometer DNA plasmid: a eukaryotic minichromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, R G; Fangman, W L

    1979-01-01

    The eukaryotic microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains 50-100 copies per cell of a circular plasmid called 2-micrometer DNA. The intracellular structure of these molecules, which represent about 4% of the total DNA, was examined by digestion of total cellular chromatin with micrococcal nuclease (nucleate 3'-oligonucleotidohydrolase, EC 3.1.31.1). Nuclease-resistant DNA fragments were fractionated by gel electrophoresis and 2-micrometer DNA sequences were detected by hybridization. The 2-micrometer and chromosomal DNA digestion patterns were very similar indicating that both types of DNA are condensed into nucleosomes. An analysis of these digestion patterns showed that the kinetics of digestion of 2-micrometer chromatin and total chromatin are similar and that both have the same nucleosome repeat length of about 165 base pairs. Native 2-micrometer plasmids were examined by zone sedimentation in sucrose gradients containing 0.15 M NaCl and were found to have a sedimentation constant of 75 S, about 3 times the sedimentation constant of protein-free 2-micrometer DNA. This sedimentation property is what would be expected for a 2-micrometer DNA minichromosome. We conclude that within the cell 2-micrometer DNA molecules are organized in a chromatin structure very similar to that of the yeast chromosomes. Images PMID:392520

  18. 78 FR 73698 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration for Particulate Matter Less Than 2.5 Micrometers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Matter Less Than 2.5 Micrometers--Significant Impact Levels and Significant Monitoring Concentration... the Significant Impact Levels (SILs) for particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM 2.5 ). The...-1744. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Ben Garwood, Office of Air Quality Planning and...

  19. Near-infrared continuum and 3.3 micrometer(s) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon imaging of the starburst ring in the type 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzarella, J. M.; Voit, G. M.; Soifer, B. T.; Matthews, K.; Graham, J. R.; Armus, L.; Shupe, D.

    1994-01-01

    High resolution near-infrared images of the type 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469 have been obtained to probe its dusty nuclear environment. Direct J, H, and K images are relatively featureless, but residual images created by subtracting a smooth model based on best-fitting elliptical isophotes reveal a tight inner spiral whose high surface-brightness portions correspond to a previously detected 3 sec (1 kpc) diameter ring of radio continuum emission. The inner infrared spiral arms extended approximately equal to 4 sec NW and SE from the nucleus, and the NW arm joins up with large-scale spiral structure visible in the R band. The residual images also show a bar-like structure aligned with the brightest infrared/radio hotspots at PA approximately equal to 50 deg. Three infrared hotspots are detected which align remarkably well with 6 cm radio continuum sources. The near-infrared ring and the hotspots are visible in the residual images, and in a high-resolution direct K-band image restored to an effective resolution of 0.65 sec (FWHM) using the Richardson-Lucy algorithm. The infrared hotspots have luminosities of nuL(sub nu) (2.2 micrometer(s)) approximately equal to 10(exp 8) solar luminosity (M(sub k) approximately equal to -16 mag), suggesting they are either giant H II regions or individual supernovae. The two brightest regions may be associated with enhanced star formation triggered by orbit crowding of gas where spiral arms emerge from an inner bar. Narrowband (delta lambda/lambda approximately 1.5%) imaging in the 3.28 micrometer(s) dust emission feature and surrounding continuum confirms the 3 sec diameter 3.28 micrometer(s) emission region detected previously using multiaperture photometry. The extended polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission is slightly elongated and aligned with published 1O III1 line emission and 12.5 micrometer(s) continuum emission, apparently tracing the starburst. The presence of approximately equal to 25% of the total 3.28 micrometer(s

  20. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hamane, M.; Ohri, H.

    1989-03-21

    This patent describes an automatic transmission connected between a drive shaft and a driven shaft and comprising: a planetary gear mechanism including a first gear driven by the drive shaft, a second gear operatively engaged with the first gear to transmit speed change output to the driven shaft, and a third gear operatively engaged with the second gear to control the operation thereof; centrifugally operated clutch means for driving the first gear and the second gear. It also includes a ratchet type one-way clutch for permitting rotation of the third gear in the same direction as that of the drive shaft but preventing rotation in the reverse direction; the clutch means comprising a ratchet pawl supporting plate coaxially disposed relative to the drive shaft and integrally connected to the third gear, the ratchet pawl supporting plate including outwardly projection radial projections united with one another at base portions thereof.

  1. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Meyman, U.

    1987-03-10

    An automatic transmission is described comprising wheel members each having discs defining an inner space therebetween; turnable blades and vane members located in the inner space between the discs of at least one of the wheel members, the turnable blades being mechanically connected with the vane members. Each of the turnable blades has an inner surface and an outer surface formed by circular cylindrical surfaces having a common axis, each of the turnable blades being turnable about the common axis of the circular cylindrical surfaces forming the inner and outer surfaces of the respective blade; levers turnable about the axes and supporting the blades; the discs having openings extending coaxially with the surfaces which describe the blades. The blades are partially received in the openings of the discs; and a housing accommodating the wheel members and the turnable blades and the vane members.

  2. THE STICKINESS OF MICROMETER-SIZED WATER-ICE PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Gundlach, B.; Blum, J.

    2015-01-01

    Water ice is one of the most abundant materials in dense molecular clouds and in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks. In contrast to other materials (e.g., silicates), water ice is assumed to be stickier due to its higher specific surface energy, leading to faster or more efficient growth in mutual collisions. However, experiments investigating the stickiness of water ice have been scarce, particularly in the astrophysically relevant micrometer-sized region and at low temperatures. In this work, we present an experimental setup to grow aggregates composed of μm-sized water-ice particles, which we used to measure the sticking and erosion thresholds of the ice particles at different temperatures between 114 K and 260 K. We show with our experiments that for low temperatures (below ∼210 K), μm-sized water-ice particles stick below a threshold velocity of 9.6 m s{sup –1}, which is approximately 10 times higher than the sticking threshold of μm-sized silica particles. Furthermore, erosion of the grown ice aggregates is observed for velocities above 15.3 m s{sup –1}. A comparison of the experimentally derived sticking threshold with model predictions is performed to determine important material properties of water ice, i.e., the specific surface energy and the viscous relaxation time. Our experimental results indicate that the presence of water ice in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks can enhance the growth of planetesimals by direct sticking of particles.

  3. A Readout Mechanism for Latency Codes.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Oran; Shamir, Maoz

    2016-01-01

    Response latency has been suggested as a possible source of information in the central nervous system when fast decisions are required. The accuracy of latency codes was studied in the past using a simplified readout algorithm termed the temporal-winner-take-all (tWTA). The tWTA is a competitive readout algorithm in which populations of neurons with a similar decision preference compete, and the algorithm selects according to the preference of the population that reaches the decision threshold first. It has been shown that this algorithm can account for accurate decisions among a small number of alternatives during short biologically relevant time periods. However, one of the major points of criticism of latency codes has been that it is unclear how can such a readout be implemented by the central nervous system. Here we show that the solution to this long standing puzzle may be rather simple. We suggest a mechanism that is based on reciprocal inhibition architecture, similar to that of the conventional winner-take-all, and show that under a wide range of parameters this mechanism is sufficient to implement the tWTA algorithm. This is done by first analyzing a rate toy model, and demonstrating its ability to discriminate short latency differences between its inputs. We then study the sensitivity of this mechanism to fine-tuning of its initial conditions, and show that it is robust to wide range of noise levels in the initial conditions. These results are then generalized to a Hodgkin-Huxley type of neuron model, using numerical simulations. Latency codes have been criticized for requiring a reliable stimulus-onset detection mechanism as a reference for measuring latency. Here we show that this frequent assumption does not hold, and that, an additional onset estimator is not needed to trigger this simple tWTA mechanism.

  4. A Readout Mechanism for Latency Codes

    PubMed Central

    Zohar, Oran; Shamir, Maoz

    2016-01-01

    Response latency has been suggested as a possible source of information in the central nervous system when fast decisions are required. The accuracy of latency codes was studied in the past using a simplified readout algorithm termed the temporal-winner-take-all (tWTA). The tWTA is a competitive readout algorithm in which populations of neurons with a similar decision preference compete, and the algorithm selects according to the preference of the population that reaches the decision threshold first. It has been shown that this algorithm can account for accurate decisions among a small number of alternatives during short biologically relevant time periods. However, one of the major points of criticism of latency codes has been that it is unclear how can such a readout be implemented by the central nervous system. Here we show that the solution to this long standing puzzle may be rather simple. We suggest a mechanism that is based on reciprocal inhibition architecture, similar to that of the conventional winner-take-all, and show that under a wide range of parameters this mechanism is sufficient to implement the tWTA algorithm. This is done by first analyzing a rate toy model, and demonstrating its ability to discriminate short latency differences between its inputs. We then study the sensitivity of this mechanism to fine-tuning of its initial conditions, and show that it is robust to wide range of noise levels in the initial conditions. These results are then generalized to a Hodgkin-Huxley type of neuron model, using numerical simulations. Latency codes have been criticized for requiring a reliable stimulus-onset detection mechanism as a reference for measuring latency. Here we show that this frequent assumption does not hold, and that, an additional onset estimator is not needed to trigger this simple tWTA mechanism. PMID:27812332

  5. Prototype readout electronics for the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sielewicz, K. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonora, M.; Ferencei, J.; Giubilato, P.; Rossewij, M. J.; Schambach, J.; Vanat, T.

    2017-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major upgrade to the experimental apparatus. A key element of the upgrade is the construction of a new silicon-based Inner Tracking System containing 12 Gpixels in an area of 10 m2. Its readout system consists of 192 readout units that control the pixel sensors and the power units, and deliver the sensor data to the counting room. A prototype readout board has been designed to test: the interface between the sensor modules and the readout electronics, the signal integrity and reliability of data transfer, the interface to the ALICE DAQ and trigger, and the susceptibility of the system to the expected radiation level.

  6. Dual current readout for precision plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, W. F.

    1970-01-01

    Bistable amplifier prevents damage in the low range circuitry of a dual scale ammeter. It senses the current and switches automatically to the high range circuitry as the current rises above a preset level.

  7. Scintillation counter with WLS fiber readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukin, D. A.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Serednyakov, S. I.

    1997-02-01

    The parameters of a cylindrical scintillation counter of 126 mm in diameter and 370 mm in length with wavelength shifter (WLS) fiber readout are presented. The fibers are glued into machined grooves along the scintillator. Light from both ends of the WLS fibers is transmitted to separate photomultipliers by 1 m long clear optical fibers. The average total signal, collected from both sides of the counter is equivalent to 8 photoelectrons per minimum ionizing particle. The described cylindrical scintillation counter is a part of inner system of collider detector SND.

  8. Spin readout of trapped electron qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Pai; Matthiesen, Clemens; Häffner, Hartmut

    2017-01-01

    We propose a scheme to read out the spin of a single electron quantum bit in a surface Paul trap using oscillating magnetic-field gradients. The readout sequence is composed of cooling, driving, amplification, and detection of the electron's motion. We study the scheme in the presence of noise and trap anharmonicities at liquid-helium temperatures. An analysis of the four procedures shows short measurement times (25 μ s ) and high fidelities (99.7 % ) are achievable with realistic experimental parameters. Our scheme performs the function of fluorescence detection in ion trapping schemes, highlighting the potential to build all-electric quantum computers based on trapped electron-spin qubits.

  9. ARTICLES: Optoelectronic readout with an injection laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luc, Vu V.; Eliseev, P. G.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Mikaelyan, T. T.; Okhotnikov, O. G.; Sokolov, S. N.

    1982-09-01

    An investigation was made of the possibility of utilizing an injection heterolaser in optical devices for data retrieval. An injection laser was used both as a source and detector of its own radiation reflected from a data carrier (optoelectronic readout). The influence of the reflected radiation was due to quasisteady modulation of the Q factor of the resonator, which was accompanied by modulation of the voltage across the laser diode. A study was made of the influence of the pump current on the useful signal and it was found that this current was related to the differential resistance of the laser diode.

  10. Mass-based readout for agglutination assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunara, Rumi; Godin, Michel; Knudsen, Scott M.; Manalis, Scott R.

    2007-11-01

    We present a mass-based readout for agglutination assays. The suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) is used to classify monomers and dimers that are formed during early stage aggregation, and to relate the total count to the analyte concentration. Using a model system of streptavidin functionalized microspheres and biotinylated antibody as the analyte, we obtain a dose-response curve over a concentration range of 0.63-630nM and show that the results are comparable to what has been previously achieved by image analysis and conventional flow cytometry.

  11. High Temperature Mechanical Behavior of Polycrystalline Alumina from Mixed Nanometer and Micrometer Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2001-01-01

    Sintered aluminum oxide materials were formed using commercial methods from mechanically mixed powders of nano-and micrometer alumina. The powders were consolidated at 1500 and 1600 C with 3.2 and 7.2 ksi applied stress in argon. The conventional micrometer sized powders failed to consolidate. While 100 percent nanometer-sized alumina and its mixture with the micrometer powders achieved less than 99 percent density. Preliminary high temperature creep behavior indicates no super-plastic strains. However high strains (less than 0.65 percent) were generated in the nanometer powder, due to cracks and linked voids initiated by cavitation.

  12. On the Nature of the First Galaxies Selected at 350 Micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Sophia A.; Chanial, Pierre F.; Willner, S. P.; Pearson, Chris P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Benford, Dominic J.; Clements, David L.; Dye, Simon; Farrah, Duncan; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J. S.; Lebouteiller, V.; Le Floc'H, Emeric; Mainetti, Gabriele; Harvey Moseley, S.; Negrello, Mattia; Serjeant, Stephen; Shafer, Richard A.; Staguhn, Johannes; Sumner, Timothy J.; Vaccari, Mattia

    2009-01-01

    We present constraints on the nature of the first galaxies selected at 350 micrometers. The sample includes galaxies discovered in the deepest blank-field survey at 350 micrometers (in the Bo6tes Deep Field) and also later serendipitous detections in the Lockman Hole. In determining multiwavelength identifications, the 350 lam position and map resolution of the second generation Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera are critical, especially in the cases where multiple radio sources exist and the 24 micrometer counterparts are unresolved. Spectral energy distribution templates are fitted to identified counterparts, and the sample is found to comprise IR-luminous galaxies at 1 < z < 3 predominantly powered by star formation. The first spectrum of a 350 micrometer selected galaxy provides an additional confirmation, showing prominent dust grain features typically associated with star-forming galaxies. Compared to submillimeter galaxies selected at 850 and 1100 micrometers, galaxies selected at 350 micrometers have a similar range of far-infrared color temperatures. However, no 350 micrometer selected sources are reliably detected at 850 or 1100 micrometers. Galaxies in our sample with redshifts 1 < z < 2 show a tight correlation between the far- and mid-infrared flux densities, but galaxies at higher redshifts show a large dispersion in their mid- to far-infrared colors. This implies a limit to which the mid-IR emission traces the far-IR emission in star-forming galaxies. The 350 micrometer flux densities (15 < S(sub 350) < 40 mJy) place these objects near the Herschel/SPIRE 350 micrometer confusion threshold, with the lower limit on the star formation rate density suggesting the bulk of the 350 micrometers contribution will come from less luminous infrared sources and normal galaxies. Therefore, the nature of the dominant source of the 350 micrometers background-star-forming galaxies in the epoch of peak star formation in the universe-could be more effectively

  13. Fiber and crystals dual readout calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cascella, Michele; Franchino, Silvia; Lee, Sehwook

    2016-11-01

    The RD52 (DREAM) collaboration is performing R&D on dual readout calorimetry techniques with the aim of improving hadronic energy resolution for future high energy physics experiments. The simultaneous detection of Cherenkov and scintillation light enables us to measure the electromagnetic fraction of hadron shower event-by-event. As a result, we could eliminate the main fluctuation which prevented from achieving precision energy measurement for hadrons. We have tested the performance of the lead and copper fiber prototypes calorimeters with various energies of electromagnetic particles and hadrons. During the beam test, we investigated the energy resolutions for electrons and pions as well as the identification of those particles in a longitudinally unsegmented calorimeter. Measurements were also performed on pure and doped PbWO4 crystals, as well as BGO and BSO, with the aim of realizing a crystal based dual readout detector. We will describe our results, focusing on the more promising properties of homogeneous media for the technique. Guidelines for additional developments on crystals will be also given. Finally we discuss the construction techniques that we have used to assemble our prototypes and give an overview of the ones that could be industrialized for the construction of a full hermetic calorimeter.

  14. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, Stephen J.

    2014-01-30

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  15. Maximal Adaptive-Decision Speedups in Quantum-State Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anjou, B.; Kuret, L.; Childress, L.; Coish, W. A.

    2016-01-01

    The average time T required for high-fidelity readout of quantum states can be significantly reduced via a real-time adaptive decision rule. An adaptive decision rule stops the readout as soon as a desired level of confidence has been achieved, as opposed to setting a fixed readout time tf . The performance of the adaptive decision is characterized by the "adaptive-decision speedup," tf/T . In this work, we reformulate this readout problem in terms of the first-passage time of a particle undergoing stochastic motion. This formalism allows us to theoretically establish the maximum achievable adaptive-decision speedups for several physical two-state readout implementations. We show that for two common readout schemes (the Gaussian latching readout and a readout relying on state-dependent decay), the speedup is bounded by 4 and 2, respectively, in the limit of high single-shot readout fidelity. We experimentally study the achievable speedup in a real-world scenario by applying the adaptive decision rule to a readout of the nitrogen-vacancy-center (NV-center) charge state. We find a speedup of ≈2 with our experimental parameters. In addition, we propose a simple readout scheme for which the speedup can, in principle, be increased without bound as the fidelity is increased. Our results should lead to immediate improvements in nanoscale magnetometry based on spin-to-charge conversion of the NV-center spin, and provide a theoretical framework for further optimization of the bandwidth of quantum measurements.

  16. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  17. Read-out electronics for DC squid magnetic measurements

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-01-01

    Read-out electronics for DC SQUID sensor systems, the read-out electronics incorporating low Johnson noise radio-frequency flux-locked loop circuitry and digital signal processing algorithms in order to improve upon the prior art by a factor of at least ten, thereby alleviating problems caused by magnetic interference when operating DC SQUID sensor systems in magnetically unshielded environments.

  18. Some studies of avalanche photodiode readout of fast scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Holl, I.; Lorenz, E.; Natkaniez, S.; Renker, D.; Schmelz, C. |; Schwartz, B.

    1995-08-01

    Photomultipliers (PMs) are the classical readout element for scintillation detectors in high energy particle physics, nuclear physics, medical physics, industrial radiation monitors etc. Here, large area avalanche photodiodes with high performance, narrow operation tolerances and high reliability have recently become available. The authors report on some tests of their performance in the readout of fast scintillators.

  19. Development of low mass optical readout for high data bandwidth systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.; DeLurgio, P.; Drake, G.; Fernando, W.; Lopez, D.; Salvachua-Ferrando, B.; Stanek, R.

    2010-10-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory the High Energy Physics and Center for Nanoscale Materials Divisions are working on a project to develop a new generation of detector readout using high speed data transfer optical devices that can be implemented in particle physics or for long distances. Free-space communications devices offer the potential for reductions in mass, power, and cost of data paths for on-board trigger and readout of tracking detectors. The project involves three areas of study: light modulation, the design and construction of MEMS optical devices, and the control systems for maintaining precise laser light positioning. We demonstrate an optical link in air over one meter and with low error rate at 1 Gb/s. We demonstrate steering of an optical beam over a meter with a precision of 5 micrometers utilizing a MEMS mirror and reflected light in the feedback loop. For early testing, light modulation tests with a fiber link using Li-Niobate modulators and a data generation and error checking chip are done at 1 Gb/s. Many companies and universities are developing modulators which will be incorporated into CMOS chips. We are doing radiation hardness studies for one of the materials involved. Laser light will need to be steered on to and kept centered on the detector in the presence of thermal or mechanical motion, etc. This steering will be controlled by MEMS mirrors. Polycrystalline and crystalline silicon based mirror designs are being studied. We review the current status of the project and outline plans for the future development of the system.

  20. Fast Multiplexed Readout of Xmon Qubits Part I: Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sank, Daniel; Jeffrey, E.; Mutus, J. Y.; White, T. C.; Barends, R.; Kelly, J.; Chen, Y.; Roushan, P.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Megrant, A.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    Realization of a surface code quantum computer requires fast scalable qubit readout. Previous systems have shown accurate readout in continuous wave mode. This neglects the transient response time which is crucial for the operation of the surface code and for measurement accuracy in the presence of finite qubit T1. We have designed a readout system, based on an integrated band pass filter, which achieves very fast transient response while maintaining long qubit T1. Our design uses separate readout resonators for each qubit. This allows individual qubit readout with frequency multiplexing while preventing correlated measurement errors. By connecting each resonator to a single filter the device requires zero additional on chip area and no extra control lines. We present design considerations, theory of operation, and physical layout of the device. With high fidelity gates this system forms the final element needed for a surface code cell.

  1. A novel readout system for wireless passive pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huixin; Hong, Yingping; Ge, Binger; Liang, Ting; Xiong, Jijun

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a novel readout system for wireless passive pressure sensors based on the inductively coupled inductor and cavity (LC) resonant circuits. The proposed system consists of a reader antenna inductively coupled to the sensor circuit, a readout circuit, and a personal computer (PC) post processing unit. The readout circuit generates a voltage signal representing the sensor's capacitance. The frequency of the reader antenna driving signal is a constant, which is equal to the sensor's resonant frequency at zero pressure. Based on mechanical and electrical modeling, the pressure sensor design based on the high temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) technology is conducted and discussed. The functionality and accuracy of the readout system are tested with a voltage-capacitance measurement system and demonstrated in a realistic pressure measurement environment, so that the overall performance and the feasibility of the readout system are proved.

  2. Acid dissolution experiments - Carbonates and the 6.8-micrometer bands in interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    A chemical dissolution experiment on an interplanetary dust particle (IDP) showed that carbonates, not acid-insoluble organic compounds, were responsible for virtually all the absorption at 6.8 micrometers seen in the infrared spectra of this particle. The IDP examined had an infrared spectrum characteristic of layer-lattice silicates and belongs to a class of IDP's whose spectra resemble those of protostellar objects like W33 A, which also exhibit a band at 6.8 micrometers.

  3. Acid dissolution experiments - Carbonates and the 6.8-micrometer bands in interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford, S. A.

    1986-03-01

    A chemical dissolution experiment on an interplanetary dust particle (IDP) showed that carbonates, not acid-insoluble organic compounds, were responsible for virtually all the absorption at 6.8 micrometers seen in the infrared spectra of this particle. The IDP examined had an infrared spectrum characteristic of layer-lattice silicates and belongs to a class of IDP's whose spectra resemble those of protostellar objects like W33 A, which also exhibit a band at 6.8 micrometers.

  4. Infrared images of jupiter at 5-micrometer wavelength during the voyager 1 encounter.

    PubMed

    Terrile, R J; Capps, R W; Backman, D E; Becklin, E E; Cruikshank, D P; Beichman, C A; Brown, R H; Westphal, J A

    1979-06-01

    A coordinated program to observe Jupiter at high spatial resolution in the 5-micrometer wavelength region was undertaken to support Voyager 1 imaging and infrared radiation experiment targeting. Jupiter was observed over a 5-month period from Palomar and Mauna Kea observatories. The frequency of observations allowed the selection of interesting areas for closer Voyager examination and also provided good short-term monitoring of variations in cloud morphology. Significant global changes in the 5-micrometer distribution are seen over this time period.

  5. Infrared images of Jupiter at 5-micrometer wavelength during the Voyager 1 encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrile, R. J.; Capps, R. W.; Backman, D. E.; Becklin, E. E.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Beichman, C. A.; Brown, R. H.; Westphal, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A coordinated program to observe Jupiter at high spatial resolution in the 5-micrometer wavelength region was undertaken to support Voyager 1 imaging and infrared radiation experiment targeting. Jupiter was observed over a 5-month period from Palomar and Mauna Kea observatories. The frequency of observations allowed the selection of interesting areas for closer Voyager examination and also provided good short-term monitoring of variations in cloud morphology. Significant global changes in the 5-micrometer distribution are seen over this time period.

  6. Fast readout of carbon nanotube mechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerwaldt, Harold; Singh, Vibhor; Schneider, Ben; Schouten, Raymond; van der Zant, Herre; Steele, Gary

    2013-03-01

    We perform fast readout measurements of carbon nanotube mechanical resonators. Using an electronic mixing scheme, we can detect the amplitude of the mechanical motion with an intermediate frequency (IF) of 46 MHz and a timeconstant of 1 us, up to 5 orders of magnitude faster than before. Previous measurements suffered from a low bandwidth due to the combination of the high resistance of the carbon nanotube and a large stray capacitance. We have increased the bandwidth significantly by using a high-impedance, close-proximity HEMT amplifier. The increased bandwidth should allow us to observe the nanotube's thermal motion and its transient response, approaching the regime of real-time detection of the carbon nanotube's mechanical motion.

  7. Studies of Avalanche Photodiodes (APDS) as Readout Devices for Scintillating Fibers for High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasile, Stefan; Shera, Suzanne; Shamo, Denis

    1998-01-01

    New gamma ray and charged particle telescope designs based on scintillating fiber arrays could provide low cost, high resolution, lightweight, very large area and multi radiation length instrumentation for planned NASA space exploration. The scintillating fibers low visible light output requires readout sensors with single photon detection sensitivity and low noise. The sensitivity of silicon Avalanche Photodiodes (APDS) matches well the spectral output of the scintillating fibers. Moreover, APDs have demonstrated single photon capability. The global aim of our work is to make available to NASA a novel optical detector concept to be used as scintillating fiber readouts and meeting the requirements of the new generations of space-borne gamma ray telescopes. We proposed to evaluate the feasibility of using RMD's small area APDs ((mu)APD) as scintillating fiber readouts and to study possible alternative (mu)APD array configurations for space borne readout scintillating fiber systems, requiring several hundred thousand to one million channels. The evaluation has been conducted in accordance with the task description and technical specifications detailed in the NASA solicitation "Studies of Avalanche Photodiodes (APD as readout devices for scintillating fibers for High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy Telescopes" (#8-W-7-ES-13672NAIS) posted on October 23, 1997. The feasibility study we propose builds on recent developments of silicon APD arrays and light concentrators advances at RMD, Inc. and on more than 5 years of expertise in scintillating fiber detectors. In a previous program we carried out the initial research to develop a high resolution, small pixel, solid-state, silicon APD array which exhibited very high sensitivity in the UV-VIS spectrum. This (mu)APD array is operated in Geiger mode and results in high gain (greater than 10(exp 8)), extremely low noise, single photon detection capability, low quiescent power (less than 10 (mu)W/pixel for 30 micrometers sensitive

  8. FASTBUS readout system for the CDF DAQ upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, J.; Areti, H.; Black, D.

    1993-11-01

    The Data Acquisition System (DAQ) at the Collider Detector at Fermilab is currently being upgraded to handle a minimum of 100 events/sec for an aggregate bandwidth that is at least 25 Mbytes/sec. The DAQ System is based on a commercial switching network that has interfaces to VME bus. The modules that readout the front end crates (FASTBUS and RABBIT) have to deliver the data to the VME bus based host adapters of the switch. This paper describes a readout system that has the required bandwidth while keeping the experiment dead time due to the readout to a minimum.

  9. The 2.5-12 micrometers spectrum of comet Halley from the IKS-VEGA experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combes, M.; Moroz, V. I.; Crovisier, J.; Encrenaz, T.; Bibring, J. P.; Grigoriev, A. V.; Sanko, N. F.; Coron, N.; Crifo, J. F.; Gispert, R.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Krasnopolsky, V. A.; Owen, T.; Emerich, C.; Lamarre, J. M.; Rocard, F.

    1988-01-01

    The infrared instrument IKS flown on board the VEGA space probes was designed for the detection of emission bands of parent molecules, and for a measurement of the size and temperature of the thermal emitting nuclear region. The instrument had three channels with cooled detectors: an "imaging channel" designed to modulate the signal of the nucleus and two spectroscopic channels operating at 2.5-5 and 6-12 micrometers, respectively, equipped with circular variable filters of resolving power approximately 50. This paper presents and discusses the results from the spectral channels. On VEGA 1, usable spectra were obtained at distances D from the comet nucleus ranging from 250,000 to 40,000 km corresponding to fields of view 4000 and 700 km in diameter, respectively. The important internal background signal caused by the instrument itself, which could not be cooled, had to be eliminated. Since no sky chopping was performed, we obtain difference spectra between the current spectrum and a reference spectrum with little or no cometary signal taken at the beginning of the observing sequence (D approximately 200,000 km). Final discrimination between cometary signal and instrumental background is achieved using their different time evolution, since the instrumental background is proportional to the slow temperature drift of the instrument, and the cometary signal due to parent molecules or dust grains is expected to vary in first order as D-1. The 2.5-5 micrometers IKS spectra definitely show strong narrow signals at 2.7 and 4.25 micrometers, attributed to the nu 3 vibrational bands of H2O and CO2, respectively, and a broader signal in the region 3.2-3.5 micrometers, which may be attributed to CH-bearing molecules. All these signals present the expected D-1 intensity variation. Weaker emission features at 3.6 and 4.7 micrometers could correspond to the nu 1 and nu 5 bands of H2CO and the (1 - 0) band of CO, respectively. Molecular production rates are derived from the

  10. Observational constraints on the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune from new measurements near 10 micrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, A.T.; Caldwell, J.

    1983-10-01

    Uranus was detected at 10.3, 11.6 and 12.5 micrometers approximately 1 micrometer spectral bandpasses, with respective brightness temperatures of 74.0 + 0.9 or -1.1, 67.6 + 0.5 or -0.7, and 65.5 + 0.6 or -0.7 K and the first detection of Neptune at 10.3 micrometers with a brightness temperature of 77.5 + 0.7 or -0.9 K. We also detected Neptune at 11.36 micrometers with 2 percent spectral resolution at 81.0 + 0.8 or -0.9 K. The 10 micrometers continuous of both Uranus and Neptune may in part be due to reflected solar radiation as well as thermal emission. If all of the observed flux is reflected light, then the maximum geometric albedo of Uranus is 0.115 + or - 0.020, and that of Neptune is 0.229 + or - 0.043. In the context of previous observations in this region, the maximum stratospheric C2H6 mixing ratio is found to be 3 x 10 to the -8 power for Uranus and 3 x 10 to the -6 power for Neptune. A value for the maximum mixing ratio in the stratosphere of Neptune on the order of 1 - 0.004 appears to be consistent with the available data. Previously announced in STAR as N83-29155.

  11. Automatic transmission adapter kit

    SciTech Connect

    Stich, R.L.; Neal, W.D.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes, in a four-wheel-drive vehicle apparatus having a power train including an automatic transmission and a transfer case, an automatic transmission adapter kit for installation of a replacement automatic transmission of shorter length than an original automatic transmission in the four-wheel-drive vehicle. The adapter kit comprises: an extension housing interposed between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case; an output shaft, having a first end which engages the replacement automatic transmission and a second end which engages the transfer case; first sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the replacement automatic transmission; second sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the transfer case; and fastening means for connecting the extension housing between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case.

  12. A low-noise large dynamic-range readout suitable for laser spectroscopy with photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullia, A.; Sanvito, T.; Potenza, M. A.; Zocca, F.

    2012-10-01

    An original low-noise large dynamic-range readout system for optical light spectroscopy with PIN diodes is presented. The front-end circuit is equipped with a smart device for automatic cancellation of the large dc offset brought about by the photodiode current. This device sinks away the exact amount of dc current from the preamplifier input, yielding auto zeroing of the output-voltage offset, while introducing the minimum electronic noise possible. As a result the measurement dynamic-range is maximized. Moreover, an auxiliary inspection point is provided which precisely tracks the dc component of the photodiode current. This output allows for precise beam alignment and may also be used for diagnostic purposes. The excellent gain stability and linearity make the circuit perfectly suited for optical-light pulse spectroscopy. Applications include particle sizing in the 100 nm range, two-dimensional characterization of semiconductor detectors, ultra-precise characterization of laser beam stability, confocal microscopy.

  13. Balanced homodyne readout for quantum limited gravitational wave detectors.

    PubMed

    Fritschel, Peter; Evans, Matthew; Frolov, Valery

    2014-02-24

    Balanced homodyne detection is typically used to measure quantum-noise-limited optical beams, including squeezed states of light, at audio-band frequencies. Current designs of advanced gravitational wave interferometers use some type of homodyne readout for signal detection, in part because of its compatibility with the use of squeezed light. The readout scheme used in Advanced LIGO, called DC readout, is however not a balanced detection scheme. Instead, the local oscillator field, generated from a dark fringe offset, co-propagates with the signal field at the anti-symmetric output of the beam splitter. This article examines the alternative of a true balanced homodyne detection for the readout of gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO. Several practical advantages of the balanced detection scheme are described.

  14. A radiation-tolerant electronic readout system for portal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östling, J.; Brahme, A.; Danielsson, M.; Iacobaeus, C.; Peskov, V.

    2004-06-01

    A new electronic portal imaging device, EPID, is under development at the Karolinska Institutet and the Royal Institute of Technology. Due to considerable demands on radiation tolerance in the radiotherapy environment, a dedicated electronic readout system has been designed. The most interesting aspect of the readout system is that it allows to read out ˜1000 pixels in parallel, with all electronics placed outside the radiation beam—making the detector more radiation resistant. In this work we are presenting the function of a small prototype (6×100 pixels) of the electronic readout board that has been tested. Tests were made with continuous X-rays (10-60 keV) and with α particles. The results show that, without using an optimised gas mixture and with an early prototype only, the electronic readout system still works very well.

  15. TES Detector Noise Limited Readout Using SQUID Multiplexers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Chervenak, J. A.; Khan, S. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.; Deiker, S.; Grossman, E. N.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.

    2004-01-01

    The availability of superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES) with large numbers of individual detector pixels requires multiplexers for efficient readout. The use of multiplexers reduces the number of wires needed between the cryogenic electronics and the room temperature electronics and cuts the number of required cryogenic amplifiers. We are using an 8 channel SQUID multiplexer to read out one-dimensional TES arrays which are used for submillimeter astronomical observations. We present results from test measurements which show that the low noise level of the SQUID multiplexers allows accurate measurements of the TES Johnson noise, and that in operation, the readout noise is dominated by the detector noise. Multiplexers for large number of channels require a large bandwidth for the multiplexed readout signal. We discuss the resulting implications for the noise performance of these multiplexers which will be used for the readout of two dimensional TES arrays in next generation instruments.

  16. Development of the readout controller for KASINICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seoung-hyun; Jin, Ho; Nam, Uk-Won; Lee, Sungho; Kong, Kyung-Nam; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Youngsik; Pak, Soojong; Han, Wonyong; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2006-06-01

    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) is developing the KASI Near Infrared Camera System (KASINICS) which will be installed on the 61 cm telescope at the Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO) in Korea. KASINICS is equipped with a ALADDIN III Quadrant (512×512 InSb array, manufactured by Raytheon). For this instrument, we make a new IR array control electronics system. The controller consists of DSP, Bias, Clock, and Video boards which are installed on a VME bus system. The DSP board includes TMS320C6713, FPGA, and 384MB SDRAM. Clock patterns are downloaded from a PC and stored on the FPGA. USB 2.0 is used for the communication with the PC and UART for the serial communication with peripherals. Each of two video boards has 4 video channels. The Bias board provides 16 voltage sources and the Clock board has 15 clock channels. Our goal of readout speed is 10 frames sec -1. We have successfully finished operational tests of the controller using a 256×256 ROIC (CRC744). We are now upgrading the system for the ALADDIN III array. We plan to operate KASINICS by the end of 2006.

  17. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S. W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Coughlin, K. P.; Crowley, K. T.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Duff, S. M.; Dunkley, J.; Dünner, R.; van Engelen, A.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Hasselfield, M.; Hills, F.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Hloẑek, R.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Huffenberger, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Irwin, K. D.; Koopman, B. J.; Kosowsky, A. B.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Munson, C.; Nati, F.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Page, L. A.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Sehgal, N.; Sherwin, B. D.; Sievers, J. L.; Simon, S. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Thornton, R.; Van Lanen, J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies—imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution—will enable precision cosmological constraints and also a wide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the Advanced ACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the Advanced ACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  18. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, S.W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies-imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution-will enable precision cosmological constraints and also awide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the AdvancedACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the AdvancedACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  19. The Belle II SVD data readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalmeier, R.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Bulla, L.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Cervenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doleźal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyś, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnićka, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Lueck, T.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rao, K. K.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2017-02-01

    The Belle II Experiment at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Tsukuba, Japan, will explore the asymmetry between matter and antimatter and search for new physics beyond the standard model. 172 double-sided silicon strip detectors are arranged cylindrically in four layers around the collision point to be part of a system which measures the tracks of the collision products of electrons and positrons. A total of 1748 radiation-hard APV25 chips read out 128 silicon strips each and send the analog signals by time-division multiplexing out of the radiation zone to 48 Flash Analog Digital Converter Modules (FADC). Each of them applies processing to the data; for example, it uses a digital finite impulse response filter to compensate line signal distortions, and it extracts the peak timing and amplitude from a set of several data points for each hit, using a neural network. We present an overview of the SVD data readout system, along with front-end electronics, cabling, power supplies and data processing.

  20. Active pixel sensor array with multiresolution readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node. There is also a readout circuit, part of which can be disposed at the bottom of each column of cells and be common to all the cells in the column. The imaging device can also include an electronic shutter formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate, and/or a storage section to allow for simultaneous integration. In addition, the imaging device can include a multiresolution imaging circuit to provide images of varying resolution. The multiresolution circuit could also be employed in an array where the photosensitive portion of each pixel cell is a photodiode. This latter embodiment could further be modified to facilitate low light imaging.

  1. Optimal signal processing for continuous qubit readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Shilin; Tsang, Mankei

    2014-08-01

    The measurement of a quantum two-level system, or a qubit in modern terminology, often involves an electromagnetic field that interacts with the qubit, before the field is measured continuously and the qubit state is inferred from the noisy field measurement. During the measurement, the qubit may undergo spontaneous transitions, further obscuring the initial qubit state from the observer. Taking advantage of some well-known techniques in stochastic detection theory, here we propose a signal processing protocol that can infer the initial qubit state optimally from the measurement in the presence of noise and qubit dynamics. Assuming continuous quantum-nondemolition measurements with Gaussian or Poissonian noise and a classical Markov model for the qubit, we derive analytic solutions to the protocol in some special cases of interest using Itō calculus. Our method is applicable to multihypothesis testing for robust qubit readout and relevant to experiments on qubits in superconducting microwave circuits, trapped ions, nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, semiconductor quantum dots, or phosphorus donors in silicon.

  2. Manipulation And Readout Of A Tunable Flux Qubit With Integrated Readout: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmelli, Carlo; Carelli, Pasquale; Castellano, Maria Gabriella; Chiarello, Fabio; Gangemi, Lorenzo; Leoni, Roberto; Poletto, Stefano; Simeone, Daniela; Torrioli, Guido

    2006-09-01

    We show a tunable flux qubit with built-in readout, realized with a double SQUID with a supplementary Josephson junction. State preparation and manipulation of the qubit are achieved by applying pulses of magnetic flux in two externally coupled coils, a feature that suits very well with a future integration with RSFQ integrated logic. We show how the system can be read out and prepared in a definite flux state, moreover we show the results of manipulation (lowering of the potential barrier between states) in incoherent regime at liquid helium temperature.

  3. The Philosophy and Feasibility of Dual Readout Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hauptman, John

    2006-10-27

    I will discuss the general physical ideas behind dual-readout calorimetry, their implementation in DREAM (Dual REAdout Module) with exact separation of scintillation and Cerenkov light, implementation with mixed light in DREAM fibers, anticipated implementation in PbWO4 crystals with applications to the 4th Concept detector and to CMS, use in high energy gamma-ray and cosmic ray astrophysics with Cerenkov and N2 fluorescent light, and implementation in the 4th Concept detector for muon identification.

  4. FPIX2, the BTeV pixel readout chip

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Christian et al.

    2003-12-10

    A radiation tolerant pixel readout chip, FPIX2, has been developed at Fermilab for use by BTeV. Some of the requirements of the BTeV pixel readout chip are reviewed and contrasted with requirements for similar devices in LHC experiments. A description of the FPIX2 is given, and results of initial tests of its performance are presented, as is a summary of measurements planned for the coming year.

  5. MEMS Terahertz Focal Plane Array With Optical Readout

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    THz sensing can be achieved by integrating a metamaterial absorber with bi-material legs to form a sensor . Moveable mirror- like surfaces on the...optical readout system. In this thesis, the construction of the optical readout system for characterization of sensor pixels as well as THz imaging is...THz sensing can be achieved by integrating a metamaterial absorber with bi-material legs to form a sensor . Moveable mirror-like surfaces on the

  6. Issues and directions in IR detector readout electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1990-01-01

    An introduction to the major issues encountered in the readout of imaging detector arrays in the infrared are presented. These include circuit issues such as multiplexing, buffering, and noise, as well as materials issues. Future directions in infrared readout electronics will also be discussed. These include on-chip signal processing and advanced hybridization schemes. Finally, recent work at Columbia on 2DEG-charge coupled devices for IR detector multiplexing are described.

  7. On-tip sub-micrometer Hall probes for magnetic microscopy prepared by AFM lithography.

    PubMed

    Gregusová, D; Martaus, J; Fedor, J; Kúdela, R; Kostic, I; Cambel, V

    2009-07-01

    We developed a technology of sub-micrometer Hall probes for future application in scanning hall probe microscopy (SHPM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). First, the Hall probes of approximately 9-mum dimensions are prepared on the top of high-aspect-ratio GaAs pyramids with an InGaP/AlGaAs/GaAs active layer using wet-chemical etching and non-planar lithography. Then we show that the active area of planar Hall probes can be downsized to sub-micrometer dimensions by local anodic oxidation technique using an atomic force microscope. Such planar probes are tested and their noise and magnetic field sensitivity are evaluated. Finally, the two technologies are combined to fabricate sub-micrometer Hall probes on the top of high-aspect ratio mesa for future SHPM and MFM techniques.

  8. Simple Bulk Readout of Digital Nucleic Acid Quantification Assays.

    PubMed

    Morinishi, Leanna S; Blainey, Paul

    2015-09-24

    Digital assays are powerful methods that enable detection of rare cells and counting of individual nucleic acid molecules. However, digital assays are still not routinely applied, due to the cost and specific equipment associated with commercially available methods. Here we present a simplified method for readout of digital droplet assays using a conventional real-time PCR instrument to measure bulk fluorescence of droplet-based digital assays. We characterize the performance of the bulk readout assay using synthetic droplet mixtures and a droplet digital multiple displacement amplification (MDA) assay. Quantitative MDA particularly benefits from a digital reaction format, but our new method applies to any digital assay. For established digital assay protocols such as digital PCR, this method serves to speed up and simplify assay readout. Our bulk readout methodology brings the advantages of partitioned assays without the need for specialized readout instrumentation. The principal limitations of the bulk readout methodology are reduced dynamic range compared with droplet-counting platforms and the need for a standard sample, although the requirements for this standard are less demanding than for a conventional real-time experiment. Quantitative whole genome amplification (WGA) is used to test for contaminants in WGA reactions and is the most sensitive way to detect the presence of DNA fragments with unknown sequences, giving the method great promise in diverse application areas including pharmaceutical quality control and astrobiology.

  9. PAUCam readout electronics assembly, integration and test (AIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Jorge; Illa, José M.; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; de Vicente, Juan; Castilla, Javier; Casas, Ricard

    2014-08-01

    The PAUCam is an optical camera with an array of 18 CCDs (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.) and up to 45 narrow and broad band filters. The camera will be installed on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in the Canary Islands, Spain. In order to fulfill with the specifications for the camera readout system, it was necessary to test the different readout electronics subsystems individually before to integrate the final readout work package, which is composed of 4 MONSOON (NOAO) front-ends, 6 fan out boards (MIX), each one driving up to 5 CCDs signals and a pre-amplification stage (PREAMP) located inside the cryostat. To get the subsystems integration, it was built a small camera prototype using the same technology as used in the main camera: a carbon fiber cryostat refrigerated by a cryotiger cooling system but with capacity to allocate just 2 CCDs, which were readout and re-characterized to measure the electronics performance as conversion factor or gain, readout noise, stability, linearity, etc. while the cross-talk was measured by using a spot-light. The aim of this paper is to review the whole process of assembly, integration and test (AIT) of the readout electronics work package and present the main results to demonstrate the viability of the proposed systems to be use with the PAUCam camera.

  10. Multiple-gain-ranging readout method to extend the dynamic range of amorphous silicon flat-panel imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, Pieter G.; Colbeth, Richard E.; Mollov, Ivan; Munro, Peter; Pavkovich, John; Seppi, Edward J.; Shapiro, Edward G.; Tognina, Carlo A.; Virshup, Gary F.; Yu, J. Micheal; Zentai, George; Kaissl, Wolfgang; Matsinos, Evangelos; Richters, Jeroen; Riem, Heinrich

    2004-05-01

    The dynamic range of many flat panel imaging systems are fundamentally limited by the dynamic range of the charge amplifier and readout signal processing. We developed two new flat panel readout methods that achieve extended dynamic range by changing the read out charge amplifier feedback capacitance dynamically and on a real-time basis. In one method, the feedback capacitor is selected automatically by a level sensing circuit, pixel-by-pixel, based on its exposure level. Alternatively, capacitor selection is driven externally, such that each pixel is read out two (or more) times, each time with increased feedback capacitance. Both methods allow the acquisition of X-ray image data with a dynamic range approaching the fundamental limits of flat panel pixels. Data with an equivalent bit depth of better than 16 bits are made available for further image processing. Successful implementation of these methods requires careful matching of selectable capacitor values and switching thresholds, with the imager noise and sensitivity characteristics, to insure X-ray quantum limited operation over the whole extended dynamic range. Successful implementation also depends on the use of new calibration methods and image reconstruction algorithms, to insure artifact free rebuilding of linear image data by the downstream image processing systems. The multiple gain ranging flat panel readout method extends the utility of flat panel imagers and paves the way to new flat panel applications, such as cone beam CT. We believe that this method will provide a valuable extension to the clinical application of flat panel imagers.

  11. The Herschel ATLAS: Evolution of the 250 Micrometer Luminosity Function Out to z = 0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, S.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Smith, D. J. B.; Amblard, A.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Baldry, I. K.; Bamford, S.; Blain, A. W.; Bonfield, D. G.; Bremer, M.; Burgarella, D.; Buttiglione, S.; Cameron, E.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Croom, S.; Dariush, A.; de Zotti, G.; Driver, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Frayer, D.; Leeuw, L.

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the luminosity function of 250 micrometer-selected galaxies detected in the approximately equal to 14 deg(sup 2) science demonstration region of the Herschel-ATLAS project out to a redshift of z = 0.5. Our findings very clearly show that the luminosity function evolves steadily out to this redshift. By selecting a sub-group of sources within a fixed luminosity interval where incompleteness effects are minimal, we have measured a smooth increase in the comoving 250 micrometer luminosity density out to z = 0.2 where it is 3.6(sup +1.4) (sub -0.9) times higher than the local value.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of micrometer sized HgMoO4 flowers formed by nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Run-Ping; Zhang, Ying-Qiang

    2010-10-01

    Micrometer sized HgMoO4 flowers formed by nanorods were prepared by a selected hydrothermal method using a mixture of ethanol and water as a reaction medium, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), FT-IR spectrometry, photoluminescence spectrometry, and UV-visible spectrometry. Results indicated that the micrometer sized flowers consisted of mercury molybdate nanorods, and the monoclinic wolframite-type structure of the flowers was confirmed by both XRD and FT-IR spectrometry. A blue shift of the photoluminescence peaks and a broadening of XRD peaks were observed, which increased with ethanol fraction in the reaction medium.

  13. Wideband 1.064 micrometer detector evaluation. [for application to space laser communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S. I.

    1977-01-01

    Several types of communications detectors for use in a 400 Mbps 1.064 micrometer laser communication system were evaluated and characterized. The communication system Bit Error Rate (BER) performance was measured, and test results for the best detector of each type are summarized. The complete BER curves are presented. The 400 Mbps 1.064 micrometer communication system receiver test bed is described. The best performance levels which can be achieved by focusing the signal to diffraction limited spots on the photosensitive area are cited.

  14. Common Readout Unit (CRU) - A new readout architecture for the ALICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, J.; Khan, S. A.; Mukherjee, S.; Paul, R.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is presently going for a major upgrade in order to fully exploit the scientific potential of the upcoming high luminosity run, scheduled to start in the year 2021. The high interaction rate and the large event size will result in an experimental data flow of about 1 TB/s from the detectors, which need to be processed before sending to the online computing system and data storage. This processing is done in a dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU), proposed for data aggregation, trigger and timing distribution and control moderation. It act as common interface between sub-detector electronic systems, computing system and trigger processors. The interface links include GBT, TTC-PON and PCIe. GBT (Gigabit transceiver) is used for detector data payload transmission and fixed latency path for trigger distribution between CRU and detector readout electronics. TTC-PON (Timing, Trigger and Control via Passive Optical Network) is employed for time multiplex trigger distribution between CRU and Central Trigger Processor (CTP). PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express) is the high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard for bulk data transport between CRU boards and processors. In this article, we give an overview of CRU architecture in ALICE, discuss the different interfaces, along with the firmware design and implementation of CRU on the LHCb PCIe40 board.

  15. Handheld chemiresistive gas sensor readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, Trudi-Heleen; du Toit, Jurie; Mkwakikunga, Bonex; Bosscha, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Low-cost and non-invasive diabetes diagnosis is increasingly important [1], and this paper presents a handheld readout system for chemiresistive gas sensors in a breath acetone diagnostic application. The sensor contains reference and detection devices, used for the detection of gas concentration. Fabrication is by dropcasting a metaloxide nanowire solution onto gold interdigitated electrodes, which had been manufactured on silicon. The resulting layer is a wide bandgap n-type semiconductor material sensitive to acetone, producing a change in resistance between the electrode terminals [2]. Chemiresistive sensors typically require temperatures of 300-500 °C, while variation of sensing temperature is also employed for selective gas detection. The nano-structured functional material requires low temperatures due to large surface area, but heating is still required for acceptable recovery kinetics. Furthermore, UV illumination improves the sensor recovery [3], and is implemented in this system. Sensor resistances range from 100 Ω to 50 MΩ, while the sensor response time require a sampling frequency of 10Hz. Sensor resistance depends on temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. The GE CC2A23 temperature sensor is used over a range of -10°C to 60°C, the Honeywell HIH5031 humidity sensor operates up to 85% over this temperature range, and the LPS331AP barometric pressure sensor measures up to 1.25 bar. Honeywell AWM43300V air flow sensors monitor the flow rate up to 1000 sccm. An LCD screen displays all the sensor data, as well as real time date and time, while all measurements are also logged in CSV-format. The system operates from a rechargeable battery.

  16. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-2, Fixed Gages, Dividers, Calipers, and Micrometers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This second in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology dscribes fixed gages, dividers, calipers, vernier and dial calipers, and micrometers. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (l) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6)…

  17. FIB-TEM Anatomy of a Sub-Micrometer Impact Crater on a Hayabusa Grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harries, D.; Yakame, S.; Uesugi, M.; Langenhorst, F.

    2015-07-01

    We investigated Hayabusa grain RA-QD02-0265, which was found to contain a cluster of sub-micrometer-sized crater-like features. The cluster of craters is most likely due to secondary impacts of particles generated by an nearby (micro-)impact event.

  18. Micrometer scale spacings between fibronectin nanodots regulate cell morphology and focal adhesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horzum, Utku; Ozdil, Berrin; Pesen-Okvur, Devrim

    2014-04-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix is an important process for both health and disease states. Surface protein patterns that are topographically flat, and do not introduce other chemical, topographical or rigidity related functionality and, more importantly, that mimic the organization of the in vivo extracellular matrix are desired. Previous work showed that vinculin and cytoskeletal organization are modulated by size and shape of surface nanopatterns. However, quantitative analysis on cell morphology and focal adhesions as a function of micrometer scale spacings of FN nanopatterns was absent. Here, electron beam lithography was used to pattern fibronectin nanodots with micrometer scale spacings on a K-casein background on indium tin oxide coated glass which, unlike silicon, is transparent and thus suitable for many light microscopy techniques. Exposure times were significantly reduced using the line exposure mode with micrometer scale step sizes. Micrometer scale spacings of 2, 4 and 8 μm between fibronectin nanodots proved to modulate cell adhesion through modification of cell area, focal adhesion number, size and circularity. Overall, cell behavior was shown to shift at the apparent threshold of 4 μm spacing. The findings presented here offer exciting new opportunities for cell biology research.

  19. Efficient Single-Frequency Thulium Doped Fiber Laser Near 2-micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Jihong; Wu, Jianfeng; Jiang, Shibin; Yu, Jirong

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate highly efficient diode-pumped single-frequency fiber laser with 35% slope efficiency and 50mW output power operating near 2 micrometers, which generated from a 2-cm long piece of highly Tm(3+)-doped germanate glass fiber pumped at 800nm.

  20. Automatic three-dimensional tracking of particles with high-numerical-aperture digital lensless holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, John F; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2012-02-15

    We present an automatic procedure for 3D tracking of micrometer-sized particles with high-NA digital lensless holographic microscopy. The method uses a two-feature approach to search for the best focal planes and to distinguish particles from artifacts or other elements on the reconstructed stream of the holograms. A set of reconstructed images is axially projected onto a single image. From the projected image, the centers of mass of all the reconstructed elements are identified. Starting from the centers of mass, the morphology of the profile of the maximum intensity along the reconstruction direction allows for the distinguishing of particles from others elements. The method is tested with modeled holograms and applied to automatically track micrometer-sized bubbles in a sample of 4 mm3 of soda.

  1. M&A For Lithography Of Sparse Arrays Of Sub-Micrometer Features

    DOEpatents

    Brueck, Steven R.J.; Chen, Xiaolan; Zaidi, Saleem; Devine, Daniel J.

    1998-06-02

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for the exposure of sparse hole and/or mesa arrays with line:space ratios of 1:3 or greater and sub-micrometer hole and/or mesa diameters in a layer of photosensitive material atop a layered material. Methods disclosed include: double exposure interferometric lithography pairs in which only those areas near the overlapping maxima of each single-period exposure pair receive a clearing exposure dose; double interferometric lithography exposure pairs with additional processing steps to transfer the array from a first single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair into an intermediate mask layer and a second single-period interferometric lithography exposure to further select a subset of the first array of holes; a double exposure of a single period interferometric lithography exposure pair to define a dense array of sub-micrometer holes and an optical lithography exposure in which only those holes near maxima of both exposures receive a clearing exposure dose; combination of a single-period interferometric exposure pair, processing to transfer resulting dense array of sub-micrometer holes into an intermediate etch mask, and an optical lithography exposure to select a subset of initial array to form a sparse array; combination of an optical exposure, transfer of exposure pattern into an intermediate mask layer, and a single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair; three-beam interferometric exposure pairs to form sparse arrays of sub-micrometer holes; five- and four-beam interferometric exposures to form a sparse array of sub-micrometer holes in a single exposure. Apparatuses disclosed include arrangements for the three-beam, five-beam and four-beam interferometric exposures.

  2. FASTBUS Readout Controller card for high speed data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, S. Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Areti, V.H.; Foster, G.W.; Joshi, U.; Treptow, K. )

    1991-10-01

    This article describes a FASTBUS Readout Controller (FRC) for high speed data acquisition in FASTBUS based systems. The controller has two main interfaces: to FASTBUS and to a Readout Port. The FASTBUS interface performs FASTBUS master and slave operations at a maximum transfer rate exceeding 40 MBytes/s. The Readout Port can be adapted for a variety of protocols. Currently, it will be interfaced to a VME bus based processor with a VSB port. The on-board LR33000 embedded processor controls the readout, executing a list of operations download into its memory. It scans the FASTBUS modules and stores the data in a triple port DRAM (TPDRAM), through one of the Serial Access Memory (SAM) ports of the (TPDRAM). Later, it transfers this data to the readout port using the other SAM. The FRC also supports serial communication via RS232 and Ethernet interfaces. This device is intended for use in the data acquisition system at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  4. A compact light readout system for longitudinally segmented shashlik calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, A.; Brizzolari, C.; Cecchini, S.; Cindolo, F.; Jollet, C.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Meregaglia, A.; Paoloni, A.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Prest, M.; Sirri, G.; Terranova, F.; Vallazza, E.; Votano, L.

    2016-09-01

    The longitudinal segmentation of shashlik calorimeters is challenged by dead zones and non-uniformities introduced by the light collection and readout system. This limitation can be overcome by direct fiber-photosensor coupling, avoiding routing and bundling of the wavelength shifter fibers and embedding ultra-compact photosensors (SiPMs) in the bulk of the calorimeter. We present the first experimental test of this readout scheme performed at the CERN PS-T9 beamline in 2015 with negative particles in the 1-5 GeV energy range. In this paper, we demonstrate that the scheme does not compromise the energy resolution and linearity compared with standard light collection and readout systems. In addition, we study the performance of the calorimeter for partially contained charged hadrons to assess the e / π separation capability and the response of the photosensors to direct ionization.

  5. Improvement of Event Synchronization in the ATLAS Pixel Readout Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Logan; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    As the LHC continues in Run2, the B-Layer still uses the Atlas-SiROD Pixel readout system initially developed for Run 1. The higher luminosity occurring during Run 2 results in higher occupancy causing increased desynchronization errors in the Pixel Readout. In order to ensure lasting operation of the B-Layer until it is replaced after Run 3, changes were made to the firmware and software to add debug capabilities to identify when the errors are crossing certain thresholds and change the internal control logic accordingly. These features also allow for better debugging of the Event Counter Reset addition to the firmware. This talk will focus on the features implemented and measurements to demonstrate the positive impact on the Pixel DAQ system. A Pixel front-end chip emulator which can be used for readout system development beyond Run 3 will also be discussed. Presenter is Logan Adams, University of Washington.

  6. Looking at Earth from space: Direct readout from environmental satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Direct readout is the capability to acquire information directly from meteorological satellites. Data can be acquired from NASA-developed, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-operated satellites, as well as from other nations' meteorological satellites. By setting up a personal computer-based ground (Earth) station to receive satellite signals, direct readout may be obtained. The electronic satellite signals are displayed as images on the computer screen. The images can display gradients of the Earth's topography and temperature, cloud formations, the flow and direction of winds and water currents, the formation of hurricanes, the occurrence of an eclipse, and a view of Earth's geography. Both visible and infrared images can be obtained. This booklet introduces the satellite systems, ground station configuration, and computer requirements involved in direct readout. Also included are lists of associated resources and vendors.

  7. Upgrade of the D0 luminosity monitor readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, John; Bridges, Lloyd; Casey, Brendan; Enari, Yuji; Green, Johnny; Johnson, Marvin; Kwarciany, Rick; Miao, Chyi-Chiang; Partridge, Richard; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Wang, Jigang; /Brown U. /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    We describe upgrades to the readout system for the D0 Luminosity Monitor. The D0 Luminosity Monitor consists of plastic scintillation detectors with fine-mesh photomultiplier readout that cover the pseudorapidity range 2.7 < |{eta}| < 4.4. The detector is designed to provide a precise measurement of the rate for non-diffractive inelastic collisions that is used to calculate the TeVatron luminosity at D0. The new readout system is based on custom VME electronics that make precise time-of-flight and charge measurements for each luminosity counter. These measurements are used to identify beam crossings with non-diffractive interactions by requiring in-time hits in both the forward and backward luminosity counters. We have also significantly increased signal/noise for the photomultiplier signals by developing a new front-end preamplifier and improving the grounding scheme.

  8. The NA62 liquid Krypton calorimeter's new readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccucci, A.; Fantechi, R.; Farthouat, P.; Lamanna, G.; Rouet, J.; Ryjov, V.; Venditti, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator aims at studying Kaon decays with high precision. The high resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter, built for the NA48 [2] experiment, is a crucial part of the experiment photon-veto system; to cope with the new requirements, the back-end electronics of the LKr had to be completely renewed. Due to the huge number of the calorimeter readout channels ( ~ 14 K) and the maintenance requirement over 10 years of the experiment lifetime, the decision to sub-contract the development and production to industry was taken in 2011. This paper presents the primary test results of the Calorimeter REAdout Module (CREAM) [3] prototype delivered by the manufacturer in March 2013. All essential features, analog performance, data processing and readout, are covered.

  9. READOUT SYSTEM FOR ARRAYS OF FRISCH-RING CDZNTE DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    CUI, Y.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CAMARDA, G.S.; DE GERONIMO, G.; O'CONNOR, P.; JAMES, R.B.; KARGAR, A.; HARRISON, M.J.; MCGREGOR, D.S.

    2006-10-29

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution for identifying isotopes, <1% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. We will fabricate and test at Brookhaven National Laboratory an integrated module of a 64-element array of 6 x 6 x 12 mm{sup 3} Frisch-ring detectors, coupled with a readout electronics system. It supports 64 readout channels, and includes front-end electronics, signal processing circuit, USB interface and high-voltage power supply. The data-acquisition software is used to process the data stream, which includes amplitude and timing information for each detected event. This paper describes the design and assembly of the detector modules, readout electronics, and a conceptual prototype system. Some test results are also reported.

  10. Development and characterization of the readout system for POLARBEAR-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, D.; Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Aleman, C.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Bender, A.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, G.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hori, Y.; Inoue, Y.; Jaehnig, G. C.; Katayama, N.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Le Jeune, M.; Lee, A. T.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Morii, H.; Myers, M. J.; Navroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Okamura, T.; Peloton, J.; Rebeiz, G.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Sholl, M.; Siritanasak, P.; Smecher, G.; Stebor, N.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, J.; Takada, S.; Takakura, T.; Tomaru, T.; Wilson, B.; Yamaguchi, H.; Zahn, O.

    2014-07-01

    POLARBEAR-2 is a next-generation receiver for precision measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)). Scheduled to deploy in early 2015, it will observe alongside the existing POLARBEAR-1 receiver, on a new telescope in the Simons Array on Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of Chile. For increased sensitivity, it will feature a larger area focal plane, with a total of 7,588 polarization sensitive antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers, with a design sensitivity of 4.1 uKrt(s). The focal plane will be cooled to 250 milliKelvin, and the bolometers will be read-out with 40x frequency domain multiplexing, with 36 optical bolometers on a single SQUID amplifier, along with 2 dark bolometers and 2 calibration resistors. To increase the multiplexing factor from 8x for POLARBEAR-1 to 40x for POLARBEAR-2 requires additional bandwidth for SQUID readout and well-defined frequency channel spacing. Extending to these higher frequencies requires new components and design for the LC filters which define channel spacing. The LC filters are cold resonant circuits with an inductor and capacitor in series with each bolometer, and stray inductance in the wiring and equivalent series resistance from the capacitors can affect bolometer operation. We present results from characterizing these new readout components. Integration of the readout system is being done first on a small scale, to ensure that the readout system does not affect bolometer sensitivity or stability, and to validate the overall system before expansion into the full receiver. We present the status of readout integration, and the initial results and status of components for the full array.

  11. Temperature compensation method using readout signals of ring laser gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Li, Geng; Wang, Fei; Xiao, Guangzong; Wei, Guo; Zhang, Pengfei; Long, Xingwu

    2015-05-18

    Traditional compensation methods using temperature-related parameters have little effect when the ring laser gyroscope (RLG) bias changes rapidly. To solve this problem, a novel RLG bias temperature compensation method using readout signals is proposed in this paper. Combined with the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) algorithm, the novel method can improve the precision of the RLG bias. Experiments show that by utilizing the readout signals in the LS-SVM model, the RLG bias stability can be significantly raised compared to the original data. The novel method proposed in this paper is shown to be feasible, even when the RLG bias changes rapidly.

  12. Pooled CRISPR screening with single-cell transcriptome readout.

    PubMed

    Datlinger, Paul; Rendeiro, André F; Schmidl, Christian; Krausgruber, Thomas; Traxler, Peter; Klughammer, Johanna; Schuster, Linda C; Kuchler, Amelie; Alpar, Donat; Bock, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    CRISPR-based genetic screens are accelerating biological discovery, but current methods have inherent limitations. Widely used pooled screens are restricted to simple readouts including cell proliferation and sortable marker proteins. Arrayed screens allow for comprehensive molecular readouts such as transcriptome profiling, but at much lower throughput. Here we combine pooled CRISPR screening with single-cell RNA sequencing into a broadly applicable workflow, directly linking guide RNA expression to transcriptome responses in thousands of individual cells. Our method for CRISPR droplet sequencing (CROP-seq) enables pooled CRISPR screens with single-cell transcriptome resolution, which will facilitate high-throughput functional dissection of complex regulatory mechanisms and heterogeneous cell populations.

  13. SVX3: A deadtimeless readout chip for silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, T.; Huffman, T.; Srage, J.; Stroehmer, R.; Yarema, R.; Garcia-Sciveras, M.; Luo, L.; Milgrome, O.

    1998-02-01

    A new silicon strip readout chip called the SVX3 has been designed for the 720 000 channel CDF silicon upgrade at Fermilab. SVX3 incorporates an integrator, analog delay pipeline, ADC, and data sparsification for each of 128 identical channels. Many of the operating parameters are programmable via a serial bit stream, which allows the chip to be used under a variety of conditions. Distinct features of SVX3 include use of a backside substrate contact for optimal ground referencing, and the capability of simultaneous signal acquisition and digital readout, allowing deadtimeless operation in the Fermilab Tevatron.

  14. The SoLid anti-neutrino detector's readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, L.; Beaumont, W.; Cussans, D.; Newbold, D.; Ryder, N.; Weber, A.

    2017-02-01

    The SoLid collaboration have developed an intelligent readout system to reduce their 3200 silicon photomultiplier detector's data rate by a factor of 10000 whilst maintaining high efficiency for storing data from anti-neutrino interactions. The system employs an FPGA-level waveform characterisation to trigger on neutron signals. Following a trigger, data from a space-time region of interest around the neutron will be read out using the IPbus protocol. In these proceedings the design of the readout system is explained and results showing the performance of a prototype version of the system are presented.

  15. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  16. Fully digital readout of segmented solid state detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenhagen, K. H.; Badura, E.; Bräuning, H.; Hoffmann, J.; Koch, K.; Kurz, N.; Märtin, R.; Minami, S.; Ott, W.; Spillmann, U.; Stöhlker, Th; Weber, G.; Weber, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the digital readout of semiconductor detectors in combination with digital filters was investigated. Both non-segmented high-purity germanium and segmented planar lithium-drifted silicon detectors were used. In each case, photons from a stationary americium (241Am) gamma source were detected. The resulting preamplifier output pulses were digitized at a fixed sampling frequency and stored entirely. Digital filters were applied to the stored waveforms to extract time and energy information. The performance of different digital filters was compared. The optimum energy resolution obtained was comparable with the value resulting from an analogue readout system based on standard nuclear instrumentation module and versatile module Europe bus electronics.

  17. Readout technologies for directional WIMP Dark Matter detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battat, J. B. R.; Irastorza, I. G.; Aleksandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Baracchini, E.; Billard, J.; Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Bouvier, J.; Buonaura, A.; Burdge, K.; Cebrián, S.; Colas, P.; Consiglio, L.; Dafni, T.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Deaconu, C.; De Lellis, G.; Descombes, T.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Druitt, G.; Eggleston, R.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Fusayasu, T.; Galán, J.; Galati, G.; García, J. A.; Garza, J. G.; Gentile, V.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Giomataris, Y.; Guerrero, N.; Guillaudin, O.; Guler, A. M.; Harton, J.; Hashimoto, T.; Hedges, M. T.; Iguaz, F. J.; Ikeda, T.; Jaegle, I.; Kadyk, J. A.; Katsuragawa, T.; Komura, S.; Kubo, H.; Kuge, K.; Lamblin, J.; Lauria, A.; Lee, E. R.; Lewis, P.; Leyton, M.; Loomba, D.; Lopez, J. P.; Luzón, G.; Mayet, F.; Mirallas, H.; Miuchi, K.; Mizumoto, T.; Mizumura, Y.; Monacelli, P.; Monroe, J.; Montesi, M. C.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishimura, H.; Ochi, A.; Papevangelou, T.; Parker, J. D.; Phan, N. S.; Pupilli, F.; Richer, J. P.; Riffard, Q.; Rosa, G.; Santos, D.; Sawano, T.; Sekiya, H.; Seong, I. S.; Snowden-Ifft, D. P.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Sugiyama, A.; Taishaku, R.; Takada, A.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, M.; Tanimori, T.; Thorpe, T. N.; Tioukov, V.; Tomita, H.; Umemoto, A.; Vahsen, S. E.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yoshimoto, M.; Zayas, E.

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils is a compelling but technologically challenging strategy to provide an unambiguous signature of the detection of Galactic dark matter. Most directional detectors aim to reconstruct the dark-matter-induced nuclear recoil tracks, either in gas or solid targets. The main challenge with directional detection is the need for high spatial resolution over large volumes, which puts strong requirements on the readout technologies. In this paper we review the various detector readout technologies used by directional detectors. In particular, we summarize the challenges, advantages and drawbacks of each approach, and discuss future prospects for these technologies.

  18. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  19. Automatic Differentiation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David M.; Phipps, Eric; Bratlett, Roscoe

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  20. Automatic Test Program Generation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    presents a test description language, NOPAL , in which a user may describe diagnostic tests, and a software system which automatically generates test...programs for an automatic test equipment based on the descriptions of tests. The software system accepts as input the tests specified in NOPAL , performs

  1. Digital automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  2. The spectral appearance of comets from 5 to 20 micrometers: A survey of the data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Jesse D.

    1988-01-01

    Based on the concept of comets as being conglomerates of rocks and ices, it is expected that they reflect these components in their emission spectra. Silicate materials (rocks) are common in many astronomical environments and show prominent features at about 10 and 18 micrometers. Carbon should be abundant, but is much more difficult to detect spectroscopically since it has no strong features (except for the hydrogenated form). Ices are present in comets, but they are difficult to detect since they are volatile enough to dissipate when the comet is bright enough to be easily observed in the IR, with present equipment. There are other materials present in comets, but the ones listed above should be the most common and thus dominate the thermal IR spectrum. Most of the IR observations made on comets between 5 and 20 micrometers are summarized. They fall into three broad categories: (1) filter photometry; (2) circular variable filter wheel spectroscopy; and (3) spectra obtained with multidetector grating spectrometers.

  3. Novel magnetic Fe onion-like fullerene micrometer-sized particles of narrow size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snovski, Ron; Grinblat, Judith; Margel, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic polydivinylbenzene (PDVB)/magnetite micrometer-sized particles of narrow size distribution were prepared by entrapping Fe(CO)5 within the pores of uniform porous PDVB particles, followed by the thermal decomposition of the encapsulated Fe(CO)5 at 300 °C in a sealed cell under inert atmosphere. Magnetic Fe onion-like fullerene micrometer-sized particles of narrow size distribution have been prepared by the thermal decomposition of the PDVB/magnetite magnetic microspheres at 1100 °C under inert atmosphere. The graphitic coating protects the elemental iron particles from oxidation and thereby preserves their very high magnetic moment for at least a year. Characterization of these unique magnetic carbon graphitic particles was also performed.

  4. Impressive electromagnetic shielding effects exhibited by highly ordered, micrometer thick polyaniline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Ranjini R.; Varma, Sreekanth J.; Sankaran, Jayalekshmi

    2016-04-01

    The present work highlights the remarkably high shielding effectiveness of about 68 dB, exhibited by highly ordered and doped polyaniline films, in the microwave frequency range 4-12 GHz, obtained by self-stabilized dispersion polymerization as the synthesis route. The observed shielding effectiveness is found to depend quite sensitively on the electrical conducting properties, which are predominantly controlled by the nature and concentration of the dopants. The structural and morphological characterization of the films using XRD and TEM techniques reveals surprisingly high extent of crystallinity, which contributes significantly towards enhancing the electrical conductivity of the films. Most of the available reports on the microwave response of conducting polymer film samples deal with much thicker films, compared to the micrometer thick films of the present studies. The shielding effectiveness of acid doped, micrometer thick polyaniline films reported in the present work far exceeds most of the previously reported values and meets the commercial requirements.

  5. High T(sub c) Superconducting Bolometer on Chemically Etched 7 Micrometer Thick Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, B.; Brasunas, J. C.; Pique, A.; Fettig, R.; Mott, B.; Babu, S.; Cushman, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    A transition-edge IR detector, using a YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (YBCO) thin film deposited on a chemically etched, 7 micrometer thick sapphire substrate has been built. To our knowledge it is the first such high T(sub c) superconducting (HTS) bolometer on chemically thinned sapphire. The peak optical detectivity obtained is l.2 x 10(exp 10) cmHz(sup 1/2)/W near 4Hz. Result shows that it is possible to obtain high detectivity with thin films on etched sapphire with no processing after the deposition of the YBCO film. We discuss the etching process and its potential for micro-machining sapphire and fabricating 2-dimensional detector arrays with suspended sapphire membranes. A 30 micrometer thick layer of gold black provided IR absorption. Comparison is made with the current state of the art on silicon substrates.

  6. Jupiter's Cloud Distribution Between the Voyager 1 and 2 Encounters: Results from 5-Micrometer Imaging.

    PubMed

    Terrile, R J; Capps, R W; Becklin, E E; Cruikshank, D P

    1979-11-23

    As part of a continuing effort of ground-based support for Voyager target selection, infrared images in the 5-micrometer wavelength region were acquired in preparation for the Voyager 2 flyby of Jupiter. Observations were made during May 1979 from the Palomar 5-meter telescope and the new 3-meter NASA Infrared Telescope Facility at Mauna Kea and are compared to previous observations. Variations seen in the 5-micrometer flux distribution suggest global patterns of clouding over of some Jovian belts and clearing ofothers. These data were used to predict the Jovian cloud distribution at the time of the Voyager 2 encounter in order to target the imaging and infrared experiments to areas free of high obscuring clouds.

  7. Micrometer-scale mixing with Pickering emulsions: biphasic reactions without stirring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Fu, Luman; Yang, Hengquan

    2014-02-01

    A general strategy that avoids stirring for organic/aqueous reactions involving solid catalysts is reported. The strategy involves converting a conventional biphasic system into a Pickering emulsion phase with micrometer-scale droplets ensuring good mixing. In test reactions, nitrotoluene reduction and epoxidation of allylic alcohols, the reaction efficiency is comparable to conventional stirrer-driven biphasic catalysis reaction systems. Short diffusion distances, arising from the compartmentalization of densely packed droplets, play an important role in boosting the reaction efficiency.

  8. Three-dimensional location of micrometer-sized particles in macroscopic domains using astigmatic aberrations.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Thomas; Hain, Rainer; Kähler, Christian J

    2014-03-01

    This Letter presents a theoretical and experimental image formation study in the presence of astigmatic aberrations. A three-dimensional, macroscopic location scheme of micrometer-sized particles for the single camera astigmatism particle tracking velocimetry (APTV) technique is introduced. Average particle z position determination errors of the technique are as low as 0.33%, with a measurement depth of 40 mm. These accuracies show APTV's ability of measuring volumetric velocity fields in macroscopic domains with limited optical access.

  9. 2.4 Micrometer Cutoff Wavelength AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb Phototransistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulima, O. V.; Swaminathan, K.; Refaat, T. F.; Faleev, N. N.; Semenov, A. N.; Solov'ev, V. A.; Ivanov, S. V.; Abedin, M. N.; Singh, U. N.; Prather, D.

    2006-01-01

    We report the first AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb phototransistors with a cutoff wavelength (50% of peak responsivity) of 2.4 micrometers operating in a broad range of temperatures. These devices are also the first AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb heterojunction phototransistors (HPT) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). This work is a continuation of a preceding study, which was carried out using LPE (liquid phase epitaxy)-grown AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb/GaSb heterostructures. Although the LPE-related work resulted in the fabrication of an HPT with excellent parameters [1-4], the room temperature cutoff wavelength of these devices (approximately 2.15 micrometers) was determined by fundamental limitations implied by the close-to-equilibrium growth from Al-In-Ga-As-Sb melts. As the MBE technique is free from the above limitations, AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb/GaSb heterostructures for HPT with a narrower bandgap of the InGaAsSb base and collector - and hence sensitivity at longer wavelengths (lambda) - were grown in this work. Moreover, MBE - compared to LPE - provides better control over doping levels, composition and width of the AlGaAsSb and InGaAsSb layers, compositional and doping profiles, especially with regard to abrupt heterojunctions. The new MBE-grown HPT exhibited both high responsivity R (up to 2334 A/W for lambda=2.05 micrometers at -20 deg C.) and specific detectivity D* (up to 2.1 x 10(exp 11) cmHz(exp 1/2)/W for lambda=2.05 micrometers at -20 deg C).

  10. Different freezing behavior of millimeter- and micrometer-scaled (NH₄)₂SO₄/H₂O droplets.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, A; Molina, M J; Tenhu, H; Mayer, E; Bertel, E; Loerting, T

    2011-01-26

    Although the freezing of aqueous solutions is important for nature and different branches of science and freeze-applications, our understanding of the freezing process is not complete. For example, numerous measurements of micrometer-scaled (NH(4))(2)SO(4)/H(2)O droplets report one freezing event below the eutectic point. However, measurements of larger millimeter-scaled droplets reveal two freezing events: the freezing out of ice and subsequent freezing of a residual freeze-concentrated solution. To resolve this apparent contradiction we performed numerous calorimetric measurements which indicate that the freezing of a residual solution of millimeter-scaled 5-38 wt% (NH(4))(2)SO(4) droplets occurs mainly between ∼ 210 and 225 K. We also find that micrometer-scaled droplets produce one freezing event which is within or in the vicinity of the ∼ 210-225 K region. This fact and the analysis of thermograms suggest that the residual solution of micrometer-scaled droplets may partly crystallize simultaneously with ice and partly transform to glass at T(g)≈172 K. Our results suggest for the first time that the size of (NH(4))(2)SO(4)/H(2)O droplets may affect the number of freezing events below the eutectic point.

  11. Modeling thermal infrared (2-14 micrometer) reflectance spectra of frost and snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wald, Andrew E.

    1994-01-01

    Existing theories of radiative transfer in close-packed media assume that each particle scatters independently of its neighbors. For opaque particles, such as are common in the thermal infrared, this assumption is not valid, and these radiative transfer theories will not be accurate. A new method is proposed, called 'diffraction subtraction', which modifies the scattering cross section of close-packed large, opaque spheres to account for the effect of close packing on the diffraction cross section of a scattering particle. This method predicts the thermal infrared reflectance of coarse (greater than 50 micrometers radius), disaggregated granular snow. However, such coarse snow is typically old and metamorphosed, with adjacent grains welded together. The reflectance of such a welded block can be described as partly Fresnel in nature and cannot be predicted using Mie inputs to radiative transfer theory. Owing to the high absorption coefficient of ice in the thermal infrared, a rough surface reflectance model can be used to calculate reflectance from such a block. For very small (less than 50 micrometers), disaggregated particles, it is incorrect in principle to treat diffraction independently of reflection and refraction, and the theory fails. However, for particles larger than 50 micrometers, independent scattering is a valid assumption, and standard radiative transfer theory works.

  12. Optimized readout system for cooled optically stimulated luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. D.; Eschbach, P. A.

    1990-09-01

    Cooled Optically Stimulated Luminescence (COSL) in CaF2:Mn is an ionizing radiation dosimetry method recently developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In this method CaF2:Mn crystals irradiated by gamma radiation at room temperature are cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), stimulated by ultraviolet laser light at 326 nm, and allowed to warm to room temperature. Light emission proportional to the gamma exposure occurs as the TLD warms from liquid nitrogen temperature to room temperature. The new method is an example of a highly sensitive phototransfer technique which could form the basis for future radiation dosimetry applications. Measurements to date have shown high potential for measuring gamma exposures in the range of 10 microR. The high sensitivity of the COSL technique is due in part to the larger quantum efficiency of radiative recombination at low temperatures and to the complete absence of the incandescent background associated with conventional thermoluminescent readout methods. Along with the potential for a system which is more sensitive than thermoluminescent readers, multiple COSL readouts can be performed with minimal reduction in the COSL intensity. The multiple readout capability can serve as a possible permanent dosimetry record, thus allowing the reanalysis of a questionable reading. In an attempt to optimize the sensitivity of the COSL method, a new readout system is being developed.

  13. The pad readout electronics of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Cartwright, S.L.; Friedman, J.I.; Fuess, S.; Gonzalez, S.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Kendall, H.W.; Lath, A.; Lyons, T.; Osborne, L.S.; Rosenson, L.; Schneekloth, U.; Taylor, F.E.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Williams, D.C.; Yamartino, J.M. ); Byers, B.L.; Escalera, J.; Gioumousis, A.; Gray, R.; Horelick, D.; Kharakh, D.; Messner, R.L.; Moss, J.; Zdark

    1990-08-01

    The design of the pad readout electronics of the Warm Iron Calorimeter for the SLD detector at SLAC, consisting of about 9000 analog channels, is described. Results of various tests performed during the construction, installation and commissioning of the electronics mounted on the detector are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  14. FUTURE TRENDS IN MICROELECTRONICS - IMPACT ON DETECTOR READOUT.

    SciTech Connect

    O'CONNOR, P.

    2006-04-03

    Mainstream CMOS is now a well-established detector readout technology. We review technology scaling trends and limits, the implementation of analog circuits in digital CMOS processes, and radiation resistance. Emphasis is placed on the growing importance of power dissipation in ultra-scaled technologies.

  15. Design of integrated and networked multidimensional grating digital readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Li; Xu, Hui; Xiu, Guoyi

    2008-10-01

    The grating digital readout is the key measurement feedback device of the numerical control system and base of the equipment manufacturing industry. With the development of the complex machining, the multi-axis linkage is a new direction of the numerical control system, which needs the multidimensional measurement. Based on all digital grating moiré fringe subdivision theory, the paper introduces the design of integrated and networked multidimensional grating digital readout with an embedded system-on-chip ZA7V that is a complete field configurable system-on-chip with a 32- bit ARM7TDMI processor core, a programmable logic matrix, a robust memory subsystem and a high-performance dedicated internal bus. Networked functions include Ethernet interface, CAN bus interface, USB bus interface and GPRS interface so that the grating digital readout can access the device network, workshop network, intranet network and Internet. The simulation results and experimental data prove that the realization of the integrated and networked multidimensional grating digital readout. It will be widely used in the numerical control system and machining center.

  16. Polycrystalline Mercuric Iodide Films on CMOS Readout Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Hartsough, Neal E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Nygard, Einar; Malakhov, Nail; Barber, William C.; Gandhi, Thulasidharan

    2009-01-01

    We have created high-resolution x-ray imaging devices using polycrystalline mercuric iodide (HgI2) films grown directly onto CMOS readout chips using a thermal vapor transport process. Images from prototype 400×400 pixel HgI2-coated CMOS readout chips are presented, where the pixel grid is 30 μm × 30 μm. The devices exhibited sensitivity of 6.2 μC/Rcm2 with corresponding dark current of ∼2.7 nA/cm2, and a 80 μm FWHM planar image response to a 50 μm slit aperture. X-ray CT images demonstrate a point spread function sufficient to obtain a 50 μm spatial resolution in reconstructed CT images at a substantially reduced dose compared to phosphor-coated readouts. The use of CMOS technology allows for small pixels (30 μm), fast readout speeds (8 fps for a 3200×3200 pixel array), and future design flexibility due to the use of well-developed fabrication processes. PMID:20161098

  17. Triple-stack multigap resistive plate chamber with strip readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babkin, V.; Basilev, S.; Buryakov, M.; Golovatyuk, V.; Lobastov, S.; Petrov, V.; Rumyantsev, M.; Schipunov, A.; Shutov, A.; Slepnev, I.; Slepnev, V.

    2016-07-01

    A triple-stack MRPC for the TOF system of the BM@N and the MPD experiments at the future collider NICA was tested. We use three stacks of glass to have symmetrical construction which allows to decrease dispersion and reflections of the signal from the readout strip.

  18. Spatial distribution read-out system for thermoluminescence sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, I.; Tomiyama, T.; Imaeda, K.; Ninagawa, K.; Wada, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    A spatial distribution read-out system of thermoluminescence (TL) sheets is developed. This system consists of high gain image intensifier, a CCD-TV camera, a video image processor and a host computer. This system has been applied to artificial TL sheets (BaSO4:Eu doped) for detecting high energy electromagnetic shower and heavy nuclei tracks.

  19. READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR A HIGH-RATE CSC DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    OCONNOR,P.; GRATCHEV,V.; KANDASAMY,A.; POLYCHRONAKOS,V.; TCHERNIATINE,V.; PARSONS,J.; SIPPACH,W.

    1999-09-25

    A readout system for a high-rate muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) is described. The system, planned for use in the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, uses two custom CMOS integrated circuits to achieve good position resolution at a flux of up to 2,500 tracks/cm{sup 2}/s.

  20. Sources of noise in magneto-optical readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansuripur, M.

    1991-01-01

    The various sources of noise which are often encountered in magneto-optical readout systems are analyzed. Although the focus is on magneto-optics, most sources of noise are common among the various optical recording systems and one can easily adapt the results to other media and systems. A description of the magneto-optical readout system under consideration is given, and the standard methods and the relevant terminology of signal and noise measurement are described. The characteristics of thermal noise, which originates in the electronic circuitry of the readout system, are described. The most fundamental of all sources of noise, the shot noise, is considered, and a detailed account of its statistical properties is given. Shot noise, which is due to random fluctuations in photon arrival times, is an ever-present noise in optical detection. Since the performance of magneto-optical recording devices in use today is approaching the limit imposed by the shot noise, it is important that the reader have a good grasp of this particular source of noise. A model for the laser noise is described, and measurement results which yield numerical values for the strength of the laser power fluctuations are presented. Spatial variations of the disk reflectivity and random depolarization phenomena also contribute to the overall level of noise in readout; these and related issues are treated. Numerical simulation results describing some of the more frequently encountered sources of noise which accompany the recorded waveform itself, namely, jitter noise and signal-amplitude fluctuation noise are presented.

  1. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  6. Automatic wire twister.

    PubMed

    Smith, J F; Rodeheaver, G T; Thacker, J G; Morgan, R F; Chang, D E; Fariss, B L; Edlich, R F

    1988-06-01

    This automatic wire twister used in surgery consists of a 6-inch needle holder attached to a twisting mechanism. The major advantage of this device is that it twists wires significantly more rapidly than the conventional manual techniques. Testing has found that the ultimate force required to disrupt the wires twisted by either the automatic wire twister or manual techniques did not differ significantly and was directly related to the number of twists. The automatic wire twister reduces the time needed for wire twisting without altering the security of the twisted wire.

  7. Digital readouts for large microwave low-temperature detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, Benjamin A.; Day, Peter K.; Irwin, Kent D.; Reintsema, Carl D.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2006-04-01

    Over the last several years many different types of low-temperature detectors (LTDs) have been developed that use a microwave resonant circuit as part of their readout. These devices include microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID), microwave SQUID readouts for transition edge sensors (TES), and NIS bolometers. Current readout techniques for these devices use analog frequency synthesizers and IQ mixers. While these components are available as microwave integrated circuits, one set is required for each resonator. We are exploring a new readout technique for this class of detectors based on a commercial-off-the-shelf technology called software defined radio (SDR). In this method a fast digital to analog (D/A) converter creates as many tones as desired in the available bandwidth. Our prototype system employs a 100 MS/s 16-bit D/A to generate an arbitrary number of tones in 50 MHz of bandwidth. This signal is then mixed up to the desired detector resonant frequency (˜10 GHz), sent through the detector, then mixed back down to baseband. The baseband signal is then digitized with a series of fast analog to digital converters (80 MS/s, 14-bit). Next, a numerical mixer in a dedicated integrated circuit or FPGA mixes the resonant frequency of a specified detector to 0 Hz, and sends the complex detector output over a computer bus for processing and storage. In this paper we will report on our results in using a prototype system to readout a MKID array, including system noise performance, X-ray pulse response, and cross-talk measurements. We will also discuss how this technique can be scaled to read out many thousands of detectors.

  8. Optimal CCD readout by digital correlated double sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, C.; Abusleme, A.; Guzman, D.; Passalacqua, I.; Alvarez-Fontecilla, E.; Guarini, M.

    2016-01-01

    Digital correlated double sampling (DCDS), a readout technique for charge-coupled devices (CCD), is gaining popularity in astronomical applications. By using an oversampling ADC and a digital filter, a DCDS system can achieve a better performance than traditional analogue readout techniques at the expense of a more complex system analysis. Several attempts to analyse and optimize a DCDS system have been reported, but most of the work presented in the literature has been experimental. Some approximate analytical tools have been presented for independent parameters of the system, but the overall performance and trade-offs have not been yet modelled. Furthermore, there is disagreement among experimental results that cannot be explained by the analytical tools available. In this work, a theoretical analysis of a generic DCDS readout system is presented, including key aspects such as the signal conditioning stage, the ADC resolution, the sampling frequency and the digital filter implementation. By using a time-domain noise model, the effect of the digital filter is properly modelled as a discrete-time process, thus avoiding the imprecision of continuous-time approximations that have been used so far. As a result, an accurate, closed-form expression for the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the readout system is reached. This expression can be easily optimized in order to meet a set of specifications for a given CCD, thus providing a systematic design methodology for an optimal readout system. Simulated results are presented to validate the theory, obtained with both time- and frequency-domain noise generation models for completeness.

  9. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  10. Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector.

    PubMed

    Terai, Hirotaka; Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Makise, Kazumasa; Wang, Zhen

    2012-08-27

    We developed a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) readout technology for superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) to achieve low-jitter signal readout. By optimizing circuit parameters of the SFQ readout circuit, the input current sensitivity was improved below 10 μA, which is smaller than a typical critical current of SSPD. The experiment using a pulse-pattern generator as an input pulse source revealed that the measured jitter of the SFQ readout circuit is well below the system jitter of our measurement setup for the input current level above 15 μA. The measured jitter of the SSPD connected to the SFQ readout circuit was 37 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM) for an SSPD bias current of around 18 μA, which is a significant improvement on 67 ps FWHM jitter observed in conventional readout without an SFQ readout circuit.

  11. THE PHYSICS OF PROTOPLANETESIMAL DUST AGGLOMERATES. VI. EROSION OF LARGE AGGREGATES AS A SOURCE OF MICROMETER-SIZED PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Schraepler, Rainer; Blum, Juergen

    2011-06-20

    Observed protoplanetary disks consist of a large amount of micrometer-sized particles. Dullemond and Dominik pointed out for the first time the difficulty in explaining the strong mid-infrared excess of classical T Tauri stars without any dust-retention mechanisms. Because high relative velocities in between micrometer-sized and macroscopic particles exist in protoplanetary disks, we present experimental results on the erosion of macroscopic agglomerates consisting of micrometer-sized spherical particles via the impact of micrometer-sized particles. We find that after an initial phase, in which an impacting particle erodes up to 10 particles of an agglomerate, the impacting particles compress the agglomerate's surface, which partly passivates the agglomerates against erosion. Due to this effect, the erosion halts for impact velocities up to {approx}30 m s{sup -1} within our error bars. For higher velocities, the erosion is reduced by an order of magnitude. This outcome is explained and confirmed by a numerical model. In a next step, we build an analytical disk model and implement the experimentally found erosive effect. The model shows that erosion is a strong source of micrometer-sized particles in a protoplanetary disk. Finally, we use the stationary solution of this model to explain the amount of micrometer-sized particles in the observational infrared data of Furlan et al.

  12. Spanning From Atoms to Micrometers in Simulations of Contact, Adhesion and Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Mark

    Improved understanding of the forces between realistic solid surfaces is needed to optimize adhesion and friction. Modeling these forces is challenging because they arise from interactions between atoms separated by less than a nanometer, but the number and spatial distribution of these contacting atoms depends on surface roughness and deformation on micrometer and larger scales. There are also strong scale effects in the role of elastic deformations along the surface. The talk will first describe a seamless Greens function (GF) method that allows a full treatment of elastic deformations and atomic contact for micrometer scale surfaces and multibody potentials. Next applications of the method to calculations of the contact area, contact stiffness, adhesion and friction for a range of geometries and interactions will be described. The results can be captured with simple analytic expressions and explain why most contacting surfaces do not adhere. Theoretical and experimental studies of single nanometer-scale asperities show that the frictional shear stress depends strongly on whether surfaces are commensurate. A large constant stress is obtained for identical, aligned crystalline surfaces, but the stress averages to zero in the more common case of incommensurate surfaces. The resulting ultralow friction is called superlubricity and is found in experiments and simulations of small contacts. Our simulations reveal dramatic changes in this behavior because different parts of the surface are able to advance independently as the contact radius increases towards micrometer scales. The friction between identical surfaces drops with increasing radius and then saturates at a low value. The force between incommensurate surfaces saturates at a similar value that can be related to the Peierls stress for dislocation motion at the interface. Studies of multiasperity contacts also show that incoherent motion along the interface can lead to pronounced changes in the macroscopic

  13. Application of alternating PSM to sub-quarter-micrometer technology using i-line lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hung-Eil; Ahn, Chang-Nam; Kim, KeunYoung; Baik, Ki-Ho

    1995-12-01

    Alternating phase shift mask (PSM) is very effective to memory devices which have highly repeated patterns. In order to apply the alternating PSM to a real device, we have investigated the design problems such as proximity effect, phase contradiction, phase transition, and linewidth variation. We also designed various hard defects to check defect printability on a wafer. Using i-line lithography (0.50 NA, 0.46 sigma) with alternating PSM, we obtained a useful DOF of 1.2 micrometer for a bit line of 256 M DRAM. The experimental and simulation results for phase-induced problems and defect printability on wafer are described in detail.

  14. Highly Birefringent Microstructure Fiber with Zero Dispersion Wavelength at 0.64 Micrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, Swapan; Ghorai, Swapan K.; Bhattacharya, Rakhi

    In this article, we have designed a microstructure fiber, which consists of elliptical air holes at the core region. We have investigated its optical properties using finite difference time domain method. The fundamental mode of the proposed microstructure fiber can induce very high birefringenceE It has been realized that the value of birefringence is mainly decided by the shape of the air holes present in the first and second rings. The zero dispersion wavelengths of both fast and slow axes have been shifted to 0E64 micrometer. The proposed birefringent microstructure fiber may be useful in optical communication and sensors.

  15. Radiation cooler for 10 micrometer wavelength engineering model receiver model no. 7172, serial no. 201

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a radiative cooler are described. This cooler is an engineering model suitable for bench testing in the laboratory as a part of the 10-micrometer wavelength engineering model receiver, and conforms to the standard radiative cooler configuration, except that the inner stage and its support system were redesigned to accommodate the larger, heavier SAT detector. This radiative cooler will cool the detector to cryogenic temperature levels when the receiver is in a space environment or in a suitable thermal vacuum chamber. Equipment specifications are given along with the results of thermal tests, vibration tests, and electrical integrity tests.

  16. Development of a 0.5 micrometer incoherent Doppler lidar for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, A.; Sroga, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of a prototype 0.53 micrometer Doppler lidar system under development at RCA. This system consists of a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser constrained to yield a narrow bandwidth, single frequency pulse, a Fabry-Perot Inteferometer (FPI) using an Image Plane Detector (IPD) to measure the backscatter spectrum for each pulse and a Data Acquisition System (DAS) to sample, store, and analyze the backscattered signal. These individual subsystem components have been assembled and preliminary atmospheric testing has recently begun. Atmospheric backscatter spectra are presented which demonstrate the capabilities of this system to distinguish between return signals from aerosols, molecules, and clouds.

  17. Sub-micrometer transverse beam size diagnostics using optical transition radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruchinin, K.; Aryshev, A.; Karataev, P.; Bolzon, B.; Lefevre, T.; Mazzoni, S.; Shevelev, M.; Boogert, S. T.; Nevay, L. J.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.

    2014-05-01

    Optical transition radiation (OTR) arising when a relativistic charged particle crosses a boundary between two media with different optical properties is widely used as a tool for diagnostics of particle beams in modern accelerator facilities. The resolution of the beam profile monitors based on OTR depends on different effects of the optical system such as spherical and chromatic aberrations and diffraction. In this paper we present a systematic study of the different optical effects influencing the OTR beam profile monitor resolution. Obtained results have shown that such monitors can be used for sub-micrometer beam profile diagnostics. Further improvements and studies of the monitor are discussed.

  18. Design and construction of a coelostat for heterodyne measurements at a wavelength of 10 micrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzoda, Rainer

    1987-01-01

    A heliostat was designed and built as carrier for a 10 micrometer IR heterodyne spectrometer for transmission measurements in the Earth atmosphere for investigations of solar oscillations. The high wavelength resolution allows the determination of line profiles and transition frequencies with high precision. A series of highly resolved ozone absorption spectra lead to the vertical ozone distribution, in good agreement with reference measurements. An improvement of the results is expected after a more precise determination of ozone spectroscopic data from laboratory measurements. The measurement uncertainties are still too high to determine a frequency spectrum of solar oscillations.

  19. Liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy: Nanoscale imaging in micrometers-thick liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, Tobias; de Jonge, Niels

    2014-02-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of specimens in liquid is possible using a microfluidic chamber with thin silicon nitride windows. This paper includes an analytic equation of the resolution as a function of the sample thickness and the vertical position of an object in the liquid. The equipment for STEM of liquid specimen is briefly described. STEM provides nanometer resolution in micrometer-thick liquid layers with relevance for both biological research and materials science. Using this technique, we investigated tagged proteins in whole eukaryotic cells, and gold nanoparticles in liquid with time-lapse image series. Possibly future applications are discussed. xml:lang="fr"

  20. A "comb" structure measurement of a micrometer displacement in laser plasma propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Gao, L.; Gao, H.; Xing, J.; Wu, X. W.

    2014-08-01

    A "comb" structure of beam intensity distribution is achieved to measure target displacements at the micrometer level in laser plasma propulsion experiments. Compared with single-beam and double-beam detection, the "comb" structure is more suitable for a thin film targets with a velocity lower than 10-2 m/s. Combined with a light-electric monitor, the "comb" structure can be used to measure a velocity range from 10-3 to 1 m/s. Using this "comb" structure, the coupling coefficient of aluminum ablated by nanosecond pulse laser in air is determined and compared. The results indicate that this "comb" structure is an effective experimental approach.

  1. Large-scale proton radiography with micrometer spatial resolution using femtosecond petawatt laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F. Zhang, H.; Lu, X. M.; Wang, C.; Liu, Y. Q.; Yu, L. H.; Chu, Y. X.; Li, Y. Y.; Xu, T. J.; Zhang, H.; Zhai, S. H.; Leng, Y. X.; Liang, X. Y.; Li, R. X.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2015-10-15

    An image of dragonfly with many details is obtained by the fundamental property of the high-energy proton source on a femtosecond petawatt laser system. Equal imaging of the dragonfly and high spatial resolution on the micrometer scale are simultaneously obtained. The head, wing, leg, tail, and even the internal tissue structures are clearly mapped in detail by the proton beam. Experiments show that image blurring caused by multiple Coulomb scattering can be reduced to a certain extent and the spatial resolution can be increased by attaching the dragonfly to the RCFs, which is consistent with theoretical assumptions.

  2. Plasticity of Micrometer-Scale Single-Crystals in Compression: A Critical Review (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2008-4326 PLASTICITY OF MICROMETER-SCALE SINGLE- CRYSTALS IN COMPRESSION: A CRITICAL REVIEW (PREPRINT) Michael D. Uchic... Michael D. Uchic and Dennis M. Dimiduk (AFRL/RXLMD) Paul A. Shade (The Ohio State University) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4347 5e. TASK NUMBER RG 5f...a critical review    Michael  D. Uchic1, Paul A. Shade2, and Dennis M. Dimiduk1    1 Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials & Manufacturing

  3. High bandwidth deflection readout for atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Steininger, Juergen; Bibl, Matthias; Yoo, Han Woong; Schitter, Georg

    2015-10-01

    This contribution presents the systematic design of a high bandwidth deflection readout mechanism for atomic force microscopes. The widely used optical beam deflection method is revised by adding a focusing lens between the cantilever and the quadrant photodetector (QPD). This allows the utilization of QPDs with a small active area resulting in an increased detection bandwidth due to the reduced junction capacitance. Furthermore the additional lens can compensate a cross talk between a compensating z-movement of the cantilever and the deflection readout. Scaling effects are analyzed to get the optimal spot size for the given geometry of the QPD. The laser power is tuned to maximize the signal to noise ratio without limiting the bandwidth by local saturation effects. The systematic approach results in a measured -3 dB detection bandwidth of 64.5 MHz at a deflection noise density of 62fm/√Hz.

  4. Sensor Development and Readout Prototyping for the STAR Pixel Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, L.; Anderssen, E.; Matis, H.S.; Ritter, H.G.; Stezelberger, T.; Szelezniak, M.; Sun, X.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.

    2009-01-14

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designing a new vertex detector. The purpose of this upgrade detector is to provide high resolution pointing to allow for the direct topological reconstruction of heavy flavor decays such as the D{sup 0} by finding vertices displaced from the collision vertex by greater than 60 microns. We are using Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) as the sensor technology and have a coupled sensor development and readout system plan that leads to a final detector with a <200 {micro}s integration time, 400 M pixels and a coverage of -1 < {eta} < 1. We present our coupled sensor and readout development plan and the status of the prototyping work that has been accomplished.

  5. Readout of TPC Tracking Chambers with GEMs and Pixel Chip

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyk, John; Kim, T.; Freytsis, M.; Button-Shafer, J.; Kadyk, J.; Vahsen, S.E.; Wenzel, W.A.

    2007-12-21

    Two layers of GEMs and the ATLAS Pixel Chip, FEI3, have been combined and tested as a prototype for Time Projection Chamber (TPC) readout at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The double-layer GEM system amplifies charge with gain sufficient to detect all track ionization. The suitability of three gas mixtures for this application was investigated, and gain measurements are presented. A large sample of cosmic ray tracks was reconstructed in 3D by using the simultaneous timing and 2D spatial information from the pixel chip. The chip provides pixel charge measurement as well as timing. These results demonstrate that a double GEM and pixel combination, with a suitably modified pixel ASIC, could meet the stringent readout requirements of the ILC.

  6. Fast Low-Cost Multiple Sensor Readout System

    DOEpatents

    Carter-Lewis, David; Krennich, Frank; Le Bohec, Stephane; Petry, Dirk; Sleege, Gary

    2004-04-06

    A low resolution data acquisition system is presented. The data acquisition system has a plurality of readout modules serially connected to a controller. Each readout module has a FPGA in communication with analog to digital (A/D) converters, which are connected to sensors. The A/D converter has eight bit or lower resolution. The FPGA detects when a command is addressed to it and commands the A/D converters to convert analog sensor data into digital data. The digital data is sent on a high speed serial communication bus to the controller. A graphical display is used in one embodiment to indicate if a sensor reading is outside of a predetermined range.

  7. Readout Circuits for Noise Compensation in ISFET Sensory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, M. P.; Bhuyan, M.; Talukdar, C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents two different noise reduction techniques for ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) readout configuration and their comparison. The proposed circuit configurations are immune to the noise generated from the ISFET sensory system and particularly to the low frequency pH dependent 1/ f electrochemical noise. The methods used under this study are compensation of noise by differential OPAMP based and Wheatstone bridge circuit, where two identical commercial ISFET sensors were used. The statistical and frequency analysis of the data generated by this two methods were compared for different pH value ranging from pH 2 to 10 at room temperature, and it is found that the readout circuits are able to compensate the noise to a great extent.

  8. Development of TORCH readout electronics for customised MCPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Cussans, D.; Fohl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros García, A.; Van Dijk, M.

    2016-04-01

    The TORCH detector is being developed for low-momentum particle identification, combining time-of-flight and Cherenkov techniques to achieve charged particle pi/K/p separation up to 10 GeV/c over a flight distance of 10m. This requires a timing resolution of 70 ps for single photons. Based on an existing scalable design, production and testing of a TORCH readout system has been undertaken over the past year, and a novel customized Micro Channel Plate (MCP) photomultiplier device with 128-channels has been instrumented. This paper will report on the development of the readout system which is being used to measure time-of-flight in a test-beam, and its performance. We will also discuss the communication and data alignment between the TORCH system and the TimePix3 telescope in order to provide track reconstruction.

  9. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Sherwood I.

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  10. Evaluation of an Integrated Read-Out Layer Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Ajamieh, Fayez; /NIU

    2011-08-18

    This thesis presents evaluation results of an Integrated Read-out Layer (IRL), a proposed concept in scintillator-based calorimetry intended to meet the exceptional calorimetric requirements of the envisaged International Linear Collider (ILC). This study presents a full characterization of the prototype IRL, including exploration of relevant parameters, calibration performance, and the uniformity of response. The study represents proof of the IRL concept. Finally, proposed design enhancements are presented.

  11. Integrated Josephson Parametric Amplifier Readout for Solid State Qubits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-13

    NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT University of Califomia - Berkeley NUMBER Sponsored Projects...Office 21SO Shattuck Avenue, Suite 300 Berkeley , CA 94704 -S940 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S...Laboratory (PI: Siddiqi) at UC Berkeley was the first group to use superconducting parametric amplifiers (paramps) to readout the state of a

  12. An integrated wire harp and readout electronics inside vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Mou; Nabhiraj, P. Y.

    2015-03-15

    A wire harp is a well known instrument used in ion beam profile measurement and beam diagnostics. Till date, for beam instrumentation, the harp is placed inside the vacuum chamber or beam line in direct exposure to the beam profile to be measured, whereas the related readout electronics is placed outside somewhere at a convenient place. Here, a harp has been developed along with the readout electronics as an integrated part of it and both were placed inside the beam line vacuum (order of 10{sup −7} Torr) to make the system much simpler, easy to operate, and measure small beam current more accurately. The entire signal conversion and processing is done inside the vacuum unlike other systems; hence, the electronics is kept inside. This results in a lesser number (only 4 pin) of electrical connections (feedthrough) including power which otherwise would have required 32 feedthrough pins only for signal readout for a 13 × 13 (X × Y) channel harp. This paper describes a completely new approach to the design of a conventional beam harp widely used for beam instrumentation.

  13. An integrated wire harp and readout electronics inside vacuum.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Mou; Nabhiraj, P Y

    2015-03-01

    A wire harp is a well known instrument used in ion beam profile measurement and beam diagnostics. Till date, for beam instrumentation, the harp is placed inside the vacuum chamber or beam line in direct exposure to the beam profile to be measured, whereas the related readout electronics is placed outside somewhere at a convenient place. Here, a harp has been developed along with the readout electronics as an integrated part of it and both were placed inside the beam line vacuum (order of 10(-7) Torr) to make the system much simpler, easy to operate, and measure small beam current more accurately. The entire signal conversion and processing is done inside the vacuum unlike other systems; hence, the electronics is kept inside. This results in a lesser number (only 4 pin) of electrical connections (feedthrough) including power which otherwise would have required 32 feedthrough pins only for signal readout for a 13 × 13 (X × Y) channel harp. This paper describes a completely new approach to the design of a conventional beam harp widely used for beam instrumentation.

  14. An integrated wire harp and readout electronics inside vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Mou; Nabhiraj, P. Y.

    2015-03-01

    A wire harp is a well known instrument used in ion beam profile measurement and beam diagnostics. Till date, for beam instrumentation, the harp is placed inside the vacuum chamber or beam line in direct exposure to the beam profile to be measured, whereas the related readout electronics is placed outside somewhere at a convenient place. Here, a harp has been developed along with the readout electronics as an integrated part of it and both were placed inside the beam line vacuum (order of 10-7 Torr) to make the system much simpler, easy to operate, and measure small beam current more accurately. The entire signal conversion and processing is done inside the vacuum unlike other systems; hence, the electronics is kept inside. This results in a lesser number (only 4 pin) of electrical connections (feedthrough) including power which otherwise would have required 32 feedthrough pins only for signal readout for a 13 × 13 (X × Y) channel harp. This paper describes a completely new approach to the design of a conventional beam harp widely used for beam instrumentation.

  15. ADVANCED READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR MULTIELEMENT CdZnTe SENSORS.

    SciTech Connect

    DE GERONIMO,G.; O CONNOR,P.; KANDASAMY,A.; GROSHOLZ,J.

    2002-07-08

    A generation of high performance front-end and read-out ASICs customized for highly segmented CdZnTe sensors is presented. The ASICs, developed in a multi-year effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory, are targeted to a wide range of applications including medical, safeguards/security, industrial, research, and spectroscopy. The front-end multichannel ASICs provide high accuracy low noise preamplification and filtering of signals, with versions for small and large area CdZnTe elements. They implement a high order unipolar or bipolar shaper, an innovative low noise continuous reset system with self-adapting capability to the wide range of detector leakage currents, a new system for stabilizing the output baseline and high output driving capability. The general-purpose versions include programmable gain and peaking time. The read-out multichannel ASICs provide fully data driven high accuracy amplitude and time measurements, multiplexing and time domain derandomization of the shaped pulses. They implement a fast arbitration scheme and an array of innovative two-phase offset-free rail-to-rail analog peak detectors for buffering and absorption of input rate fluctuations, thus greatly relaxing the rate requirement on the external ADC. Pulse amplitude, hit timing, pulse risetime, and channel address per processed pulse are available at the output in correspondence of an external readout request. Prototype chips have been fabricated in 0.5 and 0.35 {micro}m CMOS and tested. Design concepts and experimental results are discussed.

  16. Improved Signal Chains for Readout of CMOS Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Hancock, Bruce; Cunningham, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    An improved generic design has been devised for implementing signal chains involved in readout from complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors and for other readout integrated circuits (ICs) that perform equivalent functions. The design applies to any such IC in which output signal charges from the pixels in a given row are transferred simultaneously into sampling capacitors at the bottoms of the columns, then voltages representing individual pixel charges are read out in sequence by sequentially turning on column-selecting field-effect transistors (FETs) in synchronism with source-follower- or operational-amplifier-based amplifier circuits. The improved design affords the best features of prior source-follower-and operational- amplifier-based designs while overcoming the major limitations of those designs. The limitations can be summarized as follows: a) For a source-follower-based signal chain, the ohmic voltage drop associated with DC bias current flowing through the column-selection FET causes unacceptable voltage offset, nonlinearity, and reduced small-signal gain. b) For an operational-amplifier-based signal chain, the required bias current and the output noise increase superlinearly with size of the pixel array because of a corresponding increase in the effective capacitance of the row bus used to couple the sampled column charges to the operational amplifier. The effect of the bus capacitance is to simultaneously slow down the readout circuit and increase noise through the Miller effect.

  17. Demonstration of Time Domain Multiplexed Readout for Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porst, J.-P.; Adams, J. S.; Balvin, M.; Bandler, S.; Beyer, J.; Busch, S. E.; Drung, D.; Seidel, G. M.; Smith, S. J.; Stevenson, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically coupled calorimeters (MCC) have extremely high potential for x-ray applications due to the inherent high energy resolution capability and being non-dissipative. Although very high energy-resolution has been demonstrated, until now there has been no demonstration of multiplexed read-out. We report on the first realization of a time domain multiplexed (TDM) read-out. While this has many similarities with TDM of transition-edge-sensors (TES), for MGGs the energy resolution is limited by the SQUID read-out noise and requires the well established scheme to be altered in order to minimize degradation due to noise aliasing effects. In cur approach, each pixel is read out by a single first stage SQUID (SQ1) that is operated in open loop. The outputs of the SQ1 s are low-pass filtered with an array of low cross-talk inductors, then fed into a single-stage SQUID TD multiplexer. The multiplexer is addressed from room temperature and read out through a single amplifier channel. We present results achieved with a new detector platform. Noise performance is presented and compared to expectations. We have demonstrated multiplexed X-ray spectroscopy at 5.9keV with delta_FWHM=10eV. In an optimized setup, we show it is possible to multiplex 32 detectors without significantly degrading the Intrinsic detector resolution.

  18. New readout system optimized for the Planck Surveyor bolometric instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, Siegfried; Benoit, A.; Piat, M.

    1998-08-01

    We have developed a new readout system for bolometers optimized for the Planck Surveyor experiment, a satellite mission dedicated to survey the Cosmological Microwave Background. The bolometer resistance is measured in a bridge with a capacitance load, using a periodic square wave bias current in order to remove the 1/f noises of the electronics. The use of a capacitance allows to reduce the transient signal and to get rid of the Johnson noise. The bias voltages are fully controlled by computer, and the lock-in detection is digital. This system has been implemented and successfully tested on the Diabolo ground- based astronomical experiment. Using the advantages of our readout system, we have built and fully tested an engineering model of the space qualifiable electronics which fulfills the scientific and technical requirements of the Planck Surveyor bolometric instrument: low noise system down to 0.1 Hz, electrical power consumption lower than 40 Watts and volume lower than 15 liters. Our presentation will consist in a full description of this readout system and a review of the current test results. Our system could also be adapted, with some modifications, to other space born instruments which use bolometers.

  19. Cryogenic CMOS circuits for single charge digital readout.

    SciTech Connect

    Gurrieri, Thomas M.; Longoria, Erin Michelle; Eng, Kevin; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Young, Ralph Watson

    2010-03-01

    The readout of a solid state qubit often relies on single charge sensitive electrometry. However the combination of fast and accurate measurements is non trivial due to large RC time constants due to the electrometers resistance and shunt capacitance from wires between the cold stage and room temperature. Currently fast sensitive measurements are accomplished through rf reflectrometry. I will present an alternative single charge readout technique based on cryogenic CMOS circuits in hopes to improve speed, signal-to-noise, power consumption and simplicity in implementation. The readout circuit is based on a current comparator where changes in current from an electrometer will trigger a digital output. These circuits were fabricated using Sandia's 0.35 {micro}m CMOS foundry process. Initial measurements of comparators with an addition a current amplifier have displayed current sensitivities of < 1nA at 4.2K, switching speeds up to {approx}120ns, while consuming {approx}10 {micro}W. I will also discuss an investigation of noise characterization of our CMOS process in hopes to obtain a better understanding of the ultimate limit in signal to noise performance.

  20. Time-Optimized High-Resolution Readout-Segmented Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Reishofer, Gernot; Koschutnig, Karl; Langkammer, Christian; Porter, David; Jehna, Margit; Enzinger, Christian; Keeling, Stephen; Ebner, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Readout-segmented echo planar imaging with 2D navigator-based reacquisition is an uprising technique enabling the sampling of high-resolution diffusion images with reduced susceptibility artifacts. However, low signal from the small voxels and long scan times hamper the clinical applicability. Therefore, we introduce a regularization algorithm based on total variation that is applied directly on the entire diffusion tensor. The spatially varying regularization parameter is determined automatically dependent on spatial variations in signal-to-noise ratio thus, avoiding over- or under-regularization. Information about the noise distribution in the diffusion tensor is extracted from the diffusion weighted images by means of complex independent component analysis. Moreover, the combination of those features enables processing of the diffusion data absolutely user independent. Tractography from in vivo data and from a software phantom demonstrate the advantage of the spatially varying regularization compared to un-regularized data with respect to parameters relevant for fiber-tracking such as Mean Fiber Length, Track Count, Volume and Voxel Count. Specifically, for in vivo data findings suggest that tractography results from the regularized diffusion tensor based on one measurement (16 min) generates results comparable to the un-regularized data with three averages (48 min). This significant reduction in scan time renders high resolution (1×1×2.5 mm3) diffusion tensor imaging of the entire brain applicable in a clinical context. PMID:24019951

  1. Filtration of bioaerosols using a granular metallic filter with micrometer-sized collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Damit, Brian E; Bischoff, Brian L; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Wu, Dr. Chang-Yu; Cheng, Mengdawn

    2014-01-01

    Several experimental studies with granular bed filters composed of micrometer-sized spherical or sintered metallic granules have demonstrated their use in aerosol filtration. However, the effectiveness of these metallic membrane filters against bioaerosols has not been established. In this work, the filtration efficiency and filter quality of these filters against airborne B. subtilis endospore and MS2 virus were determined as a function of face velocity and loading time. In experiments, a physical removal efficiency greater than 99.9% and a viable removal efficiency of greater than 5-log were observed for both bacterial spore and viral aerosols. A lower face velocity produced both higher collection efficiency and filter quality for virus but was not statistically significant for spore filtration. Although the filter had high filtration efficiency of the test bioaerosols, the filter's high pressure drop resulted in a low filter quality (0.25-0.75 kPa- 1). Overall, filters with micrometer-sized collectors capture bioaerosols effectively but their applications in aerosol filtration may be limited by their high pressure drop.

  2. Absolute distance measurement with micrometer accuracy using a Michelson interferometer and the iterative synthetic wavelength principle.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Khaled; Burton, David; Lilley, Francis; Gdeisat, Munther; Bezombes, Frederic; Qudeisat, Mohammad

    2012-02-27

    We present a novel system that can measure absolute distances of up to 300 mm with an uncertainty of the order of one micrometer, within a timeframe of 40 seconds. The proposed system uses a Michelson interferometer, a tunable laser, a wavelength meter and a computer for analysis. The principle of synthetic wave creation is used in a novel way in that the system employs an initial low precision estimate of the distance, obtained using a triangulation, or time-of-flight, laser system, or similar, and then iterates through a sequence of progressively smaller synthetic wavelengths until it reaches micrometer uncertainties in the determination of the distance. A further novel feature of the system is its use of Fourier transform phase analysis techniques to achieve sub-wavelength accuracy. This method has the major advantages of being relatively simple to realize, offering demonstrated high relative precisions better than 5 × 10(-5). Finally, the fact that this device does not require a continuous line-of-sight to the target as is the case with other configurations offers significant advantages.

  3. Portable 4.6 Micrometers Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Carbon Monoxide Monitoring and Fire Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Ryan M.; Frez, Clifford; Forouhar, Siamak; May, Randy D.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    The air quality aboard manned spacecraft must be continuously monitored to ensure crew safety and identify equipment malfunctions. In particular, accurate real-time monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) levels helps to prevent chronic exposure and can also provide early detection of combustion-related hazards. For long-duration missions, environmental monitoring grows in importance, but the mass and volume of monitoring instruments must be minimized. Furthermore, environmental analysis beyond low-Earth orbit must be performed in-situ, as sample return becomes impractical. Due to their small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor-laser-based absorption spectrometers are viable candidates for this purpose. To reduce instrument form factor and complexity, the emission wavelength of the laser source should coincide with strong fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which occur in the 3 to 5 micrometers wavelength range for most combustion products of interest, thereby reducing the absorption path length required for low-level concentration measurements. To address the needs of current and future NASA missions, we have developed a prototype absorption spectrometer using a semiconductor quantum cascade laser source operating near 4.6 micrometers that can be used to detect low concentrations of CO with a compact single-pass absorption cell. In this study, we present the design of the prototype instrument and report on measurements of CO emissions from the combustion of a variety of aerospace plastics.

  4. Novel Sample Preparation Technique To Improve Spectromicroscopic Analyses of Micrometer-Sized Particles.

    PubMed

    Höschen, Carmen; Höschen, Till; Mueller, Carsten W; Lugmeier, Johann; Elgeti, Stefan; Rennert, Thilo; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2015-08-18

    Microscale processes occurring at biogeochemical interfaces in soils and sediments have fundamental impacts on phenomena at larger scales. To obtain the organo-mineral associations necessary for the study of biogeochemical interfaces, bulk samples are usually fractionated into microaggregates or micrometer-sized single particles. Such fine-grained mineral particles are often prepared for nanoscale secondary ion mass spectroscopy (NanoSIMS) investigations by depositing them on a carrier. This introduces topographic differences, which can strongly affect local sputtering efficiencies. Embedding in resin causes undesired C impurities. We present a novel method for preparing polished cross-sections of micrometer-sized primary soil particles that overcomes the problems of topography and C contamination. The particles are coated with a marker layer, embedded, and well-polished. The interpretation of NanoSIMS data is assisted by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on cross-sections prepared by a focused ion beam. In the cross-sections, organic assemblages on the primary soil particles become visible. This novel method significantly improves the quality of NanoSIMS measurements on grainy mineral samples, enabling better characterization of soil biogeochemical interfaces. In addition, this sample preparation technique may also improve results from other (spectro-) microscopic techniques.

  5. WOLF; automatic typing program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evenden, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV program for the Hewlett-Packard 1000 series computer provides for automatic typing operations and can, when employed with manufacturer's text editor, provide a system to greatly facilitate preparation of reports, letters and other text. The input text and imbedded control data can perform nearly all of the functions of a typist. A few of the features available are centering, titles, footnotes, indentation, page numbering (including Roman numerals), automatic paragraphing, and two forms of tab operations. This documentation contains both user and technical description of the program.

  6. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  7. SPIDR, a general-purpose readout system for pixel ASICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, B.; Visser, J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Kulis, S.; Munneke, B.; Schreuder, F.

    2017-02-01

    The SPIDR (Speedy PIxel Detector Readout) system is a flexible general-purpose readout platform that can be easily adapted to test and characterize new and existing detector readout ASICs. It is originally designed for the readout of pixel ASICs from the Medipix/Timepix family, but other types of ASICs or front-end circuits can be read out as well. The SPIDR system consists of an FPGA board with memory and various communication interfaces, FPGA firmware, CPU subsystem and an API library on the PC . The FPGA firmware can be adapted to read out other ASICs by re-using IP blocks. The available IP blocks include a UDP packet builder, 1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet MAC's and a "soft core" CPU . Currently the firmware is targeted at the Xilinx VC707 development board and at a custom board called Compact-SPIDR . The firmware can easily be ported to other Xilinx 7 series and ultra scale FPGAs. The gap between an ASIC and the data acquisition back-end is bridged by the SPIDR system. Using the high pin count VITA 57 FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) connector only a simple chip carrier PCB is required. A 1 and a 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface handle the connection to the back-end. These can be used simultaneously for high-speed data and configuration over separate channels. In addition to the FMC connector, configurable inputs and outputs are available for synchronization with other detectors. A high resolution (≈ 27 ps bin size) Time to Digital converter is provided for time stamping events in the detector. The SPIDR system is frequently used as readout for the Medipix3 and Timepix3 ASICs. Using the 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface it is possible to read out a single chip at full bandwidth or up to 12 chips at a reduced rate. Another recent application is the test-bed for the VeloPix ASIC, which is developed for the Vertex Detector of the LHCb experiment. In this case the SPIDR system processes the 20 Gbps scrambled data stream from the VeloPix and distributes it over four 10 Gigabit

  8. A low power readout circuit approach for uncooled resistive microbolometer FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepegoz, Murat; Toprak, Alperen; Akin, Tayfun

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a new, low power readout circuit approach for uncooled resistive microbolometer FPAs. The readout circuits of the microbolometer detectors contain parallel readout channels whose outputs are driven and multiplexed on large bus capacitances in order to form the output of the readout circuit. High number of opamps used in the readout channel array and large output capacitances that these opamps should drive necessitates the use of high output current capacity structures, which results in large power dissipation. This paper proposes two new methods in order to decrease the power dissipation of the readout circuits for uncooled thermal FPAs. The first method is called the readout channel group concept, where the readout channel array is separated into groups in order to decrease the load capacitance seen by the readout channel output. The second method utilizes a special opamp architecture where the output current driving capacity can be digitally controlled. This method enables efficient use of power by activating the high output current driving capacity only during the output multiplexing. The simulations show that using these methods results in a power dissipation reduction of 80% and 91% for the readout channels optimized for a single output 384x288 FPA operating at 25 fps and for a two-output 640x480 FPA operating at 30 fps, respectively.

  9. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-02-16

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system.

  10. Automatic Program Synthesis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, A. W.; And Others

    Some of the major results of future goals of an automatic program synthesis project are described in the two papers that comprise this document. The first paper gives a detailed algorithm for synthesizing a computer program from a trace of its behavior. Since the algorithm involves a search, the length of time required to do the synthesis of…

  11. Automatic Language Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    the speech utterance is hypothesized. ter performance for his HMM approach than his static ap- Finally, Thyme -Gobbel et al. [47] have also looked...1998. [47] A.E. Thyme -Gobbel and S.E. Hutchins. On using prosodic cues in automatic language identification. In International Conference on Spoken

  12. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  13. Automatic Transmission Vehicle Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Malcolm

    1973-01-01

    Four drivers sustained severe injuries when run down by their own automatic cars while adjusting the carburettor or throttle linkages. The transmission had been left in the “Drive” position and the engine was idling. This accident is easily avoidable. PMID:4695693

  14. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  15. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  16. Infrared readout electronics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 21, 22, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on IR readout electronics discusses cryogenic readout using silicon devices, cryogenic readout using III-V and LTS devices, multiplexers for higher temperatures, and focal-plane signal processing electronics. Attention is given to the optimization of cryogenic CMOS processes for sub-10-K applications, cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs, inP-based heterostructure device technology for ultracold readout applications, and a three-terminal semiconductor-superconductor transimpedance amplifier. Topics addressed include unfulfilled needs in IR astronomy focal-plane readout electronics, IR readout integrated circuit technology for tactical missile systems, and radiation-hardened 10-bit A/D for FPA signal processing. Also discussed are the implementation of a noise reduction circuit for spaceflight IR spectrometers, a real-time processor for staring receivers, and a fiber-optic link design for INMOS transputers.

  17. Design and performance of the new cathode readout proportional chambers in LASS

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, G.; Aston, D.; Dunwoodie, W.

    1980-10-01

    The design and construction of a new proportional chamber system for the LASS spectrometer are discussed. This system consists of planar and cylindrical chambers employing anode wire and cathode strip readout techniques. The good timing characteristics of anode readout combine with the excellent spatial resolution of cathode readout to provide powerful and compact detectors. Preliminary resolution data are presented along with operating characteristics of the various devices.

  18. Micrometer-Thick Graphene Oxide-Layered Double Hydroxide Nacre-Inspired Coatings and Their Properties.

    PubMed

    Yan, You-Xian; Yao, Hong-Bin; Mao, Li-Bo; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alamry, Khalid A; Marwani, Hadi M; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-02-10

    Robust, functional, and flame retardant coatings are attractive in various fields such as building construction, food packaging, electronics encapsulation, and so on. Here, strong, colorful, and fire-retardant micrometer-thick hybrid coatings are reported, which can be constructed via an enhanced layer-by-layer assembly of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets. The fabricated GO-LDH hybrid coatings show uniform nacre-like layered structures that endow them good mechanic properties with Young's modulus of ≈ 18 GPa and hardness of ≈ 0.68 GPa. In addition, the GO-LDH hybrid coatings exhibit nacre-like iridescence and attractive flame retardancy as well due to their well-defined 2D microstructures. This kind of nacre-inspired GO-LDH hybrid thick coatings will be applied in various fields in future due to their high strength and multifunctionalities.

  19. Test of non-Newtonian gravitational forces at micrometer range with two-dimensional force mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianbo; Guan, Shengguo; Chen, Kai; Wu, Wenjie; Tian, Zhaoyang; Luo, Pengshun; Jin, Aizi; Yang, Shanqing; Shao, Chenggang; Luo, Jun

    2016-12-01

    We report an isoelectronic test of non-Newtonian forces at micrometer range by sensing the lateral force between a gold sphere and a density modulation source mass using a soft cantilever. Two-dimensional (2D) force mapping, in combination with in situ topographic imaging, is applied to verify the isoelectronic property of the surface. The force signal is found to be electrostatic force dominated, which is correlated with the density modulation structure for thinner gold coating and reduced by thicker gold coating and thermal annealing. Maximum likelihood estimation is used to extract the constraint on the hypothetical force based on the 2D data, and the experiment sets a constraint on the Yukawa type forces without subtraction of the model dependent force background. This result would be a meaningful complementary to previous tests with different methods.

  20. 158 micrometers (CII) mapping of NGC 6946: Probing the atomic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, S. C.; Geis, N.; Genzel, R.; Herrmann, F.; Jackson, J. M.; Poglitsch, A.; Stacey, G. J.; Townes, C. H.

    1992-01-01

    The strong 158 micrometers (C2) cooling line of the NGC 6946 galaxy is investigated. The data was acquired with a far infrared imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer with 55 minutes resolution. About 1 percent of the total far infrared luminosity of the galaxy is analyzed. The (C2) emission comes from a mizture of components of interstellar gas. The brightest emission is associated with the nucleus, a second component traces the spiral arms and the largest star forming/H2 regions contained within them, and a third extended component of low brightness can be detected at least 12 kpc from the nucleus. The nuclear and spiral arm components are most likely associated with dense photon dominated regions at molecular cloud surfaces that are exposed to ultraviolet radiation produced by young massive stars. The (C2) emission is analyzed and the cooling rate in the atomic medium is consistent with photoelectric heating by diffuse ultraviolet radiation.

  1. Pluto-Charon: Infrared Reflectance from 3.6 to 8.0 Micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Stansberry, John A.; VanCleve, Jeffrey E.

    2004-01-01

    We have measured the spectral reflectance of the Pluto-Charon pair at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 micrometers with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) (G. G. Fazzio et al. Ap.J.Supp. 154, 10-17, 2004) on the Spitzer Space Telescope (STS), at eight different longitudes that cover a full rotation of the planet. STS does not have sufficient resolution to separate the light from the planet and the satellite. The image of the Pluto-Charon pair is clearly visible at each of the four wavelengths. We will discuss the spectral reflectance in terms of models that include the known components of Pluto and Charon s surfaces, and evidence for diurnal variations.

  2. Imaging Nano- and Micrometer-sized Magnetic Insulator Devices in the Presence of Spin-Torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Aaron; Jermain, Colin; Nowack, Katja; Kirtley, John; Paik, Hanjong; Aradhya, Sriharsha; Wang, Hailong; Heron, John; Schlom, Darrell; Yang, Fengyuan; Ralph, Dan; Moler, Kathryn

    2015-03-01

    Recent results demonstrate that a giant spin-hall effect in Tantalum can produce large spin torques. We intend to employ this large spin torque to manipulate the magnetic moment in electrically insulating ferrimagnetic Lu3Fe5O12(LuIG)andY3Fe5O12 (YIG) devices. Using a scanning SQUID microscope, we can study the possibility of performing reversible switching between magnetic states of nano- and micrometer-sized iron garnet devices induced by current pulses applied to a Tantalum layer in contact with the devices by directly imaging the magnetic state of the device before and after a current pulse. Successful manipulation of magnetic insulators by electrical pulses can be a platform for magnetic memory devices and spintronics.

  3. Reversible self-assembly and directed assembly of DNA-linked micrometer-sized colloids.

    PubMed

    Valignat, Marie-Pierre; Theodoly, Olivier; Crocker, John C; Russel, William B; Chaikin, Paul M

    2005-03-22

    We present a technique for the directed assembly and self-assembly of micrometer-scale structures based on the control of specific DNA linkages between colloidal particles. The use of DNA links combined with polymer brushes provides an effective way to regulate the range and magnitude of addressable forces between pairs (and further combinations) of different particles. We demonstrate that the autoassembly of alternate microbeads as well as their directed assembly, by using laser tweezers, is reversible. The key to reversibility is preventing the particles from falling into their van der Waals well at close distances. This goal is achieved by the use of adsorbed polymers that limit the number of DNA bridges to one to three between adjacent particles.

  4. Efficient rapid microwave-assisted route to synthesize InP micrometer hollow spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Xiuwen Hu Qitu; Sun Chuansheng

    2009-01-08

    The efficiencies of two methods of synthesizing InP micro-scale hollow spheres are compared via the analogous solution-liquid-solid (ASLS) growth mechanism, either through a traditional solvothermal procedure, or via a microwave-assisted method. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images show that most of the as-grown samples are micrometer hollow spheres, which indicates the efficiency of both methods. For traditional solvothermal route, long time (10 h) is necessary to obtain the desired samples, however, for the microwave-assisted route, 30 min is enough for hollow spherical products. An optimal choice of microwave irradiating time allows reducing the reaction time from hours to minutes. The proposed ASLS growth mechanism has also been discussed in detail.

  5. Fine tuning of phase qubit parameters for optimization of fast single-pulse readout

    SciTech Connect

    Revin, Leonid S.; Pankratov, Andrey L.

    2011-04-18

    We analyze a two-level quantum system, describing the phase qubit, during a single-pulse readout process by a numerical solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. It has been demonstrated that the readout error has a minimum for certain values of the system's basic parameters. In particular, the optimization of the qubit capacitance and the readout pulse shape leads to significant reduction in the readout error. It is shown that in an ideal case the fidelity can be increased to almost 97% for 2 ns pulse duration and to 96% for 1 ns pulse duration.

  6. Comparing interferometry techniques for multi-degree of freedom test mass readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isleif, Katharina-Sophie; Gerberding, Oliver; Mehmet, Moritz; Schwarze, Thomas S.; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2016-05-01

    Laser interferometric readout systems with 1pm/Hz precision over long time scales have successfully been developed for LISA and LISA Pathfinder. Future gravitational physics experiments, for example in the fields of gravitational wave detection and geodesy, will potentially require similar levels of displacement and tilt readouts of multiple test masses in multiple degrees of freedom. In this article we compare currently available classic interferometry schemes with new techniques using phase modulations and complex readout algorithms. Based on a simple example we show that the new techniques have great potential to simplify interferometric readouts.

  7. CCD readout electronics for the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Stephen C.; Gunn, James E.; Loomis, Craig P.; Fitzgerald, Roger E.; Peacock, Grant O.

    2014-07-01

    The following paper details the design for the CCD readout electronics for the Subaru Telescope Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS). PFS is designed to gather spectra from 2394 objects simultaneously, covering wavelengths that extend from 380 nm to 1260 nm. The spectrograph is comprised of four identical spectrograph modules, each collecting roughly 600 spectra. The spectrograph modules provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over the entire band through the use of three separate optical channels: blue, red, and near infrared (NIR). A camera in each channel images the multi-object spectra onto a 4k × 4k, 15 μm pixel, detector format. The two visible cameras use a pair of Hamamatsu 2k × 4k CCDs with readout provided by custom electronics, while the NIR camera uses a single Teledyne HgCdTe 4k × 4k detector and Teledyne's ASIC Sidecar to read the device. The CCD readout system is a custom design comprised of three electrical subsystems - the Back End Electronics (BEE), the Front End Electronics (FEE), and a Pre-amplifier. The BEE is an off-the-shelf PC104 computer, with an auxiliary Xilinx FPGA module. The computer serves as the main interface to the Subaru messaging hub and controls other peripheral devices associated with the camera, while the FPGA is used to generate the necessary clocks and transfer image data from the CCDs. The FEE board sets clock biases, substrate bias, and CDS offsets. It also monitors bias voltages, offset voltages, power rail voltage, substrate voltage and CCD temperature. The board translates LVDS clock signals to biased clocks and returns digitized analog data via LVDS. Monitoring and control messages are sent from the BEE to the FEE using a standard serial interface. The Pre-amplifier board resides behind the detectors and acts as an interface to the two Hamamatsu CCDs. The Pre-amplifier passes clocks and biases to the CCDs, and analog CCD data is buffered and amplified prior to being returned to the FEE. In this paper we describe the

  8. Analysis of the readout of a high rate MWPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerini, P.; Grion, N.; Rui, R.; Sheffer, G.; Openshaw, R.

    1990-06-01

    An analytical method to reduce the raw data supplied by a high-speed multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) is presented. The results obtained with the MWPC and the associated readout system, LeCroy PCOS III, when monitoring a high-intensity flux of positive pions delivered by the M11 channel at TRIUMF are discussed. The method allows the flux intensity, the beam envelope and the detector efficiency to be determined with little uncertainty (few %) at intense particle beams ( > 10 7 particles/s).

  9. Readout techniques for photon-counting microchannel image systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampton, Michael

    1988-01-01

    A comparative evaluation is made of such readout methods for the microchannel plates that are commonly used in EUV, FUV, and X-ray low light level image systems as the (1) phosphor-video, (2) phosphor and binary-mask encoder, (3) direct discrete-position encoder, (4) direct analog amplitude position-encoder systems, and (5) delay-line encoders. Relative advantages and limitations are discussed in the context of low light level space-based astronomy applications. The delay-line technique offers great promise for high-resolution applications where oversampling is mandatory, as in spectroscopy.

  10. Fabrication of the GLAST Silicon Tracker Readout Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Baldini, Luca; Brez, Alessandro; Himel, Thomas; Johnson, R.P.; Latronico, Luca; Minuti, Massimo; Nelson, David; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Sgro, Carmelo; Spandre, Gloria; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Tajima, Hiro; Cohen Tanugi, Johann; Young, Charles; Ziegler, Marcus; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz

    2006-03-03

    A unique electronics system has been built and tested for reading signals from the silicon-strip detectors of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope mission. The system amplifies and processes signals from 884,736 36-cm long silicon strips in a 4 x 4 array of tower modules. An aggressive mechanical design fits the readout electronics in narrow spaces between the tower modules, to minimize dead area. This design and the resulting departures from conventional electronics packaging led to several fabrication challenges and lessons learned. This paper describes the fabrication processes and how the problems peculiar to this design were overcome.

  11. ASPIC and CABAC: two ASICs to readout and pilot CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antilogus, P.; Bailly, P.; Barrillon, P.; Dhellot, M.; El berni, A.; Jeglot, J.; Juramy-Gilles, C.; Lebbolo, H.; Martin, D.; Moniez, M.; Vallerand, P.

    2017-03-01

    For several years, a group of engineers and physicists from LAL and LPNHE have been working on the design of two front end ASICs dedicated to Charge Couple Devices (CCD). ASPIC (Analogue Signal Processing Integrated Circuit), designed in AMS CMOS 0.35 μm 5V technology, is meant to readout and process the analog signals of CCDs. CABAC (Clocks And Biases ASIC for CCDs), designed in AMS CMOS 0.35 μm 50V technology, produces the clocks and biases needed by the CCDs to work at their full potential. This paper presents the performances of the final versions of these two ASICs.

  12. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Distenfeld, Carl H.; Klemish, Jr., Joseph R.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector.

  13. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  14. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  15. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  16. Automatic carrier acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunce, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic carrier acquisition system for a phase locked loop (PLL) receiver is disclosed. It includes a local oscillator, which sweeps the receiver to tune across the carrier frequency uncertainty range until the carrier crosses the receiver IF reference. Such crossing is detected by an automatic acquisition detector. It receives the IF signal from the receiver as well as the IF reference. It includes a pair of multipliers which multiply the IF signal with the IF reference in phase and in quadrature. The outputs of the multipliers are filtered through bandpass filters and power detected. The output of the power detector has a signal dc component which is optimized with respect to the noise dc level by the selection of the time constants of the filters as a function of the sweep rate of the local oscillator.

  17. Automatic vehicle monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravman, J. S.; Durrani, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    Automatic vehicle monitoring systems are discussed. In a baseline system for highway applications, each vehicle obtains position information through a Loran-C receiver in rural areas and through a 'signpost' or 'proximity' type sensor in urban areas; the vehicle transmits this information to a central station via a communication link. In an advance system, the vehicle carries a receiver for signals emitted by satellites in the Global Positioning System and uses a satellite-aided communication link to the central station. An advanced railroad car monitoring system uses car-mounted labels and sensors for car identification and cargo status; the information is collected by electronic interrogators mounted along the track and transmitted to a central station. It is concluded that automatic vehicle monitoring systems are technically feasible but not economically feasible unless a large market develops.

  18. Automatic Retinal Oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halldorsson, G. H.; Karlsson, R. A.; Hardarson, S. H.; Mura, M. Dalla; Eysteinsson, T.; Beach, J. M.; Stefansson, E.; Benediktsson, J. A.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents a method for automating the evaluation of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the retina. This method should prove useful for monitoring ischemic retinal diseases and the effect of treatment. In order to obtain saturation values automatically, spectral images must be registered in pairs, the vessels of the retina located and measurement points must be selected. The registration algorithm is based on a data driven approach that circumvents many of the problems that have plagued previous methods. The vessels are extracted using an algorithm based on morphological profiles and supervised classifiers. Measurement points on retinal arterioles and venules as well as reference points on the adjacent fundus are automatically selected. Oxygen saturation values along vessels are averaged to arrive at a more accurate estimate of the retinal vessel oxygen saturation. The system yields reproducible results as well as being sensitive to changes in oxygen saturation.

  19. Automatic Word Alignment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-18

    strategy was evalu­ ated in the context of English -to-Pashto (E2P) and Pashto-to- English (P2E), a low-resource language pair. For E2P, the training and...improves the quality of automatic word alignment, for example for resource poor language pairs, thus improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT...example for resource poor language pairs, thus improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY

  20. Automatic Test Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-28

    Search Terms Automatic Test Equipment Frequency Analyzers Oscilloscopes Pulse Analyzers Signal Generators "Etc." Third Level Search Guided...VAST Building Block Equipment RF Test Point Control Switch Digital Multimeter Frequency and Time Interval Meter Digital Word Generator Delay...Generator RF Amplifier, 95 Hz-2 GHz RF Amplifier, 2-4 GHz RF Amplifier, 4-8 GHz RF Amplifier, 8-12.2 GHz Signal Generator, 0.1 Hz-50 kHz

  1. Automatic Microwave Network Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A program and procedure are developed for the automatic measurement of microwave networks using a Hewlett-Packard network analyzer and programmable calculator . The program and procedure are used in the measurement of a simple microwave two port network. These measurements are evaluated by comparing with measurements on the same network using other techniques. The programs...in the programmable calculator are listed in Appendix 1. The step by step procedure used is listed in Appendix 2. (Author)

  2. Ring laser gyro readout assembly simplification with adjustment capability

    SciTech Connect

    Vescial, F.

    1987-06-30

    This patent describes a readout apparatus responsive to clockwise and counter-clockwise counter-rotating light beams that have a frequency difference relatable to the rate of rotation of a ring laser gyroscope. The readout apparatus comprises: means for removing a portion of the light beams from the ring of the ring laser gyroscope; means for displacing the removed counter rotating beams to overlap a portion of the light of the removed means to form a first spot beam having fringe motion characterized by an array of alternating regions of high and low intensity light; a single mask having an array of co-parallel, alternating transparent and opaque stripes positioned normal to the spot beam and to direct the fringe motion of the first spot beam through the single mask. The single mask array of alternating and opaque regions are aligned to form a second spot beam having a moire fringe motion characterized by an array of alternating regions of high and low intensity light within the spot moving transverse to the fringe motion within the first spot beam; means for receiving the second spot beam and for detecting the moire fringe motion within the second spot beam; this is characterized by an array of alternating regions of high and low intensity light within the second spot moving transverse to the fringe-motion of the first spot beam.

  3. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, I.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A.S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C. D.; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J. A.; Efremenko, M.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilliss, T.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; MacMullin, J.; Meijer, S. J.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Snyder, N; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K. [University of California Vorren, K. [University of North Carolina et al.

    2015-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0 nu beta beta) in Ge-76 using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1 count/ROI-tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the decay. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 40 kg HPGe detector array, is being constructed with a background goal of <3 counts/ROI-tonne-year, which is expected to scale down to <1 count/ROI-tonne-year for a tonne-scale experiment. The signal readout electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, present a challenge toward reaching this background goal. This talk will discuss the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR.

  4. The New APD Based Readout for the Crystal Barrel Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, M.; Honisch, Ch; Steinacher, M.; CBELSA/TAPS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA measures double polarization observables in meson photoproduction off protons and neutrons. To be able to measure purely neutral reactions off polarized neutrons with high efficiency, the main calorimeter has to be integrated into the first level trigger. This requires to exchange the existing PIN photo diode by a new avalanche photo diode (APD) readout. The newly developed readout electronics will provide an energy resolution compatible to the previous set-up and a fast trigger signal down to 10 MeV energy deposit per crystal. After the successful final tests with a 3x3 CsI crystal matrix in Bonn at ELSA and in Mainz at MAMI all front-end electronics were produced in fall 2013. Automated test routines for the front-end electronics were developed and the characterization measurements of all APDs were successfully accomplished in Bonn. The project is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB/TR16) and Schweizerischer Nationalfonds.

  5. Readout scheme for Majorana parity states using a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoving, Darryl; Gharavi, Kaveh; Baugh, Jonathan

    We propose and numerically study a scheme for reading out the parity state of a pair of Majorana bound states using a tunnel coupled quantum dot. The dot is coupled to one end of the topological wire but isolated from any reservoir, and is capacitively coupled to a charge sensor for measurement. The combined parity of the MBS-dot system is conserved and charge transfer between MBS and dot only occurs through resonant tunnelling. Resonance is controlled by the dot potential through a local gate and by the MBS splitting due to the overlap of the MBS pair wavefunctions. The latter splitting can be controlled by changing the position of the spatially separated, uncoupled MBS via a set of keyboard gates. Our simulations show that the oscillatory nature of the MBS splitting versus separation does not prevent high-fidelity readout. Indeed, the scheme can also be applied to measure the splitting versus separation, which would yield a clear signature of the topological state. With experimentally realistic parameters we find parity readout fidelities >99% should be feasible. This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  6. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, Ian; Rielage, Keith Robert; Elliott, Steven Ray; Xu, Wenqin; Goett, John Jerome III

    2015-06-11

    The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1 count/ROI-tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the decay. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 40 kg HPGe detector array, is being constructed. The DEMONSTRATOR has a background goal of < 3 counts/ROI-tonne-year, which is expected to scale down to < 1 count/ROI-tonne-year for a one tonne experiment. The signal readout electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, present a challenge toward reaching this background goal. This paper discusses the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR.

  7. Single Crystal Diamond Beam Position Monitors with Radiofrequency Electronic Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Solar, B.; Graafsma, H.; Potdevin, G.; Trunk, U.; Morse, J.; Salome, M.

    2010-06-23

    Over the energy range 5{approx}30 keV a suitably contacted, thin ({approx}100 {mu}m) diamond plate can be operated in situ as a continuous monitor of X-ray beam intensity and position as the diamond absorbs only a small percentage of the incident beam. Single crystal diamond is a completely homogeneous material showing fast (ns), spatially uniform signal response and negligible (readout corresponding to the RF accelerator frequency. The instrumentation for these monitors must cover a large range of operating conditions: different beam sizes, fluxes, energies and time structure corresponding to the synchrotron fill patterns. Sophisticated new RF sampling electronics can satisfy most requirements: using a modified Libera Brilliance readout system, we measured the center of gravity position of a 25 {mu}m beam at the DORIS III F4 beam line at a rate of 130 Msample/s with narrowband filtering of a few MHz bandwidth. Digitally averaging the signal further provided a spatial resolution {approx}20 nm.

  8. Quantum metrology including state preparation and readout times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Shane; Munro, William J.; Nemoto, Kae

    2016-11-01

    There is growing belief that the next decade will see the emergence of sensing devices based on the laws of quantum physics that outperform some of our current sensing devices. For example, in frequency estimation, using a probe prepared in an entangled state can, in principle, lead to a precision gain compared to a probe prepared in a separable state. Even in the presence of some forms of decoherence, it has been shown that the precision gain can increase with the number of probe particles N . Usually, however, the entangled and separable state preparation and readout times are assumed to be negligible. We find that a probe in a maximally entangled (GHZ) state can give an advantage over a separable state only if the entangled state preparation and readout times are lower than a certain threshold. When the probe system suffers dephasing, this threshold is much lower (and more difficult to attain) than it is for an isolated probe. Further, we find that in realistic situations the maximally entangled probe gives a precision advantage only up to some finite number of probe particles Ncutoff that is lower for a dephasing probe than it is for an isolated probe.

  9. Optical tomographic memories: algorithms for the efficient information readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantelic, Dejan V.

    1990-07-01

    Tomographic alogithms are modified in order to reconstruct the inf ormation previously stored by focusing laser radiation in a volume of photosensitive media. Apriori information about the position of bits of inf ormation is used. 1. THE PRINCIPLES OF TOMOGRAPHIC MEMORIES Tomographic principles can be used to store and reconstruct the inf ormation artificially stored in a bulk of a photosensitive media 1 The information is stored by changing some characteristics of a memory material (e. g. refractive index). Radiation from the two independent light sources (e. g. lasers) is f ocused inside the memory material. In this way the intensity of the light is above the threshold only in the localized point where the light rays intersect. By scanning the material the information can be stored in binary or nary format. When the information is stored it can be read by tomographic methods. However the situation is quite different from the classical tomographic problem. Here a lot of apriori information is present regarding the p0- sitions of the bits of information profile representing single bit and a mode of operation (binary or n-ary). 2. ALGORITHMS FOR THE READOUT OF THE TOMOGRAPHIC MEMORIES Apriori information enables efficient reconstruction of the memory contents. In this paper a few methods for the information readout together with the simulation results will be presented. Special attention will be given to the noise considerations. Two different

  10. Readout system of TPC/MPD NICA project

    SciTech Connect

    Averyanov, A. V.; Bajajin, A. G.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cheremukhina, G. A.; Fateev, O. V.; Korotkova, A. M.; Levchanovskiy, F. V.; Lukstins, J.; Movchan, S. A.; Razin, S. V.; Rybakov, A. A.; Vereschagin, S. V. Zanevsky, Yu. V.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zruyev, V. N.

    2015-12-15

    The time-projection chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector in the MPD/NICA. The information on charge-particle tracks in the TPC is registered by the MWPG with cathode pad readout. The frontend electronics (FEE) are developed with use of modern technologies such as application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), and data transfer to a concentrator via a fast optical interface. The main parameters of the FEE are as follows: total number of channels, ∼95 000; data stream from the whole TPC, 5 GB/s; low power consumption, less than 100 mW/ch; signal to noise ratio (S/N), 30; equivalent noise charge (ENC), <1000e{sup –} (C{sub in} = 10–20 pF); and zero suppression (pad signal rejection ∼90%). The article presents the status of the readout chamber construction and the data acquisition system. The results of testing FEE prototypes are presented.

  11. The supernova neutrino readout of MicroBooNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo Anadon, Jose Ignacio; MicroBooNE Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MicroBooNE detector is currently the largest liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) operative worldwide. In the case of a nearby (a few kiloparsecs away) core-collapse supernova, the emitted neutrinos would induce on the order of tens of interactions within the MicroBooNE TPC. This would constitute the first detection of supernova neutrinos with the LArTPC technology, offering a unique sensitivity to the electron neutrino flux. Due to the low energy of the events (tens of MeV), the detector size (89 tons of active volume) and the location near surface, MicroBooNE cannot trigger on supernova neutrinos and therefore relies on an external alert generated by other neutrino detectors (the SuperNova Early Warning System, or SNEWS). A continuous readout is being commissioned in MicroBooNE in which the data are temporarily stored in buffers, waiting for the SNEWS alert to save them permanently. In order to cope with the large data rate produced by the TPC and the PMT systems, online zero-suppression algorithms have been developed. This talk will explain the continuous supernova readout of MicroBooNE, which is of interest to the future short and long baseline neutrino programs which will bring additional LArTPCs online in the coming years.

  12. The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor Readout System

    SciTech Connect

    Dusatko, John; Browne, M.; Fisher, A.S.; Kotturi, D.; Norum, S.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2012-07-23

    The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor System is required to detect any loss radiation seen by the FEL undulators. The undulator segments consist of permanent magnets which are very sensitive to radiation damage. The operational goal is to keep demagnetization below 0.01% over the life of the LCLS. The BLM system is designed to help achieve this goal by detecting any loss radiation and indicating a fault condition if the radiation level exceeds a certain threshold. Upon reception of this fault signal, the LCLS Machine Protection System takes appropriate action by either halting or rate limiting the beam. The BLM detector consists of a PMT coupled to a Cherenkov radiator located near the upstream end of each undulator segment. There are 33 BLMs in the system, one per segment. The detectors are read out by a dedicated system that is integrated directly into the LCLS MPS. The BLM readout system provides monitoring of radiation levels, computation of integrated doses, detection of radiation excursions beyond set thresholds, fault reporting and control of BLM system functions. This paper describes the design, construction and operational performance of the BLM readout system.

  13. The readout electronics for Plastic Scintillator Detector of DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jie; Yang, Haibo; Zhao, Hongyun; Su, Hong; Sun, Zhiyu; Yu, Yuhong; JingZhe, Zhang; Wang, XiaoHui; Liu, Jie; Xiao, Guoqing; Ma, Xinwen

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) satellite, which launched in December 2015, is designed to find the evidence of the existence of dark matter particles in the universe via the detection of the high-energy electrons and gamma-ray particles produced possibly by the annihilation of dark matter particles. Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) is one of major part of the satellite payload, which is comprised of a crossed pair of layers with 41 plastic scintillator-strips, each read out from both ends by the same Hamamatsu R4443MOD2 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). In order to extend linear dynamic range of detector, PMTs read out each plastic scintillator-strip separately with two dynode pickoffs. Therefore, the readout electronics system comprises of four Front-end boards to receive the pulses from 328 PMTs and implement charge measurement, which is based on the Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) chip VA160, 16 bits ADC and FPGA. The electronics of the detector has been designed following stringent requirements on mechanical and thermal stability, power consumption, radiation hardness and double redundancy. Various experiments are designed and implemented to check the performance of the electronics, some excellent results has been achieved.According to experimental results analysis, it is proved that the readout electronics works well.

  14. A continuous read-out TPC for the ALICE upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    The largest gaseous Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in the world, the ALICE TPC, will be upgraded based on Micro Pattern Gas Detector technology during the second long shutdown of the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2018/19. The upgraded detector will operate continuously without the use of a triggered gating grid. It will thus be able to read all minimum bias Pb-Pb events that the LHC will deliver at the anticipated peak interaction rate of 50 kHz for the high luminosity heavy-ion era. New read-out electronics will send the continuous data stream to a new online farm at rates up to 1 TByte/s. A fractional ion feedback of below 1% is required to keep distortions due to space charge in the TPC drift volume at a tolerable level. The new read-out chambers will consist of quadruple stacks of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM), combining GEM foils with a different hole pitch. Other key requirements such as energy resolution and operational stability have to be met as well. A careful optimisation of the performance in terms of all these parameters was achieved during an extensive R&D program. A working point well within the design specifications was identified with an ion backflow of 0.63%, a local energy resolution of 11.3% (sigma) and a discharge probability comparable to that of standard triple GEM detectors.

  15. Massively Parallel Atomic Force Microscope with Digital Holographic Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sache, L.; Kawakatsu, H.; Emery, Y.; Bleuler, H.

    2007-03-01

    Massively Parallel Scanning Probe Microscopy is an obvious path for data storage (E Grochowski, R F Hoyt, Future Trends in Hard disc Drives, IEEE Trans. Magn. 1996, 32, 1850- 1854; J L Griffin, S W Schlosser, G R Ganger and D F Nagle, Modeling and Performance of MEMS-Based Storage Devices, Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS, 2000). Current experimental systems still lay far behind Hard Disc Drive (HDD) or Digital Video Disk (DVD), be it in access speed, data throughput, storage density or cost per bit. This paper presents an entirely new approach with the promise to break several of these barriers. The key idea is readout of a Scanning Probes Microscope (SPM) array by Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM). This technology directly gives phase information at each pixel of a CCD array. This means that no contact line to each individual SPM probes is needed. The data is directly available in parallel form. Moreover, the optical setup needs in principle no expensive components, optical (or, to a large extent, mechanical) imperfections being compensated in the signal processing, i.e. in electronics. This gives the system the potential for a low cost device with fast Terabit readout capability.

  16. Readout architecture for sub-nanosecond resolution TDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marteau, J.; Carlus, B.; Gardien, S.; Girerd, C.; Ianigro, J.-C.; Montorio, J.-L.; Gibert, D.; Nicollin, F.

    2012-04-01

    The DIAPHANE project is pluri-disciplinary collaboration between particle physicists and geophysicists to perform the tomography of large geological structure mainly devoted to the study of active volcanoes. The detector used for this tomography, hereafter referred to as telescope, uses a standard, robust, cost-effective and well-known technology based on solid plastic scintillator readout by photomultiplier(s) (either multichannel pixelized PM or silicon PM). The electronics system is built on the concept of autonomous, triggerless, smart sensor directly connected on a standard fast Ethernet network. First radiographies have been performed on the Mont-Terri underground laboratory (St-Ursanne, Switzerland) and on the active volcano of La Soufrière (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, France). We present an upgrade of the readout architecture allowing to embed a sub-nanosecond resolution TDC within the existing programmable logic to help in the background rejection (rear flux, random coincidences) and to improve the detection purity and the radiography quality. First results obtained are also presented and briefly discussed.

  17. Low background signal readout electronics for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, I.; Buuck, M.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Gruszko, J.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A. W.; Chan, Y-D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P.; Arnquist, I. J.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L.; Avignone, F. T.; Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Bertrand, F. E.; and others

    2015-08-17

    The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1 count/ROI-tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the decay. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 40 kg HPGe detector array, is being constructed with a background goal of < 3 count/ROI-tonne-year, which is expected to scale down to < 1 count/ROI-tonne-year for a tonne-scale experiment. The signal readout electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, present a challenge toward reaching this background goal. This talk will discuss the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR.

  18. JPSS Science Data Services for the Direct Readout Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Lutz, Bob

    2014-01-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) High Rate Data (HRD) link provides Direct Broadcast data to users in real-time, utilizing their own remote field terminals. The Field Terminal Support (FTS) provides the resources needed to support the Direct Readout communities by providing software, documentation, and periodic updates to enable them to produce data products from SNPP and JPSS. The FTS distribution server will also provide the necessary ancillary and auxiliary data needed for processing the broadcasts, as well as making orbital data available to assist in locating the satellites of interest. In addition, the FTS provides development support for the algorithm and software through GSFC Direct Readout Laboratory (DRL) International Polar Orbiter Processing Package (IPOPP) and University of Wisconsin (UWISC) Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP), to enable users to integrate the algorithms into their remote terminals. The support the JPSS Program provides to the institutions developing and maintaining these two software packages, will demonstrate the ability to produce ready-to-use products from the HRD link and provide risk reduction effort at a minimal cost. This paper discusses the key functions and system architecture of FTS.

  19. DNA damage on nano- and micrometer scales impacts dicentric induction: computer modelling of ion microbeam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, Werner; Kundrat, Pavel; Schmitt, Elke

    2016-07-01

    Detailed understanding of the enhanced relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ions, in particular at high linear energy transfer (LET) values, is needed to fully explore the radiation risk of manned space missions. It is generally accepted that the enhanced RBE of high-LET particles results from the DNA lesion patterns, in particular DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), due to the spatial clustering of energy deposits around their trajectories. In conventional experiments on biological effects of radiation types of diverse quality, however, clustering of energy deposition events on nanometer scale that is relevant for the induction and local complexity of DSB is inherently interlinked with regional (sub-)micrometer-scale DSB clustering along the particle tracks. Due to this limitation, the role of both (nano- and micrometer) scales on the induction of diverse biological endpoints cannot be frankly separated. To address this issue in a unique way, experiments at the ion microbeam SNAKE [1] and corresponding track-structure based model calculations of DSB induction and subsequent repair with the biophysical code PARTRAC [2] have been performed. In the experiments, hybrid human-hamster A_{L} cells were irradiated with 20 MeV (2.6 keV/μm) protons, 45 MeV (60 keV/μm) lithium ions or 55 MeV (310 keV/μm) carbon ions. The ions were either quasi-homogeneously distributed or focused to 0.5 x 1 μm^{2} spots on regular matrix patterns of 5.4 μm, 7.6 μm and 10.6 μm grid size, with pre-defined particle numbers per spot so as to deposit a mean dose of 1.7 Gy for all irradiation patterns. As expected, the induction of dicentrics by homogeneous irradiation increased with LET: lithium and carbon ions induced about two- and four-fold higher yields of dicentrics than protons. The induction of dicentrics is, however, affected by µm-scale, too: focusing 20 lithium ions or 451 protons per spot on a 10.6 μm grid induced two or three times more dicentrics, respectively, than a

  20. Compact confocal readout system for three-dimensional memories using a laser-feedback semiconductor laser.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masaharu; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2003-08-01

    We present a compact confocal readout system for three-dimensional optical memories that uses the thresholding property of a semiconductor laser for feedback light. The system has higher axial resolution than a conventional confocal system with a pinhole. We demonstrate readout results for data recorded in two recording layers with the developed system.

  1. A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout

    SciTech Connect

    Allman, M. S. Verma, V. B.; Stevens, M.; Gerrits, T.; Horansky, R. D.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R.; Nam, S. W.; Marsili, F.; Beyer, A.; Shaw, M. D.; Kumor, D.

    2015-05-11

    We demonstrate a 64-pixel free-space-coupled array of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors optimized for high detection efficiency in the near-infrared range. An integrated, readily scalable, multiplexed readout scheme is employed to reduce the number of readout lines to 16. The cryogenic, optical, and electronic packaging to read out the array as well as characterization measurements are discussed.

  2. High-Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the 3-micrometers Region: Role of Periphery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3-micrometers absorption band. To this purpose we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950-3150 per cm range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations, and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3-micrometers region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported high-resolution spectra of linear acenes, the present spectra provide us with an extensive dataset of spectra of PAHs with a varying number of aromatic rings, with geometries that range from open to highly-condensed structures, and featuring CH groups in all possible edge configurations. We discuss the astrophysical implications of the comparison of these spectra on the interpretation of the appearance of the aromatic infrared 3-micrometers band, and on features such as the two-component emission character of this band and the 3-micrometers emission plateau.

  3. Discovery of natural gain amplification in the 10-micrometer carbon dioxide laser bands on Mars - A natural laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M. J.; Buhl, D.; Chin, G.; Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Kostiuk, T.; Zipoy, D.

    1981-01-01

    Fully resolved intensity profiles of various lines in the carbon dioxide band at 10.4 micrometers have been measured on Mars with an infrared heterodyne spectrometer. Analysis of the line shapes shows that the Mars atmosphere exhibits positive gain in these lines. The detection of natural optical gain amplification enables identification of these lines as a definite natural laser.

  4. Opto-mechanical subsystem of a 10 micrometer wavelength receiver terminal. Waveguide laser local oscillator. Servo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An engineering model opto-mechanical subsystem for a 10.6-micrometer laser heterodyne receiver is developed, and a CO2 waveguide local oscillator and servo electronics are provided for the receiver. Design goals are presented for the subsystems and overall package design is described. Thermal and mechanical distortion loading tests were performed and the results are included.

  5. Infrared receivers for low background astronomy: Incoherent detectors and coherent devices from one micrometer to one millimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggess, N. W.; Greenberg, L. T.; Hauser, M. G.; Houck, J. R.; Low, F. J.; Mccreight, C. R.; Rank, D. M.; Richards, P. L.; Weiss, R.

    1979-01-01

    The status of incoherent detectors and coherent receivers over the infrared wavelength range from one micrometer to one millimeter is described. General principles of infrared receivers are included, and photon detectors, bolometers, coherent receivers, and important supporting technologies are discussed, with emphasis on their suitability for low background astronomical applications. Broad recommendations are presented and specific opportunities are identified for development of improved devices.

  6. ESTIMATING THE STRENGTH OF SINGLE-ENDED DISLOCATION SOURCES IN MICROMETER-SIZED SINGLE CRYSTALS

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S I; Dimiduk, D M; Tang, M; Parthasarathy, T A; Uchic, M D; Woodward, C

    2007-05-03

    A recent study indicated that the behavior of single-ended dislocation sources contributes to the flow strength of micrometer-scale crystals. In this study 3D discrete dislocation dynamics simulations of micrometer-sized volumes are used to calculate the effects of anisotropy of dislocation line tension (increasing Poisson's ratio, {nu}) on the strength of single-ended dislocation sources and, to compare them with the strength of double-ended sources of equal length. This is done by directly modeling their plastic response within a 1 micron cubed FCC Ni single crystal using DDS. In general, double-ended sources are stronger than single-ended sources of an equal length and exhibit no significant effects from truncating the long-range elastic fields at this scale. The double-ended source strength increases with Poisson ratio ({nu}), exhibiting an increase of about 50% at u = 0.38 (value for Ni) as compared to the value at {nu} = 0. Independent of dislocation line direction, for {nu} greater than 0.20, the strengths of single-ended sources depend upon the sense of the stress applied. The value for {alpha}, in the expression for strength, {tau} = {alpha}(L){micro}b/L is shown to vary from 0.4 to 0.84 depending upon the character of the dislocation and the direction of operation of the source at {nu} corresponding to that of Ni, 0.38 and a length of 933b. By varying the lengths of the sources from 933b to 233b, it was shown that the scaling of the strength of single-ended and double-ended sources with their length both follow a ln(L/b)/(L/b) dependence. Surface image stresses are shown to have little effect on the critical stress of single-ended sources at a length of {approx}250b or greater. The relationship between these findings and a recent statistical model for the hardening of small volumes is also discussed.

  7. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  8. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  9. Automatic Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potamianos, Gerasimos; Lamel, Lori; Wölfel, Matthias; Huang, Jing; Marcheret, Etienne; Barras, Claude; Zhu, Xuan; McDonough, John; Hernando, Javier; Macho, Dusan; Nadeu, Climent

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a critical component for CHIL services. For example, it provides the input to higher-level technologies, such as summarization and question answering, as discussed in Chapter 8. In the spirit of ubiquitous computing, the goal of ASR in CHIL is to achieve a high performance using far-field sensors (networks of microphone arrays and distributed far-field microphones). However, close-talking microphones are also of interest, as they are used to benchmark ASR system development by providing a best-case acoustic channel scenario to compare against.

  10. Measurement of MKID Performance with High-Speed and Wide-Band Readout System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatsu, Kenichi; Naruse, M.; Nitta, T.; Sekine, M.; Sekiguchi, S.; Sekimoto, Y.; Noguchi, T.; Uzawa, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Kiuchi, H.

    2014-08-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) are being developed at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan to enable precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background. One of the features of MKIDs is scalability using a frequency-division multiplexing (FDMUX) readout scheme. A digital fast fourier transform spectrometer (FFTS) is a good way to read out a number of resonance frequencies simultaneously and fully utilize the advantage of FDMUX of MKIDs. We have developed FFTS readout electronics using an ADC/DAC with 1 Gsps (sample per second) sampling rate and 270 MHz bandwidth. We measured the noise characteristics of a single MKID in the frequency range of 60 Hz-30 kHz with this readout system, and found the noise was almost equivalent to the noise measured by ordinary analog IQ down-converter readout. This indicates our FFTS electronics do not add any additional noise to the MKID readout system over the frequency range.

  11. Investigation of Readout RF Pulse Impact on the Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Min; Jan, Meei-Ling; Liang, Hsin-Chin; Chang, Chia-Hao; Wu, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Wang, Fu-Nien

    2015-10-12

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging (CEST-MRI) is capable of both microenvironment and molecular imaging. The optimization of scanning parameters is important since the CEST effect is sensitive to factors such as saturation power and field homogeneity. The aim of this study was to determine if the CEST effect would be altered by changing the length of readout RF pulses. Both theoretical computer simulation and phantom experiments were performed to examine the influence of readout RF pulses. Our results showed that the length of readout RF pulses has unremarkable impact on the Z-spectrum and CEST effect in both computer simulation and phantom experiment. Moreover, we demonstrated that multiple refocusing RF pulses used in rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) sequence induced no obvious saturation transfer contrast. Therefore, readout RF pulse has negligible effect on CEST Z-spectrum and the optimization of readout RF pulse length can be disregarded in CEST imaging protocol.

  12. Low temperature readout circuit characteristics of low dimensional compound semiconductor photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jie; Wang, Wei; Lu, Haidong; Guo, Fangmin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the necessity of design of low temperature readout circuit. Since the photodetector should work in low temperature environment, it is necessary for the readout circuit with low temperature readout function. Meanwhile, the influence factors of ultra - low temperature on the CMOS readout circuit are analyzed. The main influencing factors are carrier freezing analysis, current mutation (Kink) and mobility change. Finally, we used JANIS SHI-4-2 liquid helium cycle refrigeration system as a refrigeration instrument, and do the test for the readout circuit at ultra -low-temperature. When the temperature of cold head of the cooling system reach to the minimum temperature (4.85K) and maintain 5 hours, Si substrate' temperature reaches the minimum temperature (50.1K). By adjusting the static operating point voltage, we find that the circuit still works well.

  13. A collaborative biomedical engineering undergraduate work: an automatic system for blood glucose regulation.

    PubMed

    Minas, Graca; Soares, Filomena

    2009-01-01

    This paper is focused on the design of an automatic system to regulate blood glucose concentration. A model is developed to simulate the process. The model was based on approximating an electrochemical biosensor, for measuring the blood glucose concentration, to electrical circuits for readout, data processing and control. It was implemented using an electronics simulation software package: S-Edit and T-Spice from Tanner Tools EDA. The work was developed by a group of ten students from the fourth year of the integrated master of Biomedical Engineering course of the University of Minho in a collaborative way.

  14. A novel readout concept for multianode photomultiplier tubes with pad matrix anode layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Vladimir; Majewski, Stan; Welch, Benjamin L.

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a new analog readout concept for multianode photomultiplier tubes with a pad matrix anode layout. This new readout technique is the result of a modification of a technique previously developed at the Detector Group of Jefferson Lab, (V. Popov, US patent No: 6,747,263 B1) [V. Popov, S. Majewski, A.G. Weisenberger, Readout Electronics for Multianode Photomultiplier Tubes with Pad Matrix Anode Layout, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, IEEE 2003 Medical Imaging Conference Record, November 2003]. The new analog readout circuit provides the same analog conversion of matrix 2-D output into X and Y projective output with a significant reduction of analog outputs. The old readout network consists of resistors' matrix and current collecting amplifiers, and it provides decoupling of each anode output into two directions (one to X and one to Y coordinates), but a decoupling function that is carried out independent of photomultiplier tube gains nonuniformity. A newly developed readout network (US patent pending) also consists of resistors' matrix and current collecting amplifiers, but the new matrix includes an additional dumping resistor that provides an excess current from anode pad grounding. As a result, we subtract an extra current of high-gain pads in order to move the pads gain to an absolute minimum value for a given photomultiplier tube. This gain equalization procedure reduces image distortion related to gain nonuniformity. The new readout technique was used in several new radiation imaging detectors designed in the Detector Group of Jefferson Lab. It shows a visible readout uniformity and linearity improvement. The test results of an initial evaluation of this readout that is applied for data readout of four H8500 Hamamtsu PSPMT are presented.

  15. Laue-DIC: a new method for improved stress field measurements at the micrometer scale

    PubMed Central

    Petit, J.; Castelnau, O.; Bornert, M.; Zhang, F. G.; Hofmann, F.; Korsunsky, A. M.; Faurie, D.; Le Bourlot, C.; Micha, J. S.; Robach, O.; Ulrich, O.

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of the effective mechanical behavior of polycrystalline materials requires an accurate knowledge of the behavior at a scale smaller than the grain size. The X-ray Laue microdiffraction technique available at beamline BM32 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is ideally suited for probing elastic strains (and associated stresses) in deformed polycrystalline materials with a spatial resolution smaller than a micrometer. However, the standard technique used to evaluate local stresses from the distortion of Laue patterns lacks accuracy for many micromechanical applications, mostly due to (i) the fitting of Laue spots by analytical functions, and (ii) the necessary comparison of the measured pattern with the theoretical one from an unstrained reference specimen. In the present paper, a new method for the analysis of Laue images is presented. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique, which is essentially insensitive to the shape of Laue spots, is applied to measure the relative distortion of Laue patterns acquired at two different positions on the specimen. The new method is tested on an in situ deformed Si single-crystal, for which the prescribed stress distribution has been calculated by finite-element analysis. It is shown that the new Laue-DIC method allows determination of local stresses with a strain resolution of the order of 10−5. PMID:26134802

  16. Isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Kimura, Takaumi

    2010-12-15

    Information on plutonium isotope ratios in individual particles is of great importance for nuclear safeguards, nuclear forensics and so on. Although secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is successfully utilized for the analysis of individual uranium particles, the isobaric interference of americium-241 to plutonium-241 makes difficult to obtain accurate isotope ratios in individual plutonium particles. In the present work, an analytical technique by a combination of chemical separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is developed and applied to isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles. The ICP-MS results for individual plutonium particles prepared from a standard reference material (NBL SRM-947) indicate that the use of a desolvation system for sample introduction improves the precision of isotope ratios. In addition, the accuracy of the (241)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratio is much improved, owing to the chemical separation of plutonium and americium. In conclusion, the performance of the proposed ICP-MS technique is sufficient for the analysis of individual plutonium particles.

  17. IR and green femtosecond laser machining of heat sensitive materials for medical devices at micrometer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolberg, Klaus; Friedel, Susanna; Kremser, Bert; Roehner, Markus

    2014-03-01

    In medical device manufacturing there is an increasing interest to enhance machining of biocompatible materials on a micrometer scale. Obviously there is a trend to generate smaller device structures like cavities, slits or total size of the device to address new applications. Another trend points to surface modification, which allows controlling selective growth of defined biological cell types on medical implants. In both cases it is interesting to establish machining methods with minimized thermal impact, because biocompatible materials often show degradation of mechanical properties under thermal treatment. Typical examples for this effect is embrittlement of stainless steel at the edge of a cutting slit, which is caused by oxidation and phase change. Also for Nitinol (NiTi alloy) which is used as another stent material reduction of shape-memory behavior is known if cutting temperature is too high. For newest biodegradable materials like Polylactic acid (PLA) based polymers, lowest thermal impact is required due to PLA softening point (65°C) and melting temperature (~170 °C ). Laser machining with ultra-short pulse lasers is a solution for this problem. In our work we demonstrate a clean laser cut of NiTi and PLA based polymers with a high repetition-rate 1030 nm, 400-800 fs laser source at a pulse energy of up to 50 μJ and laser repetition rate of up to 500 kHz.

  18. Smoothness improvement of micrometer- and submicrometer-thick nanocrystalline diamond films produced by MWPECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicala, G.; Magaletti, V.; Senesi, G. S.; Tamborra, M.

    2013-04-01

    Thick (around 3 μm) and thin (48-310 nm) nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films have been produced from Ar-rich CH4/Ar/H2 (1/89/10 %) and H2-rich CH4/H2 (1/99 %) microwave plasmas, respectively. The deposition rate and the nucleation enhancement have been monitored in situ and in real time by pyrometric and laser reflectance interferometry for micrometer- and nanometer-thick films. For thick films, an improvement of the NCD films' smoothness has been obtained by a buffer layer between the films and the treated Si substrate. For thin films, a combinatorial approach, i.e., a treatment of the Si substrate in a suspension of mixed diamond powders of 250 nm and 40-60 μm, has been utilized. The present experimental results show that the buffer layer procedure allows good preservation of the surface of the treated Si substrate and the combinatorial approach promotes effectively the seeding of the Si surface.

  19. The 1.06 micrometer wideband laser modulator: Fabrication and life testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teague, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The design, fabrication, testing and delivery of an optical modulator which will operate with a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 micrometers were performed. The system transfers data at a nominal rate of 400 Mbps. This wideband laser modulator can transmit either Pulse Gated Binary Modulation (PGBM) or Pulse Polarization Binary Modulation (PPBM) formats. The laser beam enters the modulator and passes through both crystals; approximately 1% of the transmitted beam is split from the main beam and analyzed for the AEC signal; the remaining part of the beam exits the modulator. The delivered modulator when initially aligned and integrated with laser and electronics performed very well. The optical transmission was 69.5%. The static extinction ratio was 69:1. A 1000 hour life test was conducted with the delivered modulator. A 63 bit pseudorandom code signal was used as a driver input. At the conclusion of the life test the modulator optical transmission was 71.5% and the static extinction ratio 65:1.

  20. Correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale crystallographic orientation of monolayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin Sik; Chang, Young Jun; Woo, Sungjong; Son, Young-Woo; Park, Yeonggu; Lee, Mi Jung; Byun, Ik-Su; Kim, Jin-Soo; Choi, Choon-Gi; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Park, Bae Ho

    2014-12-01

    Deformation normal to the surface is intrinsic in two-dimensional materials due to phononic thermal fluctuations at finite temperatures. Graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient is generally explained by such an intrinsic property. Recently, friction measurements on graphene exfoliated on a silicon oxide surface revealed an anomalous anisotropy whose origin was believed to be the formation of ripple domains. Here, we uncover the atomistic origin of the observed friction domains using a cantilever torsion microscopy in conjunction with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We experimentally demonstrate that ripples on graphene are formed along the zigzag direction of the hexagonal lattice. The formation of zigzag directional ripple is consistent with our theoretical model that takes account of the atomic-scale bending stiffness of carbon-carbon bonds and the interaction of graphene with the substrate. The correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale arrangement of exfoliated monolayer graphene is first discovered and suggests a practical tool for measuring lattice orientation of graphene.

  1. Constraints on Exotic Dipole-Dipole Couplings between Electrons at the Micrometer Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Ozeri, Roee; Kimball, Derek F. Jackson

    2015-08-01

    New constraints on exotic dipole-dipole interactions between electrons at the micrometer scale are established, based on a recent measurement of the magnetic interaction between two trapped 88Sr+ ions. For light bosons (mass≤0.1 eV ) we obtain a 90% confidence interval for an axial-vector-mediated interaction strength of |gAegAe/4 π ℏc | ≤1.2 ×10-17 . Assuming C P T invariance, this constraint is compared to that on anomalous electron-positron interactions, derived from positronium hyperfine spectroscopy. We find that the electron-electron constraint is 6 orders of magnitude more stringent than the electron-positron counterpart. Bounds on pseudoscalar-mediated interaction as well as on torsion gravity are also derived and compared with previous work performed at different length scales. Our constraints benefit from the high controllability of the experimental system which contained only two trapped particles. It therefore suggests a useful new platform for exotic particle searches, complementing other experimental efforts.

  2. Development of doped-germanium photoconductors for astronomical observations at wavelengths from 30 to 120 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratt, P. R.; Lewis, N. N.

    1976-01-01

    Technology was developed for production of doped-germanium detectors which have optimized performance in the 30- to 120-micrometer wavelength range and are capable of achieving the objectives of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite space mission. The work of this phase was divided into the following major tasks: (1) growth of Ge:Ga crystals from high-purity starting material with Ga concentrations different from that previously produced, and development of a zone leveling method to produce a uniform Ga doping concentration; (2) growth of uncompensated Ge:Be crystals from high-purity starting material with a range of Be concentrations between 10 to the 14th power and 10 to the 16th power atoms/cubic cm; (3) evaluation of crystals by means of Hall effect and resistance measurements as a function of temperature; (4) fabrication and test of detectors made from both Ge:Be and Ge:Ga crystals to determine the relative performance between different crystals. Correlation of detector test data with material evaluation data and analysis of how to further optimize detector performance.

  3. Correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale crystallographic orientation of monolayer graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Choi, Jin Sik; Chang, Young Jun; Woo, Sungjong; ...

    2014-12-01

    Deformation normal to the surface is intrinsic in two-dimensional materials due to phononic thermal fluctuations at finite temperatures. Graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient is generally explained by such an intrinsic property. Recently, friction measurements on graphene exfoliated on a silicon oxide surface revealed an anomalous anisotropy whose origin was believed to be the formation of ripple domains. Here, we uncover the atomistic origin of the observed friction domains using a cantilever torsion microscopy in conjunction with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We experimentally demonstrate that ripples on graphene are formed along the zigzag direction of the hexagonal lattice. The formation of zigzagmore » directional ripple is consistent with our theoretical model that takes account of the atomic-scale bending stiffness of carbon-carbon bonds and the interaction of graphene with the substrate. Lastly, the correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale arrangement of exfoliated monolayer graphene is first discovered and suggests a practical tool for measuring lattice orientation of graphene.« less

  4. Application of sub-micrometer patterned permalloy thin film in tunable radio frequency inductors

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, B.M. Farid; Divan, Ralu; Rosenmann, Daniel; Wang, Tengxing; Peng, Yujia; Wang, Guoan

    2015-01-01

    Electrical tunable meander line inductor using coplanar waveguide structures with patterned permalloy (Py) thin film has been designed and implemented in this paper. High resistivity Si substrate is used to reduce the dielectric loss from the substrate. Inductor is implemented with a 60 nm thick Py deposited and patterned on top of the gold meander line, and Py film is patterned with dimension of 440 nm 10 lm to create the shape anisotropy field, which in turn increases the FMR frequency. Compared to a regular meanderline inductor without the application of sub-micrometer patterned Py thin film, the inductance density has been increased to 20% for the implemented inductor with patterned Py. Measured FMR frequency of the patterned Py is 4.51 GHz without the application of any external magnetic field. This has enabled the inductor application in the practical circuit boards, where the large external magnet is unavailable. Inductance tunability of the implemented inductor is demonstrated by applying a DC current. Applied DC current creates a magnetic field along the hard axis of the patterned Py thin film, which changes the magnetic moment of the thin film and thus, decreases the inductance of the line. Measured results show that the inductance density of the inductor can be varied 5% by applying 300 mA DC current, larger inductance tunability is achievable by increasing the thickness of Py film. VC 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4918766

  5. Correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale crystallographic orientation of monolayer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Sik; Chang, Young Jun; Woo, Sungjong; Son, Young-Woo; Park, Yeonggu; Lee, Mi Jung; Byun, Ik-Su; Kim, Jin-Soo; Choi, Choon-Gi; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Park, Bae Ho

    2014-01-01

    Deformation normal to the surface is intrinsic in two-dimensional materials due to phononic thermal fluctuations at finite temperatures. Graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient is generally explained by such an intrinsic property. Recently, friction measurements on graphene exfoliated on a silicon oxide surface revealed an anomalous anisotropy whose origin was believed to be the formation of ripple domains. Here, we uncover the atomistic origin of the observed friction domains using a cantilever torsion microscopy in conjunction with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We experimentally demonstrate that ripples on graphene are formed along the zigzag direction of the hexagonal lattice. The formation of zigzag directional ripple is consistent with our theoretical model that takes account of the atomic-scale bending stiffness of carbon-carbon bonds and the interaction of graphene with the substrate. The correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale arrangement of exfoliated monolayer graphene is first discovered and suggests a practical tool for measuring lattice orientation of graphene. PMID:25434431

  6. A Rotating Coil Apparatus with Sub-Micrometer Magnetic Center Measurement Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Cherrill M.; Anderson, Scott, D.; Jensen, David R.; Wolf, Zachary R.; /SLAC

    2005-12-02

    A rotating double coil apparatus has been designed and built so that the relative magnetic center change of a quadrupole is measured to an uncertainty smaller than 0.02 micrometers (=micron, {micro}m) for a single measurement. Furthermore, repeated measurements over about an hour vary by less than 0.1 {micro}m and by less than 1 {micro}m for periods of 24 hrs or longer. Correlation analyses of long data runs show that the magnet center measurement is sensitive to mechanical effects, such as vibration and rotating part wear, as well as to environmental effects, such as temperature and relative humidity. Evolving apparatus design has minimized mechanical noise and environmental isolation has reduced the effects of the surrounding environment so that sub-micron level measurement uncertainties and micron level stability have been achieved for multi-day measurement periods. Apparatus design evolution will be described in detail and correlation data taken on water-cooled electromagnet and adjustable permanent quadrupoles, which are about 350 mm in overall length, will be shown. These quads were prototypes for the linac quads of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) that had to meet the requirement that their magnetic centers change less than 1 micron during a 20% change in field strength. Thus it was necessary to develop an apparatus that could track the magnetic center with a fraction of a micron uncertainty.

  7. Correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale crystallographic orientation of monolayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Sik; Chang, Young Jun; Woo, Sungjong; Son, Young-Woo; Park, Yeonggu; Lee, Mi Jung; Byun, Ik-Su; Kim, Jin-Soo; Choi, Choon-Gi; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Park, Bae Ho

    2014-12-01

    Deformation normal to the surface is intrinsic in two-dimensional materials due to phononic thermal fluctuations at finite temperatures. Graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient is generally explained by such an intrinsic property. Recently, friction measurements on graphene exfoliated on a silicon oxide surface revealed an anomalous anisotropy whose origin was believed to be the formation of ripple domains. Here, we uncover the atomistic origin of the observed friction domains using a cantilever torsion microscopy in conjunction with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We experimentally demonstrate that ripples on graphene are formed along the zigzag direction of the hexagonal lattice. The formation of zigzag directional ripple is consistent with our theoretical model that takes account of the atomic-scale bending stiffness of carbon-carbon bonds and the interaction of graphene with the substrate. Lastly, the correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale arrangement of exfoliated monolayer graphene is first discovered and suggests a practical tool for measuring lattice orientation of graphene.

  8. A simple indentation device for measuring micrometer-scale tissue stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levental, I.; Levental, K. R.; Klein, E. A.; Assoian, R.; Miller, R. T.; Wells, R. G.; Janmey, P. A.

    2010-05-01

    Mechanical properties of cells and extracellular matrices are critical determinants of function in contexts including oncogenic transformation, neuronal synapse formation, hepatic fibrosis and stem cell differentiation. The size and heterogeneity of biological specimens and the importance of measuring their mechanical properties under conditions that resemble their environments in vivo present a challenge for quantitative measurement. Centimeter-scale tissue samples can be measured by commercial instruments, whereas properties at the subcellular (nm) scale are accessible by atomic force microscopy, optical trapping, or magnetic bead microrheometry; however many tissues are heterogeneous on a length scale between micrometers and millimeters which is not accessible to most current instrumentation. The device described here combines two commercially available technologies, a micronewton resolution force probe and a micromanipulator for probing soft biological samples at sub-millimeter spatial resolution. Several applications of the device are described. These include the first measurement of the stiffness of an intact, isolated mouse glomerulus, quantification of the inner wall stiffness of healthy and diseased mouse aortas, and evaluation of the lateral heterogeneity in the stiffness of mouse mammary glands and rat livers with correlation of this heterogeneity with malignant or fibrotic pathology as evaluated by histology.

  9. Large increase in fracture resistance of stishovite with crack extension less than one micrometer

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kimiko; Wakai, Fumihiro; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Sekine, Risako; Shinoda, Yutaka; Akatsu, Takashi; Nagoshi, Takashi; Sone, Masato

    2015-01-01

    The development of strong, tough, and damage-tolerant ceramics requires nano/microstructure design to utilize toughening mechanisms operating at different length scales. The toughening mechanisms so far known are effective in micro-scale, then, they require the crack extension of more than a few micrometers to increase the fracture resistance. Here, we developed a micro-mechanical test method using micro-cantilever beam specimens to determine the very early part of resistance-curve of nanocrystalline SiO2 stishovite, which exhibited fracture-induced amorphization. We revealed that this novel toughening mechanism was effective even at length scale of nanometer due to narrow transformation zone width of a few tens of nanometers and large dilatational strain (from 60 to 95%) associated with the transition of crystal to amorphous state. This testing method will be a powerful tool to search for toughening mechanisms that may operate at nanoscale for attaining both reliability and strength of structural materials. PMID:26051871

  10. Multi-channel detector readout method and integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Moses, William W.; Beuville, Eric; Pedrali-Noy, Marzio

    2004-05-18

    An integrated circuit which provides multi-channel detector readout from a detector array. The circuit receives multiple signals from the elements of a detector array and compares the sampled amplitudes of these signals against a noise-floor threshold and against one another. A digital signal is generated which corresponds to the location of the highest of these signal amplitudes which exceeds the noise floor threshold. The digital signal is received by a multiplexing circuit which outputs an analog signal corresponding the highest of the input signal amplitudes. In addition a digital control section provides for programmatic control of the multiplexer circuit, amplifier gain, amplifier reset, masking selection, and test circuit functionality on each input thereof.

  11. Detector apparatus having a hybrid pixel-waveform readout system

    DOEpatents

    Meng, Ling-Jian

    2014-10-21

    A gamma ray detector apparatus comprises a solid state detector that includes a plurality of anode pixels and at least one cathode. The solid state detector is configured for receiving gamma rays during an interaction and inducing a signal in an anode pixel and in a cathode. An anode pixel readout circuit is coupled to the plurality of anode pixels and is configured to read out and process the induced signal in the anode pixel and provide triggering and addressing information. A waveform sampling circuit is coupled to the at least one cathode and configured to read out and process the induced signal in the cathode and determine energy of the interaction, timing of the interaction, and depth of interaction.

  12. Multiplexed Readout of Thermal Bolometers with Superconducting Transition Edge Thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Allen, Christine A.; Chervenak, James A.; Freund, Mino M.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shafer, Richard A.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Grossman, Erich N.; Hilton, Gene C.

    2001-01-01

    History shows that in astronomy, more is better. In the near future, direct detector arrays for the far-infrared and submillimeter will contain hundreds to thousands of elements. A multiplexed readout is necessary for practical implementation of such arrays, and has been developed using SQUIDs. The technology permits a 32 x 32 array of bolometers to be read out using approximately 100 wires rather than the >2000 needed with direct wiring. These bolometer arrays are made by micromachining techniques, using superconducting transition edge sensors as the thermistors. We describe the development of this multiplexed superconducting bolometer array architecture as a step toward bringing about the first astronomically useful arrays of this design. This technology will be used in the Submillimeter and Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) instrument on Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), and is a candidate for a wide variety of other spectroscopic and photometric instruments.

  13. Submicrosecond-timescale readout of carbon nanotube mechanical motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerwaldt, H. B.; Johnston, S. R.; van der Zant, H. S. J.; Steele, G. A.

    2013-07-01

    We report fast readout of the motion of a carbon nanotube mechanical resonator. A close-proximity high electron mobility transistor amplifier is used to increase the bandwidth of the measurement of nanotube displacements from the kHz to the MHz regime. Using an electrical detection scheme with the nanotube acting as a mixer, we detect the amplitude of its mechanical motion at room temperature with an intermediate frequency of 6 MHz and a timeconstant of 780 ns, both up to five orders of magnitude faster than achieved before. The transient response of the mechanical motion indicates a ring-down time faster than our enhanced time resolution, placing an upper bound on the contribution of energy relaxation processes to the room temperature mechanical quality factor.

  14. An analysis of side readouts of monolithic scintillation crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2016-10-01

    We have explored a method of using the side surfaces of a thin monolithic scintillation crystal for reading out scintillation photons. A Monte-Carlo simulation was carried out for an LYSO crystal of 50:8mmx50:8mmx3mm with 5 silicon photomultipliers attached on each of the four side surfaces. With 511 keV gamma-rays, X-Y spatial resolution of 2:10mm was predicted with an energy resolution of 9:0%. We also explored adding optical barriers to improve the X-Y spatial resolution, and an X-Y spatial resolution of 786um was predicted with an energy resolution of 9:2%. Multiple layers can be stacked together and readout channels can be combined. Depth-of- interaction information (DOI) can be directly read out. This method provides an attractive detector module design for positron emission tomography (PET).

  15. Coplanar interdigitated grid detector with single electrode readout

    DOEpatents

    Luke, Paul N.

    2001-01-01

    The coplanar interdigitated grid technique with single electrode readout provides substantial spectral performance improvement over that of conventional full-area planar electrode detectors and over coplanar interdigitated grid detectors which measure the difference between the induced charge signals from two interdigitated coplanar grid electrodes. The signal from only one interdigitated grid electrode is read out. The signal response is optimized by changing the relative areas of the two grid electrodes and the bias applied across the detector. Only one preamplifier is needed and signal subtraction is not necessary. This eliminates the electronic noise contribution from the additional preamplifier used in the normal coplanar grid implementation, and conventional single-amplifier detector electronics can be used.

  16. High-Resolution Mammography Detector Employing Optical Switching Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irisawa, Kaku; Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Yamane, Katsutoshi; Sendai, Tomonari; Hosoi, Yuichi

    Conceiving a new detector structure, FUJIFILM Corporation has successfully put its invention of an X-ray detector employing "Optical Switching" into practical use. Since Optical Switching Technology allows an electrode structure to be easily designed, both high resolution of pixel pitch and low electrical noise readout have been achieved, which have consequently realized the world's smallest pixel size of 50×50 μm2 from a Direct-conversion FPD system as well as high DQE. The digital mammography system equipped with this detector enables to acquire high definition images while maintaining granularity. Its outstanding feature is to be able to acquire high-precision images of microcalcifications which is an important index in breast examination.

  17. A high resolution delay line readout for microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, O. S. W.; Lampton, M. L.; Raffanti, R.

    1989-01-01

    Investigations are reported of delay line configurations used to encode photon event locations in microchannel plate (MCP) detectors. Several delay line schemes of planar and multilayer structure are discussed. The importance of the delay line substrate material is examined, and it is shown that the raw signals from delay lines are narrow (about 3-4 ns FWHM). The factors determining the delay line resolution are evaluated, and it is demonstrated that these are in agreement with measurements. Resolutions of about 18-micron FWHM have been achieved. Measurements of the linearity of the delay line readout show that event centroid locations deviate from perfect linearity by less than 50 microns, even with the very simple anode fabrication methods employed. The image stability has also been evaluated and it is shown that image shifts are less than one resolution element over a period of two months.

  18. NIKEL_AMC: readout electronics for the NIKA2 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrion, O.; Benoit, A.; Bouly, J. L.; Bouvier, J.; Bosson, G.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Goupy, J.; Li, C.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Monfardini, A.; Tourres, D.; Ponchant, N.; Vescovi, C.

    2016-11-01

    The New Iram Kid Arrays-2 (NIKA2) instrument has recently been installed at the IRAM 30 m telescope. NIKA2 is a state-of-art instrument dedicated to mm-wave astronomy using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (KID) as sensors. The three arrays installed in the camera, two at 1.25 mm and one at 2.05 mm, feature a total of 3300 KIDs. To instrument these large array of detectors, a specifically designed electronics, composed of 20 readout boards and hosted in three microTCA crates, has been developed. The implemented solution and the achieved performances are presented in this paper. We find that multiplexing factors of up to 400 detectors per board can be achieved with homogeneous performance across boards in real observing conditions, and a factor of more than 3 decrease in volume with respect to previous generations.

  19. Image readout device with electronically variable spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, H. A.

    1981-07-01

    An invention relating to the use of a standing acoustic wave charge storage device as an image readout device is described. A frequency f sub 1 was applied to the storage transfer device to create a traveling electric field in the device in one direction along a straight line. A second frequency f sub 2 was applied to the charge transfer device to create a traveling electric field opposite to the first traveling electric field. A standing wave was created. When an image was focused on the charge transfer device, light was stored in the wells of the standing wave. When the frequency f sub 2 is removed from the device, the standing wave tends to break up and the charges stored move to an electrode connected to an output terminal and to a utilization device where the received charges represent the image on the surface of the charge transfer device along a projection of said straight line.

  20. Mercuric Iodide Photocell Technology for Room Temperature Readout of Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Warnick Kernan et al.

    2007-08-31

    Mercuric iodide (HgI2) is a well known material for the direct detection of gamma rays; however, the largest volume achievable is limited by thickness of the detector, which needs to be a small fraction of the average trapping length for electrons. We are reporting here preliminary results in using HgI2 crystals to fabricate photocells used in the readout of various scintillators. The optical spectral response and efficiency of these photocells were measured and will be reported. Preliminary nuclear response from a HgI2 photocell that was optically matched to a Ce3+ :LaBr3 scintillator will also be presented and discussed. Further improvements will be sought by optimizing the transparent contact technology.

  1. The readout driver (ROD) for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthymiopoulos, Ilias

    2001-04-01

    The Readout Driver (ROD) for the Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is described. Each ROD module receives triggered data from 256 calorimeter cells via two fiber-optics 1.28 Gbit/s links with a 100 kHz event rate (25 kbit/event). Its principal function is to determine the precise energy and timing of the signal from discrete samples of the waveform, taken each period of the LHC clock (25 ns). In addition, it checks, histograms, and formats the digital data stream. A demonstrator system, consisting of a motherboard and several daughter-board processing units (PUs) was constructed and is currently used for tests in the lab. The design of this prototype board is presented here. The board offers maximum modularity and allows the development and testing of different PU designs based on today's leading integer and floating point DSPs.

  2. Multi-channel detector readout method and integrated circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.; Beuville, Eric; Pedrali-Noy, Marzio

    2006-12-12

    An integrated circuit which provides multi-channel detector readout from a detector array. The circuit receives multiple signals from the elements of a detector array and compares the sampled amplitudes of these signals against a noise-floor threshold and against one another. A digital signal is generated which corresponds to the location of the highest of these signal amplitudes which exceeds the noise floor threshold. The digital signal is received by a multiplexing circuit which outputs an analog signal corresponding the highest of the input signal amplitudes. In addition a digital control section provides for programmatic control of the multiplexer circuit, amplifier gain, amplifier reset, masking selection, and test circuit functionality on each input thereof.

  3. HEXITEC ASIC—a pixellated readout chip for CZT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lawrence; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Hardie, Alec

    2009-06-01

    HEXITEC is a collaborative project with the aim of developing a new range of detectors for high-energy X-ray imaging. High-energy X-ray imaging has major advantages over current lower energy imaging for the life and physical sciences, including improved phase-contrast images on larger, higher density samples and with lower accumulated doses. However, at these energies conventional silicon-based devices cannot be used, hence, the requirement for a new range of high Z-detector materials. Underpinning the HEXITEC programme are the development of a pixellated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors and a pixellated readout ASIC which will be bump-bonded to the detector. The HEXITEC ASIC is required to have low noise (20 electrons rms) and tolerate detector leakage currents. A prototype 20×20 pixel ASIC has been developed and manufactured on a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process.

  4. Improved Readout Scheme for SQUID-Based Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin

    2007-01-01

    An improved readout scheme has been proposed for high-resolution thermometers, (HRTs) based on the use of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) to measure temperature- dependent magnetic susceptibilities. The proposed scheme would eliminate counting ambiguities that arise in the conventional scheme, while maintaining the superior magnetic-flux sensitivity of the conventional scheme. The proposed scheme is expected to be especially beneficial for HRT-based temperature control of multiplexed SQUIDbased bolometer sensor arrays. SQUID-based HRTs have become standard for measuring and controlling temperatures in the sub-nano-Kelvin temperature range in a broad range of low-temperature scientific and engineering applications. A typical SQUIDbased HRT that utilizes the conventional scheme includes a coil wound on a core made of a material that has temperature- dependent magnetic susceptibility in the temperature range of interest. The core and the coil are placed in a DC magnetic field provided either by a permanent magnet or as magnetic flux inside a superconducting outer wall. The aforementioned coil is connected to an input coil of a SQUID. Changes in temperature lead to changes in the susceptibility of the core and to changes in the magnetic flux detected by the SQUID. The SQUID readout instrumentation is capable of measuring magnetic-flux changes that correspond to temperature changes down to a noise limit .0.1 nK/Hz1/2. When the flux exceeds a few fundamental flux units, which typically corresponds to a temperature of .100 nK, the SQUID is reset. The temperature range can be greatly expanded if the reset events are carefully tracked and counted, either by a computer running appropriate software or by a dedicated piece of hardware.

  5. NIRCA ASIC for the readout of focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pâhlsson, Philip; Steenari, David; Øya, Petter; Otnes Berge, Hans Kristian; Meier, Dirk; Olsen, Alf; Hasanbegovic, Amir; Altan, Mehmet A.; Najafiuchevler, Bahram; Talebi, Jahanzad; Azman, Suleyman; Gheorghe, Codin; Ackermann, Jörg; Mæhlum, Gunnar; Johansen, Tor Magnus; Stein, Timo

    2016-05-01

    This work is a continuation of our preliminary tests on NIRCA - the Near Infrared Readout and Controller ASIC [1]. The primary application for NIRCA is future astronomical science and Earth observation missions where NIRCA will be used with mercury cadmium telluride image sensors (HgCdTe, or MCT) [2], [3]. Recently we have completed the ASIC tests in the cryogenic environment down to 77 K. We have verified that NIRCA provides to the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) regulated power, bias voltages, and fully programmable digital sequences with sample control of the analogue to digital converters (ADC). Both analog and digital output from the ROIC can be acquired and image data is 8b/10bencoded and delivered via serial interface. The NIRCA also provides temperature measurement, and monitors several analog and digital input channels. The preliminary work confirms that NIRCA is latch-up immune and able to operate down to 77 K. We have tested the performance of the 12-bit ADC with pre-amplifier to have 10.8 equivalent number of bits (ENOB) at 1.4 Msps and maximum sampling speed at 2 Msps. The 1.8-V and 3.3-V output regulators and the 10-bit DACs show good linearity and work as expected. A programmable sequencer is implemented as a micro-controller with a custom instruction set. Here we describe the special operations of the sequencer with regards to the applications and a novel approach to parallel real-time hardware outputs. The test results of the working prototype ASIC show good functionality and performance from room temperature down to 77 K. The versatility of the chip makes the architecture a possible candidate for other research areas, defense or industrial applications that require analog and digital acquisition, voltage regulation, and digital signal generation.

  6. Streak Camera Performance with Large-Format CCD Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R A; Andrews, D S; Bell, P M; Griffith, R L; McDonald, J W; Torres, P III; Vergel de Dios, G

    2003-07-08

    The ICF program at Livermore has a large inventory of optical streak cameras that were built in the 1970s and 1980s. The cameras include micro-channel plate image-intensifier tubes (IIT) that provide signal amplification and early lens-coupled CCD readouts. Today, these cameras are still very functional, but some replacement parts such as the original streak tube, CCD, and IIT are scarce and obsolete. This article describes recent efforts to improve the performance of these cameras using today's advanced CCD readout technologies. Very sensitive, large-format CCD arrays with efficient fiber-optic input faceplates are now available for direct coupling with the streak tube. Measurements of camera performance characteristics including linearity, spatial and temporal resolution, line-spread function, contrast transfer ratio (CTR), and dynamic range have been made for several different camera configurations: CCD coupled directly to the streak tube, CCD directly coupled to the IIT, and the original configuration with a smaller CCD lens coupled to the IIT output. Spatial resolution (limiting visual) with and without the IIT is 8 and 20 lp/mm, respectively, for photocathode current density up to 25% of the Child-Langmuir (C-L) space-charge limit. Temporal resolution (fwhm) deteriorates by about 20% when the cathode current density reaches 10% of the C-L space charge limit. Streak tube operation with large average tube current was observed by illuminating the entire slit region through a Ronchi ruling and measuring the CTR. Sensitivity (CCD electrons per streak tube photoelectron) for the various configurations ranged from 7.5 to 2,700 with read noise of 7.5 to 10.5 electrons. Optimum spatial resolution is achieved when the IIT is removed. Maximum dynamic range requires a configuration where a single photoelectron from the photocathode produces a signal that is 3 to 5 times the read noise.

  7. Efficient readout electronics for multi-anode photomultiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, Christoph W.; Herrero-Bosch, Vicente; Ferrando-Jodar, Nestor; Gadea-Girones, Rafa; Sanchez-Martinez, Filomeno; Mora-Más, Francisco J.

    2010-08-01

    We present a novel active and analog readout and preprocessing topology for position sensitive photodetectors (PSPD) that allows to readout a large variety of PSPD devices with different pixel numbers. Additionally, the topology was designed to allow for a significant reduction of analog-to-digital conversion channels. The circuit topology replaces the common passive charge divider and consists of N input stages, N × M weighting stages and M analog adder stages, where N is the number of the input channels, i.e. the number of photodetector pixels and M is the number of outputs. The circuit performs the multiplication of a matrix (the weights) with a vector (signals). For this, the input stage makes M copies of each of the N input signals, the weighting stage multiplies these signal copies with N × M different weights and the output stage adds all weighted copies with the same copy index. For high flexibility, the weights are programmable and the topology allows to interconnect several identical circuits for larger N. Measurements with a first prototype ASIC show that the achieved energy and centroid resolutions equal the resolutions from detectors with passive charge division circuits. However, the presented topology presents important advantages such as scalability. As a first application, we used the prototype ASIC to correct the sensitivity inhomogeneity of position sensitive photomultiplier tubes. As a second application for the circuit, we present a Neural Network based positioning scheme for γ-ray imaging detectors with thick, monolithic scintillation crystals. This allows to correct the strong border artifacts of the center of gravity positioning scheme in monolithic scintillation crystals and thus enhances the spatial resolution of the γ-ray imaging detector.

  8. Readout of Majorana parity states using a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharavi, Kaveh; Hoving, Darryl; Baugh, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically examine a scheme for projectively reading out the parity state of a pair of Majorana bound states (MBSs) using a tunnel-coupled quantum dot. The dot is coupled to one end of the topological wire but isolated from any reservoir and is capacitively coupled to a charge sensor for measurement. The combined parity of the MBS-dot system is conserved, and charge transfer between the MBS and dot only occurs through resonant tunneling. Resonance is controlled by the dot potential through a local gate and by the MBS energy splitting due to the overlap of the MBS pair wave functions. The latter splitting can be tuned from zero (topologically protected regime) to a finite value by gate-driven shortening of the topological wire. Simulations show that the oscillatory nature of the MBS splitting is not a fundamental obstacle to readout but requires precise gate control of the MBS spatial position and dot potential. With experimentally realistic parameters, we find that high-fidelity parity readout is achievable given nanometer-scale spatial control of the MBS and that there is a trade-off between required precisions of temporal and spatial control. Use of the scheme to measure the MBS splitting versus separation would present a clear signature of topological order and could be used to test the robustness of this order to spatial motion, a key requirement in certain schemes for scalable topological qubits. We show how the scheme can be extended to distinguish valid parity measurements from invalid ones due to gate calibration errors.

  9. Trigger and Readout System for the Ashra-1 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aita, Y.; Aoki, T.; Asaoka, Y.; Morimoto, Y.; Motz, H. M.; Sasaki, M.; Abiko, C.; Kanokohata, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Takada, T.; Kimura, T.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Kuze, S.; Binder, P. M.; Goldman, J.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    Highly sophisticated trigger and readout system has been developed for All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower (Ashra) detector. Ashra-1 detector has 42 degree diameter field of view. Detection of Cherenkov and fluorescence light from large background in the large field of view requires finely segmented and high speed trigger and readout system. The system is composed of optical fiber image transmission system, 64 × 64 channel trigger sensor and FPGA based trigger logic processor. The system typically processes the image within 10 to 30 ns and opens the shutter on the fine CMOS sensor. 64 × 64 coarse split image is transferred via 64 × 64 precisely aligned optical fiber bundle to a photon sensor. Current signals from the photon sensor are discriminated by custom made trigger amplifiers. FPGA based processor processes 64 × 64 hit pattern and correspondent partial area of the fine image is acquired. Commissioning earth skimming tau neutrino observational search was carried out with this trigger system. In addition to the geometrical advantage of the Ashra observational site, the excellent tau shower axis measurement based on the fine imaging and the night sky background rejection based on the fine and fast imaging allow zero background tau shower search. Adoption of the optical fiber bundle and trigger LSI realized 4k channel trigger system cheaply. Detectability of tau shower is also confirmed by simultaneously observed Cherenkov air shower. Reduction of the trigger threshold appears to enhance the effective area especially in PeV tau neutrino energy region. New two dimensional trigger LSI was introduced and the trigger threshold was lowered. New calibration system of the trigger system was recently developed and introduced to the Ashra detector

  10. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbé, A.; von Haeseler, F.

    2004-04-01

    Automatic sets D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m to be a Delone set in {\\bb R}^m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples.

  11. Application of an automatic cloud tracking technique to Meteosat water vapor and infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endlich, R. M.; Wolf, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    The automatic cloud tracking system was applied to METEOSAT 6.7 micrometers water vapor measurements to learn whether the system can track the motions of water vapor patterns. Data for the midlatitudes, subtropics, and tropics were selected from a sequence of METEOSAT pictures for 25 April 1978. Trackable features in the water vapor patterns were identified using a clustering technique and the features were tracked by two different methods. In flat (low contrast) water vapor fields, the automatic motion computations were not reliable, but in areas where the water vapor fields contained small scale structure (such as in the vicinity of active weather phenomena) the computations were successful. Cloud motions were computed using METEOSAT infrared observations (including tropical convective systems and midlatitude jet stream cirrus).

  12. Multi-band automatic sun and sky scanning radiometer system for measurement of aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Slutsker, I.; Tanre, D.; Buis, J. P.; Setzer, A.; Vermote, E.; Reagan, J. A.; Kaufman, Y. A.

    1994-01-01

    A weather resistant automatic scanning Sun photometer system is assessed and demonstrated as practical for measurements of aerosol concentrations and properties at remote sites. Interfaced with a transmitter using the Geostationary Data Collection System (GDCS), the data are processed in near real time. The processing allows a time dependence of the aerosols and water vapor and an ongoing assessment of the health and calibration of the instruments. The system's automatic data acquisition, transmission, and processing offer immediate application to atmospheric monitoring and modeling on a regional to global scale and validation of satellite retrievals. It is estimated that under normal circumstances the retrieved aerosol optical thickness has a network wide accuracy of +/- 0.02 from 340 nm to 1020 nm, water vapor +/- 0.2 cm and size distribution from 0.1 to 3 micrometers.

  13. Automatic vehicle location system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic vehicle detection system is disclosed, in which each vehicle whose location is to be detected carries active means which interact with passive elements at each location to be identified. The passive elements comprise a plurality of passive loops arranged in a sequence along the travel direction. Each of the loops is tuned to a chosen frequency so that the sequence of the frequencies defines the location code. As the vehicle traverses the sequence of the loops as it passes over each loop, signals only at the frequency of the loop being passed over are coupled from a vehicle transmitter to a vehicle receiver. The frequencies of the received signals in the receiver produce outputs which together represent a code of the traversed location. The code location is defined by a painted pattern which reflects light to a vehicle carried detector whose output is used to derive the code defined by the pattern.

  14. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  15. AUTOMATIC HAND COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Mann J.R.; Wainwright, A.E.

    1963-06-11

    An automatic, personnel-operated, alpha-particle hand monitor is described which functions as a qualitative instrument to indicate to the person using it whether his hands are cold'' or hot.'' The monitor is activated by a push button and includes several capacitor-triggered thyratron tubes. Upon release of the push button, the monitor starts the counting of the radiation present on the hands of the person. If the count of the radiation exceeds a predetermined level within a predetermined time, then a capacitor will trigger a first thyratron tube to light a hot'' lamp. If, however, the count is below such level during this time period, another capacitor will fire a second thyratron to light a safe'' lamp. (AEC)

  16. Automatic Bayesian polarity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The polarity of the first motion of a seismic signal from an earthquake is an important constraint in earthquake source inversion. Microseismic events often have low signal-to-noise ratios, which may lead to difficulties estimating the correct first-motion polarities of the arrivals. This paper describes a probabilistic approach to polarity picking that can be both automated and combined with manual picking. This approach includes a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty of the polarity, improving calculation of the polarity probability density function for source inversion. It is sufficiently fast to be incorporated into an automatic processing workflow. When used in source inversion, the results are consistent with those from manual observations. In some cases, they produce a clearer constraint on the range of high-probability source mechanisms, and are better constrained than source mechanisms determined using a uniform probability of an incorrect polarity pick.

  17. Noise analysis for infrared focal plane arrays CMOS readout integrated circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiamu; Ding, Ruijun; Chen, Honglei; Shen, Xiao; Liu, Fei

    2008-12-01

    With the development of the infrared focal plane detectors, the internal noises in the infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) CMOS readout integrated circuit gradually became an important factor of the development of the IRFPAs. The internal noises in IRFPAs CMOS readout integrated circuit are researched in this work. Part of the motivation for this work is to analyze the mechanism and influence of the internal noises in readout integrated circuit. And according to the signal transporting process, many kinds of internal noises are analyzed. According to the results of theory analysis, it is shown that 1/f noise, KTC noise and pulse switch noise have greater amplitude in frequency domain. These noises have seriously affected the performance of output signal. Also this work has frequency test on the signals of a readout integrated circuit chip which is using DI readout mode. After analyzing the frequency test results, it is shown that 1/f noises and pulse switch noises are the main components of the internal noises in IRFPAS CMOS readout integrated circuit and they are the noises which give a major impact to the output signal. In accordance with the type of noise, some design methods for noise suppression are put forward. And after the simulation of these methods with EDA software, the results show that noises have been reduced. The results of this work gave the referenced gist for improving the noise suppression design of IRFPAs CMOS readout integrated circuit.

  18. A microfluidic device for the automated electrical readout of low-density glass-slide microarrays.

    PubMed

    Díaz-González, María; Salvador, J Pablo; Bonilla, Diana; Marco, M Pilar; Fernández-Sánchez, César; Baldi, Antoni

    2015-12-15

    Microarrays are a powerful platform for rapid and multiplexed analysis in a wide range of research fields. Electrical readout systems have emerged as an alternative to conventional optical methods for microarray analysis thanks to its potential advantages like low-cost, low-power and easy miniaturization of the required instrumentation. In this work an automated electrical readout system for low-cost glass-slide microarrays is described. The system enables the simultaneous conductimetric detection of up to 36 biorecognition events by incorporating an array of interdigitated electrode transducers. A polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic structure has been designed that creates microwells over the transducers and incorporates the microfluidic channels required for filling and draining them with readout and cleaning solutions, thus making the readout process fully automated. Since the capture biomolecules are not immobilized on the transducer surface this readout system is reusable, in contrast to previously reported electrochemical microarrays. A low-density microarray based on a competitive enzymatic immunoassay for atrazine detection was used to test the performance of the readout system. The electrical assay shows a detection limit of 0.22±0.03 μg L(-1) similar to that obtained with fluorescent detection and allows the direct determination of the pesticide in polluted water samples. These results proved that an electrical readout system such as the one presented in this work is a reliable and cost-effective alternative to fluorescence scanners for the analysis of low-density microarrays.

  19. Optimization of MKID noise performance via readout technique for astronomical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czakon, Nicole G.; Schlaerth, James A.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran P.; Gao, Jiansong; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R.; Hollister, Matt I.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Maloney, Philip R.; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T.; Sayers, Jack; Siegel, Seth; Vaillancourt, John E.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2010-07-01

    Detectors employing superconducting microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) can be read out by measuring changes in either the resonator frequency or dissipation. We will discuss the pros and cons of both methods, in particular, the readout method strategies being explored for the Multiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC) to be commissioned at the CSO in 2010. As predicted theoretically and observed experimentally, the frequency responsivity is larger than the dissipation responsivity, by a factor of 2-4 under typical conditions. In the absence of any other noise contributions, it should be easier to overcome amplifier noise by simply using frequency readout. The resonators, however, exhibit excess frequency noise which has been ascribed to a surface distribution of two-level fluctuators sensitive to specific device geometries and fabrication techniques. Impressive dark noise performance has been achieved using modified resonator geometries employing interdigitated capacitors (IDCs). To date, our noise measurement and modeling efforts have assumed an onresonance readout, with the carrier power set well below the nonlinear regime. Several experimental indicators suggested to us that the optimal readout technique may in fact require a higher readout power, with the carrier tuned somewhat off resonance, and that a careful systematic study of the optimal readout conditions was needed. We will present the results of such a study, and discuss the optimum readout conditions as well as the performance that can be achieved relative to BLIP.

  20. Networked Automatic Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2000-05-01

    Many groups around the world are developing automated or robotic optical observatories. The coordinated operation of automated optical telescopes at diverse sites could provide observing prospects which are not otherwise available, e.g., continuous optical photometry without diurnal interruption. Computer control and scheduling also offers the prospect of effective response to transient events such as γ -ray bursts. These telescopes could also serve science education by providing high-quality CCD data for educators and students. The Automatic Telescope Network (ATN) project has been undertaken to promote networking of automated telescopes. A web site is maintained at http://gamma.bu.edu/atn/. The development of such networks will be facilitated by the existence of standards. A set of standard commands for instrument and telescope control systems will allow for the creation of software for an ``observatory control system'' which can be used at any facility which complies with the TCS and ICS standards. Also, there is a strong need for standards for the specification of observations to be done, and reports on the results and status of observations. A proposed standard for this is the Remote Telescope Markup Language (RTML), which is expected to be described in another poster in this session. It may thus be feasible for amateur-astronomers to soon buy all necessary equipment and software to field an automatic telescope. The owner/operator could make otherwise unused telescope time available to the network in exchange for the utilization of other telescopes in the network --- including occasional utilization of meter-class telescopes with research-grade CCD detectors at good sites.

  1. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  2. HD 172555: Detection of 63 micrometers [OI] Emission in a Debris Disc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Barrado, D.; Augereau, J. -C.; Thi, W. F.; Roberge, A.; Eiroa, C.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Howard, C.; Sandell, G.; Duchene, G.; Dent, W. R. F.; Lebreton, J.; Mendigutia, I.; Huelamo, N.; Menard, F.; Pinte, C.

    2012-01-01

    Context. HD 172555 is a young A7 star belonging to the Beta Pictoris Moving Group that harbours a debris disc. The Spitzer IRS spectrum of the source showed mid-IR features such as silicates and glassy silica species, indicating the presence of a warm dust component with small grains, which places HD 172555 among the small group of debris discs with such properties. The IRS spectrum also shows a possible emission of SiO gas. Aims. We aim to study the dust distribution in the circumstellar disc of HD 172555 and to asses the presence of gas in the debris disc. Methods. As part of the GASPS Open Time Key Programme, we obtained Herschel-PACS photometric and spectroscopic observations of the source. We analysed PACS observations of HD 172555 and modelled the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) with a modified blackbody and the gas emission with a two-level population model with no collisional de-excitation. Results. We report for the first time the detection of [OI] atomic gas emission at 63.18 micrometers in the HD 172555 circumstellar disc.We detect excesses due to circumstellar dust toward HD 172555 in the three photometric bands of PACS (70, 100, and 160 m). We derive a large dust particle mass of (4.8 plus-minus 0.6)x10(exp -4) Mass compared to Earth and an atomic oxygen mass of 2.5x10(exp -2)R(exp 2) Mass compared to Earth, where R in AU is the separation between the star and the inner disc. Thus, most of the detected mass of the disc is in the gaseous phase.

  3. Ultraviolet illuminated molecular cloud boundaries: Extended (C II) 158 micrometer emission toward L1630

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, D. T.; Zhou, S.; Howe, J. E.; Herrmann, F.; Madden, S. C.; Poglitsch, A.; Vanderwerf, P. P.; Stacey, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    The construction of a large scale map of the 158 micrometer C+ line toward the L1630/Orion B molecular cloud, covering an approximately 35' by 45' area which includes the NGC 2024 H II region, zeta-Ori, the reflection nebula NGC 2023, and the Horsehead nebula, is reported. Emission in the C II line is very widespread. The line was detected at levels in excess of a few 0.0001 erg/sq cm/s/sr over almost the entire mapped region. Extended emission associated with the NGC 2024 H II region and its envelope accounts for more than half of the C II flux. Over this approximately 1.5 by 2.5 pc region, the amount of gas phase carbon in the form of C+ is comparable to the amount of carbon in CO. This result, together with the C II distribution implies that C II emission arises on the surface of clumps throughout the cloud rather than in a single layer at the H II region boundary. Away from the H II region, most of the C II emission comes from the western edge of the L1630 cloud and probably results from excitation by external OB stars. The overall extent of the C II emission is comparable to that of millimeter molecular lines but the distributions are different in detail. The difference in C II and molecular line distributions, in particular, the larger extent of the C II emission west of NGC 2024 implies large variations in the ratio of the C II and J = 1 towards 0 intensities. Models of photon dominated regions can explain the relation between C II and CO intensities only if the cloud edges and cloud interior are considered separately. A method for using C II and radio continuum emission to characterize the relationship between OB stars and photon dominated regions is proposed.

  4. Implications for clinical treatment from the micrometer site dosimetric calculations in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Trent L; Kabalka, George W; Miller, Laurence F; McCormack, Michael T; Johnson, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy has now been used for several malignancies. Most clinical trials have addressed its use for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. A few trials have focused on the treatment of malignant melanoma with brain metastases. Trial results for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme have been encouraging, but have not achieved the success anticipated. Results of trials for the treatment of malignant melanoma have been very promising, though with too few patients for conclusions to be drawn. Subsequent to these trials, regimens for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma, hepatic metastases from adenocarcinoma of the colon, and head and neck malignancies have been developed. These tumors have also responded well to boron neutron capture therapy. Glioblastoma is an infiltrative tumor with distant individual tumor cells that might create a mechanism for therapeutic failure though recurrences are often local. The microdosimetry of boron neutron capture therapy can provide an explanation for this observation. Codes written to examine the micrometer scale energy deposition in boron neutron capture therapy have been used to explore the effects of near neighbor cells. Near neighbor cells can contribute a significantly increased dose depending on the geometric relationships. Different geometries demonstrate that tumors which grow by direct extension have a greater near neighbor effect, whereas infiltrative tumors lose this near neighbor dose which can be a significant decrease in dose to the cells that do not achieve optimal boron loading. This understanding helps to explain prior trial results and implies that tumors with small, closely packed cells that grow by direct extension will be the most amenable to boron neutron capture therapy.

  5. Study of Potential Sub-Micrometer-Thick Frost Events and Soil Water Content at Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, G.; Fischer, E.; Renno, N. O.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; Meslin, P. Y.; Kemppinen, O.; Genzer, M.; Harri, A. M.; Ramos, M.; Borlina, C.; Schröder, S.; Gómez-Elvira, J.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the highest confidence measurements of relative humidity [1] and ground temperature [2] to identify potential frost events at the surface of Gale Crater during the first 600 sols of the MSL mission. We find that between 4 and 6 am on sols 533, 535, 555, 557, 559 and 560 the ground temperature falls below the calculated frost point. Order-of-magnitude estimate for the thickness of the frost layer indicates that it is of the order of micrometers or less. Additionally, we analyze the relation between water vapor pressure and ground temperature to provide additional constraints on potential frost events and to quantify the exchange of adsorbed water between the surface and the atmosphere. Adsorbed water could be forced into liquid-like state at the of Gale because van der Waals forces between water ice molecules and mineral surfaces reduces the freezing point [3]. This form of liquid water is relevant to habitability because microorganisms could survive in liquid-like adsorbed water [4].References: [1] Harri, Ari-Matti et al., Mars Science Laboratory Relative Humidity Observations - Initial Results (2014), JGR (in press). [2] Martínez, G. M. et al., Surface Energy Budget and Thermal Inertia at Gale Crater: Calculations from Ground-Based Measurements (2014), JGR (in press). [3] Möhlmann, D., The influence of van der Waals forces on the state of water in the shallow subsurface of Mars (2008), Icarus 195 (1), 131-139. [4] Rivkina, E. M. et al., Metabolic activity of permafrost bacteria below the freezing point (2000), Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 66(8), 3230-3233.

  6. Online Aerosol Mass Spectrometry of Single Micrometer-Sized Particles Containing Poly(ethylene glycol)

    SciTech Connect

    Bogan, M J; Patton, E; Srivastava, A; Martin, S; Fergenson, D; Steele, P; Tobias, H; Gard, E; Frank, M

    2006-10-25

    Analysis of poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)-containing particles by online single particle aerosol mass spectrometers equipped with laser desorption ionization (LDI) is reported. We demonstrate that PEG-containing particles are useful in the development of aerosol mass spectrometers because of their ease of preparation, low cost, and inherently recognizable mass spectra. Solutions containing millimolar quantities of PEGs were nebulized and, after drying, the resultant micrometer-sized PEG containing particles were sampled. LDI (266 nm) of particles containing NaCl and PEG molecules of average molecular weight <500 generated mass spectra reminiscent of mass spectra of PEG collected by other MS schemes including the characteristic distribution of positive ions (Na{sup +} adducts) separated by the 44 Da of the ethylene oxide units separating each degree of polymerization. PEGs of average molecular weight >500 were detected from particles that also contained t the tripeptide tyrosine-tyrosine-tyrosine or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, which were added to nebulized solutions to act as matrices to assist LDI using pulsed 266 nm and 355 nm lasers, respectively. Experiments were performed on two aerosol mass spectrometers, one reflectron and one linear, that each utilize two time-of-flight mass analyzers to detect positive and negative ions created from a single particle. PEG-containing particles are currently being employed in the optimization of our bioaerosol mass spectrometers for the application of measurements of complex biological samples, including human effluents, and we recommend that the same strategies will be of great utility to the development of any online aerosol LDI mass spectrometer platform.

  7. Sub-micrometer particles produced by a low-powered AC electric arc in liquids.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Jacek A; Fleury, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the report of the production of composites of sub-micrometer metal particles in matrix consisted of the metal compounds by means of an AC electric arc in water and paraffin solutions using electrodes carbon-metal and metal-metal (metal: Ni, Fe, Co, Cu). The advantage of this method is the low electric power (from 5 to 10 W) needed in comparison to standard DC arc-discharge methods (0.8 to 3 kW). This method enables the production of particles from conductive material also in wide range of temperature and in solvent which could be either transparent to light or opaque. Moreover the solvent can be electrolyte or insulating liquid. The microstructure of the composite layer was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray. During particles production in water metal oxides were created. Additionally using cobalt-copper, nickel-copper as couple electrodes, insoluble in water copper (II) hydroxide crystal grains were created additionally which crystals shape was depended on transition metal. For iron-copper couple electrodes system the copper (II) hydroxide was not formed. Experiments with sequence production of Ni and Fe particles with C electrode assisting in molten paraffin let to obtain both Ni and Fe particles surrounded by paraffin. After solidification the material was insulator but if locally magnetic field influenced on the liquid solution in that place after solidification a new composite was created which was electric current conductor with resistivity around 0.1 omega x m, was attracted by magnetic field and presented magneto resistance around 0.4% in changing magnetic field in a range 150 mT. After mixing the concentrated paraffin with normal paraffin resistivity of the mixture increased and it became photosensitive and created small voltage under light influence.

  8. Micrometer scale contact lens movements imaged by ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lele; Shen, Meixiao; Wang, Michael R.; Wang, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To dynamically evaluate contact lens movement and ocular surface shape using ultra-high resolution and ultra-long scan depth optical coherence tomography (OCT). DESIGN Clinical research study of a laboratory technique. METHODS Four different types of soft contact lenses were tested on the left eye of 10 subjects (6 males and 4 females). Lenses edges at primary gaze and temporal and nasal gazes were imaged by ultra-high resolution OCT. Excursion lag was obtained as the distance between the lens edge at primary gaze and immediately after the eye was quickly turned either nasally or temporally. The inferior lens edges were imaged continuously to track vertical movements during blinking. Ultra-long scan depth OCT provided quantifiable images of the ocular surface, and the contour was acquired using custom software. RESULTS Excursion lag at the horizontal meridian was 366 ± 134 μm at temporal gaze and 320 ± 137 μm at nasal gaze (P > .05). The lens uplift at the vertical meridian was 342 ± 155 μm after blinking. There were significant differences in horizontal lags and vertical movements among different lenses (P < .05). Horizontal lags were correlated with radii of curvatures and sagittal heights at 6- and 14- mm horizontal meridian radii (P < .05). The blink-induced lens uplift first lowered by 104 ± 8 μm, and then lifted 342 ± 155 μm after the blink. CONCLUSIONS Ultra-high resolution and ultra-long scan depth OCT can assess micrometer scale lens movements and ocular surface contours. Both lens design and ocular surface shape affected lens movements. PMID:21920493

  9. Micro-Raman spectroscopy: The analysis of micrometer and submicrometer atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klainer, S. M.; Milanovich, F. P.

    1985-01-01

    A nondestructive method of molecular analysis which is required to fully utilize the information contained within a collected particle is discussed. Upper atmosphere reaction mechanisms are assessed when the chemical compounds, the use of micro-Raman spectrometric techniques to perform micron and submicron particle analysis was evaluated. The results are favorable and it is concluded that micron and submicron particles can be analyzed by the micron-Raman approach. Completely automatic analysis should be possible to 0.3 micro m. No problems are anticipated with photo or thermal decomposition. Sample and impurity fluorescence are the key source of background as they cannot be completely eliminated.

  10. The trigger readout electronics for the Phase-I upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hao

    2017-03-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters is foreseen to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12-bit precision at 40 MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which computes the Super Cell transverse energies. In this paper, development and test results of the new readout system are presented.

  11. Fast Quantum Nondemolition Readout by Parametric Modulation of Longitudinal Qubit-Oscillator Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didier, Nicolas; Bourassa, Jérôme; Blais, Alexandre

    2015-11-01

    We show how to realize fast and high-fidelity quantum nondemolition qubit readout using longitudinal qubit-oscillator interaction. This is accomplished by modulating the longitudinal coupling at the cavity frequency. The qubit-oscillator interaction then acts as a qubit-state dependent drive on the cavity, a situation that is fundamentally different from the standard dispersive case. Single-mode squeezing can be exploited to exponentially increase the signal-to-noise ratio of this readout protocol. We present an implementation of this longitudinal parametric readout in circuit quantum electrodynamics and a possible multiqubit architecture.

  12. A simple readout method for MWPCs with high-rate and sub-millimetre resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonte, P.

    1994-09-01

    In this work we describe the experimental tests of a new approach to the fast digital readout of MWPCs: electronic subdivision of the cathode strips increases the readout granularity, while a special coding method allows one to extract the address information from a small number of analogue channels with very simple electronics. The principle is demonstrated to be correct and a quite satisfactory performance is observed. This method may help to create economically the large and fast readout systems necessary for high-luminosity colliders and synchrotron radiation research. Also space-borne applications may profit from reduced weight and power requirements.

  13. ALICE inner tracking system readout electronics prototype testing with the CERN ``Giga Bit Transceiver''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schambach, J.; Rossewij, M. J.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonora, M.; Ferencei, J.; Giubilato, P.; Vanat, T.

    2016-12-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major detector upgrade for the LHC Run 3, which includes the construction of a new silicon pixel based Inner Tracking System (ITS). The ITS readout system consists of 192 readout boards to control the sensors and their power system, receive triggers, and deliver sensor data to the DAQ. To prototype various aspects of this readout system, an FPGA based carrier board and an associated FMC daughter card containing the CERN Gigabit Transceiver (GBT) chipset have been developed. This contribution describes laboratory and radiation testing results with this prototype board set.

  14. Point-source reconstruction with a sparse light-sensor array for optical TPC readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, G.; Richards, M.; Bennieston, A. J.; Ramachers, Y. A.

    2011-07-01

    A reconstruction technique for sparse array optical signal readout is introduced and applied to the generic challenge of large-area readout of a large number of point light sources. This challenge finds a prominent example in future, large volume neutrino detector studies based on liquid argon. It is concluded that the sparse array option may be ruled out for reasons of required number of channels when compared to a benchmark derived from charge readout on wire-planes. Smaller-scale detectors, however, could benefit from this technology.

  15. Exploration of synchrotron Mossbauer micrscopy with micrometer resolution: forward and a new backscattering modality on natural samples

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, L.; Zhao, J.; Toellner, T.S.; Divan, R.; Xu, S.; Cai, Z.; Boesenberg, J.S.; Freidrich, J.M.; Cramer, S.P.; Alp, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    New aspects of synchrotron Moessbauer microscopy are presented. A 5 {micro}m spatial resolution is achieved, and sub-micrometer resolution is envisioned. Two distinct and unique methods, synchrotron Moessbauer imaging and nuclear resonant incoherent X-ray imaging, are used to resolve spatial distribution of species that are chemically and magnetically distinct from one another. Proof-of-principle experiments were performed on enriched {sup 57}Fe phantoms, and on samples with natural isotopic abundance, such as meteorites.

  16. A 0.18 micrometer CMOS Thermopile Readout ASIC Immune to 50 MRAD Total Ionizing Dose (SI) and Single Event Latchup to 174MeV-cm(exp 2)/mg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilligan, Gerard T.; Aslam, Shahid; Lakew, Brook; DuMonthier, Jeffery J.; Katz, Richard B.; Kleyner, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Radiation hardened by design (RHBD) techniques allow commercial CMOS circuits to operate in high total ionizing dose and particle fluence environments. Our radiation hard multi-channel digitizer (MCD) ASIC (Figure 1) is a versatile analog system on a chip (SoC) fabricated in 180nm CMOS. It provides 18 chopper stabilized amplifier channels, a 16- bit sigma-delta analog-digital converter (SDADC) and an on-chip controller. The MCD was evaluated at Goddard Space Flight Center and Texas A&M University's radiation effects facilities and found to be immune to single event latchup (SEL) and total ionizing dose (TID) at 174 MeV-cm(exp 2)/mg and 50 Mrad (Si) respectively.

  17. Merlin: a fast versatile readout system for Medipix3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plackett, R.; Horswell, I.; Gimenez, E. N.; Marchal, J.; Omar, D.; Tartoni, N.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports on the development of a new high rate readout system for the Medipix3 hybrid pixel ASIC developed by the Detector Group at Diamond Light Source. It details the current functionality of the system and initial results from tests on Diamond's B16 beamline. The Merlin system is based on a National Instruments PXI/FlexRIO system running a Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA. It is capable of recording Medipix3 256 by 256 by 12 bit data frames at over 1 kHz in bursts of 1200 frames and running at over 100 Hz continuously to disk or over a TCP/IP link. It is compatible with the standard Medipix3 single chipboards developed at CERN and is capable of driving them over cable lengths of up to 10 m depending on the data rate required. In addition to a standalone graphical interface, a system of remote TCP/IP control and data transfer has been developed to allow easy integration with third party control systems and scripting languages. Two Merlin systems are being deployed on the B16 and I16 beamlines at Diamond and the system has been integrated with the EPICS/GDA control systems used. Results from trigger synchronisation, fast burst and high rate tests made on B16 in March are reported and demonstrate an encouraging reliability and timing accuracy. In addition to normal high resolution imaging applications of Medipix3, the results indicate the system could profitably be used in `pump and probe' style experiments, where a very accurate, high frame rate is especially beneficial. In addition to these two systems, Merlin is being used by the Detector Group to test the Excalibur 16 chip hybrid modules, and by the LHCb VELO Pixel Upgrade group in their forthcoming testbeams. Additionally the contribution looks forward to further developments and improvements in the system, including full rate quad chip readout capability, multi-FPGA support, long distance optical communication and further functionality enhancements built on the capabilities of the Medipix3 chips.

  18. Resistive graphene humidity sensors with rapid and direct electrical readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anderson D.; Elgammal, Karim; Niklaus, Frank; Delin, Anna; Fischer, Andreas C.; Vaziri, Sam; Forsberg, Fredrik; Råsander, Mikael; Hugosson, Håkan; Bergqvist, Lars; Schröder, Stephan; Kataria, Satender; Östling, Mikael; Lemme, Max C.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate humidity sensing using a change of the electrical resistance of single-layer chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene that is placed on top of a SiO2 layer on a Si wafer. To investigate the selectivity of the sensor towards the most common constituents in air, its signal response was characterized individually for water vapor (H2O), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar). In order to assess the humidity sensing effect for a range from 1% relative humidity (RH) to 96% RH, the devices were characterized both in a vacuum chamber and in a humidity chamber at atmospheric pressure. The measured response and recovery times of the graphene humidity sensors are on the order of several hundred milliseconds. Density functional theory simulations are employed to further investigate the sensitivity of the graphene devices towards water vapor. The interaction between the electrostatic dipole moment of the water and the impurity bands in the SiO2 substrate leads to electrostatic doping of the graphene layer. The proposed graphene sensor provides rapid response direct electrical readout and is compatible with back end of the line (BEOL) integration on top of CMOS-based integrated circuits.We demonstrate humidity sensing using a change of the electrical resistance of single-layer chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene that is placed on top of a SiO2 layer on a Si wafer. To investigate the selectivity of the sensor towards the most common constituents in air, its signal response was characterized individually for water vapor (H2O), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar). In order to assess the humidity sensing effect for a range from 1% relative humidity (RH) to 96% RH, the devices were characterized both in a vacuum chamber and in a humidity chamber at atmospheric pressure. The measured response and recovery times of the graphene humidity sensors are on the order of several hundred milliseconds. Density functional theory simulations are employed to further

  19. SOFIA Observations of SN 2010jl: Another Non-Detection of the 9.7 Micrometer Silicate Dust Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Fox, Ori D.

    2015-01-01

    We present photometric observations from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) at 11.1 micrometers of the Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) 2010jl. The SN is undetected by SOFIA, but the upper limits obtained, combined with new and archival detections from Spitzer at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, allow us to characterize the composition of the dust present. Dust in other SN IIn has been shown in previous works to reside in a circumstellar shell of material ejected by the progenitor system in the few millennia prior to explosion. Our model fits show that the dust in the system shows no evidence for the strong, ubiquitous 9.7 micrometer feature from silicate dust, suggesting the presence of carbonaceous grains. The observations are best fit with 0.01-0.05 solar mass of carbonaceous dust radiating at a temperature of approximately 550-620 degrees Kelvin. The dust composition may reveal clues concerning the nature of the progenitor system, which remains ambiguous for this subclass. Most of the single star progenitor systems proposed for SNe IIn, such as luminous blue variables, red supergiants, yellow hypergiants, and B[e] stars, all clearly show silicate dust in their pre-SN outflows. However, this post-SN result is consistent with the small sample of SNe IIn with mid-infrared observations, none of which show signs of emission from silicate dust in their infrared spectra.

  20. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the

  1. Development of a high-resolution automatic digital (urine/electrolytes) flow volume and rate measurement system of miniature size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    To aid in the quantitative analysis of man's physiological rhythms, a flowmeter to measure circadian patterns of electrolyte excretion during various environmental stresses was developed. One initial flowmeter was designed and fabricated, the sensor of which is the approximate size of a wristwatch. The detector section includes a special type of dielectric integrating type sensor which automatically controls, activates, and deactivates the flow sensor data output by determining the presence or absence of fluid flow in the system, including operation under zero-G conditions. The detector also provides qualitative data on the composition of the fluid. A compact electronic system was developed to indicate flow rate as well as total volume per release or the cumulative volume of several releases in digital/analog forms suitable for readout or telemetry. A suitable data readout instrument is also provided. Calibration and statistical analyses of the performance functions required of the flowmeter were also conducted.

  2. Multiplexed fluorescence readout using time responses of color coded signals for biomolecular detection.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Fluorescence readout is an important technique for detecting biomolecules. In this paper, we present a multiplexed fluorescence readout method using time varied fluorescence signals. To generate the fluorescence signals, coded strands and a set of universal molecular beacons are introduced. Each coded strand represents the existence of an assigned target molecule. The coded strands have coded sequences to generate temporary fluorescence signals through binding to the molecular beacons. The signal generating processes are modeled based on the reaction kinetics between the coded strands and molecular beacons. The model is used to decode the detected fluorescence signals using maximum likelihood estimation. Multiplexed fluorescence readout was experimentally demonstrated with three molecular beacons. Numerical analysis showed that the readout accuracy was enhanced by the use of time-varied fluorescence signals.

  3. Advances in Discrete GaAs JFETs and Simple Amplifiers for Deep Cryogenic Readouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. J.; Fitzsimmons, M.

    1998-01-01

    The progress of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in developing gallium arsenide junction field-effect transistors (GaAs JFETs) for application in infrared readout electronics operating below 10 Kelvin is discussed.

  4. All-in-one readout electronics for the Belle-II Central Drift Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Nanae; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Yoshihito; Saito, Masatoshi; Shimazaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Manobu; Uchida, Tomohisa; Uno, Shoji

    2013-12-01

    For the Belle-II experiment at KEK, a Central Drift Chamber (CDC) with readout electronics is required to be upgraded to cope with the design luminosity of 8×1035 cm-2 s-1. Not only the readout electronics will be completely replaced, but also the wire chamber itself. The new readout electronics system must handle higher trigger rates with less dead time. The front-end electronics are located close to detector and send digitized signal through optical fibers. The Amp-Shaper-Discriminator chips, FADC and FPGA are assembled on a single board. This paper will give an overview of the Belle-II CDC and present results of the performance of the readout board in a test beam.

  5. Front-end module readout and control electronics for the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, M.N.; Allen, M.D.; Boissevain, J.

    1997-11-01

    Front-end module (FEM) readout and control are implemented as modular, high-density, reprogrammable functions in the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector. FEM control is performed by the heap manager, an FPGA-based circuit in the FEM unit. Each FEM has 256 channels of front-end electronics, readout, and control, all located on an MCM. Data readout, formatting, and control are performed by the heap manager along with 4 interface units that reside outside the MVD detector cylinder. This paper discusses the application of a generic heap manager and the addition of 4 interface module types to meet the specific control and data readout needs of the MVD. Unit functioning, interfaces, timing, data format, and communication rates will be discussed in detail. In addition, subsystem issues regarding mode control, serial architecture and functions, error handling, and FPGA implementation and programming will be presented.

  6. Multiplexed fluorescence readout using time responses of color coded signals for biomolecular detection

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence readout is an important technique for detecting biomolecules. In this paper, we present a multiplexed fluorescence readout method using time varied fluorescence signals. To generate the fluorescence signals, coded strands and a set of universal molecular beacons are introduced. Each coded strand represents the existence of an assigned target molecule. The coded strands have coded sequences to generate temporary fluorescence signals through binding to the molecular beacons. The signal generating processes are modeled based on the reaction kinetics between the coded strands and molecular beacons. The model is used to decode the detected fluorescence signals using maximum likelihood estimation. Multiplexed fluorescence readout was experimentally demonstrated with three molecular beacons. Numerical analysis showed that the readout accuracy was enhanced by the use of time-varied fluorescence signals. PMID:28018742

  7. High Speed Buffered Injection Readout for Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, B.; Shaw, T.; Eastwood, M.; Green, R. O.

    1998-01-01

    Design and operation of a high speed, low noise, wide dynamic range linear infrared multiplexer array for readout of infrared detectors with large detector capacitance is presented. Image lag related to abrupt transitions of signal currents is analyzed.

  8. Automatic transmission structure

    SciTech Connect

    Iwase, Y.; Morisawa, K.

    1987-03-24

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an output shaft of the transmission including a stepped portion; a parking gear spline-connected with the output shaft on a first side of the stepped portion; a plurality of governor values mounted on a rear side of the parking gear and radially disposed around the output shaft on the first side of the stepped portion; a speed meter drive gear spline-connected with the output shaft on a second side of the stepped portion and on a rear side of the governor valves; and an annular spacer fitted on the output shaft on the second side of the stepped portion between the governor valves and the speed meter drive gear to abut on each of the governor valves and the speed meter drive gear. The annular member is constructed separately from the speed meter drive gear and has an outer diameter larger than an outer diameter of the speed meter drive gear thereby resulting in a contact area between the annular space and the speed meter drive gear which is smaller than a contact area between the annular spacer and the rear side of the governor valves; the drive gear being axially secured relative to the output shaft by a bearing thereby enabling a fixed axial positioning of the annular spacer on the output shaft.

  9. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  10. Automatic Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Robotic welding has been of interest to industrial firms because it offers higher productivity at lower cost than manual welding. There are some systems with automated arc guidance available, but they have disadvantages, such as limitations on types of materials or types of seams that can be welded; susceptibility to stray electrical signals; restricted field of view; or tendency to contaminate the weld seam. Wanting to overcome these disadvantages, Marshall Space Flight Center, aided by Hayes International Corporation, developed system that uses closed-circuit TV signals for automatic guidance of the welding torch. NASA granted license to Combined Technologies, Inc. for commercial application of the technology. They developed a refined and improved arc guidance system. CTI in turn, licensed the Merrick Corporation, also of Nashville, for marketing and manufacturing of the new system, called the CT2 Optical Trucker. CT2 is a non-contracting system that offers adaptability to broader range of welding jobs and provides greater reliability in high speed operation. It is extremely accurate and can travel at high speed of up to 150 inches per minute.

  11. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  12. Automatic aircraft recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  13. Comparing readout strategies to directly detect dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billard, J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, several ideas and technologies have been developed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) from the galactic halo. All these detection strategies share the common goal of discriminating a WIMP signal from the residual backgrounds. By directly detecting WIMPs, one can measure some or all of the observables associated to each nuclear recoil candidates, such as their energy and direction. In this study, we compare and examine the discovery potentials of each readout strategies from counting only (bubble chambers) to directional detectors (Time Projection Chambers) with 1d-, 2d-, and 3d-sensitivity. Using a profile likelihood analysis, we show that, in the case of a large and irreducible background contamination characterized by an energy distribution similar to the expected WIMP signal, directional information can improve the sensitivity of the experiment by several orders of magnitude. We also found that 1d directional detection is only less effective than a full 3d directional sensitivity by about a factor of 3, or 10 if we assume no sense recognition, still improving by a factor of 2 or more if only the energy of the events is being measured.

  14. A CMOS Smart Temperature and Humidity Sensor with Combined Readout

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Clemens; Valente, Virgilio; Donaldson, Nick; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A fully-integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor for combined temperature and humidity measurements is presented. The main purpose of the device is to monitor the hermeticity of micro-packages for implanted integrated circuits and to ensure their safe operation by monitoring the operating temperature and humidity on-chip. The smart sensor has two modes of operation, in which either the temperature or humidity is converted into a digital code representing a frequency ratio between two oscillators. This ratio is determined by the ratios of the timing capacitances and bias currents in both oscillators. The reference oscillator is biased by a current whose temperature dependency is complementary to the proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) current. For the temperature measurement, this results in an exceptional normalized sensitivity of about 0.77%/°C at the accepted expense of reduced linearity. The humidity sensor is a capacitor, whose value varies linearly with relative humidity (RH) with a normalized sensitivity of 0.055%/% RH. For comparison, two versions of the humidity sensor with an area of either 0.2 mm2 or 1.2 mm2 were fabricated in a commercial 0.18 μm CMOS process. The on-chip readout electronics operate from a 5 V power supply and consume a current of approximately 85 μA. PMID:25230305

  15. Automation of fluorescent differential display with digital readout.

    PubMed

    Meade, Jonathan D; Cho, Yong-Jig; Fisher, Jeffrey S; Walden, Jamie C; Guo, Zhen; Liang, Peng

    2006-01-01

    Since its invention in 1992, differential display (DD) has become the most commonly used technique for identifying differentially expressed genes because of its many advantages over competing technologies such as DNA microarray, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), and subtractive hybridization. Despite the great impact of the method on biomedical research, there has been a lack of automation of DD technology to increase its throughput and accuracy for systematic gene expression analysis. Most of previous DD work has taken a "shot-gun" approach of identifying one gene at a time, with a limited number of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reactions set up manually, giving DD a low-tech and low-throughput image. We have optimized the DD process with a new platform that incorporates fluorescent digital readout, automated liquid handling, and large-format gels capable of running entire 96-well plates. The resulting streamlined fluorescent DD (FDD) technology offers an unprecedented accuracy, sensitivity, and throughput in comprehensive and quantitative analysis of gene expression. These major improvements will allow researchers to find differentially expressed genes of interest, both known and novel, quickly and easily.

  16. Fast, High-Precision Readout Circuit for Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, David M.; Hancock, Bruce R.; Key, Richard W.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Wrigley, Chris J.; Seshadri, Suresh; Sander, Stanley P.; Blavier, Jean-Francois L.

    2013-01-01

    The GEO-CAPE mission described in NASA's Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey requires high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution measurements to monitor and characterize the rapidly changing chemistry of the troposphere over North and South Americas. High-frame-rate focal plane arrays (FPAs) with many pixels are needed to enable such measurements. A high-throughput digital detector readout integrated circuit (ROIC) that meets the GEO-CAPE FPA needs has been developed, fabricated, and tested. The ROIC is based on an innovative charge integrating, fast, high-precision analog-to-digital circuit that is built into each pixel. The 128×128-pixel ROIC digitizes all 16,384 pixels simultaneously at frame rates up to 16 kHz to provide a completely digital output on a single integrated circuit at an unprecedented rate of 262 million pixels per second. The approach eliminates the need for off focal plane electronics, greatly reducing volume, mass, and power compared to conventional FPA implementations. A focal plane based on this ROIC will require less than 2 W of power on a 1×1-cm integrated circuit. The ROIC is fabricated of silicon using CMOS technology. It is designed to be indium bump bonded to a variety of detector materials including silicon PIN diodes, indium antimonide (InSb), indium gallium arsenide (In- GaAs), and mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) detector arrays to provide coverage over a broad spectral range in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet spectral ranges.

  17. Thermal Neutron Detectors with Discrete Anode Pad Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,B.; Schaknowski, N.A., Smith, G.C., DeGeronimo, G., Vernon, E.O.

    2008-10-19

    A new two-dimensional thermal neutron detector concept that is capable of very high rates is being developed. It is based on neutron conversion in {sup 3}He in an ionization chamber (unity gas gain) that uses only a cathode and anode plane; there is no additional electrode such as a Frisch grid. The cathode is simply the entrance window, and the anode plane is composed of discrete pads, each with their own readout electronics implemented via application specific integrated circuits. The aim is to provide a new generation of detectors with key characteristics that are superior to existing techniques, such as higher count rate capability, better stability, lower sensitivity to background radiation, and more flexible geometries. Such capabilities will improve the performance of neutron scattering instruments at major neutron user facilities. In this paper, we report on progress with the development of a prototype device that has 48 x 48 anode pads and a sensitive area of 24cm x 24cm.

  18. Development of the Readout Controller for Infrared Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seounghyun; Jin, Ho; Nam, Uk-Won; Cha, Sang-Mok; Lee, Sungho; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Youngsik; Pak, Soojong; Han, Wonyong; Kim, Sungsoo

    2006-12-01

    We have developed a control electronics system for an infrared detector array of KASINICS (KASI Near Infrared Camera System), which is a new ground-based instrument of the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). Equipped with a 512×512 InSb array (ALADDIN III Quadrant, manufactured by Raytheon) sensitive from 1 to 5 μm, KASINICS will be used at J, H, Ks, and L-bands. The controller consists of DSP (Digital Signal Processor), Bias, Clock, and Video boards which are installed on a single VME-bus backplane. TMS320C6713DSP, FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), and 384-MB SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) are included in the DSP board. DSP board manages entire electronics system, generates digital clock patterns and communicates with a PC using USB 2.0 interface. The clock patterns are downloaded from a PC and stored on the FPGA. UART is used for the communication with peripherals. Video board has 4 channel ADC which converts video signal into 16-bit digital numbers. Two video boards are installed on the controller for ALADDIN array. The Bias board provides 16 dc bias voltages and the Clock board has 15 clock channels. We have also coded a DSP firmware and a test version of control software in C-language. The controller is flexible enough to operate a wide range of IR array and CCD. Operational tests of the controller have been successfully finished using a test ROIC (Read-Out Integrated Circuit).

  19. X-ray and gamma ray detector readout system

    DOEpatents

    Tumer, Tumay O; Clajus, Martin; Visser, Gerard

    2010-10-19

    A readout electronics scheme is under development for high resolution, compact PET (positron emission tomography) imagers based on LSO (lutetium ortho-oxysilicate, Lu.sub.2SiO.sub.5) scintillator and avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays. The key is to obtain sufficient timing and energy resolution at a low power level, less than about 30 mW per channel, including all required functions. To this end, a simple leading edge level crossing discriminator is used, in combination with a transimpedance preamplifier. The APD used has a gain of order 1,000, and an output noise current of several pA/ Hz, allowing bipolar technology to be used instead of CMOS, for increased speed and power efficiency. A prototype of the preamplifier and discriminator has been constructed, achieving timing resolution of 1.5 ns FWHM, 2.7 ns full width at one tenth maximum, relative to an LSO/PMT detector, and an energy resolution of 13.6% FWHM at 511 keV, while operating at a power level of 22 mW per channel. Work is in progress towards integration of this preamplifier and discriminator with appropriate coincidence logic and amplitude measurement circuits in an ASIC suitable for a high resolution compact PET instrument. The detector system and/or ASIC can also be used for many other applications for medical to industrial imaging.

  20. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubilato, P.; Battaglia, M.; Bisello, D.; Caselle, M.; Chalmet, P.; Demaria, L.; Ikemoto, Y.; Kloukinas, K.; Mansuy, S. C.; Mattiazzo, S.; Marchioro, A.; Mugnier, H.; Pantano, D.; Potenza, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rousset, J.; Silvestrin, L.; Snoeys, W.

    2013-12-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV 55Fe double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10-20 μm pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a completely new compressing architecture has been devised. This architecture departs from the mainstream hybrid pixel sparsification approach, which uses in-pixel logic to reduce data, by using topological compression to minimize pixel area and power consumption.

  1. Toward a Reduced-Wire Readout System for Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jaemyung; Arkan, Evren F.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    We present a system-on-a-chip (SoC) for use in high-frequency capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) imaging systems. This SoC consists of trans-impedance amplifiers (TIA), delay locked loop (DLL) based clock multiplier, quadrature sampler, and pulse width modulator (PWM). The SoC down converts RF echo signal to baseband by quadrature sampling which facilitates modulation. To send data through a 1.6 m wire in the catheter which has limited bandwidth and is vulnerable to noise, the SoC creates a pseudo-digital PWM signal which can be used for back telemetry or wireless readout of the RF data. In this implementation, using a 0.35-μm std. CMOS process, the TIA and single-to-differential (STD) converter had 45 MHz bandwidth, the quadrature sampler had 10.1 dB conversion gain, and the PWM had 5-bit ENoB. Preliminary results verified front-end functionality, and the power consumption of a TIA, STD, quadrature sampler, PWM, and clock multiplier was 26 mW from a 3 V supply. PMID:25571135

  2. Longitudinally segmented shashlik calorimeters with SiPM readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, A.; Cecchini, S.; Cindolo, F.; Ferdinando, D. Di; Jollet, C.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Meregaglia, A.; Paoloni, A.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Prest, M.; Sirri, G.; Terranova, F.; Vallazza, E.; Votano, L.

    2017-02-01

    The goal of the INFN SCENTT R&D project is to develop the calorimeter technologies for the instrumentation of decay tunnels in conventional neutrino beams. This instrumentation is required to achieve a substantial improvement in the uncertainty on neutrino fluxes for the next generation cross section experiments. In particular, we are designing a positron tagger based on purely calorimetric techniques that is able to measure the rate and the spectrum of the positrons produced in the K+ →e+π0νe decay. The νe flux is inferred from the positron rate in the decay tunnel. Considering the large dimensions of the tagger, the most cost effective technology is based on small modules of Fe/Scintillator shashlik calorimeters, with adequate segmentation and energy resolution to efficiently tag the positrons over the charged pion background. This contribution presents preliminary results obtained with two shashlik calorimeter prototypes readout with an array of Silicon PhotoMultipliers and tested at the CERN PS-T9 beamline.

  3. A CMOS smart temperature and humidity sensor with combined readout.

    PubMed

    Eder, Clemens; Valente, Virgilio; Donaldson, Nick; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2014-09-16

    A fully-integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor for combined temperature and humidity measurements is presented. The main purpose of the device is to monitor the hermeticity of micro-packages for implanted integrated circuits and to ensure their safe operation by monitoring the operating temperature and humidity on-chip. The smart sensor has two modes of operation, in which either the temperature or humidity is converted into a digital code representing a frequency ratio between two oscillators. This ratio is determined by the ratios of the timing capacitances and bias currents in both oscillators. The reference oscillator is biased by a current whose temperature dependency is complementary to the proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) current. For the temperature measurement, this results in an exceptional normalized sensitivity of about 0.77%/°C at the accepted expense of reduced linearity. The humidity sensor is a capacitor, whose value varies linearly with relative humidity (RH) with a normalized sensitivity of 0.055%/% RH. For comparison, two versions of the humidity sensor with an area of either 0.2 mm2 or 1.2 mm2 were fabricated in a commercial 0.18 μm CMOS process. The on-chip readout electronics operate from a 5 V power supply and consume a current of approximately 85 µA.

  4. Spectrophotometric readout for an alanine dosimeter for food irradiation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebraheem, S.; Beshir, W. B.; Eid, S.; Sobhy, R.; Kovács, A.

    2003-06-01

    The alanine-electron spin resonance (EPR) readout system is well known as a reference and transfer dosimetry system for the evaluation of high doses in radiation processing. The high cost of an EPR/alanine dosimetry system is a serious handicap for large-scale routine application in irradiation facilities. In this study, the use of a complex produced by dissolving irradiated L-alanine in 1,4-phenyl diammonium dichloride solution was investigated for dosimetry purposes. This complex—having a purple colour—has an increasing absorbance with increasing dose in the range of 1-20 kGy. The applicability of spectrophotometric evaluation was studied by measuring the absorbance intensity of this complex at 360 and 505 nm, respectively. Fluorimetric evaluation was also investigated by measuring the emission of the complex at 435 nm as a function of dose. The present method is easy for routine application. The effect of the dye concentration as well as the suitable amount of irradiated alanine has been studied. With respect to routine application, the stability of the product complex after its formation was also investigated.

  5. A Trigger And Readout Scheme For Future Cherenkov Telescope Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, G.; Bauer, C.; Foehr, C.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.

    2008-12-24

    The next generation of ground-based gamma-ray observatories, such as e.g. CTA will consists of about 50-100 Telescopes, and cameras with in total {approx}100000 to {approx}200000 channels. The telescopes of the core array will cover and effective area of {approx}1 km{sup 2} and will be possibly accompanied by a large 'halo' of smaller telescopes spread over about 10 km{sup 2}. In order to make maximum use of the stereoscopic approach, a very flexible inter-telescope trigger scheme is needed which will allow to couple telescopes that located up to {approx}1 km apart. At the same time, the development of a cost effective readout scheme for the camera signals exhibits a major technological challenge. Here we present ideas on a new asynchronous inter-telescope trigger scheme, and a very cost-effective, high-bandwidth frontend to backend data transfer system, both based on standard Ethernet components and an Ethernet front-end interface based on mass production standard FPGAs.

  6. TELL1: development of a common readout board for LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legger, Federica; Bay, Aurelio; Haefeli, Guido; Locatelli, Laurent

    2004-12-01

    LHCb is one of the four experiments currently under construction at LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN, and its aim is the study of b-quark physics (LHCb Collaboration, CERN-LHCC/98-4). LHCb trigger strategy is based on three levels, and will reduce the event rate from 40 MHz to a few hundred Hz (LHCb Collaboration, CERN/LHCC 2003-031, LHCb TDR 10, September 2003). The first two levels (L0 and L1) will use signals from some part of the detector in order to take fast decisions, while the last one, called High Level Trigger (HLT), will have access to the full event data. An "off detector" readout board (TELL1) has been developed and will be used by the majority of LHCb subdetectors. It takes L0 accepted data as input and, after data processing which includes event synchronization, L1 Trigger pre-processing and zero suppression, L1 buffering, and HLT zero suppression, the output is sent to L1 Trigger and HLT .

  7. Toward a reduced-wire readout system for ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jaemyung; Arkan, Evren F; Degertekin, F Levent; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    We present a system-on-a-chip (SoC) for use in high-frequency capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) imaging systems. This SoC consists of trans-impedance amplifiers (TIA), delay locked loop (DLL) based clock multiplier, quadrature sampler, and pulse width modulator (PWM). The SoC down converts RF echo signal to baseband by quadrature sampling which facilitates modulation. To send data through a 1.6 m wire in the catheter which has limited bandwidth and is vulnerable to noise, the SoC creates a pseudo-digital PWM signal which can be used for back telemetry or wireless readout of the RF data. In this implementation, using a 0.35-μm std. CMOS process, the TIA and single-to-differential (STD) converter had 45 MHz bandwidth, the quadrature sampler had 10.1 dB conversion gain, and the PWM had 5-bit ENoB. Preliminary results verified front-end functionality, and the power consumption of a TIA, STD, quadrature sampler, PWM, and clock multiplier was 26 mW from a 3 V supply.

  8. ASIC Readout Circuit Architecture for Large Geiger Photodiode Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasile, Stefan; Lipson, Jerold

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new class of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) arrays to be operated with Geiger avalanche photodiode (GPD) arrays, by integrating multiple functions at the pixel level (smart-pixel or active pixel technology) in 250-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) processes. In order to pack a maximum of functions within a minimum pixel size, the ROIC array is a full, custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design using a mixed-signal CMOS process with compact primitive layout cells. The ROIC array was processed to allow assembly in bump-bonding technology with photon-counting infrared detector arrays into 3-D imaging cameras (LADAR). The ROIC architecture was designed to work with either common- anode Si GPD arrays or common-cathode InGaAs GPD arrays. The current ROIC pixel design is hardwired prior to processing one of the two GPD array configurations, and it has the provision to allow soft reconfiguration to either array (to be implemented into the next ROIC array generation). The ROIC pixel architecture implements the Geiger avalanche quenching, bias, reset, and time to digital conversion (TDC) functions in full-digital design, and uses time domain over-sampling (vernier) to allow high temporal resolution at low clock rates, increased data yield, and improved utilization of the laser beam.

  9. Electrostatic readout of DNA microarrays with charged microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Clack, Nathan G; Salaita, Khalid; Groves, Jay T

    2014-01-01

    DNA microarrays are used for gene-expression profiling, single-nucleotide polymorphism detection and disease diagnosis1–3. A persistent challenge in this area is the lack of microarray screening technology suitable for integration into routine clinical care4,5. Here, we describe a method for sensitive and label-free electrostatic readout of DNA or RNA hybridization on microarrays. The electrostatic properties of the microarray are measured from the position and motion of charged microspheres randomly dispersed over the surface. We demonstrate nondestructive electrostatic imaging with 10-μm lateral resolution over centimeter-length scales, which is four-orders of magnitude larger than that achievable with conventional scanning electrostatic force microscopy. Changes in surface charge density as a result of specific hybridization can be detected and quantified with 50-pM sensitivity, single base-pair mismatch selectivity and in the presence of complex background. Because the naked eye is sufficient to read out hybridization, this approach may facilitate broad application of multiplexed assays. PMID:18587384

  10. Airbag accelerometer with a simple switched-capacitor readout ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsugai, Masahiro; Hirata, Yoshiaki; Tanimoto, Koji; Usami, Teruo; Araki, Toru; Otani, Hiroshi

    1997-09-01

    A bulk micromachined capacitive accelerometer for airbag applications based on (110) silicon anisotropic KOH etching is presented. The sensor is a two-chip accelerometer that consists of a glass-silicon-glass stacked sense element and an interface ASIC containing an impedance converter for capacitance detection, an EPROM and DACs for digital trimming, and a self-test feature for diagnosis. A simple switched-capacitor readout circuit with DC offset error cancellation scheme is proposed as the impedance converter. The dependence of narrow gap etching, surface roughness, and uniformity of the groove depth on the KOH concentration are also investigated for the fabrication of the device, and it is shown that the etch rate of the plane intrinsically controls the depth of the narrow gap with a KOH concentration of over 30 wt. percent, and smooth surface and uniformity of groove depth are obtained at 40 wt. percent KOH. The nonlinearity of the output is about 1.5 percent FS. The temperature coefficient of sensitivity and the off-axis sensitivity are 150 ppm/degree C and 2 percent respectively. The dimensions of the sensor are 10.3 X 10.3 X 3 mm.

  11. Pad Plane Design and Readout for SAMURAI TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, J.; Chajecki, Z.; Chan, C. F.; Dunn, J. W.; Estee, J.; Gilbert, J.; Lu, F.; Lynch, W. G.; Shane, R.; Tsang, M. B.; McIntosh, A. B.; Yenello, S. J.; Famiano, M.; Isobe, T.; Sakurai, H.; Taketani, A.; Murakami, T.; Samurai-Tpc Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The SAMURAI TPC is being built at Michigan State University to be used in the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIKEN in Japan, as part of the Symmetry Energy project, which focuses on obtaining constraints on the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities. The presentation will discuss the development of the TPC as well as design for readout plane design for the TPC. These involve enabling the use of existing and future front end electronics (FEE), making the most of limited space, designing a circuit board for the pad plane, and techniques to glue the pad plane. The pad plane has been designed to work with either STAR or AGET electronics. The pad plane is made of a circuit board designed to minimize crosstalk and capacitance. The board must be built in smaller pieces and tiled, using alignment pins and precision gluing. Prototypes for the pad plane to FEE connection, pad plane gluing and STAR card mounting will be presented. Supported by the Department of Energy under Grant DE-SC0004835.

  12. Electrostatic readout of DNA microarrays with charged microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Clack, Nathan G.; Salaita, Khalid; Groves, Jay T.

    2008-06-29

    DNA microarrays are used for gene-expression profiling, single-nucleotide polymorphism detection and disease diagnosis. A persistent challenge in this area is the lack of microarray screening technology suitable for integration into routine clinical care. In this paper, we describe a method for sensitive and label-free electrostatic readout of DNA or RNA hybridization on microarrays. The electrostatic properties of the microarray are measured from the position and motion of charged microspheres randomly dispersed over the surface. We demonstrate nondestructive electrostatic imaging with 10-μm lateral resolution over centimeter-length scales, which is four-orders of magnitude larger than that achievable with conventional scanning electrostatic force microscopy. Changes in surface charge density as a result of specific hybridization can be detected and quantified with 50-pM sensitivity, single base-pair mismatch selectivity and in the presence of complex background. Lastly, because the naked eye is sufficient to read out hybridization, this approach may facilitate broad application of multiplexed assays.

  13. A Radiation Hardened by Design CMOS ASIC for Thermopile Readouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilligan, G.; Aslam, S.; DuMonthier, J.

    2012-01-01

    A radiation hardened by design (RHBD) mixed-signal application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has been designed for a thermopile readout for operation in the harsh Jovian orbital environment. The multi-channel digitizer (MCD) ASIC includes 18 low noise amplifier channels which have tunable gain/filtering coefficients, a 16-bit sigma-delta analog-digital converter (SDADC) and an on-chip controller. The 18 channels, SDADC and controller were designed to operate with immunity to single event latchup (SEL) and to at least 10 Mrad total ionizing dose (TID). The ASIC also contains a radiation tolerant 16-bit 20 MHz Nyquist ADC for general purpose instrumentation digitizer needs. The ASIC is currently undergoing fabrication in a commercial 180 nm CMOS process. Although this ASIC was designed specifically for the harsh radiation environment of the NASA led JEO mission it is suitable for integration into instrumentation payloads 011 the ESA JUICE mission where the radiation hardness requirements are slightly less stringent.

  14. Scatterometry for semiconductor sub-micrometer and nanometer critical dimension metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Assaad, Rayan M.

    Scatterometry1 is one optical measurement technique that has been explored extensively for semiconductor sub-micrometer dimensional metrology. The technique refers to the measurements of reflected power upon the interaction of an incident beam with some periodic surface (grating). The characteristics of the diffractive surface affect directly the acquired measurements. Therefore it is possible to resolve some information about the grating line profile and dimensions from the measurements, which is referred to as the inverse scatterometry problem. As technology is continuously pushing lithographic processes to sub-nanometer precision2, aspects of the inverse scatterometry problem related to the accurate estimation and modeling of errors and the enhancement of the optimization methods become of great importance. For this purpose the effects of measurement errors on the estimated grating profile are analyzed in this dissertation and optimization methods are proposed to improve the accuracies in the estimated geometrical parameters for various grating profiles in real experimental conditions. A technique based on the information content analysis of the measurement data is further suggested to reduce the number of measurements required without the loss in the solution accuracies resulting in lower cost and more suitable real time implementation. Theoretical and experimental results are presented to validate these studies where the solutions to the profile parameters are accomplished by implementing a linear regression technique3. In addition a new scheme is proposed to address resolving more difficult profile parameters with sub-wavelength dimensions (sub-100 nm) that are until now subject to ongoing investigation with inconclusive results. The proposed approach consists of using a large number of angular reflectance measurements with linearly polarized TM incidence. In the case where the profile dimensions are many times smaller than the light wavelength, the parameter

  15. Oxygen isotopic composition of micrometer-sized quartz grains in EPICA-Dome C ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmonte, B.; Hoppe, P.; Hellebrand, E.; Huth, J.; Petit, J.; Maggi, V.

    2006-12-01

    Depicting the geographic provenance of aeolian dust reaching the interior of the East Antarctic plateau is of primary importance for a thorough underst94anding of paleo-atmospheric circulation patterns. A geochemical approach based on the 87Sr/86Sr versus 143Nd/144Nd isotopic signature of mineral particles extracted from Antarctic ice cores and comparison with samples from the Potential Source Areas (PSA) of the Southern Hemisphere has been classically used. This allowed pointing out a dominant Southern South American provenance for dust in the EPICA-Dome C and Vostok ice cores during late Quaternary glacial stages. However, the Sr-Nd isotopic fields from other potential source regions did show a partial overlap with the South American and glacial dust fields, and complementary arguments had to be invoked to infer that their possible contribution is negligible. In this study, we propose a new approach for dust fingerprinting based on the 18O/16O ratios of micrometer- sized quartz grains (1 to 2 μm in size) entrapped in Antarctic ice. Micrometric quartz grains were first identified through SEM/EDX in a sample from the EPICA-Dome C ice core dating back the last glacial maximum. O-isotopic measurements on 25 single grains were performed with the NanoSIMS ion microprobe at the Max-Plank-Institute for Chemistry in Mainz. 18OSMOW values are between 2 and 43 per mil; however most 18OSMOW values fall within a gaussian distribution with a mean 18OSMOW of 25.5 per mil and standard deviation of 2.6 per mil (1^3). These results suggest that a significant contribution from Australian and New Zealand sources seems very unlikely during glacial stage 2, but unfortunately 18OSMOW values for small quartz grains from the Southern Hemisphere PSAs are very scarce. NanoSIMS O-isotopic measurements on Aeolian quartz grains entrapped in Antarctic ice by is a promising tool for investigating the geographic provenance of mineral dust in Quaternary times.

  16. Mid-infrared difference-frequency generation source pumped by 1.1-1.5 micrometer dual-wavelength fiber amplifier for trace-gas detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, L.; Koplow, J.; Lancaster, D. G.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.

    1998-01-01

    Continuous-wave mid-infrared radiation near 3.5 micrometers is generated by difference-frequency mixing of the output of a compact 1.1-1.5 micrometer dual-wavelength fiber amplifier in periodically poled LiNbO3. The diode side-pumped amplifier is constructed with double-cladding Yb-doped fiber followed by single-mode Er/Yb codoped fiber. Output powers of as much as 11 microW at 3.4 micrometers are obtained, and spectroscopic detection of CH4 and H2CO is demonstrated. c 1998 Optical Society of America.

  17. Event building for free-streaming readout in the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolko, I. E.; Prokudin, M. S.; Zaitsev, Yu M.

    2017-01-01

    CBM is the first experiment gaining advantage of free-streaming triggerless readout system. All readout channels of the detector going to work in self triggered mode. Dedicated methods are developed to extract individual events (collisions) from continuous information stream rejecting noise. Efficiency of the methods depends on projectile energy, masses of colliding nucleons, interaction and accelerator frequencies. Quality control of the algorithms and comparison of the methods require special efforts.

  18. The effect of dead-timeless silicon strip readout at CDF II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolder, A.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Goldstein, J.; Hill, C.; Stuart, D.; Volobouev, I.

    2003-03-01

    The Run IIa CDF Silicon Upgrade has recently finished installation. The detector uses revision D of the SVX3 readout IC. This final revision incorporated new features in order to improve the potential of dead-timeless operation. This paper describes measurements of dead-timeless effects on silicon strip readout on the test bench. This paper also describes tests of the dynamic pedestal subtraction circuitry, which is shown to improve greatly the dead-timeless performance of the silicon systems.

  19. Design of low-cross-talk readout pads for time projection chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, K.; Isobe, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Taketani, A.

    2012-06-01

    We are developing a readout pad for the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in the Superconducting Analyzer for the Multi-Particle Radio-Isotope beam (SAMURAI) spectrometer at RIKEN. The functionality of the TPC should have a wide dynamic range readout of 3200:1 for identifying injected particles. Therefore the transmission line in the TPC should have low crosstalk and high signal integrity. We describe development of the TPC pad using an electromagnetic and circuit simulator in this article.

  20. Titan's Aerosol and Stratospheric Ice Opacities Between 18 and 500 Micrometers: Vertical and Spectral Characteristics from Cassini CIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie M.; Samuelson, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Vertical distributions and spectral characteristics of Titan's photochemical aerosol and stratospheric ices are determined between 20 and 560 per centimeter (500-18 micrometers) from the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). Results are obtained for latitudes of 15 N, 15 S, and 58 S, where accurate temperature profiles can be independently determined. In addition, estimates of aerosol and ice abundances at 62 N relative to those at 15 S are derived. Aerosol abundances are comparable at the two latitudes, but stratospheric ices are approximately 3 times more abundant at 62 N than at 15 S. Generally, nitrile ice clouds (probably HCN and HC3N), as inferred from a composite emission feature at approximately 160 per centimeter, appear to be located over a narrow altitude range in the stratosphere centered at approximately 90 km. Although most abundant at high northern latitudes, these nitrile ice clouds extend down through low latitudes and into mid southern latitudes, at least as far as 58 S. There is some evidence of a second ice cloud layer at approximately 60 km altitude at 58 S associated with an emission feature at approximately 80 per centimeter. We speculate that the identify of this cloud may be due to C2H6 ice, which in the vapor phase is the most abundant hydrocarbon (next to CH4) in the stratosphere of Titan. Unlike the highly restricted range of altitudes (50-100 km) associated with organic condensate clouds, Titan's photochemical aerosol appears to be well-mixed from the surface to the top of the stratosphere near an altitude of 300 km, and the spectral shape does not appear to change between 15 N and 58 S latitude. The ratio of aerosol-to-gas scale heights range from 1.3-2.4 at about 160 km to 1.1-1.4 at 300 km, although there is considerable variability with latitude, The aerosol exhibits a very broad emission feature peaking at approximately 140 per centimeter. Due to its extreme breadth and low wavenumber, we speculate that this feature may

  1. A Triple-GEM Detector with Pixel Readout for High-Rate Beam Tracking in COMPASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, T.; Austregesilo, A.; Haas, F.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Krämer, M.; Mann, A.; Paul, S.

    2008-06-01

    For its physics program with a high-intensity hadron beam of 2 · 107 particles/s, the COMPASS experiment at CERN requires tracking of charged particles scattered by very small angles with respect to the incident beam direction. While good resolution in time and space is mandatory, the challenge is imposed by the high beam intensity, requiring radiation-hard detectors which add very little material to the beam path in order to minimise secondary interactions. To this end, a set of triple-GEM detectors with pixel readout in the beam region and 2-D strip readout in the periphery is currently being built. The pixel size has been chosen to be 1×1 mm2, which constitutes a compromise between the spatial resolution achievable and the number of readout channels. Surrounding the pixel area, a 2-D strip readout with a pitch of 400 μm has been realised on the same printed circuit foil. In total an active area of 10 × 10 cm2 is covered using 2048 readout channels. Analogue readout by the APV25 ASIC has been chosen in order to profit from amplitude measurements which help to improve the spatial resolution by clustering neighbouring hit strips or pixels. A detector prototype has been tested successfully in the 5 · 107 particles/s COMPASS muon beam, as well as in a focused hadron beam. The design of the detector and first results concerning its performance as a beam tracker will be presented.

  2. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

  3. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  4. Automatic pump for deep wells

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1981-11-24

    An automatic pump for deep wells comprises a long stroke reciprocating pump having its piston normally in its bottom position and an automatic control dependent upon the collection of a predetermined amount of liquid in the pump cylinder above the piston for actuating the piston to pump the liquid into a production line. The automatic control includes an electric motor driven hydraulic pump and a reservoir of hydraulic fluid which is actuated upon filling of the reciprocating pump chamber to supply hydraulic fluid to a closed chamber below the piston and force the piston upwardly to discharge liquid from the pump cylinder. Gas collected in the top of the pump cylinder results in low starting current and a saving of energy. The hydraulic pump is reversed automatically upon completion of the pumping stroke of the piston.

  5. Statistical Approaches to Automatic Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.

    1978-01-01

    Views automatic indexing as a two-tiered word frequency analysis that involves selection of a technical vocabulary and identification of document keywords. Assumptions, criteria, evaluation, and relevance are discussed. (JD)

  6. Automatic Classification in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsbergen, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Addresses the application of automatic classification methods to the problems associated with computerized document retrieval. Different kinds of classifications are described, and both document and term clustering methods are discussed. References and notes are provided. (Author/JD)

  7. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  8. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  9. The PCIe-based readout system for the LHCb experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachemiche, J. P.; Duval, P. Y.; Hachon, F.; Le Gac, R.; Réthoré, F.

    2016-02-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to study differences between particles and anti-particles as well as very rare decays in the beauty and charm sector at the LHC. The detector will be upgraded in 2019 in order to significantly increase its efficiency, by removing the first-level hardware trigger. The upgrade experiment will implement a trigger-less readout system in which all the data from every LHC bunch-crossing are transported to the computing farm over 12000 optical links without hardware filtering. The event building and event selection are carried out entirely in the farm. Another original feature of the system is that data transmitted through these fibres arrive directly to computers through a specially designed PCIe card called PCIe40. The same board handles the data acquisition flow and the distribution of fast and slow controls to the detector front-end electronics. It embeds one of the most powerful FPGAs currently available on the market with 1.2 million logic cells. The board has a bandwidth of 480 Gbits/s in both input and output over optical links and 100 Gbits/s over the PCI Express bus to the CPU. We will present how data circulate through the board and in the PC server for achieving the event building. We will focus on specific issues regarding the design of such a board with a very large FPGA, in particular in terms of power supply dimensioning and thermal simulations. The features of the board will be detailed and we will finally present the first performance measurements.

  10. Local readout enhancement for detuned signal-recycling interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Rehbein, Henning; Mueller-Ebhardt, Helge; Schnabel, Roman; Danzmann, Karsten; Somiya, Kentaro; Chen Yanbei; Li Chao

    2007-09-15

    High power detuned signal-recycling interferometers currently planned for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (for example Advanced LIGO) are characterized by two resonances in the detection band, an optical resonance and an optomechanical resonance which is upshifted from the suspension pendulum frequency due to the so-called optical-spring effect. The detector's sensitivity is enhanced around these two resonances. However, at frequencies below the optomechanical resonance frequency, the sensitivity of such interferometers is significantly lower than non-optical-spring configurations with comparable circulating power; such a drawback can also compromise high-frequency sensitivity, when an optimization is performed on the overall sensitivity of the interferometer to a class of sources. In this paper, we clarify the reason for such a low sensitivity, and propose a way to fix this problem. Motivated by the optical-bar scheme of Braginsky, Gorodetsky, and Khalili, we propose to add a local readout scheme which measures the motion of the arm-cavity front mirror, which at low frequencies moves together with the arm-cavity end mirror, under the influence of gravitational waves. This scheme improves the low-frequency quantum-noise-limited sensitivity of optical-spring interferometers significantly and can be considered as an incorporation of the optical-bar scheme into currently planned second-generation interferometers. On the other hand it can be regarded as an extension of the optical-bar scheme. Taking compact binary inspiral signals as an example, we illustrate how this scheme can be used to improve the sensitivity of the planned Advanced LIGO interferometer, in various scenarios, using a realistic classical-noise budget. We also discuss how this scheme can be implemented in Advanced LIGO with relative ease.

  11. Micrometer-sized water droplet impingement dynamics and evaporation on a flat dry surface.

    PubMed

    Briones, Alejandro M; Ervin, Jamie S; Putnam, Shawn A; Byrd, Larry W; Gschwender, Lois

    2010-08-17

    A comprehensive numerical and experimental investigation on micrometer-sized water droplet impact dynamics and evaporation on an unheated, flat, dry surface is conducted from the standpoint of spray-cooling technology. The axisymmetric time-dependent governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy, and species are solved. Surface tension, wall adhesion effect, gravitational body force, contact line dynamics, and evaporation are accounted for in the governing equations. The explicit volume of fluid (VOF) model with dynamic meshing and variable-time stepping in serial and parallel processors is used to capture the time-dependent liquid-gas interface motion throughout the computational domain. The numerical model includes temperature- and species-dependent thermodynamic and transport properties. The contact line dynamics and the evaporation rate are predicted using Blake's and Schrage's molecular kinetic models, respectively. An extensive grid independence study was conducted. Droplet impingement and evaporation data are acquired with a standard dispensing/imaging system and high-speed photography. The numerical results are compared with measurements reported in the literature for millimeter-size droplets and with current microdroplet experiments in terms of instantaneous droplet shape and temporal spread (R/D(0) or R/R(E)), flatness ratio (H/D(0)), and height (H/H(E)) profiles, as well as temporal volume (inverted A) profile. The Weber numbers (We) for impinging droplets vary from 1.4 to 35.2 at nearly constant Ohnesorge number (Oh) of approximately 0.025-0.029. Both numerical and experimental results show that there is air bubble entrapment due to impingement. Numerical results indicate that Blake's formulation provides better results than the static (SCA) and dynamic contact angle (DCA) approach in terms of temporal evolution of R/D(0) and H/D(0) (especially at the initial stages of spreading) and equilibrium flatness ratio (H(E)/D(0)). Blake's contact line

  12. 12 CFR 925.4 - Automatic membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic membership. 925.4 Section 925.4 Banks... MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Membership Application Process § 925.4 Automatic membership. (a) Automatic membership... between the member and the Bank at the time of such conversion may continue. (b) Automatic membership...

  13. Mercury: Evidence for anorthosite and basalt from mid-infrared (7.3-13.5 micrometers) spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A. L.; Kozlowski, R. W. H.; Witteborn, F. C.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Wooden, D. H.

    1994-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations (7.3-13.5 micrometers) of three locations on the surface of Mercury are reported. The observed spectral radiance emanated from equatorial and low altitude regions between 12 and 32 deg mercurian longitude on 8 December 1990, from the longitudinal region 22-44 deg on 10 December 1990, and from the longitudinal region 110-130 deg on 12 July 1992; all locations are primarily intercrater plains. Spectra indicate compositional differences among these three locations. The emissivity maximum, or Christiansen emission peak, occurs at 8.1 micrometers in the 8 December 1990 spectra, but at shorter wavelengths in the data of 10 December 1990 and 12 July 1992. Emission peaks near 8 micrometers indicate rocks of intermediate or mafic composition. Spectra from 22 to 44 deg longitude resemble spectra of terrestrial basalt and diorite with SiO2 content between 49 and 55%. The Christiansen feature in spectra from near 110-130 deg longitude strongly suggests the presence of plagioclase, in particular labradorite, while the overall spectrum resembles anorthosite. The spectra from all three locations on Mercury show distinct and recognizable features, the principal Christiansen emission peak being the most prominent, but they also contain features that we have not yet identified. The general indication from the spectra is that Mercury's surface consists of minerals more depleted in oxidized iron than those on the Moon. We also explore the theoretical and observational complexities of ground-based mid-infrared spectroscopy of airless bodies in general and Mercury in particular. A spectroscopic study of quartzite in both reflectance and emittance illustrates the practical, spectral validity of Kirchhoff's law.

  14. Directional statistics for realistic weakly interacting massive particle direct detection experiments. II. 2D readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Ben; Green, Anne M.

    2005-12-01

    The direction dependence of the WIMP direct detection rate provides a powerful tool for distinguishing a WIMP signal from possible backgrounds. We study the number of events required to discriminate a WIMP signal from an isotropic background for a detector with 2-d readout using nonparametric circular statistics. We also examine the number of events needed to (i) detect a deviation from rotational symmetry, due to flattening of the Milky Way halo and (ii) detect a deviation in the mean direction due to a tidal stream. If the senses of the recoils are measured then of order 20--70 events (depending on the plane of the 2-d readout and the detector location) will be sufficient to reject isotropy of the raw recoil angles at 90% confidence. If the senses can not be measured these number increase by roughly 2 orders of magnitude (compared with an increase of 1 order of magnitude for the case of full 3-d readout). The distributions of the reduced angles, with the (time-dependent) direction of solar motion subtracted, are far more anisotropic, however, and if the isotropy tests are applied to these angles then the numbers of events required are similar to the case of 3-d readout. A deviation from rotational symmetry will only be detectable if the Milky Way halo is significantly flattened. The deviation in the mean direction due to a tidal stream is potentially detectable, however, depending on the density and direction of the stream. The meridian plane (which contains the Earth’s spin axis) is, for all detector locations, the optimum readout plane for rejecting isotropy. However readout in this plane can not be used for detecting flattening of the Milky Way halo or a stream with direction perpendicular to the galactic plane. In these cases the optimum readout plane depends on the detector location.

  15. Delay grid multiplexing: simple time-based multiplexing and readout method for silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Jun Yeon; Ko, Guen Bae; Lee, Jae Sung

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a fully time-based multiplexing and readout method that uses the principle of the global positioning system. Time-based multiplexing allows simplifying the multiplexing circuits where the only innate traces that connect the signal pins of the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) channels to the readout channels are used as the multiplexing circuit. Every SiPM channel is connected to the delay grid that consists of the traces on a printed circuit board, and the inherent transit times from each SiPM channel to the readout channels encode the position information uniquely. Thus, the position of each SiPM can be identified using the time difference of arrival (TDOA) measurements. The proposed multiplexing can also allow simplification of the readout circuit using the time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), where the time-over-threshold (ToT) is used to extract the energy information after multiplexing. In order to verify the proposed multiplexing method, we built a positron emission tomography (PET) detector that consisted of an array of 4  ×  4 LGSO crystals, each with a dimension of 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3, and one- to-one coupled SiPM channels. We first employed the waveform sampler as an initial study, and then replaced the waveform sampler with an FPGA-TDC to further simplify the readout circuits. The 16 crystals were clearly resolved using only the time information obtained from the four readout channels. The coincidence resolving times (CRTs) were 382 and 406 ps FWHM when using the waveform sampler and the FPGA-TDC, respectively. The proposed simple multiplexing and readout methods can be useful for time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanners.

  16. Development of a new readout system for the near-infrared detector of HONIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ui, Takahiro; Sako, Shigeyuki; Yamashita, Takuya; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Koji S.; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Moritani, Yuki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Urano, Takeshi; Ueno, Issei; Ohsugi, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Nakao, Hikaru; Hashiba, Yasuhito

    2014-08-01

    We developed a new readout system for the near-infrared detector VIRGO-2K (2kx2k HgCdTe array) installed in the optical-infrared simultaneous camera, HONIR, for the 1.5 m Kanata telescope at Higashi-Hiroshima observatory. The main goal of this development is to read out one frame within ~ 1 second through 16 output readout mode of the detector, in order to reduce the overhead time per exposure. The system is based on a CCD controller, Kiso Array Controller (KAC). We redesigned the analog part of KAC to fit VIRGO-2K. We employed a fully differential input circuit and a third order Bessel low-pass filter for noise reduction and a constant current system to improve the linearity of the detector. We set the cutoff frequency of the Bessel low-pass filter at the readout clock rate (120 kHz). We also set the constant current at 200 μA according to the data sheet of VIRGO-2K. We tested the new readout system at room temperature and confirmed that the low-pass filter works well as designed. The fluctuation of the current level of the constant current system is less than 2% for the typical output voltage range of VIRGO-2K (3.2-4.4 V). We measured the readout noise caused by the new readout system (connected to cooled multiplexer) and found that it is 30-40 μV rms, being comparable to or slightly higher than the typical readout noise of VIRGO-2K, ˜ 37 μV rms.

  17. Delay grid multiplexing: simple time-based multiplexing and readout method for silicon photomultipliers.

    PubMed

    Won, Jun Yeon; Ko, Guen Bae; Lee, Jae Sung

    2016-10-07

    In this paper, we propose a fully time-based multiplexing and readout method that uses the principle of the global positioning system. Time-based multiplexing allows simplifying the multiplexing circuits where the only innate traces that connect the signal pins of the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) channels to the readout channels are used as the multiplexing circuit. Every SiPM channel is connected to the delay grid that consists of the traces on a printed circuit board, and the inherent transit times from each SiPM channel to the readout channels encode the position information uniquely. Thus, the position of each SiPM can be identified using the time difference of arrival (TDOA) measurements. The proposed multiplexing can also allow simplification of the readout circuit using the time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), where the time-over-threshold (ToT) is used to extract the energy information after multiplexing. In order to verify the proposed multiplexing method, we built a positron emission tomography (PET) detector that consisted of an array of 4  ×  4 LGSO crystals, each with a dimension of 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm(3), and one- to-one coupled SiPM channels. We first employed the waveform sampler as an initial study, and then replaced the waveform sampler with an FPGA-TDC to further simplify the readout circuits. The 16 crystals were clearly resolved using only the time information obtained from the four readout channels. The coincidence resolving times (CRTs) were 382 and 406 ps FWHM when using the waveform sampler and the FPGA-TDC, respectively. The proposed simple multiplexing and readout methods can be useful for time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanners.

  18. Comparison of cloud boundaries measured with 8.6 mm radar and 10.6 micrometer lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uttal, Taneil; Intrieri, Janet M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most basic cloud properties is location; the height of cloud base and the height of cloud top. The glossary of meteorology defines cloud base (top) as follows: 'For a given cloud or cloud layer, that lowest (highest) level in the atmosphere at which the air contains a perceptible quantity of cloud particles.' Our studies show that for a 8.66 mm radar, and a 10.6 micrometer lidar, the level at which cloud hydrometers become 'perceptible' can vary significantly as a function of the different wavelengths, powers, beamwidths and sampling rates of the two remote sensors.

  19. Exploration of synchrotron Mössbauer microscopy with micrometer resolution: forward and a new backscattering modality on natural samples

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lifen; Zhao, Jiyong; Toellner, Thomas S.; Divan, Ralu; Xu, Shenglan; Cai, Zhonghou; Boesenberg, Joseph S.; Friedrich, Jon M.; Cramer, Stephen P.; Alp, Esen E.

    2012-01-01

    New aspects of synchrotron Mössbauer microscopy are presented. A 5 µm spatial resolution is achieved, and sub-micrometer resolution is envisioned. Two distinct and unique methods, synchrotron Mössbauer imaging and nuclear resonant incoherent X-ray imaging, are used to resolve spatial distribution of species that are chemically and magnetically distinct from one another. Proof-of-principle experiments were performed on enriched 57Fe phantoms, and on samples with natural isotopic abundance, such as meteorites. PMID:22898962

  20. Aluminum Foils of the Stardust Interstellar Collector: The Challenge of Recognizing Micrometer-sized Impact Craters made by Interstellar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Westphal, A. J.; Burchell, M. J.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary Examination (PE) of the Stardust cometary collector revealed material embedded in aerogel and on aluminium (Al) foil. Large numbers of sub-micrometer impact craters gave size, structural and compositional information. With experience of finding and analyzing the picogram to nanogram mass remains of cometary particles, are we now ready for PE of the Interstellar (IS) collector? Possible interstellar particle (ISP) tracks in the aerogel are being identified by the stardust@home team. We are now assessing challenges facing PE of Al foils from the interstellar collector.

  1. A low power front-end architecture for SiPM readout with integrated ADC and multiplexed readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacco, I.; Fischer, P.; Ritzert, M.; Peric, I.

    2013-01-01

    Silicon Photo-Multiplier (SiPM) detectors are becoming widely used for optical photon and, in conjunction with suited scintillators, for gamma detection in both medical imaging and particle physics experiments. The spatial resolution can be improved by using smaller SiPMs with a corresponding increase in front-end channels density. The timing resolution of the whole system is a function of the detector parameters and of the characteristics of the front-end electronics. We present a low power front-end readout architecture which allows reading out several SiPMs though a single line in order to maximize the number of SiPMs. The design offers good timing performance and includes a simple charge digitizer in every channel. Four different single-ended channel designs have been designed, submitted for fabrication and characterized electronically and with SiPMs. The timing performance is obtained by using a low input impedance, precise threshold setting of a leading edge discriminator and a programmable input dc potential to set the SiPM HV bias on a channel per channel basis. Programmable low- and high-pass filters should allow reducing baseline fluctuations and noise. A simple ADC is implemented by first integrating the signal current and then discharging it at a constant rate until the baseline is reached again. The current consumption of the single channel is typically less than 10 mA. The time and energy information are sent out on a single wire. In order to keep as low as possible the output cabling the signals from different channels can be multiplexed on the same cable. The processing of these signals (extraction of time, ADC amplitude determination and channel number decoding) is performed by an external FPGA. The overall architecture, the front-end designs, and measurements with SiPMs are presented.

  2. Improved quality of intrafraction kilovoltage images by triggered readout of unexposed frames

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Jonassen, Johnny; Jensen, Carsten; Schmidt, Mai Lykkegaard

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The gantry-mounted kilovoltage (kV) imager of modern linear accelerators can be used for real-time tumor localization during radiation treatment delivery. However, the kV image quality often suffers from cross-scatter from the megavoltage (MV) treatment beam. This study investigates readout of unexposed kV frames as a means to improve the kV image quality in a series of experiments and a theoretical model of the observed image quality improvements. Methods: A series of fluoroscopic images were acquired of a solid water phantom with an embedded gold marker and an air cavity with and without simultaneous radiation of the phantom with a 6 MV beam delivered perpendicular to the kV beam with 300 and 600 monitor units per minute (MU/min). An in-house built device triggered readout of zero, one, or multiple unexposed frames between the kV exposures. The unexposed frames contained part of the MV scatter, consequently reducing the amount of MV scatter accumulated in the exposed frames. The image quality with and without unexposed frame readout was quantified as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the gold marker and air cavity for a range of imaging frequencies from 1 to 15 Hz. To gain more insight into the observed CNR changes, the image lag of the kV imager was measured and used as input in a simple model that describes the CNR with unexposed frame readout in terms of the contrast, kV noise, and MV noise measured without readout of unexposed frames. Results: Without readout of unexposed kV frames, the quality of intratreatment kV images decreased dramatically with reduced kV frequencies due to MV scatter. The gold marker was only visible for imaging frequencies ≥3 Hz at 300 MU/min and ≥5 Hz for 600 MU/min. Visibility of the air cavity required even higher imaging frequencies. Readout of multiple unexposed frames ensured visibility of both structures at all imaging frequencies and a CNR that was independent of the kV frame rate. The image lag was 12.2%, 2

  3. CALORIC: A readout chip for high granularity calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, L.; Bonnard, J.; Manen, S.; Gay, P.; Soumpholphakdy, X.

    2011-07-01

    A very-front-end electronics has been developed to fulfil requirements for the next generation of electromagnetic calorimeters. The compactness of this kind of detector and its large number of channels (up to several millions) impose a drastic limitation of the power consumption and a high level of integration. The electronic channel proposed is first of all composed of a low-noise Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) able to amplify the charge delivered by a silicon diode up to 10 pC. Next, a two-gain shaping, based on a Gated Integration (G.I.), is implemented to cover the 15 bits dynamic range required: a high gain shaper processes signals from 4 fC (charge corresponding to the MIP) up to 1 pC, and a low gain filter handles charges up to 10 pC. The G.I. performs also the analog memorization of the signal until it is digitalized. Hence, the analog-to-digital conversion is carried out through a low-power 12-bit cyclic ADC. If the signal overloads the high-gain channel dynamic range, a comparator selects the low-gain channel instead. Moreover, an auto-trigger channel has been implemented in order to select and store a valid event over the noise. The timing sequence of the channel is managed by a digital IP. It controls the G.I. switches, generates all needed clocks, drives the ADC and delivers the final result over 12 bits. The whole readout channel is power controlled, which permits to reduce the consumption according to the duty cycle of the beam collider. Simulations have been performed with Spectre simulator on the prototype chip designed with the 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology from Austriamicrosystems. Results show a non-linearity better than 0.1% for the high-gain channel, and a non-linearity limited to 1% for the low-gain channel. The Equivalent Noise Charge referred to the input of the channel is evaluated to 0.4 fC complying with the MIP/10 limit. With the timing sequence of the International Linear Collider, which presents a duty cycle of 1%, the power

  4. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmeier, S.; Schöning, A.; Soltveit, H. K.; Wiedner, D.

    2016-09-01

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the integration of the wireless technology at 60 GHz into a silicon tracking detector. We use spare silicon strip modules of the ATLAS experiment as test samples which are measured to be opaque in the 60 GHz range. The reduction of cross talk between links and the attenuation of reflections is studied. An estimate of the maximum achievable link density is given. It is shown that wireless links can be placed as close as 2 cm next to each other for a layer distance of 10 cm by exploiting one or several of the following measures: highly directive antennas, absorbers like graphite foam, linear polarization and frequency channeling. Combining these measures, a data rate area density of up to 11 Tb/(s·m2) seems feasible. In addition, two types of silicon sensors are tested under mm-wave irradiation in order to determine the influence of 60 GHz data transmission on the detector performance: an ATLAS silicon strip sensor module and an HV-MAPS prototype for the Mu3e

  5. A new interpolation arithmetic based readout signals process method for infrared imaging system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinyi; Yao, Suying; Zhao, Yiqiang

    2009-07-01

    A new readout signals process circuit for infrared focal plane array (IR FPA) applications is proposed. In the proposed structure the continuous-time current signals from the detector array are mirrored, amplified, integrated on the integration capacitors and changed to discrete analog voltage signals. Next, these voltage signals are amplified and modulated by a group of encoded signals from the column buses, then fed to a multiple-input analog adder to generate a single serial output data stream. The generated single serial data stream is transferred to the mitigate noise circuit and is converted to digital signals by the A/D converter. For very large format detector arrays applications the speed restriction of the time-multiplexing circuitry and the A/D converter will be released. Since no scan technique has been used, all the output signals from an entire row in the detector array have been readout simultaneously without loss of optical power, the scalability of the photon-signals, the readout efficiency and the accuracy of the imaging system will be improved. Theory analysis and experimental results show that the proposed idea is reasonable and efficient. The proposed readout method is a solid option for large format infrared detector arrays and highly integrated infrared imaging system applications. In addition, the proposed idea also can be used for other active and passive imaging readout integrated circuits.

  6. Tunable mechanical monolithic sensor with interferometric readout for low frequency seismic noise measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, F.; De Rosa, R.; Giordano, G.; Romano, R.; Barone, F.

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes a mechanical monolithic sensor for geophysical applications developed at the University of Salerno. The instrument is basically a monolithic tunable folded pendulum, shaped with precision machining and electric-discharge-machining, that can be used both as seismometer and, in a force-feedback configuration, as accelerometer. The monolithic mechanical design and the introduction of laser interferometric techniques for the readout implementation make it a very compact instrument, very sensitive in the low-frequency seismic noise band, with a very good immunity to environmental noises. Many changes have been produced since last version (2007), mainly aimed to the improvement of the mechanics and of the optical readout of the instrument. In fact, we have developed and tested a prototype with elliptical hinges and mechanical tuning of the resonance frequency together with a laser optical lever and a new laser interferometer readout system. The theoretical sensitivity curve both for both laser optical lever and laser interferometric readouts, evaluated on the basis of suitable theoretical models, shows a very good agreement with the experimental measurements. Very interesting scientific result, for example, is that the measured natural resonance frequency of the instrument is 70 mHz with a Q = 140 in air without thermal stabilization, demonstrating the feasibility of a monolithic FP sensor with a natural resonance frequency of the order of mHz with a more refined mechanical tuning. Results on the readout system based on polarimetric homodyne Michelson interferometer is discussed.

  7. A novel readout method for focal plane array imaging in the presence of large dark current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Changqing

    1999-08-01

    This research was an investigation of a novel readout method for focal plane array (FPA) optical imaging, especially for very sensitive detectors with large dark current. The readout method is based on periodically blocking the optical input enabling the removal of the dark current integration from the output. The research demonstrated that it is feasible to modulate the optical input with the designed readout circuit and thus achieve longer signal integration time to enhance the signal-to- noise ratio. Study of a proposed circuit model showed that in theory the correlated readout method could increase the output voltage swing and reduce the noise level by attenuating low frequency noise, thereby effectively improving the FPA dynamic range. Circuits based on standard CMOS circuitry were designed, simulated by PSpice, fabricated using Orbit 2μm n-well technology, and tested with a PI-4000 system. In the circuit evaluation, the output noise due to the clock switching phenomena, the gate signal feedthrough and the charge relaxation, was considered to be the critical problem. The most promising design for minimizing this problem had a CMOS current steering circuit at the input of a high CMRR operational amplifier. Simulation and test results showed that a modified capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) could subtract dark current output and reduce the output signal due to any difference between the frequencies of the optical input modulation signal and the switch modulation signal. In conclusion, the correlated readout circuit was shown to be a promising approach for advancing FPA technology.

  8. Advanced data readout technique for Multianode Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube applicable in radiation imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the best performing PSPMT tubes from Hamamatsu and Burle are designed with a pad-matrix anode layout. However, for obtaining a high resolution, a small-sized anode photomultiplier tubes are preferable; these tubes may have 64, 256 or 1024 anodes per tube. If the tubes are used in array to get a larger area detector, the number of analog channels may range from hundreds to thousands. Multichannel analog readout requires special electronics ICs, ASICs etc., which are attached to multichannel DAQ system. As a result, the data file and data processing time will be increased. Therefore, this readout could not be performed in a small project. Usually, most of radiation imaging applications allow the use of analog data processing in front-end electronics, significantly reducing the number of the detector's output lines to data acquisition without reducing the image quality. The idea of pad-matrix decoupling circuit with gain correction was invented and intensively tested in JLab. Several versions of PSPMT readout electronics were produced and studied. All developments were done and optimized specifically for radiation imaging projects. They covered high resolution SPECT, high speed PET, fast neutron imaging, and single tube and multi tube array systems. This paper presents and discusses the summary of the observed results in readout electronics evaluation with different PSPMTs and radiation imaging systems, as well as the advantages and limitations of the developed approach to radiation imaging detectors readout.

  9. Development of arrays of Silicon Drift Detectors and readout ASIC for the SIDDHARTA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaglia, R.; Schembari, F.; Bellotti, G.; Butt, A. D.; Fiorini, C.; Bombelli, L.; Giacomini, G.; Ficorella, F.; Piemonte, C.; Zorzi, N.

    2016-07-01

    This work deals with the development of new Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) and readout electronics for the upgrade of the SIDDHARTA experiment. The detector is based on a SDDs array organized in a 4×2 format with each SDD square shaped with 64 mm2 (8×8) active area. The total active area of the array is therefore 32×16 mm2 while the total area of the detector (including 1 mm border dead area) is 34 × 18mm2. The SIDDHARTA apparatus requires 48 of these modules that are designed and manufactured by Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK). The readout electronics is composed by CMOS preamplifiers (CUBEs) and by the new SFERA (SDDs Front-End Readout ASIC) circuit. SFERA is a 16-channels readout ASIC designed in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology, which features in each single readout channel a high order shaping amplifier (9th order Semi-Gaussian complex-conjugate poles) and a high efficiency pile-up rejection logic. The outputs of the channels are connected to an analog multiplexer for the external analog to digital conversion. An on-chip 12-bit SAR ADC is also included. Preliminary measurements of the detectors in the single SDD format are reported. Also measurements of low X-ray energies are reported in order to prove the possible extension to the soft X-ray range.

  10. Readout of two-kilopixel transition-edge sensor arrays for Advanced ACTPol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Shawn W.; Stevens, Jason R.; Amiri, Mandana; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Chaudhuri, Saptarshi; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Choi, Steve K.; Cothard, Nicholas F.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Duff, Shannon M.; Fitzgerald, Colin P.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Gene; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Koopman, Brian J.; Li, Dale; Li, Yaqiong; McMahon, Jeff; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael; Reintsema, Carl D.; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Ward, Jonathan T.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced ACTPol is an instrument upgrade for the six-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) designed to measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization with arcminute-scale angular resolution. To achieve its science goals, Advanced ACTPol utilizes a larger readout multiplexing factor than any previous CMB experiment to measure detector arrays with approximately two thousand transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers in each 150 mm detector wafer. We present the implementation and testing of the Advanced ACTPol time-division multiplexing readout architecture with a 64-row multiplexing factor. This includes testing of individual multichroic detector pixels and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexing chips as well as testing and optimizing of the integrated readout electronics. In particular, we describe the new automated multiplexing SQUID tuning procedure developed to select and optimize the thousands of SQUID parameters required to readout each Advanced ACTPol array. The multichroic detector pixels in each array use separate channels for each polarization and each of the two frequencies, such that four TESes must be read out per pixel. Challenges addressed include doubling the number of detectors per multiplexed readout channel compared to ACTPol and optimizing the Nyquist inductance to minimize detector and SQUID noise aliasing.

  11. A SPICE model for Si microstrip detectors and read-out electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Bacchetta, N.; Candelori, A.; Bisello, D. |; Calgarotto, C.; Paccagnella, A. |

    1996-06-01

    The authors have developed a SPICE model of silicon microstrip detector and its read-out electronics. The SPICE model of an AC-coupled single-sided polysilicon-biased silicon microstrip detector has been implemented by using a RC network containing up to 19 strips. The main parameters of this model have been determined by direct comparison with DC and AC measurements. The simulated interstrip and coupling impedance and phase angle are in good agreement with experimental results, up to a frequency of 1 MHz. The authors have used the PreShape 32 as the read-out chip for both the simulation and the measurements. It consists of a charge sensitive preamplifier followed by a shaper and a buffer. The SPICE parameters have been adjusted to fit the experimental results obtained for the configuration where every strip is connected to the read-out electronics and kept the same for the different read-out configurations they have considered. By adding 2 further capacitances simulating the parasitic contributions between the read-out channels of the PS32 chip, a satisfactory matching between the experimental data and the simulated curves has been reached on both rising and trailing edges of the signal. Such agreement deteriorates only for strips far from the strip where the signal has been applied.

  12. Inhibition of mitomycin C-induced chromosomal aberrations by micrometer powder of selenium-enriched green tea in mice spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Xu, Juan; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Liyan; Sheng, Jianchun; Sun, Guiju; Hu, Qiuhui

    2009-04-30

    The anticlastogenic effect of micrometer powder of selenium-enriched green tea (MSTP) was evaluated by using a chromosomal aberration assay in mouse testicular cells. Animals fed with a Se-deficient diet were treated with MSTP, micrometer powder of regular green tea (MRTP), selenite, and MRTP + selenite for 30 days by an intragastric route, followed by treatment of mitomycin C (MMC) on day 19 through intraperitoneal injection (ip). Selenium status and antioxidant enzymes were measured. Results indicated that MSTP showed a significant capability to reduce the incidence of MMC-induced chromosomal aberrations in spermatocytes from 22.7% to 6.7%. This inhibitory was highest, for MSTP, at 73.1%, while it was only 38.4% for MRTP. After 30 days of a Se-deficient diet, mice, either with or without the MMC treatment, showed a lower selenium concentration in blood and liver as well as lower enzyme activity of the antioxidants, GPx and SOD. Supplementation with MSTP, selenite, or selenite + MRTP enhanced the activities of these antioxidant enzymes. This enhancement was accompanied with a concomitant elevation of selenium levels, which favored the synthesis of the seleno-enzyme GPx and protected the cells from the MMC-induced oxidative stress. Our results indicate that MSTP is both able to prevent the chromosomal aberrations induced by MMC in mouse spermatocytes and to enhance GPx and SOD activity in blood serum and liver.

  13. The Use of Auger Spectroscopy for the in situ Elemental Characterization of Sub-micrometer Presolar Grains

    SciTech Connect

    Stadermann, Frank J.; Floss, Christine; Bose, Maitrayee P.; Lea, Alan S.

    2009-10-01

    Presolar grains are small samples of stardust which can be found at low abundances in some of the most unaltered types of extraterrestrial materials. These grains condensed in the environments of massive stars before the formation of the solar system and survived incorporation into solar system materials without completely losing their isotopic, elemental and mineralogical makeup. Laboratory analyses of these presolar grains give insights into stellar nucleosynthesis and provide clues about the physical and chemical conditions during their formation as well as about interstellar exposure history and parent body processes. Since most presolar grains are less than 1 micrometer in diameter and represent only a few ppm of their host materials (e.g., meteorites or interplanetary dust particles), locating and studying these particles can be analytically challenging. Recently, we began using scanning Auger spectroscopy for the in situ elemental characterization of presolar grains and found that this technique, especially when paired with spatially matched NanoSIMS isotopic studies, can provide important insights that would be difficult to obtain with other analytical approaches. Here we discuss details of applying Auger spectroscopy to sub-micrometer sized geological samples and address practical issues such as sample preparation, measurement settings, data processing, and elemental quantification.

  14. In situ ion-beam-induced luminescence analysis for evaluating a micrometer-scale radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Shunsuke; Kada, Wataru; Parajuli, Raj Kumar; Matsubara, Yoshinori; Sakai, Makoto; Miura, Kenta; Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi; Yamada, Naoto; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Hanaizumi, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    Micrometer-scale responses of radio-photoluminescence (RPL) glass dosimeters to focused ionized particle radiation were evaluated by combining ion-beam-induced luminescence (IBIL) and proton beam writing (PBW) using a 3 MeV focused proton microbeam. RPL phosphate glass dosimeters doped with ionic Ag or Cu activators at concentrations of 0.2 and 0.1% were fabricated, and their scintillation intensities were evaluated by IBIL spectroscopy under a PBW micropatterning condition. Compared with the Ag-doped dosimeter, the Cu-doped dosimeter was more tolerant of the radiation, while the peak intensity of its luminescence was lower, under the precise dose control of the proton microprobe. Proton-irradiated areas were successfully recorded using these dosimeters and their RPL centers were visualized under 375 nm ultraviolet light. The reproduction of the irradiated region by post-RPL imaging suggests that precise estimation of irradiation dose using microdosimeters can be accomplished by optimizing RPL glass dosimeters for various proton microprobe applications in organic material analysis and in micrometer-scale material modifications.

  15. Electrolyte-added one-pot synthesis for producing monodisperse, micrometer-sized silica particles up to 7 microm.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Akira; Noba, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Konno, Mikio; Nagao, Daisuke

    2010-05-18

    A facile one-pot synthesis to produce micrometer-sized silica particles with low polydispersity was examined in a semibatch process where an ethanol solution of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was continuously supplied to another ethanol solution of water and ammonia containing an electrolyte of LiCl, NaCl, or KCl. Supply rates of the TEOS solution was ranged with the water and electrolyte concentrations, which indicated that the addition of KCl at a low water concentration was effective to increase size of silica particles in a micrometer range. Highly monodisperse silica particles with an average size of 6.6 microm were successfully produced at 3 mol/m(3) KCl and 5 kmol/m(3) water. The efficiency of KCl addition for producing the large particles is interpreted by the previously proposed nucleation and growth mechanism that expects rapid particle coagulation in early reaction stage for particles which have reduced surface potential by the adsorption of cations with a large ionic radius. It is confirmed from competitive growth reactions that the silica particle growth follows the reaction-limited mechanism even in the semibatch process.

  16. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1990-01-01

    The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

  17. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, Anthony J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

  18. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  19. Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

  20. Algorithms for skiascopy measurement automatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomins, Sergejs; Trukša, Renārs; KrūmiĆa, Gunta

    2014-10-01

    Automatic dynamic infrared retinoscope was developed, which allows to run procedure at a much higher rate. Our system uses a USB image sensor with up to 180 Hz refresh rate equipped with a long focus objective and 850 nm infrared light emitting diode as light source. Two servo motors driven by microprocessor control the rotation of semitransparent mirror and motion of retinoscope chassis. Image of eye pupil reflex is captured via software and analyzed along the horizontal plane. Algorithm for automatic accommodative state analysis is developed based on the intensity changes of the fundus reflex.

  1. Automatic interpretation of Schlumberger soundings

    SciTech Connect

    Ushijima, K.

    1980-09-01

    The automatic interpretation of apparent resistivity curves from horizontally layered earth models is carried out by the curve-fitting method in three steps: (1) the observed VES data are interpolated at equidistant points of electrode separations on the logarithmic scale by using the cubic spline function, (2) the layer parameters which are resistivities and depths are predicted from the sampled apparent resistivity values by SALS system program and (3) the theoretical VES curves from the models are calculated by Ghosh's linear filter method using the Zhody's computer program. Two soundings taken over Takenoyu geothermal area were chosen to test the procedures of the automatic interpretation.

  2. Automatic diluter for bacteriological samples.

    PubMed Central

    Trinel, P A; Bleuze, P; Leroy, G; Moschetto, Y; Leclerc, H

    1983-01-01

    The described apparatus, carrying 190 tubes, allows automatic and aseptic dilution of liquid or suspended-solid samples. Serial 10-fold dilutions are programmable from 10(-1) to 10(-9) and are carried out in glass tubes with screw caps and split silicone septa. Dilution assays performed with strains of Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus permitted efficient conditions for sterilization of the needle to be defined and showed that the automatic dilutions were as accurate and as reproducible as the most rigorous conventional dilutions. Images PMID:6338826

  3. Traduction automatique et terminologie automatique (Automatic Translation and Automatic Terminology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansereau, Jules

    1978-01-01

    An exposition of reasons why a system of automatic translation could not use a terminology bank except as a source of information. The fundamental difference between the two tools is explained and examples of translation and mistranslation are given as evidence of the limits and possibilities of each process. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  4. A microfabricated fringing field capacitive pH sensor with an integrated readout circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Arefin, Md Shamsul Redoute, Jean-Michel; Rasit Yuce, Mehmet; Bulut Coskun, M.; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    2014-06-02

    This work presents a microfabricated fringe-field capacitive pH sensor using interdigitated electrodes and an integrated modulation-based readout circuit. The changes in capacitance of the sensor result from the permittivity changes due to pH variations and are converted to frequency shifts using a crossed-coupled voltage controlled oscillator readout circuit. The shift in resonant frequency of the readout circuit is 30.96 MHz for a change in pH of 1.0–5.0. The sensor can be used for the measurement of low pH levels, such as gastric acid, and can be integrated with electronic pills. The measurement results show high repeatability, low noise, and a stable output.

  5. An application specific integrated circuit based multi-anode microchannel array readout system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeins, Larry G.; Stechman, John M.; Cole, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Size reduction of two new multi-anode microchannel array (MAMA) readout systems is described. The systems are based on two analog and one digital application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The new readout systems reduce volume over previous discrete designs by 80 percent while improving electrical performance on virtually every significant parameter. Emphasis is made on the packaging used to achieve the volume reduction. Surface mount technology (SMT) is combined with modular construction for the analog portion of the readout. SMT reliability concerns and the board area impact of MIL SPEC SMT components is addressed. Package selection for the analog ASIC is discussed. Future sytems will require even denser packaging and the volume reduction progression is shown.

  6. Method for producing a hybridization of detector array and integrated circuit for readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Grunthaner, Frank J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process is explained for fabricating a detector array in a layer of semiconductor material on one substrate and an integrated readout circuit in a layer of semiconductor material on a separate substrate in order to select semiconductor material for optimum performance of each structure, such as GaAs for the detector array and Si for the integrated readout circuit. The detector array layer is lifted off its substrate, laminated on the metallized surface on the integrated surface, etched with reticulating channels to the surface of the integrated circuit, and provided with interconnections between the detector array pixels and the integrated readout circuit through the channels. The adhesive material for the lamination is selected to be chemically stable to provide electrical and thermal insulation and to provide stress release between the two structures fabricated in semiconductor materials that may have different coefficients of thermal expansion.

  7. Indium phosphide-based monolithically integrated PIN waveguide photodiode readout for resonant cantilever sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Siwak, N. P.; Fan, X. Z.; Ghodssi, R.; Kanakaraju, S.; Richardson, C. J. K.

    2014-10-06

    An integrated photodiode displacement readout scheme for a microelectromechanical cantilever waveguide resonator sensing platform is presented. III-V semiconductors are used to enable the monolithic integration of passive waveguides with active optical components. This work builds upon previously demonstrated results by measuring the displacement of cantilever waveguide resonators with on-chip waveguide PIN photodiodes. The on-chip integration of the readout provides an additional 70% improvement in mass sensitivity compared to off-chip photodetector designs due to measurement stability and minimized coupling loss. In addition to increased measurement stability, reduced packaging complexity is achieved due to the simplicity of the readout design. We have fabricated cantilever waveguides with integrated photodetectors and experimentally characterized these cantilever sensors with monolithically integrated PIN photodiodes.

  8. Ionization Readout Electronics for SuperCDMS SNOLAB Employing a HEMT Front-End

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, R.

    2014-09-01

    The SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment seeks to deploy 200 kg of cryogenic Ge detectors employing phonon and ionization readout to identify dark matter interactions. One of the design challenges for the experiment is to provide amplification of the high impedance ionization signal while minimizing power dissipation and noise. This paper describes the design and expected performance of the ionization readout being developed for an engineering model of the SuperCDMS SNOLAB Ge Tower System. The readout features the use of a low-noise HEMT front end transistor operating at 4 K to achieve a power dissipation of 100 W per channel, local grounding to minimize noise injection, and biasing circuitry that allows precise control of the HEMT operating point.

  9. 3D-FBK pixel sensors with CMS readout: First test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obertino, M.; Solano, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Alagoz, E.; Andresen, J.; Arndt, K.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Boscardin, M.; Brosius, R.; Bubna, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Jensen, F.; Krzywda, A.; Kumar, A.; Kwan, S.; Lei, C. M.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Ngadiuba, J.; Osipenkov, I.; Perera, L.; Povoli, M.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Shipsey, I.; Tan, P.; Terzo, S.; Uplegger, L.; Wagner, S.; Dinardo, M.

    2013-08-01

    Silicon 3D detectors consist of an array of columnar electrodes of both doping types which penetrate entirely in the detector bulk, perpendicularly to the surface. They are emerging as one of the most promising technologies for innermost layers of tracking devices for the foreseen upgrades of the LHC. Until recently, properties of 3D sensors have been investigated mostly with ATLAS readout electronics. 3D pixel sensors compatible with the CMS readout were first fabricated at SINTEF (Oslo, Norway), and more recently at FBK (Trento, Italy) and CNM (Barcelona, Spain). Several sensors with different electrode configurations, bump-bonded with the CMS pixel PSI46 readout chip, were characterized in laboratory and tested at Fermilab with a proton beam of 120 GeV/c. Preliminary results of the data analysis are presented.

  10. Architecture of a modular, multichannel readout system for dense electrochemical biosensor microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramfos, Ioannis; Blionas, Spyridon; Birbas, Alexios

    2015-01-01

    The architecture of a modular, multichannel readout system for dense electrochemical microarrays, targeting Lab-on-a-Chip applications, is presented. This approach promotes efficient component reusability through a hybrid multiplexing methodology, maintaining high levels of sampling performance and accuracy. Two readout modes are offered, which can be dynamically interchanged following signal profiling, to cater for both rapid signal transitions and weak current responses. Additionally, functional extensions to the described architecture are discussed, which provide the system with multi-biasing capabilities. A prototype integrated circuit of the proposed architecture’s analog core and a supporting board were implemented to verify the working principles. The system was evaluated using standard loads, as well as electrochemical sensor arrays. Through a range of operating conditions and loads, the prototype exhibited a highly linear response and accurately delivered the readout of input signals with fast transitions and wide dynamic ranges.

  11. Development of a hadron blind detector using a finely segmented pad readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Koki; Aoki, Kazuya; Aramaki, Yoki; En`yo, Hideto; Kawama, Daisuke; Komatsu, Yusuke; Masumoto, Shinichi; Nakai, Wataru; Obara, Yuki; Ozawa, Kyoichiro; Sekimoto, Michiko; Shibukawa, Takuya; Takahashi, Tomonori; Watanabe, Yosuke; Yokkaichi, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    We constructed a hadron blind detector (HBD) using a finely segmented pad readout. The finely segmented pad readout enabled us to adopt an advanced particle identification method which applies a threshold to the number of pad hits in addition to the total amount of collected charge. The responses of the detector to electrons and pions were evaluated using a negatively charged secondary beam at 1.0 GeV/c containing 20% electrons at the J-PARC K1.1BR beam line. We observed 7.3 photoelectrons per incident electron. Using the advanced particle identification method, an electron detection efficiency of 83% was achieved with a pion rejection factor of 120. The method improved the pion rejection by approximately a factor of five, compared to the one which just applies a threshold to the amount of collected charge. The newly introduced finely segmented pad readout was found to be effective in rejecting pions.

  12. Design of the readout electronics for the DAMPE Silicon Tracker detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fei; Peng, Wen-Xi; Gong, Ke; Wu, Di; Dong, Yi-Fan; Qiao, Rui; Fan, Rui-Rui; Wang, Jin-Zhou; Wang, Huan-Yu; Wu, Xin; La Marra, Daniel; Azzarello, Philipp; Gallo, Valentina; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Nardinocchi, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    The Silicon Tracker (STK) is one of the detectors of the DAMPE satellite used to measure the incidence direction of high energy cosmic rays. It consists of 6 X-Y double layers of silicon micro-strip detectors with 73728 readout channels. It is a great challenge to read out the channels and process the huge volume of data in the harsh environment of space. 1152 Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) and 384 ADCs are used to read out the detector channels. 192 Tracker Front-end Hybrid (TFH) modules and 8 identical Tracker Readout Board (TRB) modules are designed to control and digitalize the front signals. In this paper, the design of the readout electronics for the STK and its performance are presented in detail.

  13. Microstrip electrode readout noise for load-dominated long shaping-time systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Kelsey; Cunnington, Taylor; Crosby, Sean; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Martinez-McKinney, Forest; Mistry, Khilesh; Schumm, Bruce A.; Spencer, Edwin; Taylor, Aaron; Wilder, Max

    2013-11-01

    In cases such as that of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), for which the beam-delivery and detector-occupancy characteristics permit a long shaping-time readout of the microstrip sensors, it is possible to envision long (∼1 meter) daisy-chained ‘ladders’ of fine-pitch sensors read out by a single front-end amplifier. In this study, a long shaping-time (∼2 μsec) front-end amplifier has been used to measure readout noise as a function of detector load. Comparing measured noise to that expected from lumped and distributed models of the load network, it is seen that network effects significantly mitigate the amount of readout noise contributed by the detector load. Further reduction in noise is demonstrated for the case that the sensor load is read out from its center rather than its end.

  14. Readout circuit design of the retina-like CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fengmei; Song, Shengyu; Bai, Tingzhu; Cao, Nan

    2015-02-01

    Readout circuit is designed for a special retina-like CMOS image sensor. To realize the pixels timing drive and readout of the sensor, the Altera's Cyclone II FPGA is used as a control chip. The voltage of the sensor is supported by a voltage chip initialized by SPI with AVR MCU system. The analog image signal outputted by the sensor is converted to digital image data by 12-bits A/D converter ADS807 and the digital data is memorized in the SRAM. Using the Camera-link image grabber, the data stored in SRAM is transformed to image shown on PC. Experimental results show the circuit works well on retina-like CMOS timing drive and image readout and images can be displayed properly on the PC.

  15. A microfabricated fringing field capacitive pH sensor with an integrated readout circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefin, Md Shamsul; Bulut Coskun, M.; Alan, Tuncay; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Neild, Adrian; Rasit Yuce, Mehmet

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a microfabricated fringe-field capacitive pH sensor using interdigitated electrodes and an integrated modulation-based readout circuit. The changes in capacitance of the sensor result from the permittivity changes due to pH variations and are converted to frequency shifts using a crossed-coupled voltage controlled oscillator readout circuit. The shift in resonant frequency of the readout circuit is 30.96 MHz for a change in pH of 1.0-5.0. The sensor can be used for the measurement of low pH levels, such as gastric acid, and can be integrated with electronic pills. The measurement results show high repeatability, low noise, and a stable output.

  16. A two-dimensional position sensitive gas chamber with scanned charge transfer readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Iglesias, A.; Lobato, R.; Mosquera, J.; Pardo, J.; Pena, J.; Pazos, A.; Pombar, M.; Rodríguez, A.

    2003-10-01

    We have constructed and tested a two-dimensional position sensitive parallel-plate gas ionization chamber with scanned charge transfer readout. The scan readout method described here is based on the development of a new position-dependent charge transfer technique. It has been implemented by using gate strips perpendicularly oriented to the collector strips. This solution reduces considerably the number of electronic readout channels needed to cover large detector areas. The use of a 25 μm thick kapton etched circuit allows high charge transfer efficiency with a low gating voltage, consequently needing a very simple commutating circuit. The present prototype covers 8×8 cm2 with a pixel size of 1.27×1.27 mm2. Depending on the intended use and beam characteristics a smaller effective pixel is feasible and larger active areas are possible. This detector can be used for X-ray or other continuous beam intensity profile monitoring.

  17. The capacitive division image readout: a novel imaging device for microchannel plate detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapington, J. S.; Conneely, T. M.; Leach, S. A.; Moore, L.

    2013-09-01

    The Capacitive Division Image Readout (C-DIR) is a simple and novel image readout for photon counting detectors offering major performance advantages. C-DIR is a charge centroiding device comprising three elements; (i) a resistive anode providing event charge localization, event current return path and electrical isolation from detector high voltage, (ii) a dielectric substrate which capacitively couples the event transient signal to the third element, (iii) the readout device; an array of capacitively coupled electrodes which divides the signal among the readout charge measurement nodes. The resistive anode and dielectric substrate constitute the rear interface of the detector and capacitively couple the signal to the external C-DIR readout device. The C-DIR device is a passive, multilayer printed circuit board type device comprising a matrix of isolated electrodes whose geometries define the capacitive network. C-DIR is manufactured using conventional PCB geometries and is straightforward and economical to construct. C-DIR's robustness and simplicity belie its performance advantages. Its capacitive nature avoids partition noise, the Poisson noise associated with collection of discrete charges. The dominant noise limiting position resolution is electronic noise. However C-DIR also presents a low input capacitance to the readout electronics, minimising this noise component thus maximising spatial resolution. Optimisation of the C-DIR pattern-edge geometry can provide ~90% linear dynamic range. We present data showing image resolution and linearity of the C-DIR device in a microchannel plate detector and describe various electronic charge measurement scheme designed to exploit the full performance potential of the C-DIR device.

  18. Some Progress In The Development Of An Optical Readout System For The LISA Gravitational Reference Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, Fausto; De Rosa, Rosario; Di Fiore, Luciano; Garufi, Fabio; La Rana, Adele; Milano, Leopoldo

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, we report on the progress in the development of an optical read-out (ORO) system for the inertial sensor of the LISA gravitational wave antenna. The device is based on optical levers and position sensors and is intended to be integrated in the present baseline design for the LISA inertial sensor, which is based on capacitive readout of the test mass position. In particular, we report some improved measurement of the sensitivity of this device, performed with a bench-top rigid set-up and tests on a real scale prototype.

  19. A large dynamic range readout design for the plastic scintillator detector of DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Sun, Zhiyu; Yu, Yuhong; Zhang, Yongjie; Fang, Fang; Chen, Junling; Hu, Bitao

    2016-08-01

    A large dynamic range is required by the Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) of DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) to detect particles from electron to heavy ions with Z ≤ 20. To expand the dynamic range, the readout design based on the double-dynodes signal extraction from the photomultiplier tube has been proposed and adopted by PSD. To verify this design, a prototype detector module has been constructed and tested with cosmic ray and relativistic ion beam. The results match with the estimation and the readout unit could easily cover the required dynamic range of about 4 orders of magnitude.

  20. High-speed crystal detection and characterization using a fast-readout detector.

    PubMed

    Aishima, Jun; Owen, Robin L; Axford, Danny; Shepherd, Emma; Winter, Graeme; Levik, Karl; Gibbons, Paul; Ashton, Alun; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2010-09-01

    A novel raster-scanning method combining continuous sample translation with the fast readout of a Pilatus P6M detector has been developed on microfocus beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source. This fast grid-scan tool allows the rapid evaluation of large sample volumes without the need to increase the beam size at the sample through changes in beamline hardware. A slow version is available for slow-readout detectors. Examples of grid-scan use in centring optically invisible samples and in detecting and characterizing numerous microcrystals on a mesh-like holder illustrate the most common applications of the grid scan now in routine use on I24.

  1. Faraday Cup Array Integrated with a Readout IC and Method for Manufacture Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Christopher A. (Inventor); Hedgepath Gilchrist, Kristin (Inventor); Stoner, Brian R. (Inventor); Temple, Dorota (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A detector array and method for making the detector array. The array includes a substrate including a plurality of trenches formed therein, and includes a plurality of collectors electrically isolated from each other, formed on the walls of the trenches, and configured to collect charge particles incident on respective ones of the collectors and to output from said collectors signals indicative of charged particle collection. The array includes a plurality of readout circuits disposed on a side of the substrate opposite openings to the collectors. The readout circuits are configured to read charge collection signals from respective ones of the plurality of collectors.

  2. Radiation Tolerance Studies of BTeV Pixel Readout Chip Prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriele Chiodini et al.

    2001-09-11

    We report on several irradiation studies performed on BTeV preFPIX2 pixel readout chip prototypes exposed to a 200 MeV proton beam at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. The preFPIX2 pixel readout chip has been implemented in standard 0.25 micron CMOS technology following radiation tolerant design rules. The tests confirmed the radiation tolerance of the chip design to proton total dose of 26 MRad. In addition, non destructive radiation-induced single event upsets have been observed in on-chip static registers and the single bit upset cross section has been measured.

  3. A rack-mounted precision waveguide-below-cutoff attenuator with an absolute electronic readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    A coaxial precision waveguide-below-cutoff attenuator is described which uses an absolute (unambiguous) electronic digital readout of displacement in inches in addition to the usual gear driven mechanical counter-dial readout in decibels. The attenuator is rack-mountable and has the input and output RF connectors in a fixed position. The attenuation rate for 55, 50, and 30 MHz operation is given along with a discussion of sources of errors. In addition, information is included to aid the user in making adjustments on the attenuator should it be damaged or disassembled for any reason.

  4. Indium Hybridization of Large Format TES Bolometer Arrays to Readout Multiplexers for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Costen, Nick; Allen, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This conference poster reviews the Indium hybridization of the large format TES bolometer arrays. We are developing a key technology to enable the next generation of detectors. That is the Hybridization of Large Format Arrays using Indium bonded detector arrays containing 32x40 elements which conforms to the NIST multiplexer readout architecture of 1135 micron pitch. We have fabricated and hybridized mechanical models with the detector chips bonded after being fully back-etched. The mechanical support consists of 30 micron walls between elements Demonstrated electrical continuity for each element. The goal is to hybridize fully functional array of TES detectors to NIST readout.

  5. Readout electronics validation and target detector assessment for the Neutrinos Angra experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarenga, T. A.; Anjos, J. C.; Azzi, G.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Chimenti, P.; Costa, J. A.; Dornelas, T. I.; Farias, P. C. M. A.; Guedes, G. P.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Kemp, E.; Lima, H. P.; Machado, R.; Nóbrega, R. A.; Pepe, I. M.; Ribeiro, D. B. S.; Simas Filho, E. F.; Valdiviesso, G. A.; Wagner, S.

    2016-09-01

    A compact surface detector designed to identify the inverse beta decay interaction produced by anti-neutrinos coming from near operating nuclear reactors is being developed by the Neutrinos Angra Collaboration. In this document we describe and test the detector and its readout system by means of cosmic rays acquisition. In this measurement campaign, the target detector has been equipped with 16 8-in PMTs and two scintillator paddles have been used to trigger cosmic ray events. The achieved results disclosed the main operational characteristics of the Neutrinos Angra system and have been used to assess the detector and to validate its readout system.

  6. Smart readout of silicon drift detector using ON-LINE fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, G. V.; Becciani, U.; Caponetto, L.; Caligiore, C.; Lo Nigro, L.; Presti, D. Lo; Panebianco, S.; Pappalardo, L.; Petta, C.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Russo, M.

    2000-04-01

    A Silicon Drift Detector Front-End and a Smart Readout is proposed for ALICE's ITS readout. It is based on a dedicated Fuzzy Processor. Four main aims can be achieved: a significant reduction of data volume toward mass storage; less matter across the particle trajectories; ON-LINE personalised calibration of the detector against temperature effects; more insensitivity to noise effect compared with traditional systems for both position and charge measurement. The system fulfils the requirement for ALICE Inner Tracker System Silicon Drift Detectors. This paper aims at illustrating to the Physics community the work presently done that has engaged many people for a long time.

  7. Drive system and readout characteristics of micro-reflector optical disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kimihiro; Horigome, Toshihiro; Miyamoto, Hirotaka; Yamatsu, Hisayuki; Tanabe, Norihiro; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Fujita, Goro; Kobayashi, Seiji; Kudo, Takao; Uchiyama, Hiroshi

    2007-06-01

    This paper reviews the analyses and the experimental results of Micro-reflector optical disc system. In Micro-reflector optical disc, data are recorded on multiple virtual planes in a monolithic holographic medium. We have demonstrated the possibility of huge capacity from our analyses of readout characteristics of the Micro-reflector. In addition, we have developed the five-axis servo control system in order to achieve precise control of two counter-propagating light spots in recording media. Using this system, we succeeded in four-layer recording/readout.

  8. Digital Signal Processors for Cryogenic High-Resolution X-Ray Detector Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Drury, O; Bechstein, S; Henning, W; Momayezi, M

    2003-01-01

    The authors are developing fast digital signal processors (DSPs) to read out superconducting high-resolution X-ray detectors with on-line pulse processing. For superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector read-out, the DSPs offer on-line filtering, rise time discrimination and pile-up rejection. Compared to analog pulse processing, DSP readout somewhat degrades the detector resolution, but improves the spectral purity of the detector response. They discuss DSP performance with the 9-channel STJ array for synchrotron-based high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy.

  9. FDM Readout Assembly with Flexible, Superconducting Connection to Cryogenic kilo-Pixel TES Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruijn, M. P.; van der Linden, A. J.; Ridder, M. L.; van Weers, H. J.

    2016-07-01

    We describe a new fabrication process for a superconducting, flexible, and demountable connector to a kilo-pixel transition edge sensor. The demountable part contains planar coils for inductive coupling, in particular suited for AC-biased frequency domain multiplexed readout. A fixed connection to a chip with superconducting LC filters and SQUID readout is made by gold bump bonding with a connection resistance of 1.1 {× } 10^{-4} Ω . The Nb-based connecting lines on the flexible part show a superconducting transition around 7 K, which enables testing of connectors and LC filters in a simple L-He setup.

  10. The read-out shutter unit of the Euclid VIS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genolet, L.; Bozzo, E.; Paltani, S.; Autissier, N.; Larcheveque, C.; Thomas, C.

    2016-07-01

    Euclid is the second medium-size mission (M2) of the ESA Cosmic Vision Program, currently scheduled for a launch in 2020. The two instruments on-board Euclid, VIS and NISP, will provide key measurements to investigate the nature of dark energy, advancing our knowledge on cosmology. We present in this contribution the development and manufacturing status of the VIS Read-out Shutter Unit, whose main function is to prevent direct light from falling onto the VIS CCDs during the read-out of the scientific exposures and to allow the dark-current/bias calibrations of the instrument.

  11. Orthogonal sequencing multiplexer for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with RSFQ electronics readout circuit.

    PubMed

    Hofherr, Matthias; Wetzstein, Olaf; Engert, Sonja; Ortlepp, Thomas; Berg, Benjamin; Ilin, Konstantin; Henrich, Dagmar; Stolz, Ronny; Toepfer, Hannes; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Siegel, Michael

    2012-12-17

    We propose an efficient multiplexing technique for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on an orthogonal detector bias switching method enabling the extraction of the average count rate of a set of detectors by one readout line. We implemented a system prototype where the SNSPDs are connected to an integrated cryogenic readout and a pulse merger system based on rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) electronics. We discuss the general scalability of this concept, analyze the environmental requirements which define the resolvability and the accuracy and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach with experimental results for a SNSPD array with four pixels.

  12. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  13. Automatic Recognition of Deaf Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhamied, Kadry; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a speech perception system for automatic recognition of deaf speech. Using a 2-step segmentation approach for 468 utterances by 2 hearing-impaired men and 2 normal-hearing men, rates as high as 93.01 percent and 81.81 percent recognition were obtained in recognizing from deaf speech isolated words and connected speech,…

  14. Automatic calculation in quarkonium physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Bin; Wan, Lu-Ping; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Hong-Fei

    2014-06-01

    In this report, an automatic calculating package based on REDUCE and RLISP, FDC, is introduced, especially its one-loop calculation part and its special treatment for quarkonium physics. With FDC, many works have been completed, most of them are very important in solve/clarify current puzzles in quarkonium physics.

  15. Automatic Identification of Metaphoric Utterances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Jonathan Edwin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the problem of metaphor identification in linguistic and computational semantics, considering both manual and automatic approaches. It describes a manual approach to metaphor identification, the Metaphoricity Measurement Procedure (MMP), and compares this approach with other manual approaches. The dissertation then…

  16. Influence of Solar-Geomagnetic Disturbances on SABER Measurements of 4.3 Micrometer Emission and the Retrieval of Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Picard, Richard H.; Evans, David S.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Xu, Xiaojing; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    Thermospheric infrared radiance at 4.3 micrometers is susceptible to the influence of solar-geomagnetic disturbances. Ionization processes followed by ion-neutral chemical reactions lead to vibrationally excited NO(+) (i.e., NO(+)(v)) and subsequent 4.3 micrometer emission in the ionospheric E-region. Large enhancements of nighttime 4.3 m emission were observed by the TIMED/SABER instrument during the April 2002 and October-November 2003 solar storms. Global measurements of infrared 4.3 micrometer emission provide an excellent proxy to observe the nighttime E-region response to auroral dosing and to conduct a detailed study of E-region ion-neutral chemistry and energy transfer mechanisms. Furthermore, we find that photoionization processes followed by ion-neutral reactions during quiescent, daytime conditions increase the NO(+) concentration enough to introduce biases in the TIMED/SABER operational processing of kinetic temperature and CO2 data, with the largest effect at summer solstice. In this paper, we discuss solar storm enhancements of 4.3 micrometer emission observed from SABER and assess the impact of NO(+)(v) 4.3 micrometer emission on quiescent, daytime retrievals of Tk/CO2 from the SABER instrument.

  17. Multiplexing Readout of TES Microcalorimeters Based on Analog Baseband Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, Y.; Yamasaki, N.Y; Mitsuda, K.; Kimura, S.; Hirakoso, W.; Masui, K.; Korte, P. A. J. de; Kuur, J. van der; Gottardi, L.

    2009-12-16

    A TES microcalorimeter array is a promising spectrometer with excellent energy resolution and a moderate imaging capability. To realize a large format array in space, multiplexing the TES signals at the low tempersture stage is mandatory. We are developing frequency division multiplexing (FDM) based on baseband feedback technique. In FDM, each TES is AC-biased with a different carrier frequency. Signals from several pixels are summed and then read out by one SQUID. The maximum number of multiplexed pixels are limited by the frequency band in which the SQUID can be operated in a flux-locked loop, which is {approx}1 MHz with standard flux-locked loop circuit. In the baseband feedback, the signal ({approx}10 kHz band) from the TES is once demodulated. Then a reconstructed copy of the modulated signal with an appropriate phase is fed back to the SQUID input coil to maintain an approximately constant magnetic flux. This can be implemented even for large cable delays and automatically suppresses the carrier. We developed a prototype electronics for the baseband feedback based on an analog phase sensitive detector (PSD) and a multiplier. Combined with Seiko 80-SSA SQUID amp, open-loop gain of 8 has been obtained for 10 kHz baseband signal at 5 MHz carrier frequency, with a moderate noise contribution of 27pA/{radical}(Hz) at input.

  18. Fast regional readout CMOS Image Sensor for dynamic MLC tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, H.; Harris, E.; Osmond, J.; Evans, P.

    2014-03-01

    Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) require verification of the complex beam delivery including tracking of multileaf collimators (MLC) and monitoring the dose rate. This work explores the feasibility of a prototype Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor Image Sensor (CIS) for tracking these complex treatments by utilising fast, region of interest (ROI) read out functionality. An automatic edge tracking algorithm was used to locate the MLC leaves edges moving at various speeds (from a moving triangle field shape) and imaged with various sensor frame rates. The CIS demonstrates successful edge detection of the dynamic MLC motion within accuracy of 1.0 mm. This demonstrates the feasibility of the sensor to verify treatment delivery involving dynamic MLC up to ~400 frames per second (equivalent to the linac pulse rate), which is superior to any current techniques such as using electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). CIS provides the basis to an essential real-time verification tool, useful in accessing accurate delivery of complex high energy radiation to the tumour and ultimately to achieve better cure rates for cancer patients.

  19. A study on dual readout crystal calorimeter for hadron and jet energy measurement at a future lepton collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Studies of requirements and specifications of crystals are necessary to develop a new generation of crystals for dual readout crystal hadron or total absorption calorimeter. This is a short and basic study of the characteristics and hadron energy measurement of PbWO4 and BGO crystals for scintillation and Cerenkov Dual Readout hadron calorimeter.

  20. Automatic macroscopic density artefact removal in a Nissl-stained microscopic atlas of whole mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ding, W; Li, A; Wu, J; Yang, Z; Meng, Y; Wang, S; Gong, H

    2013-08-01

    Acquiring a whole mouse brain at the micrometer scale is a complex, continuous and time-consuming process. Because of defects caused by sample preparation and microscopy, the acquired image data sets suffer from various macroscopic density artefacts that worsen the image quality. We have to develop the available preprocessing methods to improve image quality by removing the artefacts that effect cell segmentation, vascular tracing and visualization. In this study, a set of automatic artefact removal methods is proposed for images obtained by tissue staining and optical microscopy. These methods significantly improve the complicated images that contain various structures, including cells and blood vessels. The whole mouse brain data set with Nissl staining was tested, and the intensity of the processed images was uniformly distributed throughout different brain areas. Furthermore, the processed image data set with its uniform brightness and high quality is now a fundamental atlas for image analysis, including cell segmentation, vascular tracing and visualization.