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Sample records for automatic target recognizer

  1. A human factors engineering approach to biomedical decision making: A new role for automatic target recognizer technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, A.L.; Stalker, K.T.; Yee, A.

    1995-01-01

    This report identifies the key features noted as requirements in the diagnostic decision-making process of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) cardiac imaging. The report discusses the critical issues that create the basic system framework for design of an automatic target recognizer (ATR) algorithm prototype to support diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Candidate feature discovery algorithms that may form the basis of future work include Adaptive Resonance Theory and Bayesian Decision Network. A framework for the practitioner-Human-System-Interface would include baseline patient history and demographic data; reference cardiac imagery history; and current overlay imagery to provide complementary information (i.e., coronary angiography, echocardiography, and SPECT images). The goal is to design a prototype that would represent a fused present and historical {open_quotes}whole{close_quotes} functional, structural, and physiologic cardiac patient model. This framework decision-assisting platform would be available to practitioner and student alike, with no {open_quotes}real-world{close_quotes} consequences.

  2. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  3. Digital-Electronic/Optical Apparatus Would Recognize Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, Marija S.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed automatic target-recognition apparatus consists mostly of digital-electronic/optical cross-correlator that processes infrared images of targets. Infrared images of unknown targets correlated quickly with images of known targets. Apparatus incorporates some features of correlator described in "Prototype Optical Correlator for Robotic Vision System" (NPO-18451), and some of correlator described in "Compact Optical Correlator" (NPO-18473). Useful in robotic system; to recognize and track infrared-emitting, moving objects as variously shaped hot workpieces on conveyor belt.

  4. Digital-Electronic/Optical Apparatus Would Recognize Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, Marija S.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed automatic target-recognition apparatus consists mostly of digital-electronic/optical cross-correlator that processes infrared images of targets. Infrared images of unknown targets correlated quickly with images of known targets. Apparatus incorporates some features of correlator described in "Prototype Optical Correlator for Robotic Vision System" (NPO-18451), and some of correlator described in "Compact Optical Correlator" (NPO-18473). Useful in robotic system; to recognize and track infrared-emitting, moving objects as variously shaped hot workpieces on conveyor belt.

  5. Aided versus automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hair, Mark A.; Purvis, Bradley D.; Brown, Jeff

    1997-06-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms have offered the promise of recognizing items of military importance over the past 20 years. It is the experience of the authors that greater ATR success would be possible if the ATR were used to 'aid' the human operator instead of automatically 'direct' the operator. ATRs have failed not due to their probability of detection versus false alarm rate, but to neglect of the human component. ATRs are designed to improve overall throughput by relieving the human operator of the need to perform repetitive tasks like scanning vast quantities of imagery for possible targets. ATRs are typically inserted prior to the operator and provide cues, which are then accepted or rejected. From our experience at three field exercises and a current operational deployment to the Bosnian theater, this is not the best way to get total system performance. The human operator makes decisions based on learning, history of past events, and surrounding contextual information. Loss of these factors by providing imagery, latent with symbolic cues on top of the original imagery, actually increases the workload of the operator. This paper covers the lessons learned from the field demonstrations and the operational deployment. The reconnaissance and intelligence community's primary use of an ATR should be to establish prioritized cues of potential targets for an operator to 'pull' from and to be able to 'send' targets identified by the operator for a 'second opinion.' The Army and Air Force are modifying their exploitation workstations over the next 18 months to use ATRs, which operate in this fashion. This will be the future architecture that ATRs for the reconnaissance and intelligence community should integrate into.

  6. Automatic target recognition employing signal compression.

    PubMed

    Ragothaman, Pradeep; Mikhael, Wasfy B; Muise, Robert R; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2007-07-20

    Quadratic correlation filters (QCFs) have been used successfully to detect and recognize targets embedded in background clutter. Recently, a QCF called the Rayleigh quotient quadratic correlation filter (RQQCF) was formulated for automatic target recognition (ATR) in IR imagery. Using training images from target and clutter classes, the RQQCF explicitly maximized a class separation metric. What we believe to be a novel approach is presented for ATR that synthesizes the RQQCF using compressed images. The proposed approach considerably reduces the computational complexity and storage requirements while retaining the high recognition accuracy of the original RQQCF technique. The advantages of the proposed scheme are illustrated using sample results obtained from experiments on IR imagery.

  7. Automatic target recognition apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgart, Chris W.; Ciarcia, Christopher A.

    2000-01-01

    An automatic target recognition apparatus (10) is provided, having a video camera/digitizer (12) for producing a digitized image signal (20) representing an image containing therein objects which objects are to be recognized if they meet predefined criteria. The digitized image signal (20) is processed within a video analysis subroutine (22) residing in a computer (14) in a plurality of parallel analysis chains such that the objects are presumed to be lighter in shading than the background in the image in three of the chains and further such that the objects are presumed to be darker than the background in the other three chains. In two of the chains the objects are defined by surface texture analysis using texture filter operations. In another two of the chains the objects are defined by background subtraction operations. In yet another two of the chains the objects are defined by edge enhancement processes. In each of the analysis chains a calculation operation independently determines an error factor relating to the probability that the objects are of the type which should be recognized, and a probability calculation operation combines the results of the analysis chains.

  8. Recognized simulation of space locomotive target based on sky background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han; Ma, Jianhong

    2017-01-01

    Space moving object recognition and tracking is an important research topic in computer vision. It has broad application prospects in space exploration, detection of traffic flow, military field, automatic control and other fields. This paper aims to propose a new space target recognition algorithm, and use this algorithm to identify the motion trajectory simulation of a certain object in the universe.

  9. Sparsity-motivated automatic target recognition.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vishal M; Nasrabadi, Nasser M; Chellappa, Rama

    2011-04-01

    We present an automatic target recognition algorithm using the recently developed theory of sparse representations and compressive sensing. We show how sparsity can be helpful for efficient utilization of data for target recognition. We verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm in terms of the recognition rate and confusion matrices on the well known Comanche (Boeing-Sikorsky, USA) forward-looking IR data set consisting of ten different military targets at different orientations.

  10. Automatic target recognition via classical detection theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Douglas R.

    1995-07-01

    Classical Bayesian detection and decision theory applies to arbitrary problems with underlying probabilistic models. When the models describe uncertainties in target type, pose, geometry, surround, scattering phenomena, sensor behavior, and feature extraction, then classical theory directly yields detailed model-based automatic target recognition (ATR) techniques. This paper reviews options and considerations arising under a general Bayesian framework for model- based ATR, including approaches to the major problems of acquiring probabilistic models and of carrying out the indicated Bayesian computations.

  11. Automatic target identification using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Mahmoud A.; Samu, Tayib I.; Grissom, William A.

    1995-10-01

    Neural network theories are applied to attain human-like performance in areas such as speech recognition, statistical mapping, and target recognition or identification. In target identification, one of the difficult tasks has been the extraction of features to be used to train the neural network which is subsequently used for the target's identification. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of an automatic target identification system using features extracted from a specific class of targets. The extracted features were the graphical representations of the silhouettes of the targets. Image processing techniques and some Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) properties were implemented to extract the features. The FFT eliminates variations in the extracted features due to rotation or scaling. A Neural Network was trained with the extracted features using the Learning Vector Quantization paradigm. An identification system was set up to test the algorithm. The image processing software was interfaced with MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox via a computer program written in C language to automate the target identification process. The system performed well as at classified the objects used to train it irrespective of rotation, scaling, and translation. This automatic target identification system had a classification success rate of about 95%.

  12. Self-assessing target with automatic feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, Stephen W.; Kramer, Robert L.

    2004-03-02

    A self assessing target with four quadrants and a method of use thereof. Each quadrant containing possible causes for why shots are going into that particular quadrant rather than the center mass of the target. Each possible cause is followed by a solution intended to help the marksman correct the problem causing the marksman to shoot in that particular area. In addition, the self assessing target contains possible causes for general shooting errors and solutions to the causes of the general shooting error. The automatic feedback with instant suggestions and corrections enables the shooter to improve their marksmanship.

  13. Automatic target recognition on the connection machine

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, J.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) is a computationally intensive problem that benefits from the abilities of the Connection Machine (CM), a massively parallel computer used for data-level parallel computing. The large computational resources of the CM can efficiently handle an approach to ATR that uses parallel stereo-matching and neural-network algorithms. Such an approach shows promise as an ATR system of satisfactory performance. 13 refs.

  14. Automatic target tracking in FLIR image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Abdullah; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2004-09-01

    Moving target tracking is a challenging task and is increasingly becoming important for various applications. In this paper, we have presented target detection and tracking algorithm based on target intensity feature relative to surrounding background, and shape information of target. Proposed automatic target tracking algorithm includes two techniques: intensity variation function (IVF) and template modeling (TM). The intensity variation function is formulated by using target intensity feature while template modeling is based on target shape information. The IVF technique produces the maximum peak value whereas the reference target intensity variation is similar to the candidate target intensity variation. When IVF technique fails, due to background clutter, non-target object or other artifacts, the second technique, template modeling, is triggered by control module. By evaluating the outputs from the IVF and TM techniques, the tracker determines the real coordinates of the target. Performance of the proposed ATT is tested using real life forward-looking infrared (FLIR) image sequences taken from an airborne, moving platform.

  15. Automatic target detection using binary template matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Dong-San; Sun, Sun-Gu; Park, HyunWook

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents a new automatic target detection (ATD) algorithm to detect targets such as battle tanks and armored personal carriers in ground-to-ground scenarios. Whereas most ATD algorithms were developed for forward-looking infrared (FLIR) images, we have developed an ATD algorithm for charge-coupled device (CCD) images, which have superior quality to FLIR images in daylight. The proposed algorithm uses fast binary template matching with an adaptive binarization, which is robust to various light conditions in CCD images and saves computation time. Experimental results show that the proposed method has good detection performance.

  16. Artificial neural networks for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, Cindy E.; Kemsley, David; Lincoln, William P.; Tackett, Walter A.; Baraghimian, Gregory A.

    1992-12-01

    The Self Adaptive Hierarchical Target Identification and Recognition Neural Network (SAHTIRNTM), is a unique and powerful combination of state-of-the-art neural network models for automatic target recognition applications. It is a combination of three models: (1) an early vision segmentor based on the Canny edge detector, (2) a hierarchical feature extraction and pattern recognition system based on a modified Neocognitron architecture, and (3) a pattern classifier based on the back-propagation network. Hughes has extensively tested SAHTIRNTM with several ground vehicular targets using terrain board modeled IR imagery under a current neural network program sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. In addition, extensive testing was conducted using several real IR and handwritten character databases. Hughes has demonstrated successful performance with 91 to 100% probability of correct classification over this wide variety of data. End-to-end system results from these experiments are provided and interim results from each stage of the SAHTIRNTM system are discussed.

  17. Automatic target recognition via sparse representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estabridis, Katia

    2010-04-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) based on the emerging technology of Compressed Sensing (CS) can considerably improve accuracy, speed and cost associated with these types of systems. An image based ATR algorithm has been built upon this new theory, which can perform target detection and recognition in a low dimensional space. Compressed dictionaries (A) are formed to include rotational information for a scale of interest. The algorithm seeks to identify y(test sample) as a linear combination of the dictionary elements : y=Ax, where A ∈ Rnxm(n<target. The algorithm can reject clutter and background, which are part of the input image. The detection and recognition problems are solved by finding the sparse-solution to the undetermined system y=Ax via Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and l1 minimization techniques. Visible and MWIR imagery collected by the Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) was utilized to test the algorithm. Results show an average detection and recognition rates above 95% for targets at ranges up to 3Km for both image modalities.

  18. Biological models for automatic target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachter, Bruce

    2008-04-01

    Humans are better at detecting targets in literal imagery than any known algorithm. Recent advances in modeling visual processes have resulted from f-MRI brain imaging with humans and the use of more invasive techniques with monkeys. There are four startling new discoveries. 1) The visual cortex does not simply process an incoming image. It constructs a physics based model of the image. 2) Coarse category classification and range-to-target are estimated quickly - possibly through the dorsal pathway of the visual cortex, combining rapid coarse processing of image data with expectations and goals. This data is then fed back to lower levels to resize the target and enhance the recognition process feeding forward through the ventral pathway. 3) Giant photosensitive retinal ganglion cells provide data for maintaining circadian rhythm (time-of-day) and modeling the physics of the light source. 4) Five filter types implemented by the neurons of the primary visual cortex have been determined. A computer model for automatic target detection has been developed based upon these recent discoveries. It uses an artificial neural network architecture with multiple feed-forward and feedback paths. Our implementation's efficiency derives from the observation that any 2-D filter kernel can be approximated by a sum of 2-D box functions. And, a 2-D box function easily decomposes into two 1-D box functions. Further efficiency is obtained by decomposing the largest neural filter into a high pass filter and a more sparsely sampled low pass filter.

  19. A color hierarchy for automatic target selection.

    PubMed

    Tchernikov, Illia; Fallah, Mazyar

    2010-02-24

    Visual processing of color starts at the cones in the retina and continues through ventral stream visual areas, called the parvocellular pathway. Motion processing also starts in the retina but continues through dorsal stream visual areas, called the magnocellular system. Color and motion processing are functionally and anatomically discrete. Previously, motion processing areas MT and MST have been shown to have no color selectivity to a moving stimulus; the neurons were colorblind whenever color was presented along with motion. This occurs when the stimuli are luminance-defined versus the background and is considered achromatic motion processing. Is motion processing independent of color processing? We find that motion processing is intrinsically modulated by color. Color modulated smooth pursuit eye movements produced upon saccading to an aperture containing a surface of coherently moving dots upon a black background. Furthermore, when two surfaces that differed in color were present, one surface was automatically selected based upon a color hierarchy. The strength of that selection depended upon the distance between the two colors in color space. A quantifiable color hierarchy for automatic target selection has wide-ranging implications from sports to advertising to human-computer interfaces.

  20. Automatic target recognition in acoustics: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, John R.

    2002-11-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) constitutes one of the major uses for acoustical signal processing. ATR is employed in manned systems for operator workload reduction and performance improvement, as well as in autonomous applications. An overview of some of the major components involved in the architecture of such systems is provided. Feature extraction is the most critical step of ATR and is necessarily application specific. Generic feature selection and ranking methods are presented, including heuristic search and information-theoretic measures. Basic pattern recognition definitions and techniques are reviewed. Commonly used classification paradigms include classical statistical formulations, both parametric and nonparametric, and neural nets; support vector machines and nonmetric methods such as decision forests are some alternative techniques that have received recent attention. A few practical issues often encountered when constructing recognition systems, including training data requirements, ground truth labeling, and performance evaluation methodologies and metrics, are also addressed.

  1. IR and SAR automatic target detection benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Uwe E.; Maier-Herburger, Helmut; Stahl, Christoph; Heinze, Norbert; Willersinn, Dieter

    2004-09-01

    This contribution describes the results of a collaboration the objective of which was to technically validate an assessment approach for automatic target recognition (ATR) components1. The approach is intended to become a standard for component specification and acceptance test during development and procurement and includes the provision of appropriate tools and data. The collaboration was coordinated by the German Federal Office for Defense Technology and Procurement (BWB). Partners besides the BWB and the group Assessment of Fraunhofer IITB were ATR development groups of EADS Military Aircraft, EADS Dornier and Fraunhofer IITB. The ATR development group of IITB contributed ATR results and developer's expertise to the collaboration while the industrial partners contributed ATR results and their expertise both from the developer's and the system integrator's point of view. The assessment group's responsibility was to provide task-relevant data and assessment tools, to carry out performance analyses and to document major milestones. The result of the collaboration is twofold: the validation of the assessment approach by all partners, and two approved benchmarks for specific military target detection tasks in IR and SAR images. The tasks are defined by parameters including sensor, viewing geometries, targets, background etc. The benchmarks contain IR and SAR sensor data, respectively. Truth data and assessment tools are available for performance measurement and analysis. The datasets are split into training data for ATR optimization and test data exclusively used for performance analyses during acceptance tests. Training data and assessment tools are available for ATR developers upon request. The work reported in this contribution was supported by the German Federal Office for Defense Technology and Procurement (BWB), EADS Dornier, and EADS Military Aircraft.

  2. Automatic target recognition from highly incomplete SAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chaoran; Rilling, Gabriel; Davies, Mike; Mulgrew, Bernard

    2011-06-01

    The automatic target recognition (ATR) performance of SAR with subsampled raw data is investigated in this paper. Two schemes are investigated. In scheme A, SAR images are reconstructed from subsampled data by applying compressed sensing (CS) techniques and then targets are classified using either the mean-squared error (MSE) classifier or the point-feature-based classifier. Both classifiers recognize a target by using the magnitude information of dominant scatterers in the image. They fit nicely with the CS framework considering that CS approaches can efficiently recover the bright pixels in SAR images. In scheme B, the smashed-filter classifier is employed without image formation. Instead it makes the classification decision by directly comparing the observed subsampled data with data simulated from reference images. The impact of various subsampling patterns on ATR is investigated since CS theory suggests that some patterns lead to better performance than others. Simulation results show that compared with images formed by the conventional SAR imaging algorithm, CS reconstructed images always lead to much higher recognition rates for both the classifiers in scheme A. The MSE classifier works better than the point-feature-based classifier because the former takes into account both the magnitudes and locations of bright pixels while the latter uses the locations only. The smashed-filter classifier is computationally efficient and can accurately recognize a target even with strong subsampling if appropriate reference images are available. Its application in practice is difficult because it is sensitive to the phases of complex-valued SAR images, which vary too much for different observation angles.

  3. Fast pattern recognizer for autonomous target recognition and tracking for advanced naval attack missiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastbacka, Al

    2001-10-01

    A FPR System under development for the Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA is funded under a SBIR, Phase II contract as an automatic target recognizer and tracker candidate for Navy fast-reaction, subsonic and supersonic, stand-off weapons. The FPR will autonomously detect, identify, correlate, and track complex surface ship and land based targets in hostile, high-clutter environments in real time. The novel FPR system is proven technology that uses an electronic implementation analogous to an optical correlator system, where the Fourier transform of the incoming image is compared against known target images stored as matched filter templates. FPR demonstrations show that unambiguous target identification is achievable in a ninety-five percent fog obscuration for over ninety-percent of target images tested. The FPR technology employs an acoustic dispersive delay line (DDL) to achieve ultra-fast image correlations in 90 microseconds or 11,000 correlations per second. The massively scalable FPR design is capable of achieving processing speeds of an order of magnitude faster using available ASIC technology. Key benefits of the FPR are dramatically reduced power, size, weight, and cost with increased durability, robustness, and performance - which makes the FPR ideal for onboard missile applications.

  4. Improved automatic target recognition (ATR) value through enhancements and accommodations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Timothy D.; Goodwon, Lloyd C.

    2006-05-01

    There is a strong and growing need for automatic target recognition (ATR) technologies. Those technologies have made great strides; however, there is a general sense that they are not having the full impact desired. This paper develops a value-based framework for considering how ATR technology can be made more relevant and then introduces and expands on two elements within that framework: 'enhancements' and 'accommodations'. Value is used here as the degree to which a technology's benefits exceed the technology's costs. Value may be improved by increasing benefits or decreasing costs; but it may be as important that the uncertainty about benefits and costs be reduced. Enhancements and accommodations are distinguished here from the 'core ATR'. While it is generally appreciated that improved core ATR performance could improve value, enhancements and accommodations might be overlooked by those focused on ATRs. Enhancements are ways of making the overall system, inclusive of a core ATR, more capable. Accommodations are ways of making the problem easier for the core ATR. An example enhancement is technology to fuse the output of the core ATR with other sources. An example accommodation is for the user to agree to limit the target set to large, and therefore more easily recognized, objects. This paper encourages the consideration of this framework and outlines a number of candidates for enhancements and accommodations for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ATR, including humans-in-the-loop, change detection, fusion, modeling confusers, group detection, adaptive algorithms, class make-up, and scene-based decisions.

  5. Automatic speech recognizer based on the Spanish spoken in Valdivia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Maria L.; Poblete, Victor H.; Sommerhoff, Jorge

    2004-05-01

    The performance of an automatic speech recognizer is affected by training process (dependent on or independent of the speaker) and the size of the vocabulary. The language used in this study was the Spanish spoken in the city of Valdivia, Chile. A representative sample of 14 students and six professionals all natives of Valdivia (ten women and ten men) were used to complete the study. The sample ranged in age between 20 and 30 years old. Two systems were programmed based on the classical principles: digitalizing, end point detection, linear prediction coding, cepstral coefficients, dynamic time warping, and a final decision stage with a previous step of training: (i) one dependent speaker (15 words: five colors and ten numbers), (ii) one independent speaker (30 words: ten verbs, ten nouns, and ten adjectives). A simple didactical application, with options to choose colors, numbers and drawings of the verbs, nouns and adjectives, was designed to be used with a personal computer. In both programs, the tests carried out showed a tendency towards errors in short words with monosyllables like ``flor,'' and ``sol.'' The best results were obtained in words with three syllables like ``disparar'' and ``mojado.'' [Work supported by Proyecto DID UACh N S-200278.

  6. Hybrid ANN-ES architecture for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Chungte; Ligomenides, Panos A.

    1992-03-01

    Automatic target recognition can benefit from cooperation of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and expert systems (ESs). Bottom-up training and generalization properties of artificial neural networks, and top-down utilization of accumulated knowledge by expert system processors, can be combined to offer robust performance of the automatic target recognition models. In this paper, we propose a modular, flexible and expandable, hybrid architecture which provides cooperative, functional and operational interfaces between expert system and artificial neural networks facilities. In order to make the problem more specific, we apply this architecture to the Multline Optical Character Reader (MLOCR) system, which is being developed to sort the postal mail pieces automatically.

  7. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    DOEpatents

    Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Neal, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

  8. Automatic target detection in UAV imagery using image formation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huibao; Si, Jennie; Abousleman, Glen P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper is about automatic target detection (ATD) in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery. Extracting reliable features under all conditions from a 2D projection of a target in UAV imagery is a difficult problem. However, since the target size information is usually invariant to the image formation proces, we propose an algorithm for automatically estimating the size of a 3D target by using its 2D projection. The size information in turn becomes an important feature to be used in a knowledge-driven, multi-resolution-based algorithm for automatically detecting targets in UAV imagery. Experimental results show that our proposed ATD algorithm provides outstanding detection performance, while significantly reducing the false alarm rate and the computational complexity.

  9. Automatic target recognition based on cross-plot.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Abbott, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Automatic target recognition that relies on rapid feature extraction of real-time target from photo-realistic imaging will enable efficient identification of target patterns. To achieve this objective, Cross-plots of binary patterns are explored as potential signatures for the observed target by high-speed capture of the crucial spatial features using minimal computational resources. Target recognition was implemented based on the proposed pattern recognition concept and tested rigorously for its precision and recall performance. We conclude that Cross-plotting is able to produce a digital fingerprint of a target that correlates efficiently and effectively to signatures of patterns having its identity in a target repository.

  10. Automatic Target Recognition Based on Cross-Plot

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Abbott, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Automatic target recognition that relies on rapid feature extraction of real-time target from photo-realistic imaging will enable efficient identification of target patterns. To achieve this objective, Cross-plots of binary patterns are explored as potential signatures for the observed target by high-speed capture of the crucial spatial features using minimal computational resources. Target recognition was implemented based on the proposed pattern recognition concept and tested rigorously for its precision and recall performance. We conclude that Cross-plotting is able to produce a digital fingerprint of a target that correlates efficiently and effectively to signatures of patterns having its identity in a target repository. PMID:21980508

  11. Autonomous learning approach for automatic target recognition processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    JPL is developing a comprehensive Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) system that consists of an innovative anomaly detection preprocessing module and an automatic training target recognition module. The anomaly detection module is trained with an imaging data feature retrieved from an imaging sensor suite that represents the states of the normalcy model. The normalcy model is then trained from a self-organizing learning system over a period of time and fed into the anomaly detection module for scene anomaly monitoring and detection. The "abnormal" event detection will be sent to a human operator for further investigation responses. The target recognition will be continuously updated with the "normal' input sensor data. The combination of the anomaly detection preprocessing module to the re-trainable target recognition processor will result in a dynamic ATR system that is capable of automatic detection of anomaly event and provide an early warning to a human operator for in-time warning and response.

  12. Automatic Target Recognition Classification System Evaluation Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    Testing Example (α=0.1) ....................... 2-16 2.9 Binormal 2AFC ROC Curves...2-17 2.10 Target and Non-target Normal pdfs for a 2AFC Task....................................... 2-20 2.11 Sample N-N ROC Curve...2-23 2.13 Operating Curve Derived from 2AFC Task....................................................... 2-28 2.14 Example

  13. Testing Saliency Parameters for Automatic Target Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Sagar

    2012-01-01

    A bottom-up visual attention model (the saliency model) is tested to enhance the performance of Automated Target Recognition (ATR). JPL has developed an ATR system that identifies regions of interest (ROI) using a trained OT-MACH filter, and then classifies potential targets as true- or false-positives using machine-learning techniques. In this project, saliency is used as a pre-processing step to reduce the space for performing OT-MACH filtering. Saliency parameters, such as output level and orientation weight, are tuned to detect known target features. Preliminary results are promising and future work entails a rigrous and parameter-based search to gain maximum insight about this method.

  14. Time series modeling for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolnikov, Andre

    2012-05-01

    Time series modeling is proposed for identification of targets whose images are not clearly seen. The model building takes into account air turbulence, precipitation, fog, smoke and other factors obscuring and distorting the image. The complex of library data (of images, etc.) serving as a basis for identification provides the deterministic part of the identification process, while the partial image features, distorted parts, irrelevant pieces and absence of particular features comprise the stochastic part of the target identification. The missing data approach is elaborated that helps the prediction process for the image creation or reconstruction. The results are provided.

  15. Automatic recognition of targets from hyperspectra images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampropoulos, George A.; Li, Yifeng; Boulter, James F.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we present the formulation of the problem for recognition of targets from hyperspectra images. It is shown that conventional recognition techniques may be extended to hyperspectra images for the distribution process. It is also shown that the recognition process is directly proportional to the number of multispectra frames that represent each target. For the discrimination process we propose a parametric and a nonparametric process in which both are extensions to Fisher and Fukunaga-Mantock methods respectively. Examples that show the composition of hyperspectra features are presented.

  16. Retrieving and recognizing aircraft targets staying at the airport from the satellite image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yu; Wang, Jingen; Wang, Yanfei; Xu, Jingtao

    2009-10-01

    The paper studies the problem of how to recognize aircraft targets staying at the airport from satellite image database of huge amount in an acceptable processing speed. Without adopting the current method recognizing the target picture by picture from the image database, the paper combines image retrieval with target recognition, and firstly uses image retrieval technology to pick out those images containing airport target from the satellite image database, then utilizes target recognition technology to recognize the aircraft targets staying at the airport from those images. Some new methods or thoughts have been put forward about the airport image retrieval, segmentation and recognition for aircraft targets, and a retrieval and recognition system for aircraft targets staying at the airport in the database of satellite images has been studied and designed. Finally many experiments has been designed and carried out, and the experimental results demonstrate that these methods are feasible and effective.

  17. Embedded knowledge-based system for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboutalib, A. O.

    1990-10-01

    The development of a reliable Automatic Target Recognition (ATE) system is considered a very critical and challenging problem. Existing ATE Systems have inherent limitations in terms of recognition performance and the ability to learn and adapt. Artificial Intelligence Techniques have the potential to improve the performance of ATh Systems. In this paper, we presented a novel Knowledge-Engineering tool, termed, the Automatic Reasoning Process (ARP) , that can be used to automatically develop and maintain a Knowledge-Base (K-B) for the ATR Systems. In its learning mode, the ARP utilizes Learning samples to automatically develop the ATR K-B, which consists of minimum size sets of necessary and sufficient conditions for each target class. In its operational mode, the ARP infers the target class from sensor data using the ATh K-B System. The ARP also has the capability to reason under uncertainty, and can support both statistical and model-based approaches for ATR development. The capabilities of the ARP are compared and contrasted to those of another Knowledge-Engineering tool, termed, the Automatic Rule Induction (ARI) which is based on maximizing the mutual information. The AR? has been implemented in LISP on a VAX-GPX workstation.

  18. Integrated approach for automatic target recognition using a network of collaborative sensors.

    PubMed

    Mahalanobis, Abhijit; Van Nevel, Alan

    2006-10-01

    We introduce what is believed to be a novel concept by which several sensors with automatic target recognition (ATR) capability collaborate to recognize objects. Such an approach would be suitable for netted systems in which the sensors and platforms can coordinate to optimize end-to-end performance. We use correlation filtering techniques to facilitate the development of the concept, although other ATR algorithms may be easily substituted. Essentially, a self-configuring geometry of netted platforms is proposed that positions the sensors optimally with respect to each other, and takes into account the interactions among the sensor, the recognition algorithms, and the classes of the objects to be recognized. We show how such a paradigm optimizes overall performance, and illustrate the collaborative ATR scheme for recognizing targets in synthetic aperture radar imagery by using viewing position as a sensor parameter.

  19. Advanced automatic target recognition for police helicopter missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Christoph; Schoppmann, Paul

    2000-08-01

    The results of a case study about the application of an advanced method for automatic target recognition to infrared imagery taken from police helicopter missions are presented. The method consists of the following steps: preprocessing, classification, fusion, postprocessing and tracking, and combines the three paradigms image pyramids, neural networks and bayesian nets. The technology has been developed using a variety of different scenes typical for military aircraft missions. Infrared cameras have been in use for several years at the Bavarian police helicopter forces and are highly valuable for night missions. Several object classes like 'persons' or 'vehicles' are tested and the possible discrimination between persons and animals is shown. The analysis of complex scenes with hidden objects and clutter shows the potentials and limitations of automatic target recognition for real-world tasks. Several display concepts illustrate the achievable improvement of the situation awareness. The similarities and differences between various mission types concerning object variability, time constraints, consequences of false alarms, etc. are discussed. Typical police actions like searching for missing persons or runaway criminals illustrate the advantages of automatic target recognition. The results demonstrate the possible operational benefits for the helicopter crew. Future work will include performance evaluation issues and a system integration concept for the target platform.

  20. Complete automatic target cuer/recognition system for tactical forward-looking infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernisse, Brian E.; Rogers, Steven K.; DeSimio, Martin P.; Raines, Richard A.

    1997-09-01

    A complete forward-looking IR (FLIR) automatic target cuer/recognizer (ATC/R) is presented. The data used for development and testing of this ATC/R are first generation FLIR images collected using a F-15E. The database contains thousands of images with various mission profiles and target arrangements. The specific target of interest is a mobile missile launcher, the primary target. The goal is to locate all vehicles (secondary targets) within a scene and identify the primary targets. The system developed and tested includes an image segmenter, region cluster algorithm, feature extractor, and classifier. Conventional image processing algorithms in conjunction with neural network techniques are used to form a complete ATC/R system. The conventional techniques include hit/miss filtering, difference of Gaussian filtering, and region clustering. A neural network (multilayer perceptron) is used for classification. These algorithms are developed, tested and then combined into a functional ATC/R system. Overall primary target detection rate (cuer) is 84% with a 69% primary target identification (recognizer) rate at ranges relevant to munitions release. Furthermore, the false alarm rate (a nontarget cued as a target) in only 2.3 per scene. The research is being completed with a 10 flight test profile using third generation FLIR images.

  1. Found and Missed: Failing to Recognize a Search Target despite Moving It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solman, Grayden J. F.; Cheyne, J. Allan; Smilek, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We present results from five search experiments using a novel "unpacking" paradigm in which participants use a mouse to sort through random heaps of distractors to locate the target. We report that during this task participants often fail to recognize the target despite moving it, and despite having looked at the item. Additionally, the missed…

  2. Found and Missed: Failing to Recognize a Search Target despite Moving It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solman, Grayden J. F.; Cheyne, J. Allan; Smilek, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We present results from five search experiments using a novel "unpacking" paradigm in which participants use a mouse to sort through random heaps of distractors to locate the target. We report that during this task participants often fail to recognize the target despite moving it, and despite having looked at the item. Additionally, the missed…

  3. Kernel generalized neighbor discriminant embedding for SAR automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yulin; Pei, Jifang; Yang, Jianyu; Wang, Tao; Yang, Haiguang; Wang, Bing

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new supervised feature extraction algorithm in synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition (SAR ATR), called generalized neighbor discriminant embedding (GNDE). Based on manifold learning, GNDE integrates class and neighborhood information to enhance discriminative power of extracted feature. Besides, the kernelized counterpart of this algorithm is also proposed, called kernel-GNDE (KGNDE). The experiment in this paper shows that the proposed algorithms have better recognition performance than PCA and KPCA.

  4. LADAR And FLIR Based Sensor Fusion For Automatic Target Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selzer, Fred; Gutfinger, Dan

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to show results of automatic target classification and sensor fusion for forward looking infrared (FLIR) and Laser Radar sensors. The sensor fusion data base was acquired from the Naval Weapon Center and it consists of coregistered Laser RaDAR (range and reflectance image), FLIR (raw and preprocessed image) and TV. Using this data base we have developed techniques to extract relevant object edges from the FLIR and LADAR which are correlated to wireframe models. The resulting correlation coefficients from both the LADAR and FLIR are fused using either the Bayesian or the Dempster-Shafer combination method so as to provide a higher confidence target classifica-tion level output. Finally, to minimize the correlation process the wireframe models are modified to reflect target range (size of target) and target orientation which is extracted from the LADAR reflectance image.

  5. Automatic target recognition flight prototype for police helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Christoph; Haisch, Stefan; Wolf, Peter

    2002-07-01

    A cooperation between the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company AG (EADS) and the Bavarian Ministry of the Interior was started at the beginning of 2001 to develop an application for automatic target recognition technology for police helicopter missions. The Bavarian Police Air Support Unit is the main support partner and first user. Bavarian polic helicopters are equipped with a modern infrared system (FLIR) especially for night missions. EADS has extensive knowledge in the area of sensor image exploitation and automatic target recognition (ATR). The technology has been developed for military aircraft reconnaissance missions. The same software kernel is used for a flight prototype which is integrated in a police helicopter. The integration concept presented in this paper is set up so as not to interfere the existing FLIR system in any way. The flight prototype which will be described in detail consists of standard hardware (COTS) components and has the main functionality of detecting pre-selected object classes. With the flight prototype a comprehensive in-flight testing of the automatic target recognition application is enabled. The test procedure and first results of the flight tests are explained with selected examples. The cooperation will go on to further enhance the operational effectiveness of the Bavarian police helicopters.

  6. Synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition based on curvelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; Liu, Zhuo; Jiao, Licheng; He, Jun

    2009-10-01

    A novel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) automatic target recognition (ATR) approach based on Curvelet Transform is proposed. However, the existing approaches can not extract the more effective feature. In this paper, our method is concentrated on a new effective representation of the moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition (MSTAR) database to obtain a more accurate target region and reduce feature dimension. Firstly, MSTAR database can be extracted feature through the optimal sparse representation by curvelets to obtain a clear target region. However, considering the loss of part of edges of image. We extract coarse feature, which is to compensate fine feature error brought by segmentation. The final features consisting of fine and coarse feature are classified by SVM with Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) kernel. The experiments show that our proposed algorithm can achieve a better correct classification rate.

  7. Joint sparse representation based automatic target recognition in SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haichao; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Huang, Thomas S.; Zhang, Yanning

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel joint sparse representation based automatic target recognition (ATR) method using multiple views, which can not only handle multi-view ATR without knowing the pose but also has the advantage of exploiting the correlations among the multiple views for a single joint recognition decision. We cast the problem as a multi-variate regression model and recover the sparse representations for the multiple views simultaneously. The recognition is accomplished via classifying the target to the class which gives the minimum total reconstruction error accumulated across all the views. Extensive experiments have been carried out on Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) public database to evaluate the proposed method compared with several state-of-the-art methods such as linear Support Vector Machine (SVM), kernel SVM as well as a sparse representation based classifier. Experimental results demonstrate that the effectiveness as well as robustness of the proposed joint sparse representation ATR method.

  8. Automatic target validation based on neuroscientific literature mining for tractography.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Xavier; Richardet, Renaud; Hill, Sean L; Slater, David; Chappelier, Jean-Cedric; Pralong, Etienne; Bloch, Jocelyne; Draganski, Bogdan; Cif, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Target identification for tractography studies requires solid anatomical knowledge validated by an extensive literature review across species for each seed structure to be studied. Manual literature review to identify targets for a given seed region is tedious and potentially subjective. Therefore, complementary approaches would be useful. We propose to use text-mining models to automatically suggest potential targets from the neuroscientific literature, full-text articles and abstracts, so that they can be used for anatomical connection studies and more specifically for tractography. We applied text-mining models to three structures: two well-studied structures, since validated deep brain stimulation targets, the internal globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus and, the nucleus accumbens, an exploratory target for treating psychiatric disorders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to document the projections of the three selected structures and compared it with the targets proposed by text-mining models, both in rat and primate (including human). We ran probabilistic tractography on the nucleus accumbens and compared the output with the results of the text-mining models and literature review. Overall, text-mining the literature could find three times as many targets as two man-weeks of curation could. The overall efficiency of the text-mining against literature review in our study was 98% recall (at 36% precision), meaning that over all the targets for the three selected seeds, only one target has been missed by text-mining. We demonstrate that connectivity for a structure of interest can be extracted from a very large amount of publications and abstracts. We believe this tool will be useful in helping the neuroscience community to facilitate connectivity studies of particular brain regions. The text mining tools used for the study are part of the HBP Neuroinformatics Platform, publicly available at http://connectivity-brainer.rhcloud.com/.

  9. Automatic target validation based on neuroscientific literature mining for tractography

    PubMed Central

    Vasques, Xavier; Richardet, Renaud; Hill, Sean L.; Slater, David; Chappelier, Jean-Cedric; Pralong, Etienne; Bloch, Jocelyne; Draganski, Bogdan; Cif, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Target identification for tractography studies requires solid anatomical knowledge validated by an extensive literature review across species for each seed structure to be studied. Manual literature review to identify targets for a given seed region is tedious and potentially subjective. Therefore, complementary approaches would be useful. We propose to use text-mining models to automatically suggest potential targets from the neuroscientific literature, full-text articles and abstracts, so that they can be used for anatomical connection studies and more specifically for tractography. We applied text-mining models to three structures: two well-studied structures, since validated deep brain stimulation targets, the internal globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus and, the nucleus accumbens, an exploratory target for treating psychiatric disorders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to document the projections of the three selected structures and compared it with the targets proposed by text-mining models, both in rat and primate (including human). We ran probabilistic tractography on the nucleus accumbens and compared the output with the results of the text-mining models and literature review. Overall, text-mining the literature could find three times as many targets as two man-weeks of curation could. The overall efficiency of the text-mining against literature review in our study was 98% recall (at 36% precision), meaning that over all the targets for the three selected seeds, only one target has been missed by text-mining. We demonstrate that connectivity for a structure of interest can be extracted from a very large amount of publications and abstracts. We believe this tool will be useful in helping the neuroscience community to facilitate connectivity studies of particular brain regions. The text mining tools used for the study are part of the HBP Neuroinformatics Platform, publicly available at http://connectivity-brainer.rhcloud.com/. PMID

  10. Exploitation of target shadows in synthetic aperture radar imagery for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghri, John A.; DeKelaita, Andrew

    2006-08-01

    The utility of target shadows for automatic target recognition (ATR) in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is investigated. Although target shadow, when available, is not a powerful target discriminating feature, it can effectively increase the overall accuracy of the target classification when it is combined with other target discriminating features such as peaks, edges, and corners. A second and more important utility of target shadow is that it can be used to identify the target pose. Identification of the target pose before the recognition process reduces the number of reference images used for comparison/matching, i.e., the training sets, by at least fifty percent. Since implementation and the computation complexity of the pose detection algorithm is relatively simple, the proposed two-step process, i.e., pose detection followed matching, considerably reduces the complexity of the overall ATR system.

  11. Automatic target recognition using polarization-sensitive thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Cornell S. L.; Sadjadi, Firooz A.; Ferris, David D., Jr.

    1995-07-01

    The performance of automatic target recognition (ATR) systems using thermal infrared images is limited by the low contrast in intensity for terrestrial scenes. We are developing a thermal imaging technique where, in each image pixel, a combination of intensity and polarization data is captured simultaneously. In this paper, we demonstrate, using synthetic polarization images, that a combination of intensity and polarization data will significantly improve the performance of detection and classification functions in an ATR system. The images were generated using a ray tracing computer program, modified to calculate the polarization characteristics of thermal radiation emitted from surfaces. We developed novel polarization- sensitive target edge detection, segmentation, and recognition algorithms. A set of performance metrics for the evaluation showed that, for large ranges of viewing elevation and aspect angles, using a combination of polarization and intensity data significantly improves the performance of the algorithms over using only the intensity data.

  12. Automatic small target detection in synthetic infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yardımcı, Ozan; Ulusoy, Ä.°lkay

    2017-05-01

    Automatic detection of targets from far distances is a very challenging problem. Background clutter and small target size are the main difficulties which should be solved while reaching a high detection performance as well as a low computational load. The pre-processing, detection and post-processing approaches are very effective on the final results. In this study, first of all, various methods in the literature were evaluated separately for each of these stages using the simulated test scenarios. Then, a full system of detection was constructed among available solutions which resulted in the best performance in terms of detection. However, although a precision rate as 100% was reached, the recall values stayed low around 25-45%. Finally, a post-processing method was proposed which increased the recall value while keeping the precision at 100%. The proposed post-processing method, which is based on local operations, increased the recall value to 65-95% in all test scenarios.

  13. Hishot Display—A New Combinatorial Display for Obtaining Target-Recognizing Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Shoutaro; Yamashita, Makiko; Kageyama, Taihei; Ohtsu, Takashi; Suzuki, Katsuo; Kato, Shintaro; Akitomi, Joe; Furuichi, Makio; Waga, Iwao

    2013-01-01

    Display technologies are procedures used for isolating target-recognizing peptides without using immunized animals. In this study, we describe a new display method, named Hishot display, that uses Escherichia coli and an expression plasmid to isolate target-recognizing peptides. This display method is based on the formation, in bacteria, of complexes between a polyhistidine (His)-tagged peptide including random sequences and the peptide-encoding mRNA including an RNA aptamer against the His-tag. When this system was tested using a sequence encoding His-tagged green fluorescent protein that included an RNA aptamer against the His-tag, the collection of mRNA encoding the protein was dependent on the RNA aptamer. Using this display method and a synthetic library of surrogate single-chain variable fragments consisting of VpreB and Ig heavy-chain variable domains, it was possible to isolate clones that could specifically recognize a particular target (intelectin-1 or tumor necrosis factor-α). These clones were obtained as soluble proteins produced by E. coli, and the purified peptide clones recognizing intelectin-1 could be used as detectors for sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The Hishot display will be a useful method to add to the repertoire of display technologies. PMID:24386149

  14. Hishot display--a new combinatorial display for obtaining target-recognizing peptides.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Shoutaro; Yamashita, Makiko; Kageyama, Taihei; Ohtsu, Takashi; Suzuki, Katsuo; Kato, Shintaro; Akitomi, Joe; Furuichi, Makio; Waga, Iwao

    2013-01-01

    Display technologies are procedures used for isolating target-recognizing peptides without using immunized animals. In this study, we describe a new display method, named Hishot display, that uses Escherichia coli and an expression plasmid to isolate target-recognizing peptides. This display method is based on the formation, in bacteria, of complexes between a polyhistidine (His)-tagged peptide including random sequences and the peptide-encoding mRNA including an RNA aptamer against the His-tag. When this system was tested using a sequence encoding His-tagged green fluorescent protein that included an RNA aptamer against the His-tag, the collection of mRNA encoding the protein was dependent on the RNA aptamer. Using this display method and a synthetic library of surrogate single-chain variable fragments consisting of VpreB and Ig heavy-chain variable domains, it was possible to isolate clones that could specifically recognize a particular target (intelectin-1 or tumor necrosis factor-α). These clones were obtained as soluble proteins produced by E. coli, and the purified peptide clones recognizing intelectin-1 could be used as detectors for sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The Hishot display will be a useful method to add to the repertoire of display technologies.

  15. Males without apparent alloimmunization could have HLA antibodies that recognize target HLA specificities expressed on cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Nakajima, F; Kamada, H; Tadokoro, K; Nagai, T; Satake, M

    2017-05-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies, which are involved in the development of transfusion-related side effects such as transfusion-related lung injury, are sometimes found in males without a history of alloimmunization (eg, transplantation and transfusion). Whether HLA antibodies in male donors can interact with their target HLA specificities expressed on cells have not been completely investigated. The HLA antibodies detected in 7 male donors were characterized. Flow cytometry and immunocomplex capture fluorescence analysis were performed to evaluate the ability of these antibodies to bind with target HLA specificities expressed on cells. The association of these antibodies with complement was examined using anti-C1q antibody. Sustainability of HLA antibodies over time was compared in 26 male vs 57 female donors. The antibodies from all 7 donors recognized intact HLA molecules coated onto microbeads. The antibodies in 2 of 7 donors also recognized their target HLA specificities expressed on cells. Furthermore, the antibodies in one of these 2 donors showed HLA specificities that involved complement binding. Twenty-one of 26 initially positive male donors had turned negative for HLA antibody at least 1 year after their initial positive screening, whereas HLA antibody positivity was maintained for a long time in most female donors. Males without apparent alloimmunization could have HLA antibodies that recognize their target HLA specificities on cells and that could potentially modify molecular events in affected cells. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Deep transfer learning for automatic target classification: MWIR to LWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhengming; Nasrabadi, Nasser; Fu, Yun

    2016-05-01

    Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 5/12/2016, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 5/18/2016. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. When dealing with sparse or no labeled data in the target domain, transfer learning shows its appealing performance by borrowing the supervised knowledge from external domains. Recently deep structure learning has been exploited in transfer learning due to its attractive power in extracting effective knowledge through multi-layer strategy, so that deep transfer learning is promising to address the cross-domain mismatch. In general, cross-domain disparity can be resulted from the difference between source and target distributions or different modalities, e.g., Midwave IR (MWIR) and Longwave IR (LWIR). In this paper, we propose a Weighted Deep Transfer Learning framework for automatic target classification through a task-driven fashion. Specifically, deep features and classifier parameters are obtained simultaneously for optimal classification performance. In this way, the proposed deep structures can extract more effective features with the guidance of the classifier performance; on the other hand, the classifier performance is further improved since it is optimized on more discriminative features. Furthermore, we build a weighted scheme to couple source and target output by assigning pseudo labels to target data, therefore we can transfer knowledge from source (i.e., MWIR) to target (i.e., LWIR). Experimental results on real databases demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm by comparing with others.

  17. Automatic detection of sea-sky horizon line and small targets in maritime infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangyu; Liu, Lei; Qian, Yunsheng; Cui, Minjie

    2016-05-01

    It is usually difficult but important to extract distant targets from sea clutters and clouds since the targets are small compared to the pixel field of view. In this paper, an algorithm based on wavelet transformation is proposed for automatic detection of small targets under the maritime background. We recognize that the distant small targets generally appear near the sea-sky horizon line and noises lie along the direction of sea-sky horizon line. So the sea-sky horizon is located firstly by examining the approximate image of a Haar wavelet decomposition of the original image. And the equation of the sea-sky horizon is set up, no matter whether the sea-sky horizon is horizontal or not. Since the sea-sky horizon is located, not only the potential area but also the strip direction of noise is got. Then the modified mutual wavelet energy combination algorithm is applied to extract targets with targets being marked by red windows. Computer simulations are shown to validate the great adaptability of the sea-sky horizon line detection and the accuracy of the small targets detection. The algorithm should be useful to engineers and scientists to design precise guidance or maritime monitoring system.

  18. Automatic system of production, transfer and processing of coin targets for the production of metallic radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicioli, M.; Ouadi, A.; Marchand, P.; Foehrenbacher, T.; Schuler, J.; Dick-Schuler, N.; Brasse, D.

    2017-05-01

    The work presented in this paper gathers three main technical developments aiming at 1) optimizing nuclide production by the mean of solid targets 2) automatically transferring coin targets from vault to hotcell without human intervention 3) processing target dilution and purification in hotcell automatically. This system has been installed on a ACSI TR24 cyclotron in Strasbourg France.

  19. An Unsolved Mystery: The Target-Recognizing RNA Species of MicroRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Zheng

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of endogenous ~ 21-nucleotide (nt) RNAs. These small RNAs are produced from long primary miRNA transcripts — pri-miRNAs — through sequential endonucleolytic maturation steps that yield precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA) intermediates and then the mature miRNAs. The mature miRNAs are loaded into the RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC), and guide RISC to target mRNAs for cleavage and/or translational repression. This paradigm, which represents one of major discoveries of modern molecular biology, is built on the assumption that mature miRNAs are the only species produced from miRNA genes that recognize targets. This assumption has guided the miRNA field for more than a decade and has led to our current understanding of the mechanisms of target recognition and repression by miRNAs. Although progress has been made, fundamental questions remain unanswered with regard to the principles of target recognition and mechanisms of repression. Here I raise questions about the assumption that mature miRNAs are the only target-recognizing species produced from miRNA genes and discuss the consequences of working under an incomplete or incorrect assumption. Moreover, I present evolution-based and experimental evidence that support the roles of pri-/pre-miRNAs in target recognition and repression. Finally, I propose a conceptual framework that integrates the functions of pri-/pre-miRNAs and mature miRNAs in target recognition and repression. The integrated framework opens experimental enquiry and permits interpretation of fundamental problems that have so far been precluded. PMID:23685275

  20. Evaluation methodology for hyperspectral automatic target cueing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornburg, Ross; Maciejewski, Phil; Claypool, Rifka; Horn, Thomas J.; Jarratt, Mary; Westerkamp, Lori A.

    2002-08-01

    Because of its fine wavelength resolution, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) offers the possibility of detecting and identifying objects of interest by their spectral characteristics. The Automatic Target Cueing, Detection and Recognition (ATC/D/R) community is developing new methods to predict and measure HSI ATC/D/R systems performance. The variation of spectral signatures due to target characteristics, atmospheric effects, and other environmental factors contribute to the challenge of developing and evaluating robust algorithms for HSI ATC/D/R systems. A rigorous method for test and evaluation is necessary to determine system performance and define the most efficient and effective sensor/algorithm solutions for a proposed mission. The AFRL Sensors Directorate Comprehensive Performance Assessment of Sensor Exploitation (COMPASE) Center has developed standardized tools and methods that permit performance comparison of candidate ATC algorithms1,2. This paper defines the methodology employed for an independent evaluation of HSI ATC algorithms. The performance metrics, truthing and scoring techniques, and the importance of understanding the operating conditions (OCs) represented by each data set are discussed. The OC definitions for spectral systems are different from the OCs as defined by radar systems. The environmental considerations drive data collection planning and truthing requirements. Knowledge of performance of an algorithm in different OCs is essential information when considering the transition of an HSI sensor/algorithm system or the design of future HS algorithms.

  1. An automatic target recognition system based on SAR image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qinfu; Wang, Jinquan; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Furen; Xu, Xiaojian

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, an automatic target recognition (ATR) system based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is proposed. This ATR system can play an important role in the simulation of up-to-data battlefield environment and be used in ATR research. To establish an integral and available system, the processing of SAR image was divided into four main stages which are de-noise, detection, cluster-discrimination and segment-recognition, respectively. The first three stages are used for searching region of interest (ROI). Once the ROIs are extracted, the recognition stage will be taken to compute the similarity between the ROIs and the templates in the electromagnetic simulation software National Electromagnetic Scattering Code (NESC). Due to the lack of the SAR raw data, the electromagnetic simulated images are added to the measured SAR background to simulate the battlefield environment8. The purpose of the system is to find the ROIs which can be the artificial military targets such as tanks, armored cars and so on and to categorize the ROIs into the right classes according to the existing templates. From the results we can see that the proposed system achieves a satisfactory result.

  2. Analysis of uncompensated phase error on automatic target recognition performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnino, Lee J.; Cassabaum, Mary L.; Halversen, Shawn D.; Rupp, Chad T.; Wagner, Gregory M.; Young, Matthew T.

    2009-05-01

    Performance of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems relies heavily on the system performance and specifications of the SAR sensor. A representative multi-stage SAR ATR algorithm [1, 2] is analyzed across imagery containing phase errors in the down-range direction induced during the transmission of the radar's waveform. The degradation induced on the SAR imagery by the phase errors is measured in terms of peak phase error, Root-Mean-Square (RMS) phase error, and multiplicative noise. The ATR algorithm consists of three stages: a two-parameter CFAR, a discrimination stage to reduce false alarms, and a classification stage to identify targets in the scene. The end-to-end performance of the ATR algorithm is quantified as a function of the multiplicative noise present in the SAR imagery through Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. Results indicate that the performance of the ATR algorithm presented is robust over a 3dB change in multiplicative noise.

  3. A simulation-based approach towards automatic target recognition of high resolution space borne radar signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglberger, H.; Kempf, T.

    2016-10-01

    Specific imaging effects that are caused mainly by the range measurement principle of a radar device, its much lower frequency range as compared to the optical spectrum, the slanted imaging geometry and certainly the limited spatial resolution complicates the interpretation of radar signatures decisively. Especially the coherent image formation which causes unwanted speckle noise aggravates the problem of visually recognizing target objects. Fully automatic approaches with acceptable false alarm rates are therefore an even harder challenge. At the Microwaves and Radar Institute of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) the development of methods to implement a robust overall processing workflow for automatic target recognition (ATR) out of high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image data is under progress. The heart of the general approach is to use time series exploitation for the former detection step and simulation-based signature matching for the subsequent recognition. This paper will show the overall ATR chain as a proof of concept for the special case of airplane recognition on image data from the space borne SAR sensor TerraSAR-X.

  4. 3D passive photon counting automatic target recognition using advanced correlation filters.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myungjin; Mahalanobis, Abhijit; Javidi, Bahram

    2011-03-15

    In this Letter, we present results for detecting and recognizing 3D objects in photon counting images using integral imaging with maximum average correlation height filters. We show that even under photon starved conditions objects may be automatically recognized in passively sensed 3D images using advanced correlation filters. We show that the proposed filter synthesized with ideal training images can detect and recognize a 3D object in photon counting images, even in the presence of occlusions and obscuration.

  5. Restriction endonuclease MvaI is a monomer that recognizes its target sequence asymmetrically

    PubMed Central

    Kaus-Drobek, Magdalena; Czapinska, Honorata; Sokołowska, Monika; Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Szczepanowski, Roman H.; Urbanke, Claus; Bochtler, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Restriction endonuclease MvaI recognizes the sequence CC/WGG (W stands for A or T, ‘/’ designates the cleavage site) and generates products with single nucleotide 5′-overhangs. The enzyme has been noted for its tolerance towards DNA modifications. Here, we report a biochemical characterization and crystal structures of MvaI in an apo-form and in a complex with target DNA at 1.5 Å resolution. Our results show that MvaI is a monomer and recognizes its pseudosymmetric target sequence asymmetrically. The enzyme consists of two lobes. The catalytic lobe anchors the active site residues Glu36, Asp50, Glu55 and Lys57 and contacts the bases from the minor grove side. The recognition lobe mediates all major grove interactions with the bases. The enzyme in the crystal is bound to the strand with T at the center of the recognition sequence. The crystal structure with calcium ions and DNA mimics the prereactive state. MvaI shows structural similarities to BcnI, which cleaves the related sequence CC/SGG and to MutH enzyme, which is a component of the DNA repair machinery, and nicks one DNA strand instead of making a double-strand break. PMID:17344322

  6. Target Detection and Identification Performance Using an Automatic Target Detection System.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Adam J; Hollands, Justin G; Jamieson, Greg A

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the effects of automatic target detection (ATD) on the detection and identification performance of soldiers. Prior studies have shown that highlighting targets can aid their detection. We provided soldiers with ATD that was more likely to detect one target identity than another, potentially acting as an implicit identification aid. Twenty-eight soldiers detected and identified simulated human targets in an immersive virtual environment with and without ATD. Task difficulty was manipulated by varying scene illumination (day, night). The ATD identification bias was also manipulated (hostile bias, no bias, and friendly bias). We used signal detection measures to treat the identification results. ATD presence improved detection performance, especially under high task difficulty (night illumination). Identification sensitivity was greater for cued than uncued targets. The identification decision criterion for cued targets varied with the ATD identification bias but showed a "sluggish beta" effect. ATD helps soldiers detect and identify targets. The effects of biased ATD on identification should be considered with respect to the operational context. Less-than-perfectly-reliable ATD is a useful detection aid for dismounted soldiers. Disclosure of known ATD identification bias to the operator may aid the identification process.

  7. Automatic target classification of slow moving ground targets using space-time adaptive processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malas, John Alexander

    2002-04-01

    Air-to-ground surveillance radar technologies are increasingly being used by theater commanders to detect, track, and identify ground moving targets. New radar automatic target recognition (ATR) technologies are being developed to aid the pilot in assessing the ground combat picture. Most air-to-ground surveillance radars use Doppler filtering techniques to separate target returns from ground clutter. Unfortunately, Doppler filter techniques fall short on performance when target geometry and ground vehicle speed result in low line of sight velocities. New clutter filter techniques compatible with emerging advancements in wideband radar operation are needed to support surveillance modes of radar operation when targets enter this low velocity regime. In this context, space-time adaptive processing (STAP) in conjunction with other algorithms offers a class of signal processing that provide improved target detection, tracking, and classification in the presence of interference through the adaptive nulling of both ground clutter and/or jamming. Of particular interest is the ability of the radar to filter and process the complex target signature data needed to generate high range resolution (HRR) signature profiles on ground targets. A new approach is proposed which will allow air-to-ground target classification of slow moving vehicles in clutter. A wideband STAP approach for clutter suppression is developed which preserves the amplitude integrity of returns from multiple range bins consistent with the HRR ATR approach. The wideband STAP processor utilizes narrowband STAP principles to generate a series of adaptive sub-band filters. Each sub-band filter output is used to construct the complete filtered response of the ground target. The performance of this new approach is demonstrated and quantified through the implementation of a one dimensional template-based minimum mean squared error classifier. Successful minimum velocity identification is defined in terms of

  8. Using artificial bat sonar neural networks for complex pattern recognition: recognizing faces and the speed of a moving target.

    PubMed

    Dror, I E; Florer, F L; Rios, D; Zagaeski, M

    1996-04-01

    Two sets of studies examined the viability of using bat-like sonar input for artificial neural networks in complex pattern recognition tasks. In the first set of studies, a sonar neural network was required to perform two face recognition tasks. In the first task, the network was trained to recognize different faces regardless of facial expressions. Following training, the network was tested on its ability to generalize and correctly recognize faces using echoes of novel facial expressions that were not included in the training set. The neural network was able to recognize novel echoes of faces almost perfectly (above 96% accuracy) when it was required to recognize up to five faces. In the second face recognition task, a sonar neural network was trained to recognize the sex of 16 faces (eight males and eight females). After training, the network was able to correctly recognize novel echoes of those faces as 'male' or as 'female' faces with accuracy levels of 88%. However, the network was not able to recognize novel faces as 'male' or 'female' faces. In the second set of studies, a sonar neural network was required to learn to recognize the speed of a target that was moving towards the viewer. During training, the target was presented in a variety of orientations, and the network's performance was evaluated when the target was presented in novel orientations that were not included in the training set. The different orientations dramatically affected the amplitude and the frequency composition of the echoes. The neural network was able to learn and recognize the speed of a moving target, and to generalize to new orientations of the target. However, the network was not able to generalize to new speeds that were not included in the training set. The potential and limitations of using bat-like sonar as input for artifical neural networks are discussed.

  9. CdiA Effectors Use Modular Receptor-Binding Domains To Recognize Target Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ruhe, Zachary C.; Nguyen, Josephine Y.; Xiong, Jing; Koskiniemi, Sanna; Beck, Christina M.; Perkins, Basil R.; Low, David A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems encode CdiA effectors, which bind to specific receptors on neighboring bacteria and deliver C-terminal toxin domains to suppress target cell growth. Two classes of CdiA effectors that bind distinct cell surface receptors have been identified, but the molecular basis of receptor specificity is not understood. Alignment of BamA-specific CdiAEC93 from Escherichia coli EC93 and OmpC-specific CdiAEC536 from E. coli 536 suggests that the receptor-binding domain resides within a central region that varies between the two effectors. In support of this hypothesis, we find that CdiAEC93 fragments containing residues Arg1358 to Phe1646 bind specifically to purified BamA. Moreover, chimeric CdiAEC93 that carries the corresponding sequence from CdiAEC536 is endowed with OmpC-binding activity, demonstrating that this region dictates receptor specificity. A survey of E. coli CdiA proteins reveals two additional effector classes, which presumably recognize distinct receptors. Using a genetic approach, we identify the outer membrane nucleoside transporter Tsx as the receptor for a third class of CdiA effectors. Thus, CDI systems exploit multiple outer membrane proteins to identify and engage target cells. These results underscore the modularity of CdiA proteins and suggest that novel effectors can be constructed through genetic recombination to interchange different receptor-binding domains and toxic payloads. PMID:28351921

  10. Rendezvous terminal phase automatic braking sequencing and targeting. [for space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachmar, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the rendezvous terminal phase braking program is to provide the means of automatically bringing the primary orbiter within desired station keeping boundaries relative to the target satellite. A detailed discussion is presented on the braking program and its navigation, targeting, and guidance functions.

  11. Limited persistence models for SAR automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugavanam, Nithin; Ertin, Emre

    2017-04-01

    We consider the task of estimating the scattering coefficients and locations of the scattering centers that exhibit limited azimuthal persistence for a wide-angle synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor operating in spotlight mode. We exploit the sparsity of the scattering centers in the spatial domain as well as the slow-varying structure of the scattering coefficients in the azimuth domain to solve the ill-posed linear inverse problem. Furthermore, we utilize this recovered model as a template for the task of target recognition and pose estimation. We also investigate the effects of missing pulses in the initial recovery step of the model on the performance of the proposed method for target recognition. We empirically establish that the recovered model can be used to estimate the target class and pose simultaneously for the case of missing measurements.

  12. Multi-Stage System for Automatic Target Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas T.; Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Johnson, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feedforward back-propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and to remove false positives. The system parameter optimizations process has been developed to adapt to various targets and datasets. The objective was to design an efficient computer vision system that can learn to detect multiple targets in large images with unknown backgrounds. Because the target size is small relative to the image size in this problem, there are many regions of the image that could potentially contain the target. A cursory analysis of every region can be computationally efficient, but may yield too many false positives. On the other hand, a detailed analysis of every region can yield better results, but may be computationally inefficient. The multi-stage ATR system was designed to achieve an optimal balance between accuracy and computational efficiency by incorporating both models. The detection stage first identifies potential ROIs where the target may be present by performing a fast Fourier domain OT-MACH filter-based correlation. Because threshold for this stage is chosen with the goal of detecting all true positives, a number of false positives are also detected as ROIs. The verification stage then transforms the regions of interest into feature space, and eliminates false positives using an

  13. System for Automatic Detection and Analysis of Targets in FMICW Radar Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejfek, Luboš; Mošna, Zbyšek; Urbář, Jaroslav; Koucká Knížová, Petra

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the automatic system for the processing of the signals from the frequency modulated interrupted continuous wave (FMICW) radar and describes methods for the primary signal processing. Further, we present methods for the detection of the targets in strong noise. These methods are tested both on the real and simulated signals. The real signals were measured using the developed at the IAP CAS experimental prototype of FMICW radar with operational frequency 35.4 GHz. The measurement campaign took place at the TU Delft, the Netherlands. The obtained results were used for development of the system for the automatic detection and analysis of the targets measured by the FMICW radar.

  14. Pattern-Theoretic Foundations of Automatic Target Recognition in Clutter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-30

    area has continued past the September 2006 end date via discretionary funds provided to Aaron Lanterman through the Demetrius T. Paris Junior...support to continue the work past August 2006 provided by the Demetrius T. Paris Professorship. Pri- mary developer of ATR theory and algorithms for target...Oustanding Junior Teacher Award (2006), as voted on by the senior class. A.D. Lanterman, named the Demetrius T. Paris Junior Professor beginning in

  15. Automatic Target Recognition Using Wavelet-Based Vector Quantization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    uses a set of dedicated vector quantizers (VQs) in the wavelet domain. The background pixels in each input image are properly clipped out by a set of...a target chip . . . . . . 8 5 Background clipping of several input images . . . . . . . . . . 8 6 Wavelet decomposition of a truck into four subbands...dedicated VQ for each subband within each aspect window. In the first stage, an aspect window is a background- clipping rectangle whose size is determined

  16. Does training under consistent mapping conditions lead to automatic attention attraction to targets in search tasks?

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Christine; Cousineau, Denis; Larochelle, Serge

    2008-11-01

    Schneider and Shiffrin (1977) proposed that training under consistent stimulus-response mapping (CM) leads to automatic target detection in search tasks. Other theories, such as Treisman and Gelade's (1980) feature integration theory, consider target-distractor discriminability as the main determinant of search performance. The first two experiments pit these two principles against each other. The results show that CM training is neither necessary nor sufficient to achieve optimal search performance. Two other experiments examine whether CM trained targets, presented as distractors in unattended display locations, attract attention away from current targets. The results are again found to vary with target-distractor similarity. Overall, the present study strongly suggests that CM training does not invariably lead to automatic attention attraction in search tasks.

  17. Recognizing off-target drug effects in the gut and brain: revisiting isotretinoin and depression.

    PubMed

    Kollipara, R; Reisz, C

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians often face complex decisions regarding off-target drug effects, both in diagnosis and treatment. A key component in the formulation of the correct diagnosis is the temporal relationship between drug introduction and adverse effect. The sentinel injury may target the gut and brain. The description of the complaint may vary among providers. Modeling Information visualization for clinicians in real time will require the integration of time-stamped data with organ-specific complaints.

  18. Target azimuth estimation for automatic tracking in range-gated imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yinan; Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Yan

    2012-11-01

    Target tracking is of great importance in imaging system, which can be applied in surveillance, as well as salvage and rescue where 3D spatial coordinates are used to locate the target. Range-gated imaging system is capable of acquiring range information of targets. However, azimuth is also necessary to provide the spatial coordinates to achieve target tracking. This paper presents a target azimuth estimation method for range-gated imaging system, aiming at obtaining essential information for vision-based automatic tracking. Due to the noise and low contrast of range-gated image, median filter and histogram equalization are used. Then the Otsu method is performed to make the segmentation of target and background. After segmentation, morphologic transformation methods will be taken in order to delete false targets. With pixels of target extracted from the image, the centoid will be derived. Next the pinhole camera model is applied to work out the azimuth coordinate. Since the focus length of camera is needed in the formula, an NC (Numerical Control) zoom module is developed. In this module, a sliding potentiometer is connected to the focus motor in camera, which serves as a feedback of the focus. To read the focus length and control the focus motor, an MCU (with AD converter) is used. Once the target azimuth information is obtained, the pan-tilt control unit can track the target bit by bit automatically.

  19. A chest-shape target automatic detection method based on Deformable Part Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mo; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Li

    2016-10-01

    Automatic weapon platform is one of the important research directions at domestic and overseas, it needs to accomplish fast searching for the object to be shot under complex background. Therefore, fast detection for given target is the foundation of further task. Considering that chest-shape target is common target of shoot practice, this paper treats chestshape target as the target and studies target automatic detection method based on Deformable Part Models. The algorithm computes Histograms of Oriented Gradient(HOG) features of the target and trains a model using Latent variable Support Vector Machine(SVM); In this model, target image is divided into several parts then we can obtain foot filter and part filters; Finally, the algorithm detects the target at the HOG features pyramid with method of sliding window. The running time of extracting HOG pyramid with lookup table can be shorten by 36%. The result indicates that this algorithm can detect the chest-shape target in natural environments indoors or outdoors. The true positive rate of detection reaches 76% with many hard samples, and the false positive rate approaches 0. Running on a PC (Intel(R)Core(TM) i5-4200H CPU) with C++ language, the detection time of images with the resolution of 640 × 480 is 2.093s. According to TI company run library about image pyramid and convolution for DM642 and other hardware, our detection algorithm is expected to be implemented on hardware platform, and it has application prospect in actual system.

  20. Opaque-2 is a transcriptional activator that recognizes a specific target site in 22-kD zein genes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R J; Ketudat, M; Aukerman, M J; Hoschek, G

    1992-06-01

    opaque-2 (o2) is a regulatory locus in maize that plays an essential role in controlling the expression of genes encoding the 22-kD zein proteins. Through DNase I footprinting and DNA binding analyses, we have identified the binding site for the O2 protein (O2) in the promoter of 22-kD zein genes. The sequence in the 22-kD zein gene promoter that is recognized by O2 is similar to the target site recognized by other "basic/leucine zipper" (bZIP) proteins in that it contains an ACGT core that is necessary for DNA binding. The site is located in the -300 region relative to the translation start and lies about 20 bp downstream of the highly conserved zein gene sequence motif known as the "prolamin box." Employing gel mobility shift assays, we used O2 antibodies and nuclear extracts from an o2 null mutant to demonstrate that the O2 protein in maize endosperm nuclei recognizes the target site in the zein gene promoter. Mobility shift assays using nuclear proteins from an o2 null mutant indicated that other endosperm proteins in addition to O2 can bind the O2 target site and that O2 may be associated with one of these proteins. We also demonstrated that in yeast cells the O2 protein can activate expression of a lacZ gene containing a multimer of the O2 target sequence as part of its promoter, thus confirming its role as a transcriptional activator. A computer-assisted search indicated that the O2 target site is not present in the promoters of zein genes other than those of the 22-kD class. These data suggest a likely explanation at the molecular level for the differential effect of o2 mutations on expression of certain members of the zein gene family.

  1. Automatic attraction of visual attention by supraletter features of former target strings

    PubMed Central

    Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Van Lommel, Sven; Sørensen, Thomas A.; Bundesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Observers were trained to search for a particular horizontal string of three capital letters presented among similar strings consisting of exactly the same letters in different orders. The training was followed by a test in which the observers searched for a new target that was identical to one of the former distractors. The new distractor set consisted of the remaining former distractors plus the former target. On each trial, three letter strings were displayed, which included the target string with a probability of 0.5. In Experiment 1, the strings were centered at different locations on the circumference of an imaginary circle around the fixation point. The training phase of Experiment 2 was similar, but in the test phase of the experiment, the strings were located in a vertical array centered on fixation, and in target-present arrays, the target always appeared at fixation. In both experiments, performance (d’) degraded on trials in which former targets were present, suggesting that the former targets automatically drew processing resources away from the current targets. Apparently, the two experiments showed automatic attraction of visual attention by supraletter features of former target strings. PMID:25505892

  2. Automatism

    PubMed Central

    McCaldon, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed “automatism”. Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of “automatism”. PMID:14199824

  3. Automatic target and trajectory identification for deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ting; Parrent, Andrew G; Peters, Terry M

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic surgical target and trajectory identification technique for planning deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedures. The probabilistic functional maps, constructed from population-based actual stimulating field information and intra-operative electrophysiological activities, were integrated into a neurosurgical visualization and navigation system to facilitate the surgical planning and guidance. In our preliminary studies, we compared the actual surgical target locations and trajectories established by an experienced stereotactic neurosurgeon with those automatically planned using our probabilistic functional maps on 10 subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS procedures. The average displacement between the surgical target locations in both groups was 1.82mm with a standard deviation of 0.77mm. The difference between the surgical trajectories was 3.1 degrees and 2.3 degrees in the lateral-to-medial and anterior-to-posterior orientations respectively.

  4. An integrated approach toward recognizing, locating and combating targets from a modern interceptor aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyhoff, E. G.; Kloeckner, H. W.

    1985-08-01

    Interceptor aircraft of the future will find themselves in an environment which will not only be significantly more hostile than today but also far more difficult to assess. On the one hand the requirement will be to reduce the detectability of the own aircraft and on the other to enhance the capability of destroying enemy targets. Reduction of detectability can be achieved through a variety of measures such as lowering the radar cross section, the IR emission or the RF emission. Enhancement of the capability to destroy enemy target requires, next to better weapons, longer detection and identification ranges as well as quicker reaction times. Faster reaction times are not only required to gain advantages in combating the designated enemy targets but also to respond to threat situations which may emanate from sources other than the targets. The requirement will exist for an avionic system capable of correlating all relevant data and either reaching decisions itself or presenting the pilot with information in such a way that they support his own making process. This paper describes a typical set of aircraft equipments which would be involved in the data acquisition and decision making processes; it quantifies data volumes and rates and, based on these figures, attempts to define processing and correlation requirements. It then proposes a system architecture which might be suitable for the tasks at hand. The emphasis of the paper will be on assessing the impact of LSI/VHSIC technology on those portions of the avionics system which are utilized in the processes described above.

  5. Decision-level fusion of SAR and IR sensor information for automatic target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Rae; Yim, Sung-Hyuk; Cho, Hyun-Woong; Won, Jin-Ju; Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, So-Hyeon

    2017-05-01

    We propose a decision-level architecture that combines synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and an infrared (IR) sensor for automatic target detection. We present a new size-based feature, called target-silhouette to reduce the number of false alarms produced by the conventional target-detection algorithm. Boolean Map Visual Theory is used to combine a pair of SAR and IR images to generate the target-enhanced map. Then basic belief assignment is used to transform this map into a belief map. The detection results of sensors are combined to build the target-silhouette map. We integrate the fusion mass and the target-silhouette map on the decision level to exclude false alarms. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using a SAR and IR synthetic database generated by SE-WORKBENCH simulator, and compared with conventional algorithms. The proposed fusion scheme achieves higher detection rate and lower false alarm rate than the conventional algorithms.

  6. T Cells that Recognize HPV Protein Can Target Virus-Infected Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Adoptive T-cell transfer (ACT) is a promising form of cancer immunotherapy. Treating patients with T cells isolated from a tumor and subsequently expanded in the lab can cause the complete regression of some melanomas and cervical cancers, but the treatment is currently restricted to a few cancer types. An approach that may be applied to a wider array of cancers involves modifying peripheral blood T cells with chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors (TCR) that target specific tumor antigens. Unfortunately, epithelial cancers, which are the vast majority of cancers diagnosed, have proven difficult to treat this way because most identified antigens are shared with healthy tissues and targeting them leads to toxic side effects. However, cancers caused by persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, including cervical, head and neck, anal, vaginal, vulvar, and penile cancers, may be particularly amenable to the latter form of ACT since the E6 and E7 viral proteins are essential for cancer formation but are not produced in normal tissues. To test this idea, Christian Hinrichs, M.D., and his colleagues examined tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from a patient who experienced a prolonged disease-free period after her second surgical removal of metastatic anal cancer in the hopes of identifying a TCR against one of the HPV oncoproteins.

  7. A fast automatic target detection method for detecting ships in infrared scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özertem, Kemal Arda

    2016-05-01

    Automatic target detection in infrared scenes is a vital task for many application areas like defense, security and border surveillance. For anti-ship missiles, having a fast and robust ship detection algorithm is crucial for overall system performance. In this paper, a straight-forward yet effective ship detection method for infrared scenes is introduced. First, morphological grayscale reconstruction is applied to the input image, followed by an automatic thresholding onto the suppressed image. For the segmentation step, connected component analysis is employed to obtain target candidate regions. At this point, it can be realized that the detection is defenseless to outliers like small objects with relatively high intensity values or the clouds. To deal with this drawback, a post-processing stage is introduced. For the post-processing stage, two different methods are used. First, noisy detection results are rejected with respect to target size. Second, the waterline is detected by using Hough transform and the detection results that are located above the waterline with a small margin are rejected. After post-processing stage, there are still undesired holes remaining, which cause to detect one object as multi objects or not to detect an object as a whole. To improve the detection performance, another automatic thresholding is implemented only to target candidate regions. Finally, two detection results are fused and post-processing stage is repeated to obtain final detection result. The performance of overall methodology is tested with real world infrared test data.

  8. Scale invariant SURF detector and automatic clustering segmentation for infrared small targets detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiying; Bai, Jiaojiao; Li, Zhengjie; Liu, Yan; Liu, Kunhong

    2017-06-01

    The detection and discrimination of infrared small dim targets is a challenge in automatic target recognition (ATR), because there is no salient information of size, shape and texture. Many researchers focus on mining more discriminative information of targets in temporal-spatial. However, such information may not be available with the change of imaging environments, and the targets size and intensity keep changing in different imaging distance. So in this paper, we propose a novel research scheme using density-based clustering and backtracking strategy. In this scheme, the speeded up robust feature (SURF) detector is applied to capture candidate targets in single frame at first. And then, these points are mapped into one frame, so that target traces form a local aggregation pattern. In order to isolate the targets from noises, a newly proposed density-based clustering algorithm, fast search and find of density peak (FSFDP for short), is employed to cluster targets by the spatial intensive distribution. Two important factors of the algorithm, percent and γ , are exploited fully to determine the clustering scale automatically, so as to extract the trace with highest clutter suppression ratio. And at the final step, a backtracking algorithm is designed to detect and discriminate target trace as well as to eliminate clutter. The consistence and continuity of the short-time target trajectory in temporal-spatial is incorporated into the bounding function to speed up the pruning. Compared with several state-of-arts methods, our algorithm is more effective for the dim targets with lower signal-to clutter ratio (SCR). Furthermore, it avoids constructing the candidate target trajectory searching space, so its time complexity is limited to a polynomial level. The extensive experimental results show that it has superior performance in probability of detection (Pd) and false alarm suppressing rate aiming at variety of complex backgrounds.

  9. Automatic detection of small moving targets in a five-ocular composite optical imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, You-Shan; Fan, Xue-Wu; Li, Yan; Li, Ying-cai

    2009-10-01

    It is quite difficult to realize the automatic detection and determination of the small moving targets by the images data captured from a mono-aperture imaging system. Therefore a five-ocular composite optical imaging system is designed. The system is constituted by an infrared imaging system in the center and four visible imaging subsystems around the center subsystem. According to the inner feature of the overlapping field of view in the five-ocular composite optical imaging system, the automatic detection and recognition algorithm of the small moving targets for this system is built up. The algorithm is divided into four steps: the first step is preprocessing to get rid of low frequency background pixels, the second step is detecting the candidates of the small moving targets in the high frequency images remained by preprocessing, the third step is determining the true small moving targets from the candidates, and the last step is combining the detecting results of the visible subsystems into the detecting results of the infrared subsystem to determine the small moving targets are "live" or "dead", because the "dead" targets with lower temperature are not observed in the infrared subsystem. The test result in the experimental system indicated that the designed detection and recognition algorithm increased the detecting probability of the small moving targets, and decreased the probability of false alarms. The detection and recognition method was proved to be feasible and effective.

  10. Drosophila motor axons recognize and follow a Sidestep-labeled substrate pathway to reach their target fields

    PubMed Central

    Siebert, Matthias; Banovic, Daniel; Goellner, Bernd; Aberle, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    During development of the Drosophila nervous system, migrating motor axons contact and interact with different cell types before reaching their peripheral muscle fields. The axonal attractant Sidestep (Side) is expressed in most of these intermediate targets. Here, we show that motor axons recognize and follow Side-expressing cell surfaces from the ventral nerve cord to their target region. Contact of motor axons with Side-expressing cells induces the down-regulation of Side. In the absence of Side, the interaction with intermediate targets is lost. Misexpression of Side in side mutants strongly attracts motor axons to ectopic sites. We provide evidence that, on motor axons, Beaten path Ia (Beat) functions as a receptor or part of a receptor complex for Side. In beat mutants, motor axons no longer recognize Side-expressing cell surfaces. Furthermore, Beat interacts with Side both genetically and biochemically. These results suggest that the tracing of Side-labeled cell surfaces by Beat-expressing growth cones is a major principle of motor axon guidance in Drosophila. PMID:19369411

  11. Automatic Detection of Military Targets Utilising Neural Networks and Scale Space Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    Detection of Military Targets utilising Neural Networks and Scale Space Analysis A. Khashman Chairman, Department of Computer Engineering Near East...and 3) high computational cost. This required for the employment of neural networks and new approach to edge detection is formalized in the providing...analysis, edge detection and of the Laplacian of the Gaussian (FLoG) edge neural networks . The result is an automatic edge detection operator [1][2], as

  12. Using land to mitigate climate change: hitting the target, recognizing the trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Reilly, John; Melillo, Jerry; Cai, Yongxia; Kicklighter, David; Gurgel, Angelo; Paltsev, Sergey; Cronin, Timothy; Sokolov, Andrei; Schlosser, Adam

    2012-06-05

    Land can be used in several ways to mitigate climate change, but especially under changing environmental conditions there may be implications for food prices. Using an integrated global system model, we explore the roles that these land-use options can play in a global mitigation strategy to stabilize Earth's average temperature within 2 °C of the preindustrial level and their impacts on agriculture. We show that an ambitious global Energy-Only climate policy that includes biofuels would likely not achieve the 2 °C target. A thought-experiment where the world ideally prices land carbon fluxes combined with biofuels (Energy+Land policy) gets the world much closer. Land could become a large net carbon sink of about 178 Pg C over the 21st century with price incentives in the Energy+Land scenario. With land carbon pricing but without biofuels (a No-Biofuel scenario) the carbon sink is nearly identical to the case with biofuels, but emissions from energy are somewhat higher, thereby results in more warming. Absent such incentives, land is either a much smaller net carbon sink (+37 Pg C - Energy-Only policy) or a net source (-21 Pg C - No-Policy). The significant trade-off with this integrated land-use approach is that prices for agricultural products rise substantially because of mitigation costs borne by the sector and higher land prices. Share of income spent on food for wealthier regions continues to fall, but for the poorest regions, higher food prices lead to a rising share of income spent on food.

  13. Registration free automatic identification of gold fiducial markers in MRI target delineation images for prostate radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Christian; Korhonen, Juha; Persson, Emilia; Gunnlaugsson, Adalsteinn; Nyholm, Tufve; Olsson, Lars E

    2017-08-13

    The superior soft tissue contrast of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared to computed tomography (CT) has urged the integration of MRI and elimination of CT in radiotherapy treatment (RT) for prostate. An intraprostatic gold fiducial marker (GFM) appears hyperintense on CT. On T2-weighted (T2w) MRI target delineation images, the GFM appear as a small signal void similar to calcifications and post biopsy fibrosis. It can therefore be difficult to identify the markers without CT. Detectability of GFMs can be improved using additional MR images, which are manually registered to target delineation images. This task requires manual labor, and is associated with interoperator differences and image registration errors. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate an automatic method for identification of GFMs directly in the target delineation images without the need for image registration. T2w images, intended for target delineation, and multiecho gradient echo (MEGRE) images intended for GFM identification, were acquired for prostate cancer patients. Signal voids in the target delineation images were identified as GFM candidates. The GFM appeared as round, symmetric, signal void with increasing area for increasing echo time in the MEGRE images. These image features were exploited for automatic identification of GFMs in a MATLAB model using a patient training dataset (n = 20). The model was validated on an independent patient dataset (n = 40). The distances between the identified GFM in the target delineation images and the GFM in CT images were measured. A human observatory study was conducted to validate the use of MEGRE images. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the automatic method and the observatory study was 84%, 74%, 81% and 98%, 94%, 97%, respectively. The mean absolute difference in the GFM distances for the automatic method and observatory study was 1.28 ± 1.25 mm and 1.14 ± 1.06 mm, respectively. Multiecho gradient echo images were shown

  14. A hierarchical classifier using new support vector machines for automatic target recognition.

    PubMed

    Casasent, David; Wang, Yu-Chiang

    2005-01-01

    A binary hierarchical classifier is proposed for automatic target recognition. We also require rejection of non-object (non-target) inputs, which are not seen during training or validation, thus producing a very difficult problem. The SVRDM (support vector representation and discrimination machine) classifier is used at each node in the hierarchy, since it offers good generalization and rejection ability. Using this hierarchical SVRDM classifier with magnitude Fourier transform (|FT|) features, which provide shift-invariance, initial test results on infra-red (IR) data are excellent.

  15. Optical pattern recognition and Al algorithms and architectures for automatic target recognition (ATR) and computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David

    1987-04-01

    Optical Pattern Recognition has provided many attractive algorithms and architecture for advanced use in Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) and computer vision. This work is reviewed and highlighted in this paper. Attractive aspects of all of this research are: its attention to distortion-invariant, multi-target object recognition and the extensive testing which has been performed of these various architectures on large databases, as well as the design and fabrication of several quite compact optical processing architectures. Recent Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques promise to further advance optical processing. These issues are summarized herein.

  16. Truncated feature representation for automatic target detection using transformed data-based decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riasati, Vahid R.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the data covariance matrix is diagonalized to provide an orthogonal bases set using the eigen vectors of the data. The eigen-vector decomposition of the data is transformed and filtered in the transform domain to truncate the data for robust features related to a specified set of targets. These truncated eigen features are then combined and reconstructed to utilize in a composite filter and consequently utilized for the automatic target detection of the same class of targets. The results associated with the testing of the current technique are evaluated using the peak-correlation and peak-correlation energy metrics and are presented in this work. The inverse transformed eigen-bases of the current technique may be thought of as an injected sparsity to minimize data in representing the skeletal data structure information associated with the set of targets under consideration.

  17. Dual Receptor Recognizing Cell Penetrating Peptide for Selective Targeting, Efficient Intratumoral Diffusion and Synthesized Anti-Glioma Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yayuan; Mei, Ling; Xu, Chaoqun; Yu, Qianwen; Shi, Kairong; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Qianyu; Gao, Huile; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) were widely used for drug delivery to tumor. However, the nonselective in vivo penetration greatly limited the application of CPPs-mediated drug delivery systems. And the treatment of malignant tumors is usually followed by poor prognosis and relapse due to the existence of extravascular core regions of tumor. Thus it is important to endue selective targeting and stronger intratumoral diffusion abilities to CPPs. In this study, an RGD reverse sequence dGR was conjugated to a CPP octa-arginine to form a CendR (R/KXXR/K) motif contained tandem peptide R8-dGR (RRRRRRRRdGR) which could bind to both integrin αvβ3 and neuropilin-1 receptors. The dual receptor recognizing peptide R8-dGR displayed increased cellular uptake and efficient penetration ability into glioma spheroids in vitro. The following in vivo studies indicated the active targeting and intratumoral diffusion capabilities of R8-dGR modified liposomes. When paclitaxel was loaded in the liposomes, PTX-R8-dGR-Lip induced the strongest anti-proliferation effect on both tumor cells and cancer stem cells, and inhibited the formation of vasculogenic mimicry channels in vitro. Finally, the R8-dGR liposomal drug delivery system prolonged the medium survival time of intracranial C6 bearing mice by 2.1-fold compared to the untreated group, and achieved an exhaustive anti-glioma therapy including anti-tumor cells, anti-vasculogenic mimicry and anti-brain cancer stem cells. To sum up, all the results demonstrated that R8-dGR was an ideal dual receptor recognizing CPP with selective glioma targeting and efficient intratumoral diffusion, which could be further used to equip drug delivery system for effective glioma therapy. PMID:26877777

  18. CdiA Effectors from Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Use Heterotrimeric Osmoporins as Receptors to Recognize Target Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Christina M.; Willett, Julia L. E.; Kim, Jeff J.; Low, David A.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens express contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems that promote cell-cell interaction. CDI+ bacteria express surface CdiA effector proteins, which transfer their C-terminal toxin domains into susceptible target cells upon binding to specific receptors. CDI+ cells also produce immunity proteins that neutralize the toxin domains delivered from neighboring siblings. Here, we show that CdiAEC536 from uropathogenic Escherichia coli 536 (EC536) uses OmpC and OmpF as receptors to recognize target bacteria. E. coli mutants lacking either ompF or ompC are resistant to CDIEC536-mediated growth inhibition, and both porins are required for target-cell adhesion to inhibitors that express CdiAEC536. Experiments with single-chain OmpF fusions indicate that the CdiAEC536 receptor is heterotrimeric OmpC-OmpF. Because the OmpC and OmpF porins are under selective pressure from bacteriophages and host immune systems, their surface-exposed loops vary between E. coli isolates. OmpC polymorphism has a significant impact on CDIEC536 mediated competition, with many E. coli isolates expressing alleles that are not recognized by CdiAEC536. Analyses of recombinant OmpC chimeras suggest that extracellular loops L4 and L5 are important recognition epitopes for CdiAEC536. Loops L4 and L5 also account for much of the sequence variability between E. coli OmpC proteins, raising the possibility that CDI contributes to the selective pressure driving OmpC diversification. We find that the most efficient CdiAEC536 receptors are encoded by isolates that carry the same cdi gene cluster as E. coli 536. Thus, it appears that CdiA effectors often bind preferentially to "self" receptors, thereby promoting interactions between sibling cells. As a consequence, these effector proteins cannot recognize nor suppress the growth of many potential competitors. These findings suggest that self-recognition and kin selection are important functions of CDI. PMID:27723824

  19. Automatic target recognition processor using an optical wavelet preprocessor and an electronic neural classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngchul; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1997-03-01

    A comprehensive automatic target recognition (ATR) system using a wavelet transform based target detection preprocessor and a neural network classifier is described. A compact, high-speed optical wavelet processor with full gray scale filter capability, recently developed at JPL has been used for real-time target detection preprocessing. An innovative feature extraction algorithm using the Hermite Moments has been developed and used for neural net classification. The extracted Hermite Moment features, with their greatly reduced dimension and efficient representation, has enabled rapid neural training with test with very high classification and low false alarm rate. Experimental demonstration for face recognition and vehicle classification has been successfully carried out using this ATR system.

  20. Enhanced synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition method based on novel features.

    PubMed

    Ning, Chen; Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Gong; Yin, Jiejun; Ji, Xiuxia

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes a set of uncommonly rich feature representations for automatic target recognition (ATR) in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The proposed novel feature representations capture both the spatial and spectral properties of a target in a unified framework, while simultaneously offering discrimination and robustness to aspect variations. Specifically, the proposed features are mainly derived from the ideas of the monogenic signal and polar mapping. The applicability of the monogenic signal within the field of SAR target recognition is demonstrated by its capability of capturing both the broad spectral information and spatial localization with compact support. Further, to reduce the influence of inevitable variations due to aspect changes in SAR images, the monogenic components are transformed from Cartesian to polar coordinates through polar mapping. Additionally, a new target-shadow feature is also presented to compensate for the important discriminative information about target geometry, which exists in the shadow area. Finally, the proposed features are jointly considered into a unified multiple kernel learning framework for target recognition. Experiments on the moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition (MSTAR) public dataset demonstrate the strength and applicability of the proposed representations to SAR ATR. Moreover, it is also shown that overall high recognition accuracy can be obtained by the established unified framework.

  1. Automatic Extraction of Closed Pixel Clusters for Target Cueing in Hyperspectral Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D W; Perkins, D E

    2001-06-05

    Traditional algorithms for automatic target cueing (ATC) in hyperspectral images, such as the RX algorithm, treat anomaly detection as a simple hypothesis testing problem. Each decision threshold gives rise to a different set of anomalous pixels. The clustered Rx algorithm generates target cues by grouping anomalous pixels into spatial clusters, and retaining only those clusters that satisfy target specific spatial constraints. It produces one set of target cues for each of several decision thresholds, and conservatively requires {Omicron}(K{sup 2}) operations per pixel, where K is the number of spectral bands (which varies from hundreds to thousands in hyperspectral images). A novel ATC algorithm, known as ''Pixel Cluster Cueing'' (PCC), is discussed. PCC groups pixels into clusters based on spectral similarity and spatial proximity, and then selects only those clusters that satisfy target-specific spatial constraints as target cues. PCC requires only {Omicron}(K) operations per pixel, and it produces only one set of target cues because it is not an anomaly detection algorithm, i.e., it does not use a decision threshold to classify individual pixels as anomalies. PCC is compared both computationally and statistically to the RX algorithm.

  2. Photon counting passive 3D image sensing for automatic target recognition.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Seokwon; Javidi, Bahram; Watson, Edward

    2005-11-14

    In this paper, we propose photon counting three-dimensional (3D) passive sensing and object recognition using integral imaging. The application of this approach to 3D automatic target recognition (ATR) is investigated using both linear and nonlinear matched filters. We find there is significant potential of the proposed system for 3D sensing and recognition with a low number of photons. The discrimination capability of the proposed system is quantified in terms of discrimination ratio, Fisher ratio, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on photon counting 3D passive sensing and ATR with integral imaging.

  3. The Development of the Automatic Target Recognition System for the UGV/RSTA LADAR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-21

    Vol. 1960, Orlando, FL, 14-16 April 1993, pp. 57-71. 6. J.E. Nettleton and S. Holder, "Active/passive laser radar field test (Fort A.P. Hill, VA...is to develop the automatic target recogni- tion (ATR) system that will process the imagery from the RSTA laser radar (ladar). A real-time...ix 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. IMAGE DATA BASES 5 2.1 Introduction 5 2.2 Tri-Service Laser -Radar (TSLR) Data 5 2.3 Hobby Shop (HBS) Laser -Radar Data 11

  4. Interim results from a neural network 3-D automatic target recognition program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoet, William; Rainey, Timothy G.; Slutz, Lee A.; Weingard, Fred

    1992-09-01

    Recent results from the Artificial Neural VIsion Learning (ANVIL) program are presented. The focus of the ANVIL program is to apply neural network technologies to the air-to-surface 3D automatic target recognition (ATR) problem. The 3D Multiple Object Detection and Location System (MODALS) neural network was developed under the ANVIL program to simultaneously detect, locate, segment, and identify multiple targets. The performance results show a very high identification accuracy, a high detection rate, and low false alarm rate, even for areas with high clutter and shadowing. The results are shown as detection/false alarm curves and identification/false alarm curves. In addition, positional detection accuracy is shown for various scale sizes. To provide data for the program, visible terrain board imagery was collected under a variety of background and lighting conditions. Tests were made on over 500 targets of five types and two classes. These targets varied in scale by up to -25%, varied in azimuth by up to 120 degrees, and varied in elevation by up to 10 degrees. The performance results are shown for targets with resolution ranging from 9 to 700 pixels on target. This work is being performed under contract to Wright Laboratory AAAT-1.

  5. ANVIL neural network program for three-dimensional automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoet, William; Rainey, Timothy G.; Brettle, Dean W.; Slutz, Lee A.; Weingard, Fred

    1992-12-01

    The focus of the artificial neural vision learning (ANVIL) program is to apply neural network technologies to the air-to-surface 3-D automatic target recognition (ATR) problem. The 3-D multiple object detection and location system (MODALS) neural network was developed under the ANVIL program to simultaneously detect, locate, segment, and identify multiple targets. The performance results show a very high identification accuracy, a high detection rate, and a low false alarm rate, even for areas with high clutter and shadowing. The results are shown as detection/false alarm curves and identification/false alarm curves. In addition, positional detection accuracy is shown for various scale sizes. To provide data for the program, visible terrain board imagery was collected under a variety of background and lighting conditions. Tests were made on more than 500 targets of five types and two classes. These targets varied in scale by up to -25%, varied in azimuth by up to 120 deg, and varied in elevation by up to 10 deg. The performance results are shown for targets with resolution ranging from 9 to 700 pixels on target.

  6. Clutter metric based on the Cramer-Rao lower bound on automatic target recognition.

    PubMed

    He, Guojing; Zhang, Jianqi; Liu, Delian; Chang, Honghua

    2008-10-10

    This is a performance evaluation on the implementation of the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for background clutter measurement on automatic target recognition (ATR). In essence the background clutter evaluation problem for ATR is consistent with the deterministic parameter estimation problem. Thus, useful concepts and theories of deterministic parameter estimation can be introduced into the investigation of background clutter. In this paper, the CRLB is employed as a metric for clutter measurement. Requirements needed for this application are analyzed, and the approach for obtaining the CRLB of a scene image is produced. The flexibility of the CRLB metric is analyzed. Discussion and comparison are made on the relationship between the CRLB metric and the Sims signal-to-clutter metric. Finally, we illustrate how this metric defines the potential for false alarms by determining the correspondence level between a target and background through the application of the CRLB.

  7. SAR automatic target recognition using maximum likelihood template-based classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghri, John A.

    2008-08-01

    A review of several recently-developed maximum likelihood template-based automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms for extended targets in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery data is presented. The algorithms are based on 'gradient' peaks, 'ceiling' peaks, edges, corners, shadows, and rectangular-fits. A weight-based Bayesian maximum likelihood scheme to combine multiple template-based classifiers is presented. The feature weights are derived from prior recognition accuracies, i.e., confidence levels, achieved by individual template-based classifiers. Application of feature-based weights instead of target specific feature-based weights reduces the resulting ATR accuracy by only a small amount. Preliminary results indicate that (1) the ceiling peaks provide the most target-discriminating power, (2) inclusion of more target-discriminating features leads to higher classification accuracy. Dempster-Shaffer rule of combination is suggested as a potential alternative to the implemented Bayesian decision theory approach to resolve conflicting reports from multiple template-based classifiers.

  8. Automatic attraction of attention to former targets in visual displays of letters.

    PubMed

    Kyllingsbaek, S; Schneider, W X; Bundesen, C

    2001-01-01

    Shiffrin and Schneider (1977, Experiment 4d) reported that after consistent training in search for particular alphanumeric characters, presentation of one of these characters (former targets) as a distractor impeded detection of simultaneously presented current targets. Even if presented in an irrelevant display location, the former target appeared to attract attention. Here, we analyze weaknesses in the design of Experiment 4d and report four follow-up experiments ranging from a fairly close replication of the original multiframe experiment to a rather conventional single-frame search study. In each experiment, presentation of former targets consistently impeded detection of simultaneously presented current targets. The results suggest that automatic attention attraction to individual alphanumeric characters develops not only in the special experimental paradigm used by Shiffrin and Schneider, but also in standard visual search tasks. The fact that attention appeared to be attracted by shapes as complex as individual letters supports the assumption that simultaneously presented visual stimuli can be compared in parallel against memory representations of alphanumeric characters.

  9. An algorithm for automatic target recognition using passive radar and an EKF for estimating aircraft orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrman, Lisa M.

    2005-07-01

    Rather than emitting pulses, passive radar systems rely on "illuminators of opportunity," such as TV and FM radio, to illuminate potential targets. These systems are attractive since they allow receivers to operate without emitting energy, rendering them covert. Until recently, most of the research regarding passive radar has focused on detecting and tracking targets. This dissertation focuses on extending the capabilities of passive radar systems to include automatic target recognition. The target recognition algorithm described in this dissertation uses the radar cross section (RCS) of potential targets, collected over a short period of time, as the key information for target recognition. To make the simulated RCS as accurate as possible, the received signal model accounts for aircraft position and orientation, propagation losses, and antenna gain patterns. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) estimates the target's orientation (and uncertainty in the estimate) from velocity measurements obtained from the passive radar tracker. Coupling the aircraft orientation and state with the known antenna locations permits computation of the incident and observed azimuth and elevation angles. The Fast Illinois Solver Code (FISC) simulates the RCS of potential target classes as a function of these angles. Thus, the approximated incident and observed angles allow the appropriate RCS to be extracted from a database of FISC results. Using this process, the RCS of each aircraft in the target class is simulated as though each is executing the same maneuver as the target detected by the system. Two additional scaling processes are required to transform the RCS into a power profile (magnitude only) simulating the signal in the receiver. First, the RCS is scaled by the Advanced Refractive Effects Prediction System (AREPS) code to account for propagation losses that occur as functions of altitude and range. Then, the Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC2) computes the antenna gain pattern

  10. Real-time automatic small infrared target detection using local spectral filtering in the frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Hong; Li, Jiafeng; Yuan, Ding; Sun, Mingui

    2014-11-01

    Accurate and fast detection of small infrared target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. Based on human visual attention mechanism, an automatic detection algorithm for small infrared target is presented. In this paper, instead of searching for infrared targets, we model regular patches that do not attract much attention by our visual system. This is inspired by the property that the regular patches in spatial domain turn out to correspond to the spikes in the amplitude spectrum. Unlike recent approaches using global spectral filtering, we define the concept of local maxima suppression using local spectral filtering to smooth the spikes in the amplitude spectrum, thereby producing the pop-out of the infrared targets. In the proposed method, we firstly compute the amplitude spectrum of an input infrared image. Second, we find the local maxima of the amplitude spectrum using cubic facet model. Third, we suppress the local maxima using the convolution of the local spectrum with a low-pass Gaussian kernel of an appropriate scale. At last, the detection result in spatial domain is obtained by reconstructing the 2D signal using the original phase and the log amplitude spectrum by suppressing local maxima. The experiments are performed for some real-life IR images, and the results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be further used for real-time detection and tracking.

  11. Automatic geocoding of high-value targets using structural image analysis and GIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soergel, Uwe; Thoennessen, Ulrich

    1999-12-01

    Geocoding based merely on navigation data and sensor model is often not possible or precise enough. In these cases an improvement of the preregistration through image-based approaches is a solution. Due to the large amount of data in remote sensing automatic geocoding methods are necessary. For geocoding purposes appropriate tie points, which are present in image and map, have to be detected and matched. The tie points are base of the transformation function. Assigning the tie points is combinatorial problem depending on the number of tie points. This number can be reduced using structural tie points like corners or crossings of prominent extended targets (e.g. harbors, airfields). Additionally the reliability of the tie points is improved. Our approach extracts structural tie points independently in the image and in the vector map by a model-based image analysis. The vector map is provided by a GIS using ATKIS data base. The model parameters are extracted from maps or collateral information of the scenario. The two sets of tie points are automatically matched with a Geometric Hashing algorithm. The algorithm was successfully applied to VIS, IR and SAR data.

  12. Target and peripheral dose during patient repositioning with the Gamma Knife automatic positioning system (APS) device.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuan-Anh; Stanley, Thomas R; Malhotra, Harish K; De Boer, Steven F; Prasad, Dheerendra; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2010-01-28

    The GammaPlan treatment planning system does not account for the leakage and scatter dose during APS repositioning. In this study, the dose delivered to the target site and its periphery from the defocus stage and intershot couch transit (couch motion from the focus to defocus position and back) associated with APS repositioning are measured for the Gamma Knife model 4C. A stereotactic head-frame was attached to a Leksell 16 cm diameter spherical phantom with a calibrated ion chamber at its center. Using a fiducial box, CT images of the phantom were acquired and registered in the GammaPlan treatment planning system to determine the coordinates of the target (center of the phantom). An absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the 50% isodose line was prescribed to the target site for all measurements. Plans were generated for the 8, 14 and 18 mm collimator helmets to determine the relationship of measured dose to the number of repositions of the APS system and to the helmet size. The target coordinate was identical throughout entire study and there was no movement of the APS between various shots. This allowed for measurement of intershot transit dose at the target site and its periphery. The couch was paused in the defocus position, allowing defocus dose measurements at the intracranial target and periphery. Measured dose increases with frequency of repositioning and with helmet collimator size. During couch transit, the target receives more dose than peripheral regions; however, in the defocus position, the greatest dose is superior to the target site. The automatic positioning system for the Leksell Gamma Knife model 4C results in an additional dose of up to 3.87 +/- 0.07%, 4.97 +/- 0.04%, and 5.71 +/- 0.07% to the target site; its periphery receives additional dose that varies depending on its position relative to the target. There is also dose contribution to the patient in the defocus position, where the APS repositions the patient from one treatment coordinate to another

  13. Analyzing the effects of square versus non-square resolutions on automatic target recognition performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnino, Lee J.; Cassabaum, Mary L.; Halversen, Shawn D.; Hebert, Christina L.; Rupp, Chad T.; Young, Matthew T.; Ku, Neilson

    2008-04-01

    A multi-stage Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) system is analyzed across images of various pixel areas achieved by both square and non-square resolution. Non-square resolution offers the ability to achieve finer resolution in the range or cross-range direction with a corresponding degradation of resolution in the cross-range or range direction, respectively. The algorithms examined include a standard 2-parameter Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detection stage, a discrimination stage, and a template-based classification stage. Performance for each stage with respect to both pixel area and square versus non-square resolution is shown via cascaded Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. The results indicate that, for fixed pixel areas, non-square resolution imagery can achieve statistically similar performance to square pixel resolution imagery in a multi-stage SAR ATR system.

  14. User acceptance of intelligent avionics: A study of automatic-aided target recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Curtis A.; Hayes, Brian C.; Gorman, Patrick C.

    1991-01-01

    User acceptance of new support systems typically was evaluated after the systems were specified, designed, and built. The current study attempts to assess user acceptance of an Automatic-Aided Target Recognition (ATR) system using an emulation of such a proposed system. The detection accuracy and false alarm level of the ATR system were varied systematically, and subjects rated the tactical value of systems exhibiting different performance levels. Both detection accuracy and false alarm level affected the subjects' ratings. The data from two experiments suggest a cut-off point in ATR performance below which the subjects saw little tactical value in the system. An ATR system seems to have obvious tactical value only if it functions at a correct detection rate of 0.7 or better with a false alarm level of 0.167 false alarms per square degree or fewer.

  15. Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems (DDDAS) modeling for automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Seetharaman, Guna; Darema, Frederica

    2013-05-01

    The Dynamic Data Driven Applications System (DDDAS) concept uses applications modeling, mathematical algorithms, and measurement systems to work with dynamic systems. A dynamic systems such as Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) is subject to sensor, target, and the environment variations over space and time. We use the DDDAS concept to develop an ATR methodology for multiscale-multimodal analysis that seeks to integrated sensing, processing, and exploitation. In the analysis, we use computer vision techniques to explore the capabilities and analogies that DDDAS has with information fusion. The key attribute of coordination is the use of sensor management as a data driven techniques to improve performance. In addition, DDDAS supports the need for modeling from which uncertainty and variations are used within the dynamic models for advanced performance. As an example, we use a Wide-Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) application to draw parallels and contrasts between ATR and DDDAS systems that warrants an integrated perspective. This elementary work is aimed at triggering a sequence of deeper insightful research towards exploiting sparsely sampled piecewise dense WAMI measurements - an application where the challenges of big-data with regards to mathematical fusion relationships and high-performance computations remain significant and will persist. Dynamic data-driven adaptive computations are required to effectively handle the challenges with exponentially increasing data volume for advanced information fusion systems solutions such as simultaneous target tracking and ATR.

  16. A distributed automatic target recognition system using multiple low resolution sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Zhanfeng; Lakshmi Narasimha, Pramod; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-agent system which uses swarming techniques to perform high accuracy Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) in a distributed manner. The proposed system can co-operatively share the information from low-resolution images of different looks and use this information to perform high accuracy ATR. An advanced, multiple-agent Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems-based approach is proposed which integrates the processing capabilities, combines detection reporting with live video exchange, and swarm behavior modalities that dramatically surpass individual sensor system performance levels. We employ real-time block-based motion analysis and compensation scheme for efficient estimation and correction of camera jitter, global motion of the camera/scene and the effects of atmospheric turbulence. Our optimized Partition Weighted Sum (PWS) approach requires only bitshifts and additions, yet achieves a stunning 16X pixel resolution enhancement, which is moreover parallizable. We develop advanced, adaptive particle-filtering based algorithms to robustly track multiple mobile targets by adaptively changing the appearance model of the selected targets. The collaborative ATR system utilizes the homographies between the sensors induced by the ground plane to overlap the local observation with the received images from other UAVs. The motion of the UAVs distorts estimated homography frame to frame. A robust dynamic homography estimation algorithm is proposed to address this, by using the homography decomposition and the ground plane surface estimation.

  17. Experimental evaluation of video preprocessing algorithms for automatic target hand-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIngvale, P. H.; Guyton, R. D.

    It is pointed out that the Automatic Target Hand-Off Correlator (ATHOC) hardware has been modified to permit operation in a nonreal-time mode as a programmable laboratory test unit using video recordings as inputs and allowing several preprocessing algorithms to be software programmable. In parallel with this hardware modification effort, an analysis and simulation effort has been underway to help determine which of the many available preprocessing algorithms should be implemented in the ATHOC software. It is noted that videotapes from a current technology airborne target acquisition system and an imaging infrared missile seeker were recorded and used in the laboratory experiments. These experiments are described and the results are presented. A set of standard parameters is found for each case. Consideration of the background in the target scene is found to be important. Analog filter cutoff frequencies of 2.5 MHz for low pass and 300 kHz for high pass are found to give best results. EPNC = 1 is found to be slightly better than EPNC = 0. It is also shown that trilevel gives better results than bilevel.

  18. Localization accuracy from automatic and semi-automatic rigid registration of locally-advanced lung cancer targets during image-guided radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Scott P.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate localization accuracy resulting from rigid registration of locally-advanced lung cancer targets using fully automatic and semi-automatic protocols for image-guided radiation therapy. Methods: Seventeen lung cancer patients, fourteen also presenting with involved lymph nodes, received computed tomography (CT) scans once per week throughout treatment under active breathing control. A physician contoured both lung and lymph node targets for all weekly scans. Various automatic and semi-automatic rigid registration techniques were then performed for both individual and simultaneous alignments of the primary gross tumor volume (GTV{sub P}) and involved lymph nodes (GTV{sub LN}) to simulate the localization process in image-guided radiation therapy. Techniques included ''standard'' (direct registration of weekly images to a planning CT), ''seeded'' (manual prealignment of targets to guide standard registration), ''transitive-based'' (alignment of pretreatment and planning CTs through one or more intermediate images), and ''rereferenced'' (designation of a new reference image for registration). Localization error (LE) was assessed as the residual centroid and border distances between targets from planning and weekly CTs after registration. Results: Initial bony alignment resulted in centroid LE of 7.3 {+-} 5.4 mm and 5.4 {+-} 3.4 mm for the GTV{sub P} and GTV{sub LN}, respectively. Compared to bony alignment, transitive-based and seeded registrations significantly reduced GTV{sub P} centroid LE to 4.7 {+-} 3.7 mm (p = 0.011) and 4.3 {+-} 2.5 mm (p < 1 x 10{sup -3}), respectively, but the smallest GTV{sub P} LE of 2.4 {+-} 2.1 mm was provided by rereferenced registration (p < 1 x 10{sup -6}). Standard registration significantly reduced GTV{sub LN} centroid LE to 3.2 {+-} 2.5 mm (p < 1 x 10{sup -3}) compared to bony alignment, with little additional gain offered by the other registration techniques. For simultaneous target alignment, centroid LE as low

  19. General Metropolis-Hastings jump diffusions for automatic target recognition in infrared scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanterman, Aaron D.; Miller, Michael I.; Snyder, Donald L.

    1997-04-01

    To locate and recognize ground-based targets in forward- looking IR (FLIR) images, 3D faceted models with associated pose parameters are formulated to accommodate the variability found in FLIR imagery. Taking a Bayesian approach, scenes are simulated from the emissive characteristics of the CAD models and compared with the collected data by a likelihood function based on sensor statistics. This likelihood is combined with a prior distribution defined over the set of possible scenes to form a posterior distribution. To accommodate scenes with variable numbers of targets, the posterior distribution is defined over parameter vectors of varying dimension. An inference algorithm based on Metropolis-Hastings jump- diffusion processes empirically samples from the posterior distribution, generating configurations of templates and transformations that match the collected sensor data with high probability. The jumps accommodate the addition and deletion of targets and the estimation of target identities; diffusions refine the hypotheses by drifting along the gradient of the posterior distribution with respect to the orientation and position parameters. Previous results on jumps strategies analogous to the Metropolis acceptance/rejection algorithm, with proposals drawn from the prior and accepted based on the likelihood, are extended to encompass general Metropolis-Hastings proposal densities. In particular, the algorithm proposes moves by drawing from the posterior distribution over computationally tractible subsets of the parameter space. The algorithm is illustrated by an implementation on a Silicon Graphics Onyx/Reality Engine.

  20. Development of automatic target recognition for infrared sensor-based close-range land mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngan, Peter; Garcia, Sigberto A.; Cloud, Eugene L.; Duvoisin, Herbert A., III; Long, Daniel T.; Hackett, Jay K.

    1995-06-01

    Infrared imagery scenes change continuously with environmental conditions. Strategic targets embedded in them are often difficult to be identified with the naked eye. An IR sensor-based mine detector must include Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) to detect and extract land mines from IR scenes. In the course of the ATR development process, mine signature data were collected using a commercial 8-12 (mu) spectral range FLIR, model Inframetrics 445L, and a commercial 3-5 (mu) starting focal planar array FLIR, model Infracam. These sensors were customized to the required field-of-view for short range operation. These baseline data were then input into a specialized parallel processor on which the mine detection algorithm is developed and trained. The ATR is feature-based and consists of several subprocesses to progress from raw input IR imagery to a neural network classifier for final nomination of the targets. Initially, image enhancement is used to remove noise and sensor artifact. Three preprocessing techniques, namely model-based segmentation, multi-element prescreener, and geon detector are then applied to extract specific features of the targets and to reject all objects that do not resemble mines. Finally, to further reduce the false alarm rate, the extracted features are presented to the neural network classifier. Depending on the operational circumstances, one of three neural network techniques will be adopted; back propagation, supervised real-time learning, or unsupervised real-time learning. The Close Range IR Mine Detection System is an Army program currently being experimentally developed to be demonstrated in the Army's Advanced Technology Demonstration in FY95. The ATR resulting from this program will be integrated in the 21st Century Land Warrior program in which the mine avoidance capability is its primary interest.

  1. Recognizing Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Hadyn D.

    1975-01-01

    The proposition that the mechanisms underlying facial recognition are different from those involved in recognizing other classes of pictorial material was assessed following a general review of the literature concerned with recognizing faces. (Author/RK)

  2. A multimodality segmentation framework for automatic target delineation in head and neck radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jinzhong; Aristophanous, Michalis; Beadle, Beth M.; Garden, Adam S.; Schwartz, David L.

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: To develop an automatic segmentation algorithm integrating imaging information from computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to delineate target volume in head and neck cancer radiotherapy. Methods: Eleven patients with unresectable disease at the tonsil or base of tongue who underwent MRI, CT, and PET/CT within two months before the start of radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy were recruited for the study. For each patient, PET/CT and T1-weighted contrast MRI scans were first registered to the planning CT using deformable and rigid registration, respectively, to resample the PET and magnetic resonance (MR) images to the planning CT space. A binary mask was manually defined to identify the tumor area. The resampled PET and MR images, the planning CT image, and the binary mask were fed into the automatic segmentation algorithm for target delineation. The algorithm was based on a multichannel Gaussian mixture model and solved using an expectation–maximization algorithm with Markov random fields. To evaluate the algorithm, we compared the multichannel autosegmentation with an autosegmentation method using only PET images. The physician-defined gross tumor volume (GTV) was used as the “ground truth” for quantitative evaluation. Results: The median multichannel segmented GTV of the primary tumor was 15.7 cm{sup 3} (range, 6.6–44.3 cm{sup 3}), while the PET segmented GTV was 10.2 cm{sup 3} (range, 2.8–45.1 cm{sup 3}). The median physician-defined GTV was 22.1 cm{sup 3} (range, 4.2–38.4 cm{sup 3}). The median difference between the multichannel segmented and physician-defined GTVs was −10.7%, not showing a statistically significant difference (p-value = 0.43). However, the median difference between the PET segmented and physician-defined GTVs was −19.2%, showing a statistically significant difference (p-value =0.0037). The median Dice similarity coefficient between the multichannel segmented

  3. A multimodality segmentation framework for automatic target delineation in head and neck radiotherapy a)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinzhong; Beadle, Beth M.; Garden, Adam S.; Schwartz, David L.; Aristophanous, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an automatic segmentation algorithm integrating imaging information from computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to delineate target volume in head and neck cancer radiotherapy. Methods: Eleven patients with unresectable disease at the tonsil or base of tongue who underwent MRI, CT, and PET/CT within two months before the start of radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy were recruited for the study. For each patient, PET/CT and T1-weighted contrast MRI scans were first registered to the planning CT using deformable and rigid registration, respectively, to resample the PET and magnetic resonance (MR) images to the planning CT space. A binary mask was manually defined to identify the tumor area. The resampled PET and MR images, the planning CT image, and the binary mask were fed into the automatic segmentation algorithm for target delineation. The algorithm was based on a multichannel Gaussian mixture model and solved using an expectation–maximization algorithm with Markov random fields. To evaluate the algorithm, we compared the multichannel autosegmentation with an autosegmentation method using only PET images. The physician-defined gross tumor volume (GTV) was used as the “ground truth” for quantitative evaluation. Results: The median multichannel segmented GTV of the primary tumor was 15.7 cm3 (range, 6.6–44.3 cm3), while the PET segmented GTV was 10.2 cm3 (range, 2.8–45.1 cm3). The median physician-defined GTV was 22.1 cm3 (range, 4.2–38.4 cm3). The median difference between the multichannel segmented and physician-defined GTVs was −10.7%, not showing a statistically significant difference (p-value = 0.43). However, the median difference between the PET segmented and physician-defined GTVs was −19.2%, showing a statistically significant difference (p-value =0.0037). The median Dice similarity coefficient between the multichannel segmented and physician-defined GTVs was 0

  4. A comparative study of automatic image segmentation algorithms for target tracking in MR-IGRT.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuan; Kawrakow, Iwan; Olsen, Jeff; Parikh, Parag J; Noel, Camille; Wooten, Omar; Du, Dongsu; Mutic, Sasa; Hu, Yanle

    2016-03-08

    On-board magnetic resonance (MR) image guidance during radiation therapy offers the potential for more accurate treatment delivery. To utilize the real-time image information, a crucial prerequisite is the ability to successfully segment and track regions of interest (ROI). The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of different segmentation algorithms using motion images (4 frames per second) acquired using a MR image-guided radiotherapy (MR-IGRT) system. Manual con-tours of the kidney, bladder, duodenum, and a liver tumor by an experienced radiation oncologist were used as the ground truth for performance evaluation. Besides the manual segmentation, images were automatically segmented using thresholding, fuzzy k-means (FKM), k-harmonic means (KHM), and reaction-diffusion level set evolution (RD-LSE) algorithms, as well as the tissue tracking algorithm provided by the ViewRay treatment planning and delivery system (VR-TPDS). The performance of the five algorithms was evaluated quantitatively by comparing with the manual segmentation using the Dice coefficient and target registration error (TRE) measured as the distance between the centroid of the manual ROI and the centroid of the automatically segmented ROI. All methods were able to successfully segment the bladder and the kidney, but only FKM, KHM, and VR-TPDS were able to segment the liver tumor and the duodenum. The performance of the thresholding, FKM, KHM, and RD-LSE algorithms degraded as the local image contrast decreased, whereas the performance of the VP-TPDS method was nearly independent of local image contrast due to the reference registration algorithm. For segmenting high-contrast images (i.e., kidney), the thresholding method provided the best speed (< 1 ms) with a satisfying accuracy (Dice = 0.95). When the image contrast was low, the VR-TPDS method had the best automatic contour. Results suggest an image quality determination procedure before segmentation and a combination of

  5. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities by Improving Their Computer Pointing Efficiency with an Automatic Target Acquisition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Peng, Chin-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance through an Automatic Target Acquisition Program (ATAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e. a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, and is able to monitor mouse movement and intercept click action). Initially, both…

  6. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities by Improving Their Computer Pointing Efficiency with an Automatic Target Acquisition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Peng, Chin-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance through an Automatic Target Acquisition Program (ATAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e. a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, and is able to monitor mouse movement and intercept click action). Initially, both…

  7. A rectangular-fit classifier for synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghri, John A.; Cary, Daniel A.

    2007-09-01

    The utility of a rectangular-fit classifier for Synthetic Aperture Radar Automatic Target Recognition (SAR ATR) is examined. The target is fitted with and modeled as a rectangle that can best approximate its boundary. The rectangular fit procedure involves 1) a preprocessing phase to remove the background clutter and noise, 2) a pose detection phase to establish the alignment of the rectangle via a least squares straight line fitting algorithm, and 3) size determination phase via stretching the width and the height dimensions of the rectangle in order to encapsulate a pre-specified, e.g., 90%, of the points in the target. A training set composed of approximately half the total images in the MSTAR public imagery database are used to obtain and record the statistical variations in the width and height of the resulting rectangles for each potential target. The remaining half of the images is then used to assess the performance of this classifier. Preliminary results using minimum Euclidean and Mahalanobis distance classifiers show overall accuracies of 44% and 42%, respectively. Although the classification accuracy is relatively low, this technique can be successfully used in combination with other classifiers such as peaks, edges, corners, and shadow-based classifiers to enhance their performances. A unique feature of the rectangular fit classifier is that it is rotation invariant in its present form. However, observation of the dataset reveals that in general the shapes of the targets in SAR imagery are not fully rotation invariant. Thus, the classification accuracy is expected to improve considerably using multiple training sets, i.e., one training set generated and used for each possible pose. The tradeoff is the increased computation complexity which tends to be offset by ever increasing efficiency and speed of the processing hardware and software. The rectangular fit classifier can also be used as a pose detection routine and/or in conjunction with other ATR

  8. A compact methodology to understand, evaluate, and predict the performance of automatic target recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hongqiang; Chen, Yiping; Zhuang, Zhaowen; Cheng, Yongqiang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Liandong; Zeng, Yonghu; Gao, Lei

    2014-06-25

    This paper offers a compacted mechanism to carry out the performance evaluation work for an automatic target recognition (ATR) system: (a) a standard description of the ATR system's output is suggested, a quantity to indicate the operating condition is presented based on the principle of feature extraction in pattern recognition, and a series of indexes to assess the output in different aspects are developed with the application of statistics; (b) performance of the ATR system is interpreted by a quality factor based on knowledge of engineering mathematics; (c) through a novel utility called "context-probability" estimation proposed based on probability, performance prediction for an ATR system is realized. The simulation result shows that the performance of an ATR system can be accounted for and forecasted by the above-mentioned measures. Compared to existing technologies, the novel method can offer more objective performance conclusions for an ATR system. These conclusions may be helpful in knowing the practical capability of the tested ATR system. At the same time, the generalization performance of the proposed method is good.

  9. Automatic identification of bird targets with radar via patterns produced by wing flapping.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Serge; Saporta, Gilbert; van Loon, Emiel; Schmaljohann, Heiko; Liechti, Felix

    2008-09-06

    Bird identification with radar is important for bird migration research, environmental impact assessments (e.g. wind farms), aircraft security and radar meteorology. In a study on bird migration, radar signals from birds, insects and ground clutter were recorded. Signals from birds show a typical pattern due to wing flapping. The data were labelled by experts into the four classes BIRD, INSECT, CLUTTER and UFO (unidentifiable signals). We present a classification algorithm aimed at automatic recognition of bird targets. Variables related to signal intensity and wing flapping pattern were extracted (via continuous wavelet transform). We used support vector classifiers to build predictive models. We estimated classification performance via cross validation on four datasets. When data from the same dataset were used for training and testing the classifier, the classification performance was extremely to moderately high. When data from one dataset were used for training and the three remaining datasets were used as test sets, the performance was lower but still extremely to moderately high. This shows that the method generalizes well across different locations or times. Our method provides a substantial gain of time when birds must be identified in large collections of radar signals and it represents the first substantial step in developing a real time bird identification radar system. We provide some guidelines and ideas for future research.

  10. A Compact Methodology to Understand, Evaluate, and Predict the Performance of Automatic Target Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hongqiang; Chen, Yiping; Zhuang, Zhaowen; Cheng, Yongqiang; Deng, Bin; Wang, Liandong; Zeng, Yonghu; Gao, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a compacted mechanism to carry out the performance evaluation work for an automatic target recognition (ATR) system: (a) a standard description of the ATR system's output is suggested, a quantity to indicate the operating condition is presented based on the principle of feature extraction in pattern recognition, and a series of indexes to assess the output in different aspects are developed with the application of statistics; (b) performance of the ATR system is interpreted by a quality factor based on knowledge of engineering mathematics; (c) through a novel utility called “context-probability” estimation proposed based on probability, performance prediction for an ATR system is realized. The simulation result shows that the performance of an ATR system can be accounted for and forecasted by the above-mentioned measures. Compared to existing technologies, the novel method can offer more objective performance conclusions for an ATR system. These conclusions may be helpful in knowing the practical capability of the tested ATR system. At the same time, the generalization performance of the proposed method is good. PMID:24967605

  11. Improved Local Ternary Patterns for Automatic Target Recognition in Infrared Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaosheng; Sun, Junding; Fan, Guoliang; Wang, Zhiheng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an improved local ternary pattern (LTP) for automatic target recognition (ATR) in infrared imagery. Firstly, a robust LTP (RLTP) scheme is proposed to overcome the limitation of the original LTP for achieving the invariance with respect to the illumination transformation. Then, a soft concave-convex partition (SCCP) is introduced to add some flexibility to the original concave-convex partition (CCP) scheme. Referring to the orthogonal combination of local binary patterns (OC_LBP), the orthogonal combination of LTP (OC_LTP) is adopted to reduce the dimensionality of the LTP histogram. Further, a novel operator, called the soft concave-convex orthogonal combination of robust LTP (SCC_OC_RLTP), is proposed by combing RLTP, SCCP and OC_LTP Finally, the new operator is used for ATR along with a blocking schedule to improve its discriminability and a feature selection technique to enhance its efficiency Experimental results on infrared imagery show that the proposed features can achieve competitive ATR results compared with the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25785311

  12. Improved local ternary patterns for automatic target recognition in infrared imagery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaosheng; Sun, Junding; Fan, Guoliang; Wang, Zhiheng

    2015-03-16

    This paper presents an improved local ternary pattern (LTP) for automatic target recognition (ATR) in infrared imagery. Firstly, a robust LTP (RLTP) scheme is proposed to overcome the limitation of the original LTP for achieving the invariance with respect to the illumination transformation. Then, a soft concave-convex partition (SCCP) is introduced to add some flexibility to the original concave-convex partition (CCP) scheme. Referring to the orthogonal combination of local binary patterns (OC_LBP), the orthogonal combination of LTP (OC_LTP) is adopted to reduce the dimensionality of the LTP histogram. Further, a novel operator, called the soft concave-convex orthogonal combination of robust LTP (SCC_OC_RLTP), is proposed by combing RLTP, SCCP and OC_LTP. Finally, the new operator is used for ATR along with a blocking schedule to improve its discriminability and a feature selection technique to enhance its efficiency. Experimental results on infrared imagery show that the proposed features can achieve competitive ATR results compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  13. Investigation of measureable parameters that correlate with automatic target recognition performance in synthetic aperture sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazagnaire, Julia; Cobb, J. T.; Isaacs, Jason

    2015-05-01

    There is a desire in the Mine Counter Measure community to develop a systematic method to predict and/or estimate the performance of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms that are detecting and classifying mine-like objects within sonar data. Ideally, parameters exist that can be measured directly from the sonar data that correlate with ATR performance. In this effort, two metrics were analyzed for their predictive potential using high frequency synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) images. The first parameter is a measure of contrast. It is essentially the variance in pixel intensity over a fixed partition of relatively small size. An analysis was performed to determine the optimum block size for this contrast calculation. These blocks were then overlapped in the horizontal and vertical direction over the entire image. The second parameter is the one-dimensional K-shape parameter. The K-distribution is commonly used to describe sonar backscatter return from range cells that contain a finite number of scatterers. An Ada-Boosted Decision Tree classifier was used to calculate the probability of classification (Pc) and false alarm rate (FAR) for several types of targets in SAS images from three different data sets. ROC curves as a function of the measured parameters were generated and the correlation between the measured parameters in the vicinity of each of the contacts and the ATR performance was investigated. The contrast and K-shape parameters were considered separately. Additionally, the contrast and K-shape parameter were associated with background texture types using previously labeled high frequency SAS images.

  14. Effects of SAR parametric variations on the performance of automatic target recognition algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Kefu; Sink, Sam; Power, Gregory J.

    2003-09-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is one of the most valuable sensor data sources for today's military battlefield surveillance and analysis. The collection of SAR images by various platforms (e.g. Global Hawk, NASA/JPL AIRSAR, etc.) and on various missions for multiple purposes (e.g. reconnaissance, terrain mapping, etc.) has resulted in vast amount of data over wide surveillance areas. The pixel-to-eye ratio is simply too high for human analysts to rapidly sift through massive volumes of sensor data and yield engagement decisions quickly and precisely. Effective automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms to process this growing mountain of information are clearly needed. However, even after many years of research, SAR ATR still remains a highly challenging research problem. What makes SAR ATR problems difficult is the amount of variability exhibited in the SAR image signatures of targets and clutters. There are many different factors that can cause the variability in SAR image signatures. It is of convention to categorizes those factors into three major groups known as extended operating conditions (OC's) of target, environment and sensor. The group of sensor OC's includes SAR sensor parametric variations in depression angle, polarization, squint angle, frequencies (UHF, VHF, X band) and bandwidth, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), multi-look, antenna geometry and type, image formation algorithms, platform variations and geometric errors, noise level, etc. Many existing studies of SAR ATR have been traditionally focused on the variability of SAR signatures caused by a sub-space of target OC's and environment OC's. The similar studies in terms of SAR parametric variations in sensor OC's have been very limited due to the lack of data across the sensor OC's and the inherent difficulties as well as the high cost in supplying various sensor OC's during the data collections. This paper will present the results of a comprehensive survey of SAR ATR research works

  15. Comparative analysis of different implementations of a parallel algorithm for automatic target detection and classification of hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Abel; Plaza, Antonio; Plaza, Javier

    2009-08-01

    Automatic target detection in hyperspectral images is a task that has attracted a lot of attention recently. In the last few years, several algoritms have been developed for this purpose, including the well-known RX algorithm for anomaly detection, or the automatic target detection and classification algorithm (ATDCA), which uses an orthogonal subspace projection (OSP) approach to extract a set of spectrally distinct targets automatically from the input hyperspectral data. Depending on the complexity and dimensionality of the analyzed image scene, the target/anomaly detection process may be computationally very expensive, a fact that limits the possibility of utilizing this process in time-critical applications. In this paper, we develop computationally efficient parallel versions of both the RX and ATDCA algorithms for near real-time exploitation of these algorithms. In the case of ATGP, we use several distance metrics in addition to the OSP approach. The parallel versions are quantitatively compared in terms of target detection accuracy, using hyperspectral data collected by NASA's Airborne Visible Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over the World Trade Center in New York, five days after the terrorist attack of September 11th, 2001, and also in terms of parallel performance, using a massively Beowulf cluster available at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland.

  16. Evaluation of synthetic aperture radar image segmentation algorithms in the context of automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Kefu; Power, Gregory J.; Gregga, Jason B.

    2002-11-01

    Image segmentation is a process to extract and organize information energy in the image pixel space according to a prescribed feature set. It is often a key preprocess in automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms. In many cases, the performance of image segmentation algorithms will have significant impact on the performance of ATR algorithms. Due to the variations in feature set definitions and the innovations in the segmentation processes, there is large number of image segmentation algorithms existing in ATR world. Recently, the authors have investigated a number of measures to evaluate the performance of segmentation algorithms, such as Percentage Pixels Same (pps), Partial Directed Hausdorff (pdh) and Complex Inner Product (cip). In the research, we found that the combination of the three measures shows effectiveness in the evaluation of segmentation algorithms against truth data (human master segmentation). However, we still don't know what are the impact of those measures in the performance of ATR algorithms that are commonly measured by Probability of detection (PDet), Probability of false alarm (PFA), Probability of identification (PID), etc. In all practical situations, ATR boxes are implemented without human observer in the loop. The performance of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image segmentation should be evaluated in the context of ATR rather than human observers. This research establishes a segmentation algorithm evaluation suite involving segmentation algorithm performance measures as well as the ATR algorithm performance measures. It provides a practical quantitative evaluation method to judge which SAR image segmentation algorithm is the best for a particular ATR application. The results are tabulated based on some baseline ATR algorithms and a typical image segmentation algorithm used in ATR applications.

  17. Functionalization of OEP-based benzochlorins to develop carbohydrate-conjugated photosensitizers. Attempt to target beta-galactoside-recognized proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Guolin; Pandey, Suresh K; Graham, Andrew; Dobhal, Mahabeer P; Mehta, Ricky; Chen, Yihui; Gryshuk, Amy; Rittenhouse-Olson, Kate; Oseroff, Allan; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2004-01-09

    meso-(2-Formylvinyl)octaethylporphyrin on reaction with cyanotrimethylsilane in the presence of various catalysts [copper triflate [Cu(OTf)(2)], indium triflate [In(OTf)(3)], or magnesium bromide diethyl etherate (MgBr(2).Et(2)O)] produced a mixture of the intermediate 3-hydroxy-3-cyanopropenoporphyrin, the corresponding trimethylsilyl ether derivative, and the unexpected propenochlorins. The yields of the reaction products were found to depend on the reaction conditions and the catalysts used. The intermediate porphyrins on treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid yielded the free-base cyanobenzochlorins in major quantity along with several other novel benzochlorins as minor products. Reduction of ethyl-3-hydroxy-1-pentenoate-porphyrin with DIBAL-H/NaBH(4) and subsequent acid treatment provided the corresponding free-base 10(3)-(2-hydroxyethyl)benzochlorin, which upon a sequence of reactions gave a free-base benzochlorin bearing a carboxylic acid functionality in good yield. It was then condensed with a variety of carbohydrates (glucosamine, galactosamine, and lactosamine), and the related conjugates were screened using the galectin-binding-ability assay. Among the carbohydrate conjugates investigated, the lactose and galactose analogues displayed the galectin-binding ability with an enhancement of about 300-400-fold compared to lactose. In preliminary studies, all photosensitizers (with or without carbohydrate moieties) were found to be active in vitro [radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumor cells]. However, the cells incubated with lactose (known to bind to beta-galactoside-recognized proteins) prior to the addition of the photosensitizers containing the beta-galactose moiety (e.g., galactose and lactose) produced a 100% decrease in their photosensitizing efficacy. Under similar experimental conditions, benzochlorin without a beta-galactoside moiety or the related glucose conjugate did not show any inhibition in its photosensitizing efficacy. These results

  18. FG-3019, a Human Monoclonal Antibody Recognizing Connective Tissue Growth Factor, is Subject to Target-Mediated Drug Disposition.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Mitchell C; Krzyzanski, Wojciech; Chou, James Z; Signore, Pierre E; Fung, Cyra K; Guzman, David; Li, Dongxia; Zhang, Weihua; Olsen, David R; Nguyen, Viet-Tam L; Koo, Carolyn W; Sternlicht, Mark D; Lipson, Kenneth E

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate and model the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior in rats of FG-3019, a human monoclonal antibody targeting connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). FG-3019, human CTGF (rhCTGF), or the N-terminal domain of rhCTGF were administered intravenously to rats and concentrations of these proteins as well as endogenous CTGF were determined by immunoassays. FG-3019, or (125)I-labeled FG-3019, and human CTGF (rhCTGF) were co-administered to assess the impact of CTGF on the elimination rate and tissue localization of FG-3019, which was further characterized by immunohistochemical analysis. A PK/PD model for target-mediated elimination of FG-3019 was developed to fit the kinetic data. FG-3019 exhibited non-linear pharmacokinetics in rats. Circulating concentrations of the N-terminal half of CTGF increased after dosing with FG-3019, reached maximal levels after 1-5 days, and returned toward baseline levels as FG-3019 cleared from the circulation, whereas the concentration of intact CTGF was unaffected by administration of FG-3019. Co-administration of rhCTGF dramatically enhanced the rate of FG-3019 elimination, redistributing the majority of (125)I-labeled FG-3019 from the blood to the liver, kidney, spleen and adrenal gland. FG-3019 co-administered with CTGF was found along the sinusoids of the liver and adrenal glands, the capillaries of the kidney glomeruli and in the spleen. A pharmacokinetic model for target-mediated elimination of FG-3019 was used to fit the time courses of FG-3019 and endogenous CTGF plasma concentrations, as well as time courses of rhCTGF and rhCTGF N-fragment after intravenous administration of these species. FG-3019 is subject to target mediated elimination in rats.

  19. Robust method for the matching of attributed scattering centers with application to synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Baiyuan; Wen, Gongjian; Zhong, Jinrong; Ma, Conghui; Yang, Xiaoliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust method for the matching of attributed scattering centers (ASCs) with application to synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition (ATR). For the testing image to be classified, ASCs are extracted to match with the ones predicted by templates. First, Hungarian algorithm is employed to match those two ASC sets initially. Then, a precise matching is carried out through a threshold method. Point similarity and structure similarity are calculated, which are fused to evaluate the overall similarity of the two ASC sets based on the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. Finally, the target type is determined by such similarities between the testing image and various types of targets. Experiments on the moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition data verify the validity of the proposed method.

  20. An active contour-based atlas registration model applied to automatic subthalamic nucleus targeting on MRI: method and validation.

    PubMed

    Duay, Valérie; Bresson, Xavier; Castro, Javier Sanchez; Pollo, Claudio; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new non parametric atlas registration framework, derived from the optical flow model and the active contour theory, applied to automatic subthalamic nucleus (STN) targeting in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. In a previous work, we demonstrated that the STN position can be predicted based on the position of surrounding visible structures, namely the lateral and third ventricles. A STN targeting process can thus be obtained by registering these structures of interest between a brain atlas and the patient image. Here we aim to improve the results of the state of the art targeting methods and at the same time to reduce the computational time. Our simultaneous segmentation and registration model shows mean STN localization errors statistically similar to the most performing registration algorithms tested so far and to the targeting expert's variability. Moreover, the computational time of our registration method is much lower, which is a worthwhile improvement from a clinical point of view.

  1. Advances in image compression and automatic target recognition; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Tescher, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on image compression and automatic target recognition are presented. Individual topics addressed include: target cluster detection in cluttered SAR imagery, model-based target recognition using laser radar imagery, Smart Sensor front-end processor for feature extraction of images, object attitude estimation and tracking from a single video sensor, symmetry detection in human vision, analysis of high resolution aerial images for object detection, obscured object recognition for an ATR application, neural networks for adaptive shape tracking, statistical mechanics and pattern recognition, detection of cylinders in aerial range images, moving object tracking using local windows, new transform method for image data compression, quad-tree product vector quantization of images, predictive trellis encoding of imagery, reduced generalized chain code for contour description, compact architecture for a real-time vision system, use of human visibility functions in segmentation coding, color texture analysis and synthesis using Gibbs random fields.

  2. Advances in image compression and automatic target recognition; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tescher, Andrew G. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on image compression and automatic target recognition are presented. Individual topics addressed include: target cluster detection in cluttered SAR imagery, model-based target recognition using laser radar imagery, Smart Sensor front-end processor for feature extraction of images, object attitude estimation and tracking from a single video sensor, symmetry detection in human vision, analysis of high resolution aerial images for object detection, obscured object recognition for an ATR application, neural networks for adaptive shape tracking, statistical mechanics and pattern recognition, detection of cylinders in aerial range images, moving object tracking using local windows, new transform method for image data compression, quad-tree product vector quantization of images, predictive trellis encoding of imagery, reduced generalized chain code for contour description, compact architecture for a real-time vision system, use of human visibility functions in segmentation coding, color texture analysis and synthesis using Gibbs random fields.

  3. Automatic online adaptive radiation therapy techniques for targets with significant shape change: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Court, Laurence E.; Tishler, Roy B.; Petit, Joshua; Cormack, Robert; Chin, Lee

    2006-05-01

    This work looks at the feasibility of an online adaptive radiation therapy concept that would detect the daily position and shape of the patient, and would then correct the daily treatment to account for any changes compared with planning position. In particular, it looks at the possibility of developing algorithms to correct for large complicated shape change. For co-planar beams, the dose in an axial plane is approximately associated with the positions of a single multi-leaf collimator (MLC) pair. We start with a primary plan, and automatically generate several secondary plans with gantry angles offset by regular increments. MLC sequences for each plan are calculated keeping monitor units (MUs) and number of segments constant for a given beam (fluences are different). Bulk registration (3D) of planning and daily CT images gives global shifts. Slice-by-slice (2D) registration gives local shifts and rotations about the longitudinal axis for each axial slice. The daily MLC sequence is then created for each axial slice/MLC leaf pair combination, by taking the MLC positions from the pre-calculated plan with the nearest rotation, and shifting using a beam's-eye-view calculation to account for local linear shifts. A planning study was carried out using two head and neck region MR images of a healthy volunteer which were contoured to simulate a base-of-tongue treatment: one with the head straight (used to simulate the planning image) and the other with the head tilted to the left (the daily image). Head and neck treatment was chosen to evaluate this technique because of its challenging nature, with varying internal and external contours, and multiple degrees of freedom. Shape change was significant: on a slice-by-slice basis, local rotations in the daily image varied from 2 to 31°, and local shifts ranged from -0.2 to 0.5 cm and -0.4 to 0.0 cm in right-left and posterior-anterior directions, respectively. The adapted treatment gave reasonable target coverage (100%, 90

  4. Automatic localization of target vertebrae in spine surgery using fast CT-to-fluoroscopy (3D-2D) image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Y.; Schafer, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, W.; Kleinszig, G.; Graumann, R.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2012-02-01

    Localization of target vertebrae is an essential step in minimally invasive spine surgery, with conventional methods relying on "level counting" - i.e., manual counting of vertebrae under fluoroscopy starting from readily identifiable anatomy (e.g., the sacrum). The approach requires an undesirable level of radiation, time, and is prone to counting errors due to the similar appearance of vertebrae in projection images; wrong-level surgery occurs in 1 of every ~3000 cases. This paper proposes a method to automatically localize target vertebrae in x-ray projections using 3D-2D registration between preoperative CT (in which vertebrae are preoperatively labeled) and intraoperative fluoroscopy. The registration uses an intensity-based approach with a gradient-based similarity metric and the CMA-ES algorithm for optimization. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and a robust similarity metric are computed on GPU to accelerate the process. Evaluation in clinical CT data included 5,000 PA and LAT projections randomly perturbed to simulate human variability in setup of mobile intraoperative C-arm. The method demonstrated 100% success for PA view (projection error: 0.42mm) and 99.8% success for LAT view (projection error: 0.37mm). Initial implementation on GPU provided automatic target localization within about 3 sec, with further improvement underway via multi-GPU. The ability to automatically label vertebrae in fluoroscopy promises to streamline surgical workflow, improve patient safety, and reduce wrong-site surgeries, especially in large patients for whom manual methods are time consuming and error prone.

  5. Recognizing abuse.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Newman-Giger, J

    1996-01-01

    After years as a taboo topic, abuse has come "out of the closet" and is being talked about openly in society. Yet, while abuse in the workplace is being confronted, abuse within families still often goes unrecognized by outsiders, including by nurses. Failure of nurses to recognize abuse is unfortunate since frequently they are the first point of contact with the victim of abuse in the emergency room, clinic and home. Understanding and insight into the problem of family violence by nurses is critical in addressing this problem. Knowledge is crucial in planning strategies that will have the long-lasting effect of decreasing the cycle of abuse in families.

  6. Automatic Focusing for a 675 GHz Imaging Radar with Target Standoff Distances from 14 to 34 Meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Adrian; Cooper, Ken B.; Dengler, Robert J.; Llombart, Nuria; Siegel, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper dicusses the issue of limited focal depth for high-resolution imaging radar operating over a wide range of standoff distances. We describe a technique for automatically focusing a THz imaging radar system using translational optics combined with range estimation based on a reduced chirp bandwidth setting. The demonstarted focusing algorithm estimates the correct focal depth for desired targets in the field of view at unknown standoffs and in the presence of clutter to provide good imagery at 14 to 30 meters of standoff.

  7. Automatic Focusing for a 675 GHz Imaging Radar with Target Standoff Distances from 14 to 34 Meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Adrian; Cooper, Ken B.; Dengler, Robert J.; Llombart, Nuria; Siegel, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper dicusses the issue of limited focal depth for high-resolution imaging radar operating over a wide range of standoff distances. We describe a technique for automatically focusing a THz imaging radar system using translational optics combined with range estimation based on a reduced chirp bandwidth setting. The demonstarted focusing algorithm estimates the correct focal depth for desired targets in the field of view at unknown standoffs and in the presence of clutter to provide good imagery at 14 to 30 meters of standoff.

  8. An amphiphilic region in the cytoplasmic domain of KdpD is recognized by the signal recognition particle and targeted to the Escherichia coli membrane

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Katja S; Hubich, Stefanie; Liebhart, Helga; Krauss, Susanne; Kuhn, Andreas; Facey, Sandra J

    2008-01-01

    The sensor protein KdpD of Escherichia coli is composed of a large N-terminal hydrophilic region (aa 1–400), four transmembrane regions (aa 401–498) and a large hydrophilic region (aa 499–894) at the C-terminus. KdpD requires the signal recognition particle (SRP) for its targeting to the membrane. Deletions within KdpD show that the first 50 residues are required for SRP-driven membrane insertion. A fusion protein of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with KdpD is found localized at the membrane only when SRP is present. The membrane targeting of GFP was not observed when the first 50 KdpD residues were deleted. A truncated mutant of KdpD containing only the first 25 amino acids fused to GFP lost its ability to specifically interact with SRP, whereas a specific interaction between SRP and the first 48 amino acids of KdpD fused to GFP was confirmed by pull-down experiments. Conclusively, a small amphiphilic region of 27 residues within the amino-terminal domain of KdpD (aa 22–48) is recognized by SRP and targets the protein to the membrane. This shows that membrane proteins with a large N-terminal region in the cytoplasm can be membrane-targeted early on to allow co-translational membrane insertion of their distant transmembrane regions. PMID:18433452

  9. Automatic Shape-Based Target Extraction for Close-Range Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.; Chen, Y.; Wang, C.; Cheng, M.; Wen, C.; Yu, J.

    2016-06-01

    In order to perform precise identification and location of artificial coded targets in natural scenes, a novel design of circle-based coded target and the corresponding coarse-fine extraction algorithm are presented. The designed target separates the target box and coding box totally and owns an advantage of rotation invariance. Based on the original target, templates are prepared by three geometric transformations and are used as the input of shape-based template matching. Finally, region growing and parity check methods are used to extract the coded targets as final results. No human involvement is required except for the preparation of templates and adjustment of thresholds in the beginning, which is conducive to the automation of close-range photogrammetry. The experimental results show that the proposed recognition method for the designed coded target is robust and accurate.

  10. "Recognizing Numerical Constants"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The advent of inexpensive, high performance computer and new efficient algorithms have made possible the automatic recognition of numerically computed constants. In other words, techniques now exist for determining, within certain limits, whether a computed real or complex number can be written as a simple expression involving the classical constants of mathematics. In this presentation, some of the recently discovered techniques for constant recognition, notably integer relation detection algorithms, will be presented. As an application of these methods, the author's recent work in recognizing "Euler sums" will be described in some detail.

  11. Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

    Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

  12. Specificity of antinuclear autoantibodies recognizing the dense fine speckled nuclear pattern: Preferential targeting of DFS70/LEDGFp75 over its interacting partner MeCP2.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anamika; Woods-Burnham, Leanne; Ortiz, Greisha; Rios-Colon, Leslimar; Figueroa, Johnny; Albesa, Roger; Andrade, Luis E; Mahler, Michael; Casiano, Carlos A

    2015-12-01

    Human antinuclear autoantibodies (ANAs) targeting the dense fine speckled (DFS) nuclear protein DFS70, commonly known as lens epithelium derived growth factor p75 (LEDGFp75), present a clinical puzzle since their significance remains elusive. While their frequencies are low in ANA-positive autoimmune rheumatic diseases, they are relatively elevated in clinical laboratory referrals, diverse inflammatory conditions, and 'apparently' healthy individuals. We reported previously that DFS70/LEDGFp75 is an autoantigen in prostate cancer that closely interacts with another 70kD DFS nuclear protein, methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). This led us to investigate if anti-DFS sera exclusively target DFS70/LEDGFp75 or also recognize MeCP2. Using several complementary autoantibody detection platforms and cellular/molecular approaches we evaluated 65 human sera producing anti-DFS autoantibodies. Our results show that these antibodies are highly specific for DFS70/LEDGFp75 and do not target MeCP2. Establishing the specificity of anti-DFS autoantibodies has implications for increasing our understanding of their biological significance and clinical utility. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Supervised non-negative tensor factorization for automatic hyperspectral feature extraction and target discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dylan; Bapst, Aleksander; Coon, Joshua; Pung, Aaron; Kudenov, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging provides a highly discriminative and powerful signature for target detection and discrimination. Recent literature has shown that considering additional target characteristics, such as spatial or temporal profiles, simultaneously with spectral content can greatly increase classifier performance. Considering these additional characteristics in a traditional discriminative algorithm requires a feature extraction step be performed first. An example of such a pipeline is computing a filter bank response to extract spatial features followed by a support vector machine (SVM) to discriminate between targets. This decoupling between feature extraction and target discrimination yields features that are suboptimal for discrimination, reducing performance. This performance reduction is especially pronounced when the number of features or available data is limited. In this paper, we propose the use of Supervised Nonnegative Tensor Factorization (SNTF) to jointly perform feature extraction and target discrimination over hyperspectral data products. SNTF learns a tensor factorization and a classification boundary from labeled training data simultaneously. This ensures that the features learned via tensor factorization are optimal for both summarizing the input data and separating the targets of interest. Practical considerations for applying SNTF to hyperspectral data are presented, and results from this framework are compared to decoupled feature extraction/target discrimination pipelines.

  14. Large-scale automatic extraction of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs from full-text oncological articles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-06-01

    Targeted anticancer drugs such as imatinib, trastuzumab and erlotinib dramatically improved treatment outcomes in cancer patients, however, these innovative agents are often associated with unexpected side effects. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these side effects are not well understood. The availability of a comprehensive knowledge base of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs has the potential to illuminate complex pathways underlying toxicities induced by these innovative drugs. While side effect association knowledge for targeted drugs exists in multiple heterogeneous data sources, published full-text oncological articles represent an important source of pivotal, investigational, and even failed trials in a variety of patient populations. In this study, we present an automatic process to extract targeted anticancer drug-associated side effects (drug-SE pairs) from a large number of high profile full-text oncological articles. We downloaded 13,855 full-text articles from the Journal of Oncology (JCO) published between 1983 and 2013. We developed text classification, relationship extraction, signaling filtering, and signal prioritization algorithms to extract drug-SE pairs from downloaded articles. We extracted a total of 26,264 drug-SE pairs with an average precision of 0.405, a recall of 0.899, and an F1 score of 0.465. We show that side effect knowledge from JCO articles is largely complementary to that from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug labels. Through integrative correlation analysis, we show that targeted drug-associated side effects positively correlate with their gene targets and disease indications. In conclusion, this unique database that we built from a large number of high-profile oncological articles could facilitate the development of computational models to understand toxic effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs.

  15. Real-time automatic target location by template matching on blurred images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Downs, Justin, III; Peterson, Michael L.

    1996-11-01

    High precision manufacturing is dependent on the accurate positioning of the part prior to each processing step. The part is typically held in a transfer fixture which may be used either simply as a part holder or as an alignment reference. A typical application is explored in this work, grinding of slots in a thick ceramic wafer mounted on a part fixture. A 1 micron slot is located with a position tolerance of 10 microns in the nickel-zinc-ferrite wafer. Part location is determined by means of a 50.8 by 1 micron target deposited onto the ceramic during an earlier process. In the current process, the target is magnified by a 250X vision system and the machine operator manually aligns the part using a set of cross hairs overlaid on the image. A high precision x-y stage is used to adjust the pat location. However, the use of a fixed focal distance camera combined with part mounting variation results in an unfocused image for the operator. Manual alignment of the unfocused image leads to target location error during centering of the target in the cross hairs. The misalignment, in turn, results in process variation. The location of the slots varies based on alignment and reduces the process capability. To reduce process variation, an automated target location algorithm has been applied. The algorithm uses template matching to detect the target. This simple algorithm has been shown to locate the target within the required tolerance in spite of image blur. Using low cost processing, the system is able to determine the target location in real-time. For real-time control, the algorithm must determine the x-y coordinate of the target in 10 seconds or less. This effort shows the potential for a simple location algorithm to be implemented in a manner which can significantly decrease process variation in a precision fabrication process.

  16. Real-time automatic target location by template matching on blurred images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Downs, Justin, III; Peterson, Michael L.

    1996-11-01

    High precision manufacturing is dependent on the accurate positioning of the part prior to each processing step. The part is typically held in a transfer fixture which may be used either simply as a part holder or as an alignment reference. A typical application is explored in this work, grinding of slots in a thick ceramic wafer mounted on a part fixture. A 1 micron slot is located with a position tolerance of 10 microns in the nickel-zinc-ferrite wafer. Part location is determined by means of a 50.8 by 1 micron target deposited onto the ceramic during an earlier process. In the current process, the target is magnified by a 250X vision system and the machine operator manually aligns the part using a set of cross hairs overlaid on the image. A high precision x-y stage is used to adjust the part location. However, the use of a fixed focal distance camera combined with part mounting variation results in an unfocused image for the operator. Manual alignment of the unfocused image leads to target location error during centering of the target in the cross hairs. The misalignment, in turn, results in process variation. The location of the slots varies based on alignment and reduces the process capability. To reduce process variation, an automated target location algorithm has been applied. The algorithm uses template matching to detect the target. This simple algorithm has been shown to locate the target within the required tolerance in spite of image blur. Using low cost processing, the system is able to determine the target location in real-time. For real-time control, the algorithm must determine the x-y coordinate of the target in 10 seconds or less. This effort shows the potential for a simple location algorithm to be implemented in a manner which can significantly decrease process variation in a precision fabrication process.

  17. A probability of error-constrained sequential decision algorithm for data-rich automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Irwin O.; DeVore, Michael D.; Beling, Peter A.; Horowitz, Barry M.

    2010-04-01

    This paper illustrates an approach to sequential hypothesis testing designed not to minimize the amount of data collected but to reduce the overall amount of processing required, while still guaranteeing pre-specified conditional probabilities of error. The approach is potentially useful when sensor data are plentiful but time and processing capability are constrained. The approach gradually reduces the number of target hypotheses under consideration as more sensor data are processed, proportionally allocating time and processing resources to the most likely target classes. The approach is demonstrated on a multi-class ladar-based target recognition problem and compared with uniform-computation tests.

  18. Infrared variation reduction by simultaneous background suppression and target contrast enhancement for deep convolutional neural network-based automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungho

    2017-06-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) is a traditionally challenging problem in military applications because of the wide range of infrared (IR) image variations and the limited number of training images. IR variations are caused by various three-dimensional target poses, noncooperative weather conditions (fog and rain), and difficult target acquisition environments. Recently, deep convolutional neural network-based approaches for RGB images (RGB-CNN) showed breakthrough performance in computer vision problems, such as object detection and classification. The direct use of RGB-CNN to the IR ATR problem fails to work because of the IR database problems (limited database size and IR image variations). An IR variation-reduced deep CNN (IVR-CNN) to cope with the problems is presented. The problem of limited IR database size is solved by a commercial thermal simulator (OKTAL-SE). The second problem of IR variations is mitigated by the proposed shifted ramp function-based intensity transformation. This can suppress the background and enhance the target contrast simultaneously. The experimental results on the synthesized IR images generated by the thermal simulator (OKTAL-SE) validated the feasibility of IVR-CNN for military ATR applications.

  19. Automatic Target Cueing and Operator Performance with Enhanced APG-70 Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-01

    MAN truck carrying a high pressure air compressor ( HiPAC ) unit, and a Zil-131 communications van. The Scud-B, which was the primary target for...Laboratory d Perceptual sensitivity FA False Alarm FLIR Forward Looking Infrared H Hit HiPAC High Pressure Air Compressor HRM High Resolution Map

  20. Experimental new automatic tools for robotic stereotactic neurosurgery: towards "no hands" procedure of leads implantation into a brain target.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, P; Arena, P; Cantelli, L; Spampinato, G; Sposato, S; Cozzolino, S; Demarinis, P; Muscato, G

    2016-07-01

    The use of robotics in neurosurgery and, particularly, in stereotactic neurosurgery, is becoming more and more adopted because of the great advantages that it offers. Robotic manipulators easily allow to achieve great precision, reliability, and rapidity in the positioning of surgical instruments or devices in the brain. The aim of this work was to experimentally verify a fully automatic "no hands" surgical procedure. The integration of neuroimaging to data for planning the surgery, followed by application of new specific surgical tools, permitted the realization of a fully automated robotic implantation of leads in brain targets. An anthropomorphic commercial manipulator was utilized. In a preliminary phase, a software to plan surgery was developed, and the surgical tools were tested first during a simulation and then on a skull mock-up. In such a way, several tools were developed and tested, and the basis for an innovative surgical procedure arose. The final experimentation was carried out on anesthetized "large white" pigs. The determination of stereotactic parameters for the correct planning to reach the intended target was performed with the same technique currently employed in human stereotactic neurosurgery, and the robotic system revealed to be reliable and precise in reaching the target. The results of this work strengthen the possibility that a neurosurgeon may be substituted by a machine, and may represent the beginning of a new approach in the current clinical practice. Moreover, this possibility may have a great impact not only on stereotactic functional procedures but also on the entire domain of neurosurgery.

  1. Automatic Target Cueing (ATC) Task 1 Report - Literature Survey on ATC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-30

    techniques such as contrast/edge enhancement to increase the detectability of targets in the urban terrain. [P-4] restores long-distance thermal...3 Effect of Image Enhancement on the Search and Detection Task in the Urban Terrain N. Devitt, S. Moyer, S. Young SPIE Vol. 6207 2006 P-4...document. [P-26] presents a system for real-time visual human tracking for mobile robots, to facilitate human-robot interaction for future planetary

  2. Portable automatic bioaerosol sampling system for rapid on-site detection of targeted airborne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Usachev, Evgeny V; Pankova, Anna V; Rafailova, Elina A; Pyankov, Oleg V; Agranovski, Igor E

    2012-10-26

    Bioaerosols could cause various severe human and animal diseases and their opportune and qualitative precise detection and control is becoming a significant scientific and technological topic for consideration. Over the last few decades bioaerosol detection has become an important bio-defense related issue. Many types of portable and stationary bioaerosol samplers have been developed and, in some cases, integrated into automated detection systems utilizing various microbiological techniques for analysis of collected microbes. This paper describes a personal sampler used in conjunction with a portable real-time PCR technique. It was found that a single fluorescent dye could be successfully used in multiplex format for qualitative detection of numerous targeted bioaerosols in one PCR tube making the suggested technology a reliable "first alert" device. This approach has been specifically developed and successfully verified for rapid detection of targeted microorganisms by portable PCR devices, which is especially important under field conditions, where the number of microorganisms of interest usually exceeds the number of available PCR reaction tubes. The approach allows detecting targeted microorganisms and triggering some corresponding sanitary and quarantine procedures to localize possible spread of dangerous infections. Following detailed analysis of the sample under controlled laboratory conditions could be used to exactly identify which particular microorganism out of a targeted group has been rapidly detected in the field. It was also found that the personal sampler has a collection efficiency higher than 90% even for small-sized viruses (>20 nm) and stable performance over extended operating periods. In addition, it was found that for microorganisms used in this project (bacteriophages MS2 and T4) elimination of nucleic acids isolation and purification steps during sample preparation does not lead to the system sensitivity reduction, which is extremely

  3. Automatic target recognition using a feature-based optical neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1992-01-01

    An optical neural network based upon the Neocognitron paradigm (K. Fukushima et al. 1983) is introduced. A novel aspect of the architectural design is shift-invariant multichannel Fourier optical correlation within each processing layer. Multilayer processing is achieved by iteratively feeding back the output of the feature correlator to the input spatial light modulator and updating the Fourier filters. By training the neural net with characteristic features extracted from the target images, successful pattern recognition with intra-class fault tolerance and inter-class discrimination is achieved. A detailed system description is provided. Experimental demonstration of a two-layer neural network for space objects discrimination is also presented.

  4. Optical implementation of a feature-based neural network with application to automatic target recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Stoner, William W.

    1993-01-01

    An optical neural network based on the neocognitron paradigm is introduced. A novel aspect of the architecture design is shift-invariant multichannel Fourier optical correlation within each processing layer. Multilayer processing is achieved by feeding back the ouput of the feature correlator interatively to the input spatial light modulator and by updating the Fourier filters. By training the neural net with characteristic features extracted from the target images, successful pattern recognition with intraclass fault tolerance and interclass discrimination is achieved. A detailed system description is provided. Experimental demonstrations of a two-layer neural network for space-object discrimination is also presented.

  5. Automatic target recognition using a feature-based optical neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1992-01-01

    An optical neural network based upon the Neocognitron paradigm (K. Fukushima et al. 1983) is introduced. A novel aspect of the architectural design is shift-invariant multichannel Fourier optical correlation within each processing layer. Multilayer processing is achieved by iteratively feeding back the output of the feature correlator to the input spatial light modulator and updating the Fourier filters. By training the neural net with characteristic features extracted from the target images, successful pattern recognition with intra-class fault tolerance and inter-class discrimination is achieved. A detailed system description is provided. Experimental demonstration of a two-layer neural network for space objects discrimination is also presented.

  6. Optical implementation of a feature-based neural network with application to automatic target recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Stoner, William W.

    1993-01-01

    An optical neural network based on the neocognitron paradigm is introduced. A novel aspect of the architecture design is shift-invariant multichannel Fourier optical correlation within each processing layer. Multilayer processing is achieved by feeding back the ouput of the feature correlator interatively to the input spatial light modulator and by updating the Fourier filters. By training the neural net with characteristic features extracted from the target images, successful pattern recognition with intraclass fault tolerance and interclass discrimination is achieved. A detailed system description is provided. Experimental demonstrations of a two-layer neural network for space-object discrimination is also presented.

  7. M.(phi)BssHII, a novel cytosine-C5-DNA-methyltransferase with target-recognizing domains at separated locations of the enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Sethmann, S; Ceglowski, P; Willert, J; Iwanicka-Nowicka, R; Trautner, T A; Walter, J

    1999-01-01

    In all cytosine-C5-DNA-methyltransferases (MTases) from prokaryotes and eukaryotes, remarkably conserved amino acid sequence elements responsible for general enzymatic functions are arranged in the same canonical order. In addition, one variable region, which includes the target-recognizing domain(s) (TRDs) characteristic for each enzyme, has been localized in one region between the same blocks of these conserved elements. This conservation in the order of conserved and variable sequences suggests stringent structural constraints in the primary structure to obtain the correct folding of the enzymes. Here we report the characterization of a new type of a multispecific MTase, M.(phiphi)BssHII, which is expressed as two isoforms. Isoform I is an entirely novel type of MTase which has, in addition to the TRDs at the conventional location, one TRD located at a non-canonical position at its N-terminus. Isoform II is represented by the same MTase, but without the N-terminal TRD. The N-terminal TRD provides HaeII methylation specificity to isoform I. The TRD is fully functional when engineered into either the conventional variable region of M.(phiphi)BssHII or the related monospecific M.phi3TII MTase. The implications of this structural plasticity with respect to the evolution of MTases are discussed. PMID:10369689

  8. Automatic Localization of Target Vertebrae in Spine Surgery: Clinical Evaluation of the LevelCheck Registration Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Sheng-fu L.; Otake, Yoshito; Puvanesarajah, Varun; Wang, Adam S.; Uneri, Ali; De Silva, Tharindu; Vogt, Sebastian; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Elder, Benjamin D; Goodwin, C. Rory; Kosztowski, Thomas A.; Liauw, Jason A.; Groves, Mari; Bydon, Ali; Sciubba, Daniel M.; Witham, Timothy F.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Aygun, Nafi; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A 3D-2D image registration algorithm, “LevelCheck,” was used to automatically label vertebrae in intraoperative mobile radiographs obtained during spine surgery. Accuracy, computation time, and potential failure modes were evaluated in a retrospective study of 20 patients. Objective To measurethe performance of the LevelCheck algorithm using clinical images acquired during spine surgery. Summary of Background Data In spine surgery, the potential for wrong level surgery is significant due to the difficulty of localizing target vertebrae based solely on visual impression, palpation, and fluoroscopy. To remedy this difficulty and reduce the risk of wrong-level surgery, our team introduced a program (dubbed LevelCheck) to automatically localize target vertebrae in mobile radiographs using robust 3D-2D image registration to preoperative CT. Methods Twenty consecutive patients undergoing thoracolumbar spine surgery, for whom both a preoperative CT scan and an intraoperative mobile radiograph were available, were retrospectively analyzed. A board-certified neuroradiologist determined the “true” vertebra levels in each radiograph. Registration of the preoperative CT to the intraoperative radiographwere calculated via LevelCheck, and projection distance errors were analyzed. Five hundred random initializations were performed for eachpatient, andalgorithm settings (viz., the number of robust multi-starts, ranging 50 to 200) were varied to evaluate the tradeoff between registration error and computation time. Failure mode analysis was performed by individually analyzing unsuccessful registrations (>5 mm distance error) observed with 50 multi-starts. Results At 200 robust multi-starts (computation time of ∼26 seconds), the registration accuracy was 100% across all 10,000 trials. As the number of multi-starts (and computation time) decreased, the registration remained fairly robust, down to 99.3% registration accuracy at 50 multi-starts (computation time

  9. A multispectral automatic target recognition application for maritime surveillance, search, and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon; Reed, Scott; Podobna, Yuliya; Vazquez, Jose; Boucher, Cynthia

    2010-04-01

    Due to increased security concerns, the commitment to monitor and maintain security in the maritime environment is increasingly a priority. A country's coast is the most vulnerable area for the incursion of illegal immigrants, terrorists and contraband. This work illustrates the ability of a low-cost, light-weight, multi-spectral, multi-channel imaging system to handle the environment and see under difficult marine conditions. The system and its implemented detecting and tracking technologies should be organic to the maritime homeland security community for search and rescue, fisheries, defense, and law enforcement. It is tailored for airborne and ship based platforms to detect, track and monitor suspected objects (such as semi-submerged targets like marine mammals, vessels in distress, and drug smugglers). In this system, automated detection and tracking technology is used to detect, classify and localize potential threats or objects of interest within the imagery provided by the multi-spectral system. These algorithms process the sensor data in real time, thereby providing immediate feedback when features of interest have been detected. A supervised detection system based on Haar features and Cascade Classifiers is presented and results are provided on real data. The system is shown to be extendable and reusable for a variety of different applications.

  10. Validating the performance of one-time decomposition for fMRI analysis using ICA with automatic target generation process.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shengnan; Zeng, Weiming; Wang, Nizhuan; Chen, Lei

    2013-07-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been proven to be effective for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. However, ICA decomposition requires to optimize the unmixing matrix iteratively whose initial values are generated randomly. Thus the randomness of the initialization leads to different ICA decomposition results. Therefore, just one-time decomposition for fMRI data analysis is not usually reliable. Under this circumstance, several methods about repeated decompositions with ICA (RDICA) were proposed to reveal the stability of ICA decomposition. Although utilizing RDICA has achieved satisfying results in validating the performance of ICA decomposition, RDICA cost much computing time. To mitigate the problem, in this paper, we propose a method, named ATGP-ICA, to do the fMRI data analysis. This method generates fixed initial values with automatic target generation process (ATGP) instead of being produced randomly. We performed experimental tests on both hybrid data and fMRI data to indicate the effectiveness of the new method and made a performance comparison of the traditional one-time decomposition with ICA (ODICA), RDICA and ATGP-ICA. The proposed method demonstrated that it not only could eliminate the randomness of ICA decomposition, but also could save much computing time compared to RDICA. Furthermore, the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) power analysis also denoted the better signal reconstruction performance of ATGP-ICA than that of RDICA.

  11. Vascular targeted photodynamic therapy with TOOKAD® Soluble (WST11) in localized prostate cancer: efficiency of automatic pre-treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Betrouni, N; Boukris, S; Benzaghou, F

    2017-08-01

    Vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) with WST11 is a novel non-thermal focal treatment for localized prostate cancer that has shown favorable and early efficacy results in previously published studies. In this work, we investigate the efficiency of automatic dosimetric treatment planning. An action model established in a previous study was used in an image-guided optimization scheme to define the personalized optimal light dose for each patient. The calculated light dose is expressed as the number of optical cylindrical fibers to be used, their positions according to an external insertion grid, and the lengths of their diffuser parts. Evaluation of the method was carried out on data collected from 17 patients enrolled in two multi-centric clinical trials. The protocol consisted of comparing the method-simulated necrosis to the result observed on day 7 MR enhanced images. The method performances showed that the final result can be estimated with an accuracy of 10%, corresponding to a margin of 3 mm. In addition, this process was compatible with clinical conditions in terms of calculation times. The overall process took less than 10 min. Different aspects of the VTP procedure were already defined and optimized. Personalized treatment planning definition remained as an issue needing further investigation. The method proposed herein completes the standardization of VTP and opens new pathways for the clinical development of the technique.

  12. Performance portability study of an automatic target detection and classification algorithm for hyperspectral image analysis using OpenCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabe, Sergio; Igual, Francisco D.; Botella, Guillermo; Garcia, Carlos; Prieto-Matias, Manuel; Plaza, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances in heterogeneous high performance computing (HPC) have opened new avenues for demanding remote sensing applications. Perhaps one of the most popular algorithm in target detection and identification is the automatic target detection and classification algorithm (ATDCA) widely used in the hyperspectral image analysis community. Previous research has already investigated the mapping of ATDCA on graphics processing units (GPUs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), showing impressive speedup factors that allow its exploitation in time-critical scenarios. Based on these studies, our work explores the performance portability of a tuned OpenCL implementation across a range of processing devices including multicore processors, GPUs and other accelerators. This approach differs from previous papers, which focused on achieving the optimal performance on each platform. Here, we are more interested in the following issues: (1) evaluating if a single code written in OpenCL allows us to achieve acceptable performance across all of them, and (2) assessing the gap between our portable OpenCL code and those hand-tuned versions previously investigated. Our study includes the analysis of different tuning techniques that expose data parallelism as well as enable an efficient exploitation of the complex memory hierarchies found in these new heterogeneous devices. Experiments have been conducted using hyperspectral data sets collected by NASA's Airborne Visible Infra- red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the Hyperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment (HYDICE) sensors. To the best of our knowledge, this kind of analysis has not been previously conducted in the hyperspectral imaging processing literature, and in our opinion it is very important in order to really calibrate the possibility of using heterogeneous platforms for efficient hyperspectral imaging processing in real remote sensing missions.

  13. Adenovirally-Induced Polyfunctional T Cells Do Not Necessarily Recognize the Infected Target: Lessons from a Phase I Trial of the AERAS-402 Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Nyendak, Melissa; Swarbrick, Gwendolyn M.; Duncan, Amanda; Cansler, Meghan; Huff, Ervina Winata; Hokey, David; Evans, Tom; Barker, Lewellys; Blatner, Gretta; Sadoff, Jerald; Douoguih, Macaya; Pau, Maria Grazia; Lewinsohn, Deborah A.; Lewinsohn, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of a vaccine for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has been impeded by the absence of correlates of protective immunity. One correlate would be the ability of cells induced by vaccination to recognize the Mtb-infected cell. AERAS-402 is a replication-deficient serotype 35 adenovirus containing DNA expressing a fusion protein of Mtb antigens 85A, 85B and TB10.4. We undertook a phase I double-blind, randomized placebo controlled trial of vaccination with AERAS-402 following BCG. Analysis of the vaccine-induced immune response revealed strong antigen-specific polyfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. However, analysis of the vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells revealed that in many instances these cells did not recognize the Mtb-infected cell. Our findings highlight the measurement of vaccine-induced, polyfunctional T cells may not reflect the extent or degree to which these cells are capable of identifying the Mtb-infected cell and correspondingly, the value of detailed experimental medicine studies early in vaccine development. PMID:27805026

  14. Bacteriocin protein BacL1 of Enterococcus faecalis targets cell division loci and specifically recognizes L-Ala2-cross-bridged peptidoglycan.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, Jun; Nakane, Daisuke; Nishizaka, Takayuki; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) is produced from clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and consists of two extracellular proteins, BacL1 and BacA. We previously reported that BacL1 protein (595 amino acids, 64.5 kDa) is a bacteriolytic peptidoglycan D-isoglutamyl-L-lysine endopeptidase that induces cell lysis of E. faecalis when an accessory factor, BacA, is copresent. However, the target of BacL1 remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the targeting specificity of BacL1. Fluorescence microscopy analysis using fluorescent dye-conjugated recombinant protein demonstrated that BacL1 specifically localized at the cell division-associated site, including the equatorial ring, division septum, and nascent cell wall, on the cell surface of target E. faecalis cells. This specific targeting was dependent on the triple repeat of the SH3 domain located in the region from amino acid 329 to 590 of BacL1. Repression of cell growth due to the stationary state of the growth phase or to treatment with bacteriostatic antibiotics rescued bacteria from the bacteriolytic activity of BacL1 and BacA. The static growth state also abolished the binding and targeting of BacL1 to the cell division-associated site. Furthermore, the targeting of BacL1 was detectable among Gram-positive bacteria with an L-Ala-L-Ala-cross-bridging peptidoglycan, including E. faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus pneumoniae, but not among bacteria with alternate peptidoglycan structures, such as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Listeria monocytogenes. These data suggest that BacL1 specifically targets the L-Ala-L-Ala-cross-bridged peptidoglycan and potentially lyses the E. faecalis cells during cell division.

  15. Glycans from avian influenza virus are recognized by chicken dendritic cells and are targets for the humoral immune response in chicken.

    PubMed

    de Geus, Eveline D; Tefsen, Boris; van Haarlem, Daphne A; van Eden, Willem; van Die, Irma; Vervelde, Lonneke

    2013-12-01

    To increase our understanding of the interaction between avian influenza virus and its chicken host, we identified receptors for putative avian influenza virus (AIV) glycan determinants on chicken dendritic cells. Chicken dendritic cells (DCs) were found to recognize glycan determinants containing terminal αGalNAc, Galα1-3Gal, GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAcβ (chitotriose) and Galα1-2Gal. Infection of chicken dendritic cells with either low pathogenic (LP) or highly pathogenic (HP) AIV results in elevated mRNA expression of homologs of the mouse C-type lectins DEC205 and macrophage mannose receptor (MMR), whereas expression levels of the human dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) homolog remained unchanged. Following uptake and subsequent presentation of avian influenza virus by DCs, adaptive immunity, including humoral immune responses are induced. We have investigated the antibody responses against virus glycan epitopes after avian influenza virus infection. Using glycan micro-array analysis we showed that chicken contained antibodies that predominantly recognize terminal Galα1-3Gal-R, chitotriose and Fucα1-2Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R (H-type 2). After influenza-infection, glycan array analysis showed that both levels and repertoire of glycan-recognizing antibodies decreased. However, analysis of the sera by ELISA indicated that the levels of different isotypes of anti-glycan Abs against specific glycan antigens was increased after influenza-infection, suggesting that the presentation of the glycan antigens and iso-type of the Abs are critical parameters to take into account when measuring anti-glycan Abs. This novel approach in avian influenza research may contribute to the development of a broad spectrum vaccine and improves our mechanistic understanding of innate and adaptive responses to glycans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How Should a Speech Recognizer Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharenborg, Odette; Norris, Dennis; ten Bosch, Louis; McQueen, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Although researchers studying human speech recognition (HSR) and automatic speech recognition (ASR) share a common interest in how information processing systems (human or machine) recognize spoken language, there is little communication between the two disciplines. We suggest that this lack of communication follows largely from the fact that…

  17. Salient Feature Identification and Analysis using Kernel-Based Classification Techniques for Synthetic Aperture Radar Automatic Target Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    combinations of these HRR projections represent the overall measured reflectivity of the target scene, g(s, φ), and can be expressed using the Radon ...collected in phase history and the target scene f (x, y) is desired, the inverse radon transform, or the backprojection operation, is more appropriate for

  18. Human NKT cells mediate antitumor cytotoxicity directly by recognizing target cell CD1d with bound ligand or indirectly by producing IL-2 to activate NK cells.

    PubMed

    Metelitsa, L S; Naidenko, O V; Kant, A; Wu, H W; Loza, M J; Perussia, B; Kronenberg, M; Seeger, R C

    2001-09-15

    alpha-Galactosylceramide (alphaGalCer) stimulates NKT cells and has antitumor activity in mice. Murine NKT cells may directly kill tumor cells and induce NK cell cytotoxicity, but the mechanisms are not well defined. Newly developed human CD1d/alphaGalCer tetrameric complexes were used to obtain highly purified human alphaGalCer-reactive NKT cell lines (>99%), and the mechanisms of NKT cell cytotoxicity and activation of NK cells were investigated. Human NKT cells were cytotoxic against CD1d(-) neuroblastoma cells only when they were rendered CD1d(+) by transfection and pulsed with alphaGalCer. Four other CD1d(-) tumor cell lines of diverse origin were resistant to NKT cells, whereas Jurkat and U937 leukemia cell lines, which are constitutively CD1d(+), were killed. Killing of the latter was greatly augmented in the presence of alphaGalCer. Upon human CD1d/alphaGalCer recognition, NKT cells induced potent cytotoxicity of NK cells against CD1d(-) neuroblastoma cell lines that were not killed directly by NKT cells. NK cell activation depended upon NKT cell production of IL-2, and was enhanced by secretion of IFN-gamma. These data demonstrate that cytotoxicity of human NKT cells can be CD1d and ligand dependent, and that TCR-stimulated NKT cells produce IL-2 that is required to induce NK cell cytotoxicity. Thus, NKT cells can mediate potent antitumor activity both directly by targeting CD1d and indirectly by activating NK cells.

  19. Recognizing Scientific Artifacts in Biomedical Literature

    PubMed Central

    Groza, Tudor; Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Hunter, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Today’s search engines and digital libraries offer little or no support for discovering those scientific artifacts (hypotheses, supporting/contradicting statements, or findings) that form the core of scientific written communication. Consequently, we currently have no means of identifying central themes within a domain or to detect gaps between accepted knowledge and newly emerging knowledge as a means for tracking the evolution of hypotheses from incipient phases to maturity or decline. We present a hybrid Machine Learning approach using an ensemble of four classifiers, for recognizing scientific artifacts (ie, hypotheses, background, motivation, objectives, and findings) within biomedical research publications, as a precursory step to the general goal of automatically creating argumentative discourse networks that span across multiple publications. The performance achieved by the classifiers ranges from 15.30% to 78.39%, subject to the target class. The set of features used for classification has led to promising results. Furthermore, their use strictly in a local, publication scope, ie, without aggregating corpus-wide statistics, increases the versatility of the ensemble of classifiers and enables its direct applicability without the necessity of re-training. PMID:23645987

  20. A cross validation study of deep brain stimulation targeting: from experts to atlas-based, segmentation-based and automatic registration algorithms.

    PubMed

    Castro, F Javier Sanchez; Pollo, Claudio; Meuli, Reto; Maeder, Philippe; Cuisenaire, Olivier; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Villemure, Jean-Guy; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2006-11-01

    Validation of image registration algorithms is a difficult task and open-ended problem, usually application-dependent. In this paper, we focus on deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting for the treatment of movement disorders like Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. DBS involves implantation of an electrode deep inside the brain to electrically stimulate specific areas shutting down the disease's symptoms. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) has turned out to be the optimal target for this kind of surgery. Unfortunately, the STN is in general not clearly distinguishable in common medical imaging modalities. Usual techniques to infer its location are the use of anatomical atlases and visible surrounding landmarks. Surgeons have to adjust the electrode intraoperatively using electrophysiological recordings and macrostimulation tests. We constructed a ground truth derived from specific patients whose STNs are clearly visible on magnetic resonance (MR) T2-weighted images. A patient is chosen as atlas both for the right and left sides. Then, by registering each patient with the atlas using different methods, several estimations of the STN location are obtained. Two studies are driven using our proposed validation scheme. First, a comparison between different atlas-based and nonrigid registration algorithms with a evaluation of their performance and usability to locate the STN automatically. Second, a study of which visible surrounding structures influence the STN location. The two studies are cross validated between them and against expert's variability. Using this scheme, we evaluated the expert's ability against the estimation error provided by the tested algorithms and we demonstrated that automatic STN targeting is possible and as accurate as the expert-driven techniques currently used. We also show which structures have to be taken into account to accurately estimate the STN location.

  1. Convolutional neural network-based automatic classification of midsagittal tongue gestural targets using B-mode ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kele; Roussel, Pierre; Csapó, Tamás Gábor; Denby, Bruce

    2017-06-01

    Tongue gestural target classification is of great interest to researchers in the speech production field. Recently, deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) have shown superiority to standard feature extraction techniques in a variety of domains. In this letter, both CNN-based speaker-dependent and speaker-independent tongue gestural target classification experiments are conducted to classify tongue gestures during natural speech production. The CNN-based method achieves state-of-the-art performance, even though no pre-training of the CNN (with the exception of a data augmentation preprocessing) was carried out.

  2. [Impact of planning CT slice thickness on the accuracy of automatic target registration using the on-board cone-beam CT].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tanooka, Masao; Doi, Hiroshi; Miura, Hideharu; Nakagawa, Hideo; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Oda, Masahiko; Yasumasa, Katsumi; Sakamoto, Kiyoshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Hirota, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    We have evaluated relationship between planning CT slice thickness and the accuracy of automatic target registration using cone-beam CT (CBCT). Planning CT images were acquired with reconstructed slice thickness of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10mm for three different phantoms: Penta-Guide phantom, acrylic ball phantom, and pelvic phantom. After correctly placing the phantom at the isocenter using an in-room laser, we purposely displaced it by moving the treatment couch and then obtained CBCT images. Registration between the planning CT and the CBCT was performed using automatic target registration software, and the registration errors were recorded for each planning CT data set with different slice thickness. The respective average and standard deviation of errors for 10 mm slice thickness CT in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions (n=15 data sets) were: 0.7 +/- 0.2mm, 0.8 +/- 0.2mm, and 0.2 +/- 0.2mm for the Penta-Guide phantom; 0.5 +/- 0.4 mm, 0.6 +/- 0.3 mm, and 0.4 +/- 0.3 mm for the acrylic ball phantom; and 0.6 +/- 0.2 mm, 0.9 +/- 0.2 mm, and 0.2 +/- 0.2 mm for the pelvic phantom. We found that the mean registration errors were always less than 1 mm regardless of the slice thickness tested. The results suggest that there is no obvious correlation between the planning CT slice thickness and the registration errors.

  3. Matching Algorithms and Feature Match Quality Measures for Model-Based Object Recognition with Applications to Automatic Target Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    experiment was repeated 1000=T times using independent MonteCarlo simulations. A. Uniform Target Test Set. For each Nk ,...,2,1= a model kM...correct identification (PID) and probability of false alarm (PFA) over T=1000 MonteCarlo realizations of the experiment data. The false alarm rate is

  4. Abundance analysis of targets for the COROT/MONS asteroseismology missions. I. Semi-automatic abundance analysis of the gamma Dor star HD 49434

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruntt, H.; Catala, C.; Garrido, R.; Rodríguez, E.; Stütz, C.; Knoglinger, P.; Mittermayer, P.; Bouret, J. C.; Hua, T.; Lignières, F.; Charpinet, S.; Van't Veer-Menneret, C.; Ballereau, D.

    2002-07-01

    One of the goals of the ground-based support program for the COROT and MONS/Römer satellite missions is to select and characterise suitable target stars for the part of the missions dedicated to asteroseismology. While the global atmospheric parameters may be determined with good accuracy from the Strömgren indices, careful abundance analysis must be made for the proposed main targets. This is a time consuming process considering the long list of primary and secondary targets. We have therefore developed new software called VWA for this task. The VWA automatically selects the least blended lines from the atomic line database VALD, and consequently adjusts the abundance in order to find the best match between the calculated and observed spectra. The variability of HD 49434 was discovered as part of COROT ground-based support observations. Here we present a detailed abundance analysis of HD 49434 using VWA. For most elements we find abundances somewhat below the Solar values, in particular we find [Fe/H] = -0.13 +/- 0.14. We also present the results from the study of the variability that is seen in spectroscopic and photometric time series observations. From the characteristics of the variation seen in photometry and in the line profiles we propose that HD 49434 is a variable star of the gamma Doradus type. Based on observations obtained at Observatoire d'Haute Provence, France and at the Observatory of Sierra Nevada, Granada, Spain.

  5. EnzyMiner: automatic identification of protein level mutations and their impact on target enzymes from PubMed abstracts.

    PubMed

    Yeniterzi, Süveyda; Sezerman, Ugur

    2009-08-27

    A better understanding of the mechanisms of an enzyme's functionality and stability, as well as knowledge and impact of mutations is crucial for researchers working with enzymes. Though, several of the enzymes' databases are currently available, scientific literature still remains at large for up-to-date source of learning the effects of a mutation on an enzyme. However, going through vast amounts of scientific documents to extract the information on desired mutation has always been a time consuming process. In this paper, therefore, we describe an unique method, termed as EnzyMiner, which automatically identifies the PubMed abstracts that contain information on the impact of a protein level mutation on the stability and/or the activity of a given enzyme. We present an automated system which identifies the abstracts that contain an amino-acid-level mutation and then classifies them according to the mutation's effect on the enzyme. In the case of mutation identification, MuGeX, an automated mutation-gene extraction system has an accuracy of 93.1% with a 91.5 F-measure. For impact analysis, document classification is performed to identify the abstracts that contain a change in enzyme's stability or activity resulting from the mutation. The system was trained on lipases and tested on amylases with an accuracy of 85%. EnzyMiner identifies the abstracts that contain a protein mutation for a given enzyme and checks whether the abstract is related to a disease with the help of information extraction and machine learning techniques. For disease related abstracts, the mutation list and direct links to the abstracts are retrieved from the system and displayed on the Web. For those abstracts that are related to non-diseases, in addition to having the mutation list, the abstracts are also categorized into two groups. These two groups determine whether the mutation has an effect on the enzyme's stability or functionality followed by displaying these on the web.

  6. Recognizing teen depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000648.htm Recognizing teen depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... life. Be Aware of the Risk for Teen Depression Your teen is more at risk for depression ...

  7. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  8. Automatic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Harman, D.

    1992-09-01

    Automatic indexing has been a critical technology as more full-text data becomes available online. The paper discusses issues for automatic indexing of different types of full-text and also presents a survey of much of the current research into new techniques for automatic indexing.

  9. Automatic Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  10. EnzyMiner: automatic identification of protein level mutations and their impact on target enzymes from PubMed abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Yeniterzi, Süveyda; Sezerman, Uğur

    2009-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the mechanisms of an enzyme's functionality and stability, as well as knowledge and impact of mutations is crucial for researchers working with enzymes. Though, several of the enzymes' databases are currently available, scientific literature still remains at large for up-to-date source of learning the effects of a mutation on an enzyme. However, going through vast amounts of scientific documents to extract the information on desired mutation has always been a time consuming process. In this paper, therefore, we describe an unique method, termed as EnzyMiner, which automatically identifies the PubMed abstracts that contain information on the impact of a protein level mutation on the stability and/or the activity of a given enzyme. Results We present an automated system which identifies the abstracts that contain an amino-acid-level mutation and then classifies them according to the mutation's effect on the enzyme. In the case of mutation identification, MuGeX, an automated mutation-gene extraction system has an accuracy of 93.1% with a 91.5 F-measure. For impact analysis, document classification is performed to identify the abstracts that contain a change in enzyme's stability or activity resulting from the mutation. The system was trained on lipases and tested on amylases with an accuracy of 85%. Conclusion EnzyMiner identifies the abstracts that contain a protein mutation for a given enzyme and checks whether the abstract is related to a disease with the help of information extraction and machine learning techniques. For disease related abstracts, the mutation list and direct links to the abstracts are retrieved from the system and displayed on the Web. For those abstracts that are related to non-diseases, in addition to having the mutation list, the abstracts are also categorized into two groups. These two groups determine whether the mutation has an effect on the enzyme's stability or functionality followed by displaying

  11. ROBIN: a platform for evaluating automatic target recognition algorithms: I. Overview of the project and presentation of the SAGEM DS competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclos, D.; Lonnoy, J.; Guillerm, Q.; Jurie, F.; Herbin, S.; D'Angelo, E.

    2008-04-01

    The last five years have seen a renewal of Automatic Target Recognition applications, mainly because of the latest advances in machine learning techniques. In this context, large collections of image datasets are essential for training algorithms as well as for their evaluation. Indeed, the recent proliferation of recognition algorithms, generally applied to slightly different problems, make their comparisons through clean evaluation campaigns necessary. The ROBIN project tries to fulfil these two needs by putting unclassified datasets, ground truths, competitions and metrics for the evaluation of ATR algorithms at the disposition of the scientific community. The scope of this project includes single and multi-class generic target detection and generic target recognition, in military and security contexts. From our knowledge, it is the first time that a database of this importance (several hundred thousands of visible and infrared hand annotated images) has been publicly released. Funded by the French Ministry of Defence (DGA) and by the French Ministry of Research, ROBIN is one of the ten Techno-vision projects. Techno-vision is a large and ambitious government initiative for building evaluation means for computer vision technologies, for various application contexts. ROBIN's consortium includes major companies and research centres involved in Computer Vision R&D in the field of defence: Bertin Technologies, CNES, ECA, DGA, EADS, INRIA, ONERA, MBDA, SAGEM, THALES. This paper, which first gives an overview of the whole project, is focused on one of ROBIN's key competitions, the SAGEM Defence Security database. This dataset contains more than eight hundred ground and aerial infrared images of six different vehicles in cluttered scenes including distracters. Two different sets of data are available for each target. The first set includes different views of each vehicle at close range in a "simple" background, and can be used to train algorithms. The second set

  12. A Statistical Approach to Automatic Speech Summarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Chiori; Furui, Sadaoki; Malkin, Rob; Yu, Hua; Waibel, Alex

    2003-12-01

    This paper proposes a statistical approach to automatic speech summarization. In our method, a set of words maximizing a summarization score indicating the appropriateness of summarization is extracted from automatically transcribed speech and then concatenated to create a summary. The extraction process is performed using a dynamic programming (DP) technique based on a target compression ratio. In this paper, we demonstrate how an English news broadcast transcribed by a speech recognizer is automatically summarized. We adapted our method, which was originally proposed for Japanese, to English by modifying the model for estimating word concatenation probabilities based on a dependency structure in the original speech given by a stochastic dependency context free grammar (SDCFG). We also propose a method of summarizing multiple utterances using a two-level DP technique. The automatically summarized sentences are evaluated by summarization accuracy based on a comparison with a manual summary of speech that has been correctly transcribed by human subjects. Our experimental results indicate that the method we propose can effectively extract relatively important information and remove redundant and irrelevant information from English news broadcasts.

  13. Recognizing the Incestuous Family

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark S.

    1983-01-01

    Family physicians are in the best position to diagnose incest because of the nature of their practice. Yet many cases of incest are not recognized by the medical community and many incest victims are thus untreated. There are several behavioral and medical clues to incest, which the family physician needs to know in order to recognize incest early and improve the prognosis. Treatment is directed at the whole family, rather than just the active participants. Further research is needed to improve the application of various treatment modalities. PMID:6631984

  14. ROBIN: a platform for evaluating automatic target recognition algorithms: II. Protocols used for evaluating algorithms and results obtained on the SAGEM DS database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclos, D.; Lonnoy, J.; Guillerm, Q.; Jurie, F.; Herbin, S.; D'Angelo, E.

    2008-04-01

    Over the five past years, the computer vision community has explored many different avenues of research for Automatic Target Recognition. Noticeable advances have been made and we are now in the situation where large-scale evaluations of ATR technologies have to be carried out, to determine what the limitations of the recently proposed methods are and to determine the best directions for future works. ROBIN, which is a project funded by the French Ministry of Defence and by the French Ministry of Research, has the ambition of being a new reference for benchmarking ATR algorithms in operational contexts. This project, headed by major companies and research centers involved in Computer Vision R&D in the field of Defense (Bertin Technologies, CNES, ECA, DGA, EADS, INRIA, ONERA, MBDA, SAGEM, THALES) recently released a large dataset of several thousands of hand-annotated infrared and RGB images of different targets in different situations. Setting up an evaluation campaign requires us to define, accurately and carefully, sets of data (both for training ATR algorithms and for their evaluation), tasks to be evaluated, and finally protocols and metrics for the evaluation. ROBIN offers interesting contributions to each one of these three points. This paper first describes, justifies and defines the set of functions used in the ROBIN competitions and relevant for evaluating ATR algorithms (Detection, Localization, Recognition and Identification). It also defines the metrics and the protocol used for evaluating these functions. In the second part of the paper, the results obtained by several state-of-the-art algorithms on the SAGEM DS database (a subpart of ROBIN) are presented and discussed

  15. Developing bifunctional beta-lactamase molecules with built-in target-recognizing module for prodrug therapy: identification of Enterobacter Cloacae P99 cephalosporinase loops suitable for randomization and phage-display selection.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Girja S; Krag, David N

    2009-01-01

    This study was focused on developing catalytically active beta-lactamase enzyme molecules that have target-recognizing sites built within their scaffold. Using phage-display approach, nine libraries were constructed by inserting the randomized linear or cysteine-constrained heptapeptides in the five different loops on the outer surface of P99 beta-lactamase molecule. The pIII signal peptide of Sec-pathway was employed for a periplasmic translocation of the beta-lactamase fusion protein, which we found more efficient than the DsbA signal peptide of SRP-pathway. The randomized heptapeptide loops replaced native amino acids between positions (34)Y-(37)K, (238)M-(246)A, (275)N-(280)A, (305)A-(311)S, or (329)I-(334)I of the P99 beta-lactamase molecules for generating the loop-1 to -5 libraries, respectively. The diversity of each loop library was judged by counting the primary and beta-lactamase-active clones. The linear peptide inserts in the loop-2 library showed the maximum number of the beta-lactamase-active clones, followed by the loop-5, loop-3, and loop-4. The insertion of the cysteine-constrained loops exhibited a dramatic loss of the enzyme-active beta-lactamase clones. The complexity of the loop-2 linear library, as determined by the frequency and diversity of amino acid distributions in the randomized region, appears consistent with the standards of other types of phage display library systems. The selection of the loop-2 linear library on streptavidin protein as a test target identified several beta-lactamase clones that specifically bound to streptavidin. In conclusion, this study identified the suitability of the loop-2 of P99 beta-lactamase for constructing a phage-display library of the beta-lactamase enzyme-active molecules that can be selected against a target. This is an enabling step in our long-term goal of developing bifunctional beta-lactamase molecules against cancer-specific targets for enzyme prodrug therapy of cancer.

  16. Automatic panoramic thermal integrated sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutin, Mikhail A.; Tsui, Eddy K.; Gutin, Olga N.

    2005-05-01

    Historically, the US Army has recognized the advantages of panoramic imagers with high image resolution: increased area coverage with fewer cameras, instantaneous full horizon detection, location and tracking of multiple targets simultaneously, extended range, and others. The novel ViperViewTM high-resolution panoramic thermal imager is the heart of the Automatic Panoramic Thermal Integrated Sensor (APTIS), being jointly developed by Applied Science Innovative, Inc. (ASI) and the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) in support of the Future Combat Systems (FCS) and the Intelligent Munitions Systems (IMS). The APTIS is anticipated to operate as an intelligent node in a wireless network of multifunctional nodes that work together to improve situational awareness (SA) in many defense and offensive operations, as well as serve as a sensor node in tactical Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance (ISR). The ViperView is as an aberration-corrected omnidirectional imager with small optics designed to match the resolution of a 640x480 pixels IR camera with improved image quality for longer range target detection, classification, and tracking. The same approach is applicable to panoramic cameras working in the visible spectral range. Other components of the ATPIS sensor suite include ancillary sensors, advanced power management, and wakeup capability. This paper describes the development status of the APTIS system.

  17. Neural networks: Alternatives to conventional techniques for automatic docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Bradley L.

    1994-01-01

    Automatic docking of orbiting spacecraft is a crucial operation involving the identification of vehicle orientation as well as complex approach dynamics. The chaser spacecraft must be able to recognize the target spacecraft within a scene and achieve accurate closing maneuvers. In a video-based system, a target scene must be captured and transformed into a pattern of pixels. Successful recognition lies in the interpretation of this pattern. Due to their powerful pattern recognition capabilities, artificial neural networks offer a potential role in interpretation and automatic docking processes. Neural networks can reduce the computational time required by existing image processing and control software. In addition, neural networks are capable of recognizing and adapting to changes in their dynamic environment, enabling enhanced performance, redundancy, and fault tolerance. Most neural networks are robust to failure, capable of continued operation with a slight degradation in performance after minor failures. This paper discusses the particular automatic docking tasks neural networks can perform as viable alternatives to conventional techniques.

  18. Automatic Parallelization Using OpenMP Based on STL Semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D J; Willcock, J J; Panas, T

    2008-06-03

    Automatic parallelization of sequential applications using OpenMP as a target has been attracting significant attention recently because of the popularity of multicore processors and the simplicity of using OpenMP to express parallelism for shared-memory systems. However, most previous research has only focused on C and Fortran applications operating on primitive data types. C++ applications using high level abstractions such as STL containers are largely ignored due to the lack of research compilers that are readily able to recognize high level object-oriented abstractions of STL. In this paper, we use ROSE, a multiple-language source-to-source compiler infrastructure, to build a parallelizer that can recognize such high level semantics and parallelize C++ applications using certain STL containers. The idea of our work is to automatically insert OpenMP constructs using extended conventional dependence analysis and the known domain-specific semantics of high-level abstractions with optional assistance from source code annotations. In addition, the parallelizer is followed by an OpenMP translator to translate the generated OpenMP programs into multi-threaded code targeted to a popular OpenMP runtime library. Our work extends the applicability of automatic parallelization and provides another way to take advantage of multicore processors.

  19. Data structures and target classification; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 1, 2, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libby, Vibeke

    1991-08-01

    The present conference discusses topics in multisensor fusion and signal processing, data structures in distributed environments, computational methods and architectures, and automatic target recognition. Attention is given to the adaptive selection of sensors, multisensor imagery fusion based on target motion, multisensor imaging technology for airborne surveillance, optimal topology communications networks, scanning strategies for target detection, VLSI fuzzy-logic controller design, an optical pattern recognizer, radar-based target recognition techniques, and algorithms for radar clutter statistical classification.

  20. Recognizing the Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark Scott

    2016-01-01

    Solar system planetary science has traditionally focused on understanding in depth individual planets. While there have been some efforts at synergy, most studies have focused on understanding the details of individual planets. Now that we are in the era of exoplanet science, with thousands of known planets and hundreds that have been characterized to varying degrees, the systematics of planetary science are becoming apparent. This also means that, for the first time, what had previously been seen as individual quirks of solar system planets are instead being recognized as part of the normal range of planetary behavior. In my talk I will consider a number of such characteristics and explain how we are now starting to understand their true context. In particular I will discuss the atmospheric composition, clouds, hazes, and winds of giant planets, trace gasses in the atmosphere of Venus, and the presence and absence of atmospheres on various terrestrial worlds.

  1. Recognizing complex patterns.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Pawan

    2002-11-01

    How the brain recognizes complex patterns in the environment is a central, but little understood question in neuroscience. The problem is of great significance for a host of applications such as biometric-based access control, autonomous robots and content-based information management. Although some headway in these directions has been made, the current artificial systems do not match the robustness and versatility of their biological counterparts. Here I examine recognition tasks drawn from two different sensory modalities--face recognition and speaker/speech recognition. The goal is to characterize the present state of artificial recognition technologies for these tasks, the influence of neuroscience on the design of these systems and the key challenges they face.

  2. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Aoki, H.

    1988-02-02

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an automatic transmission mechanism portion comprising a single planetary gear unit and a dual planetary gear unit; carriers of both of the planetary gear units that are integral with one another; an input means for inputting torque to the automatic transmission mechanism, clutches for operatively connecting predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units to the input means and braking means for restricting the rotation of predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units. The clutches are disposed adjacent one another at an end portion of the transmission for defining a clutch portion of the transmission; a first clutch portion which is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion for comprising the clutch portion when attached thereto; a second clutch portion that is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion in place of the first clutch portion for comprising the clutch portion when so attached. The first clutch portion comprising first clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a ring gear of the single planetary gear unit and a second clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a single gear of the automatic transmission mechanism portion. The second clutch portion comprising a the first clutch, the second clutch, and a third clutch for operatively connecting the input member to a ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit.

  3. Automatic Recognition of Deaf Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhamied, Kadry; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a speech perception system for automatic recognition of deaf speech. Using a 2-step segmentation approach for 468 utterances by 2 hearing-impaired men and 2 normal-hearing men, rates as high as 93.01 percent and 81.81 percent recognition were obtained in recognizing from deaf speech isolated words and connected speech,…

  4. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria.

  5. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will be...

  6. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will be...

  7. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will be...

  8. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will be...

  9. 38 CFR 51.31 - Automatic recognition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Obtaining Per Diem for Nursing Home Care in... that already is recognized by VA as a State home for nursing home care at the time this part becomes effective, automatically will continue to be recognized as a State home for nursing home care but will be...

  10. An easy approach to recognize Tibetan script by geometric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Chen, Liangyu; Zeng, Zhenbing

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach to recognize Tibetan words by analyzing the structure and geometric features. The printed Tibetan words, including consonant and vowel symbols, are firstly generated by FontLister tool and through pre-processing, such as skeletonization and deburring. Then the words are splitted into the single characters, which can easily recognized by feature extraction and pattern matching. We adopt six features according to the geometry and stroke structure. Finally, the Tibetan words are automatically "understood" and converted into Latin alphabet transcription, which make more people read. The experiments show this approach has a recognization accuracy over 89%.

  11. Using an Extended Automatic Target Acquisition Program with Dual Cursor Technology to Assist People with Developmental Disabilities Improve Their Pointing Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chiu, Hsin-Chin

    2010-01-01

    The latest research adopting software technology to improve pointing performance is through an Extended Automatic Pointing Assistive Program (EAPAP). However, EAPAP has some limitations. This study evaluated whether two children with developmental disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance through an Extended Dual Cursor…

  12. Using an Extended Automatic Target Acquisition Program with Dual Cursor Technology to Assist People with Developmental Disabilities Improve Their Pointing Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chiu, Hsin-Chin

    2010-01-01

    The latest research adopting software technology to improve pointing performance is through an Extended Automatic Pointing Assistive Program (EAPAP). However, EAPAP has some limitations. This study evaluated whether two children with developmental disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance through an Extended Dual Cursor…

  13. Can a CNN recognize Catalan diet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herruzo, P.; Bolaños, M.; Radeva, P.

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, we can find several diseases related to the unhealthy diet habits of the population, such as diabetes, obesity, anemia, bulimia and anorexia. In many cases, these diseases are related to the food consumption of people. Mediterranean diet is scientifically known as a healthy diet that helps to prevent many metabolic diseases. In particular, our work focuses on the recognition of Mediterranean food and dishes. The development of this methodology would allow to analise the daily habits of users with wearable cameras, within the topic of lifelogging. By using automatic mechanisms we could build an objective tool for the analysis of the patient's behavior, allowing specialists to discover unhealthy food patterns and understand the user's lifestyle. With the aim to automatically recognize a complete diet, we introduce a challenging multi-labeled dataset related to Mediter-ranean diet called FoodCAT. The first type of label provided consists of 115 food classes with an average of 400 images per dish, and the second one consists of 12 food categories with an average of 3800 pictures per class. This dataset will serve as a basis for the development of automatic diet recognition. In this context, deep learning and more specifically, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), currently are state-of-the-art methods for automatic food recognition. In our work, we compare several architectures for image classification, with the purpose of diet recognition. Applying the best model for recognising food categories, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 72.29%, and top-5 of 97.07%. In a complete diet recognition of dishes from Mediterranean diet, enlarged with the Food-101 dataset for international dishes recognition, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 68.07%, and top-5 of 89.53%, for a total of 115+101 food classes.

  14. Recognizing one's own face.

    PubMed

    Kircher, T T; Senior, C; Phillips, M L; Rabe-Hesketh, S; Benson, P J; Bullmore, E T; Brammer, M; Simmons, A; Bartels, M; David, A S

    2001-01-01

    We report two studies of facial self-perception using individually tailored, standardized facial photographs of a group of volunteers and their partners. A computerized morphing procedure was used to merge each target face with an unknown control face. In the first set of experiments, a discrimination task revealed a delayed response time for the more extensively morphed self-face stimuli. In a second set of experiments, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain activation while subjects viewed morphed versions of either their own or their partner's face, alternating in blocks with presentation of an unknown face. When subjects viewed themselves (minus activation for viewing an unknown face), increased blood oxygenation was detected in right limbic (hippocampal formation, insula, anterior cingulate), left prefrontal cortex and superior temporal cortex. In the partner (versus unknown) experiment, only the right insula was activated. We suggest that a neural network involving the right hemisphere in conjunction with left-sided associative and executive regions underlies the process of visual self-recognition. Together, this combination produces the unique experience of self-awareness.

  15. Antigenic targets in tienilic acid hepatitis. Both cytochrome P450 2C11 and 2C11-tienilic acid adducts are transported to the plasma membrane of rat hepatocytes and recognized by human sera.

    PubMed Central

    Robin, M A; Maratrat, M; Le Roy, M; Le Breton, F P; Bonierbale, E; Dansette, P; Ballet, F; Mansuy, D; Pessayre, D

    1996-01-01

    Patients with tienilic acid hepatitis exhibit autoantibodies that recognize unalkylated cytochrome P450 2C9 in humans but recognize 2C11 in rats. Our aim was to determine whether the immune reaction is also directed against neoantigens. Rats were treated with tienilic acid and hepatocytes were isolated. Immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and flow cytometry experiments were performed with an anti-tienilic acid or an anti-cytochrome P450 2C11 antibody. Cytochrome P450 2C11 was the main microsomal or plasma membrane protein that was alkylated by tienilic acid. Inhibitors of vesicular transport decreased flow cytometric recognition of both unalkylated and tienilic acid-alkylated cytochrome P450 2C11 on the plasma membrane of cultured hepatocytes. Tienilic acid hepatitis sera that were preadsorbed on microsomes from untreated rats (to remove autoantibodies), poorly recognized untreated hepatocytes in flow cytometry experiments, but better recognized tienilic acid-treated hepatocytes. This recognition was decreased by adsorption with tienilic acid or by preexposure to the anti-tienilic acid or the anti-cytochrome P450 2C11 antibody. We conclude that cytochrome P450 2C11 is alkylated by tienilic acid and follows a vesicular route to the plasma membrane. Tienilic acid hepatitis sera contain antibodies against this tienilic acid adduct, in addition to the previously described anticytochrome P450 autoantibodies. PMID:8823314

  16. AUTOMATIC COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, H.P.

    1960-06-01

    An automatic counter of alpha particle tracks recorded by a sensitive emulsion of a photographic plate is described. The counter includes a source of mcdulated dark-field illumination for developing light flashes from the recorded particle tracks as the photographic plate is automatically scanned in narrow strips. Photoelectric means convert the light flashes to proportional current pulses for application to an electronic counting circuit. Photoelectric means are further provided for developing a phase reference signal from the photographic plate in such a manner that signals arising from particle tracks not parallel to the edge of the plate are out of phase with the reference signal. The counting circuit includes provision for rejecting the out-of-phase signals resulting from unoriented tracks as well as signals resulting from spurious marks on the plate such as scratches, dust or grain clumpings, etc. The output of the circuit is hence indicative only of the tracks that would be counted by a human operator.

  17. Targeting Cognitive-Affective Risk Mechanisms in Stress-Precipitated Alcohol Dependence: An Integrated, Biopsychosocial Model of Automaticity, Allostasis, and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hypothetical model integrating formerly discrete theories of stress appraisal, neurobiological allostasis, automatic cognitive processing, and addictive behavior to elucidate how alcohol misuse and dependence are maintained and re-activated by stress. We outline a risk chain in which psychosocial stress initiates physiological arousal, perseverative cognition, and negative affect that, in turn, triggers automatized schema to compel alcohol consumption. This implicit cognitive process then leads to attentional biases toward alcohol, subjective experiences of craving, paradoxical increases in arousal and alcohol-related cognitions due to urge suppression, and palliative coping through drinking. When palliative coping relieves distress, it results in negative reinforcement conditioning that perpetuates the cycle by further sensitizing the system to future stressful encounters. This model has implications for development and implementation of innovative behavioral interventions (such as mindfulness training) that disrupt cognitive-affective mechanisms underpinning stress-precipitated dependence on alcohol. PMID:21354711

  18. Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method

    DOEpatents

    Ochoa, Ellen; Schils, George F.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789 between the U.S. Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

  19. Studies on quantitative analysis and automatic recognition of cell types of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chen; Hu, Kuang-Hu; Li, Fang-Zhen; Li, Shu-Yu; Su, Wan-Fang; Huang, Zhi-Ying; Hu, Ying-Xiong

    2006-01-01

    Recognition of lung cancer cells is very important to the clinical diagnosis of lung cancer. In this paper we present a novel method to extract the structure characteristics of lung cancer cells and automatically recognize their types. Firstly soft mathematical morphology methods are used to enhance the grayscale image, to improve the definition of images, and to eliminate most of disturbance, noise and information of subordinate images, so the contour of target lung cancer cell and biological shape characteristic parameters can be extracted accurately. Then the minimum distance classifier is introduced to realize the automatic recognition of different types of lung cancer cells. A software system named "CANCER.LUNG" is established to demonstrate the efficiency of this method. The clinical experiments show that this method can accurately and objectively recognize the type of lung cancer cells, which can significantly improve the pathology research on the pathological changes of lung cancer and clinical assistant diagnoses.

  20. Recognizing Question Entailment for Medical Question Answering

    PubMed Central

    Abacha, Asma Ben; Dina, Demner-Fushman

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing heterogeneity and specialization of medical texts, automated question answering is becoming more and more challenging. In this context, answering a given medical question by retrieving similar questions that are already answered by human experts seems to be a promising solution. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the detection of similar questions based on Recognizing Question Entailment (RQE). In particular, we consider Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) as a valuable and widespread source of information. Our final goal is to automatically provide an existing answer if FAQ similar to a consumer health question exists. We evaluate our approach using consumer health questions received by the National Library of Medicine and FAQs collected from NIH websites. Our first results are promising and suggest the feasibility of our approach as a valuable complement to classic question answering approaches. PMID:28269825

  1. Recognizing Question Entailment for Medical Question Answering.

    PubMed

    Abacha, Asma Ben; Dina, Demner-Fushman

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing heterogeneity and specialization of medical texts, automated question answering is becoming more and more challenging. In this context, answering a given medical question by retrieving similar questions that are already answered by human experts seems to be a promising solution. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the detection of similar questions based on Recognizing Question Entailment (RQE). In particular, we consider Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) as a valuable and widespread source of information. Our final goal is to automatically provide an existing answer if FAQ similar to a consumer health question exists. We evaluate our approach using consumer health questions received by the National Library of Medicine and FAQs collected from NIH websites. Our first results are promising and suggest the feasibility of our approach as a valuable complement to classic question answering approaches.

  2. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, N.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

  3. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.

    1988-02-16

    An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

  4. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.

    1989-03-21

    An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

  5. Automatic integration of social information in emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Mumenthaler, Christian; Sander, David

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the automaticity of the influence of social inference on emotion recognition. Participants were asked to recognize dynamic facial expressions of emotion (fear or anger in Experiment 1 and blends of fear and surprise or of anger and disgust in Experiment 2) in a target face presented at the center of a screen while a subliminal contextual face appearing in the periphery expressed an emotion (fear or anger) or not (neutral) and either looked at the target face or not. Results of Experiment 1 revealed that recognition of the target emotion of fear was improved when a subliminal angry contextual face gazed toward-rather than away from-the fearful face. We replicated this effect in Experiment 2, in which facial expression blends of fear and surprise were more often and more rapidly categorized as expressing fear when the subliminal contextual face expressed anger and gazed toward-rather than away from-the target face. With the contextual face appearing for 30 ms in total, including only 10 ms of emotion expression, and being immediately masked, our data provide the first evidence that social influence on emotion recognition can occur automatically.

  6. Using automatic programming for simulating reliability network models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Fan T.; Schroer, Bernard J.; Zhang, S. X.; Wolfsberger, John W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an automatic programming system for assisting modelers of reliability networks to define problems and then automatically generate the corresponding code in the target simulation language GPSS/PC.

  7. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

  8. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Meyman, U.

    1987-03-10

    An automatic transmission is described comprising wheel members each having discs defining an inner space therebetween; turnable blades and vane members located in the inner space between the discs of at least one of the wheel members, the turnable blades being mechanically connected with the vane members. Each of the turnable blades has an inner surface and an outer surface formed by circular cylindrical surfaces having a common axis, each of the turnable blades being turnable about the common axis of the circular cylindrical surfaces forming the inner and outer surfaces of the respective blade; levers turnable about the axes and supporting the blades; the discs having openings extending coaxially with the surfaces which describe the blades. The blades are partially received in the openings of the discs; and a housing accommodating the wheel members and the turnable blades and the vane members.

  9. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hamane, M.; Ohri, H.

    1989-03-21

    This patent describes an automatic transmission connected between a drive shaft and a driven shaft and comprising: a planetary gear mechanism including a first gear driven by the drive shaft, a second gear operatively engaged with the first gear to transmit speed change output to the driven shaft, and a third gear operatively engaged with the second gear to control the operation thereof; centrifugally operated clutch means for driving the first gear and the second gear. It also includes a ratchet type one-way clutch for permitting rotation of the third gear in the same direction as that of the drive shaft but preventing rotation in the reverse direction; the clutch means comprising a ratchet pawl supporting plate coaxially disposed relative to the drive shaft and integrally connected to the third gear, the ratchet pawl supporting plate including outwardly projection radial projections united with one another at base portions thereof.

  10. Recognizing Young Readers' Spoken Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei; Mostow, Jack; Aist, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Free-form spoken input would be the easiest and most natural way for young children to communicate to an intelligent tutoring system. However, achieving such a capability poses a challenge both to instruction design and to automatic speech recognition. To address the difficulties of accepting such input, we adopt the framework of predictable…

  11. Recognizing Young Readers' Spoken Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei; Mostow, Jack; Aist, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Free-form spoken input would be the easiest and most natural way for young children to communicate to an intelligent tutoring system. However, achieving such a capability poses a challenge both to instruction design and to automatic speech recognition. To address the difficulties of accepting such input, we adopt the framework of predictable…

  12. Semantic priming from letter-searched primes occurs for low- but not high-frequency targets: automatic semantic access may not be a myth.

    PubMed

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Neely, James H

    2007-11-01

    Letter-search (LS) within a prime often eliminates semantic priming. In 2 lexical decision experiments, the authors found that priming from LS primes occurred for low-frequency (LF) but not high-frequency (HF) targets whether the target's word frequency was manipulated between or within participants and whether the prime-target pairs were associated symmetrically or forward asymmetrically. For the LF targets, LS priming was (a) equivalent for forward asymmetric and symmetric pairs and (b) equal to silent-read (SR) priming for forward asymmetric pairs but less than SR priming for symmetric pairs. The typical finding of greater SR priming for response times for LF than for HF targets occurred for symmetric priming but not for forward asymmetric priming, which showed the interaction for errors. The authors consider their findings' implications for various accounts of how LS affects priming and explain the findings within J. H. Neely and D. E. Keefe's (1989) 3-process model as follows: (a) LS eliminates expectancy and semantic matching but does not reduce semantic activation and (b) expectancy contributes to SR priming for HF targets but not for LF targets, whereas the opposite is so for semantic matching.

  13. Automatic parameter adjustment of difference of Gaussian (DoG) filter to improve OT-MACH filter performance for target recognition applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkandri, Ahmad; Gardezi, Akber; Bangalore, Nagachetan; Birch, Philip; Young, Rupert; Chatwin, Chris

    2011-11-01

    A wavelet-modified frequency domain Optimal Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter has been trained using 3D CAD models and tested on real target images acquired from a Forward Looking Infra Red (FLIR) sensor. The OT-MACH filter can be used to detect and discriminate predefined targets from a cluttered background. The FLIR sensor extends the filter's ability by increasing the range of detection by exploiting the heat signature differences between the target and the background. A Difference of Gaussians (DoG) based wavelet filter has been use to improve the OT-MACH filter discrimination ability and distortion tolerance. Choosing the right standard deviation values of the two Gaussians comprising the filter is critical. In this paper we present a new technique for auto adjustment of the DoG filter parameters driven by the expected target size. Tests were carried on images acquired by the Apache AH-64 helicopter mounted FLIR sensor, results showing an overall improvement in the recognition of target objects present within the IR images.

  14. Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method

    DOEpatents

    Ochoa, E.; Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1987-09-15

    A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output plane to determine whether a particular target is present in the field of view. Preferably, a temporal pattern is imaged in the output plane with a optical detector having a plurality of pixels and a correlation coefficient for each pixel is determined by accumulating the intensity and intensity-square of each pixel. The orbiting of the constant response caused by the filter rotation is also preferably eliminated either by the use of two orthogonal mirrors pivoted correspondingly to the rotation of the filter or the attaching of a refracting wedge to the filter to remove the offset angle. Detection is preferably performed of the temporal pattern in the output plane at a plurality of different angles with angular separation sufficient to decorrelate successive frames. 1 fig.

  15. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  16. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  17. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  18. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  19. Recognizing the adolescent drug abuser.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, R G; Jacobs, E A

    1987-03-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for using and abusing illicit drugs. Guidelines for recognizing drug abusers are presented as well as a staging process for progression of drug use. The family physician is in an ideal position to identify young users/abusers and to assist them and their families in obtaining much needed assistance.

  20. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  1. Integrating the automatic and the controlled: strategies in semantic priming in an attractor network with latching dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Itamar; Bentin, Shlomo; Shriki, Oren

    2014-01-01

    Semantic priming has long been recognized to reflect, along with automatic semantic mechanisms, the contribution of controlled strategies. However, previous theories of controlled priming were mostly qualitative, lacking common grounds with modern mathematical models of automatic priming based on neural networks. Recently, we introduced a novel attractor network model of automatic semantic priming with latching dynamics. Here, we extend this work to show how the same model can also account for important findings regarding controlled processes. Assuming the rate of semantic transitions in the network can be adapted using simple reinforcement learning, we show how basic findings attributed to controlled processes in priming can be achieved, including their dependency on stimulus onset asynchrony and relatedness proportion and their unique effect on associative, category-exemplar, mediated and backward prime-target relations. We discuss how our mechanism relates to the classic expectancy theory and how it can be further extended in future developments of the model.

  2. Group Dynamics in Automatic Imitation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Neil; Reddy, Geetha; Catmur, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Imitation–matching the configural body movements of another individual–plays a crucial part in social interaction. We investigated whether automatic imitation is not only influenced by who we imitate (ingroup vs. outgroup member) but also by the nature of an expected interaction situation (competitive vs. cooperative). In line with assumptions from Social Identity Theory), we predicted that both social group membership and the expected situation impact on the level of automatic imitation. We adopted a 2 (group membership target: ingroup, outgroup) x 2 (situation: cooperative, competitive) design. The dependent variable was the degree to which participants imitated the target in a reaction time automatic imitation task. 99 female students from two British Universities participated. We found a significant two-way interaction on the imitation effect. When interacting in expectation of cooperation, imitation was stronger for an ingroup target compared to an outgroup target. However, this was not the case in the competitive condition where imitation did not differ between ingroup and outgroup target. This demonstrates that the goal structure of an expected interaction will determine the extent to which intergroup relations influence imitation, supporting a social identity approach. PMID:27657926

  3. Automatic TLI recognition system, user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes how to use an automatic target recognition system (version 14). In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a programmer`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide.

  4. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to meters." Similar students' mistakes were reported also by AP Chemistry readers "as in previous years, students still had difficulty converting kJ to J." While traditional teaching focuses on memorizing the symbols of prefixes, little attention is given to helping learners recognize a prefix in a given quantity. I noticed in my teaching practice that by making the processes of identifying prefixes more explicit, students make fewer mistakes on unit conversion. Thus, this paper presents an outline of a lesson that focuses on prefix recognition. It is designed for a first-year college physics class; however, its key points can be addressed to any group of physics students.

  5. Automatic signal extraction, prioritizing and filtering approaches in detecting post-marketing cardiovascular events associated with targeted cancer drugs from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS).

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Wang, Quanqiu

    2014-02-01

    Targeted drugs dramatically improve the treatment outcomes in cancer patients; however, these innovative drugs are often associated with unexpectedly high cardiovascular toxicity. Currently, cardiovascular safety represents both a challenging issue for drug developers, regulators, researchers, and clinicians and a concern for patients. While FDA drug labels have captured many of these events, spontaneous reporting systems are a main source for post-marketing drug safety surveillance in 'real-world' (outside of clinical trials) cancer patients. In this study, we present approaches to extracting, prioritizing, filtering, and confirming cardiovascular events associated with targeted cancer drugs from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). The dataset includes records of 4,285,097 patients from FAERS. We first extracted drug-cardiovascular event (drug-CV) pairs from FAERS through named entity recognition and mapping processes. We then compared six ranking algorithms in prioritizing true positive signals among extracted pairs using known drug-CV pairs derived from FDA drug labels. We also developed three filtering algorithms to further improve precision. Finally, we manually validated extracted drug-CV pairs using 21 million published MEDLINE records. We extracted a total of 11,173 drug-CV pairs from FAERS. We showed that ranking by frequency is significantly more effective than by the five standard signal detection methods (246% improvement in precision for top-ranked pairs). The filtering algorithm we developed further improved overall precision by 91.3%. By manual curation using literature evidence, we show that about 51.9% of the 617 drug-CV pairs that appeared in both FAERS and MEDLINE sentences are true positives. In addition, 80.6% of these positive pairs have not been captured by FDA drug labeling. The unique drug-CV association dataset that we created based on FAERS could facilitate our understanding and prediction of cardiotoxic events associated with

  6. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  7. Recognizing articulatory gestures from speech for robust speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Vikramjit; Nam, Hosung; Espy-Wilson, Carol; Saltzman, Elliot; Goldstein, Louis

    2012-03-01

    Studies have shown that supplementary articulatory information can help to improve the recognition rate of automatic speech recognition systems. Unfortunately, articulatory information is not directly observable, necessitating its estimation from the speech signal. This study describes a system that recognizes articulatory gestures from speech, and uses the recognized gestures in a speech recognition system. Recognizing gestures for a given utterance involves recovering the set of underlying gestural activations and their associated dynamic parameters. This paper proposes a neural network architecture for recognizing articulatory gestures from speech and presents ways to incorporate articulatory gestures for a digit recognition task. The lack of natural speech database containing gestural information prompted us to use three stages of evaluation. First, the proposed gestural annotation architecture was tested on a synthetic speech dataset, which showed that the use of estimated tract-variable-time-functions improved gesture recognition performance. In the second stage, gesture-recognition models were applied to natural speech waveforms and word recognition experiments revealed that the recognized gestures can improve the noise-robustness of a word recognition system. In the final stage, a gesture-based Dynamic Bayesian Network was trained and the results indicate that incorporating gestural information can improve word recognition performance compared to acoustic-only systems.

  8. Recognizing and treating secondary osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Walker-Bone, Karen

    2012-08-01

    Osteoporosis, through its association with fragility fracture, is a major public health problem, costing an estimated $34.8 billion worldwide per annum. With projected demographic changes, the burden looks set to grow. Therefore, the prevention of osteoporosis, as well as its identification and treatment once established, are becoming increasingly important. Osteoporosis is secondary when a drug, disease or deficiency is the underlying cause. Glucocorticoids, hypogonadism, alcohol abuse and malnutrition are among the most frequently recognized causes of secondary osteoporosis but the list of implicated diseases and drugs is growing and some of the more recently recognized associations, such as those with haematological conditions and acid-suppressing medications, are less well publicized. In some cases, advancement in treatment of the primary disease has led to people living long enough to develop secondary osteoporosis; for example, successful treatment for breast and prostate malignancies by hormonal manipulation, improved survival in HIV with the advent of anti-retroviral therapies, and improved treatment for cystic fibrosis. This Review emphasizes the importance of secondary osteoporosis, discusses familiar and less well-known causes and what is known of their mechanisms, provides guidance as to the pragmatic identification of secondary osteoporosis and summarizes treatment options, where available.

  9. Recognizing new medical knowledge computationally.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, S. J.; Cole, W. G.; Tuttle, M. S.; Olson, N. E.; Sherertz, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    Can new medical knowledge be recognized computationally? We know knowledge is changing, and our knowledge-based systems will need to accommodate that change in knowledge on a regular basis if they are to stay successful. Computational recognition of these changes seems desirable. It is unlikely that low level objects in the computational universe, bits and characters, will change much over time, higher level objects of language, where meaning begins to emerge, may show change. An analysis of ten arbitrarily selected paragraphs from the Medical Knowledge Self-Assessment Program of the American College of Physicians was used as a test bed for nominal phrase recognition. While there were words not known to Meta-1.2, only 8 of the 32 concepts new to the primary author were pointed to by new words. Use of a barrier word method was successful in identifying 23 of the 32 new concepts. Use of co-occurrence (in sentences) of putative nominal phrases may reduce the amount of human effort involved in recognizing the emergence of new relationships. PMID:8130505

  10. Automatic segmentation of the clinical target volume and organs at risk in the planning CT for rectal cancer using deep dilated convolutional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Men, Kuo; Dai, Jianrong; Li, Yexiong

    2017-09-30

    Delineation of the clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) is very important for radiotherapy but is time-consuming and prone to inter-observer variation. Here, we proposed a novel deep dilated convolutional neural network (DDCNN)-based method for fast and consistent auto-segmentation of these structures. Our DDCNN method was an end-to-end architecture enabling fast training and testing. Specifically, it employed a novel multiple-scale convolutional architecture to extract multiple-scale context features in the early layers, which contain the original information on fine texture and boundaries and which are very useful for accurate auto-segmentation. In addition, it enlarged the receptive fields of dilated convolutions at the end of networks to capture complementary context features. Then, it replaced the fully connected layers with fully convolutional layers to achieve pixel-wise segmentation. We used data from 278 patients with rectal cancer for evaluation. The CTV and OARs were delineated and validated by senior radiation oncologists in the planning computed tomography (CT) images. A total of 218 patients chosen randomly were used for training, and the remaining 60 for validation. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to measure segmentation accuracy. Performance was evaluated on segmentation of the CTV and OARs. In addition, the performance of DDCNN was compared with that of U-Net. The proposed DDCNN method outperformed the U-Net for all segmentations, and the average DSC value of DDCNN was 3.8% higher than that of U-Net. Mean DSC values of DDCNN were 87.7% for the CTV, 93.4% for the bladder, 92.1% for the left femoral head, 92.3% for the right femoral head, 65.3% for the intestine and 61.8% for the colon. The test time was 45 s per patient for segmentation of all the CTV, bladder, left and right femoral heads, colon and intestine. We also assessed our approaches and results with those in the literature: our system showed superior

  11. Automatic transmission adapter kit

    SciTech Connect

    Stich, R.L.; Neal, W.D.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes, in a four-wheel-drive vehicle apparatus having a power train including an automatic transmission and a transfer case, an automatic transmission adapter kit for installation of a replacement automatic transmission of shorter length than an original automatic transmission in the four-wheel-drive vehicle. The adapter kit comprises: an extension housing interposed between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case; an output shaft, having a first end which engages the replacement automatic transmission and a second end which engages the transfer case; first sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the replacement automatic transmission; second sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the transfer case; and fastening means for connecting the extension housing between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case.

  12. [Wearable Automatic External Defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huajie; Luo, Zhangyuan; Jin, Xun; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Changjin; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation is the most effective method of treating ventricular fibrillation(VF), this paper introduces wearable automatic external defibrillators based on embedded system which includes EGG measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurement, discharge defibrillation module, which can automatic identify VF signal, biphasic exponential waveform defibrillation discharge. After verified by animal tests, the device can realize EGG acquisition and automatic identification. After identifying the ventricular fibrillation signal, it can automatic defibrillate to abort ventricular fibrillation and to realize the cardiac electrical cardioversion.

  13. Automatic TLI recognition system beta prototype testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the beta prototype automatic target recognition system ATR3, and some performance tests done with this system. This is a fully operational system, with a high computational speed. It is useful for findings any kind of target in digitized image data, and as a general purpose image analysis tool.

  14. Young Children's Automatic Encoding of Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated young children's automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race. Three- to 6-year-old participants learned facts about unfamiliar target children who varied in either gender or race and were asked to remember which facts went with which targets. When participants…

  15. Young Children's Automatic Encoding of Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated young children's automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race. Three- to 6-year-old participants learned facts about unfamiliar target children who varied in either gender or race and were asked to remember which facts went with which targets. When participants…

  16. Recognizing suspicious activities in infrared imagery using appearance-based features and the theory of hidden conditional random fields for outdoor perimeter surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogotis, Savvas; Palaskas, Christos; Ioannidis, Dimosthenis; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Likothanassis, Spiros

    2015-11-01

    This work aims to present an extended framework for automatically recognizing suspicious activities in outdoor perimeter surveilling systems based on infrared video processing. By combining size-, speed-, and appearance-based features, like the local phase quantization and the histograms of oriented gradients, actions of small duration are recognized and used as input, along with spatial information, for modeling target activities using the theory of hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs). HCRFs are used to classify an observation sequence into the most appropriate activity label class, thus discriminating high-risk activities like trespassing from zero risk activities, such as loitering outside the perimeter. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated with experimental results in various scenarios that represent suspicious activities in perimeter surveillance systems.

  17. Category Cued Recall Evokes a Generate-Recognize Retrieval Process

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Toth, Jeffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to replicate and extend McCabe, Roediger, and Karpicke’s (2011) finding that retrieval in category cued recall involves both controlled and automatic processes. The extension entailed identifying whether distinctive encoding affected one or both of these two processes. The first experiment successfully replicated McCabe et al., but the second, which added a critical baseline condition, produced data inconsistent with a two independent process model of recall. The third experiment provided evidence that retrieval in category cued recall reflects a generate-recognize strategy, with the effect of distinctive processing being localized to recognition. Overall, the data suggest that category cued recall evokes a generate-recognize retrieval strategy and that the sub-processes underlying this strategy can be dissociated as a function of distinctive versus relational encoding processes. PMID:26280355

  18. Automatic identification of species with neural networks.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Serna, Andrés; Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    A new automatic identification system using photographic images has been designed to recognize fish, plant, and butterfly species from Europe and South America. The automatic classification system integrates multiple image processing tools to extract the geometry, morphology, and texture of the images. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used as the pattern recognition method. We tested a data set that included 740 species and 11,198 individuals. Our results show that the system performed with high accuracy, reaching 91.65% of true positive fish identifications, 92.87% of plants and 93.25% of butterflies. Our results highlight how the neural networks are complementary to species identification.

  19. Automatic identification of species with neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    A new automatic identification system using photographic images has been designed to recognize fish, plant, and butterfly species from Europe and South America. The automatic classification system integrates multiple image processing tools to extract the geometry, morphology, and texture of the images. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used as the pattern recognition method. We tested a data set that included 740 species and 11,198 individuals. Our results show that the system performed with high accuracy, reaching 91.65% of true positive fish identifications, 92.87% of plants and 93.25% of butterflies. Our results highlight how the neural networks are complementary to species identification. PMID:25392749

  20. Recognizing characters of ancient manuscripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Considering printed Latin text, the main issues of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems are solved. However, for degraded handwritten document images, basic preprocessing steps such as binarization, gain poor results with state-of-the-art methods. In this paper ancient Slavonic manuscripts from the 11th century are investigated. In order to minimize the consequences of false character segmentation, a binarization-free approach based on local descriptors is proposed. Additionally local information allows the recognition of partially visible or washed out characters. The proposed algorithm consists of two steps: character classification and character localization. Initially Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features are extracted which are subsequently classified using Support Vector Machines (SVM). Afterwards, the interest points are clustered according to their spatial information. Thereby, characters are localized and finally recognized based on a weighted voting scheme of pre-classified local descriptors. Preliminary results show that the proposed system can handle highly degraded manuscript images with background clutter (e.g. stains, tears) and faded out characters.

  1. The effect of object-valence relations on automatic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moran, Tal; Bar-Anan, Yoav

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments tested the effect of co-occurrence of a target object with affective stimuli on automatic evaluation of the target when the relation between the target and the affective stimuli suggests that they have opposite valence. Participants learned about targets that ended an unpleasant noise or a pleasant music. The valence of such targets is opposite to the valence of the affective stimuli that co-occur with them. Participants reported preference for targets that ended noise over targets that ended music, but automatic evaluation measures revealed the opposite preference. This suggests that automatic evaluation is sensitive to co-occurrence between stimuli more than to the relation between the stimuli, and that relational information has a stronger influence on deliberate evaluation than on automatic evaluation. These conclusions support the associative-propositional evaluation model (Gawronski & Bodenhausen, 2006), and add evidence regarding the sensitivity of the evaluative-conditioning effect to relational information.

  2. Recognizing chemicals in patents: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Maryam; Wiegandt, David Luis; Schmedding, Florian; Leser, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Recently, methods for Chemical Named Entity Recognition (NER) have gained substantial interest, driven by the need for automatically analyzing todays ever growing collections of biomedical text. Chemical NER for patents is particularly essential due to the high economic importance of pharmaceutical findings. However, NER on patents has essentially been neglected by the research community for long, mostly because of the lack of enough annotated corpora. A recent international competition specifically targeted this task, but evaluated tools only on gold standard patent abstracts instead of full patents; furthermore, results from such competitions are often difficult to extrapolate to real-life settings due to the relatively high homogeneity of training and test data. Here, we evaluate the two state-of-the-art chemical NER tools, tmChem and ChemSpot, on four different annotated patent corpora, two of which consist of full texts. We study the overall performance of the tools, compare their results at the instance level, report on high-recall and high-precision ensembles, and perform cross-corpus and intra-corpus evaluations. Our findings indicate that full patents are considerably harder to analyze than patent abstracts and clearly confirm the common wisdom that using the same text genre (patent vs. scientific) and text type (abstract vs. full text) for training and testing is a pre-requisite for achieving high quality text mining results.

  3. Producing and Recognizing Analogical Relations

    PubMed Central

    Lipkens, Regina; Hayes, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important component of intelligent behavior, and a key test of any approach to human language and cognition. Only a limited amount of empirical work has been conducted from a behavior analytic point of view, most of that within Relational Frame Theory (RFT), which views analogy as a matter of deriving relations among relations. The present series of four studies expands previous work by exploring the applicability of this model of analogy to topography-based rather than merely selection-based responses and by extending the work into additional relations, including nonsymmetrical ones. In each of the four studies participants pretrained in contextual control over nonarbitrary stimulus relations of sameness and opposition, or of sameness, smaller than, and larger than, learned arbitrary stimulus relations in the presence of these relational cues and derived analogies involving directly trained relations and derived relations of mutual and combinatorial entailment, measured using a variety of productive and selection-based measures. In Experiment 1 participants successfully recognized analogies among stimulus networks containing same and opposite relations; in Experiment 2 analogy was successfully used to extend derived relations to pairs of novel stimuli; in Experiment 3 the procedure used in Experiment 1 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations; in Experiment 4 the procedure used in Experiment 2 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations. Although not every participant showed the effects predicted, overall the procedures occasioned relational responses consistent with an RFT account that have not yet been demonstrated in a behavior-analytic laboratory setting, including productive responding on the basis of analogies. PMID:19230515

  4. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  5. Automatic Target Recognition for Hyperspectral Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    discriminant analysis , and cluster analysis . Each row of X is commonly referred to as a pixel vector . These pixel vectors can then be plotted against the...1 ( − �) (5) where, x is the exemplar pixel vector , � a window mean vector , S the window covariance matrix and N the number of...statistics is (Eismann, 2011), = ( − )Σb−1( − ) (7) where, s is the known vector reference signature, μb the mean vector of

  6. Cascaded automatic target recognition (Cascaded ATR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Bradley

    2010-04-01

    The global war on terror has plunged US and coalition forces into a battle space requiring the continuous adaptation of tactics and technologies to cope with an elusive enemy. As a result, technologies that enhance the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) mission making the warfighter more effective are experiencing increased interest. In this paper we show how a new generation of smart cameras built around foveated sensing makes possible a powerful ISR technique termed Cascaded ATR. Foveated sensing is an innovative optical concept in which a single aperture captures two distinct fields of view. In Cascaded ATR, foveated sensing is used to provide a coarse resolution, persistent surveillance, wide field of view (WFOV) detector to accomplish detection level perception. At the same time, within the foveated sensor, these detection locations are passed as a cue to a steerable, high fidelity, narrow field of view (NFOV) detector to perform recognition level perception. Two new ISR mission scenarios, utilizing Cascaded ATR, are proposed.

  7. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  8. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, G.F.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  9. Automatic battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Schub, L.

    1984-06-26

    An automatic battery charging circuit for use with battery powered vehicles such as golf carts includes an automatically timed charging switch which is connected in parallel with the conventional manually timed charging switch of the battery charger. The automatically timed charging switch includes an electrical clock connected across the power line of the charger. When the charger is plugged into the power line, the clock closes the terminals of the automatically timed charging switch for a brief period of time on a periodic basis. This prevents the batteries of the vehicle from becoming substantially discharged during extended periods of non-use, thereby increasing the life of the batteries.

  10. Control system for automatic transmission producing shock-free shift

    SciTech Connect

    Takase, S.; Takeda, H.; Isobe, O.

    1989-01-17

    A control system for an automatic transmission is described, comprising: torque sensor means for detecting an output shaft torque of the automatic transmission which varies in a pattern in effecting shifting the automatic transmission; a control unit including means for recognizing the patten of variation of the output shaft torque detected by the torque sensor means, means for evaluating the pattern of variation recognized, and means for determining a variation of fluid pressure to be supplied to a friction element in response to the result of the evaluation of the pattern of variation recognized; and means for regulating a fluid pressure supplied to the friction element in response to the variation of fluid pressure determined, whereby the fluid pressure supplied to the friction element is appropriately adjusted to alleviate substantial shift shock in effecting the same shifting by the friction element subsequently.

  11. Automatic Synthesis Of Greedy Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhansali, Sanjay; Miriyala, Kanth; Harandi, Mehdi T.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes a knowledge based approach to automatically generate Lisp programs using the Greedy method of algorithm design. The system's knowledge base is composed of heuristics for recognizing problems amenable to the Greedy method and knowledge about the Greedy strategy itself (i.e., rules for local optimization, constraint satisfaction, candidate ordering and candidate selection). The system has been able to generate programs for a wide variety of problems including the job-scheduling problem, the 0-1 knapsack problem, the minimal spanning tree problem, and the problem of arranging files on tape to minimize access time. For the special class of problems called matroids, the synthesized program provides optimal solutions, whereas for most other problems the solutions are near-optimal.

  12. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  13. Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

  14. Automatic Differentiation Package

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, David M.; Phipps, Eric; Bratlett, Roscoe

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  15. Automatic Test Program Generation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    presents a test description language, NOPAL , in which a user may describe diagnostic tests, and a software system which automatically generates test...programs for an automatic test equipment based on the descriptions of tests. The software system accepts as input the tests specified in NOPAL , performs

  16. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  17. Improving automatic face recognition with user interaction.

    PubMed

    Arca, Stefano; Campadelli, Paola; Lanzarotti, Raffaella; Lipori, Giuseppe; Cervelli, Federico; Mattei, Aldo

    2012-05-01

    Face recognition systems aim to recognize the identity of a person depicted in a photograph by comparing it against a gallery of prerecorded images. Current systems perform quite well in controlled scenarios, but they allow for none or little interaction in case of mistakes due to the low quality of images or to algorithmic limitations. Following the needs and suggestions of investigators, we present a guided user interface that allows to adjust from a fully automatic to a fully assisted modality of execution, according to the difficulty of the task and to amount of available information (gender, age, etc.): the user can generally rely on automatic execution and intervene only on a limited number of examples when a failure is automatically detected or when the quality of intermediate results is deemed unsatisfactory. The interface runs on top of a preexistent automatic face recognition algorithm in such a way to guarantee full control over the execution flow and to exploit the peculiarities of the underlying image processing techniques. The viability of the proposed solution is tested on a classic face identification task run on a standard publicly available database (the XM2VTS), assessing the improvement to user interaction over the automatic system performance. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Recycling steel automatically -- through resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    More than three-fourths of the operating resource recovery plants magnetically separate steel cans and other discarded steel items either pre- or post-combustion. This last year, 121 resource recovery facilities combusted about 14% of the solid waste for communities across the US. Automatic recycling of steel clearly reduces the post-combustion material that is landfilled and heightens the facilities environmental performance through tangible recycling achievement. Even though about one out of every six steel cans is recycled automatically through resource recovery, not many people are aware of automatic recycling of steel cans through resource recovery. How many people know that their local resource recovery plant is insuring that virtually all of their food, beverage and general purpose cans--including paint and aerosol--are being recycled so easily and efficiently? Magnetic separation at resource recovery facilities is a fundamentally simple and desirable method of diverting what would otherwise be relegated as solid waste to the landfill. It should be recognized as an increasingly important and valued part of the resource recovery and steel industries overall recycling efforts. This paper will provide the latest information on steel recycled automatically from resource recovery facilities within the total context of all recycling accomplished annually by the steel industry. Most important, recommendations are provided for building public awareness of the automatic steel recycling contribution made so solidly by resource recovery facilities.

  19. Automatic computerized radiographic identification of cephalometric landmarks.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, D J; Sinclair, P M; Coggins, J M

    1998-02-01

    Computerized cephalometric analysis currently requires manual identification of landmark locations. This process is time-consuming and limited in accuracy. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a novel method for automatic computer identification of cephalometric landmarks. Spatial spectroscopy (SS) is a computerized method that identifies image structure on the basis of a convolution of the image with a set of filters followed by a decision method using statistical pattern recognition techniques. By this method, characteristic features are used to recognize anatomic structures. This study compared manual identification on a computer monitor and the SS automatic method for landmark identification on minimum resolution images (0.16 cm2 per pixel). Minimum resolution (defined as the lowest resolution at which a cephalometric structure could be identified) was used to reduce computational time and memory requirements during this development stage of the SS method. Fifteen landmarks were selected on a set of 14 test images. The results showed no statistical difference (p > 0.05) in mean landmark identification errors between manual identification on the computer display and automatic identification using SS. We conclude that SS shows potential for the automatic detection of landmarks, which is an important step in the development of a completely automatic cephalometric analysis.

  20. Automatic precision measurement of spectrograms.

    PubMed

    Palmer, B A; Sansonetti, C J; Andrew, K L

    1978-08-01

    A fully automatic comparator has been designed and implemented to determine precision wavelengths from high-resolution spectrograms. The accuracy attained is superior to that of an experienced operator using a semiautomatic comparator with a photoelectric setting device. The system consists of a comparator, slightly modified for simultaneous data acquisition from two parallel scans of the spectrogram, interfaced to a minicomputer. The software which controls the system embodies three innovations of special interest. (1) Data acquired from two parallel scans are compared and used to separate unknown from standard lines, to eliminate spurious lines, to identify blends of unknown with standard lines, to improve the accuracy of the measured positions, and to flag lines which require special examination. (2) Two classes of lines are automatically recognized and appropriate line finding methods are applied to each. This provides precision measurement for both simple and complex line profiles. (3) Wavelength determination using a least-squares fitted grating equation is supported in addition to polynomial interpolation. This is most useful in spectral regions with sparsely distributed standards. The principles and implementation of these techniques are fully described.

  1. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  2. A target recognition algorithm based on a support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yan; Jin, Weiqi; Yu, Yuhong; Wang, Han

    2008-12-01

    In order to meet the accuracy requirement of a target recognition system, a target recognition algorithm based on support vector machine is proposed in this paper. In the algorithm, firstly, a fast image multi-threshold segmentation method is accomplished by using a novel searching path of particle swarm optimization to separate the target from the background. Then some characteristics of target samples such as moment feature, affine invariant feature and texture feature based on co-occurrence matrix are extracted. Thus, the parameter optimizing selection is achieved according to the corresponding rule. After comparing with other kernel functions, the radial basis function kernel is selected to build a target classifier for one particular typical target. Meanwhile, a BP neural network based target recognition system is implemented to facilitate comparison. Finally, the target recognition method presented in this paper is applied to the airplane recognition. The experimental results show that the algorithm given in this paper can effectively detect and recognize the image target automatically. It can be applied to both single target and multi-objective recognition. Moreover, real-time target recognition can be achieved for single target.

  3. Using Nanoinformatics Methods for Automatically Identifying Relevant Nanotoxicology Entities from the Literature

    PubMed Central

    García-Remesal, Miguel; García-Ruiz, Alejandro; Pérez-Rey, David; de la Iglesia, Diana; Maojo, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Nanoinformatics is an emerging research field that uses informatics techniques to collect, process, store, and retrieve data, information, and knowledge on nanoparticles, nanomaterials, and nanodevices and their potential applications in health care. In this paper, we have focused on the solutions that nanoinformatics can provide to facilitate nanotoxicology research. For this, we have taken a computational approach to automatically recognize and extract nanotoxicology-related entities from the scientific literature. The desired entities belong to four different categories: nanoparticles, routes of exposure, toxic effects, and targets. The entity recognizer was trained using a corpus that we specifically created for this purpose and was validated by two nanomedicine/nanotoxicology experts. We evaluated the performance of our entity recognizer using 10-fold cross-validation. The precisions range from 87.6% (targets) to 93.0% (routes of exposure), while recall values range from 82.6% (routes of exposure) to 87.4% (toxic effects). These results prove the feasibility of using computational approaches to reliably perform different named entity recognition (NER)-dependent tasks, such as for instance augmented reading or semantic searches. This research is a “proof of concept” that can be expanded to stimulate further developments that could assist researchers in managing data, information, and knowledge at the nanolevel, thus accelerating research in nanomedicine. PMID:23509721

  4. Using nanoinformatics methods for automatically identifying relevant nanotoxicology entities from the literature.

    PubMed

    García-Remesal, Miguel; García-Ruiz, Alejandro; Pérez-Rey, David; de la Iglesia, Diana; Maojo, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Nanoinformatics is an emerging research field that uses informatics techniques to collect, process, store, and retrieve data, information, and knowledge on nanoparticles, nanomaterials, and nanodevices and their potential applications in health care. In this paper, we have focused on the solutions that nanoinformatics can provide to facilitate nanotoxicology research. For this, we have taken a computational approach to automatically recognize and extract nanotoxicology-related entities from the scientific literature. The desired entities belong to four different categories: nanoparticles, routes of exposure, toxic effects, and targets. The entity recognizer was trained using a corpus that we specifically created for this purpose and was validated by two nanomedicine/nanotoxicology experts. We evaluated the performance of our entity recognizer using 10-fold cross-validation. The precisions range from 87.6% (targets) to 93.0% (routes of exposure), while recall values range from 82.6% (routes of exposure) to 87.4% (toxic effects). These results prove the feasibility of using computational approaches to reliably perform different named entity recognition (NER)-dependent tasks, such as for instance augmented reading or semantic searches. This research is a "proof of concept" that can be expanded to stimulate further developments that could assist researchers in managing data, information, and knowledge at the nanolevel, thus accelerating research in nanomedicine.

  5. Laser tracking system with automatic reacquisition capability.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R E; Weiss, P F

    1968-06-01

    A laser based tracking system is described that has the capability of automatically performing an acquisition search to locate the target. This work is intended for precision launch phase tracking of the Saturn V launch vehicle. System tracking accuracies limited only by the atmosphere have been demonstrated, as has acquisition over a 1 degrees x 1 degrees field of view.

  6. Automatic and Flexible

    PubMed Central

    Hassin, Ran R.; Bargh, John A.; Zimerman, Shira

    2008-01-01

    Arguing from the nature of goal pursuit and from the economy of mental resources this paper suggests that automatic goal pursuit, much like its controlled counterpart, may be flexible. Two studies that employ goal priming procedures examine this hypothesis using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Study 1) and a variation of the Iowa Gambling Task (Study 2). Implications of the results for our understanding of the dichotomy between automatic and controlled processes in general, and for our conception of automatic goal pursuit in particular, are discussed. PMID:19325712

  7. Automatic recognition and analysis of synapses. [in brain tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungerleider, J. A.; Ledley, R. S.; Bloom, F. E.

    1976-01-01

    An automatic system for recognizing synaptic junctions would allow analysis of large samples of tissue for the possible classification of specific well-defined sets of synapses based upon structural morphometric indices. In this paper the three steps of our system are described: (1) cytochemical tissue preparation to allow easy recognition of the synaptic junctions; (2) transmitting the tissue information to a computer; and (3) analyzing each field to recognize the synapses and make measurements on them.

  8. Automatic recognition and analysis of synapses. [in brain tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungerleider, J. A.; Ledley, R. S.; Bloom, F. E.

    1976-01-01

    An automatic system for recognizing synaptic junctions would allow analysis of large samples of tissue for the possible classification of specific well-defined sets of synapses based upon structural morphometric indices. In this paper the three steps of our system are described: (1) cytochemical tissue preparation to allow easy recognition of the synaptic junctions; (2) transmitting the tissue information to a computer; and (3) analyzing each field to recognize the synapses and make measurements on them.

  9. Random Deep Belief Networks for Recognizing Emotions from Speech Signals.

    PubMed

    Wen, Guihua; Li, Huihui; Huang, Jubing; Li, Danyang; Xun, Eryang

    2017-01-01

    Now the human emotions can be recognized from speech signals using machine learning methods; however, they are challenged by the lower recognition accuracies in real applications due to lack of the rich representation ability. Deep belief networks (DBN) can automatically discover the multiple levels of representations in speech signals. To make full of its advantages, this paper presents an ensemble of random deep belief networks (RDBN) method for speech emotion recognition. It firstly extracts the low level features of the input speech signal and then applies them to construct lots of random subspaces. Each random subspace is then provided for DBN to yield the higher level features as the input of the classifier to output an emotion label. All outputted emotion labels are then fused through the majority voting to decide the final emotion label for the input speech signal. The conducted experimental results on benchmark speech emotion databases show that RDBN has better accuracy than the compared methods for speech emotion recognition.

  10. Recognizing speculative language in biomedical research articles: a linguistically motivated perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Bergler, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Background Due to the nature of scientific methodology, research articles are rich in speculative and tentative statements, also known as hedges. We explore a linguistically motivated approach to the problem of recognizing such language in biomedical research articles. Our approach draws on prior linguistic work as well as existing lexical resources to create a dictionary of hedging cues and extends it by introducing syntactic patterns. Furthermore, recognizing that hedging cues differ in speculative strength, we assign them weights in two ways: automatically using the information gain (IG) measure and semi-automatically based on their types and centrality to hedging. Weights of hedging cues are used to determine the speculative strength of sentences. Results We test our system on two publicly available hedging datasets. On the fruit-fly dataset, we achieve a precision-recall breakeven point (BEP) of 0.85 using the semi-automatic weighting scheme and a lower BEP of 0.80 with the information gain weighting scheme. These results are competitive with the previously reported best results (BEP of 0.85). On the BMC dataset, using semi-automatic weighting yields a BEP of 0.82, a statistically significant improvement (p <0.01) over the previously reported best result (BEP of 0.76), while information gain weighting yields a BEP of 0.70. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that speculative language can be recognized successfully with a linguistically motivated approach and confirms that selection of hedging devices affects the speculative strength of the sentence, which can be captured reasonably by weighting the hedging cues. The improvement obtained on the BMC dataset with a semi-automatic weighting scheme indicates that our linguistically oriented approach is more portable than the machine-learning based approaches. Lower performance obtained with the information gain weighting scheme suggests that this method may benefit from a larger, manually annotated corpus for

  11. Higher-Order Neural Networks Recognize Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Max B.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Ochoa, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    Networks of higher order have enhanced capabilities to distinguish between different two-dimensional patterns and to recognize those patterns. Also enhanced capabilities to "learn" patterns to be recognized: "trained" with far fewer examples and, therefore, in less time than necessary to train comparable first-order neural networks.

  12. Vitrification: Machines learn to recognize glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceriotti, Michele; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2016-05-01

    The dynamics of a viscous liquid undergo a dramatic slowdown when it is cooled to form a solid glass. Recognizing the structural changes across such a transition remains a major challenge. Machine-learning methods, similar to those Facebook uses to recognize groups of friends, have now been applied to this problem.

  13. Teaching Students to Recognize Irony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Hawkins, Robin H.; Milner, Lucy M.

    2014-01-01

    This article exposes the problem of using declarative rather than procedural knowledge to help K--12 students recognize irony in stories. It offers commonplace procedures drawn from students' everyday language experience together with more abstract irony clues to help students recognize irony in stories and increase their story comprehension.…

  14. Automatic attitudes and health information avoidance.

    PubMed

    Howell, Jennifer L; Ratliff, Kate A; Shepperd, James A

    2016-08-01

    Early detection of disease is often crucially important for positive health outcomes, yet people sometimes decline opportunities for early detection (e.g., opting not to screen). Although some health-information avoidance reflects a deliberative decision, we propose that information avoidance can also reflect an automatic, nondeliberative reaction. In the present research, we investigated whether people's automatic attitude toward learning health information predicted their avoidance of risk feedback. In 3 studies, we gave adults the opportunity to learn their risk for a fictitious disease (Study 1), melanoma skin cancer (Study 2), or heart disease (Study 3), and examined whether they opted to learn their risk. The primary predictors were participants' attitudes about learning health information measured using a traditional (controlled) self-report instrument and using speeded (automatic) self-report measure. In addition, we prompted participants in Study 3 to contemplate their motives for seeking or avoiding information prior to making their decision. Across the 3 studies, self-reported (controlled) and implicitly measured (automatic) attitudes about learning health information independently predicted avoidance of the risk feedback, suggesting that automatic attitudes explain unique variance in the decision to avoid health information. In Study 3, prompting participants to contemplate their reasons for seeking versus avoiding health information reduced information avoidance. Surprisingly, it did so by inducing reliance on automatic, rather than controlled, attitudes. The data suggests that automatic processes play an important role in predicting health information avoidance and suggest that interventionists aiming to increase information seeking might fruitfully target automatic processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Automatic natural language parsing

    SciTech Connect

    Sprack-Jones, K.; Wilks, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of papers on automatic natural language parsing examines research and development in language processing over the past decade. It focuses on current trends toward a phrase structure grammar and deterministic parsing.

  16. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  17. Automatic dishwasher soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Automatic dishwasher products contain various soaps. Potassium carbonate and sodium carbonate are the most common. ... is in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the soap ...

  18. Automatic amino acid analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, B. J.; Carle, G. C.; Oyama, V. I.

    1971-01-01

    Analyzer operates unattended or up to 15 hours. It has an automatic sample injection system and can be programmed. All fluid-flow valve switching is accomplished pneumatically from miniature three-way solenoid pilot valves.

  19. AUTOMATIC MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, M.L.; Tabor, C.D. Jr.

    1961-12-01

    A mass spectrometer for analyzing the components of a gas is designed which is capable of continuous automatic operation such as analysis of samples of process gas from a continuous production system where the gas content may be changing. (AEC)

  20. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  1. Can intention override the "automatic pilot"?

    PubMed

    Striemer, Christopher L; Yukovsky, Julia; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2010-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that the visuomotor system possesses an "automatic pilot" which allows people to make rapid online movement corrections in response to sudden changes in target position. Importantly, the automatic pilot has been shown to operate in the absence of visual awareness, and even under circumstances in which people are explicitly asked not to correct their ongoing movement. In the current study, we investigated the extent to which the automatic pilot could be "disengaged" by explicitly instructing participants to ignore the target jump (i.e., "NO-GO"), by manipulating the order in which the two tasks were completed (i.e., either "GO" or NO-GO first), and by manipulating the proportion of trials in which the target jumped. The results indicated that participants made fewer corrections in response to the target jump when they were asked not to correct their movement (i.e., NO-GO), and when they completed the NO-GO task prior to the task in which they were asked to correct their movement when the target jumped (i.e., the GO task). However, increasing the proportion of jumping targets had only a minimal influence on performance. Critically, participants still made a significant number of unintended corrections (i.e., errors) in the NO-GO tasks, even under explicit instructions not to correct their movement if the target jumped. Overall these data suggest that, while the automatic pilot can be influenced to some degree by top-down strategies and previous experience, the pre-potent response to correct an ongoing movement cannot be completely disengaged.

  2. A long-term target detection approach in infrared image sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hang; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Xin; Hu, Chao

    2016-10-01

    An automatic target detection method used in long term infrared (IR) image sequence from a moving platform is proposed. Firstly, based on POME(the principle of maximum entropy), target candidates are iteratively segmented. Then the real target is captured via two different selection approaches. At the beginning of image sequence, the genuine target with litter texture is discriminated from other candidates by using contrast-based confidence measure. On the other hand, when the target becomes larger, we apply online EM method to estimate and update the distributions of target's size and position based on the prior detection results, and then recognize the genuine one which satisfies both the constraints of size and position. Experimental results demonstrate that the presented method is accurate, robust and efficient.

  3. A long-term target detection approach in infrared image sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hang; Zhang, Qi; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liqiang

    2015-12-01

    An automatic target detection method used in long term infrared (IR) image sequence from a moving platform is proposed. Firstly, based on non-linear histogram equalization, target candidates are coarse-to-fine segmented by using two self-adapt thresholds generated in the intensity space. Then the real target is captured via two different selection approaches. At the beginning of image sequence, the genuine target with litter texture is discriminated from other candidates by using contrast-based confidence measure. On the other hand, when the target becomes larger, we apply online EM method to iteratively estimate and update the distributions of target's size and position based on the prior detection results, and then recognize the genuine one which satisfies both the constraints of size and position. Experimental results demonstrate that the presented method is accurate, robust and efficient.

  4. Automatic TLI recognition system, general description

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report is a general description of an automatic target recognition system developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Department of Energy. A user`s manual is a separate volume, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide, and a programmer`s manual is Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide. This system was designed as an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system naturally incorporates image data fusion, and it gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. In addition to its primary function as a trainable target recognition system, this is also a versatile, general-purpose tool for image manipulation and analysis, which can be either keyboard-driven or script-driven. This report includes descriptions of three variants of the computer hardware, a description of the mathematical basis if the training process, and a description with examples of the system capabilities.

  5. Self-Amplified Optical Pattern Recognizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1993-01-01

    Self-amplified optical pattern recognizers developed for use in recognition of patterns, in optical computing, and in optoelectronic neural networks. In recognizer, photorefractive crystal serves as medium in which one holographically records diffraction-grating filter representing pattern with which recognition sought. Apparatus "self-amplified" because signal amplified within filter to many orders of magnitude greater than in prior optical pattern recognizers. Basic principle of operation applicable to many types of correlation filters, including (but not limited to) Vander Lugt matched filters, joint-transform filters, and phase-only filters.

  6. Toward automatic recognition of high quality clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2008-11-06

    Automatic methods for recognizing topically relevant documents supported by high quality research can assist clinicians in practicing evidence-based medicine. We approach the challenge of identifying articles with high quality clinical evidence as a binary classification problem. Combining predictions from supervised machine learning methods and using deep semantic features, we achieve 73.5% precision and 67% recall.

  7. Automatic recognition of lactating sow behaviors through depth image processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manual observation and classification of animal behaviors is laborious, time-consuming, and of limited ability to process large amount of data. A computer vision-based system was developed that automatically recognizes sow behaviors (lying, sitting, standing, kneeling, feeding, drinking, and shiftin...

  8. Explicit Pronunciation Training Using Automatic Speech Recognition Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalby, Jonathan; Kewley-Port, Diane

    1999-01-01

    Describes a system, provisionally named Pronto, that uses automatic speech recognition for training pronunciation of second languages in adult learners. Methods are included for developing training in Pronto, and results are presented from evaluating classes of speech recognizers for use in different aspects of pronunciation training. (Author/VWL)

  9. The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, FMRP, Recognizes G-Quartets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, Jennifer C.; Warren, Stephen T.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation is a disease caused by the loss of function of a single RNA-binding protein, FMRP. Identifying the RNA targets recognized by FMRP is likely to reveal much about its functions in controlling some aspects of memory and behavior. Recent evidence suggests that one of the predominant RNA motifs recognized by the FMRP…

  10. The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, FMRP, Recognizes G-Quartets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, Jennifer C.; Warren, Stephen T.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation is a disease caused by the loss of function of a single RNA-binding protein, FMRP. Identifying the RNA targets recognized by FMRP is likely to reveal much about its functions in controlling some aspects of memory and behavior. Recent evidence suggests that one of the predominant RNA motifs recognized by the FMRP…

  11. Automatic calibration method for plenoptic camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Yinsen; He, Xing; Xu, Bing; Yang, Ping; Tang, Guomao

    2016-04-01

    An automatic calibration method is proposed for a microlens-based plenoptic camera. First, all microlens images on the white image are searched and recognized automatically based on digital morphology. Then, the center points of microlens images are rearranged according to their relative position relationships. Consequently, the microlens images are located, i.e., the plenoptic camera is calibrated without the prior knowledge of camera parameters. Furthermore, this method is appropriate for all types of microlens-based plenoptic cameras, even the multifocus plenoptic camera, the plenoptic camera with arbitrarily arranged microlenses, or the plenoptic camera with different sizes of microlenses. Finally, we verify our method by the raw data of Lytro. The experiments show that our method has higher intelligence than the methods published before.

  12. Automatic recognition of malicious intent indicators.

    SciTech Connect

    Drescher, D. J.; Yee, Mark L.; Giron, Casey; Fogler, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Hung D.; Koch, Mark William

    2010-09-01

    A major goal of next-generation physical protection systems is to extend defenses far beyond the usual outer-perimeter-fence boundaries surrounding protected facilities. Mitigation of nuisance alarms is among the highest priorities. A solution to this problem is to create a robust capability to Automatically Recognize Malicious Indicators of intruders. In extended defense applications, it is not enough to distinguish humans from all other potential alarm sources as human activity can be a common occurrence outside perimeter boundaries. Our approach is unique in that it employs a stimulus to determine a malicious intent indicator for the intruder. The intruder's response to the stimulus can be used in an automatic reasoning system to decide the intruder's intent.

  13. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  14. Recognizing LD, ADHD and TBI in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotts, Cynthia A.

    2001-01-01

    Basic knowledge of the characteristics of learning disabilities (LD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI) can help adult educators recognize symptoms, make appropriate referrals, and individualize instruction and accommodations. (JOW)

  15. Social cognition: feeling voices to recognize emotions.

    PubMed

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-12-21

    Our understanding of how we simulate other people's actions and feelings to recognize their emotional states is extended by a new study which finds that premotor and somatosensory cortices are required to process the emotional meaning of sounds.

  16. Emergency Medical Service Personnel Recognize Pediatric Concussions.

    PubMed

    Speirs, Joshua N; Lyons, Matthew I; Johansson, Bert E

    2017-01-01

    Concussions are a major cause of morbidity in pediatrics. Many concussions occur during activities with emergency medical service (EMS) providers present to determine if a higher level of care is needed. Data are limited on how capable these providers are. We assessed the ability of EMS providers to recognize pediatric concussions. Fifty-six total responses were included, 38 from EMS and 18 from our MD/RN (medical doctor/registered nurse) group. No statistical differences were found between the 2 groups when adjusted for age, gender, number of years in practice, and number of pediatric concussions managed. This first of its kind pilot study was designed to assess EMS personnel's ability to recognize and triage pediatric concussions. Our findings show EMS providers are statistically identical in their ability to recognize and triage concussions to physicians. The performance of our MD participants was lower than expected. Larger studies are needed to further investigate EMS providers' ability to recognize a concussion.

  17. Autoantibodies in Scurfy Mice and IPEX Patients Recognize Keratin 14

    PubMed Central

    Huter, Eva N.; Natarajan, Kannan; Torgerson, Troy R.; Glass, Deborah D.; Shevach, Ethan M.

    2013-01-01

    Scurfy mice have a deletion in the Foxp3 gene, resulting in a failure to generate Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, and they subsequently develop severe CD4+ T-cell-mediated autoimmune inflammation. Multiple organs are involved, but the skin is one of the main organs affected. During the course of disease, Scurfy mice develop autoantibodies; however, the targeted antigens are unknown. In this study, we show that Scurfy mice develop autoantibodies directed against skin antigens. Using western blot analysis, we found that Scurfy serum reacted with proteins in total skin lysate, as well as in a keratinocyte lysate. Most of the Scurfy sera tested identified a major band at 50 kDa. Transfer of Scurfy CD4+ T cells into nu/nu mice yielded autoantibodies with similar reactivity. Further analysis using 2D western blots, followed by peptide mass fingerprinting, identified several keratins as targets. To confirm this observation, we chose one of the identified targets, keratin 14, and prepared recombinant proteins encompassing the N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal portions of the keratin 14 protein. Scurfy serum predominantly recognized the C-terminal fragment. Sera from patients with immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome, the human disease resulting from FOXP3 mutations, also recognized skin antigens, including keratin 14. Thus, the results of our study indicate that autoantibodies in Scurfy mice and patients with IPEX target keratins. PMID:20147963

  18. Autoantibodies in scurfy mice and IPEX patients recognize keratin 14.

    PubMed

    Huter, Eva N; Natarajan, Kannan; Torgerson, Troy R; Glass, Deborah D; Shevach, Ethan M

    2010-05-01

    Scurfy mice have a deletion in the Foxp3 gene, resulting in a failure to generate Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells, and they subsequently develop severe CD4(+) T-cell-mediated autoimmune inflammation. Multiple organs are involved, but the skin is one of the main organs affected. During the course of disease, Scurfy mice develop autoantibodies; however, the targeted antigens are unknown. In this study, we show that Scurfy mice develop autoantibodies directed against skin antigens. Using western blot analysis, we found that Scurfy serum reacted with proteins in total skin lysate, as well as in a keratinocyte lysate. Most of the Scurfy sera tested identified a major band at 50 kDa. Transfer of Scurfy CD4(+) T cells into nu/nu mice yielded autoantibodies with similar reactivity. Further analysis using 2D western blots, followed by peptide mass fingerprinting, identified several keratins as targets. To confirm this observation, we chose one of the identified targets, keratin 14, and prepared recombinant proteins encompassing the N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal portions of the keratin 14 protein. Scurfy serum predominantly recognized the C-terminal fragment. Sera from patients with immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome, the human disease resulting from FOXP3 mutations, also recognized skin antigens, including keratin 14. Thus, the results of our study indicate that autoantibodies in Scurfy mice and patients with IPEX target keratins.

  19. A knowledge engineering approach to recognizing and extracting sequences of nucleic acids from scientific literature.

    PubMed

    García-Remesal, Miguel; Maojo, Victor; Crespo, José

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a knowledge engineering approach to automatically recognize and extract genetic sequences from scientific articles. To carry out this task, we use a preliminary recognizer based on a finite state machine to extract all candidate DNA/RNA sequences. The latter are then fed into a knowledge-based system that automatically discards false positives and refines noisy and incorrectly merged sequences. We created the knowledge base by manually analyzing different manuscripts containing genetic sequences. Our approach was evaluated using a test set of 211 full-text articles in PDF format containing 3134 genetic sequences. For such set, we achieved 87.76% precision and 97.70% recall respectively. This method can facilitate different research tasks. These include text mining, information extraction, and information retrieval research dealing with large collections of documents containing genetic sequences.

  20. The automatic micrometer screw.

    PubMed

    Picker, K M

    2000-03-01

    A new analytical method - the automatic micrometer screw - has been established to measure the edge height of tablets. The equipment offers many advantages compared with other methods. The precision is slightly increased compared to the traditional micrometer screw and the measurement with a small punch and a linear voltage transducer. No longer any touch of the tablet is necessary and influences results. The method works automatically and continuously, no manual measurement of the tablets is necessary. Up to ten tablets can be analyzed at the same time because of a rotary table on which they are positioned. Thus the method is not personal intensive. By combining the results from the measurement of punch displacement which means tablet height in the die and the results of the measurement with the automatic micrometer screw which means tablet height outside the die, a convenient measurement for the decompression process is possible.

  1. WOLF; automatic typing program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evenden, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV program for the Hewlett-Packard 1000 series computer provides for automatic typing operations and can, when employed with manufacturer's text editor, provide a system to greatly facilitate preparation of reports, letters and other text. The input text and imbedded control data can perform nearly all of the functions of a typist. A few of the features available are centering, titles, footnotes, indentation, page numbering (including Roman numerals), automatic paragraphing, and two forms of tab operations. This documentation contains both user and technical description of the program.

  2. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  3. Survey of evaluation methods in image complexity of target and background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bo; Duan, Jin; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Yanqin; Li, Guangming

    2015-10-01

    In the domain of target recognition, the image complexity of target and background is used to describe the difficult degree of extracting and recognizing target from complex background, which has important guiding significance and widely application prospect in a lot of domains such as biological medical, information encrypt, image compression, meteorological analysis, automatic target recognition. This paper comprehensively took the innate characteristics of target and the target local background characteristic into consideration, which affected the algorithm performance of target extraction and recognition, then made generalizations of three classes of evaluation methods: methods based on the target characteristic, including the target shape characteristic, the gray standard deviation of target pixels, the target Local background entropy difference, etc; methods based on the target similitude, including the edge profile and structural characteristic similitude between target and phony target; methods based on the background characteristic, including texture characteristic edge ratio, etc. And on this basis, we made research on the relationship of structural features and evaluation parameters, and analyzed the foundation and properties of each method by contrast. Thoughts and foresights of this field are given at the end of this paper.

  4. Automatic Transmission Vehicle Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Malcolm

    1973-01-01

    Four drivers sustained severe injuries when run down by their own automatic cars while adjusting the carburettor or throttle linkages. The transmission had been left in the “Drive” position and the engine was idling. This accident is easily avoidable. PMID:4695693

  5. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  6. Automatic Dance Lesson Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yang; Leung, H.; Yue, Lihua; Deng, LiQun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic lesson generation system is presented which is suitable in a learning-by-mimicking scenario where the learning objects can be represented as multiattribute time series data. The dance is used as an example in this paper to illustrate the idea. Given a dance motion sequence as the input, the proposed lesson generation…

  7. Automatic finite element generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

  8. Automatic Program Synthesis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, A. W.; And Others

    Some of the major results of future goals of an automatic program synthesis project are described in the two papers that comprise this document. The first paper gives a detailed algorithm for synthesizing a computer program from a trace of its behavior. Since the algorithm involves a search, the length of time required to do the synthesis of…

  9. Brut: Automatic bubble classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Christopher; Goodman, Alyssa; Williams, Jonathan; Kendrew, Sarah; Simpson, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Brut, written in Python, identifies bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane; it uses a database of known bubbles from the Milky Way Project and Spitzer images to build an automatic bubble classifier. The classifier is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses the WiseRF implementation of this algorithm.

  10. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-02-16

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object's conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system.

  11. Automatic sweep circuit

    DOEpatents

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  12. Automaticity of Conceptual Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Gliksman, Yarden; Itamar, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Melman, Yonatan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    What is bigger, an elephant or a mouse? This question can be answered without seeing the two animals, since these objects elicit conceptual magnitude. How is an object’s conceptual magnitude processed? It was suggested that conceptual magnitude is automatically processed; namely, irrelevant conceptual magnitude can affect performance when comparing physical magnitudes. The current study further examined this question and aimed to expand the understanding of automaticity of conceptual magnitude. Two different objects were presented and participants were asked to decide which object was larger on the screen (physical magnitude) or in the real world (conceptual magnitude), in separate blocks. By creating congruent (the conceptually larger object was physically larger) and incongruent (the conceptually larger object was physically smaller) pairs of stimuli it was possible to examine the automatic processing of each magnitude. A significant congruity effect was found for both magnitudes. Furthermore, quartile analysis revealed that the congruity was affected similarly by processing time for both magnitudes. These results suggest that the processing of conceptual and physical magnitudes is automatic to the same extent. The results support recent theories suggested that different types of magnitude processing and representation share the same core system. PMID:26879153

  13. Reactor component automatic grapple

    SciTech Connect

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-12-07

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  14. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  15. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  16. Recognizing, Confronting, and Eliminating Workplace Bullying.

    PubMed

    Berry, Peggy Ann; Gillespie, Gordon L; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gormley, Denise K

    2016-07-01

    Workplace bullying (WPB) behaviors negatively affect nurse productivity, satisfaction, and retention, and hinder safe patient care. The purpose of this article is to define WPB, differentiate between incivility and WPB, and recommend actions to prevent WPB behaviors. Informed occupational and environmental health nurses and nurse leaders must recognize, confront, and eliminate WPB in their facilities and organizations. Recognizing, confronting, and eliminating WPB behaviors in health care is a crucial first step toward sustained improvements in patient care quality and the health and safety of health care employees. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Recognizing and treating anxiety disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Maria N

    2005-02-01

    Anxiety disorders are a common group of disorders that must be recognized more frequently by pediatricians. Outcomes can be very successful with prompt recognition and early treatment. For this reason, it is important that pediatricians recognize their central role in integrating sociological, psychological, and biological approaches to treatment. Pediatricians are vital for initial assessment, interventions, management of psychotherapeutic and pharmacotherapeutic treatments, and referral to psychiatrists and psychologists when necessary. An improved understanding of anxiety disorders by pediatricians will lead to improved diagnosis and improved quality of life for many undiagnosed pediatric patients suffering from anxiety.

  18. Recognizing and responding to hyperglycaemic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Kisiel, Maria; Marsons, Lorraine

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are both diabetic emergencies associated with hyperglycaemia and can be fatal if healthcare professionals fail to recognize and intervene appropriately. While many students and qualified nurses may be able to recall common signs and symptoms related to DKA and HHS - for example polyuria, polydipsia and elevated blood sugars - understanding the physiological mechanisms behind abnormal observations and restoring homeostasis through appropriate management is far more complex. Health educators can play a significant role in contextualizing difficult concepts, such as DKA and HHS, so that these complex conditions can be recognized with greater confidence and competence in clinical practice.

  19. Automatic interpretation of biological tests.

    PubMed

    Boufriche-Boufaïda, Z

    1998-03-01

    In this article, an approach for an Automatic Interpretation of Biological Tests (AIBT) is described. The developed system is much needed in Preventive Medicine Centers (PMCs). It is designed as a self-sufficient system that could be easily used by trained nurses during the routine visit. The results that the system provides are not only useful to provide the PMC physicians with a preliminary diagnosis, but also allows them more time to focus on the serious cases, making the clinical visit more qualitative. On the other hand, because the use of such a system has been planned for many years, its possibilities for future extensions must be seriously considered. The methodology adopted can be interpreted as a combination of the advantages of two main approaches adopted in current diagnostic systems: the production system approach and the object-oriented system approach. From the rules, the ability of these approaches to capture the deductive processes of the expert in domains where causal mechanisms are often understood are retained. The object-oriented approach guides the elicitation and the engineering of knowledge in such a way that abstractions, categorizations and classifications are encouraged whilst individual instances of objects of any type are recognized as separate, independent entities.

  20. Ekofisk automatic GPS subsidence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, M.J.; Landau, H.; Luttenberger, C.

    1996-10-01

    A fully automatic GPS satellite-based procedure for the reliable measurement of subsidence of several platforms in almost real time is described. Measurements are made continuously on platforms in the North Sea Ekofisk Field area. The procedure also yields rate measurements, which are also essential for confirming platform safety, planning of remedial work, and verification of subsidence models. GPS measurements are more attractive than seabed pressure-gauge-based platform subsidence measurements-they are much cheaper to install and maintain and not subject to gauge drift. GPS measurements were coupled to oceanographic quantities such as the platform deck clearance, which leads to less complex offshore survey procedures. Ekofisk is an oil and gas field in the southern portion of the Norwegian North Sea. Late in 1984, it was noticed that the Ekofisk platform decks were closer to the sea surface than when the platforms were installed-subsidence was the only logical explanation. After the subsidence phenomenon was recognized, an accurate measurement method was needed to measure progression of subsidence and the associated subsidence rate. One available system for which no further development was needed, was the NAVSTAR GPS-measurements started in March 1985.

  1. Autotract: automatic cleaning and tracking of fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Juan C.; Yang, Jean Y.; Budin, François; Styner, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new tool named Autotract to automate fiber tracking in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Autotract uses prior knowledge from a source DTI and a set of corresponding fiber bundles to extract new fibers for a target DTI. Autotract starts by aligning both DTIs and uses the source fibers as seed points to initialize a tractography algorithm. We enforce similarity between the propagated source fibers and automatically traced fibers by computing metrics such as fiber length and fiber distance between the bundles. By analyzing these metrics, individual fiber tracts can be pruned. As a result, we show that both bundles have similar characteristics. Additionally, we compare the automatically traced fibers against bundles previously generated and validated in the target DTI by an expert. This work is motivated by medical applications in which known bundles of fiber tracts in the human brain need to be analyzed for multiple datasets.

  2. Autotract: Automatic cleaning and tracking of fibers

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Juan C.; Yang, Jean Y.; Budin, François; Styner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new tool named Autotract to automate fiber tracking in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Autotract uses prior knowledge from a source DTI and a set of corresponding fiber bundles to extract new fibers for a target DTI. Autotract starts by aligning both DTIs and uses the source fibers as seed points to initialize a tractography algorithm. We enforce similarity between the propagated source fibers and automatically traced fibers by computing metrics such as fiber length and fiber distance between the bundles. By analyzing these metrics, individual fiber tracts can be pruned. As a result, we show that both bundles have similar characteristics. Additionally, we compare the automatically traced fibers against bundles previously generated and validated in the target DTI by an expert. This work is motivated by medical applications in which known bundles of fiber tracts in the human brain need to be analyzed for multiple datasets. PMID:27065227

  3. Automatic image hanging protocol for chest radiographs in PACS.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hui; Hao, Wei; Foos, David H; Cornelius, Craig W

    2006-04-01

    Chest radiography is one of the most widely used techniques in diagnostic imaging. It comprises at least one-third of all diagnostic radiographic procedures in hospitals. However, in the picture archive and communication system, images are often stored with the projection and orientation unknown or mislabeled, which causes inefficiency for radiologists' interpretation. To address this problem, an automatic hanging protocol for chest radiographs is presented. The method targets the most effective region in a chest radiograph, and extracts a set of size-, rotation-, and translation-invariant features from it. Then, a well-trained classifier is used to recognize the projection. The orientation of the radiograph is later identified by locating the neck, heart, and abdomen positions in the radiographs. Initial experiments are performed on the radiographs collected from daily routine chest exams in hospitals and show promising results. Using the presented protocol, 98.2% of all cases could be hung correctly on projection view (without protocol, 62%), and 96.1% had correct orientation (without protocol, 75%). A workflow study on the protocol also demonstrates a significant improvement in efficiency for image display.

  4. Automatic detection of sweep-meshable volumes

    DOEpatents

    Tautges; Timothy J. , White; David R.

    2006-05-23

    A method of and software for automatically determining whether a mesh can be generated by sweeping for a representation of a geometric solid comprising: classifying surface mesh schemes for surfaces of the representation locally using surface vertex types; grouping mappable and submappable surfaces of the representation into chains; computing volume edge types for the representation; recursively traversing surfaces of the representation and grouping the surfaces into source, target, and linking surface lists; and checking traversal direction when traversing onto linking surfaces.

  5. Culture, attribution and automaticity: a social cognitive neuroscience view.

    PubMed

    Mason, Malia F; Morris, Michael W

    2010-06-01

    A fundamental challenge facing social perceivers is identifying the cause underlying other people's behavior. Evidence indicates that East Asian perceivers are more likely than Western perceivers to reference the social context when attributing a cause to a target person's actions. One outstanding question is whether this reflects a culture's influence on automatic or on controlled components of causal attribution. After reviewing behavioral evidence that culture can shape automatic mental processes as well as controlled reasoning, we discuss the evidence in favor of cultural differences in automatic and controlled components of causal attribution more specifically. We contend that insights emerging from social cognitive neuroscience research can inform this debate. After introducing an attribution framework popular among social neuroscientists, we consider findings relevant to the automaticity of attribution, before speculating how one could use a social neuroscience approach to clarify whether culture affects automatic, controlled or both types of attribution processes.

  6. Culture, attribution and automaticity: a social cognitive neuroscience view

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental challenge facing social perceivers is identifying the cause underlying other people’s behavior. Evidence indicates that East Asian perceivers are more likely than Western perceivers to reference the social context when attributing a cause to a target person’s actions. One outstanding question is whether this reflects a culture’s influence on automatic or on controlled components of causal attribution. After reviewing behavioral evidence that culture can shape automatic mental processes as well as controlled reasoning, we discuss the evidence in favor of cultural differences in automatic and controlled components of causal attribution more specifically. We contend that insights emerging from social cognitive neuroscience research can inform this debate. After introducing an attribution framework popular among social neuroscientists, we consider findings relevant to the automaticity of attribution, before speculating how one could use a social neuroscience approach to clarify whether culture affects automatic, controlled or both types of attribution processes. PMID:20460302

  7. Recognizing and Responding to a Suicide Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendin, Herbert; Maltsberger, John T.; Lipschitz, Alan; Haas, Ann Pollinger; Kyle, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Data from therapists who were treating 26 patients when they committed suicide were utilized to identify warning signs. Problems in communication between patient and therapist were identified as factors interfering with crisis recognition. Evaluation of the identified affects and behaviors may help therapists recognize a suicide crisis. (BF)

  8. 26 CFR 601.502 - Recognized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recognized representative. 601.502 Section 601.502 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE... before the Internal Revenue Service and is in active status pursuant to the requirements of Circular...

  9. Recognizing and Responding to Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    Depression is increasingly recognized as a problem affecting adolescents as well as adults. Adolescents are underserved with regard to treatment facilities. One solution is the comprehensive health care clinic providing a holistic approach to assessment and intervention. Policy recommendations, which include a role for the school system, are made.…

  10. Great Apes' Capacities to Recognize Relational Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Call, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing relational similarity relies on the ability to understand that defining object properties might not lie in the objects individually, but in the relations of the properties of various object to each other. This aptitude is highly relevant for many important human skills such as language, reasoning, categorization and understanding…

  11. Stent Fracture: How Frequently Is It Recognized?

    PubMed Central

    Mohsen, Mohammed Khalil; Alqahtani, Awad; Al suwaidi, Jassim

    2013-01-01

    In spite of there being several case reports, coronary stent fracture is not a well-recognized entity and incidence rates are likely to be underestimated. In this article, we review different aspects of stent fracture, including incidence, classification, predictors, outcome, diagnosis, and management. PMID:23983912

  12. Great Apes' Capacities to Recognize Relational Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Call, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing relational similarity relies on the ability to understand that defining object properties might not lie in the objects individually, but in the relations of the properties of various object to each other. This aptitude is highly relevant for many important human skills such as language, reasoning, categorization and understanding…

  13. Emergency Medical Service Personnel Recognize Pediatric Concussions

    PubMed Central

    Speirs, Joshua N.; Lyons, Matthew I.; Johansson, Bert E.

    2017-01-01

    Concussions are a major cause of morbidity in pediatrics. Many concussions occur during activities with emergency medical service (EMS) providers present to determine if a higher level of care is needed. Data are limited on how capable these providers are. We assessed the ability of EMS providers to recognize pediatric concussions. Fifty-six total responses were included, 38 from EMS and 18 from our MD/RN (medical doctor/registered nurse) group. No statistical differences were found between the 2 groups when adjusted for age, gender, number of years in practice, and number of pediatric concussions managed. This first of its kind pilot study was designed to assess EMS personnel’s ability to recognize and triage pediatric concussions. Our findings show EMS providers are statistically identical in their ability to recognize and triage concussions to physicians. The performance of our MD participants was lower than expected. Larger studies are needed to further investigate EMS providers’ ability to recognize a concussion. PMID:28812053

  14. EPA recognizes Texas AandM Agrilife

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Oct. 13, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently recognized Texas A&M Agrilife Research Extension Center at Dallas during the 2015 WaterSmart Innovations Conference and Exposition in Las Vegas, Nev. The center rec

  15. Recently recognized chromosomal defects of clinical importance.

    PubMed Central

    Pembrey, M.; Baraitser, M.

    1986-01-01

    We review those conditions which have recently been recognized to be associated with small, sometimes difficult to detect, chromosomal abnormalities. These include the Prader-Willi syndrome and X-linked mental retardation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3540928

  16. Automatic Text Structuring and Summarization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerard; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of the use of information retrieval techniques for automatic generation of semantic hypertext links focuses on automatic text summarization. Topics include World Wide Web links, text segmentation, and evaluation of text summarization by comparing automatically generated abstracts with manually prepared abstracts. (Author/LRW)

  17. Automatic document processing system with learning capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuhong; Ng, Peter A.

    2000-08-01

    This automatic document processing system proceeds from scanning a given paper-document into the system, automatic recognizing the document layout structure, classifying it as a particular document type, which is characterized in terms of attributes to form a frame template, and extracting the pertinent information from the document to form its corresponding frame instance, which is an effective digital form of the original document. The key attribute of the system is that it is a general-purpose system, which can be adapted easily to any application domains. A segmentation method based on the 'logical closeness' is proposed. A novel and natural representation of document layout structure -- Labeled Directed Weighted Graph (LDWG) and a methodology of transforming document segmentation into LDWG representation are described. To classify a given document, we compare its layout structure with the sample layout structures of various document types prestored in the knowledge base and then use logical structure to verify the initial matching from the first step. There is a weight associated with each component of the layout structure. During the learning stage, the system can adjust the weights automatically based on the human being's correction. Modified Perceptron Learning Algorithm (PLA) is applied.

  18. Automatic adjustment of astrochronologic correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeden, Christian; Kaboth, Stefanie; Hilgen, Frederik; Laskar, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    Here we present an algorithm for the automated adjustment and optimisation of correlations between proxy data and an orbital tuning target (or similar datasets as e.g. ice models) for the R environment (R Development Core Team 2008), building on the 'astrochron' package (Meyers et al.2014). The basis of this approach is an initial tuning on orbital (precession, obliquity, eccentricity) scale. We use filters of orbital frequency ranges related to e.g. precession, obliquity or eccentricity of data and compare these filters to an ensemble of target data, which may consist of e.g. different combinations of obliquity and precession, different phases of precession and obliquity, a mix of orbital and other data (e.g. ice models), or different orbital solutions. This approach allows for the identification of an ideal mix of precession and obliquity to be used as tuning target. In addition, the uncertainty related to different tuning tie points (and also precession- and obliquity contributions of the tuning target) can easily be assessed. Our message is to suggest an initial tuning and then obtain a reproducible tuned time scale, avoiding arbitrary chosen tie points and replacing these by automatically chosen ones, representing filter maxima (or minima). We present and discuss the above outlined approach and apply it to artificial and geological data. Artificial data are assessed to find optimal filter settings; real datasets are used to demonstrate the possibilities of such an approach. References: Meyers, S.R. (2014). Astrochron: An R Package for Astrochronology. http://cran.r-project.org/package=astrochron R Development Core Team (2008). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org.

  19. Automatic carrier acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunce, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic carrier acquisition system for a phase locked loop (PLL) receiver is disclosed. It includes a local oscillator, which sweeps the receiver to tune across the carrier frequency uncertainty range until the carrier crosses the receiver IF reference. Such crossing is detected by an automatic acquisition detector. It receives the IF signal from the receiver as well as the IF reference. It includes a pair of multipliers which multiply the IF signal with the IF reference in phase and in quadrature. The outputs of the multipliers are filtered through bandpass filters and power detected. The output of the power detector has a signal dc component which is optimized with respect to the noise dc level by the selection of the time constants of the filters as a function of the sweep rate of the local oscillator.

  20. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  1. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  2. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  3. Automatic vehicle monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravman, J. S.; Durrani, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    Automatic vehicle monitoring systems are discussed. In a baseline system for highway applications, each vehicle obtains position information through a Loran-C receiver in rural areas and through a 'signpost' or 'proximity' type sensor in urban areas; the vehicle transmits this information to a central station via a communication link. In an advance system, the vehicle carries a receiver for signals emitted by satellites in the Global Positioning System and uses a satellite-aided communication link to the central station. An advanced railroad car monitoring system uses car-mounted labels and sensors for car identification and cargo status; the information is collected by electronic interrogators mounted along the track and transmitted to a central station. It is concluded that automatic vehicle monitoring systems are technically feasible but not economically feasible unless a large market develops.

  4. Automatic Retinal Oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halldorsson, G. H.; Karlsson, R. A.; Hardarson, S. H.; Mura, M. Dalla; Eysteinsson, T.; Beach, J. M.; Stefansson, E.; Benediktsson, J. A.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents a method for automating the evaluation of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the retina. This method should prove useful for monitoring ischemic retinal diseases and the effect of treatment. In order to obtain saturation values automatically, spectral images must be registered in pairs, the vessels of the retina located and measurement points must be selected. The registration algorithm is based on a data driven approach that circumvents many of the problems that have plagued previous methods. The vessels are extracted using an algorithm based on morphological profiles and supervised classifiers. Measurement points on retinal arterioles and venules as well as reference points on the adjacent fundus are automatically selected. Oxygen saturation values along vessels are averaged to arrive at a more accurate estimate of the retinal vessel oxygen saturation. The system yields reproducible results as well as being sensitive to changes in oxygen saturation.

  5. Automatic Test Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-28

    Search Terms Automatic Test Equipment Frequency Analyzers Oscilloscopes Pulse Analyzers Signal Generators "Etc." Third Level Search Guided...VAST Building Block Equipment RF Test Point Control Switch Digital Multimeter Frequency and Time Interval Meter Digital Word Generator Delay...Generator RF Amplifier, 95 Hz-2 GHz RF Amplifier, 2-4 GHz RF Amplifier, 4-8 GHz RF Amplifier, 8-12.2 GHz Signal Generator, 0.1 Hz-50 kHz

  6. Automatic Seismic Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-04

    CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (end Sublitle) S. TYPE O REPORT & PERIOD COVERED FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT - ROUTINE AUTOM!ATIC SEISMIC ANALYSIS TECHNICAL PACKAGE 6...Seismic Analysis Package ARPA Order Number: 4199 Name of Contractor: ENSCO, Inc. 4 - Contract Number: F086 06-80-C-0021 Effective Date of Contract: 10...developed and demonstrated. This timing detector algorithm times the start time of signals and their envelope peaks. It was designed to measure the size

  7. Automatic Microwave Network Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A program and procedure are developed for the automatic measurement of microwave networks using a Hewlett-Packard network analyzer and programmable calculator . The program and procedure are used in the measurement of a simple microwave two port network. These measurements are evaluated by comparing with measurements on the same network using other techniques. The programs...in the programmable calculator are listed in Appendix 1. The step by step procedure used is listed in Appendix 2. (Author)

  8. Automatic circuit interrupter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwinell, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    In technique, voice circuits connecting crew's cabin to launch station through umbilical connector disconnect automatically unused, or deadened portion of circuits immediately after vehicle is launched, eliminating possibility that unused wiring interferes with voice communications inside vehicle or need for manual cutoff switch and its associated wiring. Technique is applied to other types of electrical actuation circuits, also launch of mapped vehicles, such as balloons, submarines, test sleds, and test chambers-all requiring assistance of ground crew.

  9. Automatic Certification of Kalman Filters for Reliable Code Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd; Schumann, Johann; Richardson, Julian

    2005-01-01

    AUTOFILTER is a tool for automatically deriving Kalman filter code from high-level declarative specifications of state estimation problems. It can generate code with a range of algorithmic characteristics and for several target platforms. The tool has been designed with reliability of the generated code in mind and is able to automatically certify that the code it generates is free from various error classes. Since documentation is an important part of software assurance, AUTOFILTER can also automatically generate various human-readable documents, containing both design and safety related information. We discuss how these features address software assurance standards such as DO-178B.

  10. Automatic Certification of Kalman Filters for Reliable Code Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd; Schumann, Johann; Richardson, Julian

    2005-01-01

    AUTOFILTER is a tool for automatically deriving Kalman filter code from high-level declarative specifications of state estimation problems. It can generate code with a range of algorithmic characteristics and for several target platforms. The tool has been designed with reliability of the generated code in mind and is able to automatically certify that the code it generates is free from various error classes. Since documentation is an important part of software assurance, AUTOFILTER can also automatically generate various human-readable documents, containing both design and safety related information. We discuss how these features address software assurance standards such as DO-178B.

  11. N400 repetition effect in unidentifiable Chinese characters: evidence for automatic process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanhong; Huang, He; Mao, Liting

    2009-05-06

    A new matter of debate is whether N400 is exclusively sensitive to automatic or postlexical processes. Recent studies showing N400 modulation by masked primes support an automatic process account. However, these studies cannot directly prove an automatic process. Event-related brain potentials to blurred targets were recorded to substantiate N400 repetition (priming) effects as an index of pure automatic process during a matching task with Chinese characters. Highly blurred target characters, which were unidentifiable, as well as identifiable target characters were shown to elicit greater N400 when repeated, with N400 peak latency being longer for slightly blurred targets than for highly blurred targets. These results provide evidence that N400 is modulated directly by automatic processes rather than by postlexical processes.

  12. Automatic cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Rosalia; Giordano, Daniela; Maiorana, Francesco; Spampinato, Concetto

    2008-01-01

    To describe the techniques used for automatic landmarking of cephalograms, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each one and reviewing the percentage of success in locating each cephalometric point. The literature survey was performed by searching the Medline, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the ISI Web of Science Citation Index databases. The survey covered the period from January 1966 to August 2006. Abstracts that appeared to fulfill the initial selection criteria were selected by consensus. The original articles were then retrieved. Their references were also hand-searched for possible missing articles. The search strategy resulted in 118 articles of which eight met the inclusion criteria. Many articles were rejected for different reasons; among these, the most frequent was that results of accuracy for automatic landmark recognition were presented as a percentage of success. A marked difference in results was found between the included studies consisting of heterogeneity in the performance of techniques to detect the same landmark. All in all, hybrid approaches detected cephalometric points with a higher accuracy in contrast to the results for the same points obtained by the model-based, image filtering plus knowledge-based landmark search and "soft-computing" approaches. The systems described in the literature are not accurate enough to allow their use for clinical purposes. Errors in landmark detection were greater than those expected with manual tracing and, therefore, the scientific evidence supporting the use of automatic landmarking is low.

  13. Real-time automatic registration in optical surgical navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qinyong; Yang, Rongqian; Cai, Ken; Si, Xuan; Chen, Xiuwen; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-05-01

    An image-guided surgical navigation system requires the improvement of the patient-to-image registration time to enhance the convenience of the registration procedure. A critical step in achieving this aim is performing a fully automatic patient-to-image registration. This study reports on a design of custom fiducial markers and the performance of a real-time automatic patient-to-image registration method using these markers on the basis of an optical tracking system for rigid anatomy. The custom fiducial markers are designed to be automatically localized in both patient and image spaces. An automatic localization method is performed by registering a point cloud sampled from the three dimensional (3D) pedestal model surface of a fiducial marker to each pedestal of fiducial markers searched in image space. A head phantom is constructed to estimate the performance of the real-time automatic registration method under four fiducial configurations. The head phantom experimental results demonstrate that the real-time automatic registration method is more convenient, rapid, and accurate than the manual method. The time required for each registration is approximately 0.1 s. The automatic localization method precisely localizes the fiducial markers in image space. The averaged target registration error for the four configurations is approximately 0.7 mm. The automatic registration performance is independent of the positions relative to the tracking system and the movement of the patient during the operation.

  14. Recognize sex work as legitimate work.

    PubMed

    Reynaga, Elena

    2008-12-01

    It is not sex work per se that makes sex workers vulnerable to HIV, but rather the policies that repress them. In this article, based on her presentation at a plenary session at the conference, Elena Reynaga, who is a sex worker, describes how these policies deprive sex workers of their rights and subject them to physical and sexual violence. The author concludes that at the heart of the problem lies the fact that sex work is not recognized as legitimate work.

  15. ANPS - AUTOMATIC NETWORK PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Development of some of the space program's large simulation projects -- like the project which involves simulating the countdown sequence prior to spacecraft liftoff -- requires the support of automated tools and techniques. The number of preconditions which must be met for a successful spacecraft launch and the complexity of their interrelationship account for the difficulty of creating an accurate model of the countdown sequence. Researchers developed ANPS for the Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center to assist programmers attempting to model the pre-launch countdown sequence. Incorporating the elements of automatic programming as its foundation, ANPS aids the user in defining the problem and then automatically writes the appropriate simulation program in GPSS/PC code. The program's interactive user dialogue interface creates an internal problem specification file from user responses which includes the time line for the countdown sequence, the attributes for the individual activities which are part of a launch, and the dependent relationships between the activities. The program's automatic simulation code generator receives the file as input and selects appropriate macros from the library of software modules to generate the simulation code in the target language GPSS/PC. The user can recall the problem specification file for modification to effect any desired changes in the source code. ANPS is designed to write simulations for problems concerning the pre-launch activities of space vehicles and the operation of ground support equipment and has potential for use in developing network reliability models for hardware systems and subsystems. ANPS was developed in 1988 for use on IBM PC or compatible machines. The program requires at least 640 KB memory and one 360 KB disk drive, PC DOS Version 2.0 or above, and GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The program is written in Turbo Prolog Version 2.0. GPSS/PC is a trademark of Minuteman Software. Turbo Prolog

  16. Random Deep Belief Networks for Recognizing Emotions from Speech Signals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huihui; Huang, Jubing; Li, Danyang; Xun, Eryang

    2017-01-01

    Now the human emotions can be recognized from speech signals using machine learning methods; however, they are challenged by the lower recognition accuracies in real applications due to lack of the rich representation ability. Deep belief networks (DBN) can automatically discover the multiple levels of representations in speech signals. To make full of its advantages, this paper presents an ensemble of random deep belief networks (RDBN) method for speech emotion recognition. It firstly extracts the low level features of the input speech signal and then applies them to construct lots of random subspaces. Each random subspace is then provided for DBN to yield the higher level features as the input of the classifier to output an emotion label. All outputted emotion labels are then fused through the majority voting to decide the final emotion label for the input speech signal. The conducted experimental results on benchmark speech emotion databases show that RDBN has better accuracy than the compared methods for speech emotion recognition. PMID:28356908

  17. Recognizing and reporting adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, L. M.; Colley, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Although physicians in practice are most likely to see patients with adverse drug reactions, they may fail to recognize an adverse effect or to attribute it to a drug effect and, when recognized, they may fail to report serious reactions to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). To recognize and attribute an adverse event to a drug effect, physicians should review the patient's clinical course, looking at patient risk factors, the known adverse reactions to the suspected drug, and the likelihood of a causal relationship between the drug and the adverse event-based on the temporal relationship, response to stopping or restarting the drug, and whether other factors could explain the reaction. Once an adverse drug reaction has been identified, the patient should be informed and appropriate documentation made in the patient's medical record. Serious known reactions and all reactions to newly released drugs or those not previously known to occur (even if the certainty is low) should be reported to the FDA. PMID:1536067

  18. Recognizing the Presidents: Was Alexander Hamilton President?

    PubMed

    Roediger, Henry L; DeSoto, K Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Studies over the past 40 years have shown that Americans can recall about half the U.S. presidents. Do people know the presidents even though they are unable to access them for recall? We investigated this question using the powerful cues of a recognition test. Specifically, we tested the ability of 326 online subjects to recognize U.S. presidents when presented with their full names among various types of lures. The hit rate for presidential recognition was .88, well above the proportion produced in free recall but far from perfect. Presidents Franklin Pierce and Chester Arthur were recognized less than 60% of the time. Interestingly, four nonpresidents were falsely recognized at relatively high rates, and Alexander Hamilton was more frequently identified as president than were several actual presidents. Even on a recognition test, knowledge of American presidents is imperfect and prone to error. The false alarm data support the theory that false fame can arise from contextual familiarity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Recognizing Materials using Perceptually Inspired Features

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Lavanya; Liu, Ce; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Adelson, Edward H.

    2013-01-01

    Our world consists not only of objects and scenes but also of materials of various kinds. Being able to recognize the materials that surround us (e.g., plastic, glass, concrete) is important for humans as well as for computer vision systems. Unfortunately, materials have received little attention in the visual recognition literature, and very few computer vision systems have been designed specifically to recognize materials. In this paper, we present a system for recognizing material categories from single images. We propose a set of low and mid-level image features that are based on studies of human material recognition, and we combine these features using an SVM classifier. Our system outperforms a state-of-the-art system [Varma and Zisserman, 2009] on a challenging database of real-world material categories [Sharan et al., 2009]. When the performance of our system is compared directly to that of human observers, humans outperform our system quite easily. However, when we account for the local nature of our image features and the surface properties they measure (e.g., color, texture, local shape), our system rivals human performance. We suggest that future progress in material recognition will come from: (1) a deeper understanding of the role of non-local surface properties (e.g., extended highlights, object identity); and (2) efforts to model such non-local surface properties in images. PMID:23914070

  20. Recognizing Dynamic Faces in Malaysian Chinese Participants.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chrystalle B Y; Sheppard, Elizabeth; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-03-01

    High performance level in face recognition studies does not seem to be replicable in real-life situations possibly because of the artificial nature of laboratory studies. Recognizing faces in natural social situations may be a more challenging task, as it involves constant examination of dynamic facial motions that may alter facial structure vital to the recognition of unfamiliar faces. Because of the incongruences of recognition performance, the current study developed stimuli that closely represent natural social situations to yield results that more accurately reflect observers' performance in real-life settings. Naturalistic stimuli of African, East Asian, and Western Caucasian actors introducing themselves were presented to investigate Malaysian Chinese participants' recognition sensitivity and looking strategies when performing a face recognition task. When perceiving dynamic facial stimuli, participants fixated most on the nose, followed by the mouth then the eyes. Focusing on the nose may have enabled participants to gain a more holistic view of actors' facial and head movements, which proved to be beneficial in recognizing identities. Participants recognized all three races of faces equally well. The current results, which differed from a previous static face recognition study, may be a more accurate reflection of observers' recognition abilities and looking strategies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Recognizing specialized terminology presented through different modes.

    PubMed

    Commons-Miller, Lucas Alexander Hayleigh; Commons, Michael Lamport

    2003-11-01

    In the present study, the authors examined how previous experience and modes of presenting information affect the recognition of terms in new, specialized terminologies. The specialized terminology used was related to orienteering. Orienteering concepts representing features found in the woods may be communicated verbally (as definitions or words) or symbolically. There were 225 participants (101 reported no orienteering experience and 122 reported varying amounts of orienteering experience; 2 did not respond to that question) who tried to identify which of 5 entities was an orienteering definition, word, or symbol. Those with orienteering experience found that recognizing the specialized terminology was significantly easier than for those without experience. Recognizing symbols was significantly more difficult than recognizing definitions or words, particularly for non-orienteers. Performance of the orienteers was similar for the three modes. Within the orienteering group, the number of years of experience and usual course difficulty attempted were significant predictors of overall test success. Applications to training of both low-level specialized terminology (e.g., used in algebra), and higher level terminology (e.g., used in computer science) are discussed.

  2. Automatic landslides detection on Stromboli volcanic Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silengo, Maria Cristina; Delle Donne, Dario; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Cigolini, Corrado; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Landslides occurring in active volcanic islands play a key role in triggering tsunami and other related risks. Therefore, it becomes vital for a correct and prompt risk assessment to monitor landslides activity and to have an automatic system for a robust early-warning. We then developed a system based on a multi-frequency analysis of seismic signals for automatic landslides detection occurring at Stromboli volcano. We used a network of 4 seismic 3 components stations located along the unstable flank of the Sciara del Fuoco. Our method is able to recognize and separate the different sources of seismic signals related to volcanic and tectonic activity (e.g. tremor, explosions, earthquake) from landslides. This is done using a multi-frequency analysis combined with a waveform patter recognition. We applied the method to one year of seismic activity of Stromboli volcano centered during the last 2007 effusive eruption. This eruption was characterized by a pre-eruptive landslide activity reflecting the slow deformation of the volcano edifice. The algorithm is at the moment running off-line but has proved to be robust and efficient in picking automatically landslide. The method provides also real-time statistics on the landslide occurrence, which could be used as a proxy for the volcano deformation during the pre-eruptive phases. This method is very promising since the number of false detections is quite small (<5%) and is reducing when the size of the landslide increases. The final aim will be to apply this method on-line and for a real-time automatic detection as an improving tool for early warnings of tsunami-genic landslide activity. We suggest that a similar approach could be also applied to other unstable non-volcanic also slopes.

  3. Target recognition of ladar range images using even-order Zernike moments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng-Jun; Li, Qi; Xia, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Qi

    2012-11-01

    Ladar range images have attracted considerable attention in automatic target recognition fields. In this paper, Zernike moments (ZMs) are applied to classify the target of the range image from an arbitrary azimuth angle. However, ZMs suffer from high computational costs. To improve the performance of target recognition based on small samples, even-order ZMs with serial-parallel backpropagation neural networks (BPNNs) are applied to recognize the target of the range image. It is found that the rotation invariance and classified performance of the even-order ZMs are both better than for odd-order moments and for moments compressed by principal component analysis. The experimental results demonstrate that combining the even-order ZMs with serial-parallel BPNNs can significantly improve the recognition rate for small samples.

  4. On automatic bioacoustic detection of pests: the cases of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Sitophilus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Ganchev, Todor; Kontodimas, Dimitris

    2009-08-01

    The present work reports research efforts toward development and evaluation of a unified framework for automatic bioacoustic recognition of specific insect pests. Our approach is based on capturing and automatically recognizing the acoustic emission resulting from typical behaviors, e.g., locomotion and feeding, of the target pests. After acquisition the signals are amplified, filtered, parameterized, and classified by advanced machine learning methods on a portable computer. Specifically, we investigate an advanced signal parameterization scheme that relies on variable size signal segmentation. The feature vector computed for each segment of the signal is composed of the dominant harmonic, which carry information about the periodicity of the signal, and the cepstral coefficients, which carry information about the relative distribution of energy among the different spectral sub-bands. This parameterization offers a reliable representation of both the acoustic emissions of the pests of interest and the interferences from the environment. We illustrate the practical significance of our methodology on two specific cases: 1) a devastating pest for palm plantations, namely, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier and 2) a pest that attacks warehouse stored rice (Oryza sativa L.), the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (both Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Dryophorinae). These pests are known in many countries around the world and contribute for significant economical loss. The proposed approach led to detection results in real field trials, reaching 99.1% on real-field recordings of R. ferrugineus and 100% for S. oryzae.

  5. Traceability Through Automatic Program Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Julian; Green, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Program synthesis is a technique for automatically deriving programs from specifications of their behavior. One of the arguments made in favour of program synthesis is that it allows one to trace from the specification to the program. One way in which traceability information can be derived is to augment the program synthesis system so that manipulations and calculations it carries out during the synthesis process are annotated with information on what the manipulations and calculations were and why they were made. This information is then accumulated throughout the synthesis process, at the end of which, every artifact produced by the synthesis is annotated with a complete history relating it to every other artifact (including the source specification) which influenced its construction. This approach requires modification of the entire synthesis system - which is labor-intensive and hard to do without influencing its behavior. In this paper, we introduce a novel, lightweight technique for deriving traceability from a program specification to the corresponding synthesized code. Once a program has been successfully synthesized from a specification, small changes are systematically made to the specification and the effects on the synthesized program observed. We have partially automated the technique and applied it in an experiment to one of our program synthesis systems, AUTOFILTER, and to the GNU C compiler, GCC. The results are promising: 1. Manual inspection of the results indicates that most of the connections derived from the source (a specification in the case of AUTOFILTER, C source code in the case of GCC) to its generated target (C source code in the case of AUTOFILTER, assembly language code in the case of GCC) are correct. 2. Around half of the lines in the target can be traced to at least one line of the source. 3. Small changes in the source often induce only small changes in the target.

  6. Recognition of voice commands using adaptation of foreign language speech recognizer via selection of phonetic transcriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskeliunas, Rytis; Rudzionis, Vytautas

    2011-06-01

    In recent years various commercial speech recognizers have become available. These recognizers provide the possibility to develop applications incorporating various speech recognition techniques easily and quickly. All of these commercial recognizers are typically targeted to widely spoken languages having large market potential; however, it may be possible to adapt available commercial recognizers for use in environments where less widely spoken languages are used. Since most commercial recognition engines are closed systems the single avenue for the adaptation is to try set ways for the selection of proper phonetic transcription methods between the two languages. This paper deals with the methods to find the phonetic transcriptions for Lithuanian voice commands to be recognized using English speech engines. The experimental evaluation showed that it is possible to find phonetic transcriptions that will enable the recognition of Lithuanian voice commands with recognition accuracy of over 90%.

  7. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  8. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  9. Automatic Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potamianos, Gerasimos; Lamel, Lori; Wölfel, Matthias; Huang, Jing; Marcheret, Etienne; Barras, Claude; Zhu, Xuan; McDonough, John; Hernando, Javier; Macho, Dusan; Nadeu, Climent

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a critical component for CHIL services. For example, it provides the input to higher-level technologies, such as summarization and question answering, as discussed in Chapter 8. In the spirit of ubiquitous computing, the goal of ASR in CHIL is to achieve a high performance using far-field sensors (networks of microphone arrays and distributed far-field microphones). However, close-talking microphones are also of interest, as they are used to benchmark ASR system development by providing a best-case acoustic channel scenario to compare against.

  10. Automatic scaling of HF swept-frequency backscatter ionograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huan; Hu, Yaogai; Jiang, Chunhua; Zhou, Chen; Zhao, Zhengyu

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a method for automatically scaling HF swept-frequency backscatter ionograms, which can be applied to a low-power oblique backscatter sounding system. Based on the information of vertical echo in the ionogram, propagation mode is recognized from the amplitude differences between E layer and F layer echoes. Points on the leading edge are extracted by using minimum group path delay theory. The spurious points are removed by using residual analysis. A multiple linear polynomial was adopted to fit the extracted leading edge points. Smooth fitting curves can then be obtained. Automatic scaling results from 362 ionograms show that the proposed method can efficiently recognize propagation modes and extract leading edge curves by taking full advantages of echo characteristics and echo amplitudes in the ionograms. This novel method can be applied into real-time backscatter ionogram scaling, which facilitates the extensive usage of oblique backscatter soundings.

  11. Recognizing women in the archaeological record

    SciTech Connect

    Bumsted, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    Primary sexual characteristics are usually absent in the archaeological record. The recovered secondary sex markers in bone morphology or mortuary context reflect the lifelong integrated biocultural experience of the individual man or woman. Internal patterns of variability within and between sexes can be recognized but are too frequently masked by traditional descriptive and univariate analyses. Fortunately, a more detailed picture of life experience is gained by analyzing chemical composition (isotopic and elemental) of hard tissues using an analytical anthropology approach and by examining the variation in novel ways. 7 figs.

  12. Recognizing and treating patients with envenomations.

    PubMed

    Hurt, John B; Maday, Kristopher R

    2016-07-01

    Venomous spiders and snakes are found throughout the United States, and clinicians often encounter patients with suspected spider or snakebites. Due to the significant morbidity and mortality that can be related to a particular envenomation, clinicians must be able to recognize the species of spiders and snakes that are capable of delivering a venomous bite. Through proper species identification, recognition of the specific signs and symptoms that specific venom produces, and understanding the treatment guidelines for the envenomation, clinicians can properly diagnosis, treat, and manage patients with venomous bites.

  13. Recognizing and responding to medical neglect.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Carole

    2007-12-01

    A caregiver may fail to recognize or respond to a child's medical needs for a variety of reasons. An effective response by a health care professional to medical neglect requires a comprehensive assessment of the child's needs, the parents' resources, the parents' efforts to provide for the needs of the child, and options for ensuring optimal health for the child. Such an assessment requires clear, 2-way communication between the family and the health care professional. Physicians should consider the least intrusive options for managing cases of medical neglect that ensure the health and safety of the child.

  14. Recognizing Patterns In Log-Polar Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1992-01-01

    Log-Hough transform is basis of improved method for recognition of patterns - particularly, straight lines - in noisy images. Takes advantage of rotational and scale invariance of mapping from Cartesian to log-polar coordinates, and offers economy of representation and computation. Unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computations in recognition and eliminates erroneous quantization of slopes attributable to finite spacing of Cartesian coordinate grid of classical Hough transform. Equally efficient recognizing curves. Log-Hough transform more amenable to massively parallel computing architectures than traditional Cartesian Hough transform. "In-place" nature makes it possible to apply local pixel-neighborhood processing.

  15. Newly Recognized Mendelian Disorders with Rheumatic Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Adriana Almeida; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2015-01-01

    Summary A number of novel monogenic diseases that present with innate and/or acquired immune dysregulation reveal novel immune pathways that cause human inflammatory diseases and suggest novel targets for treatment. PMID:26196376

  16. [Target infrared detection in target spray].

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; He, Xiong-kui; Zhang, Lu-da; Zeng, Ai-jun; Song, Jian-li; Zou, Jian-jun

    2008-10-01

    Crops in agriculture and forestry are normally planted discretely. The chemical sprayed between crops would cause great waste and serious environment pollution. Therefore realization of the precision spray has great significance. This research discussed the method to realize automatic target detection using infrared detect technology. The infrared can avoid the interference of the visible light effectively and the response speed is very fast. Therefore it can be used to implement non-tough detection. Photoelectric detection systems based on infrared detect technology are normally stable, reliable, low cost, simple structure, and easy to be practically utilized. Therefore it is widely used in the on-line real time detection field. Its key point is to determinate the characteristic wavelength or wave band. The infrared lights emitted from the infrared light emitting diode were irradiated to the detected objects. The reflected infrared lights could be received by the photoelectric device. Then control signal was triggered and automatic target spray was realized. Code-division infrared detection circuit was used in the system. Modulated pulse infrared signals using different coding were used in different photodetector units in the built system so as to eliminate the light path interference between different detector units and other light signal interferences. Therefore the interference capacity of the system is high. The test results showed that the automatic target spray equipment set up in the study could detect crop targets automatically. The light wavelength used in the test is 850 nm. The detection range was tunable within 0.1-0.5 m. The least targets detectable distance was less than 0.3 m.

  17. Multiclassifier fusion of an ultrasonic lip reader in automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennnings, David L.

    1994-12-01

    This thesis investigates the use of two active ultrasonic devices in collecting lip information for performing and enhancing automatic speech recognition. The two devices explored are called the 'Ultrasonic Mike' and the 'Lip Lock Loop.' The devices are tested in a speaker dependent isolated word recognition task with a vocabulary consisting of the spoken digits from zero to nine. Two automatic lip readers are designed and tested based on the output of the ultrasonic devices. The automatic lip readers use template matching and dynamic time warping to determine the best candidate for a given test utterance. The automatic lip readers alone achieve accuracies of 65-89%, depending on the number of reference templates used. Next the automatic lip reader is combined with a conventional automatic speech recognizer. Both classifier level fusion and feature level fusion are investigated. Feature fusion is based on combining the feature vectors prior to dynamic time warping. Classifier fusion is based on a pseudo probability mass function derived from the dynamic time warping distances. The combined systems are tested with various levels of acoustic noise added. In one typical test, at a signal to noise ratio of 0dB, the acoustic recognizer's accuracy alone was 78%, the automatic lip reader's accuracy was 69%, but the combined accuracy was 93%. This experiment demonstrates that a simple ultrasonic lip motion detector, that has an output data rate 12,500 times less than a typical video camera, can significantly improve the accuracy of automatic speech recognition in noise.

  18. How do infants recognize joint attention?

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Erik; Brisson, Julie; Beaulieu, Christelle; Mainville, Marc; Mailloux, Dominique; Sirois, Sylvain

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of joint attention is still a matter of vigorous debate. It involves diverse hypotheses ranging from innate modules dedicated to intention reading to more neuro-constructivist approaches. The aim of this study was to assess whether 12-month-old infants are able to recognize a "joint attention" situation when observing such a social interaction. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we habituated infants to a "joint attention" video and then compared their looking time durations between "divergent attention" videos and "joint attention" ones using a 2 (familiar or novel perceptual component)×2 (familiar or novel conceptual component) factorial design. These results were enriched with measures of pupil dilation, which are considered to be reliable measures of cognitive load. Infants looked longer at test events that involved novel speaker and divergent attention but no changes in infants' pupil dilation were observed in any conditions. Although looking time data suggest that infants may appreciate discrepancies from expectations related to joint attention behavior, in the absence of clear evidence from pupillometry, the results show no demonstration of understanding of joint attention, even at a tacit level. Our results suggest that infants may be sensitive to relevant perceptual variables in joint attention situations, which would help scaffold social cognitive development. This study supports a gradual, learning interpretation of how infants come to recognize, understand, and participate in joint attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Recognizing focus in noise filled sentences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ching X.; Xu, Yi

    2003-04-01

    This study is designed to help identify the intrinsic constituents of focus. Twelve four-word Mandarin sentences were recorded by a native speaker five times, each time either with focus on one of the words, or without any focus. Then, one, two or three words in each sentence produced by the speaker were replaced by pink noise. The noise-filled sentences were presented to subjects along with the text. The subjects' task was to determine if the sentence had a focus, and if yes, on which word. Ten native Mandarin speakers participated as subjects. Their performance was compared across noise replacement conditions. It was found that, when both on-focus and post-focus words were present, focus could be recognized consistently. When only the focused word was present, focus could be recognized fairly well unless the focus position was sentence final, in which case it was not very distinct from no focus. When post-focus word(s) was(were) left intact while focused words were replaced by noise, focus could still be detected successfully, but its exact localization was sometimes judged wrong. These results seem to support the dual-component hypothesis about focus. Further implications of the findings will be discussed.

  20. Automatic Language Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    ALBANIANARABIC TOP THREE LANGUAGE AZERBAIJANI HYPOTHESES: SPEH LANGUAGE- EI #1 GERMAN ------ SYSTEM #2 DUTCH - #3 ENGLISH IENGLISHI SPEAKER IN AN INTERNATIONAL...language of the speech spoken built two HMM-based phone recognizers: one in English by the speaker of that set of training vectors is hypothe- and another... English , Farsi, French, German, Hindi, Japanese, Korean, nizer containing a mixture of "poly-phones" and "mono- Mandarin , Spanish, Tamil, and Vietnamese

  1. Automatic attentional orienting to other people's gaze in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Robyn; Seymour, Kiley; Williams, Tracey; Ward, Philip B

    2017-08-01

    Explicit tests of social cognition have revealed pervasive deficits in schizophrenia. Less is known of automatic social cognition in schizophrenia. We used a spatial orienting task to investigate automatic shifts of attention cued by another person's eye gaze in 29 patients and 28 controls. Central photographic images of a face with eyes shifted left or right, or looking straight ahead, preceded targets that appeared left or right of the cue. To examine automatic effects, cue direction was non-predictive of target location. Cue-target intervals were 100, 300, and 800 ms. In non-social control trials, arrows replaced eye-gaze cues. Both groups showed automatic attentional orienting indexed by faster reaction times (RTs) when arrows were congruent with target location across all cue-target intervals. Similar congruency effects were seen for eye-shift cues at 300 and 800 ms intervals, but patients showed significantly larger congruency effects at 800 ms, which were driven by delayed responses to incongruent target locations. At short 100-ms cue-target intervals, neither group showed faster RTs for congruent than for incongruent eye-shift cues, but patients were significantly slower to detect targets after direct-gaze cues. These findings conflict with previous studies using schematic line drawings of eye-shifts that have found automatic attentional orienting to be reduced in schizophrenia. Instead, our data indicate that patients display abnormalities in responding to gaze direction at various stages of gaze processing-reflected by a stronger preferential capture of attention by another person's direct eye contact at initial stages of gaze processing and difficulties disengaging from a gazed-at location once shared attention is established.

  2. Infrared small target's detection and identification with moving platform based on motion features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yan; Zou, Xu; Zhong, Sheng; Lu, Hongqiang

    2015-10-01

    The infrared small target's detection and tracking are important parts of the automatic target recognition. When the camera platform equipped with an infrared camera moves, the small target's position change in the imaging plane is affected by the composite motion of the small target and the camera platform. Traditional detection and tracking algorithms may lose the small target and make the follow-up detection and tracking fail because of not considering the camera platform's movement. Moreover, when there exist small targets with different motion features in the camera's view, some detection and tracking algorithms can't recognize different targets based on their motion features because there are no trajectories in a unified coordinate system, which may lead to the true small targets undetected or detected incorrectly . To solve those problems, we present a method under the condition of moving camera platform. Firstly, get the camera platform's motion information from the inertial measurement values, and then decouple to remove the motion of the camera platform itself by means of coordinate transformation. Next, estimate the trajectories of the small targets with different motion features based on their position changes in the same imaging plane coordinate system. Finally, recognize different small targets preliminarily based on their different trajectories. Experimental results show that this method can improve the small target's detection probability. Furthermore, when the camera platform fails to track the small target, it's possible to predict the position of the small target in the next frame based on the fitted motion equation and realize sustained and stable tracking.

  3. Automatic TLI recognition system. Part 2: User`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Partin, J.K.; Lassahn, G.D.; Davidson, J.R.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system uses image data fusion and gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. This volume is a user`s manual for an Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) system. This guide is intended to provide enough information and instruction to allow individuals to the system for their own applications.

  4. Comparison of automatic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppelt, W

    1941-01-01

    This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

  5. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbé, A.; von Haeseler, F.

    2004-04-01

    Automatic sets D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m to be a Delone set in {\\bb R}^m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples.

  6. Recognizing lexical and semantic change patterns in evolving life science ontologies to inform mapping adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Julio Cesar; Dinh, Duy; Da Silveira, Marcos; Pruski, Cédric; Reynaud-Delaître, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Mappings established between life science ontologies require significant efforts to maintain them up to date due to the size and frequent evolution of these ontologies. In consequence, automatic methods for applying modifications on mappings are highly demanded. The accuracy of such methods relies on the available description about the evolution of ontologies, especially regarding concepts involved in mappings. However, from one ontology version to another, a further understanding of ontology changes relevant for supporting mapping adaptation is typically lacking. This research work defines a set of change patterns at the level of concept attributes, and proposes original methods to automatically recognize instances of these patterns based on the similarity between attributes denoting the evolving concepts. This investigation evaluates the benefits of the proposed methods and the influence of the recognized change patterns to select the strategies for mapping adaptation. The summary of the findings is as follows: (1) the Precision (>60%) and Recall (>35%) achieved by comparing manually identified change patterns with the automatic ones; (2) a set of potential impact of recognized change patterns on the way mappings is adapted. We found that the detected correlations cover ∼66% of the mapping adaptation actions with a positive impact; and (3) the influence of the similarity coefficient calculated between concept attributes on the performance of the recognition algorithms. The experimental evaluations conducted with real life science ontologies showed the effectiveness of our approach to accurately characterize ontology evolution at the level of concept attributes. This investigation confirmed the relevance of the proposed change patterns to support decisions on mapping adaptation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Software for Partly Automated Recognition of Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opitz, David; Blundell, Stuart; Bain, William; Morris, Matthew; Carlson, Ian; Mangrich, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The Feature Analyst is a computer program for assisted (partially automated) recognition of targets in images. This program was developed to accelerate the processing of high-resolution satellite image data for incorporation into geographic information systems (GIS). This program creates an advanced user interface that embeds proprietary machine-learning algorithms in commercial image-processing and GIS software. A human analyst provides samples of target features from multiple sets of data, then the software develops a data-fusion model that automatically extracts the remaining features from selected sets of data. The program thus leverages the natural ability of humans to recognize objects in complex scenes, without requiring the user to explain the human visual recognition process by means of lengthy software. Two major subprograms are the reactive agent and the thinking agent. The reactive agent strives to quickly learn the user s tendencies while the user is selecting targets and to increase the user s productivity by immediately suggesting the next set of pixels that the user may wish to select. The thinking agent utilizes all available resources, taking as much time as needed, to produce the most accurate autonomous feature-extraction model possible.

  8. Software for Partly Automated Recognition of Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opitz, David; Blundell, Stuart; Bain, William; Morris, Matthew; Carlson, Ian; Mangrich, Mark; Selinsky, T.

    2002-01-01

    The Feature Analyst is a computer program for assisted (partially automated) recognition of targets in images. This program was developed to accelerate the processing of high-resolution satellite image data for incorporation into geographic information systems (GIS). This program creates an advanced user interface that embeds proprietary machine-learning algorithms in commercial image-processing and GIS software. A human analyst provides samples of target features from multiple sets of data, then the software develops a data-fusion model that automatically extracts the remaining features from selected sets of data. The program thus leverages the natural ability of humans to recognize objects in complex scenes, without requiring the user to explain the human visual recognition process by means of lengthy software. Two major subprograms are the reactive agent and the thinking agent. The reactive agent strives to quickly learn the user's tendencies while the user is selecting targets and to increase the user's productivity by immediately suggesting the next set of pixels that the user may wish to select. The thinking agent utilizes all available resources, taking as much time as needed, to produce the most accurate autonomous feature-extraction model possible.

  9. Software for Partly Automated Recognition of Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opitz, David; Blundell, Stuart; Bain, William; Morris, Matthew; Carlson, Ian; Mangrich, Mark; Selinsky, T.

    2002-01-01

    The Feature Analyst is a computer program for assisted (partially automated) recognition of targets in images. This program was developed to accelerate the processing of high-resolution satellite image data for incorporation into geographic information systems (GIS). This program creates an advanced user interface that embeds proprietary machine-learning algorithms in commercial image-processing and GIS software. A human analyst provides samples of target features from multiple sets of data, then the software develops a data-fusion model that automatically extracts the remaining features from selected sets of data. The program thus leverages the natural ability of humans to recognize objects in complex scenes, without requiring the user to explain the human visual recognition process by means of lengthy software. Two major subprograms are the reactive agent and the thinking agent. The reactive agent strives to quickly learn the user's tendencies while the user is selecting targets and to increase the user's productivity by immediately suggesting the next set of pixels that the user may wish to select. The thinking agent utilizes all available resources, taking as much time as needed, to produce the most accurate autonomous feature-extraction model possible.

  10. Automatic ionospheric layers detection: Algorithms analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, María G.; Zuccheretti, Enrico; Cabrera, Miguel A.; Bianchi, Cesidio; Sciacca, Umberto; Baskaradas, James

    2016-03-01

    Vertical sounding is a widely used technique to obtain ionosphere measurements, such as an estimation of virtual height versus frequency scanning. It is performed by high frequency radar for geophysical applications called ;ionospheric sounder; (or ;ionosonde;). Radar detection depends mainly on targets characteristics. While several targets behavior and correspondent echo detection algorithms have been studied, a survey to address a suitable algorithm for ionospheric sounder has to be carried out. This paper is focused on automatic echo detection algorithms implemented in particular for an ionospheric sounder, target specific characteristics were studied as well. Adaptive threshold detection algorithms are proposed, compared to the current implemented algorithm, and tested using actual data obtained from the Advanced Ionospheric Sounder (AIS-INGV) at Rome Ionospheric Observatory. Different cases of study have been selected according typical ionospheric and detection conditions.

  11. Exploring the recognized bio-mimicry materials for gas sensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, T Z; Lo, Y R; Chan, E C

    2001-12-01

    This study was undertaken to synthesize peptides that are partially similar to the binding sites of human olfactory receptor protein. First, a putative 3-D model structure of human olfactory receptor protein (P30953) was modeled using a molecular simulation method. The computer docking simulation was then performed to determine the most plausible binding sites between the model structure and target gases, trimethylamine, ammonia, acetic acid, and o-xylene. According to the simulation result, a series of polypeptide sequences, horp61 for TMA, horp103 for o-xylene, horp109 for ammonia, and horp193 for acetic acid as recognized molecules were designed for gas sensing purposes. Preparing these peptides as corresponding gas sensing probes, the results showed a high relative sensitivity response of 6.7 for TMA (probe horp61), 5.1 for o-xylene (probe horp103), 11 for ammonia (probe horp109), and 28 for acetic acid (probe horp193), respectively. These results indicate that peptide mimicking of binding domain on olfactory receptor opens a new window and offers a novel strategy for the further development of recognized materials for gas sensing.

  12. Exploring the Role of RGD-Recognizing Integrins in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nieberler, Markus; Reuning, Ute; Reichart, Florian; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Schwaiger, Markus; Räder, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Integrins are key regulators of communication between cells and with their microenvironment. Eight members of the integrin superfamily recognize the tripeptide motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) within extracelluar matrix (ECM) proteins. These integrins constitute an important subfamily and play a major role in cancer progression and metastasis via their tumor biological functions. Such transmembrane adhesion and signaling receptors are thus recognized as promising and well accessible targets for novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications for directly attacking cancer cells and their fatal microenvironment. Recently, specific small peptidic and peptidomimetic ligands as well as antibodies binding to distinct integrin subtypes have been developed and synthesized as new drug candidates for cancer treatment. Understanding the distinct functions and interplay of integrin subtypes is a prerequisite for selective intervention in integrin-mediated diseases. Integrin subtype-specific ligands labelled with radioisotopes or fluorescent molecules allows the characterization of the integrin patterns in vivo and later the medical intervention via subtype specific drugs. The coating of nanoparticles, larger proteins, or encapsulating agents by integrin ligands are being explored to guide cytotoxic reagents directly to the cancer cell surface. These ligands are currently under investigation in clinical studies for their efficacy in interference with tumor cell adhesion, migration/invasion, proliferation, signaling, and survival, opening new treatment approaches in personalized medicine. PMID:28869579

  13. Shuttle inspection team recognized for 'eagle eyes.'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin (left) applauds the Space Shuttle ice and debris inspection team who were recognized for their keen safety observations prior to the launch of Space Shuttle Discovery. Standing next to Goldin are (left to right) D. Scott Otto, with Lockheed Martin Space Services Company; John B. Blue, Thomas F. Ford and Michael Barber, with United Space Alliance; Gregory N. Katnik and Jorge E. Rivera, with NASA. Katnick and Rivera received the agency's Exceptional Achievement Medal; Barber, Blue, Ford and Otto received the NASA Public Service Medal. While scanning the launch pad before launch, the team found a stray 4-inch pin near the Shuttle's external fuel tank that could have caused damage during launch. Discovery was safely launched the next day, on Oct. 11.

  14. Recognizing asthma mimics and asthma complications.

    PubMed

    Amundson, Dennis; Seda, Gilbert; Daheshia, Massoud

    2011-10-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperreactivity, and underlying inflammation. Two common reasons asthmatics fail standard therapy are incorrect diagnosis and failure to recognize underlying contributing factors. A correct diagnosis of asthma is of great importance to military practitioners since misdiagnosis or uncontrolled asthma affects an individual's operational readiness or determines whether one can receive a medical waiver to enlist in military service. This article presents four cases of patients with dyspnea that have conditions which mimic asthma or complicate asthma management: vocal cord dysfunction misdiagnosed as asthma, respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease mistaken as asthma, difficult-to-control asthma because of bronchiectasis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and difficult and fatal asthma. Asthma is contrasted to other respiratory disorders, and an outlined approach to asthma diagnosis and management is presented using the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines.

  15. Neural Circuitry for Recognizing Interspike Interval Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarbanel, Henry D. I.; Talathi, Sachin S.

    2006-04-01

    Sensory systems present environmental information to central nervous system as sequences of action potentials or spikes. How do animals recognize these sequences carrying information about their world? We present a biologically inspired neural circuit designed to enable spike pattern recognition. This circuit is capable of training itself on a given interspike interval (ISI) sequence and is then able to respond to presentations of the same sequence. The essential ingredients of the recognition circuit are (a) a tunable time delay circuit, (b) a spike selection unit, and (c) a tuning mechanism using spike timing dependent plasticity of inhibitory synapses. We have investigated this circuit using Hodgkin-Huxley neuron models connected by realistic excitatory and inhibitory synapses. It is robust in the presence of noise represented as jitter in the spike times of the ISI sequence.

  16. Octopuses (Enteroctopus dofleini) recognize individual humans.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Roland C; Mather, Jennifer A; Monette, Mathieu Q; Zimsen, Stephanie R M

    2010-01-01

    This study exposed 8 Enteroctopus dofleini separately to 2 unfamiliar individual humans over a 2-week period under differing circumstances. One person consistently fed the octopuses and the other touched them with a bristly stick. Each human recorded octopus body patterns, behaviors, and respiration rates directly after each treatment. At the end of 2 weeks, a body pattern (a dark Eyebar) and 2 behaviors (reaching arms toward or away from the tester and funnel direction) were significantly different in response to the 2 humans. The respiration rate of the 4 larger octopuses changed significantly in response to the 2 treatments; however, there was no significant difference in the 4 smaller octopuses' respiration. Octopuses' ability to recognize humans enlarges our knowledge of the perceptual ability of this nonhuman animal, which depends heavily on learning in response to visual information. Any training paradigm should take such individual recognition into consideration as it could significantly alter the octopuses' responses.

  17. Obstacle detection by recognizing binary expansion patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baram, Yoram; Barniv, Yair

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for obstacle detection, based on the expansion of the image-plane projection of a textured object, as its distance from the sensor decreases. Information is conveyed by vectors whose components represent first-order temporal and spatial derivatives of the image intensity, which are related to the time to collision through the local divergence. Such vectors may be characterized as patterns corresponding to 'safe' or 'dangerous' situations. We show that essential information is conveyed by single-bit vector components, representing the signs of the relevant derivatives. We use two recently developed, high capacity classifiers, employing neural learning techniques, to recognize the imminence of collision from such patterns.

  18. Chaotic itinerancy in coupled dynamical recognizers.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Takashi; Morimoto, Gentaro

    2003-09-01

    We argue that chaotic itinerancy in interaction between humans originates in the fluctuation of predictions provided by the nonconvergent nature of learning dynamics. A simple simulation model called the coupled dynamical recognizer is proposed to study this phenomenon. Daily cognitive phenomena provide many examples of chaotic itinerancy, such as turn taking in conversation. It is therefore an interesting problem to bridge two chaotic itinerant phenomena. A clue to solving this is the fluctuation of prediction, which can be translated as "hot prediction" in the context of cognitive theory. Hot prediction is simply defined as a prediction based on an unstable model. If this approach is correct, the present simulation will reveal some dynamic characteristics of cognitive interactions.

  19. 46 CFR 160.048-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.048-8 Section 160.048-8... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  20. 46 CFR 162.039-5 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 162.039-5 Section 162.039-5... Recognized laboratory. (a) A recognized laboratory is one which is regularly engaged in the examination... motorboats. The following laboratories are recognized, and the semiportable fire extinguishers bearing...

  1. 46 CFR 160.048-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.048-8 Section 160.048-8... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  2. 46 CFR 160.077-9 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.077-9 Section 160.077-9... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  3. 46 CFR 160.076-19 - Recognized laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recognized laboratories. 160.076-19 Section 160.076-19... Recognized laboratories. The approval and production oversight functions that this subpart requires to be conducted by a recognized laboratory must be conducted by an independent laboratory recognized by the...

  4. 46 CFR 160.049-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.049-8 Section 160.049-8... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  5. 46 CFR 160.049-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.049-8 Section 160.049-8... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  6. 46 CFR 160.077-9 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.077-9 Section 160.077-9... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  7. 46 CFR 160.049-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.049-8 Section 160.049-8... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  8. 46 CFR 160.048-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.048-8 Section 160.048-8... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  9. 46 CFR 162.039-5 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 162.039-5 Section 162.039-5... Recognized laboratory. (a) A recognized laboratory is one which is regularly engaged in the examination... motorboats. The following laboratories are recognized, and the semiportable fire extinguishers bearing...

  10. 46 CFR 160.077-9 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.077-9 Section 160.077-9... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  11. 46 CFR 162.039-5 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 162.039-5 Section 162.039-5... Recognized laboratory. (a) A recognized laboratory is one which is regularly engaged in the examination... motorboats. The following laboratories are recognized, and the semiportable fire extinguishers bearing...

  12. 46 CFR 162.039-5 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 162.039-5 Section 162.039-5... Recognized laboratory. (a) A recognized laboratory is one which is regularly engaged in the examination... motorboats. The following laboratories are recognized, and the semiportable fire extinguishers bearing...

  13. 46 CFR 160.076-19 - Recognized laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recognized laboratories. 160.076-19 Section 160.076-19... Recognized laboratories. The approval and production oversight functions that this subpart requires to be conducted by a recognized laboratory must be conducted by an independent laboratory recognized by the...

  14. 46 CFR 162.039-5 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 162.039-5 Section 162.039-5... Recognized laboratory. (a) A recognized laboratory is one which is regularly engaged in the examination... motorboats. The following laboratories are recognized, and the semiportable fire extinguishers bearing...

  15. 46 CFR 160.048-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.048-8 Section 160.048-8... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  16. 46 CFR 160.076-19 - Recognized laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recognized laboratories. 160.076-19 Section 160.076-19... Recognized laboratories. The approval and production oversight functions that this subpart requires to be conducted by a recognized laboratory must be conducted by an independent laboratory recognized by the...

  17. 46 CFR 160.077-9 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.077-9 Section 160.077-9... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  18. 46 CFR 160.048-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.048-8 Section 160.048-8... Recognized laboratory. (a) A manufacturer seeking Coast Guard approval of a product under this subpart shall... to a recognized independent laboratory. The following laboratories are recognized under §...

  19. How can we recognize continuous quality improvement?

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Lisa; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Hempel, Susanne; Danz, Margie; Salem-Schatz, Susanne; Foy, Robbie; O'Neill, Sean; Dalal, Siddhartha; Shekelle, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective Continuous quality improvement (CQI) methods are foundational approaches to improving healthcare delivery. Publications using the term CQI, however, are methodologically heterogeneous, and labels other than CQI are used to signify relevant approaches. Standards for identifying the use of CQI based on its key methodological features could enable more effective learning across quality improvement (QI) efforts. The objective was to identify essential methodological features for recognizing CQI. Design Previous work with a 12-member international expert panel identified reliably abstracted CQI methodological features. We tested which features met rigorous a priori standards as essential features of CQI using a three-phase online modified-Delphi process. Setting Primarily United States and Canada. Participants 119 QI experts randomly assigned into four on-line panels. Intervention(s) Participants rated CQI features and discussed their answers using online, anonymous and asynchronous discussion boards. We analyzed ratings quantitatively and discussion threads qualitatively. Main outcome measure(s) Panel consensus on definitional CQI features. Results Seventy-nine (66%) panelists completed the process. Thirty-three completers self-identified as QI researchers, 18 as QI practitioners and 28 as both equally. The features ‘systematic data guided activities,’ ‘designing with local conditions in mind’ and ‘iterative development and testing’ met a priori standards as essential CQI features. Qualitative analyses showed cross-cutting themes focused on differences between QI and CQI. Conclusions We found consensus among a broad group of CQI researchers and practitioners on three features as essential for identifying QI work more specifically as ‘CQI.’ All three features are needed as a minimum standard for recognizing CQI methods. PMID:24311732

  20. Automatic priming of attentional control by relevant colors.

    PubMed

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Becker, Stefanie I

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether color word cues automatically primed attentional control settings during visual search, or whether color words were used in a strategic manner for the control of attention. In Experiment 1, we used color words as cues that were informative or uninformative with respect to the target color. Regardless of the cue's informativeness, distractors similar to the color cue captured more attention. In Experiment 2, the participants either indicated their expectation about the target color or recalled the last target color, which was uncorrelated with the present target color. We observed more attentional capture by distractors that were similar to the participants' predictions and recollections, but no difference between effects of the recollected and predicted colors. In Experiment 3, we used 100%-informative word cues that were congruent with the predicted target color (e.g., the word "red" informed that the target would be red) or incongruent with the predicted target color (e.g., the word "green" informed that the target would be red) and found that informative incongruent word cues primed attention capture by a word-similar distractor. Together, the results suggest that word cues (Exps. 1 and 3) and color representations (Exp. 2) primed attention capture in an automatic manner. This indicates that color cues automatically primed temporary adjustments in attention control settings.

  1. Performance of a 20-target MSE classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Leslie M.; Owirka, Gregory J.; Brower, William S.

    1998-08-01

    MIT Lincoln Laboratory is responsible for developing the ATR system for the DARPA/DARO/NIMA/OSD-sponsored SAIP program; the baseline ATR system recognizes 10 GOB targets; the enhanced version of SAIP requires the ATR system to recognize 20 GOB targets. This paper compares ATR performance results for 10- and 20-target MSE classifiers using high-resolution SAR imagery.

  2. Carbohydrate-binding modules recognize fine substructures of cellulose.

    PubMed

    McLean, Bradley W; Boraston, Alisdair B; Brouwer, Darren; Sanaie, Nooshafarin; Fyfe, Colin A; Warren, R Antony J; Kilburn, Douglas G; Haynes, Charles A

    2002-12-27

    Competition isotherms are used to identify the set of cellulose substructures to which cellulose binding modules (CBMs) from families 2a, 3, 4, 9, and 17 bind. The experiments are based on coupling a unique fluorescent tag to each CBM in a manner that does not alter the natural binding properties of the CBM and therefore allows the surface and solution concentrations of each CBM to be monitored as a function of time and composition. Adsorption and surface exchange of like or competing CBMs are monitored using a range of cellulose preparations varying in both crystallinity and provenance. CBMs from families 2a, 3, 4, 9, and 17 are shown to recognize different physical forms of prepared cellulose. The demonstration of the very fine binding specificity of cellulose-specific CBMs implies that the polysaccharide targets of CBMs extend down to the resolution of cellulose microstructures.

  3. Recognizing environments in the deposits of the Niger delta

    SciTech Connect

    Oboh, F.E. )

    1991-03-01

    The paralic sediments of the Agbada Formation are the targets of commercial exploration and exploitation of oil and gas in the Niger delta. Sedimentological and microfossil data from a middle Miocene reservoir in the delta have revealed a succession of deltaic subenvironments of deposition within a prograding offlap sequence. Ten lithofacies, comprising five sandstone, three heterolithic, and two mudstone types, are recognized from grain size, sedimentary structures, and trace fossils in two cored boreholes. Fourteen palynodebris types, including amorphous organic matter, various types of palynomorphs, and wood, were identified in the sediments. These components were subjected to principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The resulting palynofacies are integrated with lithofacies and paleoecological inferences made from the palynomorph and foraminifera contents of the sediments for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Gamma-ray log correlation of the reservoir in uncored boreholes was carried out, using information from the cores, and this has resulted in a depositional model.

  4. Planktivorous Fish Recognize Temporal Motion Patterns of Suspended Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickler, J. R.; Tsonis, A.

    2004-12-01

    Small planktivorous fish feed by selective captures of individual zooplankters. We realize that: 1) the predator, as well as the prey is suspended in the water column, which does not provide either with stable reference points; 2) the ambient flow field acts differently on the larger predators than on the much smaller prey; and 3) within the water column there are many suspended particles of lower nutritional value than the zooplankters represent. We investigated in the laboratory whether or not fish can distinguish between small targets moving with different swimming patterns, e.g. particles entrained passively in the ambient water flow versus entrained but actively swimming particles. We created in an aquarium computer-animated stimuli with motion patterns ranging from random to actual swimming motions of live animals. The results show that planktivorous fish can recognize temporal patterns in a visually homogeneous environment. Therefore, blue-water fish must process visual information similar to terrestrial animals processing auditory information.

  5. Recognizing names in biomedical texts: a machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Zhou, GuoDong; Zhang, Jie; Su, Jian; Shen, Dan; Tan, ChewLim

    2004-05-01

    With an overwhelming amount of textual information in molecular biology and biomedicine, there is a need for effective and efficient literature mining and knowledge discovery that can help biologists to gather and make use of the knowledge encoded in text documents. In order to make organized and structured information available, automatically recognizing biomedical entity names becomes critical and is important for information retrieval, information extraction and automated knowledge acquisition. In this paper, we present a named entity recognition system in the biomedical domain, called PowerBioNE. In order to deal with the special phenomena of naming conventions in the biomedical domain, we propose various evidential features: (1) word formation pattern; (2) morphological pattern, such as prefix and suffix; (3) part-of-speech; (4) head noun trigger; (5) special verb trigger and (6) name alias feature. All the features are integrated effectively and efficiently through a hidden Markov model (HMM) and a HMM-based named entity recognizer. In addition, a k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) algorithm is proposed to resolve the data sparseness problem in our system. Finally, we present a pattern-based post-processing to automatically extract rules from the training data to deal with the cascaded entity name phenomenon. From our best knowledge, PowerBioNE is the first system which deals with the cascaded entity name phenomenon. Evaluation shows that our system achieves the F-measure of 66.6 and 62.2 on the 23 classes of GENIA V3.0 and V1.1, respectively. In particular, our system achieves the F-measure of 75.8 on the "protein" class of GENIA V3.0. For comparison, our system outperforms the best published result by 7.8 on GENIA V1.1, without help of any dictionaries. It also shows that our HMM and the k-NN algorithm outperform other models, such as back-off HMM, linear interpolated HMM, support vector machines, C4.5, C4.5 rules and RIPPER, by effectively capturing the local

  6. AUTOMATIC HAND COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Mann J.R.; Wainwright, A.E.

    1963-06-11

    An automatic, personnel-operated, alpha-particle hand monitor is described which functions as a qualitative instrument to indicate to the person using it whether his hands are cold'' or hot.'' The monitor is activated by a push button and includes several capacitor-triggered thyratron tubes. Upon release of the push button, the monitor starts the counting of the radiation present on the hands of the person. If the count of the radiation exceeds a predetermined level within a predetermined time, then a capacitor will trigger a first thyratron tube to light a hot'' lamp. If, however, the count is below such level during this time period, another capacitor will fire a second thyratron to light a safe'' lamp. (AEC)

  7. Automatic Bayesian polarity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, D. J.; White, R. S.; Christie, P. A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The polarity of the first motion of a seismic signal from an earthquake is an important constraint in earthquake source inversion. Microseismic events often have low signal-to-noise ratios, which may lead to difficulties estimating the correct first-motion polarities of the arrivals. This paper describes a probabilistic approach to polarity picking that can be both automated and combined with manual picking. This approach includes a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty of the polarity, improving calculation of the polarity probability density function for source inversion. It is sufficiently fast to be incorporated into an automatic processing workflow. When used in source inversion, the results are consistent with those from manual observations. In some cases, they produce a clearer constraint on the range of high-probability source mechanisms, and are better constrained than source mechanisms determined using a uniform probability of an incorrect polarity pick.

  8. Automatic vehicle location system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic vehicle detection system is disclosed, in which each vehicle whose location is to be detected carries active means which interact with passive elements at each location to be identified. The passive elements comprise a plurality of passive loops arranged in a sequence along the travel direction. Each of the loops is tuned to a chosen frequency so that the sequence of the frequencies defines the location code. As the vehicle traverses the sequence of the loops as it passes over each loop, signals only at the frequency of the loop being passed over are coupled from a vehicle transmitter to a vehicle receiver. The frequencies of the received signals in the receiver produce outputs which together represent a code of the traversed location. The code location is defined by a painted pattern which reflects light to a vehicle carried detector whose output is used to derive the code defined by the pattern.

  9. Networked Automatic Optical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2000-05-01

    Many groups around the world are developing automated or robotic optical observatories. The coordinated operation of automated optical telescopes at diverse sites could provide observing prospects which are not otherwise available, e.g., continuous optical photometry without diurnal interruption. Computer control and scheduling also offers the prospect of effective response to transient events such as γ -ray bursts. These telescopes could also serve science education by providing high-quality CCD data for educators and students. The Automatic Telescope Network (ATN) project has been undertaken to promote networking of automated telescopes. A web site is maintained at http://gamma.bu.edu/atn/. The development of such networks will be facilitated by the existence of standards. A set of standard commands for instrument and telescope control systems will allow for the creation of software for an ``observatory control system'' which can be used at any facility which complies with the TCS and ICS standards. Also, there is a strong need for standards for the specification of observations to be done, and reports on the results and status of observations. A proposed standard for this is the Remote Telescope Markup Language (RTML), which is expected to be described in another poster in this session. It may thus be feasible for amateur-astronomers to soon buy all necessary equipment and software to field an automatic telescope. The owner/operator could make otherwise unused telescope time available to the network in exchange for the utilization of other telescopes in the network --- including occasional utilization of meter-class telescopes with research-grade CCD detectors at good sites.

  10. The Nature and Role of Attentional Resources in Controlled and Automatic Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    controlled and automatic target detection. University of Delaware, Department of Psychology , Research Report No. 8102. Israel, J. B., Chesney, G. L...Press., 1978. Hoffman, J. E. & Nelson, B. A dual task analysis 3f controlled and automatic detection. University of Delaware, Department of Psychology ... Research Report No. 8001, October, 1980. Hoffman, J. E. & Nelson, B. The role of attentional resources in automatic detection. University of Delaware

  11. 42 CFR 407.17 - Automatic enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic enrollment. 407.17 Section 407.17 Public... § 407.17 Automatic enrollment. (a) Who is automatically enrolled. An individual is automatically... chapter; and (3) Does not decline SMI enrollment. (b) Opportunity to decline automatic enrollment. (1) SSA...

  12. 42 CFR 407.17 - Automatic enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatic enrollment. 407.17 Section 407.17 Public... § 407.17 Automatic enrollment. (a) Who is automatically enrolled. An individual is automatically... chapter; and (3) Does not decline SMI enrollment. (b) Opportunity to decline automatic enrollment. (1) SSA...

  13. 42 CFR 407.17 - Automatic enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatic enrollment. 407.17 Section 407.17 Public... § 407.17 Automatic enrollment. (a) Who is automatically enrolled. An individual is automatically... chapter; and (3) Does not decline SMI enrollment. (b) Opportunity to decline automatic enrollment. (1) SSA...

  14. 42 CFR 407.17 - Automatic enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automatic enrollment. 407.17 Section 407.17 Public... § 407.17 Automatic enrollment. (a) Who is automatically enrolled. An individual is automatically... chapter; and (3) Does not decline SMI enrollment. (b) Opportunity to decline automatic enrollment. (1) SSA...

  15. 42 CFR 407.17 - Automatic enrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic enrollment. 407.17 Section 407.17 Public... § 407.17 Automatic enrollment. (a) Who is automatically enrolled. An individual is automatically... chapter; and (3) Does not decline SMI enrollment. (b) Opportunity to decline automatic enrollment. (1) SSA...

  16. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  17. Recycling steel automatically - through resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, W.J.

    1997-12-01

    Last year, more than 55 percent of all steel cans were recycled. But no matter how effective the local recycling programs may be, some steel cans and other steel products are overlooked and appear in MSW. This missed steel fraction is automatically recycled by resource recovery facilities through magnetic separation. More than three-fourths of the operating resource recovery plants magnetically separate steel cans and other discarded steel items either pre- or post-combustion. Recovering ferrous scrap clearly reduces the post-combustion material that is landfilled and heightens the facilities` environmental performance. Both the resource recovery and steel industries must heighten public awareness of the benefits of automatic steel recycling. Magnetic separation at resource recovery facilities is a simple method of diverting what would otherwise be relegated as solid waste to the landfill. It should be recognized as an increasingly important and valued part of the resource recovery and steel industries` overall recycling efforts. This paper will discuss the status of steel can recycling in the United States, describe how recovered ferrous is beneficiated before recycling by the steel industry, and make recommendations for heightening awareness of the steel recycling contribution made by resource recovery facilities.

  18. Towards automatic planning for manufacturing generative processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-05-24

    Generative process planning describes methods process engineers use to modify manufacturing/process plans after designs are complete. A completed design may be the result from the introduction of a new product based on an old design, an assembly upgrade, or modified product designs used for a family of similar products. An engineer designs an assembly and then creates plans capturing manufacturing processes, including assembly sequences, component joining methods, part costs, labor costs, etc. When new products originate as a result of an upgrade, component geometry may change, and/or additional components and subassemblies may be added to or are omitted from the original design. As a result process engineers are forced to create new plans. This is further complicated by the fact that the process engineer is forced to manually generate these plans for each product upgrade. To generate new assembly plans for product upgrades, engineers must manually re-specify the manufacturing plan selection criteria and re-run the planners. To remedy this problem, special-purpose assembly planning algorithms have been developed to automatically recognize design modifications and automatically apply previously defined manufacturing plan selection criteria and constraints.

  19. Automatic Steering of Manually Inserted Needles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guofan; Li, Xiao; Lehocky, Craig A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2014-01-01

    Bevel-tipped flexible needles can be robotically steered to reach clinical targets along curvilinear paths in 3D. Manual needle insertion allows the clinician to control the insertion speed, ensuring patient safety. This paper presents a control law for automatic 3D steering of manually inserted flexible needles, enabling path-following control. A look-ahead proportional controller for position and orientation is presented. The look-ahead distance is a linear function of insertion speed. Simulations in a 3D brain-like environment demonstrate the performance of the proposed controller. Experimental results also show the feasibility of this technique in 2D and 3D environments. PMID:24752485

  20. EPA Announces 2016 Climate Leadership Awards, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport Among 17 Awardees Recognized for Climate Action

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (March. 9, 2016) Today, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognized the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport at the Climate Leadership Awards. The airport, among 17 winners nationwide, was honored for setting a target for reduc

  1. Automatic Generation of Partitioned Matrix Expressions for Matrix Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabregat-Traver, Diego; Bientinesi, Paolo

    2010-09-01

    We target the automatic generation of formally correct algorithms and routines for linear algebra operations. Given the broad variety of architectures and configurations with which scientists deal, there does not exist one algorithmic variant that is suitable for all scenarios. Therefore, we aim to generate a family of algorithmic variants to attain high-performance for a broad set of scenarios. One of the authors has previously demonstrated that automatic derivation of a family of algorithms is possible when the Partitioned Matrix Expression (PME) of the target operation is available. The PME is a recursive definition that states the relations between submatrices in the input and the output operands. In this paper we describe all the steps involved in the automatic derivation of PMEs, thus making progress towards a fully automated system.

  2. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Artificial Immune System for Recognizing Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2005-01-01

    A method of recognizing or classifying patterns is based on an artificial immune system (AIS), which includes an algorithm and a computational model of nonlinear dynamics inspired by the behavior of a biological immune system. The method has been proposed as the theoretical basis of the computational portion of a star-tracking system aboard a spacecraft. In that system, a newly acquired star image would be treated as an antigen that would be matched by an appropriate antibody (an entry in a star catalog). The method would enable rapid convergence, would afford robustness in the face of noise in the star sensors, would enable recognition of star images acquired in any sensor or spacecraft orientation, and would not make an excessive demand on the computational resources of a typical spacecraft. Going beyond the star-tracking application, the AIS-based pattern-recognition method is potentially applicable to pattern- recognition and -classification processes for diverse purposes -- for example, reconnaissance, detecting intruders, and mining data.

  4. Recognizing hesitation phenomena in continuous, spontaneous speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshaughnessy, Douglas

    Spontaneous speech differs from read speech in speaking rate and hesitation. In natural, spontaneous speech, people often start talking and then think along the way; at times, this causes the speech to have hesitation pauses (both filled and unfilled) and restarts. Results are reported on all types of pauses in a widely-used speech database, for both hesitation pauses and semi-intentional pauses. A distinction is made between grammatical pauses (at major syntactic boundaries) and ungrammatical ones. Different types of unfilled pauses cannot be reliably separated based on silence duration, although grammatical pauses tend to be longer. In the prepausal word before ungrammatical pauses, there were few continuation rises in pitch, whereas 80 percent of the grammatical pauses were accompanied by a prior fundamental frequency rise of 10-40 kHz. Identifying the syntactic function of such hesitation phenomena can improve recognition performance by eliminating from consideration some of the hypotheses proposed by an acoustic recognizer. Results presented allow simple identification of filled pauses (such as uhh, umm) and their syntactic function.

  5. Recognizing and managing errors of cognitive underspecification.

    PubMed

    Duthie, Elizabeth A

    2014-03-01

    James Reason describes cognitive underspecification as incomplete communication that creates a knowledge gap. Errors occur when an information mismatch occurs in bridging that gap with a resulting lack of shared mental models during the communication process. There is a paucity of studies in health care examining this cognitive error and the role it plays in patient harm. The goal of the following case analyses is to facilitate accurate recognition, identify how it contributes to patient harm, and suggest appropriate management strategies. Reason's human error theory is applied in case analyses of errors of cognitive underspecification. Sidney Dekker's theory of human incident investigation is applied to event investigation to facilitate identification of this little recognized error. Contributory factors leading to errors of cognitive underspecification include workload demands, interruptions, inexperienced practitioners, and lack of a shared mental model. Detecting errors of cognitive underspecification relies on blame-free listening and timely incident investigation. Strategies for interception include two-way interactive communication, standardization of communication processes, and technological support to ensure timely access to documented clinical information. Although errors of cognitive underspecification arise at the sharp end with the care provider, effective management is dependent upon system redesign that mitigates the latent contributory factors. Cognitive underspecification is ubiquitous whenever communication occurs. Accurate identification is essential if effective system redesign is to occur.

  6. METHOD AND MEANS FOR RECOGNIZING COMPLEX PATTERNS

    DOEpatents

    Hough, P.V.C.

    1962-12-18

    This patent relates to a method and means for recognizing a complex pattern in a picture. The picture is divided into framelets, each framelet being sized so that any segment of the complex pattern therewithin is essentially a straight line. Each framelet is scanned to produce an electrical pulse for each point scanned on the segment therewithin. Each of the electrical pulses of each segment is then transformed into a separate strnight line to form a plane transform in a pictorial display. Each line in the plane transform of a segment is positioned laterally so that a point on the line midway between the top and the bottom of the pictorial display occurs at a distance from the left edge of the pictorial display equal to the distance of the generating point in the segment from the left edge of the framelet. Each line in the plane transform of a segment is inclined in the pictorial display at an angle to the vertical whose tangent is proportional to the vertical displacement of the generating point in the segment from the center of the framelet. The coordinate position of the point of intersection of the lines in the pictorial display for each segment is determined and recorded. The sum total of said recorded coordinate positions being representative of the complex pattern. (AEC)

  7. RECOGNIZING AND IDENTIFYING PEOPLE: A neuropsychological review

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Jason J S; Corrow, Sherryse L

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing people is a classic example of a cognitive function that involves multiple processing stages and parallel routes of information. Neuropsychological data have provided important evidence for models of this process, particularly from case reports; however, the quality and extent of the data varies widely between studies. In this review we first discuss the requirements and logical basis of the types of neuropsychological evidence to support conclusions about the modules in this process. We then survey the adequacy of the current body of reports to address two key issues. First is the question of which cognitive operation generates a sense of familiarity: the current debate revolves around whether familiarity arises in modality-specific recognition units or later amodal processes. Key evidence on this point comes from the search for dissociations between familiarity for faces, voices and names. The second question is whether lesions can differentially affect the abilities to link diverse sources of person information (e.g. face, voice, name, biographic data). Dissociations of these linkages may favour a distributed-only model of the organization of semantic knowledge, whereas a ‘person-hub’ model would predict uniform impairments of all linkages. While we conclude that there is reasonable evidence for dissociations in name, voice and face familiarity in regards to the first question, the evidence for or against dissociated linkages between information stores in regards to the second is tenuous at best. We identify deficiencies in the current literature that should motivate and inform the design of future studies. PMID:26773237

  8. Overview: recognizing the problem of magnesium deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Seelig, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    The magnesium content of the usual American diet is less than the recommended dietary allowance. Excesses of some macro- and micro-nutrients interact with Mg, increasing its requirements. Marginal deficiency of Mg is not associated with hypomagnesemia, is not characterized by typical manifestations, as is thus difficult to diagnose. Serum or plasma Mg levels are held within narrow limits unless tissue levels are very low, or renal function is poor. Vulnerability to Mg deficiency increases during growth and development, pregnancy, when under physical or psychological stress, and during illness or its treatment that interferes with absorption or causes loss of Mg. Evidence of biochemical changes of early Mg deficiency is rarely sought, although the roles of Mg in many enzyme systems are recognized. The effects of Mg deficiency on metabolism, even in disorders caused by vitamin dependencies in which Mg is a co-factor, are largely unexplored. Deficiency of Mg is diagnosed confidently when the laboratory reports hypomagnesemia in patients with convulsions or arrhythmias. Without these signs, Mg levels are not often ordered, even in the presence of neuromuscular irritability such as respond to Mg repletion. Because Mg supplementation or Mg-sparing drugs protect against premature or ectopic heart beats and sudden death, to which diuretic-treated hypertensive patients are at risk, it is increasingly being advised that their Mg status be determined.

  9. Recognizing real materials from their glossy appearance.

    PubMed

    Ged, Guillaume; Obein, Gaël; Silvestri, Zaccaria; Le Rohellec, Jean; Viénot, Françoise

    2010-12-27

    In everyday life, the visual system is remarkably good at recognizing materials across a wide range of viewing conditions. This paper addresses the problem of identifying real samples of materials from appearance. Here, we consider gloss as an appearance attribute that could reveal certain information about object properties. We prepared twelve samples of glass and PMMA and eroded these using different agents. The gloss and haze of the samples were measured at 60 degrees via a gloss meter. For all samples, the surface roughness properties were measured. Microfacet distributions were derived from measured BRDFs using an inverted microfacet model. We conducted a visual ranking experiment using the pair comparison method. The psychophysical gloss ratings correlate well with the 60 degrees gloss index. Principal component analysis of the psychophysical results revealed a somewhat more complicated picture in which three components seem to play a role. We conclude that observers can apprehend the physical nature of the surface of real objects from features that are included in the BRDF and available in the gloss appearance.

  10. Sternocostoclavicular Hyperostosis: An Ill-Recognized Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roed, Bolette; Kristensen, Tatiana; Thorsen, Søren; Poulsen Bloch, Klaus; Afzelius, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH) is an ill-recognized, rarely diagnosed disease. Today, SCCH is widely considered part of the synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome. SCCH develops over years with intermittent attacks of pain, swelling, and reddening of the sternocostoclavicular region. The disease causes progressive hyperostosis, fusion of the sternocostoclavicular joints, and soft tissue ossification. SCCH is chronic, non-malignant, and occurs predominantly bilaterally in middle-aged women. The incidence of the disease is unknown. We present a case of isolated SCCH, where chest radiographs showed a clear development of bilateral disease over the course of more than a decade. Whole-body bone scintigraphy was performed and was suggestive of SCCH. The diagnosis was established as late as 14 years from the onset of symptoms. During this period, the patient underwent several inconclusive examinations, resulting in a delay of diagnosis and in prolonged and aggravated symptoms. With this case report, we want to draw attention to SCCH and the importance of early diagnosis of the disease. PMID:27527220

  11. Perspective: Recognizing and rewarding clinical scholarship.

    PubMed

    Grigsby, R Kevin; Thorndyke, Luanne

    2011-01-01

    Faculty members in medical schools and academic medical centers are in a constant process of generating new knowledge. The cornerstone of academia--and academic medicine--is scholarship. Traditionally, tenure and/or academic promotion in the professorial ranks is awarded to those who meet institutional criteria in the missions of research, teaching, and service, including patient care. In the academic review process, priority is often placed on a record of demonstrated, consistent success in traditional laboratory research, also known as the scholarship of discovery. More recently, there has been greater recognition of other forms of scholarship: education, application, and integration. These forms of scholarship, although less recognized, also result in the generation of new knowledge. In an attempt to understand the breadth and scope of clinical scholarship, the authors searched the extant literature in academic medicine for a definition of clinical scholarship and expanded the search to disciplines outside of medicine. They found that succinct, discrete definitions of clinical scholarship have been published in other disciplines, but not in academic medicine. After reviewing definitions of clinical scholarship from other disciplines, adapting definitions of educational scholarship in academic medicine, and including qualities unique to clinical scholarship, the authors developed a framework for understanding clinical scholarship in academic medicine as a means for opening a dialogue within the academic medical community. This dialogue hopefully will lead to formulating a succinct, discrete definition of clinical scholarship that will allow greater recognition and reward for clinical scholars in the promotion and tenure process.

  12. Development of NATO's recognized environmental picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teufert, John F.; Trabelsi, Mourad

    2006-05-01

    An important element for the fielding of a viable, effective NATO Response Force (NRF) is access to meteorological, oceanographic, geospatial data (GEOMETOC) and imagery. Currently, the available GEOMETOC information suffers from being very fragmented. NATO defines the Recognised Environmental Picture as controlled information base for GEOMETOC data. The NATO REP proposes an architecture that is both flexible and open. The focus lies on enabling a network-centric approach. The key into achieving this is relying on using open, well recognized standards that apply to both the data exchange protocols and the data formats. Communication and information exchange based on open standards enables system interoperability. Diverse systems, each with unique, specialized contributions to an increased understanding of the battlespace, can now cooperate to a manageable information sphere. By clearly defining responsibilities in the generation of information, a reduction in data transfer overhead is achieved . REP identifies three main stages in the dissemination of GEOMETOC data. These are Collection, Fusion (and Analysis) and Publication. A REP architecture has been successfully deployed during the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (CWID) in Lillehammer, Norway during June 2005. CWID is an annual event to validate and improve the interoperability of NATO and national Consultation and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. With a test case success rate of 84%, it was able to provide relevant GEOMETOC support to the main NRF component headquarters. In 2006, the REP architecture will be deployed and validated during the NATO NRF Steadfast live exercises.

  13. Automatic visual inspection of a missing split pin in the China railway high-speed.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shengfang; Liu, Zhen

    2016-10-20

    The split pin (SP) on the caliper brake is a vital component of the brake system of a bogie traveling along the China railway high-speed (CRH), and the absence of the SP could cause serious train accidents. A new automatic visual inspection method is proposed for the quick and accurate detection of SP faults of the CRH. The proposed approach is based on the histogram of gradient (HOG) combined with the complete local binary pattern (CLBP). First, a fast pyramid template matching technique is presented for localizing the region of interest to reduce the searching scope. Under the multiresolution pyramid model for target localization, a coarse-to-fine strategy is employed to ensure that the recognizing speed of the SP for the entire image is increased significantly. Second, a hierarchical framework is adopted at the localizing and inspecting stages of the SP to automatically implement the inspection tasks. To increase the robustness to the outside complex illumination, the HOG feature for localizing the target and the CLBP feature for examining the state of the SP (i.e., missing or not-missing) are extracted in the Sobel gradient domain. The localization and recognition stages are both fulfilled through the use of their respective intersection kernel support vector machine classifiers and corresponding features. In conclusion, experimental results indicate that the inspection system achieves a high accuracy rate of more than 99.0% and a real-time speed, thus proving that the proposed method is effective for the fault inspection of the SP and can satisfy the requirements of CRH's actual application.

  14. Automatic Command Sequence Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladded, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2007-01-01

    Automatic Sequence Generator (Autogen) Version 3.0 software automatically generates command sequences for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and several other JPL spacecraft operated by the multi-mission support team. Autogen uses standard JPL sequencing tools like APGEN, ASP, SEQGEN, and the DOM database to automate the generation of uplink command products, Spacecraft Command Message Format (SCMF) files, and the corresponding ground command products, DSN Keywords Files (DKF). Autogen supports all the major multi-mission mission phases including the cruise, aerobraking, mapping/science, and relay mission phases. Autogen is a Perl script, which functions within the mission operations UNIX environment. It consists of two parts: a set of model files and the autogen Perl script. Autogen encodes the behaviors of the system into a model and encodes algorithms for context sensitive customizations of the modeled behaviors. The model includes knowledge of different mission phases and how the resultant command products must differ for these phases. The executable software portion of Autogen, automates the setup and use of APGEN for constructing a spacecraft activity sequence file (SASF). The setup includes file retrieval through the DOM (Distributed Object Manager), an object database used to store project files. This step retrieves all the needed input files for generating the command products. Depending on the mission phase, Autogen also uses the ASP (Automated Sequence Processor) and SEQGEN to generate the command product sent to the spacecraft. Autogen also provides the means for customizing sequences through the use of configuration files. By automating the majority of the sequencing generation process, Autogen eliminates many sequence generation errors commonly introduced by manually constructing spacecraft command sequences. Through the layering of commands into the sequence by a series of scheduling algorithms, users are able to rapidly and reliably construct the

  15. Automatic Correction of Hand Pointing in Stereoscopic Depth

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yalin; Sun, Yaoru; Zeng, Jinhua; Wang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    In order to examine whether stereoscopic depth information could drive fast automatic correction of hand pointing, an experiment was designed in a 3D visual environment in which participants were asked to point to a target at different stereoscopic depths as quickly and accurately as possible within a limited time window (≤300 ms). The experiment consisted of two tasks: “depthGO” in which participants were asked to point to the new target position if the target jumped, and “depthSTOP” in which participants were instructed to abort their ongoing movements after the target jumped. The depth jump was designed to occur in 20% of the trials in both tasks. Results showed that fast automatic correction of hand movements could be driven by stereoscopic depth to occur in as early as 190 ms. PMID:25501878

  16. Automatic Contextual Facilitation in Readers of Three Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Richard F.; Stanovich, Keith E.

    1978-01-01

    Fourth and sixth graders and adults read words preceded by either a congruous, incongruous, or no-sentence context, and then completed another task where they named the color of the target word. Results suggested that context effects are mediated by automatic processes which decrease in importance with age and reading ability. (Author/JMB)

  17. Automatic Annotation Method on Learners' Opinions in Case Method Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Masaki; Hisakane, Daichi; Komoda, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to annotate an attribute of a problem, a solution or no annotation on learners' opinions automatically for supporting the learners' discussion without a facilitator. The case method aims at discussing problems and solutions in a target case. However, the learners miss discussing some of problems and solutions.…

  18. Automatic Annotation Method on Learners' Opinions in Case Method Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Masaki; Hisakane, Daichi; Komoda, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to annotate an attribute of a problem, a solution or no annotation on learners' opinions automatically for supporting the learners' discussion without a facilitator. The case method aims at discussing problems and solutions in a target case. However, the learners miss discussing some of problems and solutions.…

  19. Hidden Markov models in automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrzoskowicz, Adam

    1993-11-01

    This article describes a method for constructing an automatic speech recognition system based on hidden Markov models (HMMs). The author discusses the basic concepts of HMM theory and the application of these models to the analysis and recognition of speech signals. The author provides algorithms which make it possible to train the ASR system and recognize signals on the basis of distinct stochastic models of selected speech sound classes. The author describes the specific components of the system and the procedures used to model and recognize speech. The author discusses problems associated with the choice of optimal signal detection and parameterization characteristics and their effect on the performance of the system. The author presents different options for the choice of speech signal segments and their consequences for the ASR process. The author gives special attention to the use of lexical, syntactic, and semantic information for the purpose of improving the quality and efficiency of the system. The author also describes an ASR system developed by the Speech Acoustics Laboratory of the IBPT PAS. The author discusses the results of experiments on the effect of noise on the performance of the ASR system and describes methods of constructing HMM's designed to operate in a noisy environment. The author also describes a language for human-robot communications which was defined as a complex multilevel network from an HMM model of speech sounds geared towards Polish inflections. The author also added mandatory lexical and syntactic rules to the system for its communications vocabulary.

  20. Automatic Speech Recognition Based on Electromyographic Biosignals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, Szu-Chen Stan; Schultz, Tanja

    This paper presents our studies of automatic speech recognition based on electromyographic biosignals captured from the articulatory muscles in the face using surface electrodes. We develop a phone-based speech recognizer and describe how the performance of this recognizer improves by carefully designing and tailoring the extraction of relevant speech feature toward electromyographic signals. Our experimental design includes the collection of audibly spoken speech simultaneously recorded as acoustic data using a close-speaking microphone and as electromyographic signals using electrodes. Our experiments indicate that electromyographic signals precede the acoustic signal by about 0.05-0.06 seconds. Furthermore, we introduce articulatory feature classifiers, which had recently shown to improved classical speech recognition significantly. We describe that the classification accuracy of articulatory features clearly benefits from the tailored feature extraction. Finally, these classifiers are integrated into the overall decoding framework applying a stream architecture. Our final system achieves a word error rate of 29.9% on a 100-word recognition task.

  1. Recognizing, naming, and measuring a family intensive care unit syndrome.

    PubMed

    Netzer, Giora; Sullivan, Donald R

    2014-03-01

    Most major decisions in the intensive care unit (ICU) regarding goals of care are shared by clinicians and someone other than the patient. Multicenter clinical trials focusing on improved communication between clinicians and these surrogate decision makers have not reported consistently improved outcomes. We suggest that acquired maladaptive reasoning may contribute importantly to failure of the intervention strategies tested to date. Surrogate decision makers often suffer significant psychological morbidity in the form of stress, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Family members in the ICU also suffer cognitive blunting and sleep deprivation. Their decision-making abilities are eroded by anticipatory grief and cognitive biases, while personal and family conflicts further impact their decision making. We propose recognizing a family ICU syndrome to describe the morbidity and associated decision-making impairment experienced by many family members of patients with acute critical illness (in the ICU) and chronic critical illness (in the long-term, acute care hospital). Research rigorously using models of compromised decision making may help elucidate both mechanisms of impairment and targets for intervention. Better quantifying compromised decision making and its relationship to poor outcomes will allow us to formulate and advance useful techniques. The use of decision aids and improving ICU design may provide benefit now and in the near future. In measuring interventions targeting cognitive barriers, clinically significant outcomes, such as time to decision, should be considered. Statistical approaches, such as survival models and rank statistic testing, will increase our power to detect differences in our interventions.

  2. Automatic Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Robotic welding has been of interest to industrial firms because it offers higher productivity at lower cost than manual welding. There are some systems with automated arc guidance available, but they have disadvantages, such as limitations on types of materials or types of seams that can be welded; susceptibility to stray electrical signals; restricted field of view; or tendency to contaminate the weld seam. Wanting to overcome these disadvantages, Marshall Space Flight Center, aided by Hayes International Corporation, developed system that uses closed-circuit TV signals for automatic guidance of the welding torch. NASA granted license to Combined Technologies, Inc. for commercial application of the technology. They developed a refined and improved arc guidance system. CTI in turn, licensed the Merrick Corporation, also of Nashville, for marketing and manufacturing of the new system, called the CT2 Optical Trucker. CT2 is a non-contracting system that offers adaptability to broader range of welding jobs and provides greater reliability in high speed operation. It is extremely accurate and can travel at high speed of up to 150 inches per minute.

  3. Automatic infection detection system.

    PubMed

    Granberg, Ove; Bellika, Johan Gustav; Arsand, Eirik; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    An infected person may be contagious already before the first symptoms appear. This person can, in the period of disease evolution, infect several associated citizens before consulting a general practitioner (GP). Early detection of contagion is therefore important to prevent spreading of diseases. The Automatic Infection Detection (AID) System faces this problem through investigating the hypothesis that the blood glucose (BG) level increases when a person is infected. The first objective of the prototyped version of the AID system was to identify possible BG elevations in the incubation time that could be related to the spread of infectious diseases. To do this, we monitored two groups of people, with and without diabetes mellitus. The AID system analyzed the results and we were able to detect two cases of infection during the study period. The time of detection occurred simultaneous or near the time of onset of symptoms. The detection did not occur earlier for a number of reasons. The most likely one is that the evolution process of an infectious disease is both complicated and involves the immune system and several organs in the body. The investigation with regard to isolating the key relations is therefore considered as a very complex study. Nevertheless, the AID system managed to detect the infection much earlier than what is possible with today's early warning systems for infectious diseases.

  4. Automatic transmission structure

    SciTech Connect

    Iwase, Y.; Morisawa, K.

    1987-03-24

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an output shaft of the transmission including a stepped portion; a parking gear spline-connected with the output shaft on a first side of the stepped portion; a plurality of governor values mounted on a rear side of the parking gear and radially disposed around the output shaft on the first side of the stepped portion; a speed meter drive gear spline-connected with the output shaft on a second side of the stepped portion and on a rear side of the governor valves; and an annular spacer fitted on the output shaft on the second side of the stepped portion between the governor valves and the speed meter drive gear to abut on each of the governor valves and the speed meter drive gear. The annular member is constructed separately from the speed meter drive gear and has an outer diameter larger than an outer diameter of the speed meter drive gear thereby resulting in a contact area between the annular space and the speed meter drive gear which is smaller than a contact area between the annular spacer and the rear side of the governor valves; the drive gear being axially secured relative to the output shaft by a bearing thereby enabling a fixed axial positioning of the annular spacer on the output shaft.

  5. Automatic imitation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-22

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to 'automatic imitation'; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication.

  6. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  7. Automatic aircraft recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  8. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  9. Recognizing impactor signatures in the planetary record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Gault, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    Crater size reflects the target response to the combined effects of impactor size, density, and velocity. Isolating the effects of each variable in the cratering record is generally considered masked, if not lost, during late stages of crater modification (e.g., floor uplift and rim collapse). Important clues, however, come from the distinctive signatures of the impactor created by oblique impacts. In summary, oblique impacts allow for the identification of distinctive signatures of the impactor created during early penetration. Such signatures may further allow first-order testing of scaling relations for late crater excavation from the planetary surface record. Other aspects of this study are discussed.

  10. Automatic anatomy recognition via fuzzy object models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Falcão, Alexandre X.; Ciesielski, Krzysztof C.; Miranda, Paulo A. V.; Matsumoto, Monica; Grevera, George J.; Saboury, Babak; Torigian, Drew A.

    2012-02-01

    To make Quantitative Radiology a reality in routine radiological practice, computerized automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) during radiological image reading becomes essential. As part of this larger goal, last year at this conference we presented a fuzzy strategy for building body-wide group-wise anatomic models. In the present paper, we describe the further advances made in fuzzy modeling and the algorithms and results achieved for AAR by using the fuzzy models. The proposed AAR approach consists of three distinct steps: (a) Building fuzzy object models (FOMs) for each population group G. (b) By using the FOMs to recognize the individual objects in any given patient image I under group G. (c) To delineate the recognized objects in I. This paper will focus mostly on (b). FOMs are built hierarchically, the smaller sub-objects forming the offspring of larger parent objects. The hierarchical pose relationships from the parent to offspring are codified in the FOMs. Several approaches are being explored currently, grouped under two strategies, both being hierarchical: (ra1) those using search strategies; (ra2) those strategizing a one-shot approach by which the model pose is directly estimated without searching. Based on 32 patient CT data sets each from the thorax and abdomen and 25 objects modeled, our analysis indicates that objects do not all scale uniformly with patient size. Even the simplest among the (ra2) strategies of recognizing the root object and then placing all other descendants as per the learned parent-to-offspring pose relationship bring the models on an average within about 18 mm of the true locations.

  11. Automatic semantic feedback during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Jason F; Lorsbach, Thomas C; Bleakney, Dana M

    2008-04-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine whether semantic feedback spreads to orthographic and/or phonological representations during visual word recognition and whether such feedback occurs automatically. Three types of prime-target word pairs were used within the mediated-priming paradigm: (1) homophonically mediated (e.g.,frog-[toad]-towed), (2) orthographically mediated (e.g.,frog-[toad]-told), and (3) associatively related (e.g.,frog-toad). Using both brief (53 msec; Experiment 1) and long (413 msec; Experiment 3) prime exposure durations, significant facilitatory-priming effects were found in the response time data with orthographically, but not homophonically, mediated prime-target word pairs. When the prime exposure duration was shortened to 33 msec in Experiment 4, however, facilitatory priming was absent with both orthographically and homophonically mediated word pairs. In addition, with a brief (53-msec) prime exposure duration, direct-priming effects were found with associatively (e.g.,frog-toad), orthographically (e.g., toad-told), and homophonically (e.g., toad-towed) related word pairs in Experiment 2. Taken together, these results indicate that following the initial activation of semantic representations, activation automatically feeds back to orthographic, but not phonological, representations during the early stages of word processing. These findings were discussed in the context of current accounts of visual word recognition.

  12. AMPS/PC - AUTOMATIC MANUFACTURING PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    The AMPS/PC system is a simulation tool designed to aid the user in defining the specifications of a manufacturing environment and then automatically writing code for the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. The domain of problems that AMPS/PC can simulate are manufacturing assembly lines with subassembly lines and manufacturing cells. The user defines the problem domain by responding to the questions from the interface program. Based on the responses, the interface program creates an internal problem specification file. This file includes the manufacturing process network flow and the attributes for all stations, cells, and stock points. AMPS then uses the problem specification file as input for the automatic code generator program to produce a simulation program in the target language GPSS. The output of the generator program is the source code of the corresponding GPSS/PC simulation program. The system runs entirely on an IBM PC running PC DOS Version 2.0 or higher and is written in Turbo Pascal Version 4 requiring 640K memory and one 360K disk drive. To execute the GPSS program, the PC must have resident the GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The AMPS/PC program was developed in 1988.

  13. Identifying Targets from Filtering Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-24

    Introduction Considering a radar (or sonar) target as more than a simple point scatterer brings up the possibility of identifying the target based on the...2000. [8] M. Vespe, C. J. Baker, and H. D. Griffiths , "Automatic target regognition using multi-diversity radar," Radar, Sonar \\& Navigation, IET, vol...A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics : The Finite Difference Time Domain Method. Norwood, MA: Artech House, 2005.

  14. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  15. Statistical Approaches to Automatic Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.

    1978-01-01

    Views automatic indexing as a two-tiered word frequency analysis that involves selection of a technical vocabulary and identification of document keywords. Assumptions, criteria, evaluation, and relevance are discussed. (JD)

  16. Automatic Classification in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsbergen, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Addresses the application of automatic classification methods to the problems associated with computerized document retrieval. Different kinds of classifications are described, and both document and term clustering methods are discussed. References and notes are provided. (Author/JD)

  17. Automatic pump for deep wells

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1981-11-24

    An automatic pump for deep wells comprises a long stroke reciprocating pump having its piston normally in its bottom position and an automatic control dependent upon the collection of a predetermined amount of liquid in the pump cylinder above the piston for actuating the piston to pump the liquid into a production line. The automatic control includes an electric motor driven hydraulic pump and a reservoir of hydraulic fluid which is actuated upon filling of the reciprocating pump chamber to supply hydraulic fluid to a closed chamber below the piston and force the piston upwardly to discharge liquid from the pump cylinder. Gas collected in the top of the pump cylinder results in low starting current and a saving of energy. The hydraulic pump is reversed automatically upon completion of the pumping stroke of the piston.

  18. Bangladesh: recognizing adolescents as a great resource.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    This article presents the initiatives undertaken by the government and other organizations to improve adolescent reproductive health in Bangladesh. The Health and Population Sector Programme under the 5-year Health and Population Sector Strategy (HPSS) of Bangladesh targeted married youth and soon-to-be-married adolescents. It has provided training of field workers so they can provide health services in an adolescent-friendly atmosphere. The Government has also collaborated with nongovernmental organizations and agencies that could help in the formulation of well-planned policy for adolescent health. These agencies include the UN International Children's Emergency Fund, UN Population Fund and WHO. In addition, on-going multisectoral coordination of various sectors, such as education, labor law and justice, youth and social affairs, has been developed and has contributed to the success of the Programme.

  19. Recognizing and managing concussion in school sport.

    PubMed

    Evans, Vicki

    2014-08-01

    Every country around the world enjoys some sort of sport. The Olympics sees countries from all over the globe participate in elite sport, in both winter and summer competitions. Australia is widely known for cricket and rugby; America is known for baseball and gridiron football (among others). These sports are played at an elite level as well as beginners from early ages as young as 4 years in the backyard. Yet, it is also these sports that can deliver a ball at the speed of 100 km/h (football), 105 km/h (baseball), 112 km/h (rugby), 150 km/h (cricket), and 211 km/h (soccer). This is the same force that a car collision can produce. That force eventually finds a target, and in some cases, unfortunately, it is a head. Damage to the brain is not only from the impact of the ball hitting its target but rather also the shearing forces of acceleration-deceleration injury that can cause extensive injuries. There has been much discussion of late regarding concussion in sport and the accumulative effects of head blows resulting in varying degrees of memory loss and dementia later in life. The media have been saturated with heightened awareness of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. This, however, is still being researched. It is true that each concussion compounds the one before, but rather than focus on the injury, managers/coaches and sporting codes should be focusing on the identification and proper management of a suspected concussion and the return-to-play protocols. This is especially important in our schools where growing brains need nurturing. Neuroscience nurses are at the forefront of educating school children, teachers, and coaches through partnering with local schools. This article will focus on concussion recognition and management in school sport.

  20. Adaptive infrared target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Jonah C.; Stevens, Mark R.; Eaton, Ross S.; Snorrason, Magnus S.

    2004-09-01

    Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms are extremely sensitive to differences between the operating conditions under which they are trained and the extended operating conditions (EOCs) in which the fielded algorithms are tested. These extended operating conditions can cause a target's signature to be drastically different from training exemplars/models. For example, a target's signature can be influenced by: the time of day, the time of year, the weather, atmospheric conditions, position of the sun or other illumination sources, the target surface and material properties, the target composition, the target geometry, sensor characteristics, sensor viewing angle and range, the target surroundings and environment, and the target and scene temperature. Recognition rates degrade if an ATR is not trained for a particular EOC. Most infrared target detection techniques are based on a very simple probabilistic theory. This theory states that a pixel should be assigned the label of "target" if a set of measurements (features) is more likely to have come from an assumed (or learned) distribution of target features than from the distribution of background features. However, most detection systems treat these learned distributions as static and they are not adapted to changing EOCs. In this paper, we present an algorithm for assigning a pixel the label of target or background based on a statistical comparison of the distributions of measurements surrounding that pixel in the image. This method provides a feature-level adaptation to changing EOCs. Results are demonstrated on infrared imagery containing several military vehicles.