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Sample records for automatic target recognizer

  1. Automatic Target Recognizer Database Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, David R.

    1987-09-01

    Data representative of imaging sensors and scenarios which form the inputs for automatic target recognizers (ATRs) is critical to their development, testing and performance evaluation. The Data Base Committee of the Automatic Target Recognizer Working Group provides a forum and produces products to assist collection, distribution and use of data for development of military ATR systems. Examples discussed in the paper include digital image data exchange format specifications. Requirements for ground and image truth data have been the subject of surveys. Such inputs are intended as recommendations for consideration by imagery data collection activities whose products are potentially useful for ATR development. Other topics concerning collection, reduction, use and exchange of imaging sensor data are outlined but not discussed in detail.

  2. Combining synthetic image generation and AI to aid automatic target recognizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, R.; Juarez, J.; Prater, M.; Balaban, T.

    1987-01-01

    The user-friendly, Band-Independent Signature Prediction (BISP) model has been developed for the recognition of real-world targets in complex backgrounds and under variable environmental conditions and operating states, through the use of a signature-prediction capability that can be used in conjunction with a natural language description of the recognition context to determine both the features and the feature strengths for the specified context. BISP's signature-prediction capability can be used to design a context-adaptive target recognizer that is based on either classical pattern recognition principles or on more advanced but less mature learning networks akin to those of emerging 'neurocomputers'.

  3. A human factors engineering approach to biomedical decision making: A new role for automatic target recognizer technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, A.L.; Stalker, K.T.; Yee, A.

    1995-01-01

    This report identifies the key features noted as requirements in the diagnostic decision-making process of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) cardiac imaging. The report discusses the critical issues that create the basic system framework for design of an automatic target recognizer (ATR) algorithm prototype to support diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Candidate feature discovery algorithms that may form the basis of future work include Adaptive Resonance Theory and Bayesian Decision Network. A framework for the practitioner-Human-System-Interface would include baseline patient history and demographic data; reference cardiac imagery history; and current overlay imagery to provide complementary information (i.e., coronary angiography, echocardiography, and SPECT images). The goal is to design a prototype that would represent a fused present and historical {open_quotes}whole{close_quotes} functional, structural, and physiologic cardiac patient model. This framework decision-assisting platform would be available to practitioner and student alike, with no {open_quotes}real-world{close_quotes} consequences.

  4. Automatic grunt detector and recognizer for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Urazghildiiev, Ildar R; Van Parijs, Sofie M

    2016-05-01

    Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) have been heavily overfished in recent years and have not yet recovered. Passive acoustic technology offers a new approach to identify the spatial location of spawning fish, as well as their seasonal and long term persistence in an area. To date, the lack of a species-specific detector has made searching for Atlantic cod grunts in large amounts of passive acoustic data cumbersome. To address this problem, an automatic grunt detection and recognition algorithm that processes yearlong passive acoustic data recordings was designed. The proposed technique is a two-stage hypothesis testing algorithm that includes detecting and recognizing all grunt-like sounds. Test results demonstrated that the algorithm provided a detection probability of 0.93 for grunts with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) higher than 10 dB, and a detection probability of 0.8 for grunts with the SNR ranging from 3 to 10 dB. This detector is being used to identify cod in current and historical data from U.S. waters. Its use has significantly reduced the time required to find and validate the presence of cod grunts. PMID:27250148

  5. Automatic grunt detector and recognizer for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Urazghildiiev, Ildar R; Van Parijs, Sofie M

    2016-05-01

    Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) have been heavily overfished in recent years and have not yet recovered. Passive acoustic technology offers a new approach to identify the spatial location of spawning fish, as well as their seasonal and long term persistence in an area. To date, the lack of a species-specific detector has made searching for Atlantic cod grunts in large amounts of passive acoustic data cumbersome. To address this problem, an automatic grunt detection and recognition algorithm that processes yearlong passive acoustic data recordings was designed. The proposed technique is a two-stage hypothesis testing algorithm that includes detecting and recognizing all grunt-like sounds. Test results demonstrated that the algorithm provided a detection probability of 0.93 for grunts with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) higher than 10 dB, and a detection probability of 0.8 for grunts with the SNR ranging from 3 to 10 dB. This detector is being used to identify cod in current and historical data from U.S. waters. Its use has significantly reduced the time required to find and validate the presence of cod grunts.

  6. Automatic recognizing of vocal fold disorders from glottis images.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Chiun; Leu, Yi-Shing; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Chu, Wen-Lin; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wu, Han-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    The laryngeal video stroboscope is an important instrument to test glottal diseases and read vocal fold images and voice quality for physician clinical diagnosis. This study is aimed to develop a medical system with functionality of automatic intelligent recognition of dynamic images. The static images of glottis opening to the largest extent and closing to the smallest extent were screened automatically using color space transformation and image preprocessing. The glottal area was also quantized. As the tongue base movements affected the position of laryngoscope and saliva would result in unclear images, this study used the gray scale adaptive entropy value to set the threshold in order to establish an elimination system. The proposed system can improve the effect of automatically captured images of glottis and achieve an accuracy rate of 96%. In addition, the glottal area and area segmentation threshold were calculated effectively. The glottis area segmentation was corrected, and the glottal area waveform pattern was drawn automatically to assist in vocal fold diagnosis. When developing the intelligent recognition system for vocal fold disorders, this study analyzed the characteristic values of four vocal fold patterns, namely, normal vocal fold, vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold polyp, and vocal fold cyst. It also used the support vector machine classifier to identify vocal fold disorders and achieved an identification accuracy rate of 98.75%. The results can serve as a very valuable reference for diagnosis.

  7. Automatic recognizing of vocal fold disorders from glottis images.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Chiun; Leu, Yi-Shing; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Chu, Wen-Lin; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wu, Han-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    The laryngeal video stroboscope is an important instrument to test glottal diseases and read vocal fold images and voice quality for physician clinical diagnosis. This study is aimed to develop a medical system with functionality of automatic intelligent recognition of dynamic images. The static images of glottis opening to the largest extent and closing to the smallest extent were screened automatically using color space transformation and image preprocessing. The glottal area was also quantized. As the tongue base movements affected the position of laryngoscope and saliva would result in unclear images, this study used the gray scale adaptive entropy value to set the threshold in order to establish an elimination system. The proposed system can improve the effect of automatically captured images of glottis and achieve an accuracy rate of 96%. In addition, the glottal area and area segmentation threshold were calculated effectively. The glottis area segmentation was corrected, and the glottal area waveform pattern was drawn automatically to assist in vocal fold diagnosis. When developing the intelligent recognition system for vocal fold disorders, this study analyzed the characteristic values of four vocal fold patterns, namely, normal vocal fold, vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold polyp, and vocal fold cyst. It also used the support vector machine classifier to identify vocal fold disorders and achieved an identification accuracy rate of 98.75%. The results can serve as a very valuable reference for diagnosis. PMID:25313026

  8. Automatic target recognition apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Baumgart, Chris W.; Ciarcia, Christopher A.

    2000-01-01

    An automatic target recognition apparatus (10) is provided, having a video camera/digitizer (12) for producing a digitized image signal (20) representing an image containing therein objects which objects are to be recognized if they meet predefined criteria. The digitized image signal (20) is processed within a video analysis subroutine (22) residing in a computer (14) in a plurality of parallel analysis chains such that the objects are presumed to be lighter in shading than the background in the image in three of the chains and further such that the objects are presumed to be darker than the background in the other three chains. In two of the chains the objects are defined by surface texture analysis using texture filter operations. In another two of the chains the objects are defined by background subtraction operations. In yet another two of the chains the objects are defined by edge enhancement processes. In each of the analysis chains a calculation operation independently determines an error factor relating to the probability that the objects are of the type which should be recognized, and a probability calculation operation combines the results of the analysis chains.

  9. Automatic target detection in cluttered IR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Markus; Korn, Axel

    1998-07-01

    Automatic target detection (ATR) generally refers to the localization of potential targets by computer processing of data from a variety of sensors. Automatic detection is applicable for data reduction purposes in the reconnaissance domain and is therefore aimed at reducing the workload on human operators. ATR covers activities such as the localization of individual objects in large areas or volumes for assessing the battlefield simulation. An increase of reliability and efficiency of the overall reconnaissance process is expected. The results of automatic image evaluation are offered to the image analyst as hypotheses. In this paper cluttered images from an infrared sensor are analyzed with the aim of finding Regions of Interest (ROIs), where hints for man-made objects have to be found. This analysis uses collateral data from acquisition time and location (e.g. day time, weather condition, resolution, sensor specification and orientation etc.). The assumed target size in the image is also compared by using collateral data. Based on the collateral data, the algorithm adjusts its parameters in order to find ROIs and to detect targets. Low contrast conditions can be successfully tackled if the directions of the grey value gradient are considered, which are nearly independent of the contrast. Blobs are generated by applying adaptive thresholds in the ROIs. Here the evaluation of histograms is very important for the extraction of structured features. The height, aspect angle, and camera parameters are approximately known for an estimation of target sizes in the image domain out of the collateral data.

  10. Self-assessing target with automatic feedback

    DOEpatents

    Larkin, Stephen W.; Kramer, Robert L.

    2004-03-02

    A self assessing target with four quadrants and a method of use thereof. Each quadrant containing possible causes for why shots are going into that particular quadrant rather than the center mass of the target. Each possible cause is followed by a solution intended to help the marksman correct the problem causing the marksman to shoot in that particular area. In addition, the self assessing target contains possible causes for general shooting errors and solutions to the causes of the general shooting error. The automatic feedback with instant suggestions and corrections enables the shooter to improve their marksmanship.

  11. Automatic target detection using binary template matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Dong-San; Sun, Sun-Gu; Park, HyunWook

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents a new automatic target detection (ATD) algorithm to detect targets such as battle tanks and armored personal carriers in ground-to-ground scenarios. Whereas most ATD algorithms were developed for forward-looking infrared (FLIR) images, we have developed an ATD algorithm for charge-coupled device (CCD) images, which have superior quality to FLIR images in daylight. The proposed algorithm uses fast binary template matching with an adaptive binarization, which is robust to various light conditions in CCD images and saves computation time. Experimental results show that the proposed method has good detection performance.

  12. Image understanding research for automatic target recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Bhanu, B. ); Jones, T.L. )

    1993-10-01

    Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) is an extremely important capability for defense applications. Many aspects of Image Understanding (IU) research are traditionally used to solve ATR problems. In this paper, the authors discuss ATR applications and problems in developing real-world ATR systems, and present the status of technology for these systems. They identify several IU problems that need to be resolved in order to enhance the effectiveness of ATR-based weapon systems. Finally, they conclude that technological gains in developing robust ATR systems will also lead to significant advances in many other areas of applications of image understanding.

  13. Automatic target recognition using vector quantization and neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Lipchen A.; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.

    1999-12-01

    We propose an automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm that uses a set of dedicated vector quantizers (VQs) and multilayer perceptrons (MLPs). For each target class at a specific range of aspects, the background pixels of an input image are first removed. The extracted target area is then subdivided into several subimages. A dedicated VQ codebook is constructed for each of the resulting subimages. Using the K-means algorithm, each VQ codebook learns a set of patterns representing the local features of a particular target for a specific range of aspects. The resulting codebooks are further trained by a modified learning vector quantization algorithm, which enhances the discriminatory power of the codebooks. Each final codebook is expected to give the lowest mean squared error (MSE) for its correct target class and range of aspects. These MSEs are then input to an array of window-level MLPs (WMLPs), where each WMLP is specialized in recognizing its intended target class for a specific range of aspects. The outputs of these WMLPs are manipulated and passed to a target-level MLP, which produces the final recognition results. We trained and tested the proposed ATR algorithm on large and realistic data sets and obtained impressive results using the wavelet-based adaptive produce VQs configuration.

  14. A color hierarchy for automatic target selection.

    PubMed

    Tchernikov, Illia; Fallah, Mazyar

    2010-02-24

    Visual processing of color starts at the cones in the retina and continues through ventral stream visual areas, called the parvocellular pathway. Motion processing also starts in the retina but continues through dorsal stream visual areas, called the magnocellular system. Color and motion processing are functionally and anatomically discrete. Previously, motion processing areas MT and MST have been shown to have no color selectivity to a moving stimulus; the neurons were colorblind whenever color was presented along with motion. This occurs when the stimuli are luminance-defined versus the background and is considered achromatic motion processing. Is motion processing independent of color processing? We find that motion processing is intrinsically modulated by color. Color modulated smooth pursuit eye movements produced upon saccading to an aperture containing a surface of coherently moving dots upon a black background. Furthermore, when two surfaces that differed in color were present, one surface was automatically selected based upon a color hierarchy. The strength of that selection depended upon the distance between the two colors in color space. A quantifiable color hierarchy for automatic target selection has wide-ranging implications from sports to advertising to human-computer interfaces.

  15. A color hierarchy for automatic target selection.

    PubMed

    Tchernikov, Illia; Fallah, Mazyar

    2010-01-01

    Visual processing of color starts at the cones in the retina and continues through ventral stream visual areas, called the parvocellular pathway. Motion processing also starts in the retina but continues through dorsal stream visual areas, called the magnocellular system. Color and motion processing are functionally and anatomically discrete. Previously, motion processing areas MT and MST have been shown to have no color selectivity to a moving stimulus; the neurons were colorblind whenever color was presented along with motion. This occurs when the stimuli are luminance-defined versus the background and is considered achromatic motion processing. Is motion processing independent of color processing? We find that motion processing is intrinsically modulated by color. Color modulated smooth pursuit eye movements produced upon saccading to an aperture containing a surface of coherently moving dots upon a black background. Furthermore, when two surfaces that differed in color were present, one surface was automatically selected based upon a color hierarchy. The strength of that selection depended upon the distance between the two colors in color space. A quantifiable color hierarchy for automatic target selection has wide-ranging implications from sports to advertising to human-computer interfaces. PMID:20195361

  16. A Color Hierarchy for Automatic Target Selection

    PubMed Central

    Tchernikov, Illia; Fallah, Mazyar

    2010-01-01

    Visual processing of color starts at the cones in the retina and continues through ventral stream visual areas, called the parvocellular pathway. Motion processing also starts in the retina but continues through dorsal stream visual areas, called the magnocellular system. Color and motion processing are functionally and anatomically discrete. Previously, motion processing areas MT and MST have been shown to have no color selectivity to a moving stimulus; the neurons were colorblind whenever color was presented along with motion. This occurs when the stimuli are luminance-defined versus the background and is considered achromatic motion processing. Is motion processing independent of color processing? We find that motion processing is intrinsically modulated by color. Color modulated smooth pursuit eye movements produced upon saccading to an aperture containing a surface of coherently moving dots upon a black background. Furthermore, when two surfaces that differed in color were present, one surface was automatically selected based upon a color hierarchy. The strength of that selection depended upon the distance between the two colors in color space. A quantifiable color hierarchy for automatic target selection has wide-ranging implications from sports to advertising to human-computer interfaces. PMID:20195361

  17. Remote weapon station for automatic target recognition system demand analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhang; Li, Sheng-cai; Shi, Cai

    2015-08-01

    Introduces a remote weapon station basic composition and the main advantage, analysis of target based on image automatic recognition system for remote weapon station of practical significance, the system elaborated the image based automatic target recognition system in the photoelectric stabilized technology, multi-sensor image fusion technology, integrated control target image enhancement, target behavior risk analysis technology, intelligent based on the character of the image automatic target recognition algorithm research, micro sensor technology as the key technology of the development in the field of demand.

  18. Automatic target recognition using group-structured sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Wu, Xuewen; He, Jun; Zhu, Xiaoming; Chen, Chao

    2014-06-01

    Sparse representation classification method has been increasingly used in the fields of computer vision and pattern analysis, due to its high recognition rate, little dependence on the features, robustness to corruption and occlusion, and etc. However, most of these existing methods aim to find the sparsest representations of the test sample y in an overcomplete dictionary, which do not particularly consider the relevant structure between the atoms in the dictionary. Moreover, sufficient training samples are always required by the sparse representation method for effective recognition. In this paper we formulate the classification as a group-structured sparse representation problem using a sparsity-inducing norm minimization optimization and propose a novel sparse representation-based automatic target recognition (ATR) framework for the practical applications in which the training samples are drawn from the simulation models of real targets. The experimental results show that the proposed approach improves the recognition rate of standard sparse models, and our system can effectively and efficiently recognize targets under real environments, especially, where the good characteristics of the sparse representation based classification method are kept.

  19. Automatic target extraction in complicated background for camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xichao; Wang, Cheng; Wen, Chenglu; Cheng, Ming

    2016-03-01

    In order to perform high precise calibration of camera in complex background, a novel design of planar composite target and the corresponding automatic extraction algorithm are presented. Unlike other commonly used target designs, the proposed target contains the information of feature point coordinate and feature point serial number simultaneously. Then based on the original target, templates are prepared by three geometric transformations and used as the input of template matching based on shape context. Finally, parity check and region growing methods are used to extract the target as final result. The experimental results show that the proposed method for automatic extraction and recognition of the proposed target is effective, accurate and reliable.

  20. Automatic speech recognizer based on the Spanish spoken in Valdivia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Maria L.; Poblete, Victor H.; Sommerhoff, Jorge

    2001-05-01

    The performance of an automatic speech recognizer is affected by training process (dependent on or independent of the speaker) and the size of the vocabulary. The language used in this study was the Spanish spoken in the city of Valdivia, Chile. A representative sample of 14 students and six professionals all natives of Valdivia (ten women and ten men) were used to complete the study. The sample ranged in age between 20 and 30 years old. Two systems were programmed based on the classical principles: digitalizing, end point detection, linear prediction coding, cepstral coefficients, dynamic time warping, and a final decision stage with a previous step of training: (i) one dependent speaker (15 words: five colors and ten numbers), (ii) one independent speaker (30 words: ten verbs, ten nouns, and ten adjectives). A simple didactical application, with options to choose colors, numbers and drawings of the verbs, nouns and adjectives, was designed to be used with a personal computer. In both programs, the tests carried out showed a tendency towards errors in short words with monosyllables like ``flor,'' and ``sol.'' The best results were obtained in words with three syllables like ``disparar'' and ``mojado.'' [Work supported by Proyecto DID UACh N S-200278.

  1. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    DOEpatents

    Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Neal, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

  2. Automatic target detection in UAV imagery using image formation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huibao; Si, Jennie; Abousleman, Glen P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper is about automatic target detection (ATD) in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery. Extracting reliable features under all conditions from a 2D projection of a target in UAV imagery is a difficult problem. However, since the target size information is usually invariant to the image formation proces, we propose an algorithm for automatically estimating the size of a 3D target by using its 2D projection. The size information in turn becomes an important feature to be used in a knowledge-driven, multi-resolution-based algorithm for automatically detecting targets in UAV imagery. Experimental results show that our proposed ATD algorithm provides outstanding detection performance, while significantly reducing the false alarm rate and the computational complexity.

  3. Coherent Target Recognization Based on SAR Sub-Aperture Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Sheng; Zeng, Qiming; Tong, Qingxi; Jiao, Jian

    2014-11-01

    The selection of point-like scatterers, or PS (Persistent Scatterers) is an essential step in PS-InSAR processing. And the accuracy of measured deformation can be severely influenced by the density of PSs. The usually used methods are based on time series analysis of the amplitude or phase of the targets, needing a large number of SAR images. Here an alternate method using only one SLC is introduced, which exploits the different behaviours of PS and DS (Distributed Scatterers) in different sub-aperture images.

  4. Testing Saliency Parameters for Automatic Target Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Sagar

    2012-01-01

    A bottom-up visual attention model (the saliency model) is tested to enhance the performance of Automated Target Recognition (ATR). JPL has developed an ATR system that identifies regions of interest (ROI) using a trained OT-MACH filter, and then classifies potential targets as true- or false-positives using machine-learning techniques. In this project, saliency is used as a pre-processing step to reduce the space for performing OT-MACH filtering. Saliency parameters, such as output level and orientation weight, are tuned to detect known target features. Preliminary results are promising and future work entails a rigrous and parameter-based search to gain maximum insight about this method.

  5. Embedded knowledge-based system for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboutalib, A. O.

    1990-10-01

    The development of a reliable Automatic Target Recognition (ATE) system is considered a very critical and challenging problem. Existing ATE Systems have inherent limitations in terms of recognition performance and the ability to learn and adapt. Artificial Intelligence Techniques have the potential to improve the performance of ATh Systems. In this paper, we presented a novel Knowledge-Engineering tool, termed, the Automatic Reasoning Process (ARP) , that can be used to automatically develop and maintain a Knowledge-Base (K-B) for the ATR Systems. In its learning mode, the ARP utilizes Learning samples to automatically develop the ATR K-B, which consists of minimum size sets of necessary and sufficient conditions for each target class. In its operational mode, the ARP infers the target class from sensor data using the ATh K-B System. The ARP also has the capability to reason under uncertainty, and can support both statistical and model-based approaches for ATR development. The capabilities of the ARP are compared and contrasted to those of another Knowledge-Engineering tool, termed, the Automatic Rule Induction (ARI) which is based on maximizing the mutual information. The AR? has been implemented in LISP on a VAX-GPX workstation.

  6. Automatic target locating system through cooperative dual-field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kun; He, Yuqing; Hou, Boyan; Wei, Shan; Wang, Siyuan

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes an automatic targeting locating system based on dual-field imaging to improve the stability of light weapons. The system consists of a wide field of view (WFOV) camera and a narrow field of view (NFOV) camera. The WFOV camera searches the pedestrian in the scenery, the other camera tracks the pedestrian and aims it accurately. Video signal is send to the processing unit PC and control signal is send back to the imaging system. This automatic target tracking algorithm is integrated by Adaboost and Median-Flow algorithm. It is used to track the pedestrians and locate the head of the target. Experiment results show that the dual-field imaging system and proposed algorithm has robust target tracking performance.

  7. A real-time optical automatic target recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaixin; Nan, Jianshe; Li, Xiaosun; Wei, Honggang

    2004-04-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) technique has been applied in both civil and military. In this paper, we present a new optical pattern recognition system for target recognition. This system includes synthetic discriminate function (SDF) based practical optimized filters for the 3-D targets, the Reference Filter Libs for high correlation SNR, the mapping between the input (object regions) and the output (correlation peaks), and neural networks (ANN) for final decision making. The Real-time optical target recognition is realized by temporal multiplexing technique with electronic addressing spatial light modulator. The experiment results show that the proposed OPR system is efficient and reliable.

  8. Advanced automatic target recognition for police helicopter missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Christoph; Schoppmann, Paul

    2000-08-01

    The results of a case study about the application of an advanced method for automatic target recognition to infrared imagery taken from police helicopter missions are presented. The method consists of the following steps: preprocessing, classification, fusion, postprocessing and tracking, and combines the three paradigms image pyramids, neural networks and bayesian nets. The technology has been developed using a variety of different scenes typical for military aircraft missions. Infrared cameras have been in use for several years at the Bavarian police helicopter forces and are highly valuable for night missions. Several object classes like 'persons' or 'vehicles' are tested and the possible discrimination between persons and animals is shown. The analysis of complex scenes with hidden objects and clutter shows the potentials and limitations of automatic target recognition for real-world tasks. Several display concepts illustrate the achievable improvement of the situation awareness. The similarities and differences between various mission types concerning object variability, time constraints, consequences of false alarms, etc. are discussed. Typical police actions like searching for missing persons or runaway criminals illustrate the advantages of automatic target recognition. The results demonstrate the possible operational benefits for the helicopter crew. Future work will include performance evaluation issues and a system integration concept for the target platform.

  9. Found and Missed: Failing to Recognize a Search Target despite Moving It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solman, Grayden J. F.; Cheyne, J. Allan; Smilek, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We present results from five search experiments using a novel "unpacking" paradigm in which participants use a mouse to sort through random heaps of distractors to locate the target. We report that during this task participants often fail to recognize the target despite moving it, and despite having looked at the item. Additionally, the missed…

  10. Wavelet-based learning vector quantization for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Lipchen A.; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Mirelli, Vincent

    1996-06-01

    An automatic target recognition classifier is constructed that uses a set of dedicated vector quantizers (VQs). The background pixels in each input image are properly clipped out by a set of aspect windows. The extracted target area for each aspect window is then enlarged to a fixed size, after which a wavelet decomposition splits the enlarged extraction into several subbands. A dedicated VQ codebook is generated for each subband of a particular target class at a specific range of aspects. Thus, each codebook consists of a set of feature templates that are iteratively adapted to represent a particular subband of a given target class at a specific range of aspects. These templates are then further trained by a modified learning vector quantization (LVQ) algorithm that enhances their discriminatory characteristics. A recognition rate of 69.0 percent is achieved on a highly cluttered test set.

  11. Toward automatic robot instruction from perception -- Recognizing a grasp from observation

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sing Bing; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    1993-08-01

    Many of the tasks that are potential candidates for automation involve grasping. The authors are interested in the programming of robots to perform grasping tasks. To do this, the assembly plan from observation (APO) paradigm is adopted, where the key idea is to enable a system to observe a human performing a grasping task, understand it, and perform the task with minimal human intervention. A grasping task is composed of three phases: pregrasp phase, static grasp phase, and manipulation phase. The first step in recognizing a grasping task is identifying the grasp itself (within the static grasp phase). The proposed strategy of identifying the grasp is to map the low-level hand configuration to increasingly more abstract grasp descriptions. The abstract grasp descriptions are useful because they are manipulator-independent. To achieve the mapping, a grasp representation is introduced that is called the contact web, which is composed of a pattern of effective contact points between the hand and the object. A grasp taxonomy based on the contact web is also proposed as a tool to systematically identify a grasp. The grasp can be described at higher conceptual levels using a certain mapping function that results in an index called the grasp cohesive index. This index can be used to identify the grasp. Results from grasping experiments show that it is possible to distinguish between various types of grasps using the proposed contact web, grasp taxonomy and grasp cohesive index.

  12. MRI-Guided Target Motion Assessment using Dynamic Automatic Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenz, Daniel L.

    Motion significantly impacts the radiotherapy process and represents one of the persisting problems in treatment delivery. In order to improve motion management techniques and implement future image guided radiotherapy tools such as MRI-guidance, automatic segmentation algorithms hold great promise. Such algorithms are attractive due to their direct measurement accuracy, speed, and ability to assess motion trajectories for daily treatment plan modifications. We developed and optimized an automatic segmentation technique to enable target tracking using MR cines, 4D-MRI, and 4D-CT. This algorithm overcomes weaknesses in automatic contouring such as lack of image contrast, subjectivity, slow speed, and lack of differentiating feature vectors by the use of morphological processing. The software is enhanced with predictive parameter capabilities and dynamic processing. The 4D-MRI images are acquired by applying a retrospective phase binning approach to radially-acquired MR image projections. The quantification of motion is validated with a motor phantom undergoing a known trajectory in 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, and in MR cines from the ViewRay MR-Guided RT system. In addition, a clinical case study demonstrates wide-reaching implications of the software to segment lesions in the brain and lung as well as critical structures such as the liver. Auto-segmentation results from MR cines of canines correlate well with manually drawn contours, both in terms of Dice similarity coefficient and agreement of extracted motion trajectories.

  13. Automatic target validation based on neuroscientific literature mining for tractography.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Xavier; Richardet, Renaud; Hill, Sean L; Slater, David; Chappelier, Jean-Cedric; Pralong, Etienne; Bloch, Jocelyne; Draganski, Bogdan; Cif, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Target identification for tractography studies requires solid anatomical knowledge validated by an extensive literature review across species for each seed structure to be studied. Manual literature review to identify targets for a given seed region is tedious and potentially subjective. Therefore, complementary approaches would be useful. We propose to use text-mining models to automatically suggest potential targets from the neuroscientific literature, full-text articles and abstracts, so that they can be used for anatomical connection studies and more specifically for tractography. We applied text-mining models to three structures: two well-studied structures, since validated deep brain stimulation targets, the internal globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus and, the nucleus accumbens, an exploratory target for treating psychiatric disorders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to document the projections of the three selected structures and compared it with the targets proposed by text-mining models, both in rat and primate (including human). We ran probabilistic tractography on the nucleus accumbens and compared the output with the results of the text-mining models and literature review. Overall, text-mining the literature could find three times as many targets as two man-weeks of curation could. The overall efficiency of the text-mining against literature review in our study was 98% recall (at 36% precision), meaning that over all the targets for the three selected seeds, only one target has been missed by text-mining. We demonstrate that connectivity for a structure of interest can be extracted from a very large amount of publications and abstracts. We believe this tool will be useful in helping the neuroscience community to facilitate connectivity studies of particular brain regions. The text mining tools used for the study are part of the HBP Neuroinformatics Platform, publicly available at http://connectivity-brainer.rhcloud.com/. PMID

  14. Automatic target validation based on neuroscientific literature mining for tractography

    PubMed Central

    Vasques, Xavier; Richardet, Renaud; Hill, Sean L.; Slater, David; Chappelier, Jean-Cedric; Pralong, Etienne; Bloch, Jocelyne; Draganski, Bogdan; Cif, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Target identification for tractography studies requires solid anatomical knowledge validated by an extensive literature review across species for each seed structure to be studied. Manual literature review to identify targets for a given seed region is tedious and potentially subjective. Therefore, complementary approaches would be useful. We propose to use text-mining models to automatically suggest potential targets from the neuroscientific literature, full-text articles and abstracts, so that they can be used for anatomical connection studies and more specifically for tractography. We applied text-mining models to three structures: two well-studied structures, since validated deep brain stimulation targets, the internal globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus and, the nucleus accumbens, an exploratory target for treating psychiatric disorders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to document the projections of the three selected structures and compared it with the targets proposed by text-mining models, both in rat and primate (including human). We ran probabilistic tractography on the nucleus accumbens and compared the output with the results of the text-mining models and literature review. Overall, text-mining the literature could find three times as many targets as two man-weeks of curation could. The overall efficiency of the text-mining against literature review in our study was 98% recall (at 36% precision), meaning that over all the targets for the three selected seeds, only one target has been missed by text-mining. We demonstrate that connectivity for a structure of interest can be extracted from a very large amount of publications and abstracts. We believe this tool will be useful in helping the neuroscience community to facilitate connectivity studies of particular brain regions. The text mining tools used for the study are part of the HBP Neuroinformatics Platform, publicly available at http://connectivity-brainer.rhcloud.com/. PMID

  15. Automatic target detection and classification for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Shao-Shan

    Automatic target detection and classification is one of primary tasks of hyperspectral imaging. Its detectability does not rely on prior knowledge. In many practical applications such as surveillance, this is a significant advantage over supervised target detection and classification methods which require some level of information. This dissertation designs and develops computer-automated algorithms to extract targets for detection and classification with no prior knowledge about the image data. Of particular interest are small targets, which are generally man-made objects and occur with low probabilities. Three approaches are investigated in this dissertation, projection pursuit (PP), linear spectral random mixture analysis (LSRMA), anomaly detection and classification. The proposed PP utilizes the criteria of skewness and kurtosis to design four projection indices to capture targets where an evolutionary algorithm (EA) is used to find optimization solutions. In order to segment targets from the background, a zero-detection thresholding technique is also introduced for target extraction. LSRMA models an image pixel as a random process resulting from a random composition of multiple spectra of distinct materials in the image where the commonly used independent component analysis (ICA) is modified and reformulated for hyperspectral image analysis. LSRMA does not require prior target knowledge as generally required for linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA). Most importantly, LSRMA models each of materials of interest as an independent random signal source so that the spectral variability of materials can be captured more effectively in a stochastic manner. A third approach is anomaly detection and classification where RXD is modified to derive several variants. Among them is the causal RXD which can be implemented in real time. Since an anomaly detector does not necessarily classify the targets it detected, target discrimination measures are also proposed to

  16. Digital fast pattern recognizer for autonomous target recognition and tracking for advanced missile guidance and UAV reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastbacka, Albin A.

    2003-08-01

    A digital Fast Pattern Processor (DFPP) system under development for the Naval Air Warfare Center, is funded under a SBIR, Phase III contract. It is an automatic target recognizer and tracker candidate for supersonic missile guidance and unmanned air vehicle (UAV) reconnaissance to meet the U.S. navy's time-critical strike objectives. The former application requires rapid processing of moderate size, real time image arrays, versus large real time image arrays for the latter case. The DFPP correlates operator selected target filters against observed imagery at 1500 correlations per second as currently implemented with programmable logic devices (PLD's) - equivalent to thirty Pentium III (1 GHz) PC's. High performance and low weight, power, size, cost of the current version make it ideal for on-board image data processing in UAV's and cruise missiles or for ground station processing. Conversion to application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) technology provides scalable performance to meet future ATR/ATT needs. The Sanders proprietary DFPP technology embodies a Power-FFT, which is the fastest digital fast Fourier transform (DFTT) in the world with performance exceeding supercomputers, at a small fraction of the cost, size, weight, and power. The DFPP operates under control of Sanders Correlation Image Processor (SCIP) program and enables correlation against a plethora of stored target filters (templates).

  17. Deep transfer learning for automatic target classification: MWIR to LWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhengming; Nasrabadi, Nasser; Fu, Yun

    2016-05-01

    Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 5/12/2016, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 5/18/2016. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. When dealing with sparse or no labeled data in the target domain, transfer learning shows its appealing performance by borrowing the supervised knowledge from external domains. Recently deep structure learning has been exploited in transfer learning due to its attractive power in extracting effective knowledge through multi-layer strategy, so that deep transfer learning is promising to address the cross-domain mismatch. In general, cross-domain disparity can be resulted from the difference between source and target distributions or different modalities, e.g., Midwave IR (MWIR) and Longwave IR (LWIR). In this paper, we propose a Weighted Deep Transfer Learning framework for automatic target classification through a task-driven fashion. Specifically, deep features and classifier parameters are obtained simultaneously for optimal classification performance. In this way, the proposed deep structures can extract more effective features with the guidance of the classifier performance; on the other hand, the classifier performance is further improved since it is optimized on more discriminative features. Furthermore, we build a weighted scheme to couple source and target output by assigning pseudo labels to target data, therefore we can transfer knowledge from source (i.e., MWIR) to target (i.e., LWIR). Experimental results on real databases demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm by comparing with others.

  18. Automatic detection of sea-sky horizon line and small targets in maritime infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangyu; Liu, Lei; Qian, Yunsheng; Cui, Minjie

    2016-05-01

    It is usually difficult but important to extract distant targets from sea clutters and clouds since the targets are small compared to the pixel field of view. In this paper, an algorithm based on wavelet transformation is proposed for automatic detection of small targets under the maritime background. We recognize that the distant small targets generally appear near the sea-sky horizon line and noises lie along the direction of sea-sky horizon line. So the sea-sky horizon is located firstly by examining the approximate image of a Haar wavelet decomposition of the original image. And the equation of the sea-sky horizon is set up, no matter whether the sea-sky horizon is horizontal or not. Since the sea-sky horizon is located, not only the potential area but also the strip direction of noise is got. Then the modified mutual wavelet energy combination algorithm is applied to extract targets with targets being marked by red windows. Computer simulations are shown to validate the great adaptability of the sea-sky horizon line detection and the accuracy of the small targets detection. The algorithm should be useful to engineers and scientists to design precise guidance or maritime monitoring system.

  19. Assessing the performance of a covert automatic target recognition algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrman, Lisa M.; Lanterman, Aaron D.

    2005-05-01

    Passive radar systems exploit illuminators of opportunity, such as TV and FM radio, to illuminate potential targets. Doing so allows them to operate covertly and inexpensively. Our research seeks to enhance passive radar systems by adding automatic target recognition (ATR) capabilities. In previous papers we proposed conducting ATR by comparing the radar cross section (RCS) of aircraft detected by a passive radar system to the precomputed RCS of aircraft in the target class. To effectively model the low-frequency setting, the comparison is made via a Rician likelihood model. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the approach is viable. This paper builds on that work by developing a method for quickly assessing the potential performance of the ATR algorithm without using exhaustive Monte Carlo trials. This method exploits the relation between the probability of error in a binary hypothesis test under the Bayesian framework to the Chernoff information. Since the data are well-modeled as Rician, we begin by deriving a closed-form approximation for the Chernoff information between two Rician densities. This leads to an approximation for the probability of error in the classification algorithm that is a function of the number of available measurements. We conclude with an application that would be particularly cumbersome to accomplish via Monte Carlo trials, but that can be quickly addressed using the Chernoff information approach. This application evaluates the length of time that an aircraft must be tracked before the probability of error in the ATR algorithm drops below a desired threshold.

  20. Automatic air-to-ground target recognition using LWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadieu, Jean-Louis; Fraysse, Vincent

    1996-06-01

    The theoretical potential of optical sensors in terms of geometrical resolution makes them the ideal solution for achieving the terminal precision guidance of today's missiles. This paper describes such a sensor, working in the 8 to 12 micrometer spectral domain by using a 64 by 64 IRCCD focal plane array, and whose main mission is to recognize various types of armored vehicles within complex scenes that possibly include other vehicles of similar nature. The target recognition process is based upon a Bayesian approach and can be briefly described as follows: after a classical processing stage that performs the filtering and the multi- thresholding, the target recognition algorithm evaluates a similarity level between the objects, including the target, seen in the IR scene and the 'theoretical' target whose some mean, generic features have been implemented in a database. The surroundings of the target and its orientation in the IR scene are 'a priori' unknown. The similarity level is based on calculation of the Mahalanobis distance between the object features vector and the mean features vector of the model; this calculation involves a covariance matrix which is significant of the errors affecting the measured features and that in particular stem form the limited spatial resolution of the sensor, the detector noise and the sensor- to-target range estimation error. With respect to the sensor hardware, its main opto-mechanical characteristics as well as some electro-optics data are indicates; some examples of target acquisition in complex scenes involving different kinds of IR counter measures are also presented.

  1. Recognizing targets from infrared intensity scan patterns using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytaç, Tayfun; Barshan, Billur

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the use of simple, low-cost infrared sensors for the recognition of geometry and surface type of commonly encountered features or targets in indoor environments, such as planes, corners, and edges. The intensity measurements obtained from such sensors are highly dependent on the location, geometry, and surface properties of the reflecting target in a way that cannot be represented by a simple analytical relationship, therefore complicating the localization and recognition process. We employ artificial neural networks to determine the geometry and the surface type of targets and provide experimental verification with three different geometries and three different surface types. The networks are trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and pruned with the optimal brain surgeon technique. The geometry and the surface type of targets can be correctly classified with rates of 99 and 78.4%, respectively. An average correct classification rate of 78% is achieved when both geometry and surface type are differentiated. This indicates that the geometrical properties of the targets are more distinctive than their surface properties, and surface determination is the limiting factor in recognizing the patterns. The results demonstrate that processing the data from simple infrared sensors through suitable techniques can help us exploit their full potential and extend their usage beyond well-known applications.

  2. Real-time automatic target identification system for air-to-ground targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Mike; Wood, Jonathan; Nothard, Jo

    2005-10-01

    Future targeting systems, for manned or unmanned combat aircraft, aim to provide increased mission success and platform survivability by successfully detecting and identifying even difficult targets at very long ranges. One of the key enabling technologies for such systems is robust automatic target identification (ATI), operating on high resolution electro-optic sensor imagery. QinetiQ have developed a real time ATI processor which will be demonstrated with infrared imagery from the Wescam MX15 in airborne trials in summer 2005. This paper describes some of the novel ATI algorithms, the challenges overcome to port the ATI from the laboratory onto a real time system and offers an assessment of likely airborne performance based on analysis of synthetic image sequences.

  3. How Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Recognize and Phosphorylate Their Targets: A QM/MM Study

    PubMed Central

    Turjanski, Adrian Gustavo; Hummer, Gerhard; Gutkind, J. Silvio

    2009-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways play an essential role in the transduction of environmental stimuli to the nucleus, thereby regulating a variety of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death. The components of the MAPK extracellular activated protein kinase (ERK) cascade represent attractive targets for cancer therapy as their aberrant activation is a frequent event among highly prevalent human cancers. To understand how MAPKs recognize and phosphorylate their targets is key to unravel their function. However, these events are still poorly understood due to the lack of complex structures of MAPKs with their bound targets in the active site. Here, we have modeled the interaction of ERK with a target peptide and analyzed the specificity towards Ser/Thr-Pro motifs. By using a Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) approach we propose a mechanism for the phosphoryl transfer catalyzed by ERK that offers new insights into MAPK function. Our results suggest that 1) the proline residue has a role both in specificity and phospho transfer efficiency; 2) the reaction occurs in one step with ERK2 Asp147 acting as the catalytic base; 3) a conserved Lys in the kinase superfamily usually mutated to check kinase activity strongly stabilizes the transition state; and 4) the reaction mechanism is similar with either one or two Mg2+ ions in the active site. Taken together, our results provide a detailed description of the molecular events involved in the phosphorylation reaction catalyzed by MAPK and contributes to the general understanding of kinase activity. PMID:19361221

  4. Using artificial bat sonar neural networks for complex pattern recognition: recognizing faces and the speed of a moving target.

    PubMed

    Dror, I E; Florer, F L; Rios, D; Zagaeski, M

    1996-04-01

    Two sets of studies examined the viability of using bat-like sonar input for artificial neural networks in complex pattern recognition tasks. In the first set of studies, a sonar neural network was required to perform two face recognition tasks. In the first task, the network was trained to recognize different faces regardless of facial expressions. Following training, the network was tested on its ability to generalize and correctly recognize faces using echoes of novel facial expressions that were not included in the training set. The neural network was able to recognize novel echoes of faces almost perfectly (above 96% accuracy) when it was required to recognize up to five faces. In the second face recognition task, a sonar neural network was trained to recognize the sex of 16 faces (eight males and eight females). After training, the network was able to correctly recognize novel echoes of those faces as 'male' or as 'female' faces with accuracy levels of 88%. However, the network was not able to recognize novel faces as 'male' or 'female' faces. In the second set of studies, a sonar neural network was required to learn to recognize the speed of a target that was moving towards the viewer. During training, the target was presented in a variety of orientations, and the network's performance was evaluated when the target was presented in novel orientations that were not included in the training set. The different orientations dramatically affected the amplitude and the frequency composition of the echoes. The neural network was able to learn and recognize the speed of a moving target, and to generalize to new orientations of the target. However, the network was not able to generalize to new speeds that were not included in the training set. The potential and limitations of using bat-like sonar as input for artifical neural networks are discussed.

  5. Rendezvous terminal phase automatic braking sequencing and targeting. [for space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachmar, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the rendezvous terminal phase braking program is to provide the means of automatically bringing the primary orbiter within desired station keeping boundaries relative to the target satellite. A detailed discussion is presented on the braking program and its navigation, targeting, and guidance functions.

  6. AUTOMATISM.

    PubMed

    MCCALDON, R J

    1964-10-24

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed "automatism". Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of "automatism".

  7. Novel automatic target recognition approach for multispectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Jose S.; Koch, Mark W.; Yocky, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Automating the detection and identification of significant threats using multispectral (MS) imagery is a critical issue in remote sensing. Unlike previous multispectral target recognition approaches, we utilize a three-stage process that not only takes into account the spectral content, but also the spatial information. The first stage applies a matched filter to the calibrated MS data. Here, the matched filter is tuned to the spectral components of a given target and produces an image intensity map of where the best matches occur. The second stage represents a novel detection algorithm, known as the focus of attention (FOA) stage. The FOA performs an initial screening of the data based on intensity and size checks on the matched filter output. Next, using the target's pure components, the third stage performs constrained linear unmixing on MS pixels within the FOA detected regions. Knowledge sources derived from this process are combined using a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT). The SPRT can fuse contaminated, uncertain and disparate information from multiple sources. We demonstrate our approach on identifying a specific target using actual data collected in ideal conditions and also use approximately 35 square kilometers of urban clutter as false alarm data.

  8. Multi-Stage System for Automatic Target Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas T.; Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Johnson, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feedforward back-propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and to remove false positives. The system parameter optimizations process has been developed to adapt to various targets and datasets. The objective was to design an efficient computer vision system that can learn to detect multiple targets in large images with unknown backgrounds. Because the target size is small relative to the image size in this problem, there are many regions of the image that could potentially contain the target. A cursory analysis of every region can be computationally efficient, but may yield too many false positives. On the other hand, a detailed analysis of every region can yield better results, but may be computationally inefficient. The multi-stage ATR system was designed to achieve an optimal balance between accuracy and computational efficiency by incorporating both models. The detection stage first identifies potential ROIs where the target may be present by performing a fast Fourier domain OT-MACH filter-based correlation. Because threshold for this stage is chosen with the goal of detecting all true positives, a number of false positives are also detected as ROIs. The verification stage then transforms the regions of interest into feature space, and eliminates false positives using an

  9. Kernel sparse coding method for automatic target recognition in infrared imagery using covariance descriptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunwei; Yao, Junping; Sun, Dawei; Wang, Shicheng; Liu, Huaping

    2016-05-01

    Automatic target recognition in infrared imagery is a challenging problem. In this paper, a kernel sparse coding method for infrared target recognition using covariance descriptor is proposed. First, covariance descriptor combining gray intensity and gradient information of the infrared target is extracted as a feature representation. Then, due to the reason that covariance descriptor lies in non-Euclidean manifold, kernel sparse coding theory is used to solve this problem. We verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm in terms of the confusion matrices on the real images consisting of seven categories of infrared vehicle targets.

  10. Target azimuth estimation for automatic tracking in range-gated imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yinan; Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Yan

    2012-11-01

    Target tracking is of great importance in imaging system, which can be applied in surveillance, as well as salvage and rescue where 3D spatial coordinates are used to locate the target. Range-gated imaging system is capable of acquiring range information of targets. However, azimuth is also necessary to provide the spatial coordinates to achieve target tracking. This paper presents a target azimuth estimation method for range-gated imaging system, aiming at obtaining essential information for vision-based automatic tracking. Due to the noise and low contrast of range-gated image, median filter and histogram equalization are used. Then the Otsu method is performed to make the segmentation of target and background. After segmentation, morphologic transformation methods will be taken in order to delete false targets. With pixels of target extracted from the image, the centoid will be derived. Next the pinhole camera model is applied to work out the azimuth coordinate. Since the focus length of camera is needed in the formula, an NC (Numerical Control) zoom module is developed. In this module, a sliding potentiometer is connected to the focus motor in camera, which serves as a feedback of the focus. To read the focus length and control the focus motor, an MCU (with AD converter) is used. Once the target azimuth information is obtained, the pan-tilt control unit can track the target bit by bit automatically.

  11. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  12. Recognizing drug targets using evolutionary information: implications for repurposing FDA-approved drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Gayatri; Chandra, Nagasuma R; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2015-12-01

    Drug repurposing to explore target space has been gaining pace over the past decade with the upsurge in the use of systematic approaches for computational drug discovery. Such a cost and time-saving approach gains immense importance for pathogens of special interest, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. We report a comprehensive approach to repurpose drugs, based on the exploration of evolutionary relationships inferred from the comparative sequence and structural analyses between targets of FDA-approved drugs and the proteins of M. tuberculosis. This approach has facilitated the identification of several polypharmacological drugs that could potentially target unexploited M. tuberculosis proteins. A total of 130 FDA-approved drugs, originally intended against other diseases, could be repurposed against 78 potential targets in M. tuberculosis. Additionally, we have also made an attempt to augment the chemical space by recognizing compounds structurally similar to FDA-approved drugs. For three of the attractive cases we have investigated the probable binding modes of the drugs in their corresponding M. tuberculosis targets by means of structural modelling. Such prospective targets and small molecules could be prioritized for experimental endeavours, and could significantly influence drug-discovery and drug-development programmes for tuberculosis. PMID:26429199

  13. Recognizing drug targets using evolutionary information: implications for repurposing FDA-approved drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Gayatri; Chandra, Nagasuma R; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2015-12-01

    Drug repurposing to explore target space has been gaining pace over the past decade with the upsurge in the use of systematic approaches for computational drug discovery. Such a cost and time-saving approach gains immense importance for pathogens of special interest, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. We report a comprehensive approach to repurpose drugs, based on the exploration of evolutionary relationships inferred from the comparative sequence and structural analyses between targets of FDA-approved drugs and the proteins of M. tuberculosis. This approach has facilitated the identification of several polypharmacological drugs that could potentially target unexploited M. tuberculosis proteins. A total of 130 FDA-approved drugs, originally intended against other diseases, could be repurposed against 78 potential targets in M. tuberculosis. Additionally, we have also made an attempt to augment the chemical space by recognizing compounds structurally similar to FDA-approved drugs. For three of the attractive cases we have investigated the probable binding modes of the drugs in their corresponding M. tuberculosis targets by means of structural modelling. Such prospective targets and small molecules could be prioritized for experimental endeavours, and could significantly influence drug-discovery and drug-development programmes for tuberculosis.

  14. A fast automatic target detection method for detecting ships in infrared scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özertem, Kemal Arda

    2016-05-01

    Automatic target detection in infrared scenes is a vital task for many application areas like defense, security and border surveillance. For anti-ship missiles, having a fast and robust ship detection algorithm is crucial for overall system performance. In this paper, a straight-forward yet effective ship detection method for infrared scenes is introduced. First, morphological grayscale reconstruction is applied to the input image, followed by an automatic thresholding onto the suppressed image. For the segmentation step, connected component analysis is employed to obtain target candidate regions. At this point, it can be realized that the detection is defenseless to outliers like small objects with relatively high intensity values or the clouds. To deal with this drawback, a post-processing stage is introduced. For the post-processing stage, two different methods are used. First, noisy detection results are rejected with respect to target size. Second, the waterline is detected by using Hough transform and the detection results that are located above the waterline with a small margin are rejected. After post-processing stage, there are still undesired holes remaining, which cause to detect one object as multi objects or not to detect an object as a whole. To improve the detection performance, another automatic thresholding is implemented only to target candidate regions. Finally, two detection results are fused and post-processing stage is repeated to obtain final detection result. The performance of overall methodology is tested with real world infrared test data.

  15. Real-time imaging systems' combination of methods to achieve automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraviglia, Carlos G.; Williams, Elmer F.; Pezzulich, Alan Z.

    1998-03-01

    Using a combination of strategies real time imaging weapons systems are achieving their goals of detecting their intended targets. The demands of acquiring a target in a cluttered environment in a timely manner with a high degree of confidence demands compromise be made as to having a truly automatic system. A combination of techniques such as dedicated image processing hardware, real time operating systems, mixes of algorithmic methods, and multi-sensor detectors are a forbearance of the unleashed potential of future weapons system and their incorporation in truly autonomous target acquisition. Elements such as position information, sensor gain controls, way marks for mid course correction, and augmentation with different imaging spectrums as well as future capabilities such as neural net expert systems and decision processors over seeing a fusion matrix architecture may be considered tools for a weapon system's achievement of its ultimate goal. Currently, acquiring a target in a cluttered environment in a timely manner with a high degree of confidence demands compromises be made as to having a truly automatic system. It is now necessary to include a human in the track decision loop, a system feature that may be long lived. Automatic Track Recognition will still be the desired goal in future systems due to the variability of military missions and desirability of an expendable asset. Furthermore, with the increasing incorporation of multi-sensor information into the track decision the human element's real time contribution must be carefully engineered.

  16. Linking Single Domain Antibodies that Recognize Different Epitopes on the Same Target

    PubMed Central

    Glaven, Richard H.; Anderson, George P.; Zabetakis, Dan; Liu, Jinny L.; Long, Nina C.; Goldman, Ellen R.

    2012-01-01

    Single domain antibodies (sdAb) are the recombinantly expressed variable regions from the heavy-chain-only antibodies found in camelids and sharks. SdAb are able to bind antigens with high affinity, and most are capable of refolding after heat or chemical denaturation to bind antigen again. Starting with our previously isolated ricin binding sdAb determined to bind to four non-overlapping epitopes, we constructed a series of sdAb pairs, which were genetically linked through peptides of different length. We designed the series so that the sdAb are linked in both orientations with respect to the joining peptide. We confirmed that each of the sdAb in the constructs was able to bind to the ricin target, and have evidence that they are both binding ricin simultaneously. Through this work we determined that the order of genetically linked sdAb seems more important than the linker length. The genetically linked sdAb allowed for improved ricin detection with better limits of detection than the best anti-ricin monoclonal we evaluated, however they were not able to refold as well as unlinked component sdAb. PMID:25585631

  17. Using land to mitigate climate change: hitting the target, recognizing the trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Reilly, John; Melillo, Jerry; Cai, Yongxia; Kicklighter, David; Gurgel, Angelo; Paltsev, Sergey; Cronin, Timothy; Sokolov, Andrei; Schlosser, Adam

    2012-06-01

    Land can be used in several ways to mitigate climate change, but especially under changing environmental conditions there may be implications for food prices. Using an integrated global system model, we explore the roles that these land-use options can play in a global mitigation strategy to stabilize Earth's average temperature within 2 °C of the preindustrial level and their impacts on agriculture. We show that an ambitious global Energy-Only climate policy that includes biofuels would likely not achieve the 2 °C target. A thought-experiment where the world ideally prices land carbon fluxes combined with biofuels (Energy+Land policy) gets the world much closer. Land could become a large net carbon sink of about 178 Pg C over the 21st century with price incentives in the Energy+Land scenario. With land carbon pricing but without biofuels (a No-Biofuel scenario) the carbon sink is nearly identical to the case with biofuels, but emissions from energy are somewhat higher, thereby results in more warming. Absent such incentives, land is either a much smaller net carbon sink (+37 Pg C - Energy-Only policy) or a net source (-21 Pg C - No-Policy). The significant trade-off with this integrated land-use approach is that prices for agricultural products rise substantially because of mitigation costs borne by the sector and higher land prices. Share of income spent on food for wealthier regions continues to fall, but for the poorest regions, higher food prices lead to a rising share of income spent on food.

  18. Automatic target recognition algorithm based on statistical dispersion of infrared multispectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Cao, Le-lin; Wu, Chun-feng; Hou, Qing-yu

    2009-07-01

    A novel automatic target recognition algorithm based on statistical dispersion of infrared multispectral images(SDOIMI) is proposed. Firstly, infrared multispectral characteristic matrix of the scenario is constructed based on infrared multispectral characteristic information (such as radiation intensity and spectral distribution etc.) of targets, background and decoys. Then the infrared multispectral characteristic matrix of targets is reconstructed after segmenting image by maximum distance method and fusing spatial and spectral information. Finally, an statistical dispersion of infrared multispectral images(SDOIMI) recognition criteria is formulated in terms of spectral radiation difference of interesting targets. In simulation, nine sub-bands multispectral images of real ship target and shipborne aerosol infrared decoy modulated by laser simulating ship geometry appearance are obtained via using spectral radiation curves. Digital simulation experiment result verifies that the algorithm is effective and feasible.

  19. Dual Receptor Recognizing Cell Penetrating Peptide for Selective Targeting, Efficient Intratumoral Diffusion and Synthesized Anti-Glioma Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yayuan; Mei, Ling; Xu, Chaoqun; Yu, Qianwen; Shi, Kairong; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Qianyu; Gao, Huile; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) were widely used for drug delivery to tumor. However, the nonselective in vivo penetration greatly limited the application of CPPs-mediated drug delivery systems. And the treatment of malignant tumors is usually followed by poor prognosis and relapse due to the existence of extravascular core regions of tumor. Thus it is important to endue selective targeting and stronger intratumoral diffusion abilities to CPPs. In this study, an RGD reverse sequence dGR was conjugated to a CPP octa-arginine to form a CendR (R/KXXR/K) motif contained tandem peptide R8-dGR (RRRRRRRRdGR) which could bind to both integrin αvβ3 and neuropilin-1 receptors. The dual receptor recognizing peptide R8-dGR displayed increased cellular uptake and efficient penetration ability into glioma spheroids in vitro. The following in vivo studies indicated the active targeting and intratumoral diffusion capabilities of R8-dGR modified liposomes. When paclitaxel was loaded in the liposomes, PTX-R8-dGR-Lip induced the strongest anti-proliferation effect on both tumor cells and cancer stem cells, and inhibited the formation of vasculogenic mimicry channels in vitro. Finally, the R8-dGR liposomal drug delivery system prolonged the medium survival time of intracranial C6 bearing mice by 2.1-fold compared to the untreated group, and achieved an exhaustive anti-glioma therapy including anti-tumor cells, anti-vasculogenic mimicry and anti-brain cancer stem cells. To sum up, all the results demonstrated that R8-dGR was an ideal dual receptor recognizing CPP with selective glioma targeting and efficient intratumoral diffusion, which could be further used to equip drug delivery system for effective glioma therapy. PMID:26877777

  20. Truncated feature representation for automatic target detection using transformed data-based decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riasati, Vahid R.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the data covariance matrix is diagonalized to provide an orthogonal bases set using the eigen vectors of the data. The eigen-vector decomposition of the data is transformed and filtered in the transform domain to truncate the data for robust features related to a specified set of targets. These truncated eigen features are then combined and reconstructed to utilize in a composite filter and consequently utilized for the automatic target detection of the same class of targets. The results associated with the testing of the current technique are evaluated using the peak-correlation and peak-correlation energy metrics and are presented in this work. The inverse transformed eigen-bases of the current technique may be thought of as an injected sparsity to minimize data in representing the skeletal data structure information associated with the set of targets under consideration.

  1. CdiA Effectors from Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Use Heterotrimeric Osmoporins as Receptors to Recognize Target Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Christina M.; Willett, Julia L. E.; Kim, Jeff J.; Low, David A.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens express contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems that promote cell-cell interaction. CDI+ bacteria express surface CdiA effector proteins, which transfer their C-terminal toxin domains into susceptible target cells upon binding to specific receptors. CDI+ cells also produce immunity proteins that neutralize the toxin domains delivered from neighboring siblings. Here, we show that CdiAEC536 from uropathogenic Escherichia coli 536 (EC536) uses OmpC and OmpF as receptors to recognize target bacteria. E. coli mutants lacking either ompF or ompC are resistant to CDIEC536-mediated growth inhibition, and both porins are required for target-cell adhesion to inhibitors that express CdiAEC536. Experiments with single-chain OmpF fusions indicate that the CdiAEC536 receptor is heterotrimeric OmpC-OmpF. Because the OmpC and OmpF porins are under selective pressure from bacteriophages and host immune systems, their surface-exposed loops vary between E. coli isolates. OmpC polymorphism has a significant impact on CDIEC536 mediated competition, with many E. coli isolates expressing alleles that are not recognized by CdiAEC536. Analyses of recombinant OmpC chimeras suggest that extracellular loops L4 and L5 are important recognition epitopes for CdiAEC536. Loops L4 and L5 also account for much of the sequence variability between E. coli OmpC proteins, raising the possibility that CDI contributes to the selective pressure driving OmpC diversification. We find that the most efficient CdiAEC536 receptors are encoded by isolates that carry the same cdi gene cluster as E. coli 536. Thus, it appears that CdiA effectors often bind preferentially to "self" receptors, thereby promoting interactions between sibling cells. As a consequence, these effector proteins cannot recognize nor suppress the growth of many potential competitors. These findings suggest that self-recognition and kin selection are important functions of CDI. PMID:27723824

  2. Field testing of a 3D automatic target recognition and pose estimation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruel, Stephane; English, Chad E.; Melo, Len; Berube, Andrew; Aikman, Doug; Deslauriers, Adam M.; Church, Philip M.; Maheux, Jean

    2004-09-01

    Neptec Design Group Ltd. has developed a 3D Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) and pose estimation technology demonstrator in partnership with the Canadian DND. The system prototype was deployed for field testing at Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC)-Valcartier. This paper discusses the performance of the developed algorithm using 3D scans acquired with an imaging LIDAR. 3D models of civilian and military vehicles were built using scans acquired with a triangulation laser scanner. The models were then used to generate a knowledge base for the recognition algorithm. A commercial imaging LIDAR was used to acquire test scans of the target vehicles with varying range, pose and degree of occlusion. Recognition and pose estimation results are presented for at least 4 different poses of each vehicle at each test range. Results obtained with targets partially occluded by an artificial plane, vegetation and military camouflage netting are also presented. Finally, future operational considerations are discussed.

  3. Automatic Extraction of Closed Pixel Clusters for Target Cueing in Hyperspectral Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D W; Perkins, D E

    2001-06-05

    Traditional algorithms for automatic target cueing (ATC) in hyperspectral images, such as the RX algorithm, treat anomaly detection as a simple hypothesis testing problem. Each decision threshold gives rise to a different set of anomalous pixels. The clustered Rx algorithm generates target cues by grouping anomalous pixels into spatial clusters, and retaining only those clusters that satisfy target specific spatial constraints. It produces one set of target cues for each of several decision thresholds, and conservatively requires {Omicron}(K{sup 2}) operations per pixel, where K is the number of spectral bands (which varies from hundreds to thousands in hyperspectral images). A novel ATC algorithm, known as ''Pixel Cluster Cueing'' (PCC), is discussed. PCC groups pixels into clusters based on spectral similarity and spatial proximity, and then selects only those clusters that satisfy target-specific spatial constraints as target cues. PCC requires only {Omicron}(K) operations per pixel, and it produces only one set of target cues because it is not an anomaly detection algorithm, i.e., it does not use a decision threshold to classify individual pixels as anomalies. PCC is compared both computationally and statistically to the RX algorithm.

  4. Automatic target recognition and tracking using an acousto-optic image correlator

    SciTech Connect

    Molley, P.A.; Kast, B.A. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper discusses a hybrid electro-optic image processor, developed for automatic target recognition and tracking using an acousto-optic correlator and digital electronics. The optical system performs the computationally intensive correlation operation on the large 2-D input scenes. The electronics provide the decision-making capability and also perform part of the postprocessing needed for increasing the peak-to-clutter ratio in cluttered scenes. The system is able to analyze each correlation plane and apply a real-time template selection algorithm to accommodate scale or rotation changes of the target. A demonstration of the current system capabilities is presented using a terrain board with several different types of stationary and moving model vehicles.

  5. Automatic determination of the number of targets present when using the time reversal operator.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Angela; Barbot, Jean-Pierre; Larzabal, Pascal

    2006-04-01

    Acoustical time reversal mirrors have been shown to provide a highly accurate means of studying and focusing on acoustical sources. The DORT method is a derivation of the time reversal process, which allows for focusing on multiple targets. An important step in this process is the determination of the number of targets or sources present. This is achieved by examining the eigenvalues of the time reversal operator (TRO). The number of significant eigenvalues is then chosen as the number of sources present. However, as mentioned in [N. Mordant, C. Prada, and M. Fink, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 2634-2642 (1999) and C. Prada, M. Tanter, and M. Fink, in Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium, 1997, pp. 679-683], factors such as low signal to noise ratio (SNR), small data sample, array configuration and the target location may result in the eigenvalues corresponding to the targets no longer being distinguishable from the background noise eigenvalues. This paper proposes a robust method of automatically determining the number of targets even in the presence of a small number of snapshots. For white Gaussian noise, the profile of the ordered eigenvalues is seen to fit an exponential law. The observed eigenvalues are then compared to this model and a mismatch is detected between the observed profile and the noise-only model. The index of the mismatch gives the number of scatterers present. PMID:16642836

  6. Automatic target recognition using both measurements from identity sensors and motion information from tracking sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copsey, Keith D.

    2005-05-01

    The majority of automatic target recognition (ATR) studies are formulated as a traditional classification problem. Specifically, using a training set of target exemplars, a classifier is developed for application to isolated measurements of targets. Performance is assessed using a test set of target exemplars. Unfortunately, this is a simplification of the ATR problem. Often, the operating conditions differ from those prevailing at the time of training data collection, which can have severe effects on the obtained performance. It is therefore becoming increasingly recognised that development of robust ATR systems requires more than just consideration of the traditional classification problem. In particular, one should make use of any extra information or data that is available. The example in this paper focuses on a hybrid ATR system being designed to utilise both measurements from identity sensors (such as radar profiles) and motion information from tracking sensors to classify targets. The first-stage of the system uses mixture-model classifiers to classify targets into generic classes based upon data from (long range) tracking sensors. Where the generic classes are related to platform types (e.g. fast-jets, heavy bombers and commercial aircraft), the initial classifications can be used to assist the military commander's early decision making. The second-stage of the system uses measurements from (closer-range) identity sensors to classify the targets into individual target types, while taking into account the (uncertain) outputs from the first-stage. A Bayesian classifier is proposed for the second-stage, so that the first-stage outputs can be incorporated into the second-stage prior class probabilities.

  7. An algorithm for automatic target recognition using passive radar and an EKF for estimating aircraft orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrman, Lisa M.

    2005-07-01

    Rather than emitting pulses, passive radar systems rely on "illuminators of opportunity," such as TV and FM radio, to illuminate potential targets. These systems are attractive since they allow receivers to operate without emitting energy, rendering them covert. Until recently, most of the research regarding passive radar has focused on detecting and tracking targets. This dissertation focuses on extending the capabilities of passive radar systems to include automatic target recognition. The target recognition algorithm described in this dissertation uses the radar cross section (RCS) of potential targets, collected over a short period of time, as the key information for target recognition. To make the simulated RCS as accurate as possible, the received signal model accounts for aircraft position and orientation, propagation losses, and antenna gain patterns. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) estimates the target's orientation (and uncertainty in the estimate) from velocity measurements obtained from the passive radar tracker. Coupling the aircraft orientation and state with the known antenna locations permits computation of the incident and observed azimuth and elevation angles. The Fast Illinois Solver Code (FISC) simulates the RCS of potential target classes as a function of these angles. Thus, the approximated incident and observed angles allow the appropriate RCS to be extracted from a database of FISC results. Using this process, the RCS of each aircraft in the target class is simulated as though each is executing the same maneuver as the target detected by the system. Two additional scaling processes are required to transform the RCS into a power profile (magnitude only) simulating the signal in the receiver. First, the RCS is scaled by the Advanced Refractive Effects Prediction System (AREPS) code to account for propagation losses that occur as functions of altitude and range. Then, the Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC2) computes the antenna gain pattern

  8. Automatic target detection and discrimination algorithm applicable to ground penetrating radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeynayake, Canicious; Tran, Minh D.

    2015-05-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is considered as one of the promising technologies to address the challenges of detecting buried threat objects. However, the success rate of the GPR systems are limited by operational conditions and the robustness of automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms embedded with the systems. In this paper an alternate ATR algorithm applicable to GPR is developed by combining image pre-processing and machine learning techniques. The aim of this research was to design a potential solution for detection of threat alarms using GPR data and reducing the number of false alarms through classification into one of the predefined categories of target types. The proposed ATR algorithm has been validated using a data set acquired by a vehicle-mounted GPR array. The data set utilized in this investigation involved greyscale GPR images of threat objects (both conventional and improvised) commonly found in realistic operational scenarios. Target based summaries of the algorithm performance are presented in terms of the probability of detection, false alarm rate, and confidence of allocating detections to a predefined target class.

  9. Demonstration of real-time automatic target identification from a surrogate UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Peter; Wood, Jonathan; Nothard, Jo; Cowell, Jason; Smart, Karen; Pearce, Dan

    2006-05-01

    Airborne surveillance and targeting sensors are capable of generating large quantities of imagery, making it difficult for the user to find the targets of interest. Automatic target identification (ATI) can assist this process by searching for target-like objects and classifying them, thus reducing workload. ATI algorithms, developed in the laboratory by QinetiQ, have been implemented in real-time on ruggedised processing capable of flight. A series of airborne tests has been carried out to assess the performance of the ATI under real world conditions, using a Wescam EO/IR turret as the source of imagery. The tests included examples of military vehicles in urban and rural scenarios, with varying degrees of hide and concealment. Tests were conducted in different weather conditions to assess the robustness of the sensor and ATI combination. This paper discusses the tests carried out and the performance of the ATI achieved as a function of the test parameters. Conclusions are drawn as to the current state of ATI and its applicability to military requirements.

  10. Real-time automatic small infrared target detection using local spectral filtering in the frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Hong; Li, Jiafeng; Yuan, Ding; Sun, Mingui

    2014-11-01

    Accurate and fast detection of small infrared target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. Based on human visual attention mechanism, an automatic detection algorithm for small infrared target is presented. In this paper, instead of searching for infrared targets, we model regular patches that do not attract much attention by our visual system. This is inspired by the property that the regular patches in spatial domain turn out to correspond to the spikes in the amplitude spectrum. Unlike recent approaches using global spectral filtering, we define the concept of local maxima suppression using local spectral filtering to smooth the spikes in the amplitude spectrum, thereby producing the pop-out of the infrared targets. In the proposed method, we firstly compute the amplitude spectrum of an input infrared image. Second, we find the local maxima of the amplitude spectrum using cubic facet model. Third, we suppress the local maxima using the convolution of the local spectrum with a low-pass Gaussian kernel of an appropriate scale. At last, the detection result in spatial domain is obtained by reconstructing the 2D signal using the original phase and the log amplitude spectrum by suppressing local maxima. The experiments are performed for some real-life IR images, and the results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be further used for real-time detection and tracking.

  11. Model-based automatic target recognition using hierarchical foveal machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Douglas C.; Bandera, Cesar; Ghosal, Sugata; Rauss, Patrick J.

    1996-06-01

    This paper presents a target detection and interrogation techniques for a foveal automatic target recognition (ATR) system based on the hierarchical scale-space processing of imagery from a rectilinear tessellated multiacuity retinotopology. Conventional machine vision captures imagery and applies early vision techniques with uniform resolution throughout the field-of-view (FOV). In contrast, foveal active vision features graded acuity imagers and processing coupled with context sensitive gaze control, analogous to that prevalent throughout vertebrate vision. Foveal vision can operate more efficiently in dynamic scenarios with localized relevance than uniform acuity vision because resolution is treated as a dynamically allocable resource. Foveal ATR exploits the difference between detection and recognition resolution requirements and sacrifices peripheral acuity to achieve a wider FOV (e.g. faster search), greater localized resolution where needed (e.g., more confident recognition at the fovea), and faster frame rates (e.g., more reliable tracking and navigation) without increasing processing requirements. The rectilinearity of the retinotopology supports a data structure that is a subset of the image pyramid. This structure lends itself to multiresolution and conventional 2-D algorithms, and features a shift invariance of perceived target shape that tolerates sensor pointing errors and supports multiresolution model-based techniques. The detection technique described in this paper searches for regions-of- interest (ROIs) using the foveal sensor's wide FOV peripheral vision. ROIs are initially detected using anisotropic diffusion filtering and expansion template matching to a multiscale Zernike polynomial-based target model. Each ROI is then interrogated to filter out false target ROIs by sequentially pointing a higher acuity region of the sensor at each ROI centroid and conducting a fractal dimension test that distinguishes targets from structured clutter.

  12. Target and peripheral dose during patient repositioning with the Gamma Knife automatic positioning system (APS) device.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuan-Anh; Stanley, Thomas R; Malhotra, Harish K; De Boer, Steven F; Prasad, Dheerendra; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2010-01-28

    The GammaPlan treatment planning system does not account for the leakage and scatter dose during APS repositioning. In this study, the dose delivered to the target site and its periphery from the defocus stage and intershot couch transit (couch motion from the focus to defocus position and back) associated with APS repositioning are measured for the Gamma Knife model 4C. A stereotactic head-frame was attached to a Leksell 16 cm diameter spherical phantom with a calibrated ion chamber at its center. Using a fiducial box, CT images of the phantom were acquired and registered in the GammaPlan treatment planning system to determine the coordinates of the target (center of the phantom). An absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the 50% isodose line was prescribed to the target site for all measurements. Plans were generated for the 8, 14 and 18 mm collimator helmets to determine the relationship of measured dose to the number of repositions of the APS system and to the helmet size. The target coordinate was identical throughout entire study and there was no movement of the APS between various shots. This allowed for measurement of intershot transit dose at the target site and its periphery. The couch was paused in the defocus position, allowing defocus dose measurements at the intracranial target and periphery. Measured dose increases with frequency of repositioning and with helmet collimator size. During couch transit, the target receives more dose than peripheral regions; however, in the defocus position, the greatest dose is superior to the target site. The automatic positioning system for the Leksell Gamma Knife model 4C results in an additional dose of up to 3.87 +/- 0.07%, 4.97 +/- 0.04%, and 5.71 +/- 0.07% to the target site; its periphery receives additional dose that varies depending on its position relative to the target. There is also dose contribution to the patient in the defocus position, where the APS repositions the patient from one treatment coordinate to another

  13. Automatic geocoding of high-value targets using structural image analysis and GIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soergel, Uwe; Thoennessen, Ulrich

    1999-12-01

    Geocoding based merely on navigation data and sensor model is often not possible or precise enough. In these cases an improvement of the preregistration through image-based approaches is a solution. Due to the large amount of data in remote sensing automatic geocoding methods are necessary. For geocoding purposes appropriate tie points, which are present in image and map, have to be detected and matched. The tie points are base of the transformation function. Assigning the tie points is combinatorial problem depending on the number of tie points. This number can be reduced using structural tie points like corners or crossings of prominent extended targets (e.g. harbors, airfields). Additionally the reliability of the tie points is improved. Our approach extracts structural tie points independently in the image and in the vector map by a model-based image analysis. The vector map is provided by a GIS using ATKIS data base. The model parameters are extracted from maps or collateral information of the scenario. The two sets of tie points are automatically matched with a Geometric Hashing algorithm. The algorithm was successfully applied to VIS, IR and SAR data.

  14. User acceptance of intelligent avionics: A study of automatic-aided target recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Curtis A.; Hayes, Brian C.; Gorman, Patrick C.

    1991-01-01

    User acceptance of new support systems typically was evaluated after the systems were specified, designed, and built. The current study attempts to assess user acceptance of an Automatic-Aided Target Recognition (ATR) system using an emulation of such a proposed system. The detection accuracy and false alarm level of the ATR system were varied systematically, and subjects rated the tactical value of systems exhibiting different performance levels. Both detection accuracy and false alarm level affected the subjects' ratings. The data from two experiments suggest a cut-off point in ATR performance below which the subjects saw little tactical value in the system. An ATR system seems to have obvious tactical value only if it functions at a correct detection rate of 0.7 or better with a false alarm level of 0.167 false alarms per square degree or fewer.

  15. Three-dimensional transformation for automatic target recognition using lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, Ruben D.; Reynolds, William D., Jr.

    2010-04-01

    The three-dimensional (3-D) nature and the unorganized structure of topographic LIDAR data pose several challenges for target recognition tasks. In the past, several approaches have applied two-dimensional transformations such as spinimages or Digital Elevation Maps (DEMs) as an intermediate step for analyzing the 3-D data with two-dimensional (2-D) methods. However, these techniques are computationally intensive and often sacrifice some of the overall geometrical relationship of the target points. In this paper, we present a simple and efficient 3-D spatial transformation that preserves the geometrical attributes of the LIDAR data in all its dimensions. This transformation permits the utilization of well established statistical and shapebased descriptors for the implementation of an automatic target recognition algorithm. We evaluate our transformation and analysis technique on a set of simulated LIDAR point clouds of ground vehicles with varied obstructions and noise levels. Classification results demonstrate that our approach is efficient, tolerant to scale, rotation, and robust to noise and other degradations.

  16. A distributed automatic target recognition system using multiple low resolution sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Zhanfeng; Lakshmi Narasimha, Pramod; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-agent system which uses swarming techniques to perform high accuracy Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) in a distributed manner. The proposed system can co-operatively share the information from low-resolution images of different looks and use this information to perform high accuracy ATR. An advanced, multiple-agent Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems-based approach is proposed which integrates the processing capabilities, combines detection reporting with live video exchange, and swarm behavior modalities that dramatically surpass individual sensor system performance levels. We employ real-time block-based motion analysis and compensation scheme for efficient estimation and correction of camera jitter, global motion of the camera/scene and the effects of atmospheric turbulence. Our optimized Partition Weighted Sum (PWS) approach requires only bitshifts and additions, yet achieves a stunning 16X pixel resolution enhancement, which is moreover parallizable. We develop advanced, adaptive particle-filtering based algorithms to robustly track multiple mobile targets by adaptively changing the appearance model of the selected targets. The collaborative ATR system utilizes the homographies between the sensors induced by the ground plane to overlap the local observation with the received images from other UAVs. The motion of the UAVs distorts estimated homography frame to frame. A robust dynamic homography estimation algorithm is proposed to address this, by using the homography decomposition and the ground plane surface estimation.

  17. Automatic target detection algorithm for foliage-penetrating ultrawideband SAR data using split spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damarla, Thyagaraju; Kapoor, Ravinder; Ressler, Marc A.

    1999-07-01

    We present an automatic target detection (ATD) algorithm for foliage penetrating (FOPEN) ultra-wideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data using split spectral analysis. Split spectral analysis is commonly used in the ultrasonic, non-destructive evaluation of materials using wide band pulses for flaw detection. In this paper, we show the application of split spectral analysis for detecting obscured targets in foliage using UWB pulse returns to discriminate targets from foliage, the data spectrum is split into several bands, namely, 20 to 75, 75 to 150, ..., 825 to 900 MHz. An ATD algorithm is developed based on the relative energy levels in various bands, the number of bands containing significant energy (spread of energy), and chip size (number of crossrange and range bins). The algorithm is tested on the (FOPEN UWB SAR) data of foliage and vehicles obscured by foliage collected at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. The paper presents various split spectral parameters used in the algorithm and discusses the rationale for their use.

  18. Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems (DDDAS) modeling for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Seetharaman, Guna; Darema, Frederica

    2013-05-01

    The Dynamic Data Driven Applications System (DDDAS) concept uses applications modeling, mathematical algorithms, and measurement systems to work with dynamic systems. A dynamic systems such as Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) is subject to sensor, target, and the environment variations over space and time. We use the DDDAS concept to develop an ATR methodology for multiscale-multimodal analysis that seeks to integrated sensing, processing, and exploitation. In the analysis, we use computer vision techniques to explore the capabilities and analogies that DDDAS has with information fusion. The key attribute of coordination is the use of sensor management as a data driven techniques to improve performance. In addition, DDDAS supports the need for modeling from which uncertainty and variations are used within the dynamic models for advanced performance. As an example, we use a Wide-Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) application to draw parallels and contrasts between ATR and DDDAS systems that warrants an integrated perspective. This elementary work is aimed at triggering a sequence of deeper insightful research towards exploiting sparsely sampled piecewise dense WAMI measurements - an application where the challenges of big-data with regards to mathematical fusion relationships and high-performance computations remain significant and will persist. Dynamic data-driven adaptive computations are required to effectively handle the challenges with exponentially increasing data volume for advanced information fusion systems solutions such as simultaneous target tracking and ATR.

  19. Deformable mesh registration for the validation of automatic target localization algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Scott; Weiss, Elisabeth; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate deformable mesh registration (DMR) as a tool for validating automatic target registration algorithms used during image-guided radiation therapy. Methods: DMR was implemented in a hierarchical model, with rigid, affine, and B-spline transforms optimized in succession to register a pair of surface meshes. The gross tumor volumes (primary tumor and involved lymph nodes) were contoured by a physician on weekly CT scans in a cohort of lung cancer patients and converted to surface meshes. The meshes from weekly CT images were registered to the mesh from the planning CT, and the resulting registered meshes were compared with the delineated surfaces. Known deformations were also applied to the meshes, followed by mesh registration to recover the known deformation. Mesh registration accuracy was assessed at the mesh surface by computing the symmetric surface distance (SSD) between vertices of each registered mesh pair. Mesh registration quality in regions within 5 mm of the mesh surface was evaluated with respect to a high quality deformable image registration. Results: For 18 patients presenting with a total of 19 primary lung tumors and 24 lymph node targets, the SSD averaged 1.3 ± 0.5 and 0.8 ± 0.2 mm, respectively. Vertex registration errors (VRE) relative to the applied known deformation were 0.8 ± 0.7 and 0.2 ± 0.3 mm for the primary tumor and lymph nodes, respectively. Inside the mesh surface, corresponding average VRE ranged from 0.6 to 0.9 and 0.2 to 0.9 mm, respectively. Outside the mesh surface, average VRE ranged from 0.7 to 1.8 and 0.2 to 1.4 mm. The magnitude of errors generally increased with increasing distance away from the mesh. Conclusions: Provided that delineated surfaces are available, deformable mesh registration is an accurate and reliable method for obtaining a reference registration to validate automatic target registration algorithms for image-guided radiation therapy, specifically in regions on or near the target surfaces

  20. General Metropolis-Hastings jump diffusions for automatic target recognition in infrared scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanterman, Aaron D.; Miller, Michael I.; Snyder, Donald L.

    1997-04-01

    To locate and recognize ground-based targets in forward- looking IR (FLIR) images, 3D faceted models with associated pose parameters are formulated to accommodate the variability found in FLIR imagery. Taking a Bayesian approach, scenes are simulated from the emissive characteristics of the CAD models and compared with the collected data by a likelihood function based on sensor statistics. This likelihood is combined with a prior distribution defined over the set of possible scenes to form a posterior distribution. To accommodate scenes with variable numbers of targets, the posterior distribution is defined over parameter vectors of varying dimension. An inference algorithm based on Metropolis-Hastings jump- diffusion processes empirically samples from the posterior distribution, generating configurations of templates and transformations that match the collected sensor data with high probability. The jumps accommodate the addition and deletion of targets and the estimation of target identities; diffusions refine the hypotheses by drifting along the gradient of the posterior distribution with respect to the orientation and position parameters. Previous results on jumps strategies analogous to the Metropolis acceptance/rejection algorithm, with proposals drawn from the prior and accepted based on the likelihood, are extended to encompass general Metropolis-Hastings proposal densities. In particular, the algorithm proposes moves by drawing from the posterior distribution over computationally tractible subsets of the parameter space. The algorithm is illustrated by an implementation on a Silicon Graphics Onyx/Reality Engine.

  1. Localization accuracy from automatic and semi-automatic rigid registration of locally-advanced lung cancer targets during image-guided radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Scott P.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate localization accuracy resulting from rigid registration of locally-advanced lung cancer targets using fully automatic and semi-automatic protocols for image-guided radiation therapy. Methods: Seventeen lung cancer patients, fourteen also presenting with involved lymph nodes, received computed tomography (CT) scans once per week throughout treatment under active breathing control. A physician contoured both lung and lymph node targets for all weekly scans. Various automatic and semi-automatic rigid registration techniques were then performed for both individual and simultaneous alignments of the primary gross tumor volume (GTVP) and involved lymph nodes (GTVLN) to simulate the localization process in image-guided radiation therapy. Techniques included “standard” (direct registration of weekly images to a planning CT), “seeded” (manual prealignment of targets to guide standard registration), “transitive-based” (alignment of pretreatment and planning CTs through one or more intermediate images), and “rereferenced” (designation of a new reference image for registration). Localization error (LE) was assessed as the residual centroid and border distances between targets from planning and weekly CTs after registration. Results: Initial bony alignment resulted in centroid LE of 7.3 ± 5.4 mm and 5.4 ± 3.4 mm for the GTVP and GTVLN, respectively. Compared to bony alignment, transitive-based and seeded registrations significantly reduced GTVP centroid LE to 4.7 ± 3.7 mm (p = 0.011) and 4.3 ± 2.5 mm (p < 1 × 10−3), respectively, but the smallest GTVP LE of 2.4 ± 2.1 mm was provided by rereferenced registration (p < 1 × 10−6). Standard registration significantly reduced GTVLN centroid LE to 3.2 ± 2.5 mm (p < 1 × 10−3) compared to bony alignment, with little additional gain offered by the other registration techniques. For simultaneous target alignment, centroid LE as low as 3

  2. Automatic target classification of man-made objects in synthetic aperture radar images using Gabor wavelet and neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasuki, Perumal; Roomi, S. Mohamed Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Processing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images has led to the development of automatic target classification approaches. These approaches help to classify individual and mass military ground vehicles. This work aims to develop an automatic target classification technique to classify military targets like truck/tank/armored car/cannon/bulldozer. The proposed method consists of three stages via preprocessing, feature extraction, and neural network (NN). The first stage removes speckle noise in a SAR image by the identified frost filter and enhances the image by histogram equalization. The second stage uses a Gabor wavelet to extract the image features. The third stage classifies the target by an NN classifier using image features. The proposed work performs better than its counterparts, like K-nearest neighbor (KNN). The proposed work performs better on databases like moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition against the earlier methods by KNN.

  3. Region descriptors for automatic classification of small sea targets in infrared video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouthaan, Martijn M.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; Hendriks, Emile A.; Schwering, Piet B. W.

    2011-03-01

    We evaluate the performance of different key-point detectors and region descriptors when used for automatic classification of small sea targets in infrared video. In our earlier research performed on this subject as well as in other literature, many different region descriptors have been proposed. However, it is unclear which methods are most applicable to use on the type of infrared imagery as used onboard naval ships. The key-point detector should detect points of interest that can be used to effectively describe the objects in the imagery. On the basis of the detected key points, the descriptors should discriminate between different classes of small sea targets while being robust to differences in viewing conditions. We propose a similarity measure based on the distance between key-point location and the Euclidean distance between descriptors to quantify the similarity of images. For performance evaluation, we use the receiver operator characteristic as the criterion to rank the evaluated methods. We compare the Harris-, blob- and scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) detectors and the square neighborhood, steerable filters, invariant moments, and SIFT descriptors. We conclude that the Harris detector combined with the square neighborhood of size 19×19 or the SIFT descriptor results in the best classification performance for our data set.

  4. An automatic ellipse and line targets detection method from synthetic aperture sonar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Bao-Li; Liu, Ji-Yuan; Zhang, Chun-Hua

    2009-10-01

    Detection of ellipse and line targets is important for the analysis of Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) images. An automatic ellipse and line targets detection method from synthetic aperture sonar images is presented. The method mainly has three procedures: preprocessing of SAS images, Zernike Orthogonal Moment Edge Detection Algorithm (ZOMEDA), line and ellipse detection. The guidance is presented firstly on how to perform the preprocessing of SAS images. Then, ZOMEDA is utilized to produce edge points with both the direction and position information. Principles of ZOMEDA with the 7x7 template are analyzed and the coefficients to carry out the ZOMEDA are calculated and listed. The idea of Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) is applied to the Line and ellipse detection procedure to improve the robustness and the computing efficiency. Detail procedures of RANSAC are analyzed in the article. Calculating of line and ellipse parameters is pivotal to carry out the idea of RANSAC. Principles are analyzed on how to calculate the parameters of the line and ellipse based on the direction and position information. Another important procedure, parameters refinement, is also discussed. At last, the line and ellipse detection method is applied to simulated datasets and lake-trial datasets for validation.

  5. A comparative study of automatic image segmentation algorithms for target tracking in MR-IGRT.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuan; Kawrakow, Iwan; Olsen, Jeff; Parikh, Parag J; Noel, Camille; Wooten, Omar; Du, Dongsu; Mutic, Sasa; Hu, Yanle

    2016-01-01

    On-board magnetic resonance (MR) image guidance during radiation therapy offers the potential for more accurate treatment delivery. To utilize the real-time image information, a crucial prerequisite is the ability to successfully segment and track regions of interest (ROI). The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of different segmentation algorithms using motion images (4 frames per second) acquired using a MR image-guided radiotherapy (MR-IGRT) system. Manual con-tours of the kidney, bladder, duodenum, and a liver tumor by an experienced radiation oncologist were used as the ground truth for performance evaluation. Besides the manual segmentation, images were automatically segmented using thresholding, fuzzy k-means (FKM), k-harmonic means (KHM), and reaction-diffusion level set evolution (RD-LSE) algorithms, as well as the tissue tracking algorithm provided by the ViewRay treatment planning and delivery system (VR-TPDS). The performance of the five algorithms was evaluated quantitatively by comparing with the manual segmentation using the Dice coefficient and target registration error (TRE) measured as the distance between the centroid of the manual ROI and the centroid of the automatically segmented ROI. All methods were able to successfully segment the bladder and the kidney, but only FKM, KHM, and VR-TPDS were able to segment the liver tumor and the duodenum. The performance of the thresholding, FKM, KHM, and RD-LSE algorithms degraded as the local image contrast decreased, whereas the performance of the VP-TPDS method was nearly independent of local image contrast due to the reference registration algorithm. For segmenting high-contrast images (i.e., kidney), the thresholding method provided the best speed (< 1 ms) with a satisfying accuracy (Dice = 0.95). When the image contrast was low, the VR-TPDS method had the best automatic contour. Results suggest an image quality determination procedure before segmentation and a combination of

  6. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities by Improving Their Computer Pointing Efficiency with an Automatic Target Acquisition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Peng, Chin-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance through an Automatic Target Acquisition Program (ATAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e. a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, and is able to monitor mouse movement and intercept click action). Initially, both…

  7. Automatic identification of bird targets with radar via patterns produced by wing flapping.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Serge; Saporta, Gilbert; van Loon, Emiel; Schmaljohann, Heiko; Liechti, Felix

    2008-09-01

    Bird identification with radar is important for bird migration research, environmental impact assessments (e.g. wind farms), aircraft security and radar meteorology. In a study on bird migration, radar signals from birds, insects and ground clutter were recorded. Signals from birds show a typical pattern due to wing flapping. The data were labelled by experts into the four classes BIRD, INSECT, CLUTTER and UFO (unidentifiable signals). We present a classification algorithm aimed at automatic recognition of bird targets. Variables related to signal intensity and wing flapping pattern were extracted (via continuous wavelet transform). We used support vector classifiers to build predictive models. We estimated classification performance via cross validation on four datasets. When data from the same dataset were used for training and testing the classifier, the classification performance was extremely to moderately high. When data from one dataset were used for training and the three remaining datasets were used as test sets, the performance was lower but still extremely to moderately high. This shows that the method generalizes well across different locations or times. Our method provides a substantial gain of time when birds must be identified in large collections of radar signals and it represents the first substantial step in developing a real time bird identification radar system. We provide some guidelines and ideas for future research.

  8. A Compact Methodology to Understand, Evaluate, and Predict the Performance of Automatic Target Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hongqiang; Chen, Yiping; Zhuang, Zhaowen; Cheng, Yongqiang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Liandong; Zeng, Yonghu; Gao, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a compacted mechanism to carry out the performance evaluation work for an automatic target recognition (ATR) system: (a) a standard description of the ATR system's output is suggested, a quantity to indicate the operating condition is presented based on the principle of feature extraction in pattern recognition, and a series of indexes to assess the output in different aspects are developed with the application of statistics; (b) performance of the ATR system is interpreted by a quality factor based on knowledge of engineering mathematics; (c) through a novel utility called “context-probability” estimation proposed based on probability, performance prediction for an ATR system is realized. The simulation result shows that the performance of an ATR system can be accounted for and forecasted by the above-mentioned measures. Compared to existing technologies, the novel method can offer more objective performance conclusions for an ATR system. These conclusions may be helpful in knowing the practical capability of the tested ATR system. At the same time, the generalization performance of the proposed method is good. PMID:24967605

  9. Automatic identification of bird targets with radar via patterns produced by wing flapping.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Serge; Saporta, Gilbert; van Loon, Emiel; Schmaljohann, Heiko; Liechti, Felix

    2008-09-01

    Bird identification with radar is important for bird migration research, environmental impact assessments (e.g. wind farms), aircraft security and radar meteorology. In a study on bird migration, radar signals from birds, insects and ground clutter were recorded. Signals from birds show a typical pattern due to wing flapping. The data were labelled by experts into the four classes BIRD, INSECT, CLUTTER and UFO (unidentifiable signals). We present a classification algorithm aimed at automatic recognition of bird targets. Variables related to signal intensity and wing flapping pattern were extracted (via continuous wavelet transform). We used support vector classifiers to build predictive models. We estimated classification performance via cross validation on four datasets. When data from the same dataset were used for training and testing the classifier, the classification performance was extremely to moderately high. When data from one dataset were used for training and the three remaining datasets were used as test sets, the performance was lower but still extremely to moderately high. This shows that the method generalizes well across different locations or times. Our method provides a substantial gain of time when birds must be identified in large collections of radar signals and it represents the first substantial step in developing a real time bird identification radar system. We provide some guidelines and ideas for future research. PMID:18331979

  10. Investigation of measureable parameters that correlate with automatic target recognition performance in synthetic aperture sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazagnaire, Julia; Cobb, J. T.; Isaacs, Jason

    2015-05-01

    There is a desire in the Mine Counter Measure community to develop a systematic method to predict and/or estimate the performance of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms that are detecting and classifying mine-like objects within sonar data. Ideally, parameters exist that can be measured directly from the sonar data that correlate with ATR performance. In this effort, two metrics were analyzed for their predictive potential using high frequency synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) images. The first parameter is a measure of contrast. It is essentially the variance in pixel intensity over a fixed partition of relatively small size. An analysis was performed to determine the optimum block size for this contrast calculation. These blocks were then overlapped in the horizontal and vertical direction over the entire image. The second parameter is the one-dimensional K-shape parameter. The K-distribution is commonly used to describe sonar backscatter return from range cells that contain a finite number of scatterers. An Ada-Boosted Decision Tree classifier was used to calculate the probability of classification (Pc) and false alarm rate (FAR) for several types of targets in SAS images from three different data sets. ROC curves as a function of the measured parameters were generated and the correlation between the measured parameters in the vicinity of each of the contacts and the ATR performance was investigated. The contrast and K-shape parameters were considered separately. Additionally, the contrast and K-shape parameter were associated with background texture types using previously labeled high frequency SAS images.

  11. Comparative analysis of different implementations of a parallel algorithm for automatic target detection and classification of hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Abel; Plaza, Antonio; Plaza, Javier

    2009-08-01

    Automatic target detection in hyperspectral images is a task that has attracted a lot of attention recently. In the last few years, several algoritms have been developed for this purpose, including the well-known RX algorithm for anomaly detection, or the automatic target detection and classification algorithm (ATDCA), which uses an orthogonal subspace projection (OSP) approach to extract a set of spectrally distinct targets automatically from the input hyperspectral data. Depending on the complexity and dimensionality of the analyzed image scene, the target/anomaly detection process may be computationally very expensive, a fact that limits the possibility of utilizing this process in time-critical applications. In this paper, we develop computationally efficient parallel versions of both the RX and ATDCA algorithms for near real-time exploitation of these algorithms. In the case of ATGP, we use several distance metrics in addition to the OSP approach. The parallel versions are quantitatively compared in terms of target detection accuracy, using hyperspectral data collected by NASA's Airborne Visible Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over the World Trade Center in New York, five days after the terrorist attack of September 11th, 2001, and also in terms of parallel performance, using a massively Beowulf cluster available at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland.

  12. Continuous Visual Cues Trigger Automatic Spatial Target Updating in Dynamic Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerhoff, Hauke S.; Huff, Markus; Papenmeier, Frank; Jahn, Georg; Schwan, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic tasks often require fast adaptations to new viewpoints. It has been shown that automatic spatial updating is triggered by proprioceptive motion cues. Here, we demonstrate that purely visual cues are sufficient to trigger automatic updating. In five experiments, we examined spatial updating in a dynamic attention task in which participants…

  13. Using locality-constrained linear coding in automatic target detection of HRS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaee, M.; Mirikharaji, Z.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Automatic target detection with complicated shapes in high spatial resolution images is an ongoing challenge in remote sensing image processing. This is because most methods use spectral or texture information, which are not sufficient for detecting complex shapes. In this paper, a new detection framework, based on Spatial Pyramid Matching (SPM) and Locality- constraint Linear Coding (LLC), is proposed to solve this problem, and exemplified using airplane shapes. The process starts with partitioning the image into sub-regions and generating a unique histogram for local features of each sub-region. Then, linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are used to detect objects based on a pyramid-matching kernel, which analyses the descriptors inside patches in different resolution. In order to generate the histogram, first a point feature detector (e.g. SIFT) is applied on the patches, and then a quantization process is used to select local features. In this step, the k-mean method is used in conjunction with the locality-constrained linear coding method. The LLC forces the coefficient matrix in the quantization process to be local and sparse as well. As a result, the speed of the method improves around 24 times in comparison to using sparse coding for quantization. Quantitative analysis also shows improvement in comparison to just using k-mean, but the accuracy in comparison to using sparse coding is similar. Rotation and shift of the desired object has no effect on the obtained results. The speed and accuracy of this algorithm for high spatial resolution images make it capable for use in real-world applications.

  14. Targeting B-cell neoplasia with T-cell receptors recognizing a CD20-derived peptide on patient-specific HLA.

    PubMed

    Mensali, Nadia; Ying, Fan; Sheng, Vincent Oei Yi; Yang, Weiwen; Walseng, Even; Kumari, Shraddha; Fallang, Lars-Egil; Kolstad, Arne; Uckert, Wolfgang; Malmberg, Karl Johan; Wälchli, Sébastien; Olweus, Johanna

    2016-05-01

    T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeted to CD19 are effective in treatment of B-lymphoid malignancies. However, CARs recognize all CD19 positive (pos) cells, and durable responses are linked to profound depletion of normal B cells. Here, we designed a strategy to specifically target patient B cells by utilizing the fact that T-cell receptors (TCRs), in contrast to CARs, are restricted by HLA. Two TCRs recognizing a peptide from CD20 (SLFLGILSV) in the context of foreign HLA-A*02:01 (CD20p/HLA-A2) were expressed as 2A-bicistronic constructs. T cells re-directed with the A23 and A94 TCR constructs efficiently recognized malignant HLA-A2(pos) B cells endogenously expressing CD20, including patient-derived follicular lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. In contrast, a wide range of HLA-A2(pos)CD20(neg) cells representing different tissue origins, and HLA-A2(neg)CD20(pos) cells, were not recognized. Cytotoxic T cells re-directed with CD20p/HLA-A2-specific TCRs or CD19 CARs responded with similar potencies to cells endogenously expressing comparable levels of CD20 and CD19. The CD20p/HLA-A2-specific TCRs recognized CD20p bound to HLA-A2 with high functional avidity. The results show that T cells expressing CD20p/HLA-A2-specific TCRs efficiently and specifically target B cells. When used in context of an HLA-haploidentical allogeneic stem cell transplantation where the donor is HLA-A2(neg) and the patient HLA-A2(pos), these T cells would selectively kill patient-derived B cells and allow reconstitution of the B-cell compartment with HLA-A2(neg) donor cells. These results should pave the way for clinical testing of T cells genetically engineered to target malignant B cells without permanent depletion of normal B cells.

  15. Targeting B-cell neoplasia with T-cell receptors recognizing a CD20-derived peptide on patient-specific HLA.

    PubMed

    Mensali, Nadia; Ying, Fan; Sheng, Vincent Oei Yi; Yang, Weiwen; Walseng, Even; Kumari, Shraddha; Fallang, Lars-Egil; Kolstad, Arne; Uckert, Wolfgang; Malmberg, Karl Johan; Wälchli, Sébastien; Olweus, Johanna

    2016-05-01

    T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeted to CD19 are effective in treatment of B-lymphoid malignancies. However, CARs recognize all CD19 positive (pos) cells, and durable responses are linked to profound depletion of normal B cells. Here, we designed a strategy to specifically target patient B cells by utilizing the fact that T-cell receptors (TCRs), in contrast to CARs, are restricted by HLA. Two TCRs recognizing a peptide from CD20 (SLFLGILSV) in the context of foreign HLA-A*02:01 (CD20p/HLA-A2) were expressed as 2A-bicistronic constructs. T cells re-directed with the A23 and A94 TCR constructs efficiently recognized malignant HLA-A2(pos) B cells endogenously expressing CD20, including patient-derived follicular lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. In contrast, a wide range of HLA-A2(pos)CD20(neg) cells representing different tissue origins, and HLA-A2(neg)CD20(pos) cells, were not recognized. Cytotoxic T cells re-directed with CD20p/HLA-A2-specific TCRs or CD19 CARs responded with similar potencies to cells endogenously expressing comparable levels of CD20 and CD19. The CD20p/HLA-A2-specific TCRs recognized CD20p bound to HLA-A2 with high functional avidity. The results show that T cells expressing CD20p/HLA-A2-specific TCRs efficiently and specifically target B cells. When used in context of an HLA-haploidentical allogeneic stem cell transplantation where the donor is HLA-A2(neg) and the patient HLA-A2(pos), these T cells would selectively kill patient-derived B cells and allow reconstitution of the B-cell compartment with HLA-A2(neg) donor cells. These results should pave the way for clinical testing of T cells genetically engineered to target malignant B cells without permanent depletion of normal B cells. PMID:27467957

  16. Target epitope in the Tax protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type I recognized by class I major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic T cells.

    PubMed

    Kannagi, M; Shida, H; Igarashi, H; Kuruma, K; Murai, H; Aono, Y; Maruyama, I; Osame, M; Hattori, T; Inoko, H

    1992-05-01

    A trans-acting regulatory gene product p40tax (Tax) of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is one of the main target antigens recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for HTLV-I. A CTL epitope within the Tax protein was identified in this report. HTLV-I-specific CD8+ CTL lines established from two HTLV-I carriers with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy or Sjögren syndrome were previously demonstrated to kill predominantly the target cells expressing HTLV-I Tax. The CTL from two patients showed significant levels of cytotoxicity to autologous target cells pulsed with a synthetic peptide of 24 amino acids corresponding to the amino-terminal sequences of the Tax protein. Allogeneic target cells were also sensitized for CTL by this peptide when the target cells have HLA-A2. Tax-specific cytotoxicity, detected as cytolysis of the target cells infected with vaccinia virus-HTLV-I recombinant expressing Tax protein, was almost completely inhibited by competitor cells pulsed with the synthetic peptide. This indicates that a major CTL epitope is present in this peptide. Further analysis using shorter peptides revealed that the core sequence of the CTL epitope was LLFGYPVYV at positions 11 through 19. This sequence can be aligned with the HLA-A2-specific motifs reported recently. PMID:1373197

  17. Hansenula polymorpha and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pex5p's recognize different, independent peroxisomal targeting signals in alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Ozimek, Paulina; Kötter, Peter; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisomal alcohol oxidase (AO) from Hansenula polymorpha is inactive and partially mislocalized to the cytosol upon synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Co-production with H. polymorpha pyruvate carboxylase (HpPyc1p) resulted in AO activation, but did not improve import into peroxisomes. We show that import of AO mediated by S. cerevisiae Pex5p is strictly dependent on the peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1) of AO and independent of HpPyc1p. In contrast, HpPex5p-mediated sorting of AO into S. cerevisiae peroxisomes is independent of the PTS1, but requires an alternative PTS that is only formed when HpPyc1p is co-produced and most likely involves folding and co-factor binding to AO.

  18. Recognizing faces.

    PubMed

    Ellis, H D

    1975-11-01

    Following a review of the stimulus and subject factors which have been found to affect recognition faces, the question of whether this process can be considered a special one is dealt with. Evidence from studies involving the development of face recognition, the recognition of inverted faces, and the clinical condition prosopagnosia is considered, and in each case found to be inadequate for the unequivocal conclusion that the processes underlying face recognition are qualitatively different from those employed in recognizing other pictorial material.

  19. Advances in image compression and automatic target recognition; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tescher, Andrew G. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on image compression and automatic target recognition are presented. Individual topics addressed include: target cluster detection in cluttered SAR imagery, model-based target recognition using laser radar imagery, Smart Sensor front-end processor for feature extraction of images, object attitude estimation and tracking from a single video sensor, symmetry detection in human vision, analysis of high resolution aerial images for object detection, obscured object recognition for an ATR application, neural networks for adaptive shape tracking, statistical mechanics and pattern recognition, detection of cylinders in aerial range images, moving object tracking using local windows, new transform method for image data compression, quad-tree product vector quantization of images, predictive trellis encoding of imagery, reduced generalized chain code for contour description, compact architecture for a real-time vision system, use of human visibility functions in segmentation coding, color texture analysis and synthesis using Gibbs random fields.

  20. Automatic online adaptive radiation therapy techniques for targets with significant shape change: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Court, Laurence E; Tishler, Roy B; Petit, Joshua; Cormack, Robert; Chin, Lee

    2006-05-21

    This work looks at the feasibility of an online adaptive radiation therapy concept that would detect the daily position and shape of the patient, and would then correct the daily treatment to account for any changes compared with planning position. In particular, it looks at the possibility of developing algorithms to correct for large complicated shape change. For co-planar beams, the dose in an axial plane is approximately associated with the positions of a single multi-leaf collimator (MLC) pair. We start with a primary plan, and automatically generate several secondary plans with gantry angles offset by regular increments. MLC sequences for each plan are calculated keeping monitor units (MUs) and number of segments constant for a given beam (fluences are different). Bulk registration (3D) of planning and daily CT images gives global shifts. Slice-by-slice (2D) registration gives local shifts and rotations about the longitudinal axis for each axial slice. The daily MLC sequence is then created for each axial slice/MLC leaf pair combination, by taking the MLC positions from the pre-calculated plan with the nearest rotation, and shifting using a beam's-eye-view calculation to account for local linear shifts. A planning study was carried out using two head and neck region MR images of a healthy volunteer which were contoured to simulate a base-of-tongue treatment: one with the head straight (used to simulate the planning image) and the other with the head tilted to the left (the daily image). Head and neck treatment was chosen to evaluate this technique because of its challenging nature, with varying internal and external contours, and multiple degrees of freedom. Shape change was significant: on a slice-by-slice basis, local rotations in the daily image varied from 2 to 31 degrees, and local shifts ranged from -0.2 to 0.5 cm and -0.4 to 0.0 cm in right-left and posterior-anterior directions, respectively. The adapted treatment gave reasonable target coverage (100

  1. Identification of MCAM/CD146 as the target antigen of a human monoclonal antibody that recognizes both epithelioid and sarcomatoid types of mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Bidlingmaier, Scott; He, Jiang; Wang, Yong; An, Feng; Feng, Jinjin; Barbone, Dario; Gao, Dongwei; Franc, Ben; Courtney Broaddus, V.; Liu, Bin

    2008-01-01

    The prognosis for patients diagnosed with mesothelioma is generally poor, and currently available treatments are usually ineffective. Therapies that specifically target tumor cells hold much promise for the treatment of cancers that are resistant to current approaches. We have previously selected phage antibody display libraries on mesothelioma cell lines to identify a panel of internalizing human single chain (scFv) antibodies that target mesothelioma-associated, clinically represented cell surface antigens, and further exploited the internalizing function of these scFvs to specifically deliver lethal doses of liposome-encapsulated small molecule drugs to both epithelioid and sarcomatous subtypes of mesothelioma cells. Here we report the identification of MCAM/MUC18/CD146 as the surface antigen bound by one of the mesothelioma targeting scFvs using a novel cloning strategy based on yeast surface human proteome display. Immunohistochemical analysis of mesothelioma tissue microarrays confirmed that MCAM is widely expressed by both epithelioid and sarcomatous types of mesothelioma tumor cells in situ but not by normal mesothelial cells. In addition, quantum dot-labeled anti-MCAM scFv targets primary meosthelioma cells in tumor fragment spheroids cultured ex vivo. As the first step in evaluating the therapeutic potential of MCAM-targeting antibodies, we performed single-photon emission computed tomography studies using the anti-MCAM scFv and found that it recognizes mesothelioma organotypic xenografts in vivo. The combination of phage antibody library selection on tumor cells and rapid target antigen identification by screening the yeast surface displayed human proteome could be a powerful method for mapping the targetable tumor cell surface epitope space. PMID:19221091

  2. Automatic localization of target vertebrae in spine surgery using fast CT-to-fluoroscopy (3D-2D) image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Y.; Schafer, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, W.; Kleinszig, G.; Graumann, R.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2012-02-01

    Localization of target vertebrae is an essential step in minimally invasive spine surgery, with conventional methods relying on "level counting" - i.e., manual counting of vertebrae under fluoroscopy starting from readily identifiable anatomy (e.g., the sacrum). The approach requires an undesirable level of radiation, time, and is prone to counting errors due to the similar appearance of vertebrae in projection images; wrong-level surgery occurs in 1 of every ~3000 cases. This paper proposes a method to automatically localize target vertebrae in x-ray projections using 3D-2D registration between preoperative CT (in which vertebrae are preoperatively labeled) and intraoperative fluoroscopy. The registration uses an intensity-based approach with a gradient-based similarity metric and the CMA-ES algorithm for optimization. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and a robust similarity metric are computed on GPU to accelerate the process. Evaluation in clinical CT data included 5,000 PA and LAT projections randomly perturbed to simulate human variability in setup of mobile intraoperative C-arm. The method demonstrated 100% success for PA view (projection error: 0.42mm) and 99.8% success for LAT view (projection error: 0.37mm). Initial implementation on GPU provided automatic target localization within about 3 sec, with further improvement underway via multi-GPU. The ability to automatically label vertebrae in fluoroscopy promises to streamline surgical workflow, improve patient safety, and reduce wrong-site surgeries, especially in large patients for whom manual methods are time consuming and error prone.

  3. Automatic Focusing for a 675 GHz Imaging Radar with Target Standoff Distances from 14 to 34 Meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Adrian; Cooper, Ken B.; Dengler, Robert J.; Llombart, Nuria; Siegel, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper dicusses the issue of limited focal depth for high-resolution imaging radar operating over a wide range of standoff distances. We describe a technique for automatically focusing a THz imaging radar system using translational optics combined with range estimation based on a reduced chirp bandwidth setting. The demonstarted focusing algorithm estimates the correct focal depth for desired targets in the field of view at unknown standoffs and in the presence of clutter to provide good imagery at 14 to 30 meters of standoff.

  4. Automatic Shape-Based Target Extraction for Close-Range Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.; Chen, Y.; Wang, C.; Cheng, M.; Wen, C.; Yu, J.

    2016-06-01

    In order to perform precise identification and location of artificial coded targets in natural scenes, a novel design of circle-based coded target and the corresponding coarse-fine extraction algorithm are presented. The designed target separates the target box and coding box totally and owns an advantage of rotation invariance. Based on the original target, templates are prepared by three geometric transformations and are used as the input of shape-based template matching. Finally, region growing and parity check methods are used to extract the coded targets as final results. No human involvement is required except for the preparation of templates and adjustment of thresholds in the beginning, which is conducive to the automation of close-range photogrammetry. The experimental results show that the proposed recognition method for the designed coded target is robust and accurate.

  5. Automatic target tracking in forward-looking infrared video sequences using tuned basis functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Abdullah; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2016-07-01

    Tuned basis function (TBF) is a powerful technique for classification of two classes by transforming them into a new space, where both classes will have complementary eigenvectors. A target discrimination technique can be described based on these complementary eigenvector analyses under two classes: (1) target and (2) background clutter, where basis functions that best represent the desired targets form one class while the complementary basis functions form the second class. Since the TBF does not require pixel-based preprocessing, it provides significant advantages for target tracking applications. Furthermore, efficient eigenvector selection and subframe segmentation significantly reduce the computation burden of the target tracking algorithm. The performance of the proposed TBF-based target tracking algorithm has been tested using real-world forward looking infrared video sequences.

  6. Automatic target tracking in forward-looking infrared video sequences using tuned basis functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Abdullah; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2016-07-01

    Tuned basis function (TBF) is a powerful technique for classification of two classes by transforming them into a new space, where both classes will have complementary eigenvectors. A target discrimination technique can be described based on these complementary eigenvector analyses under two classes: (1) target and (2) background clutter, where basis functions that best represent the desired targets form one class while the complementary basis functions form the second class. Since the TBF does not require pixel-based preprocessing, it provides significant advantages for target tracking applications. Furthermore, efficient eigenvector selection and subframe segmentation significantly reduce the computation burden of the target tracking algorithm. The performance of the proposed TBF-based target tracking algorithm has been tested using real-world forward looking infrared video sequences.

  7. Plasma membrane associated, virus-specific polypeptides required for the formation of target antigen complexes recognized by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Domber, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to define some of the poxvirus-specific target antigens which are synthesized in infected cells and recognized by vaccinia virus-specific CTLs (VV-CTLs). Since vaccinia virus infected, unmanipulated target cells express numerous virus-specific antigens on the plasma membrane, attempts were made to manipulate expression of the poxvirus genome after infection so that one or a few defined virus-specified antigens were expressed on the surface of infected cells. In vitro (/sup 51/Cr)-release assays determined that viral DNA synthesis and expression of late viral proteins were not necessary to form a target cell which was fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Under the conditions employed in these experiments, 90-120 minutes of viral protein synthesis were necessary to produce a competent cell for lysis by VV-CTLs. In order to further inhibit the expression of early viral proteins in infected cells, partially UV-inactivated vaccinia virus was employed to infect target cells. It was determined that L-cells infected with virus preparations which had been UV-irradiated for 90 seconds were fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Cells infected with 90 second UV-irr virus expressed 3 predominant, plasma membrane associated antigens of 36-37K, 27-28K, and 19-17K. These 3 viral antigens represent the predominant membrane-associated viral antigens available for interaction with class I, major histocompatibility antigens and hence are potential target antigens for VV-CTLs.

  8. Performances of human listeners and an automatic aural classifier in discriminating between sonar target echoes and clutter.

    PubMed

    Allen, Nancy; Hines, Paul C; Young, Victor W

    2011-09-01

    Human listening tests were conducted to investigate if participants could distinguish between samples of target echoes and clutter obtained from a broadband active sonar experiment. For each echo, the listeners assigned a rating based on how confident they were that it was a target echo or clutter. The measure of performance was the area under the binormal receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve, A(z). The mean performance was A(z)=0.95 ± 0.04 when signals were presented with their full available acoustic bandwidth of approximately 0-2 kHz. It was A(z)=0.77 ± 0.08 when the bandwidth was reduced to 0.5-2 kHz. The error bounds are stated as 95% confidence intervals. These results show that the listeners could definitely hear differences, but their performance was significantly degraded when the low-frequency signal information was removed. The performance of an automatic aural classifier was compared against this human-performance baseline. Results of statistical tests showed that it outperformed 2 of 13 listeners and 5 of 9 human listeners in the full-bandwidth and reduced-bandwidth tests, respectively, and performed similarly to the other listeners. Given its performance, the automatic aural classifier may prove beneficial to Navy sonar systems.

  9. Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

    Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

  10. Experimental new automatic tools for robotic stereotactic neurosurgery: towards "no hands" procedure of leads implantation into a brain target.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, P; Arena, P; Cantelli, L; Spampinato, G; Sposato, S; Cozzolino, S; Demarinis, P; Muscato, G

    2016-07-01

    The use of robotics in neurosurgery and, particularly, in stereotactic neurosurgery, is becoming more and more adopted because of the great advantages that it offers. Robotic manipulators easily allow to achieve great precision, reliability, and rapidity in the positioning of surgical instruments or devices in the brain. The aim of this work was to experimentally verify a fully automatic "no hands" surgical procedure. The integration of neuroimaging to data for planning the surgery, followed by application of new specific surgical tools, permitted the realization of a fully automated robotic implantation of leads in brain targets. An anthropomorphic commercial manipulator was utilized. In a preliminary phase, a software to plan surgery was developed, and the surgical tools were tested first during a simulation and then on a skull mock-up. In such a way, several tools were developed and tested, and the basis for an innovative surgical procedure arose. The final experimentation was carried out on anesthetized "large white" pigs. The determination of stereotactic parameters for the correct planning to reach the intended target was performed with the same technique currently employed in human stereotactic neurosurgery, and the robotic system revealed to be reliable and precise in reaching the target. The results of this work strengthen the possibility that a neurosurgeon may be substituted by a machine, and may represent the beginning of a new approach in the current clinical practice. Moreover, this possibility may have a great impact not only on stereotactic functional procedures but also on the entire domain of neurosurgery. PMID:27194228

  11. Experimental new automatic tools for robotic stereotactic neurosurgery: towards "no hands" procedure of leads implantation into a brain target.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, P; Arena, P; Cantelli, L; Spampinato, G; Sposato, S; Cozzolino, S; Demarinis, P; Muscato, G

    2016-07-01

    The use of robotics in neurosurgery and, particularly, in stereotactic neurosurgery, is becoming more and more adopted because of the great advantages that it offers. Robotic manipulators easily allow to achieve great precision, reliability, and rapidity in the positioning of surgical instruments or devices in the brain. The aim of this work was to experimentally verify a fully automatic "no hands" surgical procedure. The integration of neuroimaging to data for planning the surgery, followed by application of new specific surgical tools, permitted the realization of a fully automated robotic implantation of leads in brain targets. An anthropomorphic commercial manipulator was utilized. In a preliminary phase, a software to plan surgery was developed, and the surgical tools were tested first during a simulation and then on a skull mock-up. In such a way, several tools were developed and tested, and the basis for an innovative surgical procedure arose. The final experimentation was carried out on anesthetized "large white" pigs. The determination of stereotactic parameters for the correct planning to reach the intended target was performed with the same technique currently employed in human stereotactic neurosurgery, and the robotic system revealed to be reliable and precise in reaching the target. The results of this work strengthen the possibility that a neurosurgeon may be substituted by a machine, and may represent the beginning of a new approach in the current clinical practice. Moreover, this possibility may have a great impact not only on stereotactic functional procedures but also on the entire domain of neurosurgery.

  12. Optical implementation of a feature-based neural network with application to automatic target recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Stoner, William W.

    1993-01-01

    An optical neural network based on the neocognitron paradigm is introduced. A novel aspect of the architecture design is shift-invariant multichannel Fourier optical correlation within each processing layer. Multilayer processing is achieved by feeding back the ouput of the feature correlator interatively to the input spatial light modulator and by updating the Fourier filters. By training the neural net with characteristic features extracted from the target images, successful pattern recognition with intraclass fault tolerance and interclass discrimination is achieved. A detailed system description is provided. Experimental demonstrations of a two-layer neural network for space-object discrimination is also presented.

  13. Automatic target recognition using a feature-based optical neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1992-01-01

    An optical neural network based upon the Neocognitron paradigm (K. Fukushima et al. 1983) is introduced. A novel aspect of the architectural design is shift-invariant multichannel Fourier optical correlation within each processing layer. Multilayer processing is achieved by iteratively feeding back the output of the feature correlator to the input spatial light modulator and updating the Fourier filters. By training the neural net with characteristic features extracted from the target images, successful pattern recognition with intra-class fault tolerance and inter-class discrimination is achieved. A detailed system description is provided. Experimental demonstration of a two-layer neural network for space objects discrimination is also presented.

  14. Transgenic antigen-specific, HLA-A*02:01-allo-restricted cytotoxic T cells recognize tumor-associated target antigen STEAP1 with high specificity.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, David; Grünewald, Thomas G P; Klar, Richard; Schmidt, Oxana; Wohlleber, Dirk; Rubío, Rebeca Alba; Uckert, Wolfgang; Thiel, Uwe; Bohne, Felix; Busch, Dirk H; Krackhardt, Angela M; Burdach, Stefan; Richter, Günther H S

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric cancers, including Ewing sarcoma (ES), are only weakly immunogenic and the tumor-patients' immune system often is devoid of effector T cells for tumor elimination. Based on expression profiling technology, targetable tumor-associated antigens (TAA) are identified and exploited for engineered T-cell therapy. Here, the specific recognition and lytic potential of transgenic allo-restricted CD8(+) T cells, directed against the ES-associated antigen 6-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 1 (STEAP1), was examined. Following repetitive STEAP1(130) peptide-driven stimulations with HLA-A*02:01(+) dendritic cells (DC), allo-restricted HLA-A*02:01(-) CD8(+) T cells were sorted with HLA-A*02:01/peptide multimers and expanded by limiting dilution. After functional analysis of suitable T cell clones via ELISpot, flow cytometry and xCELLigence assay, T cell receptors' (TCR) α- and β-chains were identified, cloned into retroviral vectors, codon optimized, transfected into HLA-A*02:01(-) primary T cell populations and tested again for specificity and lytic capacity in vitro and in a Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) mouse model. Initially generated transgenic T cells specifically recognized STEAP1(130)-pulsed or transfected cells in the context of HLA-A*02:01 with minimal cross-reactivity as determined by specific interferon-γ (IFNγ) release, lysed cells and inhibited growth of HLA-A*02:01(+) ES lines more effectively than HLA-A*02:01(-) ES lines. In vivo tumor growth was inhibited more effectively with transgenic STEAP1(130)-specific T cells than with unspecific T cells. Our results identify TCRs capable of recognizing and inhibiting growth of STEAP1-expressing HLA-A*02:01(+) ES cells in vitro and in vivo in a highly restricted manner. As STEAP1 is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers, we anticipate these STEAP1-specific TCRs to be potentially useful for immunotherapy of other STEAP1-expressing tumors. PMID:27471654

  15. A multispectral automatic target recognition application for maritime surveillance, search, and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon; Reed, Scott; Podobna, Yuliya; Vazquez, Jose; Boucher, Cynthia

    2010-04-01

    Due to increased security concerns, the commitment to monitor and maintain security in the maritime environment is increasingly a priority. A country's coast is the most vulnerable area for the incursion of illegal immigrants, terrorists and contraband. This work illustrates the ability of a low-cost, light-weight, multi-spectral, multi-channel imaging system to handle the environment and see under difficult marine conditions. The system and its implemented detecting and tracking technologies should be organic to the maritime homeland security community for search and rescue, fisheries, defense, and law enforcement. It is tailored for airborne and ship based platforms to detect, track and monitor suspected objects (such as semi-submerged targets like marine mammals, vessels in distress, and drug smugglers). In this system, automated detection and tracking technology is used to detect, classify and localize potential threats or objects of interest within the imagery provided by the multi-spectral system. These algorithms process the sensor data in real time, thereby providing immediate feedback when features of interest have been detected. A supervised detection system based on Haar features and Cascade Classifiers is presented and results are provided on real data. The system is shown to be extendable and reusable for a variety of different applications.

  16. Performance portability study of an automatic target detection and classification algorithm for hyperspectral image analysis using OpenCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabe, Sergio; Igual, Francisco D.; Botella, Guillermo; Garcia, Carlos; Prieto-Matias, Manuel; Plaza, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances in heterogeneous high performance computing (HPC) have opened new avenues for demanding remote sensing applications. Perhaps one of the most popular algorithm in target detection and identification is the automatic target detection and classification algorithm (ATDCA) widely used in the hyperspectral image analysis community. Previous research has already investigated the mapping of ATDCA on graphics processing units (GPUs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), showing impressive speedup factors that allow its exploitation in time-critical scenarios. Based on these studies, our work explores the performance portability of a tuned OpenCL implementation across a range of processing devices including multicore processors, GPUs and other accelerators. This approach differs from previous papers, which focused on achieving the optimal performance on each platform. Here, we are more interested in the following issues: (1) evaluating if a single code written in OpenCL allows us to achieve acceptable performance across all of them, and (2) assessing the gap between our portable OpenCL code and those hand-tuned versions previously investigated. Our study includes the analysis of different tuning techniques that expose data parallelism as well as enable an efficient exploitation of the complex memory hierarchies found in these new heterogeneous devices. Experiments have been conducted using hyperspectral data sets collected by NASA's Airborne Visible Infra- red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the Hyperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment (HYDICE) sensors. To the best of our knowledge, this kind of analysis has not been previously conducted in the hyperspectral imaging processing literature, and in our opinion it is very important in order to really calibrate the possibility of using heterogeneous platforms for efficient hyperspectral imaging processing in real remote sensing missions.

  17. Bacteriocin protein BacL1 of Enterococcus faecalis targets cell division loci and specifically recognizes L-Ala2-cross-bridged peptidoglycan.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, Jun; Nakane, Daisuke; Nishizaka, Takayuki; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) is produced from clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and consists of two extracellular proteins, BacL1 and BacA. We previously reported that BacL1 protein (595 amino acids, 64.5 kDa) is a bacteriolytic peptidoglycan D-isoglutamyl-L-lysine endopeptidase that induces cell lysis of E. faecalis when an accessory factor, BacA, is copresent. However, the target of BacL1 remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the targeting specificity of BacL1. Fluorescence microscopy analysis using fluorescent dye-conjugated recombinant protein demonstrated that BacL1 specifically localized at the cell division-associated site, including the equatorial ring, division septum, and nascent cell wall, on the cell surface of target E. faecalis cells. This specific targeting was dependent on the triple repeat of the SH3 domain located in the region from amino acid 329 to 590 of BacL1. Repression of cell growth due to the stationary state of the growth phase or to treatment with bacteriostatic antibiotics rescued bacteria from the bacteriolytic activity of BacL1 and BacA. The static growth state also abolished the binding and targeting of BacL1 to the cell division-associated site. Furthermore, the targeting of BacL1 was detectable among Gram-positive bacteria with an L-Ala-L-Ala-cross-bridging peptidoglycan, including E. faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus pneumoniae, but not among bacteria with alternate peptidoglycan structures, such as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Listeria monocytogenes. These data suggest that BacL1 specifically targets the L-Ala-L-Ala-cross-bridged peptidoglycan and potentially lyses the E. faecalis cells during cell division.

  18. Multi-targeting Peptide-Functionalized Nanoparticles Recognized Vasculogenic Mimicry, Tumor Neovasculature, and Glioma Cells for Enhanced Anti-glioma Therapy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xingye; Yao, Jianhui; Gao, Xiaoling; Jing, Yixian; Kang, Ting; Jiang, Di; Jiang, Tianze; Feng, Jingxian; Zhu, Qianqian; Jiang, Xinguo; Chen, Jun

    2015-12-23

    Chemotherapy failure of glioma, the most aggressive and devastating cancer, might be ascribed to the physiologic barriers of the tumor mainly including heterogeneous tumor perfusion and vascular permeability, which result in a limited penetration of chemotherapeutics. Besides, the vasculogenic mimicry (VM) channels, which are highly resistant to anti-angiogenic therapy and serve as a complement of angiogenesis, were abound in glioma and always associated with tumor recurrence. In order to enhance the therapy effect of anti-glioma, we developed a PEG-PLA-based nanodrug delivery system (nanoparticles, NP) in this study and modified its surface with CK peptide, which was composed of a human sonic hedgehog (SHH) targeting peptide (CVNHPAFAC) and a KDR targeting peptide (K237) through a GYG linker, for facilitating efficient VM channels, tumor neovasculature, and glioma cells multi-targeting delivery of paclitaxel. In vitro cellular assay showed that CK-NP-PTX not only exhibited the strongest antiproliferation effect on U87MG cells and HUVEC cells but also resulted in the most efficient destruction of VM channels when compared with CVNHPAFAC-NP, K237-NP, and the unmodified ones. Besides, CK-NP accumulated more selectively at the glioma site as demonstrated by in vivo and ex vivo imaging. As expected, the glioma-bearing mice treated with CK-NP-PTX achieved the longest median survival time compared to those treated with CVNHPAFAC-NP-PTX and K237-NP-PTX. These findings indicated that the multi-targeting therapy mediated by CK peptide might provide a promising way for glioblastoma therapy.

  19. How Should a Speech Recognizer Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharenborg, Odette; Norris, Dennis; ten Bosch, Louis; McQueen, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Although researchers studying human speech recognition (HSR) and automatic speech recognition (ASR) share a common interest in how information processing systems (human or machine) recognize spoken language, there is little communication between the two disciplines. We suggest that this lack of communication follows largely from the fact that…

  20. Automatic classification of minelike targets buried underground using time-frequency signatures extracted by a stepped-frequency radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strifors, Hans C.; Gustafsson, Anders; Abrahamson, Steffan; Gaunaurd, Guillermo C.

    2001-10-01

    Ultra-wideband radar systems are feasible for extracting signature infor-ma-tion use-ful for target recognition purposes. An ultra-wideband radar system emits either an extremely short pulse, impulse, or a frequency modulated signal. The frequency content of the emitted signals is designed to match the size and kind of typical targets and environments. We investigate the backscattered echoes from selected targets that are extracted by a stepped-frequency continuous wave (SFCW) radar system playing the role of ground penetrating radar (GPR). The targets are metal and non-metal objects buried in dry sand. The SFCW radar transmits 55 different frequencies from 300 to 3,000 MHz in steps of 50 MHz. The duration of each frequency is about 100 ´s, which means that each transmitted waveform has an extremely narrow band. The in-phase (I) sampled signals and quadrature-phase (Q) sampled signals give information of both the amplitude and phase of the signal returned from the target. As a result a complex-valued line spectrum of the target is obtained that can be used for synthesizing real-valued repetitive waveforms, using the inverse Fourier transform. We analyze synthe-sized back-scat-tered echoes from each target in the joint time-frequency domain us-ing a pseudo-Wigner distribution (PWD). A classification method that we developed previously using the fuzzy C-means clustering technique is then used to reduce the number and kind of fea-tures in the derived target signatures. Using a template for each member of the class the classifier decides the membership of a given target based on best fit of the templates measured by a cost function. We also address the problem of how to select suitable waveforms for the templates used by the classification algorithm.

  1. Recognizing Scientific Artifacts in Biomedical Literature

    PubMed Central

    Groza, Tudor; Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Hunter, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Today’s search engines and digital libraries offer little or no support for discovering those scientific artifacts (hypotheses, supporting/contradicting statements, or findings) that form the core of scientific written communication. Consequently, we currently have no means of identifying central themes within a domain or to detect gaps between accepted knowledge and newly emerging knowledge as a means for tracking the evolution of hypotheses from incipient phases to maturity or decline. We present a hybrid Machine Learning approach using an ensemble of four classifiers, for recognizing scientific artifacts (ie, hypotheses, background, motivation, objectives, and findings) within biomedical research publications, as a precursory step to the general goal of automatically creating argumentative discourse networks that span across multiple publications. The performance achieved by the classifiers ranges from 15.30% to 78.39%, subject to the target class. The set of features used for classification has led to promising results. Furthermore, their use strictly in a local, publication scope, ie, without aggregating corpus-wide statistics, increases the versatility of the ensemble of classifiers and enables its direct applicability without the necessity of re-training. PMID:23645987

  2. Recognizing medical emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Medical emergencies - how to recognize them ... According to the American College of Emergency Physicians, the following are warning signs of a medical emergency: Bleeding that will not stop Breathing problems ( difficulty breathing , shortness of breath ) ...

  3. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  4. A Statistical Approach to Automatic Speech Summarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Chiori; Furui, Sadaoki; Malkin, Rob; Yu, Hua; Waibel, Alex

    2003-12-01

    This paper proposes a statistical approach to automatic speech summarization. In our method, a set of words maximizing a summarization score indicating the appropriateness of summarization is extracted from automatically transcribed speech and then concatenated to create a summary. The extraction process is performed using a dynamic programming (DP) technique based on a target compression ratio. In this paper, we demonstrate how an English news broadcast transcribed by a speech recognizer is automatically summarized. We adapted our method, which was originally proposed for Japanese, to English by modifying the model for estimating word concatenation probabilities based on a dependency structure in the original speech given by a stochastic dependency context free grammar (SDCFG). We also propose a method of summarizing multiple utterances using a two-level DP technique. The automatically summarized sentences are evaluated by summarization accuracy based on a comparison with a manual summary of speech that has been correctly transcribed by human subjects. Our experimental results indicate that the method we propose can effectively extract relatively important information and remove redundant and irrelevant information from English news broadcasts.

  5. Recognizing Battered Wife Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    Battered wife syndrome is difficult to detect because the women usually do not volunteer the diagnosis. They often present with vague somatic complaints such as headache, lower back pain, abdominal pain, pelvic pain and dyspareunia. Four case histories demonstrate the difficulty in recognizing the cause of these complaints. The diagnosis was often missed because straight-forward, non-threatening, open-ended questions were not asked initially. The family physician's primary role is to identify the syndrome and initiate psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is centred on reversing “learned helplessness” and developing a new self-concept. This can be enhanced by an interval or transition house. PMID:21274067

  6. Recognizing Action Units for Facial Expression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ying-Li; Kanade, Takeo; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2001-02-01

    Most automatic expression analysis systems attempt to recognize a small set of prototypic expressions, such as happiness, anger, surprise, and fear. Such prototypic expressions, however, occur rather infrequently. Human emotions and intentions are more often communicated by changes in one or a few discrete facial features. In this paper, we develop an Automatic Face Analysis (AFA) system to analyze facial expressions based on both permanent facial features (brows, eyes, mouth) and transient facial features (deepening of facial furrows) in a nearly frontal-view face image sequence. The AFA system recognizes fine-grained changes in facial expression into action units (AUs) of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), instead of a few prototypic expressions. Multistate face and facial component models are proposed for tracking and modeling the various facial features, including lips, eyes, brows, cheeks, and furrows. During tracking, detailed parametric descriptions of the facial features are extracted. With these parameters as the inputs, a group of action units (neutral expression, six upper face AUs and 10 lower face AUs) are recognized whether they occur alone or in combinations. The system has achieved average recognition rates of 96.4 percent (95.4 percent if neutral expressions are excluded) for upper face AUs and 96.7 percent (95.6 percent with neutral expressions excluded) for lower face AUs. The generalizability of the system has been tested by using independent image databases collected and FACS-coded for ground-truth by different research teams.

  7. Recognizing the Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark Scott

    2016-01-01

    Solar system planetary science has traditionally focused on understanding in depth individual planets. While there have been some efforts at synergy, most studies have focused on understanding the details of individual planets. Now that we are in the era of exoplanet science, with thousands of known planets and hundreds that have been characterized to varying degrees, the systematics of planetary science are becoming apparent. This also means that, for the first time, what had previously been seen as individual quirks of solar system planets are instead being recognized as part of the normal range of planetary behavior. In my talk I will consider a number of such characteristics and explain how we are now starting to understand their true context. In particular I will discuss the atmospheric composition, clouds, hazes, and winds of giant planets, trace gasses in the atmosphere of Venus, and the presence and absence of atmospheres on various terrestrial worlds.

  8. Automatic Parallelization Using OpenMP Based on STL Semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D J; Willcock, J J; Panas, T

    2008-06-03

    Automatic parallelization of sequential applications using OpenMP as a target has been attracting significant attention recently because of the popularity of multicore processors and the simplicity of using OpenMP to express parallelism for shared-memory systems. However, most previous research has only focused on C and Fortran applications operating on primitive data types. C++ applications using high level abstractions such as STL containers are largely ignored due to the lack of research compilers that are readily able to recognize high level object-oriented abstractions of STL. In this paper, we use ROSE, a multiple-language source-to-source compiler infrastructure, to build a parallelizer that can recognize such high level semantics and parallelize C++ applications using certain STL containers. The idea of our work is to automatically insert OpenMP constructs using extended conventional dependence analysis and the known domain-specific semantics of high-level abstractions with optional assistance from source code annotations. In addition, the parallelizer is followed by an OpenMP translator to translate the generated OpenMP programs into multi-threaded code targeted to a popular OpenMP runtime library. Our work extends the applicability of automatic parallelization and provides another way to take advantage of multicore processors.

  9. Neural networks: Alternatives to conventional techniques for automatic docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Bradley L.

    1994-01-01

    Automatic docking of orbiting spacecraft is a crucial operation involving the identification of vehicle orientation as well as complex approach dynamics. The chaser spacecraft must be able to recognize the target spacecraft within a scene and achieve accurate closing maneuvers. In a video-based system, a target scene must be captured and transformed into a pattern of pixels. Successful recognition lies in the interpretation of this pattern. Due to their powerful pattern recognition capabilities, artificial neural networks offer a potential role in interpretation and automatic docking processes. Neural networks can reduce the computational time required by existing image processing and control software. In addition, neural networks are capable of recognizing and adapting to changes in their dynamic environment, enabling enhanced performance, redundancy, and fault tolerance. Most neural networks are robust to failure, capable of continued operation with a slight degradation in performance after minor failures. This paper discusses the particular automatic docking tasks neural networks can perform as viable alternatives to conventional techniques.

  10. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria. PMID:26636731

  11. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  12. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  13. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  14. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  15. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will...

  16. Automatic Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report lays more stress on the principles underlying automatic piloting than on the means of applications. Mechanical details of servomotors and the mechanical release device necessary to assure instantaneous return of the controls to the pilot in case of malfunction are not included. Descriptions are provided of various commercial systems.

  17. Can a CNN recognize Catalan diet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herruzo, P.; Bolaños, M.; Radeva, P.

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, we can find several diseases related to the unhealthy diet habits of the population, such as diabetes, obesity, anemia, bulimia and anorexia. In many cases, these diseases are related to the food consumption of people. Mediterranean diet is scientifically known as a healthy diet that helps to prevent many metabolic diseases. In particular, our work focuses on the recognition of Mediterranean food and dishes. The development of this methodology would allow to analise the daily habits of users with wearable cameras, within the topic of lifelogging. By using automatic mechanisms we could build an objective tool for the analysis of the patient's behavior, allowing specialists to discover unhealthy food patterns and understand the user's lifestyle. With the aim to automatically recognize a complete diet, we introduce a challenging multi-labeled dataset related to Mediter-ranean diet called FoodCAT. The first type of label provided consists of 115 food classes with an average of 400 images per dish, and the second one consists of 12 food categories with an average of 3800 pictures per class. This dataset will serve as a basis for the development of automatic diet recognition. In this context, deep learning and more specifically, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), currently are state-of-the-art methods for automatic food recognition. In our work, we compare several architectures for image classification, with the purpose of diet recognition. Applying the best model for recognising food categories, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 72.29%, and top-5 of 97.07%. In a complete diet recognition of dishes from Mediterranean diet, enlarged with the Food-101 dataset for international dishes recognition, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 68.07%, and top-5 of 89.53%, for a total of 115+101 food classes.

  18. Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method

    DOEpatents

    Ochoa, Ellen; Schils, George F.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789 between the U.S. Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

  19. Targeting Cognitive-Affective Risk Mechanisms in Stress-Precipitated Alcohol Dependence: An Integrated, Biopsychosocial Model of Automaticity, Allostasis, and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hypothetical model integrating formerly discrete theories of stress appraisal, neurobiological allostasis, automatic cognitive processing, and addictive behavior to elucidate how alcohol misuse and dependence are maintained and re-activated by stress. We outline a risk chain in which psychosocial stress initiates physiological arousal, perseverative cognition, and negative affect that, in turn, triggers automatized schema to compel alcohol consumption. This implicit cognitive process then leads to attentional biases toward alcohol, subjective experiences of craving, paradoxical increases in arousal and alcohol-related cognitions due to urge suppression, and palliative coping through drinking. When palliative coping relieves distress, it results in negative reinforcement conditioning that perpetuates the cycle by further sensitizing the system to future stressful encounters. This model has implications for development and implementation of innovative behavioral interventions (such as mindfulness training) that disrupt cognitive-affective mechanisms underpinning stress-precipitated dependence on alcohol. PMID:21354711

  20. Targeting cognitive-affective risk mechanisms in stress-precipitated alcohol dependence: an integrated, biopsychosocial model of automaticity, allostasis, and addiction.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Howard, Matthew O

    2011-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel hypothetical model integrating formerly discrete theories of stress appraisal, neurobiological allostasis, automatic cognitive processing, and addictive behavior to elucidate how alcohol misuse and dependence are maintained and re-activated by stress. We outline a risk chain in which psychosocial stress initiates physiological arousal, perseverative cognition, and negative affect that, in turn, triggers automatized schema to compel alcohol consumption. This implicit cognitive process then leads to attentional biases toward alcohol, subjective experiences of craving, paradoxical increases in arousal and alcohol-related cognitions due to urge suppression, and palliative coping through drinking. When palliative coping relieves distress, it results in negative reinforcement conditioning that perpetuates the cycle by further sensitizing the system to future stressful encounters. This model has implications for development and implementation of innovative behavioral interventions (such as mindfulness training) that disrupt cognitive-affective mechanisms underpinning stress-precipitated dependence on alcohol. PMID:21354711

  1. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  2. Simulation of emission molecular spectra by a semi-automatic programme package: the case of C2 and CN diatomic molecules emitting during laser ablation of a graphite target in nitrogen environment.

    PubMed

    Acquaviva, S

    2004-07-01

    Some emission spectra of diatomic molecules were calculated by a semi-automatic programme package in order to infer the rotational and vibrational temperatures in Boltzmann distribution by comparing them with the corresponding experimental ones. The calculation procedure was applied in the case of CN radical and C2 molecule whose optical emission spectra were recorded during pulsed excimer laser ablation of a graphite target in low-pressure nitrogen environment. Computed similar or dissimilar values of rotational and vibrational temperatures let to verify the existence or not of local thermodynamic equilibrium and to hypothesise the temporal range necessary to establish it in such experiments.

  3. Semantic Priming from Letter-Searched Primes Occurs for Low- but Not High-Frequency Targets: Automatic Semantic Access May Not Be a Myth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Neely, James H.

    2007-01-01

    Letter-search (LS) within a prime often eliminates semantic priming. In 2 lexical decision experiments, the authors found that priming from LS primes occurred for low-frequency (LF) but not high-frequency (HF) targets whether the target's word frequency was manipulated between or within participants and whether the prime-target pairs were…

  4. Studies on quantitative analysis and automatic recognition of cell types of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chen; Hu, Kuang-Hu; Li, Fang-Zhen; Li, Shu-Yu; Su, Wan-Fang; Huang, Zhi-Ying; Hu, Ying-Xiong

    2006-01-01

    Recognition of lung cancer cells is very important to the clinical diagnosis of lung cancer. In this paper we present a novel method to extract the structure characteristics of lung cancer cells and automatically recognize their types. Firstly soft mathematical morphology methods are used to enhance the grayscale image, to improve the definition of images, and to eliminate most of disturbance, noise and information of subordinate images, so the contour of target lung cancer cell and biological shape characteristic parameters can be extracted accurately. Then the minimum distance classifier is introduced to realize the automatic recognition of different types of lung cancer cells. A software system named "CANCER.LUNG" is established to demonstrate the efficiency of this method. The clinical experiments show that this method can accurately and objectively recognize the type of lung cancer cells, which can significantly improve the pathology research on the pathological changes of lung cancer and clinical assistant diagnoses.

  5. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.

    1988-02-16

    An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

  6. Automatic stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, FR

    1936-01-01

    This report concerns the study of automatic stabilizers and extends it to include the control of the three-control system of the airplane instead of just altitude control. Some of the topics discussed include lateral disturbed motion, static stability, the mathematical theory of lateral motion, and large angles of incidence. Various mechanisms and stabilizers are also discussed. The feeding of Diesel engines by injection pumps actuated by engine compression, achieves the required high speeds of injection readily and permits rigorous control of the combustible charge introduced into each cylinder and of the peak pressure in the resultant cycle.

  7. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, N.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

  8. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.

    1989-03-21

    An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

  9. Automatic integration of social information in emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Mumenthaler, Christian; Sander, David

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the automaticity of the influence of social inference on emotion recognition. Participants were asked to recognize dynamic facial expressions of emotion (fear or anger in Experiment 1 and blends of fear and surprise or of anger and disgust in Experiment 2) in a target face presented at the center of a screen while a subliminal contextual face appearing in the periphery expressed an emotion (fear or anger) or not (neutral) and either looked at the target face or not. Results of Experiment 1 revealed that recognition of the target emotion of fear was improved when a subliminal angry contextual face gazed toward-rather than away from-the fearful face. We replicated this effect in Experiment 2, in which facial expression blends of fear and surprise were more often and more rapidly categorized as expressing fear when the subliminal contextual face expressed anger and gazed toward-rather than away from-the target face. With the contextual face appearing for 30 ms in total, including only 10 ms of emotion expression, and being immediately masked, our data provide the first evidence that social influence on emotion recognition can occur automatically. PMID:25688908

  10. Recognizing Young Readers' Spoken Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei; Mostow, Jack; Aist, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Free-form spoken input would be the easiest and most natural way for young children to communicate to an intelligent tutoring system. However, achieving such a capability poses a challenge both to instruction design and to automatic speech recognition. To address the difficulties of accepting such input, we adopt the framework of predictable…

  11. Using automatic programming for simulating reliability network models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Fan T.; Schroer, Bernard J.; Zhang, S. X.; Wolfsberger, John W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an automatic programming system for assisting modelers of reliability networks to define problems and then automatically generate the corresponding code in the target simulation language GPSS/PC.

  12. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

  13. Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohair, Mark A.; Eucker, Shelly S.; Eucker, Brad A.; Lewis, Tim

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) is to successfully demonstrate the mission performance that can be achieved in manned air-to-ground targeting applications utilizing a synergistic combination of state of the art active/passive infrared sensor and automatic target recognizer (ATR) technologies. The IRTS program is centered around a demonstration FLIR/Laser Radar/ATR (FLASHER). The FLASHER consists of a dual field of view (2 x 2 degree and 6 x 6 degree) second generation FLIR pixel mapped to a CO2 laser radar, with a FLIR ATR processor, a laser radar ATR processor, and a sensor fusion ATR processor. Following construction and laboratory testing of the IRTS, the system will be installed on a test aircraft and demonstrated in flight against realistic tactical, strategic, and special operations scenarios.

  14. The resolvase/invertase domain of the site-specific recombinase TnpX is functional and recognizes a target sequence that resembles the junction of the circular form of the Clostridium perfringens transposon Tn4451.

    PubMed Central

    Crellin, P K; Rood, J I

    1997-01-01

    Tn4451 is a 6.3-kb chloramphenicol resistance transposon from Clostridium perfringens and is found on the conjugative plasmid pIP401. The element undergoes spontaneous excision from multicopy plasmids in Escherichia coli and C. perfringens and conjugative excision from pIP401 in C. perfringens. Tn4451 is excised as a circular molecule which is probably the transposition intermediate. Excision of Tn4451 is dependent upon the site-specific recombinase TnpX, which contains potential motifs associated with both the resolvase/invertase and integrase families of recombinases. Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved amino acid residues within these domains was used to show that the resolvase/invertase domain was essential for TnpX-mediated excision of Tn4451 from multicopy plasmids in E. coli. An analysis of Tn4451 target sites revealed that the transposition process showed target site specificity. The Tn4451 target sequence resembled the junction of the circular form, and insertion occurred at a GA dinucleotide. Tn4451 insertions were flanked by directly repeated GA dinucleotides, and there was also a GA at the junction of the circular form, where the left and right termini of Tn4451 were fused. We propose a model for Tn4451 excision and insertion in which the resolvase/invertase domain of TnpX introduces 2-bp staggered cuts at these GA dinucleotides. Analysis of Tn4451 derivatives with altered GA dinucleotides provided experimental evidence to support the model. PMID:9260958

  15. Automatic parameter adjustment of difference of Gaussian (DoG) filter to improve OT-MACH filter performance for target recognition applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkandri, Ahmad; Gardezi, Akber; Bangalore, Nagachetan; Birch, Philip; Young, Rupert; Chatwin, Chris

    2011-11-01

    A wavelet-modified frequency domain Optimal Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter has been trained using 3D CAD models and tested on real target images acquired from a Forward Looking Infra Red (FLIR) sensor. The OT-MACH filter can be used to detect and discriminate predefined targets from a cluttered background. The FLIR sensor extends the filter's ability by increasing the range of detection by exploiting the heat signature differences between the target and the background. A Difference of Gaussians (DoG) based wavelet filter has been use to improve the OT-MACH filter discrimination ability and distortion tolerance. Choosing the right standard deviation values of the two Gaussians comprising the filter is critical. In this paper we present a new technique for auto adjustment of the DoG filter parameters driven by the expected target size. Tests were carried on images acquired by the Apache AH-64 helicopter mounted FLIR sensor, results showing an overall improvement in the recognition of target objects present within the IR images.

  16. Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method

    DOEpatents

    Ochoa, E.; Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1987-09-15

    A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output plane to determine whether a particular target is present in the field of view. Preferably, a temporal pattern is imaged in the output plane with a optical detector having a plurality of pixels and a correlation coefficient for each pixel is determined by accumulating the intensity and intensity-square of each pixel. The orbiting of the constant response caused by the filter rotation is also preferably eliminated either by the use of two orthogonal mirrors pivoted correspondingly to the rotation of the filter or the attaching of a refracting wedge to the filter to remove the offset angle. Detection is preferably performed of the temporal pattern in the output plane at a plurality of different angles with angular separation sufficient to decorrelate successive frames. 1 fig.

  17. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  18. Do You Recognize This Parent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Edna

    1997-01-01

    Suggests effective ways to work with parents who may be permissive, busy, detached, overprotective, or negative. Recommends that child care professionals be sensitive and understanding, recognize other demands on parents' time and communicate competitively with them, use terms parents understand, accept various levels of parental involvement, be…

  19. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  20. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  1. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  2. Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Dysmorphophobia)

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Anukriti; Rastogi, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric condition which frequently presents in the clinics of dermatologists and plastic surgeons. This disorder (also called body dysmorphic disorder) is troublesome to the patient whilst being confusing for the doctor. This commonly undiagnosed condition can be detected by a few simple steps. Timely referral to a psychiatrist benefits most patients suffering from it. This article describes with a case vignette, how to recognize body dysmorphic disorder presenting in the dermatological or aesthetic surgery set up. Diagnostic criteria, eitiology, approach to patient, management strategy and when to refer are important learning points. The importance of recognizing this disorder timely and referring the patient to the psychiatrist for appropriate treatment is crucial. This article covers all aspects of body dysmorphic disorder relevant to dermatologists and plastic surgeons and hopes to be useful in a better understanding of this disorder. PMID:26644741

  3. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to meters." Similar students' mistakes were reported also by AP Chemistry readers "as in previous years, students still had difficulty converting kJ to J." While traditional teaching focuses on memorizing the symbols of prefixes, little attention is given to helping learners recognize a prefix in a given quantity. I noticed in my teaching practice that by making the processes of identifying prefixes more explicit, students make fewer mistakes on unit conversion. Thus, this paper presents an outline of a lesson that focuses on prefix recognition. It is designed for a first-year college physics class; however, its key points can be addressed to any group of physics students.

  4. Recognizing species, present and past.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Nobody disputes that nature is meaningfully "packaged" in some way. But debate persists over exactly how (and even whether) the boundaries dividing taxa should (can) be drawn. At one end of the scale, some zealots abstrusely deny real existence to higher taxa.(1) At the other, laborers at the taxonomic rock-face confront genuine challenges in recognizing and delineating the species that systematists agree constitute the most fundamental unit of taxonomic analysis.

  5. Group Dynamics in Automatic Imitation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Neil; Reddy, Geetha; Catmur, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Imitation–matching the configural body movements of another individual–plays a crucial part in social interaction. We investigated whether automatic imitation is not only influenced by who we imitate (ingroup vs. outgroup member) but also by the nature of an expected interaction situation (competitive vs. cooperative). In line with assumptions from Social Identity Theory), we predicted that both social group membership and the expected situation impact on the level of automatic imitation. We adopted a 2 (group membership target: ingroup, outgroup) x 2 (situation: cooperative, competitive) design. The dependent variable was the degree to which participants imitated the target in a reaction time automatic imitation task. 99 female students from two British Universities participated. We found a significant two-way interaction on the imitation effect. When interacting in expectation of cooperation, imitation was stronger for an ingroup target compared to an outgroup target. However, this was not the case in the competitive condition where imitation did not differ between ingroup and outgroup target. This demonstrates that the goal structure of an expected interaction will determine the extent to which intergroup relations influence imitation, supporting a social identity approach. PMID:27657926

  6. Recognizing Disguised Faces: Human and Machine Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dhamecha, Tejas Indulal; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank; Kumar, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Face verification, though an easy task for humans, is a long-standing open research area. This is largely due to the challenging covariates, such as disguise and aging, which make it very hard to accurately verify the identity of a person. This paper investigates human and machine performance for recognizing/verifying disguised faces. Performance is also evaluated under familiarity and match/mismatch with the ethnicity of observers. The findings of this study are used to develop an automated algorithm to verify the faces presented under disguise variations. We use automatically localized feature descriptors which can identify disguised face patches and account for this information to achieve improved matching accuracy. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on the IIIT-Delhi Disguise database that contains images pertaining to 75 subjects with different kinds of disguise variations. The experiments suggest that the proposed algorithm can outperform a popular commercial system and evaluates them against humans in matching disguised face images. PMID:25029188

  7. Integrating the automatic and the controlled: strategies in semantic priming in an attractor network with latching dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Itamar; Bentin, Shlomo; Shriki, Oren

    2014-01-01

    Semantic priming has long been recognized to reflect, along with automatic semantic mechanisms, the contribution of controlled strategies. However, previous theories of controlled priming were mostly qualitative, lacking common grounds with modern mathematical models of automatic priming based on neural networks. Recently, we introduced a novel attractor network model of automatic semantic priming with latching dynamics. Here, we extend this work to show how the same model can also account for important findings regarding controlled processes. Assuming the rate of semantic transitions in the network can be adapted using simple reinforcement learning, we show how basic findings attributed to controlled processes in priming can be achieved, including their dependency on stimulus onset asynchrony and relatedness proportion and their unique effect on associative, category-exemplar, mediated and backward prime-target relations. We discuss how our mechanism relates to the classic expectancy theory and how it can be further extended in future developments of the model.

  8. Automatic TLI recognition system, user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes how to use an automatic target recognition system (version 14). In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a programmer`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide.

  9. Brandon RHA recognized for energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Waddington, Kent; Neal, Gordon

    2002-01-01

    In a recent national competition recognizing leadership in energy efficiency and greenhouse gas education, Brandon Regional Health Authority was recognized for conscientious use of resources. PMID:12357581

  10. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  11. Optimisation of high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection using an automatic peak tracking procedure based on augmented iterative target transformation factor analysis.

    PubMed

    van Zomeren, P V; Hoogvorst, A; Coenegracht, P M J; de Jong, G J

    2004-03-01

    An automated method for the optimisation of high-performance liquid chromatography is developed. First of all, the sample of interest is analysed with various eluent compositions. All obtained data are combined into one augmented data matrix. Subsequently, augmented iterative target transformation factor analysis performs the integrated tasks of curve resolution and peak tracking. Since this type of curve resolution processes all data at once, it can deal with strong peak overlap and reveal the correspondence of compounds between runs, i.e. peak tracking. The retention time and peak width at half height for each component of the sample are determined for every eluent composition. Next, models are built for the retention time and the peak width at half height. These models are used to predict the resolution and the analysis time for each point in factor space. Finally, a multi-criterion decision-making method, Pareto optimality, is used to find the optimum. The method completes all calculations within a few minutes and without user intervention. By means of this procedure, a mixture of three benzodiazepines is successfully separated using a ternary mobile phase. There are two requirements for the automated optimisation method to work correctly. Firstly, all components of the sample must have sufficiently different spectra. Secondly, each compound should have the same spectrum under all experimental conditions.

  12. Antarctic skuas recognize individual humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Young; Han, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings report that wild animals can recognize individual humans. To explain how the animals distinguish humans, two hypotheses are proposed. The high cognitive abilities hypothesis implies that pre-existing high intelligence enabled animals to acquire such abilities. The pre-exposure to stimuli hypothesis suggests that frequent encounters with humans promote the acquisition of discriminatory abilities in these species. Here, we examine individual human recognition abilities in a wild Antarctic species, the brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus), which lives away from typical human settlements and was only recently exposed to humans due to activities at Antarctic stations. We found that, as nest visits were repeated, the skua parents responded at further distances and were more likely to attack the nest intruder. Also, we demonstrated that seven out of seven breeding pairs of skuas selectively responded to a human nest intruder with aggression and ignored a neutral human who had not previously approached the nest. The results indicate that Antarctic skuas, a species that typically inhabited in human-free areas, are able to recognize individual humans who disturbed their nests. Our findings generally support the high cognitive abilities hypothesis, but this ability can be acquired during a relatively short period in the life of an individual as a result of interactions between individual birds and humans.

  13. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  14. Hearing Status and Language Fluency as Predictors of Automatic Word and Sign Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Shroyer, Edgar H.

    1993-01-01

    This study of the automatic word and sign recognition of 66 hearing and deaf adults found that responding in sign took longer and created more Stroop interference than responding orally, independent of hearing status. Deaf subjects showed greater automaticity in recognizing signs than words, whereas hearing subjects showed greater automaticity in…

  15. [Wearable Automatic External Defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huajie; Luo, Zhangyuan; Jin, Xun; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Changjin; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation is the most effective method of treating ventricular fibrillation(VF), this paper introduces wearable automatic external defibrillators based on embedded system which includes EGG measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurement, discharge defibrillation module, which can automatic identify VF signal, biphasic exponential waveform defibrillation discharge. After verified by animal tests, the device can realize EGG acquisition and automatic identification. After identifying the ventricular fibrillation signal, it can automatic defibrillate to abort ventricular fibrillation and to realize the cardiac electrical cardioversion.

  16. Automatic TLI recognition system beta prototype testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the beta prototype automatic target recognition system ATR3, and some performance tests done with this system. This is a fully operational system, with a high computational speed. It is useful for findings any kind of target in digitized image data, and as a general purpose image analysis tool.

  17. Young Children's Automatic Encoding of Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated young children's automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race. Three- to 6-year-old participants learned facts about unfamiliar target children who varied in either gender or race and were asked to remember which facts went with which targets. When participants…

  18. Automatic identification of species with neural networks.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Serna, Andrés; Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    A new automatic identification system using photographic images has been designed to recognize fish, plant, and butterfly species from Europe and South America. The automatic classification system integrates multiple image processing tools to extract the geometry, morphology, and texture of the images. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used as the pattern recognition method. We tested a data set that included 740 species and 11,198 individuals. Our results show that the system performed with high accuracy, reaching 91.65% of true positive fish identifications, 92.87% of plants and 93.25% of butterflies. Our results highlight how the neural networks are complementary to species identification.

  19. Automatic identification of species with neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    A new automatic identification system using photographic images has been designed to recognize fish, plant, and butterfly species from Europe and South America. The automatic classification system integrates multiple image processing tools to extract the geometry, morphology, and texture of the images. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used as the pattern recognition method. We tested a data set that included 740 species and 11,198 individuals. Our results show that the system performed with high accuracy, reaching 91.65% of true positive fish identifications, 92.87% of plants and 93.25% of butterflies. Our results highlight how the neural networks are complementary to species identification. PMID:25392749

  20. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  1. How to recognize wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baker, B

    1998-01-01

    Wasting occurs in approximately 20 percent of people with AIDS and is associated with higher mortality rates and diminished quality of life. Weight loss in HIV-positive patients targets lean body mass or muscle rather than fat. Wasting syndrome is currently defined as a 10 percent loss in body weight accompanied by 30 days of fever and/or diarrhea. Many physicians find the definition too limiting and are modifying the criteria to make it more inclusive of earlier forms of the disease. Wasting is caused by inadequate calorie intake, malabsorption of nutrients, an altered metabolic rate, and hormone deficiency. Physicians need to monitor body composition of people with HIV to prevent and reverse the loss of lean body mass. PMID:11365221

  2. How automatic are crossmodal correspondences?

    PubMed

    Spence, Charles; Deroy, Ophelia

    2013-03-01

    The last couple of years have seen a rapid growth of interest (especially amongst cognitive psychologists, cognitive neuroscientists, and developmental researchers) in the study of crossmodal correspondences - the tendency for our brains (not to mention the brains of other species) to preferentially associate certain features or dimensions of stimuli across the senses. By now, robust empirical evidence supports the existence of numerous crossmodal correspondences, affecting people's performance across a wide range of psychological tasks - in everything from the redundant target effect paradigm through to studies of the Implicit Association Test, and from speeded discrimination/classification tasks through to unspeeded spatial localisation and temporal order judgment tasks. However, one question that has yet to receive a satisfactory answer is whether crossmodal correspondences automatically affect people's performance (in all, or at least in a subset of tasks), as opposed to reflecting more of a strategic, or top-down, phenomenon. Here, we review the latest research on the topic of crossmodal correspondences to have addressed this issue. We argue that answering the question will require researchers to be more precise in terms of defining what exactly automaticity entails. Furthermore, one's answer to the automaticity question may also hinge on the answer to a second question: Namely, whether crossmodal correspondences are all 'of a kind', or whether instead there may be several different kinds of crossmodal mapping (e.g., statistical, structural, and semantic). Different answers to the automaticity question may then be revealed depending on the type of correspondence under consideration. We make a number of suggestions for future research that might help to determine just how automatic crossmodal correspondences really are. PMID:23370382

  3. Automatism and hypoglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Guy

    2007-02-01

    A case of a detained person (DP) suffering from insulin-dependent diabetes, who subsequently used the disorder in his defence as a reason to claim automatism, is discussed. The legal and medical history of automatism is outlined along with the present day situation. Forensic physicians should be aware when examining any diabetic that automatism may subsequently be claimed. With this in mind, the importance of relevant history taking specifically relating to diabetic control and symptoms is discussed.

  4. An anatomy of automatism.

    PubMed

    Mackay, R D

    2015-07-01

    The automatism defence has been described as a quagmire of law and as presenting an intractable problem. Why is this so? This paper will analyse and explore the current legal position on automatism. In so doing, it will identify the problems which the case law has created, including the distinction between sane and insane automatism and the status of the 'external factor doctrine', and comment briefly on recent reform proposals.

  5. An anatomy of automatism.

    PubMed

    Mackay, R D

    2015-07-01

    The automatism defence has been described as a quagmire of law and as presenting an intractable problem. Why is this so? This paper will analyse and explore the current legal position on automatism. In so doing, it will identify the problems which the case law has created, including the distinction between sane and insane automatism and the status of the 'external factor doctrine', and comment briefly on recent reform proposals. PMID:26378105

  6. Automatic crack propagation tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, M. S.; Weidner, T. J.; Yehia, N. A. B.; Burd, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A finite element based approach to fully automatic crack propagation tracking is presented. The procedure presented combines fully automatic mesh generation with linear fracture mechanics techniques in a geometrically based finite element code capable of automatically tracking cracks in two-dimensional domains. The automatic mesh generator employs the modified-quadtree technique. Crack propagation increment and direction are predicted using a modified maximum dilatational strain energy density criterion employing the numerical results obtained by meshes of quadratic displacement and singular crack tip finite elements. Example problems are included to demonstrate the procedure.

  7. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  8. Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

  9. Automatic contrast: evidence that automatic comparison with the social self affects evaluative responses.

    PubMed

    Ruys, Kirsten I; Spears, Russell; Gordijn, Ernestine H; de Vries, Nanne K

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate whether unconsciously presented affective information may cause opposite evaluative responses depending on what social category the information originates from. We argue that automatic comparison processes between the self and the unconscious affective information produce this evaluative contrast effect. Consistent with research on automatic behaviour, we propose that when an intergroup context is activated, an automatic comparison to the social self may determine the automatic evaluative responses, at least for highly visible categories (e.g. sex, ethnicity). Contrary to previous research on evaluative priming, we predict automatic contrastive responses to affective information originating from an outgroup category such that the evaluative response to neutral targets is opposite to the valence of the suboptimal primes. Two studies using different intergroup contexts provide support for our hypotheses. PMID:17705936

  10. Automatic Synthesis Of Greedy Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhansali, Sanjay; Miriyala, Kanth; Harandi, Mehdi T.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes a knowledge based approach to automatically generate Lisp programs using the Greedy method of algorithm design. The system's knowledge base is composed of heuristics for recognizing problems amenable to the Greedy method and knowledge about the Greedy strategy itself (i.e., rules for local optimization, constraint satisfaction, candidate ordering and candidate selection). The system has been able to generate programs for a wide variety of problems including the job-scheduling problem, the 0-1 knapsack problem, the minimal spanning tree problem, and the problem of arranging files on tape to minimize access time. For the special class of problems called matroids, the synthesized program provides optimal solutions, whereas for most other problems the solutions are near-optimal.

  11. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  12. Automatic Differentiation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David M.; Phipps, Eric; Bratlett, Roscoe

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  13. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  14. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  15. Using nanoinformatics methods for automatically identifying relevant nanotoxicology entities from the literature.

    PubMed

    García-Remesal, Miguel; García-Ruiz, Alejandro; Pérez-Rey, David; de la Iglesia, Diana; Maojo, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Nanoinformatics is an emerging research field that uses informatics techniques to collect, process, store, and retrieve data, information, and knowledge on nanoparticles, nanomaterials, and nanodevices and their potential applications in health care. In this paper, we have focused on the solutions that nanoinformatics can provide to facilitate nanotoxicology research. For this, we have taken a computational approach to automatically recognize and extract nanotoxicology-related entities from the scientific literature. The desired entities belong to four different categories: nanoparticles, routes of exposure, toxic effects, and targets. The entity recognizer was trained using a corpus that we specifically created for this purpose and was validated by two nanomedicine/nanotoxicology experts. We evaluated the performance of our entity recognizer using 10-fold cross-validation. The precisions range from 87.6% (targets) to 93.0% (routes of exposure), while recall values range from 82.6% (routes of exposure) to 87.4% (toxic effects). These results prove the feasibility of using computational approaches to reliably perform different named entity recognition (NER)-dependent tasks, such as for instance augmented reading or semantic searches. This research is a "proof of concept" that can be expanded to stimulate further developments that could assist researchers in managing data, information, and knowledge at the nanolevel, thus accelerating research in nanomedicine.

  16. Using nanoinformatics methods for automatically identifying relevant nanotoxicology entities from the literature.

    PubMed

    García-Remesal, Miguel; García-Ruiz, Alejandro; Pérez-Rey, David; de la Iglesia, Diana; Maojo, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Nanoinformatics is an emerging research field that uses informatics techniques to collect, process, store, and retrieve data, information, and knowledge on nanoparticles, nanomaterials, and nanodevices and their potential applications in health care. In this paper, we have focused on the solutions that nanoinformatics can provide to facilitate nanotoxicology research. For this, we have taken a computational approach to automatically recognize and extract nanotoxicology-related entities from the scientific literature. The desired entities belong to four different categories: nanoparticles, routes of exposure, toxic effects, and targets. The entity recognizer was trained using a corpus that we specifically created for this purpose and was validated by two nanomedicine/nanotoxicology experts. We evaluated the performance of our entity recognizer using 10-fold cross-validation. The precisions range from 87.6% (targets) to 93.0% (routes of exposure), while recall values range from 82.6% (routes of exposure) to 87.4% (toxic effects). These results prove the feasibility of using computational approaches to reliably perform different named entity recognition (NER)-dependent tasks, such as for instance augmented reading or semantic searches. This research is a "proof of concept" that can be expanded to stimulate further developments that could assist researchers in managing data, information, and knowledge at the nanolevel, thus accelerating research in nanomedicine. PMID:23509721

  17. Using Nanoinformatics Methods for Automatically Identifying Relevant Nanotoxicology Entities from the Literature

    PubMed Central

    García-Remesal, Miguel; García-Ruiz, Alejandro; Pérez-Rey, David; de la Iglesia, Diana; Maojo, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Nanoinformatics is an emerging research field that uses informatics techniques to collect, process, store, and retrieve data, information, and knowledge on nanoparticles, nanomaterials, and nanodevices and their potential applications in health care. In this paper, we have focused on the solutions that nanoinformatics can provide to facilitate nanotoxicology research. For this, we have taken a computational approach to automatically recognize and extract nanotoxicology-related entities from the scientific literature. The desired entities belong to four different categories: nanoparticles, routes of exposure, toxic effects, and targets. The entity recognizer was trained using a corpus that we specifically created for this purpose and was validated by two nanomedicine/nanotoxicology experts. We evaluated the performance of our entity recognizer using 10-fold cross-validation. The precisions range from 87.6% (targets) to 93.0% (routes of exposure), while recall values range from 82.6% (routes of exposure) to 87.4% (toxic effects). These results prove the feasibility of using computational approaches to reliably perform different named entity recognition (NER)-dependent tasks, such as for instance augmented reading or semantic searches. This research is a “proof of concept” that can be expanded to stimulate further developments that could assist researchers in managing data, information, and knowledge at the nanolevel, thus accelerating research in nanomedicine. PMID:23509721

  18. Laser tracking system with automatic reacquisition capability.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R E; Weiss, P F

    1968-06-01

    A laser based tracking system is described that has the capability of automatically performing an acquisition search to locate the target. This work is intended for precision launch phase tracking of the Saturn V launch vehicle. System tracking accuracies limited only by the atmosphere have been demonstrated, as has acquisition over a 1 degrees x 1 degrees field of view.

  19. Higher-Order Neural Networks Recognize Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Max B.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Ochoa, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    Networks of higher order have enhanced capabilities to distinguish between different two-dimensional patterns and to recognize those patterns. Also enhanced capabilities to "learn" patterns to be recognized: "trained" with far fewer examples and, therefore, in less time than necessary to train comparable first-order neural networks.

  20. Vitrification: Machines learn to recognize glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceriotti, Michele; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2016-05-01

    The dynamics of a viscous liquid undergo a dramatic slowdown when it is cooled to form a solid glass. Recognizing the structural changes across such a transition remains a major challenge. Machine-learning methods, similar to those Facebook uses to recognize groups of friends, have now been applied to this problem.

  1. Teaching Students to Recognize Irony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Hawkins, Robin H.; Milner, Lucy M.

    2014-01-01

    This article exposes the problem of using declarative rather than procedural knowledge to help K--12 students recognize irony in stories. It offers commonplace procedures drawn from students' everyday language experience together with more abstract irony clues to help students recognize irony in stories and increase their story comprehension.…

  2. Automatic and Flexible

    PubMed Central

    Hassin, Ran R.; Bargh, John A.; Zimerman, Shira

    2008-01-01

    Arguing from the nature of goal pursuit and from the economy of mental resources this paper suggests that automatic goal pursuit, much like its controlled counterpart, may be flexible. Two studies that employ goal priming procedures examine this hypothesis using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Study 1) and a variation of the Iowa Gambling Task (Study 2). Implications of the results for our understanding of the dichotomy between automatic and controlled processes in general, and for our conception of automatic goal pursuit in particular, are discussed. PMID:19325712

  3. Automatic amino acid analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, B. J.; Carle, G. C.; Oyama, V. I.

    1971-01-01

    Analyzer operates unattended or up to 15 hours. It has an automatic sample injection system and can be programmed. All fluid-flow valve switching is accomplished pneumatically from miniature three-way solenoid pilot valves.

  4. AUTOMATIC MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, M.L.; Tabor, C.D. Jr.

    1961-12-01

    A mass spectrometer for analyzing the components of a gas is designed which is capable of continuous automatic operation such as analysis of samples of process gas from a continuous production system where the gas content may be changing. (AEC)

  5. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  6. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  7. Automatic TLI recognition system, general description

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report is a general description of an automatic target recognition system developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Department of Energy. A user`s manual is a separate volume, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide, and a programmer`s manual is Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide. This system was designed as an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system naturally incorporates image data fusion, and it gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. In addition to its primary function as a trainable target recognition system, this is also a versatile, general-purpose tool for image manipulation and analysis, which can be either keyboard-driven or script-driven. This report includes descriptions of three variants of the computer hardware, a description of the mathematical basis if the training process, and a description with examples of the system capabilities.

  8. The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, FMRP, Recognizes G-Quartets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, Jennifer C.; Warren, Stephen T.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation is a disease caused by the loss of function of a single RNA-binding protein, FMRP. Identifying the RNA targets recognized by FMRP is likely to reveal much about its functions in controlling some aspects of memory and behavior. Recent evidence suggests that one of the predominant RNA motifs recognized by the FMRP…

  9. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  10. Development of Automatic and Speeded Reading of Printed Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Colette C.; Manis, Franklin R.

    1987-01-01

    Results of two studies of elementary school and college students indicate that the processes of automaticity and speed in recognizing the meanings of familiar printed words take slightly different developmental courses. However, the most rapid changes in both measures occur prior to second grade. (PCB)

  11. Automatic recognition of lactating sow behaviors through depth image processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manual observation and classification of animal behaviors is laborious, time-consuming, and of limited ability to process large amount of data. A computer vision-based system was developed that automatically recognizes sow behaviors (lying, sitting, standing, kneeling, feeding, drinking, and shiftin...

  12. 76 FR 62644 - Request To Consider Automatic Termination Controls

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... energy efficiency of clothes washers. (76 FR 50145, Aug. 12, 2011). The petition also served as a... represents a significant savings opportunity. \\7\\ 75 FR 37618. We recognize that there are significant... effectiveness of automatic termination controls such as moisture and temperature sensor controls. Public...

  13. Automatic recognition of malicious intent indicators.

    SciTech Connect

    Drescher, D. J.; Yee, Mark L.; Giron, Casey; Fogler, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Hung D.; Koch, Mark William

    2010-09-01

    A major goal of next-generation physical protection systems is to extend defenses far beyond the usual outer-perimeter-fence boundaries surrounding protected facilities. Mitigation of nuisance alarms is among the highest priorities. A solution to this problem is to create a robust capability to Automatically Recognize Malicious Indicators of intruders. In extended defense applications, it is not enough to distinguish humans from all other potential alarm sources as human activity can be a common occurrence outside perimeter boundaries. Our approach is unique in that it employs a stimulus to determine a malicious intent indicator for the intruder. The intruder's response to the stimulus can be used in an automatic reasoning system to decide the intruder's intent.

  14. A knowledge engineering approach to recognizing and extracting sequences of nucleic acids from scientific literature.

    PubMed

    García-Remesal, Miguel; Maojo, Victor; Crespo, José

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a knowledge engineering approach to automatically recognize and extract genetic sequences from scientific articles. To carry out this task, we use a preliminary recognizer based on a finite state machine to extract all candidate DNA/RNA sequences. The latter are then fed into a knowledge-based system that automatically discards false positives and refines noisy and incorrectly merged sequences. We created the knowledge base by manually analyzing different manuscripts containing genetic sequences. Our approach was evaluated using a test set of 211 full-text articles in PDF format containing 3134 genetic sequences. For such set, we achieved 87.76% precision and 97.70% recall respectively. This method can facilitate different research tasks. These include text mining, information extraction, and information retrieval research dealing with large collections of documents containing genetic sequences.

  15. A knowledge engineering approach to recognizing and extracting sequences of nucleic acids from scientific literature.

    PubMed

    García-Remesal, Miguel; Maojo, Victor; Crespo, José

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a knowledge engineering approach to automatically recognize and extract genetic sequences from scientific articles. To carry out this task, we use a preliminary recognizer based on a finite state machine to extract all candidate DNA/RNA sequences. The latter are then fed into a knowledge-based system that automatically discards false positives and refines noisy and incorrectly merged sequences. We created the knowledge base by manually analyzing different manuscripts containing genetic sequences. Our approach was evaluated using a test set of 211 full-text articles in PDF format containing 3134 genetic sequences. For such set, we achieved 87.76% precision and 97.70% recall respectively. This method can facilitate different research tasks. These include text mining, information extraction, and information retrieval research dealing with large collections of documents containing genetic sequences. PMID:21096556

  16. Survey of evaluation methods in image complexity of target and background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bo; Duan, Jin; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Yanqin; Li, Guangming

    2015-10-01

    In the domain of target recognition, the image complexity of target and background is used to describe the difficult degree of extracting and recognizing target from complex background, which has important guiding significance and widely application prospect in a lot of domains such as biological medical, information encrypt, image compression, meteorological analysis, automatic target recognition. This paper comprehensively took the innate characteristics of target and the target local background characteristic into consideration, which affected the algorithm performance of target extraction and recognition, then made generalizations of three classes of evaluation methods: methods based on the target characteristic, including the target shape characteristic, the gray standard deviation of target pixels, the target Local background entropy difference, etc; methods based on the target similitude, including the edge profile and structural characteristic similitude between target and phony target; methods based on the background characteristic, including texture characteristic edge ratio, etc. And on this basis, we made research on the relationship of structural features and evaluation parameters, and analyzed the foundation and properties of each method by contrast. Thoughts and foresights of this field are given at the end of this paper.

  17. A new automatic synchronizer

    SciTech Connect

    Malm, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    A phase lock loop automatic synchronizer, PLLS, matches generator speed starting from dead stop to bus frequency, and then locks the phase difference at zero, thereby maintaining zero slip frequency while the generator breaker is being closed to the bus. The significant difference between the PLLS and a conventional automatic synchronizer is that there is no slip frequency difference between generator and bus. The PLL synchronizer is most advantageous when the penstock pressure fluctuates the grid frequency fluctuates, or both. The PLL synchronizer is relatively inexpensive. Hydroplants with multiple units can economically be equipped with a synchronizer for each unit.

  18. WOLF; automatic typing program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evenden, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV program for the Hewlett-Packard 1000 series computer provides for automatic typing operations and can, when employed with manufacturer's text editor, provide a system to greatly facilitate preparation of reports, letters and other text. The input text and imbedded control data can perform nearly all of the functions of a typist. A few of the features available are centering, titles, footnotes, indentation, page numbering (including Roman numerals), automatic paragraphing, and two forms of tab operations. This documentation contains both user and technical description of the program.

  19. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  20. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  1. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression. PMID:27610907

  2. Recognizing, Confronting, and Eliminating Workplace Bullying.

    PubMed

    Berry, Peggy Ann; Gillespie, Gordon L; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gormley, Denise K

    2016-07-01

    Workplace bullying (WPB) behaviors negatively affect nurse productivity, satisfaction, and retention, and hinder safe patient care. The purpose of this article is to define WPB, differentiate between incivility and WPB, and recommend actions to prevent WPB behaviors. Informed occupational and environmental health nurses and nurse leaders must recognize, confront, and eliminate WPB in their facilities and organizations. Recognizing, confronting, and eliminating WPB behaviors in health care is a crucial first step toward sustained improvements in patient care quality and the health and safety of health care employees. PMID:27053288

  3. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  4. Automatic sweep circuit

    DOEpatents

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  5. Automatic Program Synthesis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, A. W.; And Others

    Some of the major results of future goals of an automatic program synthesis project are described in the two papers that comprise this document. The first paper gives a detailed algorithm for synthesizing a computer program from a trace of its behavior. Since the algorithm involves a search, the length of time required to do the synthesis of…

  6. Brut: Automatic bubble classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Christopher; Goodman, Alyssa; Williams, Jonathan; Kendrew, Sarah; Simpson, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Brut, written in Python, identifies bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane; it uses a database of known bubbles from the Milky Way Project and Spitzer images to build an automatic bubble classifier. The classifier is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses the WiseRF implementation of this algorithm.

  7. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  8. Automatic finite element generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

  9. Reactor component automatic grapple

    SciTech Connect

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-12-07

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  10. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  11. Automatic Data Processing Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Budget, Washington, DC.

    The technology of the automatic information processing field has progressed dramatically in the past few years and has created a problem in common term usage. As a solution, "Datamation" Magazine offers this glossary which was compiled by the U.S. Bureau of the Budget as an official reference. The terms appear in a single alphabetic sequence,…

  12. AUTOmatic Message PACKing Facility

    2004-07-01

    AUTOPACK is a library that provides several useful features for programs using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Features included are: 1. automatic message packing facility 2. management of send and receive requests. 3. management of message buffer memory. 4. determination of the number of anticipated messages from a set of arbitrary sends, and 5. deterministic message delivery for testing purposes.

  13. Autotract: automatic cleaning and tracking of fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Juan C.; Yang, Jean Y.; Budin, François; Styner, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new tool named Autotract to automate fiber tracking in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Autotract uses prior knowledge from a source DTI and a set of corresponding fiber bundles to extract new fibers for a target DTI. Autotract starts by aligning both DTIs and uses the source fibers as seed points to initialize a tractography algorithm. We enforce similarity between the propagated source fibers and automatically traced fibers by computing metrics such as fiber length and fiber distance between the bundles. By analyzing these metrics, individual fiber tracts can be pruned. As a result, we show that both bundles have similar characteristics. Additionally, we compare the automatically traced fibers against bundles previously generated and validated in the target DTI by an expert. This work is motivated by medical applications in which known bundles of fiber tracts in the human brain need to be analyzed for multiple datasets.

  14. Autotract: Automatic cleaning and tracking of fibers

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Juan C.; Yang, Jean Y.; Budin, François; Styner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new tool named Autotract to automate fiber tracking in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Autotract uses prior knowledge from a source DTI and a set of corresponding fiber bundles to extract new fibers for a target DTI. Autotract starts by aligning both DTIs and uses the source fibers as seed points to initialize a tractography algorithm. We enforce similarity between the propagated source fibers and automatically traced fibers by computing metrics such as fiber length and fiber distance between the bundles. By analyzing these metrics, individual fiber tracts can be pruned. As a result, we show that both bundles have similar characteristics. Additionally, we compare the automatically traced fibers against bundles previously generated and validated in the target DTI by an expert. This work is motivated by medical applications in which known bundles of fiber tracts in the human brain need to be analyzed for multiple datasets. PMID:27065227

  15. Recognizing and Responding to Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    Depression is increasingly recognized as a problem affecting adolescents as well as adults. Adolescents are underserved with regard to treatment facilities. One solution is the comprehensive health care clinic providing a holistic approach to assessment and intervention. Policy recommendations, which include a role for the school system, are made.…

  16. Great Apes' Capacities to Recognize Relational Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Call, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing relational similarity relies on the ability to understand that defining object properties might not lie in the objects individually, but in the relations of the properties of various object to each other. This aptitude is highly relevant for many important human skills such as language, reasoning, categorization and understanding…

  17. 26 CFR 601.502 - Recognized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recognized representative. 601.502 Section 601.502 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE... before the Internal Revenue Service and is in active status pursuant to the requirements of Circular...

  18. Ekofisk automatic GPS subsidence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, M.J.; Landau, H.; Luttenberger, C.

    1996-10-01

    A fully automatic GPS satellite-based procedure for the reliable measurement of subsidence of several platforms in almost real time is described. Measurements are made continuously on platforms in the North Sea Ekofisk Field area. The procedure also yields rate measurements, which are also essential for confirming platform safety, planning of remedial work, and verification of subsidence models. GPS measurements are more attractive than seabed pressure-gauge-based platform subsidence measurements-they are much cheaper to install and maintain and not subject to gauge drift. GPS measurements were coupled to oceanographic quantities such as the platform deck clearance, which leads to less complex offshore survey procedures. Ekofisk is an oil and gas field in the southern portion of the Norwegian North Sea. Late in 1984, it was noticed that the Ekofisk platform decks were closer to the sea surface than when the platforms were installed-subsidence was the only logical explanation. After the subsidence phenomenon was recognized, an accurate measurement method was needed to measure progression of subsidence and the associated subsidence rate. One available system for which no further development was needed, was the NAVSTAR GPS-measurements started in March 1985.

  19. Automatic detection of sweep-meshable volumes

    DOEpatents

    Tautges; Timothy J. , White; David R.

    2006-05-23

    A method of and software for automatically determining whether a mesh can be generated by sweeping for a representation of a geometric solid comprising: classifying surface mesh schemes for surfaces of the representation locally using surface vertex types; grouping mappable and submappable surfaces of the representation into chains; computing volume edge types for the representation; recursively traversing surfaces of the representation and grouping the surfaces into source, target, and linking surface lists; and checking traversal direction when traversing onto linking surfaces.

  20. Automatic Beam Position Control at LASREF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oothoudt, M. A.; Pillai, C.; Zumbro, M. V.

    1997-05-01

    Historically the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) has used manual control to position the 800 kW, 800 MeV proton beam on targets. New experiments, however, require more stringent position control more frequently than can be done manually for long periods of time. Data from an existing harp was used to automatically adjust steering magnets to maintain beam position to required tolerances. Results and details of the system will be presented.

  1. Fully automatic telemetry data processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, F. B.; Keipert, F. A.; Lee, R. C.

    1968-01-01

    Satellite Telemetry Automatic Reduction System /STARS 2/, a fully automatic computer-controlled telemetry data processor, maximizes data recovery, reduces turnaround time, increases flexibility, and improves operational efficiency. The system incorporates a CDC 3200 computer as its central element.

  2. Culture, attribution and automaticity: a social cognitive neuroscience view.

    PubMed

    Mason, Malia F; Morris, Michael W

    2010-06-01

    A fundamental challenge facing social perceivers is identifying the cause underlying other people's behavior. Evidence indicates that East Asian perceivers are more likely than Western perceivers to reference the social context when attributing a cause to a target person's actions. One outstanding question is whether this reflects a culture's influence on automatic or on controlled components of causal attribution. After reviewing behavioral evidence that culture can shape automatic mental processes as well as controlled reasoning, we discuss the evidence in favor of cultural differences in automatic and controlled components of causal attribution more specifically. We contend that insights emerging from social cognitive neuroscience research can inform this debate. After introducing an attribution framework popular among social neuroscientists, we consider findings relevant to the automaticity of attribution, before speculating how one could use a social neuroscience approach to clarify whether culture affects automatic, controlled or both types of attribution processes.

  3. Culture, attribution and automaticity: a social cognitive neuroscience view

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental challenge facing social perceivers is identifying the cause underlying other people’s behavior. Evidence indicates that East Asian perceivers are more likely than Western perceivers to reference the social context when attributing a cause to a target person’s actions. One outstanding question is whether this reflects a culture’s influence on automatic or on controlled components of causal attribution. After reviewing behavioral evidence that culture can shape automatic mental processes as well as controlled reasoning, we discuss the evidence in favor of cultural differences in automatic and controlled components of causal attribution more specifically. We contend that insights emerging from social cognitive neuroscience research can inform this debate. After introducing an attribution framework popular among social neuroscientists, we consider findings relevant to the automaticity of attribution, before speculating how one could use a social neuroscience approach to clarify whether culture affects automatic, controlled or both types of attribution processes. PMID:20460302

  4. Recognize sex work as legitimate work.

    PubMed

    Reynaga, Elena

    2008-12-01

    It is not sex work per se that makes sex workers vulnerable to HIV, but rather the policies that repress them. In this article, based on her presentation at a plenary session at the conference, Elena Reynaga, who is a sex worker, describes how these policies deprive sex workers of their rights and subject them to physical and sexual violence. The author concludes that at the heart of the problem lies the fact that sex work is not recognized as legitimate work.

  5. Automatism and driving offences.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, John

    2013-10-01

    Automatism is a rarely used defence, but it is particularly used for driving offences because many are strict liability offences. Medical evidence is almost always crucial to argue the defence, and it is important to understand the bars that limit the use of automatism so that the important medical issues can be identified. The issue of prior fault is an important public safeguard to ensure that reasonable precautions are taken to prevent accidents. The total loss of control definition is more problematic, especially with disorders of more gradual onset like hypoglycaemic episodes. In these cases the alternative of 'effective loss of control' would be fairer. This article explores several cases, how the criteria were applied to each, and the types of medical assessment required. PMID:24112330

  6. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  7. Automatism and driving offences.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, John

    2013-10-01

    Automatism is a rarely used defence, but it is particularly used for driving offences because many are strict liability offences. Medical evidence is almost always crucial to argue the defence, and it is important to understand the bars that limit the use of automatism so that the important medical issues can be identified. The issue of prior fault is an important public safeguard to ensure that reasonable precautions are taken to prevent accidents. The total loss of control definition is more problematic, especially with disorders of more gradual onset like hypoglycaemic episodes. In these cases the alternative of 'effective loss of control' would be fairer. This article explores several cases, how the criteria were applied to each, and the types of medical assessment required.

  8. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  9. Automatic vehicle monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravman, J. S.; Durrani, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    Automatic vehicle monitoring systems are discussed. In a baseline system for highway applications, each vehicle obtains position information through a Loran-C receiver in rural areas and through a 'signpost' or 'proximity' type sensor in urban areas; the vehicle transmits this information to a central station via a communication link. In an advance system, the vehicle carries a receiver for signals emitted by satellites in the Global Positioning System and uses a satellite-aided communication link to the central station. An advanced railroad car monitoring system uses car-mounted labels and sensors for car identification and cargo status; the information is collected by electronic interrogators mounted along the track and transmitted to a central station. It is concluded that automatic vehicle monitoring systems are technically feasible but not economically feasible unless a large market develops.

  10. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  11. Automatic volume calibration system

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, A.J.; Aaron, C.C.

    1985-05-06

    The Automatic Volume Calibration System presently consists of three independent volume-measurement subsystems and can possibly be expanded to five subsystems. When completed, the system will manually or automatically perform the sequence of valve-control and data-acquisition operations required to measure given volumes. An LSI-11 minicomputer controls the vacuum and pressure sources and controls solenoid control valves to open and close various volumes. The input data are obtained from numerous displacement, temperature, and pressure sensors read by the LSI-11. The LSI-11 calculates the unknown volume from the data acquired during the sequence of valve operations. The results, based on the Ideal Gas Law, also provide information for feedback and control. This paper describes the volume calibration system, its subsystems, and the integration of the various instrumentation used in the system's design and development. 11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Recognizing Materials using Perceptually Inspired Features

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Lavanya; Liu, Ce; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Adelson, Edward H.

    2013-01-01

    Our world consists not only of objects and scenes but also of materials of various kinds. Being able to recognize the materials that surround us (e.g., plastic, glass, concrete) is important for humans as well as for computer vision systems. Unfortunately, materials have received little attention in the visual recognition literature, and very few computer vision systems have been designed specifically to recognize materials. In this paper, we present a system for recognizing material categories from single images. We propose a set of low and mid-level image features that are based on studies of human material recognition, and we combine these features using an SVM classifier. Our system outperforms a state-of-the-art system [Varma and Zisserman, 2009] on a challenging database of real-world material categories [Sharan et al., 2009]. When the performance of our system is compared directly to that of human observers, humans outperform our system quite easily. However, when we account for the local nature of our image features and the surface properties they measure (e.g., color, texture, local shape), our system rivals human performance. We suggest that future progress in material recognition will come from: (1) a deeper understanding of the role of non-local surface properties (e.g., extended highlights, object identity); and (2) efforts to model such non-local surface properties in images. PMID:23914070

  13. Automatic Skin Color Beautification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Huang, Da-Yuan; Fuh, Chiou-Shann

    In this paper, we propose an automatic skin beautification framework based on color-temperature-insensitive skin-color detection. To polish selected skin region, we apply bilateral filter to smooth the facial flaw. Last, we use Poisson image cloning to integrate the beautified parts into the original input. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be applied in varied light source environment. In addition, this method can naturally beautify the portrait skin.

  14. Threat-related automatic associations in socially anxious adolescents.

    PubMed

    de Hullu, Eva; de Jong, Peter J; Sportel, B Esther; Nauta, Maaike H

    2011-08-01

    Threat-related automatic associations are assumed to play an important role in the development and maintenance of social anxiety. We tested whether threat-related automatic associations are already evident in high socially anxious adolescents, by comparing a group of adolescents (age 12-15) with subclinical levels of social anxiety (n=170) to a group of low socially anxious adolescents (n=193). We used a single-target implicit association test to measure threat-related automatic associations to social cues. Results showed that indeed in high socially anxious adolescents social cues automatically elicited relatively strong threat-related associations. Supporting the relevance of differentiating between automatic and more explicit measures, both automatic and explicit associations were independently associated with adolescents' level of self-reported social anxiety. The present pattern of findings is not only consistent with the view that automatic and more deliberate threat-related associations are both involved in the etiology of social-anxiety symptoms, but also suggest that both types of associations are proper targets for early intervention programs. PMID:21652030

  15. Automatic payload deployment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshkian, Narek; Nguyen, Hoa G.; Burmeister, Aaron; Holz, Kevin; Hart, Abraham

    2010-04-01

    The ability to precisely emplace stand-alone payloads in hostile territory has long been on the wish list of US warfighters. This type of activity is one of the main functions of special operation forces, often conducted at great danger. Such risk can be mitigated by transitioning the manual placement of payloads over to an automated placement mechanism by the use of the Automatic Payload Deployment System (APDS). Based on the Automatically Deployed Communication Relays (ADCR) system, which provides non-line-of-sight operation for unmanned ground vehicles by automatically dropping radio relays when needed, the APDS takes this concept a step further and allows for the delivery of a mixed variety of payloads. For example, payloads equipped with a camera and gas sensor in addition to a radio repeater, can be deployed in support of rescue operations of trapped miners. Battlefield applications may include delivering food, ammunition, and medical supplies to the warfighter. Covert operations may require the unmanned emplacement of a network of sensors for human-presence detection, before undertaking the mission. The APDS is well suited for these tasks. Demonstrations have been conducted using an iRobot PackBot EOD in delivering a variety of payloads, for which the performance and results will be discussed in this paper.

  16. Automatic Certification of Kalman Filters for Reliable Code Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd; Schumann, Johann; Richardson, Julian

    2005-01-01

    AUTOFILTER is a tool for automatically deriving Kalman filter code from high-level declarative specifications of state estimation problems. It can generate code with a range of algorithmic characteristics and for several target platforms. The tool has been designed with reliability of the generated code in mind and is able to automatically certify that the code it generates is free from various error classes. Since documentation is an important part of software assurance, AUTOFILTER can also automatically generate various human-readable documents, containing both design and safety related information. We discuss how these features address software assurance standards such as DO-178B.

  17. Recognizing genes and other components of genomic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, C. ); Myers, E. . Dept. of Computer Science); Stormo, G.D. . Dept. of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology)

    1991-01-01

    The Aspen Center for Physics (ACP) sponsored a three-week workshop, with 26 scientists participating, from 28 May to 15 June, 1990. The workshop, entitled Recognizing Genes and Other Components of Genomic Structure, focussed on discussion of current needs and future strategies for developing the ability to identify and predict the presence of complex functional units on sequenced, but otherwise uncharacterized, genomic DNA. We addressed the need for computationally-based, automatic tools for synthesizing available data about individual consensus sequences and local compositional patterns into the composite objects (e.g., genes) that are -- as composite entities -- the true object of interest when scanning DNA sequences. The workshop was structured to promote sustained informal contact and exchange of expertise between molecular biologists, computer scientists, and mathematicians. No participant stayed for less than one week, and most attended for two or three weeks. Computers, software, and databases were available for use as electronic blackboards'' and as the basis for collaborative exploration of ideas being discussed and developed at the workshop. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Recognizing blurred, nonfrontal, illumination, and expression variant partially occluded faces.

    PubMed

    Punnappurath, Abhijith; Rajagopalan, Ambasamudram Narayanan

    2016-09-01

    The focus of this paper is on the problem of recognizing faces across space-varying motion blur, changes in pose, illumination, and expression, as well as partial occlusion, when only a single image per subject is available in the gallery. We show how the blur, incurred due to relative motion between the camera and the subject during exposure, can be estimated from the alpha matte of pixels that straddle the boundary between the face and the background. We also devise a strategy to automatically generate the trimap required for matte estimation. Having computed the motion via the matte of the probe, we account for pose variations by synthesizing from the intensity image of the frontal gallery a face image that matches the pose of the probe. To handle illumination, expression variations, and partial occlusion, we model the probe as a linear combination of nine blurred illumination basis images in the synthesized nonfrontal pose, plus a sparse occlusion. We also advocate a recognition metric that capitalizes on the sparsity of the occluded pixels. The performance of our method is extensively validated on synthetic as well as real face data. PMID:27607514

  19. Real-time automatic registration in optical surgical navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qinyong; Yang, Rongqian; Cai, Ken; Si, Xuan; Chen, Xiuwen; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-05-01

    An image-guided surgical navigation system requires the improvement of the patient-to-image registration time to enhance the convenience of the registration procedure. A critical step in achieving this aim is performing a fully automatic patient-to-image registration. This study reports on a design of custom fiducial markers and the performance of a real-time automatic patient-to-image registration method using these markers on the basis of an optical tracking system for rigid anatomy. The custom fiducial markers are designed to be automatically localized in both patient and image spaces. An automatic localization method is performed by registering a point cloud sampled from the three dimensional (3D) pedestal model surface of a fiducial marker to each pedestal of fiducial markers searched in image space. A head phantom is constructed to estimate the performance of the real-time automatic registration method under four fiducial configurations. The head phantom experimental results demonstrate that the real-time automatic registration method is more convenient, rapid, and accurate than the manual method. The time required for each registration is approximately 0.1 s. The automatic localization method precisely localizes the fiducial markers in image space. The averaged target registration error for the four configurations is approximately 0.7 mm. The automatic registration performance is independent of the positions relative to the tracking system and the movement of the patient during the operation.

  20. ANPS - AUTOMATIC NETWORK PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Development of some of the space program's large simulation projects -- like the project which involves simulating the countdown sequence prior to spacecraft liftoff -- requires the support of automated tools and techniques. The number of preconditions which must be met for a successful spacecraft launch and the complexity of their interrelationship account for the difficulty of creating an accurate model of the countdown sequence. Researchers developed ANPS for the Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center to assist programmers attempting to model the pre-launch countdown sequence. Incorporating the elements of automatic programming as its foundation, ANPS aids the user in defining the problem and then automatically writes the appropriate simulation program in GPSS/PC code. The program's interactive user dialogue interface creates an internal problem specification file from user responses which includes the time line for the countdown sequence, the attributes for the individual activities which are part of a launch, and the dependent relationships between the activities. The program's automatic simulation code generator receives the file as input and selects appropriate macros from the library of software modules to generate the simulation code in the target language GPSS/PC. The user can recall the problem specification file for modification to effect any desired changes in the source code. ANPS is designed to write simulations for problems concerning the pre-launch activities of space vehicles and the operation of ground support equipment and has potential for use in developing network reliability models for hardware systems and subsystems. ANPS was developed in 1988 for use on IBM PC or compatible machines. The program requires at least 640 KB memory and one 360 KB disk drive, PC DOS Version 2.0 or above, and GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The program is written in Turbo Prolog Version 2.0. GPSS/PC is a trademark of Minuteman Software. Turbo Prolog

  1. Automatic landslides detection on Stromboli volcanic Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silengo, Maria Cristina; Delle Donne, Dario; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Cigolini, Corrado; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Landslides occurring in active volcanic islands play a key role in triggering tsunami and other related risks. Therefore, it becomes vital for a correct and prompt risk assessment to monitor landslides activity and to have an automatic system for a robust early-warning. We then developed a system based on a multi-frequency analysis of seismic signals for automatic landslides detection occurring at Stromboli volcano. We used a network of 4 seismic 3 components stations located along the unstable flank of the Sciara del Fuoco. Our method is able to recognize and separate the different sources of seismic signals related to volcanic and tectonic activity (e.g. tremor, explosions, earthquake) from landslides. This is done using a multi-frequency analysis combined with a waveform patter recognition. We applied the method to one year of seismic activity of Stromboli volcano centered during the last 2007 effusive eruption. This eruption was characterized by a pre-eruptive landslide activity reflecting the slow deformation of the volcano edifice. The algorithm is at the moment running off-line but has proved to be robust and efficient in picking automatically landslide. The method provides also real-time statistics on the landslide occurrence, which could be used as a proxy for the volcano deformation during the pre-eruptive phases. This method is very promising since the number of false detections is quite small (<5%) and is reducing when the size of the landslide increases. The final aim will be to apply this method on-line and for a real-time automatic detection as an improving tool for early warnings of tsunami-genic landslide activity. We suggest that a similar approach could be also applied to other unstable non-volcanic also slopes.

  2. Recognition of voice commands using adaptation of foreign language speech recognizer via selection of phonetic transcriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskeliunas, Rytis; Rudzionis, Vytautas

    2011-06-01

    In recent years various commercial speech recognizers have become available. These recognizers provide the possibility to develop applications incorporating various speech recognition techniques easily and quickly. All of these commercial recognizers are typically targeted to widely spoken languages having large market potential; however, it may be possible to adapt available commercial recognizers for use in environments where less widely spoken languages are used. Since most commercial recognition engines are closed systems the single avenue for the adaptation is to try set ways for the selection of proper phonetic transcription methods between the two languages. This paper deals with the methods to find the phonetic transcriptions for Lithuanian voice commands to be recognized using English speech engines. The experimental evaluation showed that it is possible to find phonetic transcriptions that will enable the recognition of Lithuanian voice commands with recognition accuracy of over 90%.

  3. Traceability Through Automatic Program Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Julian; Green, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Program synthesis is a technique for automatically deriving programs from specifications of their behavior. One of the arguments made in favour of program synthesis is that it allows one to trace from the specification to the program. One way in which traceability information can be derived is to augment the program synthesis system so that manipulations and calculations it carries out during the synthesis process are annotated with information on what the manipulations and calculations were and why they were made. This information is then accumulated throughout the synthesis process, at the end of which, every artifact produced by the synthesis is annotated with a complete history relating it to every other artifact (including the source specification) which influenced its construction. This approach requires modification of the entire synthesis system - which is labor-intensive and hard to do without influencing its behavior. In this paper, we introduce a novel, lightweight technique for deriving traceability from a program specification to the corresponding synthesized code. Once a program has been successfully synthesized from a specification, small changes are systematically made to the specification and the effects on the synthesized program observed. We have partially automated the technique and applied it in an experiment to one of our program synthesis systems, AUTOFILTER, and to the GNU C compiler, GCC. The results are promising: 1. Manual inspection of the results indicates that most of the connections derived from the source (a specification in the case of AUTOFILTER, C source code in the case of GCC) to its generated target (C source code in the case of AUTOFILTER, assembly language code in the case of GCC) are correct. 2. Around half of the lines in the target can be traced to at least one line of the source. 3. Small changes in the source often induce only small changes in the target.

  4. Shape-and-motion-fused multiple flying target recognition and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Levente; Utasi, Ákos

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents an automatic approach for camera/image based detection, recognition and tracking of flying objects (planes, missiles, etc.). The method detects appearing objects, and recognizes re-appearing targets. It uses a feature-based statistical modeling approach (e.g. HMM) for motion-based recognition, and an image feature (e.g. shape) based indexed database of pre-trained object classes, suitable for recognition on known and alerting on unknown objects. The method can be used for detection of flying objects, recognition of the same object category through multiple views/cameras and signal on unusual motions and shape appearances.

  5. Recognizing Patterns In Log-Polar Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1992-01-01

    Log-Hough transform is basis of improved method for recognition of patterns - particularly, straight lines - in noisy images. Takes advantage of rotational and scale invariance of mapping from Cartesian to log-polar coordinates, and offers economy of representation and computation. Unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computations in recognition and eliminates erroneous quantization of slopes attributable to finite spacing of Cartesian coordinate grid of classical Hough transform. Equally efficient recognizing curves. Log-Hough transform more amenable to massively parallel computing architectures than traditional Cartesian Hough transform. "In-place" nature makes it possible to apply local pixel-neighborhood processing.

  6. Recognizing and treating patients with envenomations.

    PubMed

    Hurt, John B; Maday, Kristopher R

    2016-07-01

    Venomous spiders and snakes are found throughout the United States, and clinicians often encounter patients with suspected spider or snakebites. Due to the significant morbidity and mortality that can be related to a particular envenomation, clinicians must be able to recognize the species of spiders and snakes that are capable of delivering a venomous bite. Through proper species identification, recognition of the specific signs and symptoms that specific venom produces, and understanding the treatment guidelines for the envenomation, clinicians can properly diagnosis, treat, and manage patients with venomous bites. PMID:27351646

  7. Recognizing women in the archaeological record

    SciTech Connect

    Bumsted, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    Primary sexual characteristics are usually absent in the archaeological record. The recovered secondary sex markers in bone morphology or mortuary context reflect the lifelong integrated biocultural experience of the individual man or woman. Internal patterns of variability within and between sexes can be recognized but are too frequently masked by traditional descriptive and univariate analyses. Fortunately, a more detailed picture of life experience is gained by analyzing chemical composition (isotopic and elemental) of hard tissues using an analytical anthropology approach and by examining the variation in novel ways. 7 figs.

  8. How do infants recognize joint attention?

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Erik; Brisson, Julie; Beaulieu, Christelle; Mainville, Marc; Mailloux, Dominique; Sirois, Sylvain

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of joint attention is still a matter of vigorous debate. It involves diverse hypotheses ranging from innate modules dedicated to intention reading to more neuro-constructivist approaches. The aim of this study was to assess whether 12-month-old infants are able to recognize a "joint attention" situation when observing such a social interaction. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we habituated infants to a "joint attention" video and then compared their looking time durations between "divergent attention" videos and "joint attention" ones using a 2 (familiar or novel perceptual component)×2 (familiar or novel conceptual component) factorial design. These results were enriched with measures of pupil dilation, which are considered to be reliable measures of cognitive load. Infants looked longer at test events that involved novel speaker and divergent attention but no changes in infants' pupil dilation were observed in any conditions. Although looking time data suggest that infants may appreciate discrepancies from expectations related to joint attention behavior, in the absence of clear evidence from pupillometry, the results show no demonstration of understanding of joint attention, even at a tacit level. Our results suggest that infants may be sensitive to relevant perceptual variables in joint attention situations, which would help scaffold social cognitive development. This study supports a gradual, learning interpretation of how infants come to recognize, understand, and participate in joint attention.

  9. Ants recognize foes and not friends.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, Fernando J; Nehring, Volker; Jørgensen, Charlotte G; Nielsen, John; Galizia, C Giovanni; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-07-01

    Discriminating among individuals and rejecting non-group members is essential for the evolution and stability of animal societies. Ants are good models for studying recognition mechanisms, because they are typically very efficient in discriminating 'friends' (nest-mates) from 'foes' (non-nest-mates). Recognition in ants involves multicomponent cues encoded in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Here, we tested whether workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus herculeanus use the presence and/or absence of cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate between nest-mates and non-nest-mates. We supplemented the cuticular profile with synthetic hydrocarbons mixed to liquid food and then assessed behavioural responses using two different bioassays. Our results show that (i) the presence, but not the absence, of an additional hydrocarbon elicited aggression and that (ii) among the three classes of hydrocarbons tested (unbranched, mono-methylated and dimethylated alkanes; for mono-methylated alkanes, we present a new synthetic pathway), only the dimethylated alkane was effective in eliciting aggression. Our results suggest that carpenter ants use a fundamentally different mechanism for nest-mate recognition than previously thought. They do not specifically recognize nest-mates, but rather recognize and reject non-nest-mates bearing odour cues that are novel to their own colony cuticular hydrocarbon profile. This begs for a reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying recognition systems in social insects.

  10. Ants recognize foes and not friends.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, Fernando J; Nehring, Volker; Jørgensen, Charlotte G; Nielsen, John; Galizia, C Giovanni; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-07-01

    Discriminating among individuals and rejecting non-group members is essential for the evolution and stability of animal societies. Ants are good models for studying recognition mechanisms, because they are typically very efficient in discriminating 'friends' (nest-mates) from 'foes' (non-nest-mates). Recognition in ants involves multicomponent cues encoded in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Here, we tested whether workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus herculeanus use the presence and/or absence of cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate between nest-mates and non-nest-mates. We supplemented the cuticular profile with synthetic hydrocarbons mixed to liquid food and then assessed behavioural responses using two different bioassays. Our results show that (i) the presence, but not the absence, of an additional hydrocarbon elicited aggression and that (ii) among the three classes of hydrocarbons tested (unbranched, mono-methylated and dimethylated alkanes; for mono-methylated alkanes, we present a new synthetic pathway), only the dimethylated alkane was effective in eliciting aggression. Our results suggest that carpenter ants use a fundamentally different mechanism for nest-mate recognition than previously thought. They do not specifically recognize nest-mates, but rather recognize and reject non-nest-mates bearing odour cues that are novel to their own colony cuticular hydrocarbon profile. This begs for a reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying recognition systems in social insects. PMID:19364750

  11. How do infants recognize joint attention?

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Erik; Brisson, Julie; Beaulieu, Christelle; Mainville, Marc; Mailloux, Dominique; Sirois, Sylvain

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of joint attention is still a matter of vigorous debate. It involves diverse hypotheses ranging from innate modules dedicated to intention reading to more neuro-constructivist approaches. The aim of this study was to assess whether 12-month-old infants are able to recognize a "joint attention" situation when observing such a social interaction. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we habituated infants to a "joint attention" video and then compared their looking time durations between "divergent attention" videos and "joint attention" ones using a 2 (familiar or novel perceptual component)×2 (familiar or novel conceptual component) factorial design. These results were enriched with measures of pupil dilation, which are considered to be reliable measures of cognitive load. Infants looked longer at test events that involved novel speaker and divergent attention but no changes in infants' pupil dilation were observed in any conditions. Although looking time data suggest that infants may appreciate discrepancies from expectations related to joint attention behavior, in the absence of clear evidence from pupillometry, the results show no demonstration of understanding of joint attention, even at a tacit level. Our results suggest that infants may be sensitive to relevant perceptual variables in joint attention situations, which would help scaffold social cognitive development. This study supports a gradual, learning interpretation of how infants come to recognize, understand, and participate in joint attention. PMID:26036712

  12. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  13. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  14. Automatic level control circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toole, P. C.; Mccarthy, D. M. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An automatic level control circuit for an operational amplifier for minimizing spikes or instantaneous gain of the amplifier at a low period wherein no signal is received on the input is provided. The apparatus includes a multibranch circuit which is connected between an output terminal and a feedback terminal. A pair of zener diodes are connected back to back in series with a capacitor provided in one of the branches. A pair of voltage dividing resistors are connected in another of the branches and a second capacitor is provided in the remaining branch of controlling the high frequency oscillations of the operational amplifier.

  15. A new automatic baseline correction method based on iterative method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Qingjia; Feng, Jiwen; Chen, Fang; Mao, Wenping; Liu, Zao; Liu, Kewen; Liu, Chaoyang

    2012-05-01

    A new automatic baseline correction method for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra is presented. It is based on an improved baseline recognition method and a new iterative baseline modeling method. The presented baseline recognition method takes advantages of three baseline recognition algorithms in order to recognize all signals in spectra. While in the iterative baseline modeling method, besides the well-recognized baseline points in signal-free regions, the 'quasi-baseline points' in the signal-crowded regions are also identified and then utilized to improve robustness by preventing the negative regions. The experimental results on both simulated data and real metabolomics spectra with over-crowded peaks show the efficiency of this automatic method.

  16. Automatic temperature control

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, J.P.

    1986-07-22

    An automatic temperature control system is described for maintaining a preset temperature in an enclosed space in a building, comprising: heating and cooling means for conditioning the air in the enclosed space to maintain the preset temperature; exterior thermostat means outside the building for sensing ambient exterior temperature levels; interior thermostat means in the enclosed space, preset to the preset temperature to be maintained and connected with the heating and cooling means to energize the means for heating or cooling, as appropriate, when the preset temperature is reached; means defining a heat sink containing a volume of air heated by solar radiation, the volume of the heat sink being such that the temperature level therein is not affected by minor or temporary ambient temperature fluctuations; and heat sink thermostat means in the heat sink sensing the temperature in the heat sink, the heat sink thermostat means being connected in tandem with the exterior thermostat means and operative with the exterior thermostat means to switch the interior thermostat means to either a first readiness state for heating or a second readiness state for cooling, depending upon which mode is indicated by both the exterior and heat sink thermostat means, whereby the system automatically switches between heating and cooling, as required, in response to a comparison of exterior and heat sink temperatures.

  17. Software for Partly Automated Recognition of Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opitz, David; Blundell, Stuart; Bain, William; Morris, Matthew; Carlson, Ian; Mangrich, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The Feature Analyst is a computer program for assisted (partially automated) recognition of targets in images. This program was developed to accelerate the processing of high-resolution satellite image data for incorporation into geographic information systems (GIS). This program creates an advanced user interface that embeds proprietary machine-learning algorithms in commercial image-processing and GIS software. A human analyst provides samples of target features from multiple sets of data, then the software develops a data-fusion model that automatically extracts the remaining features from selected sets of data. The program thus leverages the natural ability of humans to recognize objects in complex scenes, without requiring the user to explain the human visual recognition process by means of lengthy software. Two major subprograms are the reactive agent and the thinking agent. The reactive agent strives to quickly learn the user s tendencies while the user is selecting targets and to increase the user s productivity by immediately suggesting the next set of pixels that the user may wish to select. The thinking agent utilizes all available resources, taking as much time as needed, to produce the most accurate autonomous feature-extraction model possible.

  18. Automatic TLI recognition system. Part 2: User`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Partin, J.K.; Lassahn, G.D.; Davidson, J.R.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system uses image data fusion and gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. This volume is a user`s manual for an Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) system. This guide is intended to provide enough information and instruction to allow individuals to the system for their own applications.

  19. Octopuses (Enteroctopus dofleini) recognize individual humans.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Roland C; Mather, Jennifer A; Monette, Mathieu Q; Zimsen, Stephanie R M

    2010-01-01

    This study exposed 8 Enteroctopus dofleini separately to 2 unfamiliar individual humans over a 2-week period under differing circumstances. One person consistently fed the octopuses and the other touched them with a bristly stick. Each human recorded octopus body patterns, behaviors, and respiration rates directly after each treatment. At the end of 2 weeks, a body pattern (a dark Eyebar) and 2 behaviors (reaching arms toward or away from the tester and funnel direction) were significantly different in response to the 2 humans. The respiration rate of the 4 larger octopuses changed significantly in response to the 2 treatments; however, there was no significant difference in the 4 smaller octopuses' respiration. Octopuses' ability to recognize humans enlarges our knowledge of the perceptual ability of this nonhuman animal, which depends heavily on learning in response to visual information. Any training paradigm should take such individual recognition into consideration as it could significantly alter the octopuses' responses.

  20. Octopuses (Enteroctopus dofleini) recognize individual humans.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Roland C; Mather, Jennifer A; Monette, Mathieu Q; Zimsen, Stephanie R M

    2010-01-01

    This study exposed 8 Enteroctopus dofleini separately to 2 unfamiliar individual humans over a 2-week period under differing circumstances. One person consistently fed the octopuses and the other touched them with a bristly stick. Each human recorded octopus body patterns, behaviors, and respiration rates directly after each treatment. At the end of 2 weeks, a body pattern (a dark Eyebar) and 2 behaviors (reaching arms toward or away from the tester and funnel direction) were significantly different in response to the 2 humans. The respiration rate of the 4 larger octopuses changed significantly in response to the 2 treatments; however, there was no significant difference in the 4 smaller octopuses' respiration. Octopuses' ability to recognize humans enlarges our knowledge of the perceptual ability of this nonhuman animal, which depends heavily on learning in response to visual information. Any training paradigm should take such individual recognition into consideration as it could significantly alter the octopuses' responses. PMID:20563906

  1. Recognizing familial myeloid leukemia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Nickels, Eric M.; Soodalter, Jesse; Churpek, Jane E.

    2013-01-01

    Germline testing for familial cases of myeloid leukemia in adults is becoming more common with the recognition of multiple genetic syndromes predisposing people to bone marrow disease. Currently, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments approved testing exists for several myeloid leukemia predisposition syndromes: familial platelet disorder with propensity to acute myeloid leukemia (FPD/AML), caused by mutations in RUNX1; familial AML with mutated CEBPA; familial myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia with mutated GATA2; and the inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, including dyskeratosis congenita, a disease of abnormal telomere maintenance. With the recognition of additional families with a genetic component to their leukemia, new predisposition alleles will likely be identified. We highlight how to recognize and manage these cases as well as outline the characteristics of the major known syndromes. We look forward to future research increasing our understanding of the scope of inherited myeloid leukemia syndromes. PMID:23926458

  2. Recognizing asthma mimics and asthma complications.

    PubMed

    Amundson, Dennis; Seda, Gilbert; Daheshia, Massoud

    2011-10-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperreactivity, and underlying inflammation. Two common reasons asthmatics fail standard therapy are incorrect diagnosis and failure to recognize underlying contributing factors. A correct diagnosis of asthma is of great importance to military practitioners since misdiagnosis or uncontrolled asthma affects an individual's operational readiness or determines whether one can receive a medical waiver to enlist in military service. This article presents four cases of patients with dyspnea that have conditions which mimic asthma or complicate asthma management: vocal cord dysfunction misdiagnosed as asthma, respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease mistaken as asthma, difficult-to-control asthma because of bronchiectasis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and difficult and fatal asthma. Asthma is contrasted to other respiratory disorders, and an outlined approach to asthma diagnosis and management is presented using the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines.

  3. Obstacle detection by recognizing binary expansion patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baram, Yoram; Barniv, Yair

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for obstacle detection, based on the expansion of the image-plane projection of a textured object, as its distance from the sensor decreases. Information is conveyed by vectors whose components represent first-order temporal and spatial derivatives of the image intensity, which are related to the time to collision through the local divergence. Such vectors may be characterized as patterns corresponding to 'safe' or 'dangerous' situations. We show that essential information is conveyed by single-bit vector components, representing the signs of the relevant derivatives. We use two recently developed, high capacity classifiers, employing neural learning techniques, to recognize the imminence of collision from such patterns.

  4. Recognizing Charles Bonnet syndrome in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Christina M; Hilas, Olga

    2009-04-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is an under-recognized and commonly misdiagnosed condition characterized by the presence of visual hallucinations that psychologically normal people acknowledge as being unreal. It is commonly associated with ocular pathology and usually observed in elderly individuals with visual impairment. The exact etiology of CBS is unknown; however, the presentation of hallucinations is believed to be a result of functional deterioration of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Eradication of hallucinations and recurrent episodes has been seen with the use of neuroleptic and anticonvulsant agents. Correction of underlying ocular disorders and low-vision rehabilitation may also help in the resolution of visions. Careful patient assessment is necessary to appropriately diagnose CBS and determine the best approach to management.

  5. [Recognizing difference: the challenge of ethnopsychiatry].

    PubMed

    Pocreau, Jean-Bernard; Martins Borges, Lucienne

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing difference of the Other is the basis of legitimacy of ethnopsychiatry that is necessarily multiple, changing, and itself bearing subtleties and variations. It is from their practice at the Service d'aide psychologique spécialisée aux immigrants et réfugiés (SAPSIR), that the authors propose another perspective of this discipline taking into account of course, the cultural and psychological dimension of the individual; they also consider existential and humanistic universals such as the need of giving meaning, of continuity of the self and coherence as well as the various dimensions of identity. Their clinical approach, respectful of the principles of ethnopsychiatry, is structured around three axis : work on links, work on different dimensions of identity, work on coherence and meaning of situations experienced. This approach allows to accompany and facilitate essential elaborations involved in the psychological work of refugees as well as individuals exposed to extreme situations such as torture.

  6. How can we recognize continuous quality improvement?

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Lisa; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Hempel, Susanne; Danz, Margie; Salem-Schatz, Susanne; Foy, Robbie; O'Neill, Sean; Dalal, Siddhartha; Shekelle, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective Continuous quality improvement (CQI) methods are foundational approaches to improving healthcare delivery. Publications using the term CQI, however, are methodologically heterogeneous, and labels other than CQI are used to signify relevant approaches. Standards for identifying the use of CQI based on its key methodological features could enable more effective learning across quality improvement (QI) efforts. The objective was to identify essential methodological features for recognizing CQI. Design Previous work with a 12-member international expert panel identified reliably abstracted CQI methodological features. We tested which features met rigorous a priori standards as essential features of CQI using a three-phase online modified-Delphi process. Setting Primarily United States and Canada. Participants 119 QI experts randomly assigned into four on-line panels. Intervention(s) Participants rated CQI features and discussed their answers using online, anonymous and asynchronous discussion boards. We analyzed ratings quantitatively and discussion threads qualitatively. Main outcome measure(s) Panel consensus on definitional CQI features. Results Seventy-nine (66%) panelists completed the process. Thirty-three completers self-identified as QI researchers, 18 as QI practitioners and 28 as both equally. The features ‘systematic data guided activities,’ ‘designing with local conditions in mind’ and ‘iterative development and testing’ met a priori standards as essential CQI features. Qualitative analyses showed cross-cutting themes focused on differences between QI and CQI. Conclusions We found consensus among a broad group of CQI researchers and practitioners on three features as essential for identifying QI work more specifically as ‘CQI.’ All three features are needed as a minimum standard for recognizing CQI methods. PMID:24311732

  7. Recognizing environments in the deposits of the Niger delta

    SciTech Connect

    Oboh, F.E. )

    1991-03-01

    The paralic sediments of the Agbada Formation are the targets of commercial exploration and exploitation of oil and gas in the Niger delta. Sedimentological and microfossil data from a middle Miocene reservoir in the delta have revealed a succession of deltaic subenvironments of deposition within a prograding offlap sequence. Ten lithofacies, comprising five sandstone, three heterolithic, and two mudstone types, are recognized from grain size, sedimentary structures, and trace fossils in two cored boreholes. Fourteen palynodebris types, including amorphous organic matter, various types of palynomorphs, and wood, were identified in the sediments. These components were subjected to principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The resulting palynofacies are integrated with lithofacies and paleoecological inferences made from the palynomorph and foraminifera contents of the sediments for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Gamma-ray log correlation of the reservoir in uncored boreholes was carried out, using information from the cores, and this has resulted in a depositional model.

  8. Automatic determination of the imaging plane in lumbar MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Tsurumaki; Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Sekiya, Masaru; Kazama, Kiyoko

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we describe a method for assisting radiological technologists in their routine work to automatically determine the imaging plane in lumbar MRI. The method is first to recognize the spinal cord and the intervertebral disk (ID) from the lumbar vertebra 3-plane localizer image, and then the imaging plane is automatically determined according to the recognition results. To determine the imaging plane, the spinal cord and the ID are automatically recognized from the lumbar vertebra 3-plane localizer image with a series of image processing techniques. The proposed method consists of three major steps. First, after removing the air and fat regions from the 3-plane localizer image by use of histogram analysis, the rachis region is specified with Sobel edge detection filter. Second, the spinal cord and the ID were respectively extracted from the specified rachis region making use of global thresholding and the line detection filter. Finally, the imaging plane is determined by finding the straight line between the spinal cord and the ID with the Hough transform. Image data of 10 healthy volunteers were used for investigation. To validate the usefulness of our proposed method, manual determination of the imaging plane was also conducted by five experienced radiological technologists. Our experimental results showed that the concordance rate between the manual setting and automatic determination reached to 90%. Moreover, a remarkable reduction in execution time for imaging-plane determination was also achieved.

  9. Comparison of automatic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppelt, W

    1941-01-01

    This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

  10. Automatism, medicine and the law.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, P

    1990-01-01

    The law on automatism is undergoing change. For some time there has been a conflict between the medical and the legal views. The medical profession believes that the present division between sane and insane automatism makes little medical sense. Insane automatism is due to an internal factor, that is, a disease of the brain, while sane automatism is due to an external factor, such as a blow on the head or an injection of a drug. This leads to the situation where, for example, the hypoglycaemia resulting from injected insulin would be sane automatism, while hypoglycaemia while results from an islet tumour would be insane automatism. This would not matter if the consequences were the same. However, sane automatism leads to an acquittal, whereas insane automatism leads to committal to a secure mental hospital. This article traces the development of the concept of automatism in the 1950s to the present time, and looks at the anomalies in the law as it now stands. It considers the medical conditions of, and the law relating to, epilepsy, alcohol and drug automatism, hypoglycaemic automatisms, transient global amnesia, and hysterical automatisms. Sleep automatisms, and offences committed during a somnambulistic automatism, are also discussed in detail. The article also examines the need of the Courts to be provided with expert evidence and the role that the qualified medical practitioner should take. It clarifies the various points which medical practitioners should consider when assessing whether a defence of automatism is justified on medical grounds, and in seeking to establish such a defence. The present law is unsatisfactory, as it does not allow any discretion in sentencing on the part of the judge once a verdict of not guilty by virtue of insane automatism has been passed. The judge must sentence the defendant to detention in a secure mental hospital. This would certainly be satisfactory where violent crimes have been committed. However, it is inappropriate in

  11. 46 CFR 162.039-5 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 162.039-5 Section 162.039-5... Recognized laboratory. (a) A recognized laboratory is one which is regularly engaged in the examination... motorboats. The following laboratories are recognized, and the semiportable fire extinguishers bearing...

  12. 46 CFR 160.077-9 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.077-9 Section 160.077-9... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  13. 46 CFR 160.077-9 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.077-9 Section 160.077-9... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  14. 46 CFR 160.076-19 - Recognized laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recognized laboratories. 160.076-19 Section 160.076-19... Recognized laboratories. The approval and production oversight functions that this subpart requires to be conducted by a recognized laboratory must be conducted by an independent laboratory recognized by the...

  15. 46 CFR 160.077-9 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.077-9 Section 160.077-9... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  16. 46 CFR 160.048-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.048-8 Section 160.048-8... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  17. 46 CFR 160.048-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.048-8 Section 160.048-8... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  18. 46 CFR 160.048-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.048-8 Section 160.048-8... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  19. 46 CFR 162.039-5 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 162.039-5 Section 162.039-5... Recognized laboratory. (a) A recognized laboratory is one which is regularly engaged in the examination... motorboats. The following laboratories are recognized, and the semiportable fire extinguishers bearing...

  20. 46 CFR 160.049-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.049-8 Section 160.049-8... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  1. 46 CFR 162.039-5 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 162.039-5 Section 162.039-5... Recognized laboratory. (a) A recognized laboratory is one which is regularly engaged in the examination... motorboats. The following laboratories are recognized, and the semiportable fire extinguishers bearing...

  2. 46 CFR 160.076-19 - Recognized laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recognized laboratories. 160.076-19 Section 160.076-19... Recognized laboratories. The approval and production oversight functions that this subpart requires to be conducted by a recognized laboratory must be conducted by an independent laboratory recognized by the...

  3. 46 CFR 160.049-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.049-8 Section 160.049-8... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  4. 46 CFR 160.048-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.048-8 Section 160.048-8... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  5. 46 CFR 160.077-9 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.077-9 Section 160.077-9... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  6. 46 CFR 162.039-5 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 162.039-5 Section 162.039-5... Recognized laboratory. (a) A recognized laboratory is one which is regularly engaged in the examination... motorboats. The following laboratories are recognized, and the semiportable fire extinguishers bearing...

  7. 46 CFR 160.076-19 - Recognized laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recognized laboratories. 160.076-19 Section 160.076-19... Recognized laboratories. The approval and production oversight functions that this subpart requires to be conducted by a recognized laboratory must be conducted by an independent laboratory recognized by the...

  8. 46 CFR 160.077-9 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.077-9 Section 160.077-9... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  9. 46 CFR 160.048-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.048-8 Section 160.048-8... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  10. 46 CFR 162.039-5 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 162.039-5 Section 162.039-5... Recognized laboratory. (a) A recognized laboratory is one which is regularly engaged in the examination... motorboats. The following laboratories are recognized, and the semiportable fire extinguishers bearing...

  11. Automatic ionospheric layers detection: Algorithms analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, María G.; Zuccheretti, Enrico; Cabrera, Miguel A.; Bianchi, Cesidio; Sciacca, Umberto; Baskaradas, James

    2016-03-01

    Vertical sounding is a widely used technique to obtain ionosphere measurements, such as an estimation of virtual height versus frequency scanning. It is performed by high frequency radar for geophysical applications called "ionospheric sounder" (or "ionosonde"). Radar detection depends mainly on targets characteristics. While several targets behavior and correspondent echo detection algorithms have been studied, a survey to address a suitable algorithm for ionospheric sounder has to be carried out. This paper is focused on automatic echo detection algorithms implemented in particular for an ionospheric sounder, target specific characteristics were studied as well. Adaptive threshold detection algorithms are proposed, compared to the current implemented algorithm, and tested using actual data obtained from the Advanced Ionospheric Sounder (AIS-INGV) at Rome Ionospheric Observatory. Different cases of study have been selected according typical ionospheric and detection conditions.

  12. The Effects of Background Noise on the Performance of an Automatic Speech Recogniser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlefield, Jason; HashemiSakhtsari, Ahmad

    2002-11-01

    Ambient or environmental noise is a major factor that affects the performance of an automatic speech recognizer. Large vocabulary, speaker-dependent, continuous speech recognizers are commercially available. Speech recognizers, perform well in a quiet environment, but poorly in a noisy environment. Speaker-dependent speech recognizers require training prior to them being tested, where the level of background noise in both phases affects the performance of the recognizer. This study aims to determine whether the best performance of a speech recognizer occurs when the levels of background noise during the training and test phases are the same, and how the performance is affected when the levels of background noise during the training and test phases are different. The relationship between the performance of the speech recognizer and upgrading the computer speed and amount of memory as well as software version was also investigated.

  13. AUTOMATIC HAND COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Mann J.R.; Wainwright, A.E.

    1963-06-11

    An automatic, personnel-operated, alpha-particle hand monitor is described which functions as a qualitative instrument to indicate to the person using it whether his hands are cold'' or hot.'' The monitor is activated by a push button and includes several capacitor-triggered thyratron tubes. Upon release of the push button, the monitor starts the counting of the radiation present on the hands of the person. If the count of the radiation exceeds a predetermined level within a predetermined time, then a capacitor will trigger a first thyratron tube to light a hot'' lamp. If, however, the count is below such level during this time period, another capacitor will fire a second thyratron to light a safe'' lamp. (AEC)

  14. Automatic thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, L. D.; Cunningham, J. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes a first thermally conductive plate, a second thermally conductive plate and a thermal transfer plate pivotally mounted between the first and second plates. A phase change power unit, including a plunger connected to the transfer plate, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element, connected to the transfer plate, biases the transfer plate in a predetermined position with respect to the first and second plates. When the phase change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first plate, the plunger extends and pivots the transfer plate to vary the thermal conduction between the first and second plates through the transfer plate. The biasing element, transfer plate and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally open thermally conductive path between the first and second plates.

  15. Automatic Bayesian polarity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The polarity of the first motion of a seismic signal from an earthquake is an important constraint in earthquake source inversion. Microseismic events often have low signal-to-noise ratios, which may lead to difficulties estimating the correct first-motion polarities of the arrivals. This paper describes a probabilistic approach to polarity picking that can be both automated and combined with manual picking. This approach includes a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty of the polarity, improving calculation of the polarity probability density function for source inversion. It is sufficiently fast to be incorporated into an automatic processing workflow. When used in source inversion, the results are consistent with those from manual observations. In some cases, they produce a clearer constraint on the range of high-probability source mechanisms, and are better constrained than source mechanisms determined using a uniform probability of an incorrect polarity pick.

  16. Automatic alkaloid removal system.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, Muhammad Rizuwan; Hj Razali, Mohd Hudzari; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah; Ismail, Wan Ishak Wan; Muda, Wan Musa Wan; Mat, Nashriyah; Zakaria, Abd

    2014-01-01

    This alkaloid automated removal machine was developed at Instrumentation Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Malaysia that purposely for removing the alkaloid toxicity from Dioscorea hispida (DH) tuber. It is a poisonous plant where scientific study has shown that its tubers contain toxic alkaloid constituents, dioscorine. The tubers can only be consumed after it poisonous is removed. In this experiment, the tubers are needed to blend as powder form before inserting into machine basket. The user is need to push the START button on machine controller for switching the water pump ON by then creating turbulence wave of water in machine tank. The water will stop automatically by triggering the outlet solenoid valve. The powders of tubers are washed for 10 minutes while 1 liter of contaminated water due toxin mixture is flowing out. At this time, the controller will automatically triggered inlet solenoid valve and the new water will flow in machine tank until achieve the desire level that which determined by ultra sonic sensor. This process will repeated for 7 h and the positive result is achieved and shows it significant according to the several parameters of biological character ofpH, temperature, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and fish survival rate or time. From that parameter, it also shows the positive result which is near or same with control water and assuming was made that the toxin is fully removed when the pH of DH powder is near with control water. For control water, the pH is about 5.3 while water from this experiment process is 6.0 and before run the machine the pH of contaminated water is about 3.8 which are too acid. This automated machine can save time for removing toxicity from DH compared with a traditional method while less observation of the user. PMID:24783795

  17. An automatic indexing method for medical documents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M M

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes MetaIndex, an automatic indexing program that creates symbolic representations of documents for the purpose of document retrieval. MetaIndex uses a simple transition network parser to recognize a language that is derived from the set of main concepts in the Unified Medical Language System Metathesaurus (Meta-1). MetaIndex uses a hierarchy of medical concepts, also derived from Meta-1, to represent the content of documents. The goal of this approach is to improve document retrieval performance by better representation of documents. An evaluation method is described, and the performance of MetaIndex on the task of indexing the Slice of Life medical image collection is reported.

  18. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  19. Automatic Indexing of Full Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonak, Zdenek

    1984-01-01

    Demonstrates efficiency of preparation of query description using semantic analyser method based on analysis of semantic structure of documents in field of automatic indexing. Results obtained are compared with automatic indexing results performed by traditional methods and results of indexing done by human indexers. Sample terms and codes are…

  20. Perspective: Recognizing and rewarding clinical scholarship.

    PubMed

    Grigsby, R Kevin; Thorndyke, Luanne

    2011-01-01

    Faculty members in medical schools and academic medical centers are in a constant process of generating new knowledge. The cornerstone of academia--and academic medicine--is scholarship. Traditionally, tenure and/or academic promotion in the professorial ranks is awarded to those who meet institutional criteria in the missions of research, teaching, and service, including patient care. In the academic review process, priority is often placed on a record of demonstrated, consistent success in traditional laboratory research, also known as the scholarship of discovery. More recently, there has been greater recognition of other forms of scholarship: education, application, and integration. These forms of scholarship, although less recognized, also result in the generation of new knowledge. In an attempt to understand the breadth and scope of clinical scholarship, the authors searched the extant literature in academic medicine for a definition of clinical scholarship and expanded the search to disciplines outside of medicine. They found that succinct, discrete definitions of clinical scholarship have been published in other disciplines, but not in academic medicine. After reviewing definitions of clinical scholarship from other disciplines, adapting definitions of educational scholarship in academic medicine, and including qualities unique to clinical scholarship, the authors developed a framework for understanding clinical scholarship in academic medicine as a means for opening a dialogue within the academic medical community. This dialogue hopefully will lead to formulating a succinct, discrete definition of clinical scholarship that will allow greater recognition and reward for clinical scholars in the promotion and tenure process.

  1. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. PMID:26763220

  2. Sternocostoclavicular Hyperostosis: An Ill-Recognized Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roed, Bolette; Kristensen, Tatiana; Thorsen, Søren; Poulsen Bloch, Klaus; Afzelius, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH) is an ill-recognized, rarely diagnosed disease. Today, SCCH is widely considered part of the synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome. SCCH develops over years with intermittent attacks of pain, swelling, and reddening of the sternocostoclavicular region. The disease causes progressive hyperostosis, fusion of the sternocostoclavicular joints, and soft tissue ossification. SCCH is chronic, non-malignant, and occurs predominantly bilaterally in middle-aged women. The incidence of the disease is unknown. We present a case of isolated SCCH, where chest radiographs showed a clear development of bilateral disease over the course of more than a decade. Whole-body bone scintigraphy was performed and was suggestive of SCCH. The diagnosis was established as late as 14 years from the onset of symptoms. During this period, the patient underwent several inconclusive examinations, resulting in a delay of diagnosis and in prolonged and aggravated symptoms. With this case report, we want to draw attention to SCCH and the importance of early diagnosis of the disease. PMID:27527220

  3. Overview: recognizing the problem of magnesium deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Seelig, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    The magnesium content of the usual American diet is less than the recommended dietary allowance. Excesses of some macro- and micro-nutrients interact with Mg, increasing its requirements. Marginal deficiency of Mg is not associated with hypomagnesemia, is not characterized by typical manifestations, as is thus difficult to diagnose. Serum or plasma Mg levels are held within narrow limits unless tissue levels are very low, or renal function is poor. Vulnerability to Mg deficiency increases during growth and development, pregnancy, when under physical or psychological stress, and during illness or its treatment that interferes with absorption or causes loss of Mg. Evidence of biochemical changes of early Mg deficiency is rarely sought, although the roles of Mg in many enzyme systems are recognized. The effects of Mg deficiency on metabolism, even in disorders caused by vitamin dependencies in which Mg is a co-factor, are largely unexplored. Deficiency of Mg is diagnosed confidently when the laboratory reports hypomagnesemia in patients with convulsions or arrhythmias. Without these signs, Mg levels are not often ordered, even in the presence of neuromuscular irritability such as respond to Mg repletion. Because Mg supplementation or Mg-sparing drugs protect against premature or ectopic heart beats and sudden death, to which diuretic-treated hypertensive patients are at risk, it is increasingly being advised that their Mg status be determined.

  4. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs.

  5. Artificial Immune System for Recognizing Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2005-01-01

    A method of recognizing or classifying patterns is based on an artificial immune system (AIS), which includes an algorithm and a computational model of nonlinear dynamics inspired by the behavior of a biological immune system. The method has been proposed as the theoretical basis of the computational portion of a star-tracking system aboard a spacecraft. In that system, a newly acquired star image would be treated as an antigen that would be matched by an appropriate antibody (an entry in a star catalog). The method would enable rapid convergence, would afford robustness in the face of noise in the star sensors, would enable recognition of star images acquired in any sensor or spacecraft orientation, and would not make an excessive demand on the computational resources of a typical spacecraft. Going beyond the star-tracking application, the AIS-based pattern-recognition method is potentially applicable to pattern- recognition and -classification processes for diverse purposes -- for example, reconnaissance, detecting intruders, and mining data.

  6. Sternocostoclavicular Hyperostosis: An Ill-Recognized Disease.

    PubMed

    Roed, Bolette; Kristensen, Tatiana; Thorsen, Søren; Poulsen Bloch, Klaus; Afzelius, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH) is an ill-recognized, rarely diagnosed disease. Today, SCCH is widely considered part of the synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome. SCCH develops over years with intermittent attacks of pain, swelling, and reddening of the sternocostoclavicular region. The disease causes progressive hyperostosis, fusion of the sternocostoclavicular joints, and soft tissue ossification. SCCH is chronic, non-malignant, and occurs predominantly bilaterally in middle-aged women. The incidence of the disease is unknown. We present a case of isolated SCCH, where chest radiographs showed a clear development of bilateral disease over the course of more than a decade. Whole-body bone scintigraphy was performed and was suggestive of SCCH. The diagnosis was established as late as 14 years from the onset of symptoms. During this period, the patient underwent several inconclusive examinations, resulting in a delay of diagnosis and in prolonged and aggravated symptoms. With this case report, we want to draw attention to SCCH and the importance of early diagnosis of the disease. PMID:27527220

  7. METHOD AND MEANS FOR RECOGNIZING COMPLEX PATTERNS

    DOEpatents

    Hough, P.V.C.

    1962-12-18

    This patent relates to a method and means for recognizing a complex pattern in a picture. The picture is divided into framelets, each framelet being sized so that any segment of the complex pattern therewithin is essentially a straight line. Each framelet is scanned to produce an electrical pulse for each point scanned on the segment therewithin. Each of the electrical pulses of each segment is then transformed into a separate strnight line to form a plane transform in a pictorial display. Each line in the plane transform of a segment is positioned laterally so that a point on the line midway between the top and the bottom of the pictorial display occurs at a distance from the left edge of the pictorial display equal to the distance of the generating point in the segment from the left edge of the framelet. Each line in the plane transform of a segment is inclined in the pictorial display at an angle to the vertical whose tangent is proportional to the vertical displacement of the generating point in the segment from the center of the framelet. The coordinate position of the point of intersection of the lines in the pictorial display for each segment is determined and recorded. The sum total of said recorded coordinate positions being representative of the complex pattern. (AEC)

  8. Perspective: Recognizing and rewarding clinical scholarship.

    PubMed

    Grigsby, R Kevin; Thorndyke, Luanne

    2011-01-01

    Faculty members in medical schools and academic medical centers are in a constant process of generating new knowledge. The cornerstone of academia--and academic medicine--is scholarship. Traditionally, tenure and/or academic promotion in the professorial ranks is awarded to those who meet institutional criteria in the missions of research, teaching, and service, including patient care. In the academic review process, priority is often placed on a record of demonstrated, consistent success in traditional laboratory research, also known as the scholarship of discovery. More recently, there has been greater recognition of other forms of scholarship: education, application, and integration. These forms of scholarship, although less recognized, also result in the generation of new knowledge. In an attempt to understand the breadth and scope of clinical scholarship, the authors searched the extant literature in academic medicine for a definition of clinical scholarship and expanded the search to disciplines outside of medicine. They found that succinct, discrete definitions of clinical scholarship have been published in other disciplines, but not in academic medicine. After reviewing definitions of clinical scholarship from other disciplines, adapting definitions of educational scholarship in academic medicine, and including qualities unique to clinical scholarship, the authors developed a framework for understanding clinical scholarship in academic medicine as a means for opening a dialogue within the academic medical community. This dialogue hopefully will lead to formulating a succinct, discrete definition of clinical scholarship that will allow greater recognition and reward for clinical scholars in the promotion and tenure process. PMID:21099387

  9. Towards automatic planning for manufacturing generative processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-05-24

    Generative process planning describes methods process engineers use to modify manufacturing/process plans after designs are complete. A completed design may be the result from the introduction of a new product based on an old design, an assembly upgrade, or modified product designs used for a family of similar products. An engineer designs an assembly and then creates plans capturing manufacturing processes, including assembly sequences, component joining methods, part costs, labor costs, etc. When new products originate as a result of an upgrade, component geometry may change, and/or additional components and subassemblies may be added to or are omitted from the original design. As a result process engineers are forced to create new plans. This is further complicated by the fact that the process engineer is forced to manually generate these plans for each product upgrade. To generate new assembly plans for product upgrades, engineers must manually re-specify the manufacturing plan selection criteria and re-run the planners. To remedy this problem, special-purpose assembly planning algorithms have been developed to automatically recognize design modifications and automatically apply previously defined manufacturing plan selection criteria and constraints.

  10. Recognizing, naming, and measuring a family intensive care unit syndrome.

    PubMed

    Netzer, Giora; Sullivan, Donald R

    2014-03-01

    Most major decisions in the intensive care unit (ICU) regarding goals of care are shared by clinicians and someone other than the patient. Multicenter clinical trials focusing on improved communication between clinicians and these surrogate decision makers have not reported consistently improved outcomes. We suggest that acquired maladaptive reasoning may contribute importantly to failure of the intervention strategies tested to date. Surrogate decision makers often suffer significant psychological morbidity in the form of stress, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Family members in the ICU also suffer cognitive blunting and sleep deprivation. Their decision-making abilities are eroded by anticipatory grief and cognitive biases, while personal and family conflicts further impact their decision making. We propose recognizing a family ICU syndrome to describe the morbidity and associated decision-making impairment experienced by many family members of patients with acute critical illness (in the ICU) and chronic critical illness (in the long-term, acute care hospital). Research rigorously using models of compromised decision making may help elucidate both mechanisms of impairment and targets for intervention. Better quantifying compromised decision making and its relationship to poor outcomes will allow us to formulate and advance useful techniques. The use of decision aids and improving ICU design may provide benefit now and in the near future. In measuring interventions targeting cognitive barriers, clinically significant outcomes, such as time to decision, should be considered. Statistical approaches, such as survival models and rank statistic testing, will increase our power to detect differences in our interventions.

  11. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the

  12. Design and recognition of three dimensional calibration target based on coded marker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, You; Xiong, Wei; Zeng, Luan; Gu, Dalong

    2015-08-01

    Traditional three-dimensional (3D) calibration targets consist of two or three mutual orthogonal planes (each of the planes contains several control points constituted by corners or circular points) that cannot be captured simultaneously by cameras in front view. Therefore, large perspective distortions exist in the images of the calibration targets resulting in inaccurate image coordinate detection of the control points. Besides, in order to eliminate mismatches, recognition of the control points usually needs manual intervention consuming large amount of time. A new design of 3D calibration target is presented for automatic and accurate camera calibration. The target employs two parallel planes instead of orthogonal planes to reduce perspective distortion, which can be captured simultaneously by cameras in front view. Control points of the target are constituted by carefully designed circular coded markers, which can be used to realize automatic recognition without manual intervention. Due to perspective projection, projections of the circular coded markers' centers deviate from the centers of their corresponding imaging ellipses. Colinearity of the control points is used to correct perspective distortions of the imaging ellipses. Experiment results show that the calibration target can be automatically and correctly recognized under large illumination and viewpoint change. The image extraction errors of the control points are under 0.1 pixels. When applied to binocular cameras calibration, the mean reprojection errors are less than 0.15 pixels and the 3D measurement errors are less than 0.2mm in x and y axis and 0.5mm in z axis respectively.

  13. Automatic Annotation Method on Learners' Opinions in Case Method Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Masaki; Hisakane, Daichi; Komoda, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to annotate an attribute of a problem, a solution or no annotation on learners' opinions automatically for supporting the learners' discussion without a facilitator. The case method aims at discussing problems and solutions in a target case. However, the learners miss discussing some of problems and solutions.…

  14. Automatic micropropagation of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otte, Clemens; Schwanke, Joerg; Jensch, Peter F.

    1996-12-01

    Micropropagation is a sophisticated technique for the rapid multiplication of plants. It has a great commercial potential due to the speed of propagation, the high plant quality, and the ability to produce disease-free plants. However, micropropagation is usually done by hand which makes the process cost-intensive and tedious for the workers especially because it requires a sterile work-place. Therefore, we have developed a prototype automation system for the micropropagation of a grass species (miscanthus sinensis gigantheus). The objective of this paper is to describe the robotic system in an overview and to discuss the vision system more closely including the implemented morphological operations recognizing the cutting and gripping points of miscanthus plants. Fuzzy controllers are used to adapt the parameters of image operations on-line to each individual plant. Finally, we discuss our experiences with the developed prototype an give a preview of a possible real production line system.

  15. Hidden Markov models in automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrzoskowicz, Adam

    1993-11-01

    This article describes a method for constructing an automatic speech recognition system based on hidden Markov models (HMMs). The author discusses the basic concepts of HMM theory and the application of these models to the analysis and recognition of speech signals. The author provides algorithms which make it possible to train the ASR system and recognize signals on the basis of distinct stochastic models of selected speech sound classes. The author describes the specific components of the system and the procedures used to model and recognize speech. The author discusses problems associated with the choice of optimal signal detection and parameterization characteristics and their effect on the performance of the system. The author presents different options for the choice of speech signal segments and their consequences for the ASR process. The author gives special attention to the use of lexical, syntactic, and semantic information for the purpose of improving the quality and efficiency of the system. The author also describes an ASR system developed by the Speech Acoustics Laboratory of the IBPT PAS. The author discusses the results of experiments on the effect of noise on the performance of the ASR system and describes methods of constructing HMM's designed to operate in a noisy environment. The author also describes a language for human-robot communications which was defined as a complex multilevel network from an HMM model of speech sounds geared towards Polish inflections. The author also added mandatory lexical and syntactic rules to the system for its communications vocabulary.

  16. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  17. Automatic Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Robotic welding has been of interest to industrial firms because it offers higher productivity at lower cost than manual welding. There are some systems with automated arc guidance available, but they have disadvantages, such as limitations on types of materials or types of seams that can be welded; susceptibility to stray electrical signals; restricted field of view; or tendency to contaminate the weld seam. Wanting to overcome these disadvantages, Marshall Space Flight Center, aided by Hayes International Corporation, developed system that uses closed-circuit TV signals for automatic guidance of the welding torch. NASA granted license to Combined Technologies, Inc. for commercial application of the technology. They developed a refined and improved arc guidance system. CTI in turn, licensed the Merrick Corporation, also of Nashville, for marketing and manufacturing of the new system, called the CT2 Optical Trucker. CT2 is a non-contracting system that offers adaptability to broader range of welding jobs and provides greater reliability in high speed operation. It is extremely accurate and can travel at high speed of up to 150 inches per minute.

  18. Automatic transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, J.S.

    1989-04-25

    An automatic transmission system is described for use in vehicles, which comprises: a clutch wheel containing a plurality of concentric rings of decreasing diameter, the clutch wheel being attached to an engine of the vehicle; a plurality of clutch gears corresponding in size to the concentric rings, the clutch gears being adapted to selectively and frictionally engage with the concentric rings of the clutch wheel; an accelerator pedal and a gear selector, the accelerator pedals being connected to one end of a substantially U-shaped frame member, the other end of the substantially U-shaped frame member selectively engaging with one end of one of wires received in a pair of apertures of the gear selector; a plurality of drive gear controllers and a reverse gear controller; means operatively connected with the gear selector and the plurality of drive gear controllers and reverse gear controller for selectively engaging one of the drive and reverse gear controllers depending upon the position of the gear selector; and means for individually connecting the drive and reverse gear controllers with the corresponding clutch gears whereby upon the selection of the gear selector, friction engagement is achieved between the clutch gear and the clutch wheels for rotating the wheel in the forward or reverse direction.

  19. Automatic Music Transcription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapuri, Anssi; Virtanen, Tuomas

    Written musical notation describes music in a symbolic form that is suitable for performing a piece using the available musical instruments. Traditionally, musical notation indicates the pitch, target instrument, timing, and duration of each sound to be played. The aim of music transcription either by humans or by a machine is to infer these musical parameters, given only the acoustic recording of a performance.

  20. Attaining Automaticity in the Visual Numerosity Task is Not Automatic

    PubMed Central

    Speelman, Craig P.; Muller Townsend, Katrina L.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment is a replication of experiments reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993) using the visual numerosity task. The aim was to replicate the transition from controlled to automatic processing reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993), and to examine the extent to which this result, reported with average group results, can be observed in the results of individuals within a group. The group results in this experiment did replicate those reported by Lassaline and Logan (1993); however, one half of the sample did not attain automaticity with the task, and one-third did not exhibit a transition from controlled to automatic processing. These results raise questions about the pervasiveness of automaticity, and the interpretation of group means when examining cognitive processes. PMID:26635658

  1. Recognizing and managing concussion in school sport.

    PubMed

    Evans, Vicki

    2014-08-01

    Every country around the world enjoys some sort of sport. The Olympics sees countries from all over the globe participate in elite sport, in both winter and summer competitions. Australia is widely known for cricket and rugby; America is known for baseball and gridiron football (among others). These sports are played at an elite level as well as beginners from early ages as young as 4 years in the backyard. Yet, it is also these sports that can deliver a ball at the speed of 100 km/h (football), 105 km/h (baseball), 112 km/h (rugby), 150 km/h (cricket), and 211 km/h (soccer). This is the same force that a car collision can produce. That force eventually finds a target, and in some cases, unfortunately, it is a head. Damage to the brain is not only from the impact of the ball hitting its target but rather also the shearing forces of acceleration-deceleration injury that can cause extensive injuries. There has been much discussion of late regarding concussion in sport and the accumulative effects of head blows resulting in varying degrees of memory loss and dementia later in life. The media have been saturated with heightened awareness of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. This, however, is still being researched. It is true that each concussion compounds the one before, but rather than focus on the injury, managers/coaches and sporting codes should be focusing on the identification and proper management of a suspected concussion and the return-to-play protocols. This is especially important in our schools where growing brains need nurturing. Neuroscience nurses are at the forefront of educating school children, teachers, and coaches through partnering with local schools. This article will focus on concussion recognition and management in school sport. PMID:24905132

  2. Recognizing and managing concussion in school sport.

    PubMed

    Evans, Vicki

    2014-08-01

    Every country around the world enjoys some sort of sport. The Olympics sees countries from all over the globe participate in elite sport, in both winter and summer competitions. Australia is widely known for cricket and rugby; America is known for baseball and gridiron football (among others). These sports are played at an elite level as well as beginners from early ages as young as 4 years in the backyard. Yet, it is also these sports that can deliver a ball at the speed of 100 km/h (football), 105 km/h (baseball), 112 km/h (rugby), 150 km/h (cricket), and 211 km/h (soccer). This is the same force that a car collision can produce. That force eventually finds a target, and in some cases, unfortunately, it is a head. Damage to the brain is not only from the impact of the ball hitting its target but rather also the shearing forces of acceleration-deceleration injury that can cause extensive injuries. There has been much discussion of late regarding concussion in sport and the accumulative effects of head blows resulting in varying degrees of memory loss and dementia later in life. The media have been saturated with heightened awareness of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. This, however, is still being researched. It is true that each concussion compounds the one before, but rather than focus on the injury, managers/coaches and sporting codes should be focusing on the identification and proper management of a suspected concussion and the return-to-play protocols. This is especially important in our schools where growing brains need nurturing. Neuroscience nurses are at the forefront of educating school children, teachers, and coaches through partnering with local schools. This article will focus on concussion recognition and management in school sport.

  3. Automatic pose initialization of swimmers in videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, Christian X.; Lienhart, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    We propose an approach to the task of automatic pose initialization of swimmers in videos. Thus, our goal is to detect a swimmer inside a target video and assign an estimated position to her/his body parts. We first apply a non-skin-color filter to reduce the search space inside each target frame. We then match previously devised template sequences of Gaussian feature descriptors against sequences of feature vectors which are computed within the remaining image regions. Finally, relative average joint positions from annotated images featuring the key pose are assigned to the detection result and three-dimensional joint positions are estimated. We present detection results for test videos of three different swim strokes and examine the performance of four types of feature descriptors.

  4. Automatic Detect and Trace of Solar Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Cheng; Chen, P. F.; Tang, Yu-hua; Hao, Qi; Guo, Yang

    We developed a series of methods to automatically detect and trace solar filaments in solar Hα images. The programs are able to not only recognize filaments and determine their properties, such as the position, the area and other relevant parameters, but also to trace the daily evolution of the filaments. For solar full disk Hα images, the method consists of three parts: first, preprocessing is applied to correct the original images; second, the Canny edge-detection method is used to detect the filaments; third, filament properties are recognized through the morphological operators. For each Hα filament and its barb features, we introduced the unweighted undirected graph concept and adopted Dijkstra shortest-path algorithm to recognize the filament spine; then, using polarity inversion line shift method for measuring the polarities in both sides of the filament to determine the filament axis chirality; finally, employing connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculating the angle between each barb and spine to indicate the barb chirality. Our algorithms are applied to the observations from varied observatories, including the Optical & Near Infrared Solar Eruption Tracer (ONSET) in Nanjing University, Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) and Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The programs are demonstrated to be effective and efficient. We used our method to automatically process and analyze 3470 images obtained by MLSO from January 1998 to December 2009, and a butterfly diagram of filaments is obtained. It shows that the latitudinal migration of solar filaments has three trends in the Solar Cycle 23: The drift velocity was fast from 1998 to the solar maximum; after the solar maximum, it became relatively slow and after 2006, the migration became divergent, signifying the solar minimum. About 60% filaments with the latitudes larger than 50 degree migrate towards the Polar Regions with relatively high velocities, and the latitudinal migrating

  5. Research of online automatism identification algorithm based on image character sequence look-up table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yueping; Han, Yan; Li, Ruihong

    2008-02-01

    This paper proposes an effective approach for online inspecting and recognizing the assembly structure inside three-dimensional objects using multiple views technique and X-ray digital radiography system. During the offline study process, the paper obtains a gray image sequence of a standard sample in multiple circumferential orientations. Utilizing the idea of classifying identification, the paper locates and extracts different characters of different parts in each image of the sequence and establishes corresponding character sequence libraries. In online detection stage, the program finds the optimum solutions to all different target parts in the library with bisearch method and carries out exactness image matching with correlation coefficient weighted of multi-character via Bayes decision. Aiming at the issue of some objects may be occluded by others in a scene, the paper puts forward to rotate the product some certain angles and re-match. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the relationships of misjudgment ratio with product assembling tolerance, the size of target part and identifying velocity. Based on this approach, the first domestic X-ray automatism detection system has been developed and it is successfully applied in online detecting some axis symmetric products which assembly structures inside are complex.

  6. 46 CFR 160.064-7 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.064-7 Section 160.064-7...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Marine Buoyant Devices § 160.064-7 Recognized laboratory. (a) A... laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under § 159.010-7 of this part, to perform testing...

  7. 46 CFR 160.052-9 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.052-9 Section 160.052-9..., Adult and Child § 160.052-9 Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a... shall apply for approval directly to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories...

  8. 46 CFR 164.012-12 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 164.012-12 Section 164.012-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Interior Finishes for Merchant Vessels § 164.012-12 Recognized laboratory. A recognized laboratory is one which is operated as a nonprofit public service and is...

  9. 46 CFR 160.064-7 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

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  10. 46 CFR 160.064-7 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.064-7 Section 160.064-7...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Marine Buoyant Devices § 160.064-7 Recognized laboratory. (a) A... laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under § 159.010-7 of this part, to perform testing...

  11. 46 CFR 160.047-7 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.047-7 Section 160.047-7... and Child § 160.047-7 Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a... shall apply for approval directly to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories...

  12. 46 CFR 164.012-12 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 164.012-12 Section 164.012-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Interior Finishes for Merchant Vessels § 164.012-12 Recognized laboratory. A recognized laboratory is one which is operated as a nonprofit public service and is...

  13. 46 CFR 164.019-17 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 164.019-17 Section 164.019-17...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Personal Flotation Device Components § 164.019-17 Recognized laboratory. (a) General. A laboratory may be designated as a recognized laboratory under this subpart if it is—...

  14. 46 CFR 160.052-9 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.052-9 Section 160.052-9..., Adult and Child § 160.052-9 Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a... shall apply for approval directly to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories...

  15. 46 CFR 160.047-7 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.047-7 Section 160.047-7... and Child § 160.047-7 Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a... shall apply for approval directly to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories...

  16. 46 CFR 160.076-19 - Recognized laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recognized laboratories. 160.076-19 Section 160.076-19... Recognized laboratories. (a) PFDs. The following laboratories are recognized under § 159.010-9 of this... Laboratories, Inc., 12 Laboratory Drive, P.O. Box 13995, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3995, (919)...

  17. 46 CFR 164.019-17 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 164.019-17 Section 164.019-17...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Personal Flotation Device Components § 164.019-17 Recognized laboratory. (a) General. A laboratory may be designated as a recognized laboratory under this subpart if it is—...

  18. 46 CFR 164.012-12 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 164.012-12 Section 164.012-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Interior Finishes for Merchant Vessels § 164.012-12 Recognized laboratory. A recognized laboratory is one which is operated as a nonprofit public service and is...

  19. 46 CFR 160.060-9 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.060-9 Section 160.060-9..., Adult and Child § 160.060-9 Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a... shall apply for approval directly to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories...

  20. 46 CFR 160.047-7 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.047-7 Section 160.047-7... and Child § 160.047-7 Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a... shall apply for approval directly to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories...

  1. 46 CFR 160.060-9 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.060-9 Section 160.060-9..., Adult and Child § 160.060-9 Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a... shall apply for approval directly to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories...

  2. 46 CFR 164.012-12 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 164.012-12 Section 164.012-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Interior Finishes for Merchant Vessels § 164.012-12 Recognized laboratory. A recognized laboratory is one which is operated as a nonprofit public service and is...

  3. 46 CFR 164.019-17 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 164.019-17 Section 164.019-17...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Personal Flotation Device Components § 164.019-17 Recognized laboratory. (a) General. A laboratory may be designated as a recognized laboratory under this subpart if it is—...

  4. 46 CFR 160.064-7 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

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  5. 46 CFR 164.019-17 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

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  6. 46 CFR 160.047-7 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.047-7 Section 160.047-7... and Child § 160.047-7 Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a... shall apply for approval directly to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories...

  7. 46 CFR 160.047-7 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.047-7 Section 160.047-7... and Child § 160.047-7 Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a... shall apply for approval directly to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories...

  8. 46 CFR 160.060-9 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.060-9 Section 160.060-9..., Adult and Child § 160.060-9 Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a... shall apply for approval directly to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories...

  9. 46 CFR 164.019-17 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 164.019-17 Section 164.019-17...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Personal Flotation Device Components § 164.019-17 Recognized laboratory. (a) General. A laboratory may be designated as a recognized laboratory under this subpart if it is—...

  10. 46 CFR 164.012-12 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 164.012-12 Section 164.012-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Interior Finishes for Merchant Vessels § 164.012-12 Recognized laboratory. A recognized laboratory is one which is operated as a nonprofit public service and is...

  11. 46 CFR 160.064-7 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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  12. 40 CFR 745.88 - Recognized test kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

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  13. 46 CFR 42.05-60 - Recognized classification society.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 42.05-60 Section 42... society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society recognized by the Commandant, as provided in 46 U.S.C. 5107, and who also may be...

  14. 46 CFR 42.05-60 - Recognized classification society.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 42.05-60 Section 42... society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society recognized by the Commandant, as provided in 46 U.S.C. 5107, and who also may be...

  15. 46 CFR 90.10-35 - Recognized classification society.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 90.10-35 Section 90... classification society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society recognized by the Commandant....

  16. 46 CFR 90.10-35 - Recognized classification society.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 90.10-35 Section 90... classification society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society recognized by the Commandant....

  17. 46 CFR 90.10-35 - Recognized classification society.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 90.10-35 Section 90... classification society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society recognized by the Commandant....

  18. 46 CFR 90.10-35 - Recognized classification society.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 90.10-35 Section 90... classification society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society recognized by the Commandant....

  19. 46 CFR 90.10-35 - Recognized classification society.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 90.10-35 Section 90... classification society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society recognized by the Commandant....

  20. 46 CFR 42.05-60 - Recognized classification society.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 42.05-60 Section 42... society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society recognized by the Commandant, as provided in 46 U.S.C. 5107, and who also may be...

  1. 46 CFR 42.05-60 - Recognized classification society.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 42.05-60 Section 42... society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society recognized by the Commandant, as provided in 46 U.S.C. 5107, and who also may be...

  2. 46 CFR 42.05-60 - Recognized classification society.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 42.05-60 Section 42... society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society recognized by the Commandant, as provided in 46 U.S.C. 5107, and who also may be...

  3. Automatic transmission apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hiketa, M.

    1987-10-06

    An automatic transmission apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft, an output shaft disposed behind and coaxially with the input shaft, a counter shaft disposed substantially parallel to both of the input and output shafts, a first gear train including a first gear provided on the input shaft and a second gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the first gear so as to form a first power transmitting path, first friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the first power transmitting path, a second gear train including a third gear provided through one-way clutch means on a rear end portion of the input shaft and a fourth gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the third gear so as to form a second power transmitting path, second friction clutch means provided at a front end portion of the output shaft, a third gear train including a fifth gear provided on a rear end portion of the counter shaft and a sixth gear provided on the output shaft to be meshed with the fifth gear so as to form a fourth power transmitting path, third friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fourth power transmitting path, fourth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the second power transmitting path, a fourth gear train including a seventh gear provided on the counter shaft and an eighth gear provided on the output shaft and fifth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fifth power transmitting path.

  4. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  5. Automated target recognition and tracking using an optical pattern recognition neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1991-01-01

    The on-going development of an automatic target recognition and tracking system at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is presented. This system is an optical pattern recognition neural network (OPRNN) that is an integration of an innovative optical parallel processor and a feature extraction based neural net training algorithm. The parallel optical processor provides high speed and vast parallelism as well as full shift invariance. The neural network algorithm enables simultaneous discrimination of multiple noisy targets in spite of their scales, rotations, perspectives, and various deformations. This fully developed OPRNN system can be effectively utilized for the automated spacecraft recognition and tracking that will lead to success in the Automated Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) of the unmanned Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV). One of the most powerful optical parallel processors for automatic target recognition is the multichannel correlator. With the inherent advantages of parallel processing capability and shift invariance, multiple objects can be simultaneously recognized and tracked using this multichannel correlator. This target tracking capability can be greatly enhanced by utilizing a powerful feature extraction based neural network training algorithm such as the neocognitron. The OPRNN, currently under investigation at JPL, is constructed with an optical multichannel correlator where holographic filters have been prepared using the neocognitron training algorithm. The computation speed of the neocognitron-type OPRNN is up to 10(exp 14) analog connections/sec that enabling the OPRNN to outperform its state-of-the-art electronics counterpart by at least two orders of magnitude.

  6. Recognizing the real threat of biological terror.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Richard P

    2002-01-01

    Weapons of mass destruction can be used to harm and terrorize populations. Such weapons include those with chemical, nuclear or biological properties. Obviously computer viruses can add additional barriers to a quick response. The most effective, least costly and greatest threats are biologicals. Biological terror is not new, and biological weapons have been used for centuries. However, as a result of modern technology, the risks are greater now and the outcomes more terrible. Today they include live pathogens, various toxins, and theoretically "bioregulators"--biochemicals affecting cell signaling. Altered cell signaling could be used to induce apoptosis-cell death, or a heightened outpouring of cytokines mimicking overwhelming sepsis, or even an intracellular, biochemical "strike" causing cellular paralysis. Biological weaponeers now have the frightening ability to alter the genetic makeup of pathogens, rendering them resistant not only to available antibiotic therapy but also to currently effective vaccines. In dark corners of some fringe groups, bioweaponeers are searching for the capability of designing pathogens that target specific races, by virtue of discriminating ligands (1). The resulting morbidity and mortality from use of any biological weapons will be accompanied by chaos, governmental and social instability, panic, an extraordinary utilization of available resources, and an ongoing epidemic of sleepless nights (2,3). Herein I will review some of the issues and some of the currently available biological weapons. The major goal is to highlight the clinical presentations of patients with infections that could be used as biological weapons. PMID:12053717

  7. Recognizing and preventing epilepsy-related mortality

    PubMed Central

    Spruill, Tanya; Thurman, David; Friedman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is associated with a high rate of premature mortality from direct and indirect effects of seizures, epilepsy, and antiseizure therapies. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the second leading neurologic cause of total lost potential life-years after stroke, yet SUDEP may account for less than half of all epilepsy-related deaths. Some epilepsy groups are especially vulnerable: individuals from low socioeconomic status groups and those with comorbid psychiatric illness die more often than controls. Despite clear evidence of an important public health problem, efforts to assess and prevent epilepsy-related deaths remain inadequate. We discuss factors contributing to the underestimation of SUDEP and other epilepsy-related causes of death. We suggest the need for a systematic classification of deaths directly due to epilepsy (e.g., SUDEP, drowning), due to acute symptomatic seizures, and indirectly due to epilepsy (e.g., suicide, chronic effects of antiseizure medications). Accurately estimating the frequency of epilepsy-related mortality is essential to support the development and assessment of preventive interventions. We propose that educational interventions and public health campaigns targeting medication adherence, psychiatric comorbidity, and other modifiable risk factors may reduce epilepsy-related mortality. Educational campaigns regarding sudden infant death syndrome and fires, which kill far fewer Americans than epilepsy, have been widely implemented. We have done too little to prevent epilepsy-related deaths. Everyone with epilepsy and everyone who treats people with epilepsy need to know that controlling seizures will save lives. PMID:26674330

  8. Moving target detection through omni-orientational vision fixed on AGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shu-Ying; Cao, Zuo-Liang; He, Pei-Lian

    2006-10-01

    Extremely wide view of the omni-vision performs highly advanced for the vehicle navigation and target detection. However moving targets detection through omni-vision fixed on AGV (Automatic Guided Vehicle) involves more complex environments, where both the targets and the vehicle are in the moving condition. The moving targets will be detected in a moving background. After analyzing the character on omniorientational vision and image, we propose to use the estimation in optical flow fields, Gabor filter over optical flow fields for detecting moving objects. Because polar angle θ and polar radius R of polar coordinates are being changed as the targets moving, we improved optical flow approach which can be calculated based on the polar coordinates at the omniorientational center. We constructed Gabor filter which has 24 orientations every 15°, and filter optical flow fields at 24 orientations. By the contrast of the Gabor filter images at the same orientation and the same AGV position between the situation which there aren't any moving targets in the environment and the situation which there are some moving targets in the same environment, the moving targets' optical flow fields could be recognized. Experiment results show that the proposed approach is feasible and effective.

  9. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  10. Prospects for de-automatization.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2011-06-01

    Research by Raz and his associates has repeatedly found that suggestions for hypnotic agnosia, administered to highly hypnotizable subjects, reduce or even eliminate Stroop interference. The present paper sought unsuccessfully to extend these findings to negative priming in the Stroop task. Nevertheless, the reduction of Stroop interference has broad theoretical implications, both for our understanding of automaticity and for the prospect of de-automatizing cognition in meditation and other altered states of consciousness.

  11. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  12. Recognizing the real threat of biological terror.

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Richard P.

    2002-01-01

    Weapons of mass destruction can be used to harm and terrorize populations. Such weapons include those with chemical, nuclear or biological properties. Obviously computer viruses can add additional barriers to a quick response. The most effective, least costly and greatest threats are biologicals. Biological terror is not new, and biological weapons have been used for centuries. However, as a result of modern technology, the risks are greater now and the outcomes more terrible. Today they include live pathogens, various toxins, and theoretically "bioregulators"--biochemicals affecting cell signaling. Altered cell signaling could be used to induce apoptosis-cell death, or a heightened outpouring of cytokines mimicking overwhelming sepsis, or even an intracellular, biochemical "strike" causing cellular paralysis. Biological weaponeers now have the frightening ability to alter the genetic makeup of pathogens, rendering them resistant not only to available antibiotic therapy but also to currently effective vaccines. In dark corners of some fringe groups, bioweaponeers are searching for the capability of designing pathogens that target specific races, by virtue of discriminating ligands (1). The resulting morbidity and mortality from use of any biological weapons will be accompanied by chaos, governmental and social instability, panic, an extraordinary utilization of available resources, and an ongoing epidemic of sleepless nights (2,3). Herein I will review some of the issues and some of the currently available biological weapons. The major goal is to highlight the clinical presentations of patients with infections that could be used as biological weapons. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:12053717

  13. Performance of automatic scanning microscope for nuclear emulsion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güler, A. Murat; Altınok, Özgür

    2015-12-01

    The impressive improvements in scanning technology and methods let nuclear emulsion to be used as a target in recent large experiments. We report the performance of an automatic scanning microscope for nuclear emulsion experiments. After successful calibration and alignment of the system, we have reached 99% tracking efficiency for the minimum ionizing tracks that penetrating through the emulsions films. The automatic scanning system is successfully used for the scanning of emulsion films in the OPERA experiment and plan to use for the next generation of nuclear emulsion experiments.

  14. Performance of automatic scanning microscope for nuclear emulsion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Güler, A. Murat; Altınok, Özgür

    2015-12-31

    The impressive improvements in scanning technology and methods let nuclear emulsion to be used as a target in recent large experiments. We report the performance of an automatic scanning microscope for nuclear emulsion experiments. After successful calibration and alignment of the system, we have reached 99% tracking efficiency for the minimum ionizing tracks that penetrating through the emulsions films. The automatic scanning system is successfully used for the scanning of emulsion films in the OPERA experiment and plan to use for the next generation of nuclear emulsion experiments.

  15. Victimization: a newly recognized outcome of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Line; Tessier, Réjean; Lefebvre, Francine; Robaey, Philippe

    2004-08-01

    Victimization by peers affects 10 to 20% of school children under the age of 12 years. Physical, verbal, and psychological victimization (being pushed, hit, called names, teased, being the target of rumours, theft, extortion) is associated with short- and long-term adjustment problems, such as peer rejection, social withdrawal, low self-esteem, anxiety, loneliness, and depression, as well as academic problems and school drop-out. Research on populations of school children (primary and secondary) has associated victimization with personal risk factors (the victim's characteristics and behaviour) and interpersonal risk factors (social relationships between peers). Studies on the social adjustment of preterm children at school age show that, even in the absence of a major motor or cognitive disability, this population has several personal risk factors associated with victimization. The objective of this study was to compare the level of victimization experienced by a group of 96 seven-year-old children born extremely preterm (EP, < 29 weeks of gestation; 49 females) against that experienced by a group of 63 term children (34 females) matched for age and sex, maternal level of education, and family socioeconomic status. The children born EP had a mean gestational age of 27.3 weeks (SD 1.2) and a mean birthweight of 1001.1g (SD 223) and normal birthweight children had a mean gestational age of 39.5 weeks (SD 1.5) and a mean birthweight of 3468.7g (SD 431). Physical and verbal victimization were assessed in a school setting by peers with individual sociometric interviews (Modified Peer Nomination Inventory). After controlling for physical growth (height and weight) at the age of 7 years, the data indicate two independent effects: males were more victimized than females, and children born preterm experienced more verbal victimization by their peers than their term classmates, even when participants with a visible motor, intellectual, or sensory disability were excluded

  16. The advanced linked extended reconnaissance and targeting technology demonstration project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruickshank, James; de Villers, Yves; Maheux, Jean; Edwards, Mark; Gains, David; Rea, Terry; Banbury, Simon; Gauthier, Michelle

    2007-06-01

    The Advanced Linked Extended Reconnaissance & Targeting (ALERT) Technology Demonstration (TD) project is addressing key operational needs of the future Canadian Army's Surveillance and Reconnaissance forces by fusing multi-sensor and tactical data, developing automated processes, and integrating beyond line-of-sight sensing. We discuss concepts for displaying and fusing multi-sensor and tactical data within an Enhanced Operator Control Station (EOCS). The sensor data can originate from the Coyote's own visible-band and IR cameras, laser rangefinder, and ground-surveillance radar, as well as beyond line-of-sight systems such as a mini-UAV and unattended ground sensors. The authors address technical issues associated with the use of fully digital IR and day video cameras and discuss video-rate image processing developed to assist the operator to recognize poorly visible targets. Automatic target detection and recognition algorithms processing both IR and visible-band images have been investigated to draw the operator's attention to possible targets. The machine generated information display requirements are presented with the human factors engineering aspects of the user interface in this complex environment, with a view to establishing user trust in the automation. The paper concludes with a summary of achievements to date and steps to project completion.

  17. Structural basis of Zika virus helicase in recognizing its substrates.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hongliang; Ji, Xiaoyun; Yang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Zhongxin; Lu, Zuokun; Yang, Kailin; Chen, Cheng; Zhao, Qi; Chi, Heng; Mu, Zhongyu; Xie, Wei; Wang, Zefang; Lou, Huiqiang; Yang, Haitao; Rao, Zihe

    2016-08-01

    The recent explosive outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been reported in South and Central America and the Caribbean. Neonatal microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection has already caused a public health emergency of international concern. No specific vaccines or drugs are currently available to treat ZIKV infection. The ZIKV helicase, which plays a pivotal role in viral RNA replication, is an attractive target for therapy. We determined the crystal structures of ZIKV helicase-ATP-Mn(2+) and ZIKV helicase-RNA. This is the first structure of any flavivirus helicase bound to ATP. Comparisons with related flavivirus helicases have shown that although the critical P-loop in the active site has variable conformations among different species, it adopts an identical mode to recognize ATP/Mn(2+). The structure of ZIKV helicase-RNA has revealed that upon RNA binding, rotations of the motor domains can cause significant conformational changes. Strikingly, although ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV) apo-helicases share conserved residues for RNA binding, their different manners of motor domain rotations result in distinct individual modes for RNA recognition. It suggests that flavivirus helicases could have evolved a conserved engine to convert chemical energy from nucleoside triphosphate to mechanical energy for RNA unwinding, but different motor domain rotations result in variable RNA recognition modes to adapt to individual viral replication. PMID:27430951

  18. Structural basis of Zika virus helicase in recognizing its substrates.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hongliang; Ji, Xiaoyun; Yang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Zhongxin; Lu, Zuokun; Yang, Kailin; Chen, Cheng; Zhao, Qi; Chi, Heng; Mu, Zhongyu; Xie, Wei; Wang, Zefang; Lou, Huiqiang; Yang, Haitao; Rao, Zihe

    2016-08-01

    The recent explosive outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been reported in South and Central America and the Caribbean. Neonatal microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection has already caused a public health emergency of international concern. No specific vaccines or drugs are currently available to treat ZIKV infection. The ZIKV helicase, which plays a pivotal role in viral RNA replication, is an attractive target for therapy. We determined the crystal structures of ZIKV helicase-ATP-Mn(2+) and ZIKV helicase-RNA. This is the first structure of any flavivirus helicase bound to ATP. Comparisons with related flavivirus helicases have shown that although the critical P-loop in the active site has variable conformations among different species, it adopts an identical mode to recognize ATP/Mn(2+). The structure of ZIKV helicase-RNA has revealed that upon RNA binding, rotations of the motor domains can cause significant conformational changes. Strikingly, although ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV) apo-helicases share conserved residues for RNA binding, their different manners of motor domain rotations result in distinct individual modes for RNA recognition. It suggests that flavivirus helicases could have evolved a conserved engine to convert chemical energy from nucleoside triphosphate to mechanical energy for RNA unwinding, but different motor domain rotations result in variable RNA recognition modes to adapt to individual viral replication.

  19. An approach of crater automatic recognition based on contour digital elevation model from Chang'E Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, W.; Li, C.; Zhang, Z.; Li, H.; Feng, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to provide fundamental information for exploration and related scientific research on the Moon and other planets, we propose a new automatic method to recognize craters on the lunar surface based on contour data extracted from a digital elevation model (DEM). First, we mapped 16-bits DEM to 256 gray scales for data compression, then for the purposes of better visualization, the grayscale is converted into RGB image. After that, a median filter is applied twice to DEM for data optimization, which produced smooth, continuous outlines for subsequent construction of contour plane. Considering the fact that the morphology of crater on contour plane can be approximately expressed as an ellipse or circle, we extract the outer boundaries of contour plane with the same color(gray value) as targets for further identification though a 8- neighborhood counterclockwise searching method. Then, A library of training samples is constructed based on above targets calculated from some sample DEM data, from which real crater targets are labeled as positive samples manually, and non-crater objects are labeled as negative ones. Some morphological feathers are calculated for all these samples, which are major axis (L), circumference(C), area inside the boundary(S), and radius of the largest inscribed circle(R). We use R/L, R/S, C/L, C/S, R/C, S/L as the key factors for identifying craters, and apply Fisher discrimination method on the sample library to calculate the weight of each factor and determine the discrimination formula, which is then applied to DEM data for identifying lunar craters. The method has been tested and verified with DEM data from CE-1 and CE-2, showing strong recognition ability and robustness and is applicable for the recognition of craters with various diameters and significant morphological differences, making fast and accurate automatic crater recognition possible.

  20. Research on tracking approach to weak small targets under sky background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinling; Miao, Dong; Zhou, Wensheng; Shen, Jiarui; Chen, Nao; Kang, Bo

    2014-09-01

    The infrared (IR) target recognizing and tracking technique is widely applied to many fields such as industries, navigation, weapon controlling and guiding and so on. Its application in military field has become the research hotspot. The stability of target tracking is the most important in military applications. However, it is difficult to track the aerial target because of the complex background and noise interference, especially from long distance, which make tracking targets even harder. In this paper, a novel image tracking system is designed, which uses template matching algorithm combined with Kalman filter. Because of the noise in image, the presence of occlusion, and the deformation of tracked target, some tracking algorithms may fail. So it is the main idea in this paper to merge the advantages from the tracking algorithms, and track the target real time. The algorithm for weak small targets from the image is based on template matching algorithm. In order to overcome the problems related to the changes of unpredictable circumstance, Kalman filter tracking algorithm is used. For the disadvantage of template matching algorithm towards occasions in target tracking, such as target occlusion, drastic change of image intensity, the relevant solutions are proposed. In cases when the target is occluded or moves more than the operational limits of the tracking module, Kalman filter is used to predict the object location. Thus, automatic detection and tracking of target in real-time is achieved and the proposed method is more robust in target tracking. The results show that the algorithm can realize target tracking under complicated scenes. It also improves the tracking stability, capacity of anti-interfering and running efficiency.

  1. [Automatic segmentation of three dimension medical image series].

    PubMed

    Ding, Siyi; Yang, Jie; Yao, Lixiu; Xu, Qing

    2006-08-01

    We propose an improved version of regional competition algorithm in this paper, and apply it to the automatic segmentation of medical image series, particularly in the segmentation and recognition of brain tumor. The traditional regional competition is enhanced by combining the attractive aspects of fuzzy segmentation, and thus it provides an efficient approach to segment the fuzzy and heterogeneous medical images. In order to perform regional competition on medical image series, we utilize the segmentation result of a slice to initiate the next segmented slice, while the first slice is initialized using regional growing algorithm. Moreover, we develop an algorithm to recognize the tumors automatically, taking into account its characters. Experimental results show that our algorithm performs well on the segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image series with high speed and precision. PMID:17002088

  2. Spontaneous automaticity arising from a successfully ablated Mahaim fiber.

    PubMed

    Strohmer, Bernhard; Schernthaner, Christiana; Hwang, Chun

    2007-11-01

    The authors describe a 22-year-old woman with regular and irregular arrhythmias exhibiting left bundle branch block (LBBB) morphology at various heart rates. An atriofascicular fiber was diagnosed as the underlying mechanism for the antidromic reciprocating tachycardia. In addition, spontaneous automaticity of the Mahaim fiber was present during electrophysiologic study. The accessory pathway was ablated successfully, targeting a Mahaim potential at the supero-anterior tricuspid valve annulus. Relatively slow automatic rhythms with identical LBBB morphology were recorded immediately after ablation, as well as during long-term follow-up in a more sporadic and subclinical form. Abnormal automaticity arising from the distal portions of the remnant pathway was considered to be the origin of the slow ventricular rhythms in this peculiar case.

  3. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing.

    PubMed

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q

    2014-05-01

    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled.

  4. Mental Imagery Affects Subsequent Automatic Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, Muriel A.; Mesbah, Rahele; Cremers, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing) during subsequent analog trauma (affective picture viewing). Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1, 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome) or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast) than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (n = 51), again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative-related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations. PMID:26089801

  5. ACE: Automatic Centroid Extractor for real time target tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, K.; Whitaker, S.; Canaris, J.

    1990-01-01

    A high performance video image processor has been implemented which is capable of grouping contiguous pixels from a raster scan image into groups and then calculating centroid information for each object in a frame. The algorithm employed to group pixels is very efficient and is guaranteed to work properly for all convex shapes as well as most concave shapes. Processing speeds are adequate for real time processing of video images having a pixel rate of up to 20 million pixels per second. Pixels may be up to 8 bits wide. The processor is designed to interface directly to a transputer serial link communications channel with no additional hardware. The full custom VLSI processor was implemented in a 1.6 mu m CMOS process and measures 7200 mu m on a side.

  6. Target tracking using log-polar transform-based shifted phase-encoded joint transform correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammed Nazrul; Bitew, Worku T.

    2014-04-01

    Automatic target detection and tracking requires efficient recognition of the target pattern in variable environmental conditions. Optical joint transform correlation (JTC) method has been proven to be efficient in recognizing a target without requiring complex optical set up. However, the classical JTC suffers from poor correlation performance, which can be improved through the use of different and modified designs. A very successful scheme is developed by employing phase-shifted and phase-encoded fringe-adjusted JTC (SPFJTC), which provides with a high discrimination between a target and non-target objects in a given scene and better utilization of the space-bandwidth resource. Further enhancement of the target detection performance can be achieved by incorporating log-polar transform in the SPFJTC technique. We applied the SPFJTC technique to the log-polar transformation of both the reference image and the input scene that makes the pattern recognition invariant to rotation and scale variations. Peak-to-side lobe ratio is measured and a threshold operation is employed to detect and track a target in an unknown input scene.

  7. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, Anthony J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

  8. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  9. Automatic analysis of macroarrays images.

    PubMed

    Caridade, C R; Marcal, A S; Mendonca, T; Albuquerque, P; Mendes, M V; Tavares, F

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of dot blot (macroarray) images is currently based on the human identification of positive/negative dots, which is a subjective and time consuming process. This paper presents a system for the automatic analysis of dot blot images, using a pre-defined grid of markers, including a number of ON and OFF controls. The geometric deformations of the input image are corrected, and the individual markers detected, both tasks fully automatically. Based on a previous training stage, the probability for each marker to be ON is established. This information is provided together with quality parameters for training, noise and classification, allowing for a fully automatic evaluation of a dot blot image. PMID:21097139

  10. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1990-01-01

    The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

  11. Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

  12. Automatic interpretation of Schlumberger soundings

    SciTech Connect

    Ushijima, K.

    1980-09-01

    The automatic interpretation of apparent resistivity curves from horizontally layered earth models is carried out by the curve-fitting method in three steps: (1) the observed VES data are interpolated at equidistant points of electrode separations on the logarithmic scale by using the cubic spline function, (2) the layer parameters which are resistivities and depths are predicted from the sampled apparent resistivity values by SALS system program and (3) the theoretical VES curves from the models are calculated by Ghosh's linear filter method using the Zhody's computer program. Two soundings taken over Takenoyu geothermal area were chosen to test the procedures of the automatic interpretation.

  13. Algorithms for skiascopy measurement automatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomins, Sergejs; Trukša, Renārs; KrūmiĆa, Gunta

    2014-10-01

    Automatic dynamic infrared retinoscope was developed, which allows to run procedure at a much higher rate. Our system uses a USB image sensor with up to 180 Hz refresh rate equipped with a long focus objective and 850 nm infrared light emitting diode as light source. Two servo motors driven by microprocessor control the rotation of semitransparent mirror and motion of retinoscope chassis. Image of eye pupil reflex is captured via software and analyzed along the horizontal plane. Algorithm for automatic accommodative state analysis is developed based on the intensity changes of the fundus reflex.

  14. Traduction automatique et terminologie automatique (Automatic Translation and Automatic Terminology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansereau, Jules

    1978-01-01

    An exposition of reasons why a system of automatic translation could not use a terminology bank except as a source of information. The fundamental difference between the two tools is explained and examples of translation and mistranslation are given as evidence of the limits and possibilities of each process. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  15. Automatic quality assessment of planetary images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidiropoulos, P.; Muller, J.-P.

    2015-10-01

    A significant fraction of planetary images are corrupted beyond the point that much scientific meaning can be extracted. For example, transmission errors result in missing data which is unrecoverable. The available planetary image datasets include many such "bad data", which both occupy valuable scientific storage resources and create false impressions about planetary image availability for specific planetary objects or target areas. In this work, we demonstrate a pipeline that we have developed to automatically assess the quality of planetary images. Additionally, this method discriminates between different types of image degradation, such as low-quality originating from camera flaws or low-quality triggered by atmospheric conditions, etc. Examples of quality assessment results for Viking Orbiter imagery will be also presented.

  16. Automatic Focus Adjustment of a Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2005-01-01

    AUTOFOCUS is a computer program for use in a control system that automatically adjusts the position of an instrument arm that carries a microscope equipped with an electronic camera. In the original intended application of AUTOFOCUS, the imaging microscope would be carried by an exploratory robotic vehicle on a remote planet, but AUTOFOCUS could also be adapted to similar applications on Earth. Initially control software other than AUTOFOCUS brings the microscope to a position above a target to be imaged. Then the instrument arm is moved to lower the microscope toward the target: nominally, the target is approached from a starting distance of 3 cm in 10 steps of 3 mm each. After each step, the image in the camera is subjected to a wavelet transform, which is used to evaluate the texture in the image at multiple scales to determine whether and by how much the microscope is approaching focus. A focus measure is derived from the transform and used to guide the arm to bring the microscope to the focal height. When the analysis reveals that the microscope is in focus, image data are recorded and transmitted.

  17. 40 CFR 262.86 - Provisions relating to recognized traders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provisions relating to recognized traders. 262.86 Section 262.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... Hazardous Waste for Recovery within the OECD § 262.86 Provisions relating to recognized traders. (a)...

  18. When Do Infants Begin Recognizing Familiar Words in Sentences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaolis, Rory A.; Vihman, Marilyn M.; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that by 11 but not by 10 months infants recognize words that have become familiar from everyday life independently of the experimental setting. This study explored the ability of 10-, 11-, and 12- month-old infants to recognize familiar words in sentential context, without experimental training. The headturn preference…

  19. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  20. Automatic 35 mm slide duplicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, H. F.; Texler, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Automatic duplicator is readily assembled from conventional, inexpensive equipment and parts. Series of slides can be exposed without operator attention, eliminating considerable manual handling and processing ordinarily required. At end of programmed exposure sequence, unit shuts off and audible alarm signals completion of process.

  1. Bubble vector in automatic merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamidi, P. R.; Butler, T. G.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that it is within the capability of the DMAP language to build a set of vectors that can grow incrementally to be applied automatically and economically within a DMAP loop that serves to append sub-matrices that are generated within a loop to a core matrix. The method of constructing such vectors is explained.

  2. Automatically Preparing Safe SQL Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, Prithvi; Sistla, A. Prasad; Venkatakrishnan, V. N.

    We present the first sound program source transformation approach for automatically transforming the code of a legacy web application to employ PREPARE statements in place of unsafe SQL queries. Our approach therefore opens the way for eradicating the SQL injection threat vector from legacy web applications.

  3. Graphonomics, Automaticity and Handwriting Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucha, Oliver; Tucha, Lara; Lange, Klaus W.

    2008-01-01

    A recent review of handwriting research in "Literacy" concluded that current curricula of handwriting education focus too much on writing style and neatness and neglect the aspect of handwriting automaticity. This conclusion is supported by evidence in the field of graphonomic research, where a range of experiments have been used to investigate…

  4. Automatic Identification of Metaphoric Utterances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Jonathan Edwin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the problem of metaphor identification in linguistic and computational semantics, considering both manual and automatic approaches. It describes a manual approach to metaphor identification, the Metaphoricity Measurement Procedure (MMP), and compares this approach with other manual approaches. The dissertation then…

  5. Automatic marker for photographic film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabbard, N. M.; Surrency, W. M.

    1974-01-01

    Commercially-produced wire-marking machine is modified to title or mark film rolls automatically. Machine is used with film drive mechanism which is powered with variable-speed, 28-volt dc motor. Up to 40 frames per minute can be marked, reducing time and cost of process.

  6. Effectiveness of an automatic tracking software in underwater motion analysis.

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Fabrício A; Sawacha, Zimi; Di Michele, Rocco; Cortesi, Matteo; Gatta, Giorgio; Fantozzi, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Tracking of markers placed on anatomical landmarks is a common practice in sports science to perform the kinematic analysis that interests both athletes and coaches. Although different software programs have been developed to automatically track markers and/or features, none of them was specifically designed to analyze underwater motion. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a software developed for automatic tracking of underwater movements (DVP), based on the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi feature tracker. Twenty-one video recordings of different aquatic exercises (n = 2940 markers' positions) were manually tracked to determine the markers' center coordinates. Then, the videos were automatically tracked using DVP and a commercially available software (COM). Since tracking techniques may produce false targets, an operator was instructed to stop the automatic procedure and to correct the position of the cursor when the distance between the calculated marker's coordinate and the reference one was higher than 4 pixels. The proportion of manual interventions required by the software was used as a measure of the degree of automation. Overall, manual interventions were 10.4% lower for DVP (7.4%) than for COM (17.8%). Moreover, when examining the different exercise modes separately, the percentage of manual interventions was 5.6% to 29.3% lower for DVP than for COM. Similar results were observed when analyzing the type of marker rather than the type of exercise, with 9.9% less manual interventions for DVP than for COM. In conclusion, based on these results, the developed automatic tracking software presented can be used as a valid and useful tool for underwater motion analysis. Key PointsThe availability of effective software for automatic tracking would represent a significant advance for the practical use of kinematic analysis in swimming and other aquatic sports.An important feature of automatic tracking software is to require limited human interventions and

  7. Automatic downhole card generation and classification

    SciTech Connect

    Barreto Filho, M.A.; Tygel, M.; Rocha, A.F.; Morooka, C.K.

    1996-12-31

    Sucker rod pumping system is a very important artificial lift method. The surface dynamometer card (SDC) is a plot of the load versus the pumping cycle measured at the polished rod. The SDC shape is assumed to reflect the actual pumping conditions. However, SDC is a composition of the actual downhole pump dynamics and the noise added during the information transmission along the sucker rod. The difficulty in recognizing specific SDC shapes augments as the amount of noise increases mainly as a function of the well depth. Filtering algorithms may be developed with the purpose of obtaining the downhole dynamometer card (DDC) from the recorded SDC. Artificial Intelligence may provide the adequate tools for DDC classification. The present paper describes an intelligent system which automatically calculates DDC by SDC algorithm filtering, and classifies DDC taking into consideration a set of patterns associated to the most frequent abnormal pumping operating conditions. This system is actually running at different Brazilian Oil Fields. The paper describes the main characteristics of the filtering algorithm; it shows how linear mathematical programming and neural nets are used for DDC classification, and presents results collected at different pumping conditions. These results show that the system is highly reliable in correctly identifying the actual pumping conditions through DDC classification.

  8. Solid target irradiation and transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelbart, W.; Johnson, R. R.; Abeysekera, B.

    2012-12-01

    A compact, fully automated solid target irradiation, handling and transfer system was developed for the 100Mo/99m Tc production; however, it can be used for any solid target material. All the target handling is fully automated. The target is pneumatically transferred to the irradiation station where it is removed from the carrier, placed in the irradiation chamber and the cooling water connected. At the end of irradiation the target is returned to the carrier and transferred to the processing hot cell where it is automatically placed in a distillation unit. 100 Mo targets are prepared by plasma spraying or laser cladding of the copper target.

  9. Automatic detection and classification of EOL-concrete and resulting recovered products by hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmieri, Roberta; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The recovery of materials from Demolition Waste (DW) represents one of the main target of the recycling industry and the its characterization is important in order to set up efficient sorting and/or quality control systems. End-Of-Life (EOL) concrete materials identification is necessary to maximize DW conversion into useful secondary raw materials, so it is fundamental to develop strategies for the implementation of an automatic recognition system of the recovered products. In this paper, HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) technique was applied in order to detect DW composition. Hyperspectral images were acquired by a laboratory device equipped with a HSI sensing device working in the near infrared range (1000-1700 nm): NIR Spectral Camera™, embedding an ImSpector™ N17E (SPECIM Ltd, Finland). Acquired spectral data were analyzed adopting the PLS_Toolbox (Version 7.5, Eigenvector Research, Inc.) under Matlab® environment (Version 7.11.1, The Mathworks, Inc.), applying different chemometric methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for exploratory data approach and Partial Least Square- Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) to build classification models. Results showed that it is possible to recognize DW materials, distinguishing recycled aggregates from contaminants (e.g. bricks, gypsum, plastics, wood, foam, etc.). The developed procedure is cheap, fast and non-destructive: it could be used to make some steps of the recycling process more efficient and less expensive.

  10. Computer program for automatic generation of BWR control rod patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Taner, M.S.; Levine, S.H.; Hsia, M.Y. )

    1990-01-01

    A computer program named OCTOPUS has been developed to automatically determine a control rod pattern that approximates some desired target power distribution as closely as possible without violating any thermal safety or reactor criticality constraints. The program OCTOPUS performs a semi-optimization task based on the method of approximation programming (MAP) to develop control rod patterns. The SIMULATE-E code is used to determine the nucleonic characteristics of the reactor core state.

  11. Auxiliary circuit enables automatic monitoring of EKG'S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Auxiliary circuits allow direct, automatic monitoring of electrocardiograms by digital computers. One noiseless square-wave output signal for each trigger pulse from an electrocardiogram preamplifier is produced. The circuit also permits automatic processing of cardiovascular data from analog tapes.

  12. Automatisms: bridging clinical neurology with criminal law.

    PubMed

    Rolnick, Joshua; Parvizi, Josef

    2011-03-01

    The law, like neurology, grapples with the relationship between disease states and behavior. Sometimes, the two disciplines share the same terminology, such as automatism. In law, the "automatism defense" is a claim that action was involuntary or performed while unconscious. Someone charged with a serious crime can acknowledge committing the act and yet may go free if, relying on the expert testimony of clinicians, the court determines that the act of crime was committed in a state of automatism. In this review, we explore the relationship between the use of automatism in the legal and clinical literature. We close by addressing several issues raised by the automatism defense: semantic ambiguity surrounding the term automatism, the presence or absence of consciousness during automatisms, and the methodological obstacles that have hindered the study of cognition during automatisms.

  13. DELINEATING SUBTYPES OF SELF-INJURIOUS BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY AUTOMATIC REINFORCEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is maintained by automatic reinforcement in roughly 25% of cases. Automatically reinforced SIB typically has been considered a single functional category, and is less understood than socially reinforced SIB. Subtyping automatically reinforced SIB into functional categories has the potential to guide the development of more targeted interventions and increase our understanding of its biological underpinnings. The current study involved an analysis of 39 individuals with automatically reinforced SIB and a comparison group of 13 individuals with socially reinforced SIB. Automatically reinforced SIB was categorized into 3 subtypes based on patterns of responding in the functional analysis and the presence of self-restraint. These response features were selected as the basis for subtyping on the premise that they could reflect functional properties of SIB unique to each subtype. Analysis of treatment data revealed important differences across subtypes and provides preliminary support to warrant additional research on this proposed subtyping model. PMID:26223959

  14. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Boscá, Alberto; Pedrós, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Palacios, Tomás; Calle, Fernando

    2016-02-10

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The process is based on the all-fluidic manipulation of the graphene to avoid mechanical damage, strain and contamination, and on the combination of capillary action and electrostatic repulsion between the graphene and its container to ensure a centered sample on top of the target substrate. The improved carrier mobility and yield of the automatically transferred graphene, as compared to that manually transferred, is demonstrated by the optical and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors fabricated on both materials. In particular, 70% higher mobility values, with a 30% decrease in the unintentional doping and a 10% strain reduction are achieved. The system has been developed for lab-scale transfer and proved to be scalable for industrial applications.

  15. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Boscá, Alberto; Pedrós, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Palacios, Tomás; Calle, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The process is based on the all-fluidic manipulation of the graphene to avoid mechanical damage, strain and contamination, and on the combination of capillary action and electrostatic repulsion between the graphene and its container to ensure a centered sample on top of the target substrate. The improved carrier mobility and yield of the automatically transferred graphene, as compared to that manually transferred, is demonstrated by the optical and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors fabricated on both materials. In particular, 70% higher mobility values, with a 30% decrease in the unintentional doping and a 10% strain reduction are achieved. The system has been developed for lab-scale transfer and proved to be scalable for industrial applications. PMID:26860260

  16. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Boscá, Alberto; Pedrós, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Palacios, Tomás; Calle, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The process is based on the all-fluidic manipulation of the graphene to avoid mechanical damage, strain and contamination, and on the combination of capillary action and electrostatic repulsion between the graphene and its container to ensure a centered sample on top of the target substrate. The improved carrier mobility and yield of the automatically transferred graphene, as compared to that manually transferred, is demonstrated by the optical and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors fabricated on both materials. In particular, 70% higher mobility values, with a 30% decrease in the unintentional doping and a 10% strain reduction are achieved. The system has been developed for lab-scale transfer and proved to be scalable for industrial applications. PMID:26860260

  17. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscá, Alberto; Pedrós, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Palacios, Tomás; Calle, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The process is based on the all-fluidic manipulation of the graphene to avoid mechanical damage, strain and contamination, and on the combination of capillary action and electrostatic repulsion between the graphene and its container to ensure a centered sample on top of the target substrate. The improved carrier mobility and yield of the automatically transferred graphene, as compared to that manually transferred, is demonstrated by the optical and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors fabricated on both materials. In particular, 70% higher mobility values, with a 30% decrease in the unintentional doping and a 10% strain reduction are achieved. The system has been developed for lab-scale transfer and proved to be scalable for industrial applications.

  18. Automatic lip reading by using multimodal visual features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Shohei; Ohya, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Since long time ago, speech recognition has been researched, though it does not work well in noisy places such as in the car or in the train. In addition, people with hearing-impaired or difficulties in hearing cannot receive benefits from speech recognition. To recognize the speech automatically, visual information is also important. People understand speeches from not only audio information, but also visual information such as temporal changes in the lip shape. A vision based speech recognition method could work well in noisy places, and could be useful also for people with hearing disabilities. In this paper, we propose an automatic lip-reading method for recognizing the speech by using multimodal visual information without using any audio information such as speech recognition. First, the ASM (Active Shape Model) is used to track and detect the face and lip in a video sequence. Second, the shape, optical flow and spatial frequencies of the lip features are extracted from the lip detected by ASM. Next, the extracted multimodal features are ordered chronologically so that Support Vector Machine is performed in order to learn and classify the spoken words. Experiments for classifying several words show promising results of this proposed method.

  19. Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

  20. Automatic Speech Recognition from Neural Signals: A Focused Review

    PubMed Central

    Herff, Christian; Schultz, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Speech interfaces have become widely accepted and are nowadays integrated in various real-life applications and devices. They have become a part of our daily life. However, speech interfaces presume the ability to produce intelligible speech, which might be impossible due to either loud environments, bothering bystanders or incapabilities to produce speech (i.e., patients suffering from locked-in syndrome). For these reasons it would be highly desirable to not speak but to simply envision oneself to say words or sentences. Interfaces based on imagined speech would enable fast and natural communication without the need for audible speech and would give a voice to otherwise mute people. This focused review analyzes the potential of different brain imaging techniques to recognize speech from neural signals by applying Automatic Speech Recognition technology. We argue that modalities based on metabolic processes, such as functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, are less suited for Automatic Speech Recognition from neural signals due to low temporal resolution but are very useful for the investigation of the underlying neural mechanisms involved in speech processes. In contrast, electrophysiologic activity is fast enough to capture speech processes and is therefor better suited for ASR. Our experimental results indicate the potential of these signals for speech recognition from neural data with a focus on invasively measured brain activity (electrocorticography). As a first example of Automatic Speech Recognition techniques used from neural signals, we discuss the Brain-to-text system. PMID:27729844

  1. Automatic and Direct Identification of Blink Components from Scalp EEG

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wanzeng; Zhou, Zhanpeng; Hu, Sanqing; Zhang, Jianhai; Babiloni, Fabio; Dai, Guojun

    2013-01-01

    Eye blink is an important and inevitable artifact during scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recording. The main problem in EEG signal processing is how to identify eye blink components automatically with independent component analysis (ICA). Taking into account the fact that the eye blink as an external source has a higher sum of correlation with frontal EEG channels than all other sources due to both its location and significant amplitude, in this paper, we proposed a method based on correlation index and the feature of power distribution to automatically detect eye blink components. Furthermore, we prove mathematically that the correlation between independent components and scalp EEG channels can be translating directly from the mixing matrix of ICA. This helps to simplify calculations and understand the implications of the correlation. The proposed method doesn't need to select a template or thresholds in advance, and it works without simultaneously recording an electrooculography (EOG) reference. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically recognize eye blink components with a high accuracy on entire datasets from 15 subjects. PMID:23959240

  2. Improve accuracy for automatic acetabulum segmentation in CT images.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Zhao, Jianning; Dai, Ning; Qian, Hongbo; Tang, Yuehong

    2014-01-01

    Separation of the femur head and acetabulum is one of main difficulties in the diseased hip joint due to deformed shapes and extreme narrowness of the joint space. To improve the segmentation accuracy is the key point of existing automatic or semi-automatic segmentation methods. In this paper, we propose a new method to improve the accuracy of the segmented acetabulum using surface fitting techniques, which essentially consists of three parts: (1) design a surface iterative process to obtain an optimization surface; (2) change the ellipsoid fitting to two-phase quadric surface fitting; (3) bring in a normal matching method and an optimization region method to capture edge points for the fitting quadric surface. Furthermore, this paper cited vivo CT data sets of 40 actual patients (with 79 hip joints). Test results for these clinical cases show that: (1) the average error of the quadric surface fitting method is 2.3 (mm); (2) the accuracy ratio of automatically recognized contours is larger than 89.4%; (3) the error ratio of section contours is less than 10% for acetabulums without severe malformation and less than 30% for acetabulums with severe malformation. Compared with similar methods, the accuracy of our method, which is applied in a software system, is significantly enhanced.

  3. Automatic and direct identification of blink components from scalp EEG.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wanzeng; Zhou, Zhanpeng; Hu, Sanqing; Zhang, Jianhai; Babiloni, Fabio; Dai, Guojun

    2013-08-16

    Eye blink is an important and inevitable artifact during scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recording. The main problem in EEG signal processing is how to identify eye blink components automatically with independent component analysis (ICA). Taking into account the fact that the eye blink as an external source has a higher sum of correlation with frontal EEG channels than all other sources due to both its location and significant amplitude, in this paper, we proposed a method based on correlation index and the feature of power distribution to automatically detect eye blink components. Furthermore, we prove mathematically that the correlation between independent components and scalp EEG channels can be translating directly from the mixing matrix of ICA. This helps to simplify calculations and understand the implications of the correlation. The proposed method doesn't need to select a template or thresholds in advance, and it works without simultaneously recording an electrooculography (EOG) reference. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically recognize eye blink components with a high accuracy on entire datasets from 15 subjects.

  4. Targeting ion transport in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oosterwijk, E.; Gillies, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolism of cancer cells differs substantially from normal cells, including ion transport. Although this phenomenon has been long recognized, ion transporters have not been viewed as suitable therapeutic targets. However, the acidic pH values present in tumours which are well outside of normal limits are now becoming recognized as an important therapeutic target. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is fundamental to tumour pH regulation. CAIX is commonly expressed in cancer, but lowly expressed in normal tissues and that presents an attractive target. Here, we discuss the possibilities of exploiting the acidic, hypoxic tumour environment as possible target for therapy. Additionally, clinical experience with CAIX targeting in cancer patients is discussed. PMID:24493755

  5. Size-based protocol optimization using automatic tube current modulation and automatic kV selection in computed tomography.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Robert D; Kleinman, Patricia L; Callahan, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Size-based diagnostic reference ranges (DRRs) for contrast-enhanced pediatric abdominal computed tomography (CT) have been published in order to establish practical upper and lower limits of CTDI, DLP, and SSDE. Based on these DRRs, guidelines for establishing size-based SSDE target levels from the SSDE of a standard adult by applying a linear correction factor have been published and provide a great reference for dose optimization initiatives. The necessary step of designing manufacturer-specific CT protocols to achieve established SSDE targets is the responsibility of the Qualified Medical Physicist. The task is straightforward if fixed-mA protocols are used, however, more difficult when automatic exposure control (AEC) and automatic kV selection are considered. In such cases, the physicist must deduce the operation of AEC algorithms from technical documentation or through testing, using a wide range of phantom sizes. Our study presents the results of such testing using anthropomorphic phantoms ranging in size from the newborn to the obese adult. The effect of each user-controlled parameter was modeled for a single-manufacturer AEC algorithm (Siemens CARE Dose4D) and automatic kV selection algorithm (Siemens CARE kV). Based on the results presented in this study, a process for designing mA-modulated, pediatric abdominal CT protocols that achieve user-defined SSDE and kV targets is described. PMID:26894344

  6. Recognizing molecular patterns by machine learning: An agnostic structural definition of the hydrogen bond

    SciTech Connect

    Gasparotto, Piero; Ceriotti, Michele

    2014-11-07

    The concept of chemical bonding can ultimately be seen as a rationalization of the recurring structural patterns observed in molecules and solids. Chemical intuition is nothing but the ability to recognize and predict such patterns, and how they transform into one another. Here, we discuss how to use a computer to identify atomic patterns automatically, so as to provide an algorithmic definition of a bond based solely on structural information. We concentrate in particular on hydrogen bonding – a central concept to our understanding of the physical chemistry of water, biological systems, and many technologically important materials. Since the hydrogen bond is a somewhat fuzzy entity that covers a broad range of energies and distances, many different criteria have been proposed and used over the years, based either on sophisticate electronic structure calculations followed by an energy decomposition analysis, or on somewhat arbitrary choices of a range of structural parameters that is deemed to correspond to a hydrogen-bonded configuration. We introduce here a definition that is univocal, unbiased, and adaptive, based on our machine-learning analysis of an atomistic simulation. The strategy we propose could be easily adapted to similar scenarios, where one has to recognize or classify structural patterns in a material or chemical compound.

  7. Recognizing molecular patterns by machine learning: an agnostic structural definition of the hydrogen bond.

    PubMed

    Gasparotto, Piero; Ceriotti, Michele

    2014-11-01

    The concept of chemical bonding can ultimately be seen as a rationalization of the recurring structural patterns observed in molecules and solids. Chemical intuition is nothing but the ability to recognize and predict such patterns, and how they transform into one another. Here, we discuss how to use a computer to identify atomic patterns automatically, so as to provide an algorithmic definition of a bond based solely on structural information. We concentrate in particular on hydrogen bonding--a central concept to our understanding of the physical chemistry of water, biological systems, and many technologically important materials. Since the hydrogen bond is a somewhat fuzzy entity that covers a broad range of energies and distances, many different criteria have been proposed and used over the years, based either on sophisticate electronic structure calculations followed by an energy decomposition analysis, or on somewhat arbitrary choices of a range of structural parameters that is deemed to correspond to a hydrogen-bonded configuration. We introduce here a definition that is univocal, unbiased, and adaptive, based on our machine-learning analysis of an atomistic simulation. The strategy we propose could be easily adapted to similar scenarios, where one has to recognize or classify structural patterns in a material or chemical compound. PMID:25381505

  8. Recognizing molecular patterns by machine learning: An agnostic structural definition of the hydrogen bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparotto, Piero; Ceriotti, Michele

    2014-11-01

    The concept of chemical bonding can ultimately be seen as a rationalization of the recurring structural patterns observed in molecules and solids. Chemical intuition is nothing but the ability to recognize and predict such patterns, and how they transform into one another. Here, we discuss how to use a computer to identify atomic patterns automatically, so as to provide an algorithmic definition of a bond based solely on structural information. We concentrate in particular on hydrogen bonding - a central concept to our understanding of the physical chemistry of water, biological systems, and many technologically important materials. Since the hydrogen bond is a somewhat fuzzy entity that covers a broad range of energies and distances, many different criteria have been proposed and used over the years, based either on sophisticate electronic structure calculations followed by an energy decomposition analysis, or on somewhat arbitrary choices of a range of structural parameters that is deemed to correspond to a hydrogen-bonded configuration. We introduce here a definition that is univocal, unbiased, and adaptive, based on our machine-learning analysis of an atomistic simulation. The strategy we propose could be easily adapted to similar scenarios, where one has to recognize or classify structural patterns in a material or chemical compound.

  9. 3-minute diagnosis: Researchers develop new method to recognize pathogens

    ScienceCinema

    Beer, Reg

    2016-07-12

    Imagine knowing precisely why you feel sick ... before the doctor's exam is over. Lawrence Livermore researcher Reg Beer and his engineering colleagues have developed a new method to recognize disease-causing pathogens quicker than ever before.

  10. Drinking to Excess: Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Drinking to Excess Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems Some people enjoy an occasional glass of ... while watching a football game. Most people drink alcohol moderately, within their limits. Others overdo it occasionally. ...

  11. 3-minute diagnosis: Researchers develop new method to recognize pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Reg

    2014-01-06

    Imagine knowing precisely why you feel sick ... before the doctor's exam is over. Lawrence Livermore researcher Reg Beer and his engineering colleagues have developed a new method to recognize disease-causing pathogens quicker than ever before.

  12. Ability of nucleus cochlear implantees to recognize music.

    PubMed

    Fujita, S; Ito, J

    1999-07-01

    Eight adults with cochlear implants participated in experiments to test their ability to recognize music. Some subjects showed good ability to recognize songs that were sung with instrumental accompaniment but poor ability to recognize songs played on an electronic keyboard without verbal cues, indicating that they were recognizing the songs by verbal cues rather than by musical qualities such as tones and melodic intervals. This conclusion was strengthened by the finding that subjects were barely able to distinguish between songs with the same rhythm and pitch range, and they showed poor ability to discriminate musical intervals. (The closest discrimination was 4 semitones.) Subjects had good ability to distinguish among the synthesized sounds of various musical instruments played on the electronic keyboard. We speculate that subjects could distinguish the various musical instruments in the same way they distinguish among human voices using spectrographic patterns such as formants or maxima.

  13. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  14. Automatic computation of transfer functions

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale

    2015-04-14

    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  15. Toward automatic finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kela, Ajay; Perucchio, Renato; Voelcker, Herbert

    1987-01-01

    Two problems must be solved if the finite element method is to become a reliable and affordable blackbox engineering tool. Finite element meshes must be generated automatically from computer aided design databases and mesh analysis must be made self-adaptive. The experimental system described solves both problems in 2-D through spatial and analytical substructuring techniques that are now being extended into 3-D.

  16. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-02-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  17. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  18. Category Cued Recall Evokes a Generate-Recognize Retrieval Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Toth, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to replicate and extend McCabe, Roediger, and Karpicke's (2011) finding that retrieval in category cued recall involves both controlled and automatic processes. The extension entailed identifying whether distinctive encoding affected 1 or both of these 2 processes. The first experiment successfully…

  19. Recognizing the intensity of strength training exercises with wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Pernek, Igor; Kurillo, Gregorij; Stiglic, Gregor; Bajcsy, Ruzena

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose a system based on a network of wearable accelerometers and an off-the-shelf smartphone to recognize the intensity of stationary activities, such as strength training exercises. The system uses a hierarchical algorithm, consisting of two layers of Support Vector Machines (SVMs), to first recognize the type of exercise being performed, followed by recognition of exercise intensity. The first layer uses a single SVM to recognize the type of the performed exercise. Based on the recognized type a corresponding intensity prediction SVM is selected on the second layer, specializing in intensity prediction for the recognized type of exercise. We evaluate the system for a set of upper-body exercises using different weight loads. Additionally, we compare the most important features for exercise and intensity recognition tasks and investigate how different sliding window combinations, sensor configurations and number of training subjects impact the algorithm performance. We perform all of the experiments for two different types of features to evaluate the feasibility of implementation on resource constrained hardware. The results show the algorithm is able to recognize exercise types with approximately 85% accuracy and 6% intensity prediction error. Furthermore, due to similar performance using different types of features, the algorithm offers potential for implementation on resource constrained hardware.

  20. Automatic Contrail Detection and Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, John M.; Christopher, Sundar A.; Welch, Ronald M.

    1998-01-01

    Automatic contrail detection is of major importance in the study of the atmospheric effects of aviation. Due to the large volume of satellite imagery, selecting contrail images for study by hand is impractical and highly subject to human error. It is far better to have a system in place that will automatically evaluate an image to determine 1) whether it contains contrails and 2) where the contrails are located. Preliminary studies indicate that it is possible to automatically detect and locate contrails in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery with a high degree of confidence. Once contrails have been identified and localized in a satellite image, it is useful to segment the image into contrail versus noncontrail pixels. The ability to partition image pixels makes it possible to determine the optical properties of contrails, including optical thickness and particle size. In this paper, we describe a new technique for segmenting satellite images containing contrails. This method has good potential for creating a contrail climatology in an automated fashion. The majority of contrails are detected, rejecting clutter in the image, even cirrus streaks. Long, thin contrails are most easily detected. However, some contrails may be missed because they are curved, diffused over a large area, or present in short segments. Contrails average 2-3 km in width for the cases studied.

  1. Automatic programming for critical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loganantharaj, Raj L.

    1988-01-01

    The important phases of a software life cycle include verification and maintenance. Usually, the execution performance is an expected requirement in a software development process. Unfortunately, the verification and the maintenance of programs are the time consuming and the frustrating aspects of software engineering. The verification cannot be waived for the programs used for critical applications such as, military, space, and nuclear plants. As a consequence, synthesis of programs from specifications, an alternative way of developing correct programs, is becoming popular. The definition, or what is understood by automatic programming, has been changed with our expectations. At present, the goal of automatic programming is the automation of programming process. Specifically, it means the application of artificial intelligence to software engineering in order to define techniques and create environments that help in the creation of high level programs. The automatic programming process may be divided into two phases: the problem acquisition phase and the program synthesis phase. In the problem acquisition phase, an informal specification of the problem is transformed into an unambiguous specification while in the program synthesis phase such a specification is further transformed into a concrete, executable program.

  2. Advances in automatic electro-optical tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Andrew D.; Moy, Anthony J. E.

    1992-11-01

    British Aerospace (Systems & Equipment) Ltd (BASE) has been working in the field of automatic electro-optical tracking (Autotrack) systems for more than 12 years. BASE Autotrack systems carry out the automatic detection, tracking and classification of missiles and targets using image processing techniques operating on data received from electro-optical sensors. Typical systems also produce control data to move the sensor platform, enabling moving targets to be tracked accurately over a wide range of conditions. BASE Autotrack systems have been well proven in land, sea and air applications. This paper discusses the relevance of Autotrack systems to modern high-technology warfare and charts the progress of their development with BASE, both with respect to current products and active research programs. Two third generation BASE Autotrack systems are described, one of which provided a sophisticated air-to-ground tracking capability in the recent Gulf War. The latest Autotrack product is also described; this uses ASIC and Transputer technology to provide a high-performance, compact, missile and target tracker. Reference is also made to BASE's research work. Topics include an ASIC correlator, point target detection and, in particular, the use of neural networks for real-time target classification.

  3. Advances in automatic electro-optical tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Anthony J. E.; Hughes, Andrew D.

    1992-11-01

    British Aerospace (Systems & Equipment) Ltd (BASE) has been working in the field of automatic electro-optical tracking (Autotrack) systems for more than 12 years. BASE Autotrack systems carry out the automatic detection, tracking and classification of missiles and targets using image processing techniques operating on data received from electro-optical sensors. Typical systems also produce control data to move the sensor platform, enabling moving targets to be tracked accurately over a wide range of conditions. BASE Autotrack systems have been well proven in land, sea and air applications. This paper discusses the relevance of Autotrack systems to modern high-technology warfare and charts the progress of their development within BASE, both with respect to current products and active research programs. Two third generation BASE Autotrack systems are described, one of which provided a sophisticated air-to-ground tracking capability in the recent Gulf War. The latest Autotrack product is also described; this uses ASIC and Transputer technology to provide a high-performance, compact, missile and target tracker. Reference is also made to BASE's research work. Topics include an ASIC correlator, point target detection and, in particular, the use of neural networks for real-time target classification.

  4. Automatic parameter selection for multimodal image registration.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Dieter A; Daum, Volker; Hornegger, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Over the past ten years similarity measures based on intensity distributions have become state-of-the-art in automatic multimodal image registration. An implementation for clinical usage has to support a plurality of images. However, a generally applicable parameter configuration for the number and sizes of histogram bins, optimal Parzen-window kernel widths or background thresholds cannot be found. This explains why various research groups present partly contradictory empirical proposals for these parameters. This paper proposes a set of data-driven estimation schemes for a parameter-free implementation that eliminates major caveats of heuristic trial and error. We present the following novel approaches: a new coincidence weighting scheme to reduce the influence of background noise on the similarity measure in combination with Max-Lloyd requantization, and a tradeoff for the automatic estimation of the number of histogram bins. These methods have been integrated into a state-of-the-art rigid registration that is based on normalized mutual information and applied to CT-MR, PET-MR, and MR-MR image pairs of the RIRE 2.0 database. We compare combinations of the proposed techniques to a standard implementation using default parameters, which can be found in the literature, and to a manual registration by a medical expert. Additionally, we analyze the effects of various histogram sizes, sampling rates, and error thresholds for the number of histogram bins. The comparison of the parameter selection techniques yields 25 approaches in total, with 114 registrations each. The number of bins has no significant influence on the proposed implementation that performs better than both the manual and the standard method in terms of acceptance rates and target registration error (TRE). The overall mean TRE is 2.34 mm compared to 2.54 mm for the manual registration and 6.48 mm for a standard implementation. Our results show a significant TRE reduction for distortion

  5. Automatic detection of AutoPEEP during controlled mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dynamic hyperinflation, hereafter called AutoPEEP (auto-positive end expiratory pressure) with some slight language abuse, is a frequent deleterious phenomenon in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Although not readily quantifiable, AutoPEEP can be recognized on the expiratory portion of the flow waveform. If expiratory flow does not return to zero before the next inspiration, AutoPEEP is present. This simple detection however requires the eye of an expert clinician at the patient’s bedside. An automatic detection of AutoPEEP should be helpful to optimize care. Methods In this paper, a platform for automatic detection of AutoPEEP based on the flow signal available on most of recent mechanical ventilators is introduced. The detection algorithms are developed on the basis of robust non-parametric hypothesis testings that require no prior information on the signal distribution. In particular, two detectors are proposed: one is based on SNT (Signal Norm Testing) and the other is an extension of SNT in the sequential framework. The performance assessment was carried out on a respiratory system analog and ex-vivo on various retrospectively acquired patient curves. Results The experiment results have shown that the proposed algorithm provides relevant AutoPEEP detection on both simulated and real data. The analysis of clinical data has shown that the proposed detectors can be used to automatically detect AutoPEEP with an accuracy of 93% and a recall (sensitivity) of 90%. Conclusions The proposed platform provides an automatic early detection of AutoPEEP. Such functionality can be integrated in the currently used mechanical ventilator for continuous monitoring of the patient-ventilator interface and, therefore, alleviate the clinician task. PMID:22715924

  6. Roquin recognizes a non-canonical hexaloop structure in the 3'-UTR of Ox40.

    PubMed

    Janowski, Robert; Heinz, Gitta A; Schlundt, Andreas; Wommelsdorf, Nina; Brenner, Sven; Gruber, Andreas R; Blank, Michael; Buch, Thorsten; Buhmann, Raymund; Zavolan, Mihaela; Niessing, Dierk; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Sattler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein Roquin is required to prevent autoimmunity. Roquin controls T-helper cell activation and differentiation by limiting the induced expression of costimulatory receptors such as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 4 (Tnfrs4 or Ox40). A constitutive decay element (CDE) with a characteristic triloop hairpin was previously shown to be recognized by Roquin. Here we use SELEX assays to identify a novel U-rich hexaloop motif, representing an alternative decay element (ADE). Crystal structures and NMR data show that the Roquin-1 ROQ domain recognizes hexaloops in the SELEX-derived ADE and in an ADE-like variant present in the Ox40 3'-UTR with identical binding modes. In cells, ADE-like and CDE-like motifs cooperate in the repression of Ox40 by Roquin. Our data reveal an unexpected recognition of hexaloop cis elements for the posttranscriptional regulation of target messenger RNAs by Roquin. PMID:27010430

  7. A Method for Recognizing Noisy Romanized Japanese Words in Learner English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Ryo; Kakegawa, Jun-Ichi; Sugimoto, Hiromi; Yabuta, Yukiko

    This paper describes a method for recognizing romanized Japanese words in learner English. They become noise and problematic in a variety of systems and tools for language learning and teaching including text analysis, spell checking, and grammatical error detection because they are Japanese words and thus mostly unknown to such systems and tools. A problem one encounters when recognizing romanized Japanese words in learner English is that the spelling rules of romanized Japanese words are often violated. To address this problem, the described method uses a clustering algorithm reinforced by a small set of rules. Experiments show that it achieves an F-measure of 0.879 and outperforms other methods. They also show that it only requires the target text and an English word list of reasonable size.

  8. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05-0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique. PMID:27125874

  9. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05–0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique. PMID:27125874

  10. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05–0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique.

  11. Targets and targeting.

    PubMed

    Will, E

    2001-08-01

    Using the vocabulary of ballistics in medicine for emphasis can result in misleading exaggeration and semantic confusion. The dual meaning of target as either aiming point (aim at) or outcome (aim to achieve) creates a muddle in the efforts to comply with quality assurance initiatives. Disentangling the two meanings allows new approaches to the clinical technology required in a modern health care environment. An example can be shown in new strategies for the management of renal anemia with iron and erythropoietin. The potential to shape outcome distributions through validated, preemptive intervention thresholds offers the predictable results required by patients and payers. Using the management of patient cohorts as a platform for outcomes creates no necessary conflict with individualized clinical care. Future guideline statements should include the likely characteristics of compliant outcome populations, as a prompt to clinical goals and as an indication of the necessary cost and effort of compliance with treatment standards. Overemphasis in language is no substitute for considered clinical methodology.

  12. Non-target screening of veterinary drugs using tandem mass spectrometry on SmartMass.

    PubMed

    Xia, Bing; Liu, Xin; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Hai-Yan; Ding, Li-Sheng; Zhou, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Non-target screening of veterinary drugs using tandem mass spectrometric data was performed on the SmartMass platform. This newly developed software uses the characteristic fragmentation patterns (CFP) to identify chemicals, especially those containing particular substructures. A mixture of 17 sulfonamides was separated by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), and SmartMass was used to process the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data acquired on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The data were automatically extracted, and each sulfonamide was recognized and analyzed with a prebuilt analysis rule. By using this software, over 98% of the false candidate structures were eliminated, and all the correct structures were found within the top 10 of the ranking lists. Furthermore, SmartMass could also be used to identify slightly modified contraband drugs and metabolites with simple prebuilt rules. PMID:23532781

  13. Non-Target Screening of Veterinary Drugs Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry on SmartMass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Bing; Liu, Xin; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Hai-Yan; Ding, Li-Sheng; Zhou, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Non-target screening of veterinary drugs using tandem mass spectrometric data was performed on the SmartMass platform. This newly developed software uses the characteristic fragmentation patterns (CFP) to identify chemicals, especially those containing particular substructures. A mixture of 17 sulfonamides was separated by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), and SmartMass was used to process the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data acquired on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The data were automatically extracted, and each sulfonamide was recognized and analyzed with a prebuilt analysis rule. By using this software, over 98 % of the false candidate structures were eliminated, and all the correct structures were found within the top 10 of the ranking lists. Furthermore, SmartMass could also be used to identify slightly modified contraband drugs and metabolites with simple prebuilt rules. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Non-target screening of veterinary drugs using tandem mass spectrometry on SmartMass.

    PubMed

    Xia, Bing; Liu, Xin; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Hai-Yan; Ding, Li-Sheng; Zhou, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Non-target screening of veterinary drugs using tandem mass spectrometric data was performed on the SmartMass platform. This newly developed software uses the characteristic fragmentation patterns (CFP) to identify chemicals, especially those containing particular substructures. A mixture of 17 sulfonamides was separated by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), and SmartMass was used to process the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data acquired on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The data were automatically extracted, and each sulfonamide was recognized and analyzed with a prebuilt analysis rule. By using this software, over 98% of the false candidate structures were eliminated, and all the correct structures were found within the top 10 of the ranking lists. Furthermore, SmartMass could also be used to identify slightly modified contraband drugs and metabolites with simple prebuilt rules.

  15. When do infants begin recognizing familiar words in sentences?

    PubMed

    Depaolis, Rory A; Vihman, Marilyn M; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that by 11 but not by 10 months infants recognize words that have become familiar from everyday life independently of the experimental setting. This study explored the ability of 10-, 11-, and 12-month-old infants to recognize familiar words in sentential context, without experimental training. The headturn preference procedure was used to contrast passages containing words likely to be familiar to the infants with passages containing words unlikely to have been previously heard. Two stimulus words were inserted near the beginning and end of each of a set of simple sentence frames. The ability to recognize the familiar words within sentences emerged only at 12 months of age. The contrast between segmentation abilities as they emerge as a result of everyday exposure to language, as assessed here, and those abilities as measured in studies in which words are experimentally trained is discussed in terms of memory-based mechanisms.

  16. You Look Familiar: How Malaysian Chinese Recognize Faces

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chrystalle B. Y.; Stephen, Ian D.; Whitehead, Ross; Sheppard, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    East Asian and white Western observers employ different eye movement strategies for a variety of visual processing tasks, including face processing. Recent eye tracking studies on face recognition found that East Asians tend to integrate information holistically by focusing on the nose while white Westerners perceive faces featurally by moving between the eyes and mouth. The current study examines the eye movement strategy that Malaysian Chinese participants employ when recognizing East Asian, white Western, and African faces. Rather than adopting the Eastern or Western fixation pattern, Malaysian Chinese participants use a mixed strategy by focusing on the eyes and nose more than the mouth. The combination of Eastern and Western strategies proved advantageous in participants' ability to recognize East Asian and white Western faces, suggesting that individuals learn to use fixation patterns that are optimized for recognizing the faces with which they are more familiar. PMID:22253762

  17. The Automaticity of Social Life.

    PubMed

    Bargh, John A; Williams, Erin L

    2006-02-01

    Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to the actual guidance, over extended time periods, of one's important goal pursuits and social interactions.

  18. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  19. The Automaticity of Social Life.

    PubMed

    Bargh, John A; Williams, Erin L

    2006-02-01

    Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to the actual guidance, over extended time periods, of one's important goal pursuits and social interactions. PMID:18568084

  20. Vaccine-elicited Human T Cells Recognizing Conserved Protein Regions Inhibit HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Borthwick, Nicola; Ahmed, Tina; Ondondo, Beatrice; Hayes, Peter; Rose, Annie; Ebrahimsa, Umar; Hayton, Emma-Jo; Black, Antony; Bridgeman, Anne; Rosario, Maximillian; Hill, Adrian VS; Berrie, Eleanor; Moyle, Sarah; Frahm, Nicole; Cox, Josephine; Colloca, Stefano; Nicosia, Alfredo; Gilmour, Jill; McMichael, Andrew J; Dorrell, Lucy; Hanke, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Virus diversity and escape from immune responses are the biggest challenges to the development of an effective vaccine against HIV-1. We hypothesized that T-cell vaccines targeting the most conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome, which are common to most variants and bear fitness costs when mutated, will generate effectors that efficiently recognize and kill virus-infected cells early enough after transmission to potentially impact on HIV-1 replication and will do so more efficiently than whole protein-based T-cell vaccines. Here, we describe the first-ever administration of conserved immunogen vaccines vectored using prime-boost regimens of DNA, simian adenovirus and modified vaccinia virus Ankara to uninfected UK volunteers. The vaccine induced high levels of effector T cells that recognized virus-infected autologous CD4+ cells and inhibited HIV-1 replication by up to 5.79 log10. The virus inhibition was mediated by both Gag- and Pol- specific effector CD8+ T cells targeting epitopes that are typically subdominant in natural infection. These results provide proof of concept for using a vaccine to target T cells at conserved epitopes, showing that these T cells can control HIV-1 replication in vitro. PMID:24166483

  1. A Familiar-Size Stroop Effect: Real-World Size Is an Automatic Property of Object Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

    2012-01-01

    When we recognize an object, do we automatically know how big it is in the world? We employed a Stroop-like paradigm, in which two familiar objects were presented at different visual sizes on the screen. Observers were faster to indicate which was bigger or smaller on the screen when the real-world size of the objects was congruent with the visual…

  2. Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun

    2013-05-01

    A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63μrad and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75μm. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.

  3. Detection of Off-normal Images for NIF Automatic Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; Awwal, A S; McClay, W A; Ferguson, S W; Burkhart, S C

    2005-07-11

    One of the major purposes of National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to accurately focus 192 high energy laser beams on a nanoscale (mm) fusion target at the precise location and time. The automatic alignment system developed for NIF is used to align the beams in order to achieve the required focusing effect. However, if a distorted image is inadvertently created by a faulty camera shutter or some other opto-mechanical malfunction, the resulting image termed ''off-normal'' must be detected and rejected before further alignment processing occurs. Thus the off-normal processor acts as a preprocessor to automatic alignment image processing. In this work, we discuss the development of an ''off-normal'' pre-processor capable of rapidly detecting the off-normal images and performing the rejection. Wide variety of off-normal images for each loop is used to develop the criterion for rejections accurately.

  4. Mining Software Usage with the Automatic Library Tracking Database (ALTD)

    SciTech Connect

    Hadri, Bilel; Fahey, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    Tracking software usage is important for HPC centers, computer vendors, code developers and funding agencies to provide more efficient and targeted software support, and to forecast needs and guide HPC software effort towards the Exascale era. However, accurately tracking software usage on HPC systems has been a challenging task. In this paper, we present a tool called Automatic Library Tracking Database (ALTD) that has been developed and put in production on several Cray systems. The ALTD infrastructure prototype automatically and transparently stores information about libraries linked into an application at compilation time and also the executables launched in a batch job. We will illustrate the usage of libraries, compilers and third party software applications on a system managed by the National Institute for Computational Sciences.

  5. Production of antibodies which recognize opiate receptors on murine leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.J.J.; Bost, K.L.; Blalock, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    An antibody has been developed which recognizes opiate receptors on cells of the immune system. This antibody blocks specific binding of the radiolabeled opiate receptor ligand, /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine, to receptors on murine splenocytes. Additionally, the anti-receptor antibody competes with ..beta..-endorphin, meta-enkephalin, and naloxone for the same binding site on the leukocytes. Moreover, the anti-receptor antibody possesses agonist activity similar to ..beta..-endorphin in suppressing cAMP production by lymphocytes. These results suggest the development of an antibody which recognizes classical opiate receptors on cells of the immune system.

  6. Adequacy target in hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Canaud, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, the concept of dialysis adequacy has evolved to become a component of the optimal dialysis that includes quantitative and qualitative aspects. Current method used to assess dialysis efficacy in ESRD patients relies on a targeting approach using several vital indicators. Dialysis quality is a complex and evolutionary concept that has to be viewed in a quality assurance process to improve outcomes of ESRD patients. To simplify this assessment we propose a quantitative approach including several steps: the first step consists of selecting pertinent indicators (targets) tracking specific uremia metabolic abnormalities and defining suitable range values (target values); the second step consists of defining a method checking that targeted values are achieved on a regular basis; the third step consists of validating that targeted values offer the best survival to ESRD patients; the fourth step consists of correcting treatment prescription (treatment schedule) and implementation (effective treatment delivered) to improve treatment delivery and performances. Based on this approach, it is then possible to assess the efficacy of dialysis therapy both at the individual and at the dialysis unit level, that can be easily implemented in a computerized automatic control system. PMID:15599891

  7. Automatic detection and morphological delineation of bacteriophages in electron microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Gelzinis, A; Verikas, A; Vaiciukynas, E; Bacauskiene, M; Sulcius, S; Simoliunas, E; Staniulis, J; Paskauskas, R

    2015-09-01

    Automatic detection, recognition and geometric characterization of bacteriophages in electron microscopy images was the main objective of this work. A novel technique, combining phase congruency-based image enhancement, Hough transform-, Radon transform- and open active contours with free boundary conditions-based object detection was developed to detect and recognize the bacteriophages associated with infection and lysis of cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. A random forest classifier designed to recognize phage capsids provided higher than 99% accuracy, while measurable phage tails were detected and associated with a correct capsid with 81.35% accuracy. Automatically derived morphometric measurements of phage capsids and tails exhibited lower variability than the ones obtained manually. The technique allows performing precise and accurate quantitative (e.g. abundance estimation) and qualitative (e.g. diversity and capsid size) measurements for studying the interactions between host population and different phages that infect the same host.

  8. Automatic Computer Mapping of Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedes, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Computer processing of 17 wavelength bands of visible, reflective infrared, and thermal infrared scanner spectrometer data, and of three wavelength bands derived from color aerial film has resulted in successful automatic computer mapping of eight or more terrain classes in a Yellowstone National Park test site. The tests involved: (1) supervised and non-supervised computer programs; (2) special preprocessing of the scanner data to reduce computer processing time and cost, and improve the accuracy; and (3) studies of the effectiveness of the proposed Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) data channels in the automatic mapping of the same terrain, based on simulations, using the same set of scanner data. The following terrain classes have been mapped with greater than 80 percent accuracy in a 12-square-mile area with 1,800 feet of relief; (1) bedrock exposures, (2) vegetated rock rubble, (3) talus, (4) glacial kame meadow, (5) glacial till meadow, (6) forest, (7) bog, and (8) water. In addition, shadows of clouds and cliffs are depicted, but were greatly reduced by using preprocessing techniques.

  9. Capillary-driven automatic packaging.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuzhe; Hong, Lingfei; Nie, Baoqing; Lam, Kit S; Pan, Tingrui

    2011-04-21

    Packaging continues to be one of the most challenging steps in micro-nanofabrication, as many emerging techniques (e.g., soft lithography) are incompatible with the standard high-precision alignment and bonding equipment. In this paper, we present a simple-to-operate, easy-to-adapt packaging strategy, referred to as Capillary-driven Automatic Packaging (CAP), to achieve automatic packaging process, including the desired features of spontaneous alignment and bonding, wide applicability to various materials, potential scalability, and direct incorporation in the layout. Specifically, self-alignment and self-engagement of the CAP process induced by the interfacial capillary interactions between a liquid capillary bridge and the top and bottom substrates have been experimentally characterized and theoretically analyzed with scalable implications. High-precision alignment (of less than 10 µm) and outstanding bonding performance (up to 300 kPa) has been reliably obtained. In addition, a 3D microfluidic network, aligned and bonded by the CAP technique, has been devised to demonstrate the applicability of this facile yet robust packaging technique for emerging microfluidic and bioengineering applications.

  10. Automatic temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlott, Kerstin; Koinzer, Stefan; Ptaszynski, Lars; Bever, Marco; Baade, Alex; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2012-06-01

    Laser coagulation is a treatment method for many retinal diseases. Due to variations in fundus pigmentation and light scattering inside the eye globe, different lesion strengths are often achieved. The aim of this work is to realize an automatic feedback algorithm to generate desired lesion strengths by controlling the retinal temperature increase with the irradiation time. Optoacoustics afford non-invasive retinal temperature monitoring during laser treatment. A 75 ns/523 nm Q-switched Nd:YLF laser was used to excite the temperature-dependent pressure amplitudes, which were detected at the cornea by an ultrasonic transducer embedded in a contact lens. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser served for photocoagulation. The ED50 temperatures, for which the probability of ophthalmoscopically visible lesions after one hour in vivo in rabbits was 50%, varied from 63°C for 20 ms to 49°C for 400 ms. Arrhenius parameters were extracted as ΔE=273 J mol-1 and A=3.1044 s-1. Control algorithms for mild and strong lesions were developed, which led to average lesion diameters of 162+/-34 μm and 189+/-34 μm, respectively. It could be demonstrated that the sizes of the automatically controlled lesions were widely independent of the treatment laser power and the retinal pigmentation.

  11. Automatic Inspection In Industry Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Richard A.

    1989-02-01

    With increasing competition in the manufacturing industries product quality is becoming even more important. The shortcomings of human inspectors in many applications are well know, however, the eye/brain combination is very powerful and difficult to replace. At best, any system only simulates a small subset of the human's operations. The economic justification for installing automatic inspection is often difficult without previous applications experience. It therefore calls for confidence and long-term vision by those making the decisions. Over the last ten years the use of such systems has increased as the technology involved has matured and the risks have diminished. There is now a complete spectrum of industrial applications from simple, low-cost systems using standard sensors and computer hardware to the higher cost, custom-designed systems using novel sensors and processing hardware. The underlying growth in enabling technology has been in many areas; sensors and sensing techniques, signal processing and data processing have all moved forward rapidly. This paper will examine the currrent state of automatic inspection and look to the future. The use of expert systems is an obvious candidate. Parallel processing, giving massive increases in the speed of data reduction, is also likely to play a major role in future systems.

  12. Automatic Inspection In Industry Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Richard A.

    1989-03-01

    With increasing competition in the manufacturing industries product quality is becoming even more important. The shortcomings of human inspectors in many applications are well know, however, the eye/brain combination is very powerful and difficult to replace. At best, any system only simulates a small subset of the human's operations. The economic justification for installing automatic inspection is often difficult without previous applications experience. It therefore calls for confidence and long-term vision by those making the decisions. Over the last ten years the use of such systems has increased as the technology involved has matured and the risks have diminished. There is now a complete spectrum of industrial applications from simple, low-cost systems using standard sensors and computer hardware to the higher cost, custom-designed systems using novel sensors and processing hardware. The underlying growth in enabling technology has been in many areas; sensors and sensing techniques, signal processing and data processing have all moved forward rapidly. This paper will examine the currrent state of automatic inspection and look to the future. The use of expert systems is an obvious candidate. Parallel processing, giving massive increases in the speed of data reduction, is also likely to play a major role in future systems.

  13. 40 CFR 105.15 - How are award winners recognized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are award winners recognized? 105.15 Section 105.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.15 How are award...

  14. 40 CFR 105.15 - How are award winners recognized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are award winners recognized? 105.15 Section 105.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.15 How are award...

  15. 40 CFR 105.15 - How are award winners recognized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are award winners recognized? 105.15 Section 105.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS RECOGNITION AWARDS UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT Awards Recognition § 105.15 How are award...

  16. Evaluation of the Recognizing and Responding to Suicide Risk Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Jodi Michelle; Osteen, Philip; Jones, Andrea; Berman, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Changes in attitudes, confidence, and practice behaviors were assessed among 452 clinicians who completed the training, Recognizing and Responding to Suicide Risk, and who work with clients at risk for suicide. Data were collected at three time points. Scores on measures of attitudes toward suicide prevention and confidence to work with clients at…

  17. Recognizing and Fostering Creativity in Technological Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropley, David; Cropley, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    The importance of creativity in technological design education is now clearly recognized, both in everyday understanding and also in formal curriculum guidelines. Design offers special opportunities for creativity because of the "openness" of problems (ill-defined problems, the existence of a variety of pathways to the solution, the absence of…

  18. Breathing Problems? Learn to Recognize the Symptoms of COPD

    MedlinePlus

    ... often attribute the first symptoms to things like aging, gaining weight or being out of shape. And because of this, they don’t even recognize the symptoms.” Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of COPD in the United States, but long-term exposure ...

  19. 15 CFR 286.9 - Maintaining recognized status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintaining recognized status. 286.9 Section 286.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT...

  20. New Ambassador Award Recognizes Outreach and Societal Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Judith Ann

    2013-10-01

    AGU has created a new award that honors members whose achievements extend beyond those recognized by traditional scientific discipline awards. The award furthers AGU's strategic goals to promote collaboration and innovation, inform society about Earth and space science, and build the global talent pool.