Science.gov

Sample records for automating groundwater sampling

  1. AUTOMATING GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    CONNELL CW; HILDEBRAND RD; CONLEY SF; CUNNINGHAM DE

    2009-01-16

    Until this past October, Fluor Hanford managed Hanford's integrated groundwater program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). With the new contract awards at the Site, however, the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has assumed responsibility for the groundwater-monitoring programs at the 586-square-mile reservation in southeastern Washington State. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. More than 1,200 wells are sampled each year. Historically, field personnel or 'samplers' have been issued pre-printed forms that have information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from the Hanford Well Information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)--official electronic databases. The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and the collected information was posted onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. This is a pilot project for automating this tedious process by providing an electronic tool for automating water-level measurements and groundwater field-sampling activities. The automation will eliminate the manual forms and associated data entry, improve the accuracy of the

  2. Automated Groundwater Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Glenn A.; Collard, Leonard, B.

    2005-10-31

    The Automated Intruder Analysis has been extended to include an Automated Ground Water Screening option. This option screens 825 radionuclides while rigorously applying the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) methodology. An extension to that methodology is presented to give a more realistic screening factor for those radionuclides which have significant daughters. The extension has the promise of reducing the number of radionuclides which must be tracked by the customer. By combining the Automated Intruder Analysis with the Automated Groundwater Screening a consistent set of assumptions and databases is used. A method is proposed to eliminate trigger values by performing rigorous calculation of the screening factor thereby reducing the number of radionuclides sent to further analysis. Using the same problem definitions as in previous groundwater screenings, the automated groundwater screening found one additional nuclide, Ge-68, which failed the screening. It also found that 18 of the 57 radionuclides contained in NCRP Table 3.1 failed the screening. This report describes the automated groundwater screening computer application.

  3. Capturing temporal variation in phosphorus dynamics in groundwater dominated rivers using automated high-frequency sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieroza, M. Z.; Heathwaite, A. L.; Mullinger, N. J.; Keenan, P. O.

    2012-04-01

    High-frequency river water quality monitoring provides detailed hydrochemical information on the time scale of hydrologic response. Several studies (Kirchner et al., 2004; Johnes, 2007; Cassidy and Jordan, 2011) have shown previously that coarse sampling approaches fail to quantify nutrient and sediment loads and to capture the fine structure of water quality dynamics correctly. A robust analysis of high-frequency nutrient and water quality time series can present a complex conceptual, analytical and computational problem. High-frequency nutrient monitoring provides new evidence of processes and patterns that could not be observed previously using standard coarse resolution sampling schemes. However, to fully utilise the wealth of information contained in high-frequency nutrient data, we need to address the following questions: how to detect complex coupling patterns and processes in high-resolution flow-nutrients data, how do these patterns and processes change throughout the period of observation, and how to distinguish noise signals from an evidence of real processes (Harris and Heathwaite, 2005). Here, hourly measurements of total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and turbidity were carried out using bank side analysers to study the biogeochemical response of a 54 km2 catchment of the River Leith, a tributary of the River Eden (Cumbria, UK). A remote automated mobile lab facilitates real-time high-frequency nutrient and water quality monitoring, with no time delay between collection and analysis of the reactive elements. The objectives of this study were two-fold: first to investigate the intrinsic complexity of the temporal relationship between phosphorus fractions (SRP, TP), turbidity and continuous hydrometric time series and secondly to investigate the possibilities of missing high-frequency phosphorus data infilling using continuous hydrometric time series. Complex non-linear relationships between flow, TP and SRP, turbidity were observed

  4. Automated sample preparation for monitoring groundwater pollution by carbamate insecticides and their transformation products.

    PubMed

    Chiron, S; Valverde, A; Fernandez-Alba, A; Barceló, D

    1995-01-01

    We investigated automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques for monitoring carbamates and their transformation products. Analytical determinations were performed by LC with UV or postcolumn fluorescence detection (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 531.1 for carbamate insecticides) after preconcentration with on-line SPE using C18 Empore extraction disks. On-line SPE/LC/thermospray mass spectrometry with time-scheduled selected-ion monitoring was used as confirmatory method. The method was used to determine pesticide traces in well waters of a typical aquifer in the Almeria area (Andalucia, south of Spain) from March 1993 to February 1994. The major pollutants, found in highest amounts, were carbofuran, methiocarb, and methomyl, at levels of 0.32, 0.3, and 0.8 micrograms/L, respectively. According to results of seasonal variation studies, pollution by carbamate insecticides is sporadic and exceeds the limit of 0.5 micrograms/L for total pesticides allowed by the European Economic Community Drinking Water Directive only twice a year. 3-Hydroxycarbofuran and methiocarb sulfone also were detected, showing the importance of including the main toxic break-down products of carbamate insecticides in future monitoring programs.

  5. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  6. Groundwater sampling: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Qingren; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Foster, Adam; Migliaccio, Kati W.; Li, Yuncong; Migliaccio, Kati

    2011-01-01

    Discussing an array of water quality topics, from water quality regulations and criteria, to project planning and sampling activities, this book outlines a framework for improving water quality programs. Using this framework, you can easily put the proper training and tools in place for better management of water resources.

  7. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring, A Proven Technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed and tested an automated ground-water monitoring system that measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automated ground-water monitoring systems can be used to monitor known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, to serve as early warning systems monitoring ground-water quality near public water-supply wells, and for ground-water quality research.

  8. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  9. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Wylie, Allan H.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  10. Colloid characterization and quantification in groundwater samples

    SciTech Connect

    K. Stephen Kung

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for studying the groundwater colloids for the Yucca Mountain Project in conjunction with the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. Colloidal particle size distributions and total particle concentration in groundwater samples are quantified and characterized. Colloid materials from cavity waters collected near underground nuclear explosion sites by HRMP field sampling personnel at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were quantified. Selected colloid samples were further characterized by electron microscope to evaluate the colloid shapes, elemental compositions, and mineral phases. The authors have evaluated the colloid size and concentration in the natural groundwater sample that was collected from the ER-20-5 well and stored in a 50-gallon (about 200-liter) barrel for several months. This groundwater sample was studied because HRMP personnel have identified trace levels of radionuclides in the water sample. Colloid results show that even though the water sample had filtered through a series of Millipore filters, high-colloid concentrations were identified in all unfiltered and filtered samples. They had studied the samples that were diluted with distilled water and found that diluted samples contained more colloids than the undiluted ones. These results imply that colloids are probably not stable during the storage conditions. Furthermore, results demonstrate that undesired colloids have been introduced into the samples during the storage, filtration, and dilution processes. They have evaluated possible sources of colloid contamination associated with sample collection, filtrating, storage, and analyses of natural groundwaters. The effects of container types and sample storage time on colloid size distribution and total concentration were studied to evaluate colloid stability by using J13 groundwater. The data suggests that groundwater samples

  11. Automated Groundwater Monitoring of Uranium at the Hanford Site, Washington - 13116

    SciTech Connect

    Burge, Scott R.; O'Hara, Matthew J.

    2013-07-01

    An automated groundwater monitoring system for the detection of uranyl ion in groundwater was deployed at the 300 Area Industrial Complex, Hanford Site, Washington. The research was conducted to determine if at-site, automated monitoring of contaminant movement in the subsurface is a viable alternative to the baseline manual sampling and analytical laboratory assay methods currently employed. The monitoring system used Arsenazo III, a colorimetric chelating compound, for the detection of the uranyl ion. The analytical system had a limit of quantification of approximately 10 parts per billion (ppb, μg/L). The EPA's drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) is 30 ppb [1]. In addition to the uranyl ion assay, the system was capable of acquiring temperature, conductivity, and river level data. The system was fully automated and could be operated remotely. The system was capable of collecting water samples from four sampling sources, quantifying the uranyl ion, and periodically performing a calibration of the analytical cell. The system communications were accomplished by way of cellular data link with the information transmitted through the internet. Four water sample sources were selected for the investigation: one location provided samples of Columbia River water, and the remaining three sources provided groundwater from aquifer sampling tubes positioned in a vertical array at the Columbia River shoreline. The typical sampling schedule was to sample the four locations twice per day with one calibration check per day. This paper outlines the instrumentation employed, the operation of the instrumentation, and analytical results for a period of time between July and August, 2012. The presentation includes the uranyl ion concentration and conductivity results from the automated sampling/analysis system, along with a comparison between the automated monitor's analytical performance and an independent laboratory analysis. Benefits of using the automated system as an

  12. Automated sample preparation for CE-SDS.

    PubMed

    Le, M Eleanor; Vizel, Alona; Hutterer, Katariina M

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally, CE with SDS (CE-SDS) places many restrictions on sample composition. Requirements include low salt content, known initial sample concentration, and a narrow window of final sample concentration. As these restrictions require buffer exchange for many sample types, sample preparation is often tedious and yields poor sample recoveries. To improve capacity and streamline sample preparation, an automated robotic platform was developed using the PhyNexus Micro-Extractor Automated Instrument (MEA) for both the reduced and nonreduced CE-SDS assays. This automated sample preparation normalizes sample concentration, removes salts and other contaminants, and adds the required CE-SDS reagents, essentially eliminating manual steps during sample preparation. Fc-fusion proteins and monoclonal antibodies were used in this work to demonstrate benefits of this approach when compared to the manual method. With optimized conditions, this application has demonstrated decreased analyst "hands on" time and reduced total assay time. Sample recovery greater than 90% can be achieved, regardless of initial composition and concentration of analyte.

  13. Automated Sample Deoxygenation for Improved Luminescence Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-25

    fET-AY4 732 AUTOMATED SAMPLE DEOXYGENATION FOR IMPROVED LUMINESCENCE MEASUREMENTS U) EMORY UNIV RTLANTA GA DEPT OF CHEMISTRY M E ROLLIE ET AL 25 NOV... Deoxygenation for Improved Luminescence Measurements 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) | ,Rollie, M.E.; Patonay, Gabor; and Warner, Isiah M. A .3a. TYPE OF REPORT...GROUP ISU*GRO P ,,,uminescence Spectroscopy; Fluorescence Analysis,* Room *f Temperature Phosphorescence; Deoxygenation ; Quenching ISTRACT (Continue on

  14. Precise and automated microfluidic sample preparation.

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, Robert W.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Mosier, Bruce P.; Harnett, Cindy K.

    2004-07-01

    Autonomous bio-chemical agent detectors require sample preparation involving multiplex fluid control. We have developed a portable microfluidic pump array for metering sub-microliter volumes at flowrates of 1-100 {micro}L/min. Each pump is composed of an electrokinetic (EK) pump and high-voltage power supply with 15-Hz feedback from flow sensors. The combination of high pump fluid impedance and active control results in precise fluid metering with nanoliter accuracy. Automated sample preparation will be demonstrated by labeling proteins with fluorescamine and subsequent injection to a capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) chip.

  15. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples.

  16. Automated ground-water monitoring with robowell-Case studies and potential applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.; ,

    2001-01-01

    Robowell is an automated system and method for monitoring ground-water quality. Robowell meets accepted manual-sampling protocols without high labor and laboratory costs. Robowell periodically monitors and records water-quality properties and constituents in ground water by pumping a well or multilevel sampler until one or more purge criteria have been met. A record of frequent water-quality measurements from a monitoring site can indicate changes in ground-water quality and can provide a context for the interpretation of laboratory data from discrete samples. Robowell also can communicate data and system performance through a remote communication link. Remote access to ground-water data enables the user to monitor conditions and optimize manual sampling efforts. Six Robowell prototypes have successfully monitored ground-water quality during all four seasons of the year under different hydrogeologic conditions, well designs, and geochemical environments. The U.S. Geological Survey is seeking partners for research with robust and economical water-quality monitoring instruments designed to measure contaminants of concern in conjunction with the application and commercialization of the Robowell technology. Project publications and information about technology transfer opportunities are available on the Internet at URL http://ma.water.usgs.gov/automon/.

  17. Automated Monitoring System for Waste Disposal Sites and Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2003-03-01

    A proposal submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program to deploy an automated monitoring system for waste disposal sites and groundwater, herein referred to as the ''Automated Monitoring System,'' was funded in fiscal year (FY) 2002. This two-year project included three parts: (1) deployment of cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers, (2) development of a data management system, and (3) development of Internet accessibility. The proposed concept was initially (in FY 2002) to deploy cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers and partially develop the data management system at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This initial effort included both Bechtel Nevada (BN) and the Desert Research Institute (DRI). The following year (FY 2003), cellular modems were to be similarly deployed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the early data management system developed at the NTS was to be brought to those locations for site-specific development and use. Also in FY 2003, additional site-specific development of the complete system was to be conducted at the NTS. To complete the project, certain data, depending on site-specific conditions or restrictions involving distribution of data, were to made available through the Internet via the DRI/Western Region Climate Center (WRCC) WEABASE platform. If the complete project had been implemented, the system schematic would have looked like the figure on the following page.

  18. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer - 13158

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Carl W. Jr.; Conley, S.F.; Carr, Jennifer S.; Schatz, Aaron L.; Brown, W.L.; Hildebrand, R. Douglas

    2013-07-01

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) manages the groundwater monitoring programs at the Department of Energy's 586-square-mile Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. Each year, more than 1,500 wells are accessed for a variety of reasons. Historically, the monitoring activities have been very 'people intensive'. Field personnel or 'samplers' have been issued pre-printed forms showing information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from two official electronic databases: the Hanford Well Information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The samplers traditionally used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and other personnel posted the collected information. In Automating Groundwater Sampling at Hanford (HNF-38542-FP Revision 0, Presented at Waste Management 2009 Conference, March 1 - March 5, 2009, Phoenix, AZ), we described the methods, tools, and techniques that would be used in automating the activities associated with measuring water levels. The Field Logging and Electronic Data Gathering (FLEDG) application/database that automates collecting the water-level measurement data has now been implemented at Hanford. In addition to eliminating the need to print out

  19. Design and performance of an automated radionuclide separator: its application on the determination of ⁹⁹Tc in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kun Ho; Choi, Sang Do; Choi, Geun Sik; Kang, Mun Ja

    2013-11-01

    A modular automated radionuclide separator for (99)Tc (MARS Tc-99) has been developed for the rapid and reproducible separation of technetium in groundwater samples. The control software of MARS Tc-99 was developed in the LabView programming language. An automated radiochemical method for separating (99)Tc was developed and validated by the purification of (99m)Tc tracer solution eluted from a commercial (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator. The chemical recovery and analytical time for this radiochemical method were found to be 96 ± 2% and 81 min, respectively.

  20. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2009

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Weiss, B.L. Lawrence, D.W. Woolery

    2010-07-08

    This document reports the findings of the groundwater and leachate monitoring and sampling at the Environmental restoration Disposal Facility for calendar year 2009. The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF and report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD and the ERDF Amended ROD.

  1. HITTING THE BULL'S-EYE IN GROUNDWATER SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the commonly-used groundwater sampling techniques and procedures have resulted from methods developed for water supply investigations. These methods have persisted, even though the monitoring goals may have changed from water supply development to contaminant source and ...

  2. Automated collection and processing of environmental samples

    DOEpatents

    Troyer, Gary L.; McNeece, Susan G.; Brayton, Darryl D.; Panesar, Amardip K.

    1997-01-01

    For monitoring an environmental parameter such as the level of nuclear radiation, at distributed sites, bar coded sample collectors are deployed and their codes are read using a portable data entry unit that also records the time of deployment. The time and collector identity are cross referenced in memory in the portable unit. Similarly, when later recovering the collector for testing, the code is again read and the time of collection is stored as indexed to the sample collector, or to a further bar code, for example as provided on a container for the sample. The identity of the operator can also be encoded and stored. After deploying and/or recovering the sample collectors, the data is transmitted to a base processor. The samples are tested, preferably using a test unit coupled to the base processor, and again the time is recorded. The base processor computes the level of radiation at the site during exposure of the sample collector, using the detected radiation level of the sample, the delay between recovery and testing, the duration of exposure and the half life of the isotopes collected. In one embodiment, an identity code and a site code are optically read by an image grabber coupled to the portable data entry unit.

  3. Nevada National Security Site Integrated Groundwater Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Marutzky, Sam; Farnham, Irene

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan) is to provide a comprehensive, integrated approach for collecting and analyzing groundwater samples to meet the needs and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity. Implementation of this Plan will provide high-quality data required by the UGTA Activity for ensuring public protection in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The Plan is designed to ensure compliance with the UGTA Quality Assurance Plan (QAP). The Plan’s scope comprises sample collection and analysis requirements relevant to assessing the extent of groundwater contamination from underground nuclear testing. This Plan identifies locations to be sampled by corrective action unit (CAU) and location type, sampling frequencies, sample collection methodologies, and the constituents to be analyzed. In addition, the Plan defines data collection criteria such as well-purging requirements, detection levels, and accuracy requirements; identifies reporting and data management requirements; and provides a process to ensure coordination between NNSS groundwater sampling programs for sampling of interest to UGTA. This Plan does not address compliance with requirements for wells that supply the NNSS public water system or wells involved in a permitted activity.

  4. Rapid Automated Sample Preparation for Biological Assays

    SciTech Connect

    Shusteff, M

    2011-03-04

    Our technology utilizes acoustic, thermal, and electric fields to separate out contaminants such as debris or pollen from environmental samples, lyse open cells, and extract the DNA from the lysate. The objective of the project is to optimize the system described for a forensic sample, and demonstrate its performance for integration with downstream assay platforms (e.g. MIT-LL's ANDE). We intend to increase the quantity of DNA recovered from the sample beyond the current {approx}80% achieved using solid phase extraction methods. Task 1: Develop and test an acoustic filter for cell extraction. Task 2: Develop and test lysis chip. Task 3: Develop and test DNA extraction chip. All chips have been fabricated based on the designs laid out in last month's report.

  5. Bias in groundwater samples caused by wellbore flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn; Bennett, Gordon D.

    1989-01-01

    Proper design of physical installations and sampling procedures for groundwater monitoring networks is critical for the detection and analysis of possible contaminants. Monitoring networks associated with known contaminant sources sometimes include an array of monitoring wells with long well screens. The purpose of this paper is: (a) to report the results of a numerical experiment indicating that significant borehole flow can occur within long well screens installed in homogeneous aquifers with very small head differences in the aquifer (less than 0.01 feet between the top and bottom of the screen); (b) to demonstrate that contaminant monitoring wells with long screens may completely fail to fulfill their purpose in many groundwater environments.

  6. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Carl W. Jr.; Carr, Jennifer S.; Hildebrand, R. Douglas; Schatz, Aaron L.; Conley, S. F.; Brown, W. L.

    2013-01-22

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) manages the groundwatermonitoring programs at the Department of Energy's 586-square-mile Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. Each year, more than 1,500 wells are accessed for a variety of reasons.

  7. Automated Sample collection and Analysis unit

    SciTech Connect

    Latner, Norman; Sanderson, Colin G.; Negro, Vincent C.

    1999-03-31

    Autoramp is an atmospheric radionuclide collection and analysis unit designed for unattended operation. A large volume of air passes through one of 31 filter cartridges which is then moved from a sampling chamber and past a bar code reader, to a shielded enclosure. The collected dust-borne radionuclides are counted with a high resolution germanium gamma-ray detector. An analysis is made and the results are transmitted to a central station that can also remotely control the unit.

  8. Automated biowaste sampling system feces monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, S. R.; Glanfield, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The Feces Monitoring System (FMS) Program designed, fabricated, assembled and tested an engineering model waste collector system (WCS) to be used in support of life science and medical experiments related to Shuttle missions. The FMS design was patterned closely after the Shuttle WCS, including: interface provisions; mounting; configuration; and operating procedures. These similarities make it possible to eventually substitute an FMS for the Shuttle WCS of Orbiter. In addition, several advanced waste collection features, including the capability of real-time inertial fecal separation and fecal mass measurement and sampling were incorporated into the FMS design.

  9. Rapid assessment of soil and groundwater tritium by vegetation sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    A rapid and relatively inexpensive technique for defining the extent of groundwater contamination by tritium has been investigated. The technique uses existing vegetation to sample the groundwater. Water taken up by deep rooted trees is collected by enclosing tree branches in clear plastic bags. Water evaporated from the leaves condenses on the inner surface of the bag. The water is removed from the bag with a syringe. The bags can be sampled many times. Tritium in the water is detected by liquid scintillation counting. The water collected in the bags has no color and counts as well as distilled water reference samples. The technique was used in an area of known tritium contamination and proved to be useful in defining the extent of tritium contamination.

  10. Non-Contact Conductivity Measurement for Automated Sample Processing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kirby, James P.

    2012-01-01

    A new method has been developed for monitoring and control of automated sample processing and preparation especially focusing on desalting of samples before analytical analysis (described in more detail in Automated Desalting Apparatus, (NPO-45428), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 8 (August 2010), page 44). The use of non-contact conductivity probes, one at the inlet and one at the outlet of the solid phase sample preparation media, allows monitoring of the process, and acts as a trigger for the start of the next step in the sequence (see figure). At each step of the muti-step process, the system is flushed with low-conductivity water, which sets the system back to an overall low-conductivity state. This measurement then triggers the next stage of sample processing protocols, and greatly minimizes use of consumables. In the case of amino acid sample preparation for desalting, the conductivity measurement will define three key conditions for the sample preparation process. First, when the system is neutralized (low conductivity, by washing with excess de-ionized water); second, when the system is acidified, by washing with a strong acid (high conductivity); and third, when the system is at a basic condition of high pH (high conductivity). Taken together, this non-contact conductivity measurement for monitoring sample preparation will not only facilitate automation of the sample preparation and processing, but will also act as a way to optimize the operational time and use of consumables

  11. SUBSURFACE MOBILE PLUTONIUM SPECIATION: SAMPLING ARTIFACTS FOR GROUNDWATER COLLOIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.; Buesseler, K.

    2010-06-29

    A recent review found several conflicting conclusions regarding colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides in groundwater and noted that colloids can both facilitate and retard transport. Given these contrasting conclusions and the profound implications even trace concentrations of plutonium (Pu) have on the calculated risk posed to human health, it is important that the methodology used to sample groundwater colloids be free of artifacts. The objective of this study was: (1) to conduct a field study and measure Pu speciation, ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu for reduced-Pu{sub aq}, oxidized-Pu{sub aq}, reduced-Pu{sub colloid}, and oxidized-Pu{sub colloid}), in a Savannah River Site (SRS) aquifer along a pH gradient in F-Area, (2) to determine the impact of pumping rate on Pu concentration, Pu speciation, and Pu isotopic ratios, (3) determine the impact of delayed sample processing (as opposed to processing directly from the well).

  12. Microbial groundwater sampling protocol for fecal-rich environments.

    PubMed

    Harter, Thomas; Watanabe, Naoko; Li, Xunde; Atwill, Edward R; Samuels, William

    2014-09-01

    Inherently, confined animal farming operations (CAFOs) and other intense fecal-rich environments are potential sources of groundwater contamination by enteric pathogens. The ubiquity of microbial matter poses unique technical challenges in addition to economic constraints when sampling wells in such environments. In this paper, we evaluate a groundwater sampling protocol that relies on extended purging with a portable submersible stainless steel pump and Teflon(®) tubing as an alternative to equipment sterilization. The protocol allows for collecting a large number of samples quickly, relatively inexpensively, and under field conditions with limited access to capacity for sterilizing equipment. The protocol is tested on CAFO monitoring wells and considers three cross-contamination sources: equipment, wellbore, and ambient air. For the assessment, we use Enterococcus, a ubiquitous fecal indicator bacterium (FIB), in laboratory and field tests with spiked and blank samples, and in an extensive, multi-year field sampling campaign on 17 wells within 2 CAFOs. The assessment shows that extended purging can successfully control for equipment cross-contamination, but also controls for significant contamination of the well-head, within the well casing and within the immediate aquifer vicinity of the well-screen. Importantly, our tests further indicate that Enterococcus is frequently entrained in water samples when exposed to ambient air at a CAFO during sample collection. Wellbore and air contamination pose separate challenges in the design of groundwater monitoring strategies on CAFOs that are not addressed by equipment sterilization, but require adequate QA/QC procedures and can be addressed by the proposed sampling strategy.

  13. Modular Automated Processing System (MAPS) for analysis of biological samples.

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, Geun-Cheol; Chirica, Gabriela S.; Fruetel, Julia A.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Branda, Steven S.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Brennan, James S.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2010-10-01

    We have developed a novel modular automated processing system (MAPS) that enables reliable, high-throughput analysis as well as sample-customized processing. This system is comprised of a set of independent modules that carry out individual sample processing functions: cell lysis, protein concentration (based on hydrophobic, ion-exchange and affinity interactions), interferent depletion, buffer exchange, and enzymatic digestion of proteins of interest. Taking advantage of its unique capacity for enclosed processing of intact bioparticulates (viruses, spores) and complex serum samples, we have used MAPS for analysis of BSL1 and BSL2 samples to identify specific protein markers through integration with the portable microChemLab{trademark} and MALDI.

  14. Quantifying Groundwater Flow to a Subtropical Spring-fed River Using Automated 222Rn Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, M. B.; Martin, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude of groundwater discharge to streams can alter stream water chemistry, thereby affecting riverine ecosystems and surface water quality. Point groundwater discharge to streams can be measured using a variety of techniques; however, integrating point and diffuse discharge is difficult over large stream reaches. We applied an automated radon-in-water technique for continuous measurements of 222Rn activities along a 5 km length of the spring-fed Ichetucknee River in north-central Florida. Integration of longitudinal 222Rn distribution, measured on three separate occasions, with groundwater and spring water end members in a mass balance equation allowed temporal and spatial assessment of groundwater flow to the stream. The 222Rn activities indicate groundwater fluxes are higher in the upper reach of the river, which has a narrow flood plain, than in the lower reach, with a wide flood plain. A wide flood plain enhances evapotranspiration, which may cause the observed difference in groundwater seepage. Groundwater flow to the upper reach increases following rain events as diffuse recharge within the catchment increases hydraulic gradients toward the river. Groundwater recharge to the lower reach is smaller and less variable than the upper reach regardless of the river flow. The lower reach can back flood when the Santa Fe River, the receiving stream, floods because of the low gradient of the Ichetucknee River (<2 m/km). Back flooding reduces flow, increases water level and inundates the floodplain, reducing the hydraulic head gradient and groundwater inflow. Based on the 222Rn mass balance, cumulative groundwater inflow is estimated to be 2.5 ± 1 m3/s (±SD) during low flow and 3.2 ± 1.5 m3/s during high flow. The estimated ground water inflows to the Ichetucknee River from the 222Rn mass balance are about twice the estimates of 1.2 m3/s and 1.5 m3/s obtained from dye tracer and ionic chemical tracer methods, respectively. The estimated higher fluxes from

  15. Automated DNA extraction for large numbers of plant samples.

    PubMed

    Mehle, Nataša; Nikolić, Petra; Rupar, Matevž; Boben, Jana; Ravnikar, Maja; Dermastia, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The method described here is a rapid, total DNA extraction procedure applicable to a large number of plant samples requiring pathogen detection. The procedure combines a simple and quick homogenization step of crude extracts with DNA extraction based upon the binding of DNA to magnetic beads. DNA is purified in an automated process in which the magnetic beads are transferred through a series of washing buffers. The eluted DNA is suitable for efficient amplification in PCR reactions.

  16. An Automated Home Made Low Cost Vibrating Sample Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Nath, T. K.

    2011-07-01

    The design and operation of a homemade low cost vibrating sample magnetometer is described here. The sensitivity of this instrument is better than 10-2 emu and found to be very efficient for the measurement of magnetization of most of the ferromagnetic and other magnetic materials as a function of temperature down to 77 K and magnetic field upto 800 Oe. Both M(H) and M(T) data acquisition are fully automated employing computer and Labview software.

  17. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....53 Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 258.53 Section 258.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  18. Monitoring-well network and sampling design for ground-water quality, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, Jon P.; Sebree, Sonja K.; Quinn, Thomas L.

    2005-01-01

    The Wind River Indian Reservation, located in parts of Fremont and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming, has a total land area of more than 3,500 square miles. Ground water on the Wind River Indian Reservation is a valuable resource for Shoshone and Northern Arapahoe tribal members and others who live on the Reservation. There are many types of land uses on the Reservation that have the potential to affect the quality of ground-water resources. Urban areas, rural housing developments, agricultural lands, landfills, oil and natural gas fields, mining, and pipeline utility corridors all have the potential to affect ground-water quality. A cooperative study was developed between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wind River Environmental Quality Commission to identify areas of the Reservation that have the highest potential for ground-water contamination and develop a comprehensive plan to monitor these areas. An arithmetic overlay model for the Wind River Indian Reservation was created using seven geographic information system data layers representing factors with varying potential to affect ground-water quality. The data layers used were: the National Land Cover Dataset, water well density, aquifer sensitivity, oil and natural gas fields and petroleum pipelines, sites with potential contaminant sources, sites that are known to have ground-water contamination, and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System sites. A prioritization map for monitoring ground-water quality on the Reservation was created using the model. The prioritization map ranks the priority for monitoring ground-water quality in different areas of the Reservation as low, medium, or high. To help minimize bias in selecting sites for a monitoring well network, an automated stratified random site-selection approach was used to select 30 sites for ground-water quality monitoring within the high priority areas. In addition, the study also provided a sampling design for constituents to be monitored, sampling

  19. Influence of vertical flows in wells on groundwater sampling.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Lindsay A; Rivett, Michael O; Tellam, John H; Dumble, Peter; Sharp, Helen

    2014-11-15

    Pumped groundwater sampling evaluations often assume that horizontal head gradients predominate and the sample comprises an average of water quality variation over the well screen interval weighted towards contributing zones of higher hydraulic conductivity (a permeability-weighted sample). However, the pumping rate used during sampling may not always be sufficient to overcome vertical flows in wells driven by ambient vertical head gradients. Such flows are reported in wells with screens between 3 and 10m in length where lower pumping rates are more likely to be used during sampling. Here, numerical flow and particle transport modeling is used to provide insight into the origin of samples under ambient vertical head gradients and under a range of pumping rates. When vertical gradients are present, sample provenance is sensitive to pump intake position, pumping rate and pumping duration. The sample may not be drawn from the whole screen interval even with extended pumping times. Sample bias is present even when the ambient vertical flow in the wellbore is less than the pumping rate. Knowledge of the maximum ambient vertical flow in the well does, however, allow estimation of the pumping rate that will yield a permeability-weighted sample. This rate may be much greater than that recommended for low-flow sampling. In practice at monitored sites, the sampling bias introduced by ambient vertical flows in wells may often be unrecognized or underestimated when drawing conclusions from sampling results. It follows that care should be taken in the interpretation of sampling data if supporting flow investigations have not been undertaken.

  20. Drug discovery from Nature: automated high-quality sample preparation

    PubMed Central

    Thiericke, Ralf

    2000-01-01

    Secondary metabolites from plants, animals and microorganisms have been proven to be an outstanding source for new and innovative drugs and show a striking structural diversity that supplements chemically synthesized compounds or libraries in drug discovery programs. Unfortunately, extracts from natural sources are usually complex mixtures of compounds:: often generated in time consuming and for the most part manual processes. As quality and quantity of the provided samples play a pivotal role in the success of high-throughput screening programs this poses serious problems. In order to make samples of natural origin competitive with synthetic compound libraries, we devised a novel, automated sample preparation procedure based on solid-phase extraction (SPE). By making use of a modified Zymark RapidTrace® SPE workstation an easy-to-handle and effective fractionation method has been developed which allows the generation of highquality samples from natural origin, fulfilling the requirements of an integration into high-throughput screening programs. PMID:18924703

  1. Components for automated microfluidics sample preparation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, M.; Erickson, J. S.; Hilliard, L. R.; Howell, P. B., Jr.; Stenger, D. A.; Ligler, F. S.; Lin, B.

    2008-02-01

    The increasing demand for portable devices to detect and identify pathogens represents an interdisciplinary effort between engineering, materials science, and molecular biology. Automation of both sample preparation and analysis is critical for performing multiplexed analyses on real world samples. This paper selects two possible components for such automated portable analyzers: modified silicon structures for use in the isolation of nucleic acids and a sheath flow system suitable for automated microflow cytometry. Any detection platform that relies on the genetic content (RNA and DNA) present in complex matrices requires careful extraction and isolation of the nucleic acids in order to ensure their integrity throughout the process. This sample pre-treatment step is commonly performed using commercially available solid phases along with various molecular biology techniques that require multiple manual steps and dedicated laboratory space. Regardless of the detection scheme, a major challenge in the integration of total analysis systems is the development of platforms compatible with current isolation techniques that will ensure the same quality of nucleic acids. Silicon is an ideal candidate for solid phase separations since it can be tailored structurally and chemically to mimic the conditions used in the laboratory. For analytical purposes, we have developed passive structures that can be used to fully ensheath one flow stream with another. As opposed to traditional flow focusing methods, our sheath flow profile is truly two dimensional, making it an ideal candidate for integration into a microfluidic flow cytometer. Such a microflow cytometer could be used to measure targets captured on either antibody- or DNA-coated beads.

  2. Digital microfluidic hub for automated nucleic acid sample preparation.

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jim; Bartsch, Michael S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Kittlaus, Eric A.; Remillared, Erin M.; Pezzola, Genevieve L.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Kim, Hanyoup

    2010-07-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and characterized a digital microfluidic (DMF) platform to function as a central hub for interfacing multiple lab-on-a-chip sample processing modules towards automating the preparation of clinically-derived DNA samples for ultrahigh throughput sequencing (UHTS). The platform enables plug-and-play installation of a two-plate DMF device with consistent spacing, offers flexible connectivity for transferring samples between modules, and uses an intuitive programmable interface to control droplet/electrode actuations. Additionally, the hub platform uses transparent indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes to allow complete top and bottom optical access to the droplets on the DMF array, providing additional flexibility for various detection schemes.

  3. Gas-driven pump for ground-water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signor, Donald C.

    1978-01-01

    Observation wells installed for artificial-recharge research and other wells used in different ground-water programs are frequently cased with small-diameter steel pipe. To obtain samples from these small-diameter wells in order to monitor water quality, and to calibrate solute-transport models, a small-diameter pump with unique operating characteristics is required that causes a minimum alternation of samples during field sampling. A small-diameter gas-driven pump was designed and built to obtain water samples from wells of two-inch diameter or larger. The pump is a double-piston type with the following characteristics: (1) The water sample is isolated from the operating gas, (2) no source of electricity is ncessary, (3) operation is continuous, (4) use of compressed gas is efficient, and (5) operation is reliable over extended periods of time. Principles of operation, actual operation techniques, gas-use analyses and operating experience are described. Complete working drawings and a component list are included. Recent modifications and pump construction for high-pressure applications also are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Automated acoustic matrix deposition for MALDI sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Aerni, Hans-Rudolf; Cornett, Dale S; Caprioli, Richard M

    2006-02-01

    Novel high-throughput sample preparation strategies for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) and profiling are presented. An acoustic reagent multispotter was developed to provide improved reproducibility for depositing matrix onto a sample surface, for example, such as a tissue section. The unique design of the acoustic droplet ejector and its optimization for depositing matrix solution are discussed. Since it does not contain a capillary or nozzle for fluid ejection, issues with clogging of these orifices are avoided. Automated matrix deposition provides better control of conditions affecting protein extraction and matrix crystallization with the ability to deposit matrix accurately onto small surface features. For tissue sections, matrix spots of 180-200 microm in diameter were obtained and a procedure is described for generating coordinate files readable by a mass spectrometer to permit automated profile acquisition. Mass spectral quality and reproducibility was found to be better than that obtained with manual pipet spotting. The instrument can also deposit matrix spots in a dense array pattern so that, after analysis in a mass spectrometer, two-dimensional ion images may be constructed. Example ion images from a mouse brain are presented.

  5. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R. L.; Lawrence, B. L.

    2011-06-09

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF and report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD2 and the ERDF Amended ROD (EPA 1999). The overall objective of the groundwater monitoring program is to determine whether ERDF has impacted the groundwater. This objective is complicated by the fact that the ERDF is situated downgradient of the numerous groundwater contamination plumes originating from the 200 West Area.

  6. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and analysis requirements. (a) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent sampling... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements. 257.23 Section 257.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  7. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-30

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2005 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2005 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (2) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (3) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (4) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2005 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2005 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  8. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC for the Environmental Compliance Department ES&H Division, Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    2003-09-30

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2004 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2004 will be in accordance with the following requirements of DOE Order 5400.1: (1) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (2) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (3) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (4) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2004 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2004 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  9. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2002 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2002 will be in accordance with the following requirements of DOE Order 5400.1: to evaluate and maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2002 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2002 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  10. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2003 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2003 will be in accordance with the following requirements of DOE Order 5400.1: (1) to evaluate and maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (2) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (3) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (4) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2003 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2003 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  11. Groundwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. A downhole passive sampling system to avoid bias and error from groundwater sample handling.

    PubMed

    Britt, Sanford L; Parker, Beth L; Cherry, John A

    2010-07-01

    A new downhole groundwater sampler reduces bias and error due to sample handling and exposure while introducing minimal disturbance to natural flow conditions in the formation and well. This "In Situ Sealed", "ISS", or "Snap" sampling device includes removable/lab-ready sample bottles, a sampler device to hold double end-opening sample bottles in an open position, and a line for lowering the sampler system and triggering closure of the bottles downhole. Before deployment, each bottle is set open at both ends to allow flow-through during installation and equilibration downhole. Bottles are triggered to close downhole without well purging; the method is therefore "passive" or "nonpurge". The sample is retrieved in a sealed condition and remains unexposed until analysis. Data from six field studies comparing ISS sampling with traditional methods indicate ISS samples typically yield higher volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations; in one case, significant chemical-specific differentials between sampling methods were discernible. For arsenic, filtered and unfiltered purge results were negatively and positively biased, respectively, compared to ISS results. Inorganic constituents showed parity with traditional methods. Overall, the ISS is versatile, avoids low VOC recovery bias, and enhances reproducibility while avoiding sampling complexity and purge water disposal.

  13. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2006

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Weiss

    2007-05-30

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF and to report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD.

  14. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2006

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Weiss

    2007-12-05

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF and to report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD.

  15. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Weiss; D. W. Woolery

    2009-09-03

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF, to report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD and the ERDF Amended ROD.

  16. Data Validation Package May 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, September 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dick; Tsosie, Bernadette

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location 16(SG).

  17. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2008-12-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2009 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2009 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2009 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2009 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  18. Automation of high-frequency sampling of environmental waters for reactive species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Bishop, J. K.; Wood, T.; Fung, I.; Fong, M.

    2011-12-01

    Trace metals, particularly iron and manganese, play a critical role in some ecosystems as a limiting factor to determine primary productivity, in geochemistry, especially redox chemistry as important electron donors and acceptors, and in aquatic environments as carriers of contaminant transport. Dynamics of trace metals are closely related to various hydrologic events such as rainfall. Storm flow triggers dramatic changes of both dissolved and particulate trace metals concentrations and affects other important environmental parameters linked to trace metal behavior such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). To improve our understanding of behaviors of trace metals and underlying processes, water chemistry information must be collected for an adequately long period of time at higher frequency than conventional manual sampling (e.g. weekly, biweekly). In this study, we developed an automated sampling system to document the dynamics of trace metals, focusing on Fe and Mn, and DOC for a multiple-year high-frequency geochemistry time series in a small catchment, called Rivendell located at Angelo Coast Range Reserve, California. We are sampling ground and streamwater using the automated sampling system in daily-frequency and the condition of the site is substantially variable from season to season. The ranges of pH of ground and streamwater are pH 5 - 7 and pH 7.8 - 8.3, respectively. DOC is usually sub-ppm, but during rain events, it increases by an order of magnitude. The automated sampling system focuses on two aspects- 1) a modified design of sampler to improve sample integrity for trace metals and DOC and 2) remote controlling system to update sampling volume and timing according to hydrological conditions. To maintain sample integrity, the developed method employed gravity filtering using large volume syringes (140mL) and syringe filters connected to a set of polypropylene bottles and a borosilicate bottle via Teflon tubing. Without filtration, in a few days, the

  19. Manual versus automated blood sampling: impact of repeated blood sampling on stress parameters and behavior in male NMRI mice

    PubMed Central

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2014-01-01

    Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters measured, and expressed less anxious behavior. We conclude that repeated blood sampling by automated blood sampling and from the tail vein is less stressful than cheek blood sampling. The choice between automated blood sampling and tail blood sampling should be based on the study requirements, the resources of the laboratory and skills of the staff. PMID:24958546

  20. Automated Force Volume Image Processing for Biological Samples

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Junbo; Duval, Jérôme F. L.; Brie, David; Francius, Grégory

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has now become a powerful technique for investigating on a molecular level, surface forces, nanomechanical properties of deformable particles, biomolecular interactions, kinetics, and dynamic processes. This paper specifically focuses on the analysis of AFM force curves collected on biological systems, in particular, bacteria. The goal is to provide fully automated tools to achieve theoretical interpretation of force curves on the basis of adequate, available physical models. In this respect, we propose two algorithms, one for the processing of approach force curves and another for the quantitative analysis of retraction force curves. In the former, electrostatic interactions prior to contact between AFM probe and bacterium are accounted for and mechanical interactions operating after contact are described in terms of Hertz-Hooke formalism. Retraction force curves are analyzed on the basis of the Freely Jointed Chain model. For both algorithms, the quantitative reconstruction of force curves is based on the robust detection of critical points (jumps, changes of slope or changes of curvature) which mark the transitions between the various relevant interactions taking place between the AFM tip and the studied sample during approach and retraction. Once the key regions of separation distance and indentation are detected, the physical parameters describing the relevant interactions operating in these regions are extracted making use of regression procedure for fitting experiments to theory. The flexibility, accuracy and strength of the algorithms are illustrated with the processing of two force-volume images, which collect a large set of approach and retraction curves measured on a single biological surface. For each force-volume image, several maps are generated, representing the spatial distribution of the searched physical parameters as estimated for each pixel of the force-volume image. PMID:21559483

  1. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2007

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Weiss; T. A. Lee

    2008-06-25

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility and to report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF Record of Decision and the ERDF Amended Record of Decision.

  2. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2006-01-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2006 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2006 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: {sm_bullet} to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; {sm_bullet} to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; {sm_bullet} to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and ! to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2006 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2006 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of

  3. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2007 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2007 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2007 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2007 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and

  4. Calibration and use of continuous heat-type automated seepage meters for submarine groundwater discharge measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mwashote, B.M.; Burnett, W.C.; Chanton, J.; Santos, I.R.; Dimova, N.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) assessments were conducted both in the laboratory and at a field site in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, using a continuous heat-type automated seepage meter (seepmeter). The functioning of the seepmeter is based on measurements of a temperature gradient in the water between downstream and upstream positions in its flow pipe. The device has the potential of providing long-term, high-resolution measurements of SGD. Using a simple inexpensive laboratory set-up, we have shown that connecting an extension cable to the seepmeter has a negligible effect on its measuring capability. Similarly, the observed influence of very low temperature (???3 ??C) on seepmeter measurements can be accounted for by conducting calibrations at such temperatures prior to field deployments. Compared to manual volumetric measurements, calibration experiments showed that at higher water flow rates (>28 cm day-1 or cm3 cm-2 day-1) an analog flowmeter overestimated flow rates by ???7%. This was apparently due to flow resistance, turbulence and formation of air bubbles in the seepmeter water flow tubes. Salinity had no significant effect on the performance of the seepmeter. Calibration results from fresh water and sea water showed close agreement at a 95% confidence level significance between the data sets from the two media (R2 = 0.98). Comparatively, the seepmeter SGD measurements provided data that are comparable to manually-operated seepage meters, the radon geochemical tracer approach, and an electromagnetic (EM) seepage meter. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Automated biowaste sampling system improved feces collection, mass measurement and sampling. [by use of a breadboard model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Young, R.

    1974-01-01

    The capability of the basic automated Biowaste Sampling System (ABSS) hardware was extended and improved through the design, fabrication and test of breadboard hardware. A preliminary system design effort established the feasibility of integrating the breadboard concepts into the ABSS.

  6. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2007-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2008 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2008 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2008 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2008 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and

  7. Automated Aqueous Sample Concentration Methods for in situ Astrobiological Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey, A. D.; Grunthaner, F. J.

    2009-12-01

    The era of wet chemical experiments for in situ planetary science investigations is upon us, as evidenced by recent results from the surface of Mars by Phoenix’s microscopy, electrochemistry, and conductivity analyzer, MECA [1]. Studies suggest that traditional thermal volatilization methods for planetary science in situ investigations induce organic degradation during sample processing [2], an effect that is enhanced in the presence of oxidants [3]. Recent developments have trended towards adaptation of non-destructive aqueous extraction and analytical methods for future astrobiological instrumentation. Wet chemical extraction techniques under investigation include subcritical water extraction, SCWE [4], aqueous microwave assisted extraction, MAE, and organic solvent extraction [5]. Similarly, development of miniaturized analytical space flight instruments that require aqueous extracts include microfluidic capillary electrophoresis chips, μCE [6], liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometrometers, LC-MS [7], and life marker chips, LMC [8]. If organics are present on the surface of Mars, they are expected to be present at extremely low concentrations (parts-per-billion), orders of magnitude below the sensitivities of most flight instrument technologies. Therefore, it becomes necessary to develop and integrate concentration mechanisms for in situ sample processing before delivery to analytical flight instrumentation. We present preliminary results of automated solid-phase-extraction (SPE) sample purification and concentration methods for the treatment of highly saline aqueous soil extracts. These methods take advantage of the affinity of low molecular weight organic compounds with natural and synthetic scavenger materials. These interactions allow for the separation of target organic analytes from unfavorable background species (i.e. salts) during inline treatment, and a clever method for selective desorption is utilized to obtain concentrated solutions on the order

  8. Uranium levels in Cypriot groundwater samples determined by ICP-MS and α-spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, Chrystalla; Aletrari, Maria; Piera, Panagiota; Nicolaidou-Kanari, Popi; Efstathiou, Maria; Pashalidis, Ioannis

    2013-02-01

    The uranium concentration and the isotopic ratio (238)U/(234)U have been determined in Cypriot groundwater samples by ICP-MS after ultrafiltration and acidification of the samples and α-spectroscopy after pre-concentration and separation of uranium by cation-exchange (Chelex 100 resin) and electro-deposition on stainless steel discs. The uranium concentration in the groundwater samples varies strongly between 0.1 and 40 μg l(-1). The highest uranium concentrations are found in groundwater samples associated with sedimentary rock formations and the obtained isotopic ratio (238)U/(234)U varies between 0.95 and 1.2 indicating basically the presence of natural uranium in the studied samples. The pH of the groundwater samples is neutral to weak alkaline (7 < pH < 8) and this is attributed to the carbonaceous content of the sedimentary rocks and the ophiolitic origin of the igneous rocks, which form the background geology in Cyprus. Generally, in groundwaters uranium concentration in solution increases with decreasing pH (7 < pH < 8) and this is attributed to the fact that at lower pH dissolution of soil minerals occurs, and uranium, which is adsorbed or forms solid solution with the geological matrix enters the aqueous phase. This is also corroborated by the strong correlation between the uranium concentration and the electrical conductivity (e.g. dissolved solids) measured in the groundwaters under investigation.

  9. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2009-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2010 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2010 will be in accordance with requirements of DOE Order 540.1A and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2010 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2010 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  10. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2010-12-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2011 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2011 will be in accordance with requirements of DOE Order 540.1A and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2011 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2011 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  11. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2011-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2012 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2012 is in accordance with the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2012 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. Each modification to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as an addendum to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding

  12. Automated PCR setup for forensic casework samples using the Normalization Wizard and PCR Setup robotic methods.

    PubMed

    Greenspoon, S A; Sykes, K L V; Ban, J D; Pollard, A; Baisden, M; Farr, M; Graham, N; Collins, B L; Green, M M; Christenson, C C

    2006-12-20

    Human genome, pharmaceutical and research laboratories have long enjoyed the application of robotics to performing repetitive laboratory tasks. However, the utilization of robotics in forensic laboratories for processing casework samples is relatively new and poses particular challenges. Since the quantity and quality (a mixture versus a single source sample, the level of degradation, the presence of PCR inhibitors) of the DNA contained within a casework sample is unknown, particular attention must be paid to procedural susceptibility to contamination, as well as DNA yield, especially as it pertains to samples with little biological material. The Virginia Department of Forensic Science (VDFS) has successfully automated forensic casework DNA extraction utilizing the DNA IQ(trade mark) System in conjunction with the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation. Human DNA quantitation is also performed in a near complete automated fashion utilizing the AluQuant Human DNA Quantitation System and the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation. Recently, the PCR setup for casework samples has been automated, employing the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation and Normalization Wizard, Genetic Identity version, which utilizes the quantitation data, imported into the software, to create a customized automated method for DNA dilution, unique to that plate of DNA samples. The PCR Setup software method, used in conjunction with the Normalization Wizard method and written for the Biomek 2000, functions to mix the diluted DNA samples, transfer the PCR master mix, and transfer the diluted DNA samples to PCR amplification tubes. Once the process is complete, the DNA extracts, still on the deck of the robot in PCR amplification strip tubes, are transferred to pre-labeled 1.5 mL tubes for long-term storage using an automated method. The automation of these steps in the process of forensic DNA casework analysis has been accomplished by performing extensive optimization, validation and testing of the

  13. Interpretation of stable isotope, denitrification, and groundwater age data for samples collected from Sandia National Laboratories /New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Madrid, V.; Singleton, M. J.; Visser, A.; Esser, B.

    2016-06-02

    This report combines and summarizes results for two groundwater-sampling events (October 2012 and October/November 2015) from the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern (AOC) located in the Lurance Canyon Arroyo southeast of Albuquerque, NM in the Manzanita Mountains. The first phase of groundwater sampling occurred in October 2012 including samples from 19 wells at three separate sites that were analyzed by the Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as part of a nitrate Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation. The three sites (BSG, Technical Area-V, and Tijeras Arroyo) are shown on the regional hydrogeologic map and described in the Sandia Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report. The first phase of groundwater sampling included six monitoring wells at the Burn Site, eight monitoring wells at Technical Area-V, and five monitoring wells at Tijeras Arroyo. Each groundwater sample was analyzed using the two specialized analytical methods, age-dating and denitrification suites. In September 2015, a second phase of groundwater sampling took place at the Burn Site including 10 wells sampled and analyzed by the same two analytical suites. Five of the six wells sampled in 2012 were resampled in 2015. This report summarizes results from two sampling events in order to evaluate evidence for in situ denitrification, the average age of the groundwater, and the extent of recent recharge of the bedrock fracture system beneath the BSG AOC.

  14. A modular approach for automated sample preparation and chemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Michael L.; Turner, Terry D.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Pacetti, Randolph

    1994-01-01

    Changes in international relations, especially within the past several years, have dramatically affected the programmatic thrusts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE now is addressing the environmental cleanup required as a result of 50 years of nuclear arms research and production. One major obstacle in the remediation of these areas is the chemical determination of potentially contaminated material using currently acceptable practices. Process bottlenecks and exposure to hazardous conditions pose problems for the DOE. One proposed solution is the application of modular automated chemistry using Standard Laboratory Modules (SLM) to perform Standard Analysis Methods (SAM). The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) Program has developed standards and prototype equipment that will accelerate the development of modular chemistry technology and is transferring this technology to private industry.

  15. Estimates of Radionuclide Loading to Cochiti Lake from Los Alamos Canyon Using Manual and Automated Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Christopher T.

    2000-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a long-standing program of sampling storm water runoff inside the Laboratory boundaries. In 1995, the Laboratory started collecting the samples using automated storm water sampling stations; prior to this time the samples were collected manually. The Laboratory has also been periodically collecting sediment samples from Cochiti Lake. This paper presents the data for Pu-238 and Pu-239 bound to the sediments for Los Alamos Canyon storm water runoff and compares the sampling types by mass loading and as a percentage of the sediment deposition to Cochiti Lake. The data for both manual and automated sampling are used to calculate mass loads from Los Alamos Canyon on a yearly basis. The automated samples show mass loading 200- 500 percent greater for Pu-238 and 300-700 percent greater for Pu-239 than the manual samples. Using the mean manual flow volume for mass loading calculations, the automated samples are over 900 percent greater for Pu-238 and over 1800 percent greater for Pu-239. Evaluating the Pu-238 and Pu-239 activities as a percentage of deposition to Cochiti Lake indicates that the automated samples are 700-1300 percent greater for Pu- 238 and 200-500 percent greater for Pu-239. The variance was calculated by two methods. The first method calculates the variance for each sample event. The second method calculates the variances by the total volume of water discharged in Los Alamos Canyon for the year.

  16. Evaluation of the measurement uncertainty in automated long-term sampling of PCDD/PCDFs.

    PubMed

    Vicaretti, M; D'Emilia, G; Mosca, S; Guerriero, E; Rotatori, M

    2013-12-01

    Since the publication of the first version of European standard EN-1948 in 1996, long-term sampling equipment has been improved to a high standard for the sampling and analysis of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD)/polychlorodibenzofuran (PCDF) emissions from industrial sources. The current automated PCDD/PCDF sampling systems enable to extend the measurement time from 6-8 h to 15-30 days in order to have data values better representative of the real pollutant emission of the plant in the long period. EN-1948:2006 is still the European technical reference standard for the determination of PCDD/PCDF from stationary source emissions. In this paper, a methodology to estimate the measurement uncertainty of long-term automated sampling is presented. The methodology has been tested on a set of high concentration sampling data resulting from a specific experience; it is proposed with the intent that it is to be applied on further similar studies and generalized. A comparison between short-term sampling data resulting from manual and automated parallel measurements has been considered also in order to verify the feasibility and usefulness of automated systems and to establish correlations between results of the two methods to use a manual method for calibration of automatic long-term one. The uncertainty components of the manual method are analyzed, following the requirements of EN-1948-3:2006, allowing to have a preliminary evaluation of the corresponding uncertainty components of the automated system. Then, a comparison between experimental data coming from parallel sampling campaigns carried out in short- and long-term sampling periods is realized. Long-term sampling is more reliable to monitor PCDD/PCDF emissions than occasional short-term sampling. Automated sampling systems can assure very useful emission data both in short and long sampling periods. Despite this, due to the different application of the long-term sampling systems, the automated results could not be

  17. January 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-01

    Annual sampling was conducted January 19, 2011, to monitor groundwater for potential radionuclide contamination at the Gnome-Coach site in New Mexico. The sampling was performed as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Well LRL-7 was not sampled per instruction from the lead. A duplicate sample was collected from well USGS-1.Water levels were measured in the monitoring wells onsite.

  18. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program: 1990 sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D.

    1991-02-07

    This schedule provides a final record of the 1990 sampling schedule for the SRS groundwater monitoring program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Section (EPD/EMS). It includes all the wells monitored by EPD/EMS at SRS during 1990 and identifies the constituents sampled, the sampling frequency, and the reasons for sampling. Sampling requests are incorporated into the schedule throughout the year. Drafts of the schedule are produced and revised quarterly.

  19. Groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater represents the terrestrial subsurface component of the hydrologic cycle. As such, groundwater is generally in motion, moving from elevated areas of recharge to lower areas of discharge. Groundwater usually moves in accordance with Darcy’s law (Dalmont, Paris: Les Fontaines Publiques de la Ville de Dijon, 1856). Groundwater residence times can be under a day in small upland catchments to over a million years in subcontinental-sized desert basins. The broadest definition of groundwater includes water in the unsaturated zone, considered briefly here. Water chemically bound to minerals, as in gypsum (CaSO4 • 2H2O) or hydrated clays, cannot flow in response to gradients in total hydraulic head (pressure head plus elevation head); such water is thus usually excluded from consideration as groundwater. In 1940, M. King Hubbert showed Darcy’s law to be a special case of thermodynamically based potential field equations governing fluid motion, thereby establishing groundwater hydraulics as a rigorous engineering science (Journal of Geology 48, pp. 785–944). The development of computer-enabled numerical methods for solving the field equations with real-world approximating geometries and boundary conditions in the mid-1960s ushered in the era of digital groundwater modeling. An estimated 30 percent of global fresh water is groundwater, compared to 0.3 percent that is surface water, 0.04 percent atmospheric water, and 70 percent that exists as ice, including permafrost (Shiklomanov and Rodda 2004, cited under Groundwater Occurrence). Groundwater thus constitutes the vast majority—over 98 percent—of the unfrozen fresh-water resources of the planet, excluding surface-water reservoirs. Environmental dimensions of groundwater are equally large, receiving attention on multiple disciplinary fronts. Riparian, streambed, and spring-pool habitats can be sensitively dependent on the amount and quality of groundwater inputs that modulate temperature and solutes

  20. Optimized method for dissolved hydrogen sampling in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Alter, Marcus D; Steiof, Martin

    2005-06-01

    Dissolved hydrogen concentrations are used to characterize redox conditions of contaminated aquifers. The currently accepted and recommended bubble strip method for hydrogen sampling (Wiedemeier et al., 1998) requires relatively long sampling times and immediate field analysis. In this study we present methods for optimized sampling and for sample storage. The bubble strip sampling method was examined for various flow rates, bubble sizes (headspace volume in the sampling bulb) and two different H2 concentrations. The results were compared to a theoretical equilibration model. Turbulent flow in the sampling bulb was optimized for gas transfer by reducing the inlet diameter. Extraction with a 5 mL headspace volume and flow rates higher than 100 mL/min resulted in 95-100% equilibrium within 10-15 min. In order to investigate the storage of samples from the gas sampling bulb gas samples were kept in headspace vials for varying periods. Hydrogen samples (4.5 ppmv, corresponding to 3.5 nM in liquid phase) could be stored up to 48 h and 72 h with a recovery rate of 100.1+/-2.6% and 94.6+/-3.2%, respectively. These results are promising and prove the possibility of storage for 2-3 days before laboratory analysis. The optimized method was tested at a field site contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Duplicate gas samples were stored in headspace vials and analyzed after 24 h. Concentrations were measured in the range of 2.5-8.0 nM corresponding to known concentrations in reduced aquifers.

  1. A New Automated Method and Sample Data Flow for Analysis of Volatile Nitrosamines in Human Urine*

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, James A.; Seyler, Tiffany H.; McGahee, Ernest; Arnstein, Stephen; Wang, Lanqing

    2016-01-01

    Volatile nitrosamines (VNAs) are a group of compounds classified as probable (group 2A) and possible (group 2B) carcinogens in humans. Along with certain foods and contaminated drinking water, VNAs are detected at high levels in tobacco products and in both mainstream and sidestream smoke. Our laboratory monitors six urinary VNAs—N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR)—using isotope dilution GC-MS/MS (QQQ) for large population studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In this paper, we report for the first time a new automated sample preparation method to more efficiently quantitate these VNAs. Automation is done using Hamilton STAR™ and Caliper Staccato™ workstations. This new automated method reduces sample preparation time from 4 hours to 2.5 hours while maintaining precision (inter-run CV < 10%) and accuracy (85% - 111%). More importantly this method increases sample throughput while maintaining a low limit of detection (<10 pg/mL) for all analytes. A streamlined sample data flow was created in parallel to the automated method, in which samples can be tracked from receiving to final LIMs output with minimal human intervention, further minimizing human error in the sample preparation process. This new automated method and the sample data flow are currently applied in bio-monitoring of VNAs in the US non-institutionalized population NHANES 2013-2014 cycle. PMID:26949569

  2. Vertical Sampling in Recharge Areas Versus Lateral Sampling in Discharge Areas: Assessing the Agricultural Nitrogen Legacy in Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, T. E.; Genereux, D. P.; Solomon, D. K.; Mitasova, H.; Burnette, M.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural nitrogen (N) is a legacy contaminant often found in shallow groundwater systems. This legacy has commonly been observed using well nests (vertical sampling) in recharge areas, but may also be observed by sampling at points in/beneath a streambed using pushable probes along transects across a channel (lateral sampling). We compared results from two different streambed point sampling approaches and from wells in the recharge area to assess whether the different approaches give fundamentally different pictures of (1) the magnitude of N contamination, (2) historic trends in N contamination, and (3) the extent to which denitrification attenuates nitrate transport through the surficial aquifer. Two different arrangements of streambed points (SP) were used to sample groundwater discharging into a coastal plain stream in North Carolina. In July 2012, a 58 m reach was sampled using closely-spaced lateral transects of SP, revealing high average [NO3-] (808 μM, n=39). In March 2013, transects of SP were widely distributed through a 2.7 km reach that contained the 58 m reach and suggested overall lower [NO3-] (210 μM, n=30), possibly due to variation in land use along the longer study reach. Mean [NO3-] from vertical sampling (2 well nests with 3 wells each) was 296 μM. Groundwater apparent ages from SP in the 58 m and 2.7 km reaches suggested lower recharge [NO3-] (observed [NO3-] plus modeled excess N2) in 0-10 year-old water (1250 μM and 525 μM, respectively), compared to higher recharge [NO3-] from 10-30 years ago (about 1600 μM and 900 μM, respectively). In the wells, [NO3-] was highest (835 μM) in groundwater with apparent age of 12-15 years and declined as apparent age increased, a trend that was consistent with SP in the 2.7 km reach. The 58 m reach suggested elevated recharge [NO3-] (>1100 μM) over a 50-year period. Excess N2 from wells suggested that about 62% of nitrate had been removed via denitrification since recharge, versus 51% and 78

  3. Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan for Operable Unit 10-08

    SciTech Connect

    M. S. Roddy

    2007-05-01

    This plan describes the groundwater sampling and water level monitoring that will be conducted to evaluate contaminations in the Snake River Plain Aquifer entering and leaving the Idaho National Laboratory. The sampling and monitoring locations were selected to meet the data quality objectives detailed in this plan. Data for the Snake River Plain Aquifer obtained under this plan will be evaluated in the Operable Unit 10-08 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study report and will be used to support the Operable Unit 10-08 Sitewide groundwater model.

  4. Preserving the distribution of inorganic arsenic species in groundwater and acid mine drainage samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of inorganic arsenic species must be preserved in the field to eliminate changes caused by metal oxyhydroxide precipitation, photochemical oxidation, and redox reactions. Arsenic species sorb to iron and manganese oxyhydroxide precipitates, and arsenite can be oxidized to arsenate by photolytically produced free radicals in many sample matrices. Several preservatives were evaluated to minimize metal oxyhydroxide precipitation, such as inorganic acids and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). EDTA was found to work best for all sample matrices tested. Storing samples in opaque polyethylene bottles eliminated the effects of photochemical reactions. The preservation technique was tested on 71 groundwater and six acid mine drainage samples. Concentrations in groundwater samples reached 720 ??g-As/L for arsenite and 1080 ??g-As/L for arsenate, and acid mine drainage samples reached 13 000 ??g-As/L for arsenite and 3700 ??g-As/L for arsenate. The arsenic species distribution in the samples ranged from 0 to 90% arsenite. The stability of the preservation technique was established by comparing laboratory arsenic speciation results for samples preserved in the field to results for subsamples speciated onsite. Statistical analyses indicated that the difference between arsenite and arsenate concentrations for samples preserved with EDTA in opaque bottles and field speciation results were analytically insignificant. The percentage change in arsenite:arsenate ratios for a preserved acid mine drainage sample and groundwater sample during a 3-month period was -5 and +3%, respectively.

  5. Automation of a Surface Sampling Probe/Electrospray Mass Spectrometry System

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Ford, Michael J; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2005-01-01

    An image analysis automation concept and the associated software (HandsFree TLC/MS) were developed to control the surface sampling probe-to-surface distance during operation of a surface sampling electrospray system. This automation system enables both 'hands-free' formation of the liquid microjunction used to sample material from the surface and hands-free reoptimization of the microjunction thickness during a surface scan to achieve a fully automated surface sampling system. The image analysis concept and the practical implementation of the monitoring and automated adjustment of the sampling probe-to-surface distance (i.e., liquid microjunction thickness) are presented. The added capabilities for the preexisting surface sampling electrospray system afforded through this software control are illustrated by an example of automated scanning of multiple development lanes on a reversed-phase C8 TLC plate and by imaging inked lettering on a paper surface. The post data acquisition processing and data display aspects of the software package are also discussed.

  6. May 2011 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 16-17, 2011, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation&Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, and for tritium using the conventional method. Tritium was not measured using the enrichment method because the EPA laboratory no longer offers that service. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  7. Automated versus manual sample inoculations in routine clinical microbiology: a performance evaluation of the fully automated InoqulA instrument.

    PubMed

    Froment, P; Marchandin, H; Vande Perre, P; Lamy, B

    2014-03-01

    The process of plate streaking has been automated to improve the culture readings, isolation quality, and workflow of microbiology laboratories. However, instruments have not been well evaluated under routine conditions. We aimed to evaluate the performance of the fully automated InoqulA instrument (BD Kiestra B.V., The Netherlands) in the automated seeding of liquid specimens and samples collected using swabs with transport medium. We compared manual and automated methods according to the (i) within-run reproducibility using Escherichia coli-calibrated suspensions, (ii) intersample contamination using a series of alternating sterile broths and broths with >10(5) CFU/ml of either E. coli or Proteus mirabilis, (iii) isolation quality with standardized mixed bacterial suspensions of diverse complexity and a 4-category standardized scale (very poor, poor, fair to good, or excellent), and (iv) agreement of the results obtained from 244 clinical specimens. By involving 15 technicians in the latter part of the comparative study, we estimated the variability in the culture quality at the level of the laboratory team. The instrument produced satisfactory reproducibility with no sample cross-contamination, and it performed better than the manual method, with more colony types recovered and isolated (up to 11% and 17%, respectively). Finally, we showed that the instrument did not shorten the seeding time over short periods of work compared to that for the manual method. Altogether, the instrument improved the quality and standardization of the isolation, thereby contributing to a better overall workflow, shortened the time to results, and provided more accurate results for polymicrobial specimens.

  8. Evaluation of the Validity of Groundwater Samples Obtained Using the Purge Water Management System at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Beardsley, C.C.

    1999-04-27

    As part of the demonstration testing of the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) technology at the Savannah River Site (SRS), four wells were equipped with PWMS units in 1997 and a series of sampling events were conducted at each during 1997-1998. Three of the wells were located in A/M Area while the fourth was located at the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground in the General Separations Area.The PWMS is a ''closed-loop'', non-contact, system used to collect and return purge water to the originating aquifer after a sampling event without having significantly altered the water quality. One of the primary concerns as to its applicability at SRS, and elsewhere, is whether the PWMS might resample groundwater that is returned to the aquifer during the previous sampling event. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare groundwater chemical analysis data collected at the four test wells using the PWMS vs. historical data collected using the standard monitoring program methodology to determine if the PWMS provides representative monitoring samples.The analysis of the groundwater chemical concentrations indicates that the PWMS sampling methodology acquired representative groundwater samples at monitoring wells ABP-1A, ABP-4, ARP-3 and BGO-33C. Representative groundwater samples are achieved if the PWMS does not resample groundwater that has been purged and returned during a previous sampling event. Initial screening calculations, conducted prior to the selection of these four wells, indicated that groundwater velocities were high enough under the ambient hydraulic gradients to preclude resampling from occurring at the time intervals that were used at each well. Corroborating evidence included a tracer test that was conducted at BGO-33C, the high degree of similarity between analyte concentrations derived from the PWMS samples and those obtained from historical protocol sampling, as well as the fact that PWMS data extend all previously existing concentration

  9. The Stanford Automated Mounter: Pushing the limits of sample exchange at the SSRL macromolecular crystallography beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Russi, Silvia; Song, Jinhu; McPhillips, Scott E.; Cohen, Aina E.

    2016-02-24

    The Stanford Automated Mounter System, a system for mounting and dismounting cryo-cooled crystals, has been upgraded to increase the throughput of samples on the macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. This upgrade speeds up robot maneuvers, reduces the heating/drying cycles, pre-fetches samples and adds an air-knife to remove frost from the gripper arms. As a result, sample pin exchange during automated crystal quality screening now takes about 25 s, five times faster than before this upgrade.

  10. The Stanford Automated Mounter: Pushing the limits of sample exchange at the SSRL macromolecular crystallography beamlines

    DOE PAGES

    Russi, Silvia; Song, Jinhu; McPhillips, Scott E.; ...

    2016-02-24

    The Stanford Automated Mounter System, a system for mounting and dismounting cryo-cooled crystals, has been upgraded to increase the throughput of samples on the macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. This upgrade speeds up robot maneuvers, reduces the heating/drying cycles, pre-fetches samples and adds an air-knife to remove frost from the gripper arms. As a result, sample pin exchange during automated crystal quality screening now takes about 25 s, five times faster than before this upgrade.

  11. The Stanford Automated Mounter: pushing the limits of sample exchange at the SSRL macromolecular crystallography beamlines

    PubMed Central

    Russi, Silvia; Song, Jinhu; McPhillips, Scott E.; Cohen, Aina E.

    2016-01-01

    The Stanford Automated Mounter System, a system for mounting and dismounting cryo-cooled crystals, has been upgraded to increase the throughput of samples on the macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. This upgrade speeds up robot maneuvers, reduces the heating/drying cycles, pre-fetches samples and adds an air-knife to remove frost from the gripper arms. Sample pin exchange during automated crystal quality screening now takes about 25 s, five times faster than before this upgrade. PMID:27047309

  12. Automated calculation of the evapotranspiration and crop coefficients for a large number of peatland sites using diurnal groundwater table fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Eike; Bechtold, Michel; Dettmann, Ullrich; Tiemeyer, Bärbel

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration is one of the main processes controlling peatland hydrology. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from peatlands are in turn strongly controlled by the groundwater table. Through the increasing political and scientific interest to reduce GHG emissions, monitoring and modelling strategies to optimize re-wetting strategies and to quantify GHG emissions are needed. To achieve these aims, an accurate determination of the evapotranspiration as an essential part of the water balance is required. Many different approaches are known to determine the evapotranspiration. They are mostly either expensive or hard to parameterize. Plant specific crop coefficients (Kc-values) are an option to calculate plant-specific evapotranspiration but due to the lack of Kc-values for typical peatland vegetation types more data on evapotranspiration from peatlands in the temperate zone are required. Furthermore, simple methods to estimate evapotranspiration are needed especially for monitoring projects. Diurnal groundwater table fluctuations caused by root water uptake and groundwater inflow can be used to calculate daily evapotranspiration rates. This approach was first described by White (1932) who compared groundwater recovery rates at night to the decline during daytime. Besides the groundwater table data only the specific yield (Sy) is needed to calculate evapotranspiration. However, the method has some limitations because not all days can be evaluated which leads to data gaps during rainy and very dry or very wet periods. This study presents an automated method to calculate the specific yield, evapotranspiration and crop coefficients for a large number of sites covering all major peatland types and their typical land uses in Germany. As an input for our method, only groundwater level, precipitation and grass reference evapotranspiration (ET0) data is required. In a first step, the groundwater level data was smoothed by a LOESS function. In a second step, site-specific SY

  13. First LC/MS determination of cyanazine amide, cyanazine acid, and cyanazine in groundwater samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E.M.; Barceló, Damià

    2000-01-01

    Cyanazine and two of its major metabolites, cyanazine amide and cyanazine acid, were measured at trace levels in groundwater using liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/APCI/MS). Solid-phase extraction was carried out by passing 20 mL of groundwater sample through a cartridge containing a polymeric phase (PLRP-s), with recoveries ranging from 99 to 108% (n = 5). Using LC/MS detection in positive ion mode, useful structural information was obtained by increasing the fragmentor voltage, thus permitting the unequivocal identification of these compounds in groundwater samples with low sample volumes. The fragmentation of the amide, carboxylic acid, and cyano group was observed for both metabolites and cyanazine, respectively, leading to a diagnostic ion at m/z 214. Method detection limits were in the range of 0.002−0.005 μg/L for the three compounds. Finally, the newly developed method was evaluated for the analysis of groundwater samples from New York containing the compounds under study and presents evidence that the metabolites, cyanazine acid, and cyanazine amide may leach to groundwater and serve as sources for deisopropylatrazine. The combination of on-line SPE and LC/APCI/MS represents an important advance in environmental analysis of herbicide metabolites in groundwater since it demonstrates that trace amounts of polar metabolites may be determined rapidly. Furthermore, the presence of both cyanazine amide and cyanazine acid indicate that another degradation product, deisopropylatrazine, may be occurring at depth because of the subsequent degradation of cyanazine.

  14. Automated biowaste sampling system, solids subsystem operating model, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Stauffer, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The detail design and fabrication of the Solids Subsystem were implemented. The system's capacity for the collection, storage or sampling of feces and vomitus from six subjects was tested and verified.

  15. May 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 9-10, 2012, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location Johnson Artesian WL. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods. Results of this monitoring at the Rio Blanco site demonstrate that groundwater and surface water outside the site boundaries have not been affected by project-related contaminants.

  16. Groundwater Sampling at ISCO Sites: Binary Mixtures of Volatile Organic Compounds and Persulfate

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ chemical oxidation involves the introduction of a chemical oxidant into the subsurface for the purpose of transforming ground-water contaminants into less harmful byproducts. Due to oxidant persistence, ground water samples collected at hazardous waste sites may contain o...

  17. Groundwater sampling methods using glass wool filtration to trace human enteric viruses in Madison, Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human enteric viruses have been detected in the Madison, Wisconsin deep municipal well system. Earlier projects by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) have used glass wool filters to sample groundwater for these viruses directly from the deep municipal wells. Polymerase chain...

  18. An Automated Sample Divider for Farmers Stock Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-shell peanuts are harvested, loaded into drying trailers, and delivered to a central facility where they are dried to a moisture content safe for long term storage, sampled, graded, then unloaded into bulk storage. Drying trailers have capacities ranging from five to twenty-five tons of dry farme...

  19. Automated biowaste sampling system urine subsystem operating model, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Rosen, F.

    1973-01-01

    The urine subsystem automatically provides for the collection, volume sensing, and sampling of urine from six subjects during space flight. Verification of the subsystem design was a primary objective of the current effort which was accomplished thru the detail design, fabrication, and verification testing of an operating model of the subsystem.

  20. An automated method of sample preparation of biofluids using pierceable caps to eliminate the uncapping of the sample tubes during sample transfer.

    PubMed

    Teitz, D S; Khan, S; Powell, M L; Jemal, M

    2000-09-11

    Biological samples are normally collected and stored frozen in capped tubes until analysis. To obtain aliquots of biological samples for analysis, the sample tubes have to be thawed, uncapped, samples removed and then recapped for further storage. In this paper, we report an automated method of sample transfer devised to eliminate the uncapping and recapping process. This sampling method was incorporated into an automated liquid-liquid extraction procedure of plasma samples. Using a robotic system, the plasma samples were transferred directly from pierceable capped tubes into microtubes contained in a 96-position block. The aliquoted samples were extracted with methyl-tert-butyl ether in the same microtubes. The supernatant organic layers were transferred to a 96-well collection plate and evaporated to dryness. The dried extracts were reconstituted and injected from the same plate for analysis by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

  1. Results of groundwater monitoring and vegetation sampling at Everest, Kansas, in 2009 .

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-05-13

    In April 2008, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) conducted groundwater sampling for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the existing network of monitoring points at Everest, Kansas (Argonne 2008). The objective of the 2008 investigation was to monitor the distribution of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater previously identified in CCC/USDA site characterization and groundwater sampling studies at Everest in 2000-2006 (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The work at Everest is being undertaken on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The findings of the 2008 investigation were as follows: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually and through the use of automatic recorders demonstrated a consistent pattern of groundwater flow - and inferred contaminant migration - to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property toward the intermittent creek that lies west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property. (2) The range of concentrations and the areal distribution of carbon tetrachloride identified in the groundwater at Everest in April 2008 were generally consistent with previous results. The results of the 2008 sampling (reflecting the period from 2006 to 2008) and the earlier investigations at Everest (representing the period from 2000 to 2006) show that no significant downgradient extension of the carbon tetrachloride plume occurred from 2000 to 2008. (3) The slow contaminant migration indicated by the monitoring data is qualitatively consistent with the low groundwater flow rates in the Everest aquifer unit estimated previously on the basis of site-specific hydraulic testing (Argonne 2006a,b). (4) The April 2008 and earlier sampling results demonstrate that the limits of the plume have been

  2. The Impact of Sampling Approach on Population Invariance in Automated Scoring of Essays. Research Report. ETS RR-13-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Mo

    2013-01-01

    Many testing programs use automated scoring to grade essays. One issue in automated essay scoring that has not been examined adequately is population invariance and its causes. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of sampling in model calibration on population invariance of automated scores. This study analyzed scores…

  3. May 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 14-16, 2013, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location CER #1 Black Sulphur. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods.

  4. January 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted January 18, 2012, to monitor groundwater for potential radionuclide contamination at the Gnome-Coach site in New Mexico. The sampling was performed as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Well LRL-7 was not sampled per instruction from the lead. A duplicate sample was collected from well USGS-1 and water levels were measured in the monitoring wells onsite.

  5. Development of an automated sample preparation module for environmental monitoring of biowarfare agents.

    PubMed

    Hindson, Benjamin J; Brown, Steve B; Marshall, Graham D; McBride, Mary T; Makarewicz, Anthony J; Gutierrez, Dora M; Wolcott, Duane K; Metz, Thomas R; Madabhushi, Ramakrishna S; Dzenitis, John M; Colston, Billy W

    2004-07-01

    An automated sample preparation module, based upon sequential injection analysis (SIA), has been developed for use within an autonomous pathogen detection system. The SIA system interfaced aerosol sampling with multiplexed microsphere immunoassay-flow cytometric detection. Metering and sequestering of microspheres using SIA was found to be reproducible and reliable, over 24-h periods of autonomous operation. Four inbuilt immunoassay controls showed excellent immunoassay and system stability over five days of unattended continuous operation. Titration curves for two biological warfare agents, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, obtained using the automated SIA procedure were shown to be similar to those generated using a manual microtiter plate procedure.

  6. Automated Sample Preparation for Radiogenic and Non-Traditional Metal Isotopes: Removing an Analytical Barrier for High Sample Throughput

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, M. Paul; Romaniello, Stephen; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Herrmann, Achim; Martinez-Boti, Miguel A.; Anagnostou, Eleni; Foster, Gavin L.

    2014-05-01

    MC-ICP-MS has dramatically improved the analytical throughput for high-precision radiogenic and non-traditional isotope ratio measurements, compared to TIMS. The generation of large data sets, however, remains hampered by tedious manual drip chromatography required for sample purification. A new, automated chromatography system reduces the laboratory bottle neck and expands the utility of high-precision isotope analyses in applications where large data sets are required: geochemistry, forensic anthropology, nuclear forensics, medical research and food authentication. We have developed protocols to automate ion exchange purification for several isotopic systems (B, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Pb and U) using the new prepFAST-MC™ (ESI, Nebraska, Omaha). The system is not only inert (all-flouropolymer flow paths), but is also very flexible and can easily facilitate different resins, samples, and reagent types. When programmed, precise and accurate user defined volumes and flow rates are implemented to automatically load samples, wash the column, condition the column and elute fractions. Unattended, the automated, low-pressure ion exchange chromatography system can process up to 60 samples overnight. Excellent reproducibility, reliability, recovery, with low blank and carry over for samples in a variety of different matrices, have been demonstrated to give accurate and precise isotopic ratios within analytical error for several isotopic systems (B, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Pb and U). This illustrates the potential of the new prepFAST-MC™ (ESI, Nebraska, Omaha) as a powerful tool in radiogenic and non-traditional isotope research.

  7. Automated syringe sampler. [remote sampling of air and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purgold, G. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A number of sampling services are disposed in a rack which slides into a housing. In response to a signal from an antenna, the circutry elements are activated which provide power individually, collectively, or selectively to a servomechanism thereby moving an actuator arm and the attached jawed bracket supporting an evaculated tube towards a stationary needle. One open end of the needle extends through the side wall of a conduit to the interior and the other open end is maintained within the protective sleeve, supported by a bifurcated bracket. A septum in punctured by the end of the needle within the sleeve and a sample of the fluid medium in the conduit flows through the needle and is transferred to a tube. The signal to the servo is then reversed and the actuator arm moves the tube back to its original position permitting the septum to expand and seal the hole made by the needle. The jawed bracket is attached by pivot to the actuator to facilitate tube replacement.

  8. Data Validation Package, December 2015, Groundwater Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, September 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Tsosie, Bernadette; Johnson, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location HMC-951. Alluvium wells are completed in the alluvial sediments in the former channel of the Rio San Jose, which was covered by basalt lava flows known as the El Malpais, and are identified by the suffix (M). Bedrock wells are completed in the San Andres Limestone/Glorieta Sandstone hydrologic unit (San Andres aquifer) and are identified by the suffix (SG). Wells HMC-951 and OBS-3 are also completed in the San Andres aquifer. The LTSP requires monitoring for molybdenum, selenium, uranium, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); PCB monitoring occurs only during November sampling events. This event included sampling for an expanded list of analytes to characterize the site aquifers and to support a regional groundwater investigation being conducted by the New Mexico Environment Department.

  9. High-throughput sample processing and sample management; the functional evolution of classical cytogenetic assay towards automation.

    PubMed

    Ramakumar, Adarsh; Subramanian, Uma; Prasanna, Pataje G S

    2015-11-01

    High-throughput individual diagnostic dose assessment is essential for medical management of radiation-exposed subjects after a mass casualty. Cytogenetic assays such as the Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DCA) are recognized as the gold standard by international regulatory authorities. DCA is a multi-step and multi-day bioassay. DCA, as described in the IAEA manual, can be used to assess dose up to 4-6 weeks post-exposure quite accurately but throughput is still a major issue and automation is very essential. The throughput is limited, both in terms of sample preparation as well as analysis of chromosome aberrations. Thus, there is a need to design and develop novel solutions that could utilize extensive laboratory automation for sample preparation, and bioinformatics approaches for chromosome-aberration analysis to overcome throughput issues. We have transitioned the bench-based cytogenetic DCA to a coherent process performing high-throughput automated biodosimetry for individual dose assessment ensuring quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) aspects in accordance with international harmonized protocols. A Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) is designed, implemented and adapted to manage increased sample processing capacity, develop and maintain standard operating procedures (SOP) for robotic instruments, avoid data transcription errors during processing, and automate analysis of chromosome-aberrations using an image analysis platform. Our efforts described in this paper intend to bridge the current technological gaps and enhance the potential application of DCA for a dose-based stratification of subjects following a mass casualty. This paper describes one such potential integrated automated laboratory system and functional evolution of the classical DCA towards increasing critically needed throughput.

  10. Report on the audit of the Savannah River Site`s quality control program for groundwater sampling

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-20

    The Savannah River Site`s groundwater remediation program was managed by the Department of Energy`s (Department) management and operating contractor for the site, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (Westinghouse). One component of the remediation program was the quality control program. The goal of the groundwater quality control program was to ensure that the results of laboratory analyses of groundwater samples were accurate and precise so that they could be relied upon for making remediation decisions. The objective of this audit was to determine whether Westinghouse acquired the minimal number of laboratory analyses required to ensure that groundwater sampling results met this criteria.

  11. Automated Protein Biomarker Analysis: on-line extraction of clinical samples by Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Cecilia; Świtnicka-Plak, Magdalena A.; Grønhaug Halvorsen, Trine; Cormack, Peter A. G.; Sellergren, Börje; Reubsaet, Léon

    2017-03-01

    Robust biomarker quantification is essential for the accurate diagnosis of diseases and is of great value in cancer management. In this paper, an innovative diagnostic platform is presented which provides automated molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for biomarker determination using ProGastrin Releasing Peptide (ProGRP), a highly sensitive biomarker for Small Cell Lung Cancer, as a model. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres were synthesized by precipitation polymerization and analytical optimization of the most promising material led to the development of an automated quantification method for ProGRP. The method enabled analysis of patient serum samples with elevated ProGRP levels. Particularly low sample volumes were permitted using the automated extraction within a method which was time-efficient, thereby demonstrating the potential of such a strategy in a clinical setting.

  12. Automated Protein Biomarker Analysis: on-line extraction of clinical samples by Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Cecilia; Świtnicka-Plak, Magdalena A.; Grønhaug Halvorsen, Trine; Cormack, Peter A.G.; Sellergren, Börje; Reubsaet, Léon

    2017-01-01

    Robust biomarker quantification is essential for the accurate diagnosis of diseases and is of great value in cancer management. In this paper, an innovative diagnostic platform is presented which provides automated molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for biomarker determination using ProGastrin Releasing Peptide (ProGRP), a highly sensitive biomarker for Small Cell Lung Cancer, as a model. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres were synthesized by precipitation polymerization and analytical optimization of the most promising material led to the development of an automated quantification method for ProGRP. The method enabled analysis of patient serum samples with elevated ProGRP levels. Particularly low sample volumes were permitted using the automated extraction within a method which was time-efficient, thereby demonstrating the potential of such a strategy in a clinical setting. PMID:28303910

  13. An automated integrated platform for rapid and sensitive multiplexed protein profiling using human saliva samples.

    PubMed

    Nie, Shuai; Henley, W Hampton; Miller, Scott E; Zhang, Huaibin; Mayer, Kathryn M; Dennis, Patty J; Oblath, Emily A; Alarie, Jean Pierre; Wu, Yue; Oppenheim, Frank G; Little, Frédéric F; Uluer, Ahmet Z; Wang, Peidong; Ramsey, J Michael; Walt, David R

    2014-03-21

    During the last decade, saliva has emerged as a potentially ideal diagnostic biofluid for noninvasive testing. In this paper, we present an automated, integrated platform useable by minimally trained personnel in the field for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases using human saliva as a sample specimen. In this platform, a saliva sample is loaded onto a disposable microfluidic chip containing all the necessary reagents and components required for saliva analysis. The chip is then inserted into the automated analyzer, the SDReader, where multiple potential protein biomarkers for respiratory diseases are measured simultaneously using a microsphere-based array via fluorescence sandwich immunoassays. The results are read optically, and the images are analyzed by a custom-designed algorithm. The fully automated assay requires as little as 10 μL of saliva sample, and the results are reported in 70 min. The performance of the platform was characterized by testing protein standard solutions, and the results were comparable to those from the 3.5 h lab bench assay that we have previously reported. The device was also deployed in two clinical environments where 273 human saliva samples collected from different subjects were successfully tested, demonstrating the device's potential to assist clinicians with the diagnosis of respiratory diseases by providing timely protein biomarker profiling information. This platform, which combines noninvasive sample collection and fully automated analysis, can also be utilized in point-of-care diagnostics.

  14. Fully automated open access platform for rapid, combined serial evaporation and sample reformatting.

    PubMed

    Benali, Otman; Davies, Gary; Deal, Martyn; Farrant, Elizabeth; Guthrie, Duncan; Holden, John; Wheeler, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a novel evaporator and its integration with an automated sample handling system to create a high throughput evaporation platform. The Vaportec V-10 evaporator uses a high speed rotation motor ( approximately 6000 rpm) to spin the vial containing a sample, creating a thin film of solvent which can be readily evaporated by the application of heat to the vial, while the consequent centrifugal force prevents "bumping". An intelligent algorithm controls pressure and temperature for optimum solvent removal conditions and end of run detection, critical for automation. The system allows the option of evaporation directly from a sample source vial, or alternatively, integrated liquid handling facilities provide the capability of transferring samples portionwise from a (large) source vial or bottle to a (small) daughter container, enabling efficient sample reformatting, with minimum user intervention. The open access system makes significant advances over current vacuum centrifugal evaporators in terms of evaporation rate and ease of automation. The evaporator's main features, the integration of robotics to provide automation, and examples of evaporation rates of a wide range of solvents from a variety of containers are described.

  15. Recent developments on field gas extraction and sample preparation methods for radiokrypton dating of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokochi, Reika

    2016-09-01

    Current and foreseen population growths will lead to an increased demand in freshwater, large quantities of which is stored as groundwater. The ventilation age is crucial to the assessment of groundwater resources, complementing the hydrological model approach based on hydrogeological parameters. Ultra-trace radioactive isotopes of Kr (81 Kr and 85 Kr) possess the ideal physical and chemical properties for groundwater dating. The recent advent of atom trap trace analyses (ATTA) has enabled determination of ultra-trace noble gas radioisotope abundances using 5-10 μ L of pure Kr. Anticipated developments will enable ATTA to analyze radiokrypton isotope abundances at high sample throughput, which necessitates simple and efficient sample preparation techniques that are adaptable to various sample chemistries. Recent developments of field gas extraction devices and simple and rapid Kr separation method at the University of Chicago are presented herein. Two field gas extraction devices optimized for different sampling conditions were recently designed and constructed, aiming at operational simplicity and portability. A newly developed Kr purification system enriches Kr by flowing a sample gas through a moderately cooled (138 K) activated charcoal column, followed by a gentle fractionating desorption. This simple process uses a single adsorbent and separates 99% of the bulk atmospheric gases from Kr without significant loss. The subsequent two stages of gas chromatographic separation and a hot Ti sponge getter further purify the Kr-enriched gas. Abundant CH4 necessitates multiple passages through one of the gas chromatographic separation columns. The presented Kr separation system has a demonstrated capability of extracting Kr with > 90% yield and 99% purity within 75 min from 1.2 to 26.8 L STP of atmospheric air with various concentrations of CH4. The apparatuses have successfully been deployed for sampling in the field and purification of groundwater samples.

  16. The stability of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in ground-water samples archived in borosilicate ampoules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, Stephanie Dunkle; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, L. Niel

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Laboratory in Reston, Va., has been measuring concentrations of CFCs in ground-water samples since 1989 to estimate the year that a water sample was recharged to a ground-water flow system. The water samples have been collected in flame-sealed borosilicate ampoules. Typically for each site, three samples were analyzed within days to a few months after collection, and additional samples were archived for extended periods of time (up to four years). The stability of CFC concentrations in the archived water samples from the USGS CFC Laboratory was investigated by analyzing the CFC concentrations in archived water samples and comparing them with the CFC concentrations that were obtained soon after the samples were collected. The archived samples selected for analysis were chosen from sites with a wide variety of hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions. For CFC-11 and CFC-12 concentrations, approximately 14% and 10.5%, respectively, of the archived samples were statistically different (both higher and lower) from the concentrations obtained from analyses conducted soon after the sample collection. Most of the extraneous values were attributed to natural variability of CFC concentrations originally in the water discharged from wells, rather than to microbial degradation within the ampoule on storage.

  17. Automated laboratory based X-ray beamline with multi-capillary sample chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Purushothaman, S.; Gauthé, B. L. L. E.; Brooks, N. J.; Templer, R. H.; Ces, O.

    2013-08-15

    An automated laboratory based X-ray beamline with a multi-capillary sample chamber capable of undertaking small angle X-ray scattering measurements on a maximum of 104 samples at a time as a function of temperature between 5 and 85 °C has been developed. The modular format of the system enables the user to simultaneously equilibrate samples at eight different temperatures with an accuracy of ±0.005 °C. This system couples a rotating anode generator and 2D optoelectronic detector with Franks X-ray optics, leading to typical exposure times of less than 5 min for lyotropic liquid crystalline samples. Beamline control including sample exchange and data acquisition has been fully automated via a custom designed LabVIEW framework.

  18. Plan for Using Solar-Powered Jack Pumps to Sample Groundwater at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    David Hudson, Charles Lohrstorfer, Bruce Hurley

    2007-05-03

    Groundwater is sampled from 39 monitoring wells on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as part of the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program. Many of these wells were not designed or constructed for long-term groundwater monitoring. Some have extensive completion zones and others have obstructions such as pumps and tubing. The high-volume submersible pumps in some wells are unsuitable for long-term monitoring and result in large volumes of water that may have to be contained and characterized before subsequent disposition. The configuration of most wells requires sampling stagnant well water with a wireline bailer. Although bailer sampling allows for the collection of depth-discrete samples, the collected samples may not be representative of local groundwater because no well purging is done. Low-maintenance, solar-powered jack pumps will be deployed in nine of these onsite monitoring wells to improve sample quality. These pumps provide the lift capacity to produce groundwater from the deep aquifers encountered in the arid environment of the NTS. The water depths in these wells range from 700 to 2,340 ft below ground surface. The considerable labor and electrical power requirements of electric submersible pumps are eliminated once these pumps are installed. Access tubing will be installed concurrent with the installation of the pump string to provide downhole access for water-level measurements or other wireline instruments. Micro-purge techniques with low pump rates will be used to minimize purge volumes and reduce hydraulic gradients. The set depths of the pumps will be determined by the borehole characteristics and screened interval.

  19. An automated system for global atmospheric sampling using B-747 airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, K. Q.; Gustafsson, U. R. C.; Johnson, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The global air sampling program utilizes commercial aircrafts in scheduled service to measure atmospheric constituents. A fully automated system designed for the 747 aircraft is described. Airline operational constraints and data and control subsystems are treated. The overall program management, system monitoring, and data retrieval from four aircraft in global service is described.

  20. Data Validation Package, June 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Hallam, Nebraska, Decommissioned Reactor Site, August 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Surovchak, Scott; Miller, Michele

    2016-08-01

    The 2008 Long-Term Surveillance Plan [LTSP] for the Decommissioned Hallam Nuclear Power Facility, Hallam, Nebraska (http://www.lm.doe.gov/Hallam/Documents.aspx) requires groundwater monitoring once every 2 years. Seventeen monitoring wells at the Hallam site were sampled during this event as specified in the plan. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Water levels were measured at all sampled wells and at two additional wells (6A and 6B) prior to the start of sampling. Additionally, water levels of each sampled well were measured at the beginning of sampling. See Attachment 2, Trip Report, for additional details. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department- energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Gross alpha and gross beta are the only parameters that were detected at statistically significant concentrations. Time/concentration graphs of the gross alpha and gross beta data are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations observed are consistent with values previously observed and are attributed to naturally occurring radionuclides (e.g., uranium and uranium decay chain products) in the groundwater.

  1. Standardised Methods for Sampling by Drilling and Excavation and for Groundwater Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stölben, Ferdinand; Eitner, Volker

    The Technical Committees of the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) and the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) on geotechnical investigation and testing prepare among others several common standards that deal with the direct investigation of soil, rock and groundwater as subsoil and construction materials as part o f the geotechnical investigation services. EN ISO 22475-1 defines concepts and specifies requirements relating to exploration by excavation, drilling and sampling as well as groundwater measurements. EN ISO 22475-2 specifies the technical qualification criteria for an enterprise and personnel performing drilling and sampling services in order that both have the appropriate experience, knowledge and qualifications as well as the correct drilling and sampling equipment for the task to be carried out according to EN ISO 22475-2. EN ISO 22475-3 applies for the conformity assessment of enterprises and personnel for ground investigation drilling and sampling and groundwater measurements according to EN ISO 22475-1 that comply with the technical qualification criteria according to EN ISO 22475-3.

  2. Application of bar codes to the automation of analytical sample data collection

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgensen, H A

    1986-01-01

    The Health Protection Department at the Savannah River Plant collects 500 urine samples per day for tritium analyses. Prior to automation, all sample information was compiled manually. Bar code technology was chosen for automating this program because it provides a more accurate, efficient, and inexpensive method for data entry. The system has three major functions: sample labeling is accomplished at remote bar code label stations composed of an Intermec 8220 (Intermec Corp.) interfaced to an IBM-PC, data collection is done on a central VAX 11/730 (Digital Equipment Corp.). Bar code readers are used to log-in samples to be analyzed on liquid scintillation counters. The VAX 11/730 processes the data and generates reports, data storage is on the VAX 11/730 and backed up on the plant's central computer. A brief description of several other bar code applications at the Savannah River Plant is also presented.

  3. Sample Tracking in an Automated Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Laboratory for Radiation Mass Casualties.

    PubMed

    Martin, P R; Berdychevski, R E; Subramanian, U; Blakely, W F; Prasanna, P G S

    2007-07-01

    Chromosome aberration-based dicentric assay is expected to be used after mass casualty life-threatening radiation exposures to assess radiation dose to individuals. This will require processing of a large number of samples for individual dose assessment and clinical triage to aid treatment decisions. We have established an automated, high-throughput, cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory to process a large number of samples for conducting the dicentric assay using peripheral blood from exposed individuals according to internationally accepted laboratory protocols (i.e., within days following radiation exposures). The components of an automated cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory include blood collection kits for sample shipment, a cell viability analyzer, a robotic liquid handler, an automated metaphase harvester, a metaphase spreader, high-throughput slide stainer and coverslipper, a high-throughput metaphase finder, multiple satellite chromosome-aberration analysis systems, and a computerized sample tracking system. Laboratory automation using commercially available, off-the-shelf technologies, customized technology integration, and implementation of a laboratory information management system (LIMS) for cytogenetic analysis will significantly increase throughput.This paper focuses on our efforts to eliminate data transcription errors, increase efficiency, and maintain samples' positive chain-of-custody by sample tracking during sample processing and data analysis. This sample tracking system represents a "beta" version, which can be modeled elsewhere in a cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory, and includes a customized LIMS with a central server, personal computer workstations, barcode printers, fixed station and wireless hand-held devices to scan barcodes at various critical steps, and data transmission over a private intra-laboratory computer network. Our studies will improve diagnostic biodosimetry response, aid confirmation of clinical triage, and medical

  4. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in groundwater samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhardt, J.

    1995-08-23

    The Savannah River Site contains approximately 1500 monitoring wells from which groundwater samples are collected. Many of these samples are sent off-site for various analyses, including the determination of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report describes accomplishments that have been made during the past year which will ultimately allow VOC analysis to be performed on-site using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Through the use of the on-site approach, it is expected that there will be a substantial cost savings. This approach will also provide split-sample analysis capability which can serve as a quality control measure for off-site analysis.

  5. Using sample entropy for automated sign language recognition on sEMG and accelerometer data.

    PubMed

    Kosmidou, Vasiliki E; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios I

    2010-03-01

    Communication using sign language (SL) provides alternative means for information transmission among the deaf. Automated gesture recognition involved in SL, however, could further expand this communication channel to the world of hearers. In this study, data from five-channel surface electromyogram and three-dimensional accelerometer from signers' dominant hand were subjected to a feature extraction process. The latter consisted of sample entropy (SampEn)-based analysis, whereas time-frequency feature (TFF) analysis was also performed as a baseline method for the automated recognition of 60-word lexicon Greek SL (GSL) isolated signs. Experimental results have shown a 66 and 92% mean classification accuracy threshold using TFF and SampEn, respectively. These results justify the superiority of SampEn against conventional methods, such as TFF, to provide with high recognition hit-ratios, combined with feature vector dimension reduction, toward a fast and reliable automated GSL gesture recognition.

  6. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2014 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring is performed by the GWPP during CY 2014 to achieve the following goals: 􀁸 to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; 􀁸 to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; 􀁸 to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; 􀁸 to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and 􀁸 to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12.

  7. Evaluation of automated streamwater sampling during storm events for total mercury analysis.

    PubMed

    Riscassi, Ami L; Converse, Amber D; Hokanson, Kelly J; Scanlon, Todd M

    2010-10-06

    Understanding the processes by which mercury is mobilized from soil to stream is currently limited by a lack of observations during high-flow events, when the majority of this transport occurs. An automated technique to collect stream water for unfiltered total mercury (HgT) analysis was systematically evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments. Potential sources of error investigated were 1) carry-over effects associated with sequential sampling, 2) deposition of HgT into empty bottles prior to sampling, and 3) deposition to or evasion from samples prior to retrieval. Contamination from carry-over effects was minimal (<2%) and HgT deposition to open bottles was negligible. Potentially greater errors are associated with evasive losses of HgT from uncapped samples, with higher temperatures leading to greater evasion. These evasive losses were found to take place primarily within the first eight hours. HgT associated with particulate material is much less prone to evasion than HgT in dissolved form. A field test conducted during a high-flow event confirmed unfiltered HgT concentrations sampled with an automated system were comparable to those taken manually, as the mean absolute difference between automated and manual samples (10%) was similar to the mean difference between duplicate grab samples (9%). Results from this study have demonstrated that a standard automated sampler, retrofitted with appropriately cleaned fluoropolymer tubing and glass bottles, can effectively be used for collection of streamwater during high-flow events for low-level mercury analysis.

  8. Enumeration of Clostridium perfringens spores in groundwater samples: comparison of six culture media.

    PubMed

    Araujo, M; Sueiro, R A; Gómez, M J; Garrido, M J

    2004-05-01

    In order to investigate the ability of Fluorocult-supplemented TSC agar (TSCF (Fluorocult supplemented TSC-agar): prepared from Tryptose Sulfite Cycloserine Agar Base (Merck), D-cycloserine (Fluka Chemika, USA), and fluorocult TSC-Agar supplement (Merck)) for detecting spores of Clostridium perfringens in water, we analyzed groundwater samples, pretreated by heating to 80 degrees C/5 min, using this fluorogenic medium together with five other media: mCP agar (Panreac; Cultimed), TSC agar (Merck, Germany), TSN agar (Merck), and SPS agar (BBL, USA) by the membrane filtration technique, and Wilson-Blair agar (WB) following the still-in-force Spanish official method. Variance analysis of the data obtained shows statistically significant differences in the counts obtained between media employed in this work. The C. perfringens spore counts on mCP agar were significantly lower (P<0.05) than the corresponding values of TSC, TSCF, SPS, and WB media. No statistically significant differences were found between C. perfringens spore counts on TSCF compared with those of other methods used. On the other hand, the identification of typical and atypical colonies isolated from all media demonstrated that fluorogenic TSC agar was the most specific medium for C. perfringens spore recovery in groundwater samples. Additionally, the results obtained indicate that mCP agar, which is the reference method in the European Union, is not suitable medium for recovering C. perfringens spores from groundwater samples.

  9. Automated system for monitoring groundwater levels at an experimental low-level waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Newbold, J.D.; Bogle, M.A.

    1984-06-01

    One of the major problems with disposing of low-level solid wastes in the eastern United States is the potential for water-waste interactions and leachate migration. To monitor groundwater fluctuations and the frequency with which groundwater comes into contact with a group of experimental trenches, work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Engineered Test Facility (ETF) has employed a network of water level recorders that feed information from 15 on-site wells to a centralized data recording system. The purpose of this report is to describe the monitoring system being used and to document the computer programs that have been developed to process the data. Included in this report are data based on more than 2 years of water level information for ETF wells 1 through 12 and more than 6 months of data from all 15 wells. The data thus reflect both long-term trends as well as a large number of short-term responses to individual storm events. The system was designed to meet the specific needs of the ETF, but the hardware and computer routines have generic application to a variety of groundwater monitoring situations. 5 references.

  10. Current status and future prospects of an automated sample exchange system PAM for protein crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraki, M.; Yamada, Y.; Chavas, L. M. G.; Matsugaki, N.; Igarashi, N.; Wakatsuki, S.

    2013-03-01

    To achieve fully-automated and/or remote data collection in high-throughput X-ray experiments, the Structural Biology Research Centre at the Photon Factory (PF) has installed PF automated mounting system (PAM) for sample exchange robots at PF macromolecular crystallography beamlines BL-1A, BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. We are upgrading the experimental systems, including the PAM for stable and efficient operation. To prevent human error in automated data collection, we installed a two-dimensional barcode reader for identification of the cassettes and sample pins. Because no liquid nitrogen pipeline in the PF experimental hutch is installed, the users commonly add liquid nitrogen using a small Dewar. To address this issue, an automated liquid nitrogen filling system that links a 100-liter tank to the robot Dewar has been installed on the PF macromolecular beamline. Here we describe this new implementation, as well as future prospects.

  11. A comparison of low flow pumping and bailing for VOC groundwater sampling at landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Svavarsson, G.; Connelly, J.; Kuehling, H.

    1995-12-31

    The state of Wisconsin has more than 10,000 groundwater monitoring wells that will continue to be sampled into the future. Most samplers in this state use a bailer to purge and sample these wells. The EPA has questioned the use of a bailer for volatile organic compound (VOC) sampling because of the potential to increase sample aeration and cause significantly more turbidity than using a low flow pumping method. A total of nine monitoring wells that had a history of VOC contamination were sampled at three landfills. The wells were sampled using both a low flow pump and bailer in the summer of 1994 and again in the following winter. Generally, only small differences were found between the VOC results collected using the low flow pumping and the bailing techniques. In addition, the method resulting in higher recovery of organic compounds differed, depending on the particular well, season, and compound.

  12. Selection of Sampling Pumps Used for Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D; Smith, Ronald M

    2001-11-05

    The variable frequency drive centrifugal submersible pump, Redi-Flo2a made by Grundfosa, was selected for universal application for Hanford Site groundwater monitoring. Specifications for the selected pump and five other pumps were evaluated against current and future Hanford groundwater monitoring performance requirements, and the Redi-Flo2 was selected as the most versatile and applicable for the range of monitoring conditions. The Redi-Flo2 pump distinguished itself from the other pumps considered because of its wide range in output flow rate and its comparatively moderate maintenance and low capital costs. The Redi-Flo2 pump is able to purge a well at a high flow rate and then supply water for sampling at a low flow rate. Groundwater sampling using a low-volume-purging technique (e.g., low flow, minimal purge, no purge, or micropurges) is planned in the future, eliminating the need for the pump to supply a high-output flow rate. Under those conditions, the Well Wizard bladder pump, manufactured by QED Environmental Systems, Inc., may be the preferred pump because of the lower capital cost.

  13. Selection of Sampling Pumps Used for Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2001-11-05

    The variable frequency drive centrifugal submersible pump, Redi-Flo2a made by Grundfosa, was selected for universal application for Hanford Site groundwater monitoring. Specifications for the selected pump and five other pumps were evaluated against current and future Hanford groundwater monitoring performance requirements, and the Redi-Flo2 was selected as the most versatile and applicable for the range of monitoring conditions. The Redi-Flo2 pump distinguished itself from the other pumps considered because of its wide range in output flow rate and its comparatively moderate maintenance and low capital costs. The Redi-Flo2 pump is able to purge a well at a high flow rate and then supply water for sampling at a low flow rate. Groundwater sampling using a low-volume-purging technique (e.g., low flow, minimal purge, no purge, or micropurgea) is planned in the future, eliminating the need for the pump to supply a high-output flow rate. Under those conditions, the Well Wizard bladder pump, manufactured by QED Environmental Systems, Inc., may be the preferred pump because of the lower capital cost.

  14. A fully automated plasma protein precipitation sample preparation method for LC-MS/MS bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji; Shi, Jianxia; Le, Hoa; Cho, Robert; Huang, Judy Chi-jou; Miao, Shichang; Wong, Bradley K

    2008-02-01

    This report describes the development and validation of a robust robotic system that fully integrates all peripheral devices needed for the automated preparation of plasma samples by protein precipitation. The liquid handling system consisted of a Tecan Freedom EVO 200 liquid handling platform equipped with an 8-channel liquid handling arm, two robotic plate-handling arms, and two plate shakers. Important additional components integrated into the platform were a robotic temperature-controlled centrifuge, a plate sealer, and a plate seal piercing station. These enabled unattended operation starting from a stock solution of the test compound, a set of test plasma samples and associated reagents. The stock solution of the test compound was used to prepare plasma calibration and quality control samples. Once calibration and quality control samples were prepared, precipitation of plasma proteins was achieved by addition of three volumes of acetonitrile. Integration of the peripheral devices allowed automated sequential completion of the centrifugation, plate sealing, piercing and supernatant transferral steps. The method produced a sealed, injection-ready 96-well plate of plasma extracts. Accuracy and precision of the automated system were satisfactory for the intended use: intra-day and the inter-day precision were excellent (C.V.<5%), while the intra-day and inter-day accuracies were acceptable (relative error<8%). The flexibility of the platform was sufficient to accommodate pharmacokinetic studies of different numbers of animals and time points. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first complete automation of the protein precipitation method for plasma sample analysis.

  15. Automated semiquantitative direct-current-arc spectrographic analysis of eight argonne premium coal ash samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skeen, C.J.; Libby, B.J.; Crandell, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The automated semiquantitative direct-current-arc spectre-graphic method was used to analyze 62 elements in eight Argonne Premium Coal Ash samples. All eight coal ash samples were analyzed in triplicate to verify precision and accuracy of the method. The precision for most elements was within ??10%. The accuracy of this method is limited to +50% or -33% because of the nature of the standard curves for each of the elements. Adjustments to the computer program were implemented to account for unique matrix interferences in these particular coal ash samples.

  16. Automated sampling system for the analysis of amino acids using microfluidic capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhang-Run; Lan, Yue; Fan, Xiao-Feng; Li, Qi

    2009-04-30

    An improved automated continuous sample introduction system for microfluidic capillary electrophoresis (CE) is described. A sample plate was designed into gear-shaped and was fixed onto the shaft of a step motor. Twenty slotted reservoirs for containing samples and working electrolytes were fabricated on the "gear tooth" of the plate. A single 7.5-cm long Teflon AF-coated silica capillary serves as separation channel, sampling probe, as well as liquid-core waveguide (LCW) for light transmission. Platinum layer deposited on the capillary tip serves as the electrode. Automated continuous sample introduction was achieved by scanning the capillary tip through the slots of reservoirs. The sample was introduced into capillary and separated immediately in the capillary with only about 2-nL gross sample consumption. The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method with LCW technique was used for detecting fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled amino acids. With electric-field strength of 320 V/cm for injection and separation, and 1.0-s sample injection time, a mixture of FITC-labeled arginine and leucine was separated with a throughput of 60/h and a carryover of 2.7%.

  17. Development of a Miniature Mass Spectrometer and an Automated Detector for Sampling Explosive Materials

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Yuichiro

    2017-01-01

    The development of a robust ionization source using the counter-flow APCI, miniature mass spectrometer, and an automated sampling system for detecting explosives are described. These development efforts using mass spectrometry were made in order to improve the efficiencies of on-site detection in areas such as security, environmental, and industrial applications. A development team, including the author, has struggled for nearly 20 years to enhance the robustness and reduce the size of mass spectrometers to meet the requirements needed for on-site applications. This article focuses on the recent results related to the detection of explosive materials where automated particle sampling using a cyclone concentrator permitted the inspection time to be successfully reduced to 3 s. PMID:28337396

  18. Comparison of manual and automated nucleic acid extraction from whole-blood samples.

    PubMed

    Riemann, Kathrin; Adamzik, Michael; Frauenrath, Stefan; Egensperger, Rupert; Schmid, Kurt W; Brockmeyer, Norbert H; Siffert, Winfried

    2007-01-01

    Nucleic acid extraction and purification from whole blood is a routine application in many laboratories. Automation of this procedure promises standardized sample treatment, a low error rate, and avoidance of contamination. The performance of the BioRobot M48 (Qiagen) and the manual QIAmp DNA Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen) was compared for the extraction of DNA from whole blood. The concentration and purity of the extracted DNAs were determined by spectrophotometry. Analytical sensitivity was assessed by common PCR and genotyping techniques. The quantity and quality of the generated DNAs were slightly higher using the manual extraction method. The results of downstream applications were comparable to each other. Amplification of high-molecular-weight PCR fragments, genotyping by restriction digest, and pyrosequencing were successful for all samples. No cross-contamination could be detected. While automated DNA extraction requires significantly less hands-on time, it is slightly more expensive than the manual extraction method.

  19. Non-uniform Sampling and J-UNIO Automation for Efficient Protein NMR Structure Determination

    PubMed Central

    Didenko, Tatiana; Proudfoot, Andrew; Dutta, Samit Kumar; Serrano, Pedro; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution structure determination of small proteins in solution is one of the big assets of NMR spectroscopy in structural biology. Improvements in efficiency of NMR structure determination by advances in NMR experiments and automation of data handling therefore attracts continued interest. Here, non-uniform sampling (NUS) of 3D heteronuclear-resolved [1H,1H]-NOESY data yielded two- to three-fold savings of instrument time for structure determinations of soluble proteins. With the 152-residue protein NP_372339.1 from Staphylococcus aureus and the 71-residue protein NP_346341.1 from Streptococcus pneumonia we show that high-quality structures can be obtained with NUS NMR data, which are equally well amenable to robust automated analysis as the corresponding uniformly sampled data. PMID:26227870

  20. An investigative comparison of purging and non-purging groundwater sampling methods in Karoo aquifer monitoring wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomo, M.; Vermeulen, D.

    2015-03-01

    An investigation was conducted to statistically compare the influence of non-purging and purging groundwater sampling methods on analysed inorganic chemistry parameters and calculated saturation indices. Groundwater samples were collected from 15 monitoring wells drilled in Karoo aquifers before and after purging for the comparative study. For the non-purging method, samples were collected from groundwater flow zones located in the wells using electrical conductivity (EC) profiling. The two data sets of non-purged and purged groundwater samples were analysed for inorganic chemistry parameters at the Institute of Groundwater Studies (IGS) laboratory of the Free University in South Africa. Saturation indices for mineral phases that were found in the data base of PHREEQC hydrogeochemical model were calculated for each data set. Four one-way ANOVA tests were conducted using Microsoft excel 2007 to investigate if there is any statistically significant difference between: (1) all inorganic chemistry parameters measured in the non-purged and purged groundwater samples per each specific well, (2) all mineral saturation indices calculated for the non-purged and purged groundwater samples per each specific well, (3) individual inorganic chemistry parameters measured in the non-purged and purged groundwater samples across all wells and (4) Individual mineral saturation indices calculated for non-purged and purged groundwater samples across all wells. For all the ANOVA tests conducted, the calculated alpha values (p) are greater than 0.05 (significance level) and test statistic (F) is less than the critical value (Fcrit) (F < Fcrit). The results imply that there was no statistically significant difference between the two data sets. With a 95% confidence, it was therefore concluded that the variance between groups was rather due to random chance and not to the influence of the sampling methods (tested factor). It is therefore be possible that in some hydrogeologic conditions

  1. Development of automated preparation system for isotopocule analysis of N2O in various air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), an increasingly abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, is the most important stratospheric ozone-depleting gas of this century. Natural abundance ratios of isotopocules of N2O, NNO molecules substituted with stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen, are a promising index of various sources or production pathways of N2O and of its sink or decomposition pathways. Several automated methods have been reported to improve the analytical precision for the isotopocule ratio of atmospheric N2O and to reduce the labor necessary for complicated sample preparation procedures related to mass spectrometric analysis. However, no method accommodates flask samples with limited volume or pressure. Here we present an automated preconcentration system which offers flexibility with respect to the available gas volume, pressure, and N2O concentration. The shortest processing time for a single analysis of typical atmospheric sample is 40 min. Precision values of isotopocule ratio analysis are < 0.1 ‰ for δ15Nbulk (average abundances of 14N15N16O and 15N14N16O relative to 14N14N16O), < 0.2 ‰ for δ18O (relative abundance of 14N14N18O), and < 0.5 ‰ for site preference (SP; difference between relative abundance of 14N15N16O and 15N14N16O). This precision is comparable to that of other automated systems, but better than that of our previously reported manual measurement system.

  2. [Groundwater].

    PubMed

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.

  3. An instrument for automated purification of nucleic acids from contaminated forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Broemeling, David J; Pel, Joel; Gunn, Dylan C; Mai, Laura; Thompson, Jason D; Poon, Hiron; Marziali, Andre

    2008-02-01

    Forensic crime scene sample analysis, by its nature, often deals with samples in which there are low amounts of nucleic acids, on substrates that often lead to inhibition of subsequent enzymatic reactions such as PCR amplification for STR profiling. Common substrates include denim from blue jeans, which yields indigo dye as a PCR inhibitor, and soil, which yields humic substances as inhibitors. These inhibitors frequently co-extract with nucleic acids in standard column or bead-based preps, leading to frequent failure of STR profiling. We present a novel instrument for DNA purification of forensic samples that is capable of highly effective concentration of nucleic acids from soil particulates, fabric, and other complex samples including solid components. The novel concentration process, known as SCODA, is inherently selective for long charged polymers such as DNA, and therefore is able to effectively reject known contaminants. We present an automated sample preparation instrument based on this process, and preliminary results based on mock forensic samples.

  4. Wells provide a distorted view of life in the aquifer: implications for sampling, monitoring and assessment of groundwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Korbel, Kathryn; Chariton, Anthony; Stephenson, Sarah; Greenfield, Paul; Hose, Grant C

    2017-01-19

    When compared to surface ecosystems, groundwater sampling has unique constraints, including limited access to ecosystems through wells. In order to monitor groundwater, a detailed understanding of groundwater biota and what biological sampling of wells truly reflects, is paramount. This study aims to address this uncertainty, comparing the composition of biota in groundwater wells prior to and after purging, with samples collected prior to purging reflecting a potentially artificial environment and samples collected after purging representing the surrounding aquifer. This study uses DNA community profiling (metabarcoding) of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA, combined with traditional stygofauna sampling methods, to characterise groundwater biota from four catchments within eastern Australia. Aquifer waters were dominated by Archaea and bacteria (e.g. Nitrosopumilales) that are often associated with nitrification processes, and contained a greater proportion of bacteria (e.g. Anaerolineales) associated with fermenting processes compared to well waters. In contrast, unpurged wells contained greater proportions of pathogenic bacteria and bacteria often associated with denitrification processes. In terms of eukaryotes, the abundances of copepods, syncarids and oligochaetes and total abundances of stygofauna were greater in wells than aquifers. These findings highlight the need to consider sampling requirements when completing groundwater ecology surveys.

  5. Wells provide a distorted view of life in the aquifer: implications for sampling, monitoring and assessment of groundwater ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Korbel, Kathryn; Chariton, Anthony; Stephenson, Sarah; Greenfield, Paul; Hose, Grant C.

    2017-01-01

    When compared to surface ecosystems, groundwater sampling has unique constraints, including limited access to ecosystems through wells. In order to monitor groundwater, a detailed understanding of groundwater biota and what biological sampling of wells truly reflects, is paramount. This study aims to address this uncertainty, comparing the composition of biota in groundwater wells prior to and after purging, with samples collected prior to purging reflecting a potentially artificial environment and samples collected after purging representing the surrounding aquifer. This study uses DNA community profiling (metabarcoding) of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA, combined with traditional stygofauna sampling methods, to characterise groundwater biota from four catchments within eastern Australia. Aquifer waters were dominated by Archaea and bacteria (e.g. Nitrosopumilales) that are often associated with nitrification processes, and contained a greater proportion of bacteria (e.g. Anaerolineales) associated with fermenting processes compared to well waters. In contrast, unpurged wells contained greater proportions of pathogenic bacteria and bacteria often associated with denitrification processes. In terms of eukaryotes, the abundances of copepods, syncarids and oligochaetes and total abundances of stygofauna were greater in wells than aquifers. These findings highlight the need to consider sampling requirements when completing groundwater ecology surveys. PMID:28102290

  6. Wells provide a distorted view of life in the aquifer: implications for sampling, monitoring and assessment of groundwater ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbel, Kathryn; Chariton, Anthony; Stephenson, Sarah; Greenfield, Paul; Hose, Grant C.

    2017-01-01

    When compared to surface ecosystems, groundwater sampling has unique constraints, including limited access to ecosystems through wells. In order to monitor groundwater, a detailed understanding of groundwater biota and what biological sampling of wells truly reflects, is paramount. This study aims to address this uncertainty, comparing the composition of biota in groundwater wells prior to and after purging, with samples collected prior to purging reflecting a potentially artificial environment and samples collected after purging representing the surrounding aquifer. This study uses DNA community profiling (metabarcoding) of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA, combined with traditional stygofauna sampling methods, to characterise groundwater biota from four catchments within eastern Australia. Aquifer waters were dominated by Archaea and bacteria (e.g. Nitrosopumilales) that are often associated with nitrification processes, and contained a greater proportion of bacteria (e.g. Anaerolineales) associated with fermenting processes compared to well waters. In contrast, unpurged wells contained greater proportions of pathogenic bacteria and bacteria often associated with denitrification processes. In terms of eukaryotes, the abundances of copepods, syncarids and oligochaetes and total abundances of stygofauna were greater in wells than aquifers. These findings highlight the need to consider sampling requirements when completing groundwater ecology surveys.

  7. Automated Prediction of Catalytic Mechanism and Rate Law Using Graph-Based Reaction Path Sampling.

    PubMed

    Habershon, Scott

    2016-04-12

    In a recent article [ J. Chem. Phys. 2015 , 143 , 094106 ], we introduced a novel graph-based sampling scheme which can be used to generate chemical reaction paths in many-atom systems in an efficient and highly automated manner. The main goal of this work is to demonstrate how this approach, when combined with direct kinetic modeling, can be used to determine the mechanism and phenomenological rate law of a complex catalytic cycle, namely cobalt-catalyzed hydroformylation of ethene. Our graph-based sampling scheme generates 31 unique chemical products and 32 unique chemical reaction pathways; these sampled structures and reaction paths enable automated construction of a kinetic network model of the catalytic system when combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations of free energies and resultant transition-state theory rate constants. Direct simulations of this kinetic network across a range of initial reactant concentrations enables determination of both the reaction mechanism and the associated rate law in an automated fashion, without the need for either presupposing a mechanism or making steady-state approximations in kinetic analysis. Most importantly, we find that the reaction mechanism which emerges from these simulations is exactly that originally proposed by Heck and Breslow; furthermore, the simulated rate law is also consistent with previous experimental and computational studies, exhibiting a complex dependence on carbon monoxide pressure. While the inherent errors of using DFT simulations to model chemical reactivity limit the quantitative accuracy of our calculated rates, this work confirms that our automated simulation strategy enables direct analysis of catalytic mechanisms from first principles.

  8. Validation of the dual pumping technique for level-determined groundwater sampling in a contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thullner, M.; Höhener, P.; Kinzelbach, W.; Zeyer, J.

    2000-08-01

    The dual pumping technique (DPT) was introduced recently as a new and inexpensive technique to measure the level-determined solute concentrations in groundwater. Using two pumps, one placed near the groundwater table and one placed near the bottom of a fully screened well, this technique allows to determine vertical concentration profiles for solutes in groundwater given that additional information about the influx distribution into the well is known. Until now, however, the DPT was applied only in an aquifer with a thickness of about 40 m and the validation was weakened by the lack of a reliable reference system. The present study aims to investigate the applicability of the DPT for shallow (thickness <10 m) and unconfined aquifers and to validate the results of the DPT with a better reference system. For this purpose the DPT was applied in Menziken, Switzerland to a gravel aquifer contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Solute concentrations measured at that site with an established drive point sampling technique (Ram technique) were taken as a reference to demonstrate the applicability of the DPT. Results for eight different solutes showed a reasonable agreement between both techniques. An algorithm was developed that allowed the computation of a single solute concentration profile incorporating measured data from both pumps. It was possible to demonstrate that this alternative algorithm can improve the quality of the solute concentration profiles obtained by the DPT. This indicates that the DPT is a useful tool for determining the vertical concentration profiles in groundwater for conditions similar to those in Menziken (unconfined gravel aquifer, screen length less than 10 m).

  9. RoboDiff: combining a sample changer and goniometer for highly automated macromolecular crystallography experiments

    PubMed Central

    Nurizzo, Didier; Bowler, Matthew W.; Caserotto, Hugo; Dobias, Fabien; Giraud, Thierry; Surr, John; Guichard, Nicolas; Papp, Gergely; Guijarro, Matias; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Flot, David; McSweeney, Sean; Cipriani, Florent; Theveneau, Pascal; Leonard, Gordon A.

    2016-01-01

    Automation of the mounting of cryocooled samples is now a feature of the majority of beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX). Robotic sample changers have been developed over many years, with the latest designs increasing capacity, reliability and speed. Here, the development of a new sample changer deployed at the ESRF beamline MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1), based on an industrial six-axis robot, is described. The device, named RoboDiff, includes a high-capacity dewar, acts as both a sample changer and a high-accuracy goniometer, and has been designed for completely unattended sample mounting and diffraction data collection. This aim has been achieved using a high level of diagnostics at all steps of the process from mounting and characterization to data collection. The RoboDiff has been in service on the fully automated endstation MASSIF-1 at the ESRF since September 2014 and, at the time of writing, has processed more than 20 000 samples completely automatically. PMID:27487827

  10. Electrochemical pesticide detection with AutoDip--a portable platform for automation of crude sample analyses.

    PubMed

    Drechsel, Lisa; Schulz, Martin; von Stetten, Felix; Moldovan, Carmen; Zengerle, Roland; Paust, Nils

    2015-02-07

    Lab-on-a-chip devices hold promise for automation of complex workflows from sample to answer with minimal consumption of reagents in portable devices. However, complex, inhomogeneous samples as they occur in environmental or food analysis may block microchannels and thus often cause malfunction of the system. Here we present the novel AutoDip platform which is based on the movement of a solid phase through the reagents and sample instead of transporting a sequence of reagents through a fixed solid phase. A ball-pen mechanism operated by an external actuator automates unit operations such as incubation and washing by consecutively dipping the solid phase into the corresponding liquids. The platform is applied to electrochemical detection of organophosphorus pesticides in real food samples using an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor. Minimal sample preparation and an integrated reagent pre-storage module hold promise for easy handling of the assay. Detection of the pesticide chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO) spiked into apple samples at concentrations of 10(-7) M has been demonstrated. This concentration is below the maximum residue level for chlorpyrifos in apples defined by the European Commission.

  11. January 2015 Groundwater Sampling at the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick; Kautsky, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Annual sampling was conducted January 27, 2015, to monitor groundwater for potential radionuclide contamination at the Gnome-Coach site in New Mexico. Samples were collected from wells USGS-1, USGS-4, and USGS-8 during this monitoring event. The sampling was performed as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from well USGS-8 and water levels were measured in all the monitoring wells onsite. Refer to the sample location map for well locations. Samples were analyzed by GEL Laboratories in Charleston, South Carolina. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry, strontium-90, and tritium. The sample from well USGS-1 was analyzed for tritium using the enrichment method to achieve a lower minimum detectable concentration (MDC). Radionuclide contaminants were detected in wells USGS-4 and USGS-8. The detection of radionuclides in these wells was expected because the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a tracer test between these wells in 1963 using the dissolved radionuclides tritium, strontium-90, and cesium-137 as tracers. Radionuclide time-concentration graphs are included in this report for these wells. Analytical data obtained from this and past sampling events are also available in electronic format on the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Geospatial Environmental Mapping System website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#site=GNO.

  12. Automated combustion accelerator mass spectrometry for the analysis of biomedical samples in the low attomole range.

    PubMed

    van Duijn, Esther; Sandman, Hugo; Grossouw, Dimitri; Mocking, Johannes A J; Coulier, Leon; Vaes, Wouter H J

    2014-08-05

    The increasing role of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in biomedical research necessitates modernization of the traditional sample handling process. AMS was originally developed and used for carbon dating, therefore focusing on a very high precision but with a comparably low sample throughput. Here, we describe the combination of automated sample combustion with an elemental analyzer (EA) online coupled to an AMS via a dedicated interface. This setup allows direct radiocarbon measurements for over 70 samples daily by AMS. No sample processing is required apart from the pipetting of the sample into a tin foil cup, which is placed in the carousel of the EA. In our system, up to 200 AMS analyses are performed automatically without the need for manual interventions. We present results on the direct total (14)C count measurements in <2 μL human plasma samples. The method shows linearity over a range of 0.65-821 mBq/mL, with a lower limit of quantification of 0.65 mBq/mL (corresponding to 0.67 amol for acetaminophen). At these extremely low levels of activity, it becomes important to quantify plasma specific carbon percentages. This carbon percentage is automatically generated upon combustion of a sample on the EA. Apparent advantages of the present approach include complete omission of sample preparation (reduced hands-on time) and fully automated sample analysis. These improvements clearly stimulate the standard incorporation of microtracer research in the drug development process. In combination with the particularly low sample volumes required and extreme sensitivity, AMS strongly improves its position as a bioanalysis method.

  13. The Influence of Pumping on Observed Bacterial Counts in Groundwater Samples: Implications for Sampling Protocol and Water Quality Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozuskanich, J.; Novakowski, K.; Anderson, B.

    2008-12-01

    Drinking water quality has become an important issue in Ontario following the events in Walkerton in 2000. Many rural communities are reliant on private groundwater wells for drinking water, and it is the responsibility of the owner to have the water tested to make sure it is safe for human consumption. Homeowners can usually take a sample to the local health unit for total coliform and E. Coli analysis at no charge to determine if the water supply is being tainted by surface water or fecal matter, both of which could indicate the potential for negative impacts on human health. However, is the sample coming out of the tap representative of what is going on the aquifer? The goal of this study is to observe how bacterial counts may vary during the course of well pumping, and how those changing results influence the assessment of water quality. Multiple tests were conducted in bedrock monitoring wells to examine the influence of pumping rate and pumped volume on observed counts of total coliform, E. Coli, fecal streptococcus, fecal coliform and heterotrophic plate count. Bacterial samples were collected frequently during the course of continuous purging events lasting up to 8 hours. Typical field parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and ORP) were also continuously monitored during the course of each test. Common practice in groundwater studies is to wait until these parameters have stabilized or three well volumes have been removed prior to sampling, to ensure the sample is taken from new water entering the well from the aquifer, rather than the original water stored in the borehole prior to the test. In general, most bacterial counts were low, but did go above the drinking water standard of 0 counts/100mL (total coliform and E. Coli) at times during the tests. Results show the greatest variability in the observed bacterial counts at the onset of pumping prior to the removal of three well volumes. Samples taken after the removal of three well

  14. Development of an automated data processing method for sample to sample comparison of seized methamphetamines.

    PubMed

    Choe, Sanggil; Lee, Jaesin; Choi, Hyeyoung; Park, Yujin; Lee, Heesang; Pyo, Jaesung; Jo, Jiyeong; Park, Yonghoon; Choi, Hwakyung; Kim, Suncheun

    2012-11-30

    The information about the sources of supply, trafficking routes, distribution patterns and conspiracy links can be obtained from methamphetamine profiling. The precursor and synthetic method for the clandestine manufacture can be estimated from the analysis of minor impurities contained in methamphetamine. Also, the similarity between samples can be evaluated using the peaks that appear in chromatograms. In South Korea, methamphetamine was the most popular drug but the total seized amount of methamphetamine whole through the country was very small. Therefore, it would be more important to find the links between samples than the other uses of methamphetamine profiling. Many Asian countries including Japan and South Korea have been using the method developed by National Research Institute of Police Science of Japan. The method used gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), DB-5 column and four internal standards. It was developed to increase the amount of impurities and minimize the amount of methamphetamine. After GC-FID analysis, the raw data have to be processed. The data processing steps are very complex and require a lot of time and effort. In this study, Microsoft Visual Basic Application (VBA) modules were developed to handle these data processing steps. This module collected the results from the data into an Excel file and then corrected the retention time shift and response deviation generated from the sample preparation and instruments analysis. The developed modules were tested for their performance using 10 samples from 5 different cases. The processed results were analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficient for similarity assessment and the correlation coefficient of the two samples from the same case was more than 0.99. When the modules were applied to 131 seized methamphetamine samples, four samples from two different cases were found to have the common origin and the chromatograms of the four samples were appeared visually identical

  15. Binary Mixtures of Permanganate and Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater Samples: Sample Preservation and Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water samples collected at sites where in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has been deployed may contain binary mixtures of ground water contaminants and permanganate (MnO4-), an oxidant injected into the subsurface to destroy the contaminant. Commingling of the oxidant and ...

  16. Comparative evaluation of prokaryotic 16S rDNA clone libraries and SSCP in groundwater samples.

    PubMed

    Larentis, Michael; Alfreider, Albin

    2011-06-01

    A comparison of ribosomal RNA sequence analysis methods based on clone libraries and single-strand conformational polymorphism technique (SSCP) was performed with groundwater samples obtained between 523-555 meters below surface. The coverage of analyzed clones by phylotype-richness estimates was between 88-100%, confirming that the clone libraries were adequately examined. Analysis of individual bands retrieved from SSCP gels identified 1-6 different taxonomic units per band, suggesting that a single SSCP band does often represent more than one single prokaryotic species. The prokaryotic diversity obtained by both methods showed an overall difference of 42-80%. In comparison to SSCP, clone libraries underestimated the phylogenetic diversity and only 36-66% of the phylotypes observed with SSCP were also detected with the clone libraries. An exception was a sample where the SSCP analysis of Archaea identified only half of the phylotypes retrieved by the clone library. Overall, this study suggests that the clone library and the SSCP approach do not provide an identical picture of the prokaryotic diversity in groundwater samples. The results clearly show that the SSCP method, although this approach is prone to generate methodological artifacts, was able to detect significantly more phylotypes than microbial community analysis based on clone libraries.

  17. Apparatus and method for time-integrated, active sampling of contaminants in fluids demonstrated by monitoring of hexavalent chromium in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Roll, Isaac B; Driver, Erin M; Halden, Rolf U

    2016-06-15

    Annual U.S. expenditures of $2B for site characterization invite the development of new technologies to improve data quality while reducing costs and minimizing uncertainty in groundwater monitoring. This work presents a new instrument for time-integrated sampling of environmental fluids using in situ solid-phase extraction (SPE). The In Situ Sampler (IS2) is an automated submersible device capable of extracting dissolved contaminants from water (100s-1000smL) over extended periods (hours to weeks), retaining the analytes, and rejecting the processed fluid. A field demonstration of the IS2 revealed 28-day average concentration of hexavalent chromium in a shallow aquifer affected by tidal stresses via sampling of groundwater as both liquid and sorbed composite samples, each obtained in triplicate. In situ SPE exhibited 75±6% recovery and an 8-fold improvement in reporting limit. Relative to use of conventional methods (100%), beneficial characteristics of the device and method included minimal hazardous material generation (2%), transportation cost (10%), and associated carbon footprint (2%). The IS2 is compatible with commercial SPE resins and standard extraction methods, and has been certified for more general use (i.e., inorganics and organics) by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) of the U.S. Department of Defense.

  18. Automated sample preparation facilitated by PhyNexus MEA purification system for oligosaccharide mapping of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Prater, Bradley D; Anumula, Kalyan R; Hutchins, Jeff T

    2007-10-15

    A reproducible high-throughput sample cleanup method for fluorescent oligosaccharide mapping of glycoproteins is described. Oligosaccharides are released from glycoproteins using PNGase F and labeled with 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid, AA). A PhyNexus MEA system was adapted for automated isolation of the fluorescently labeled oligosaccharides from the reaction mixture prior to mapping by HPLC. The oligosaccharide purification uses a normal-phase polyamide resin (DPA-6S) in custom-made pipette tips. The resin volume, wash, and elution steps involved were optimized to obtain high recovery of oligosaccharides with the least amount of contaminating free fluorescent dye in the shortest amount of time. The automated protocol for sample cleanup eliminated all manual manipulations with a recycle time of 23 min. We have reduced the amount of excess AA by 150-fold, allowing quantitative oligosaccharide mapping from as little as 500 ng digested recombinant immunoglobulin G (rIgG). This low sample requirement allows early selection of a cell line with desired characteristics (e.g., oligosaccharide profile and high specific productivity) for the production of glycoprotein drugs. In addition, the use of Tecan or another robotic platform in conjunction with this method should allow the cleanup of 96 samples in 23 min, a significant decrease in the amount of time currently required to process such a large number of samples.

  19. Automated, Ultra-Sterile Solid Sample Handling and Analysis on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mora, Maria F.; Stockton, Amanda M.; Willis, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    There are no existing ultra-sterile lab-on-a-chip systems that can accept solid samples and perform complete chemical analyses without human intervention. The proposed solution is to demonstrate completely automated lab-on-a-chip manipulation of powdered solid samples, followed by on-chip liquid extraction and chemical analysis. This technology utilizes a newly invented glass micro-device for solid manipulation, which mates with existing lab-on-a-chip instrumentation. Devices are fabricated in a Class 10 cleanroom at the JPL MicroDevices Lab, and are plasma-cleaned before and after assembly. Solid samples enter the device through a drilled hole in the top. Existing micro-pumping technology is used to transfer milligrams of powdered sample into an extraction chamber where it is mixed with liquids to extract organic material. Subsequent chemical analysis is performed using portable microchip capillary electrophoresis systems (CE). These instruments have been used for ultra-highly sensitive (parts-per-trillion, pptr) analysis of organic compounds including amines, amino acids, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and thiols. Fully autonomous amino acid analyses in liquids were demonstrated; however, to date there have been no reports of completely automated analysis of solid samples on chip. This approach utilizes an existing portable instrument that houses optics, high-voltage power supplies, and solenoids for fully autonomous microfluidic sample processing and CE analysis with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Furthermore, the entire system can be sterilized and placed in a cleanroom environment for analyzing samples returned from extraterrestrial targets, if desired. This is an entirely new capability never demonstrated before. The ability to manipulate solid samples, coupled with lab-on-a-chip analysis technology, will enable ultraclean and ultrasensitive end-to-end analysis of samples that is orders of magnitude more sensitive than the ppb goal given

  20. The toxicity of Rio Blanco Tract C-a groundwater samples before and after the pumpdown of retort 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, S.L.

    1986-09-01

    In 1984, the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company received permission from the US Bureau of Land Management/Oil Shale Projects Office to proceed with retort abandonment activities at its Tract C-a modified in situ retort site. One of the first abandonment activities undertaken was to flood the retort with groundwater to dissolve soluble contaminants associated with the retorting operation. Saline water was then pumped from the retort into evaporation ponds during two pumpdown operations in May of 1985 and June of 1986. The principal objective of the pumpdown operations was to remove contaminated groundwater from the retort area and to prevent the migration of contaminants beyond the retort. A toxicological evaluation of groundwaters collected from within the retort and outside the retort is currently in progress. Acute and chronic toxicity tests have been performed using the freshwater invertebrate Ceriodaphnia affinis/dubia with groundwater samples collected before and after the first pumpdown of the retort. The objectives of these tests have been to evaluate the success of the pumpdown operation, to assess the effect of the pumping operations on groundwater quality both within and outside the retort, and to evaluate the toxicity of groundwater within the retort relative to local groundwater that has not been affected by the retorting operation. This report presents the results of toxicity tests performed before and after the first pumpdown operation. Additional toxicity tests are planned for samples collected after the second pumpdown operation. 15 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Purification and Detection of 39Ar in Groundwater Samples via Low-Level Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, E. K.; Aalseth, C.; Brandenberger, J. M.; Humble, P.; Panisko, M.; Seifert, A.; Williams, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Argon-39 can be used as a radiotracer to age-date groundwater aquifers to study recharge rates and to better understand the mean residence time, or age distributions, of groundwater. Argon-39 (with a half-life of 269 years) is created in the atmosphere by cosmic rays interacting with argon in the air (primarily 40Ar). The use of 39Ar as a radiotracer fills a gap in the age dating range which is currently covered by 3H/3He or 85Kr (< 50 years) and 14C (>1000 years); 39Ar fills the intermediate time scale range from 50-1000 years where the previously established radiotracers are not adequate. We will introduce the process for purifying and detecting 39Ar in ground water using ultra-low-background proportional counters (ULBPCs) at the shallow underground laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Argon-39 is detected through direct beta counting using ULBPCs loaded with a mixture of geologic argon (extracted from a carbon dioxide well with no measureable 39Ar activity) and methane, which enhances the sensitivity for 39Ar measurements. The ULBPCs have been shown to have a background count rate of 148 counts per day (cpd) in the energy range 3-400 keV when filled with 10 atm of P-10 counting gas (90% geologic Ar, 10% CH4). Initial demonstration samples were collected from groundwater aquifers in Fresno, California supported by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). A discussion of the sampling technique to degas the water from these wells and to then purify it for counting will be presented. In order to quantify the 39Ar contribution in the groundwater samples, the ULBPCs were characterized to determine two components: 1) the detector efficiency to modern levels of 39Ar, and 2) the remaining detector background (using geologic sourced argon which is free from 39Ar - no measureable 39Ar activity). These characterization results will be presented along with a discussion of the quantification of the 39Ar age of the demonstration measurements.

  2. Sampling and analysis plan for the characterization of groundwater quality in two monitoring wells near Pavillion, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Peter R.; McMahon, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency installed two deep monitoring wells (MW01 and MW02) near Pavillion, Wyoming to study groundwater quality. The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, designed a plan to collect groundwater data from these monitoring wells. This sampling and analysis plan describes the sampling equipment that will be used, well purging strategy, purge water disposal, sample collection and processing, field and laboratory sample analysis, equipment decontamination, and quality-assurance and quality-control procedures.

  3. Application of existing technology to meet increasing demands for automated sample handling.

    PubMed

    Chow, A T; Kegelman, J E; Kohli, C; McCabe, D D; Moore, J F

    1990-09-01

    As the clinical laboratory advances toward total automation, the marketplace is now demanding more-efficient sample-handling systems. These demands have arisen over a relatively short period of time, in part because of heightened concern over laboratory safety and the resulting manpower shortages. Adding sample-handling capabilities to existing instrumentation is often a challenge, because usually mechanical or system constraints are present that interfere. This challenge has been overcome in the DuPont Sample Management System (SMS), a second-generation general chemistry analyzer that incorporates the latest barcode and computer-interfacing technology. The development of the SMS system relies heavily on recent advances in technology, e.g., software modeling and computer-aided design. The SMS system includes a barcode scanner based on "charge-coupled device" technology, a random-access sample wheel, and new software that oversees the various functions.

  4. Device and method for automated separation of a sample of whole blood into aliquots

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.

    1989-01-01

    A device and a method for automated processing and separation of an unmeasured sample of whole blood into multiple aliquots of plasma. Capillaries are radially oriented on a rotor, with the rotor defining a sample chamber, transfer channels, overflow chamber, overflow channel, vent channel, cell chambers, and processing chambers. A sample of whole blood is placed in the sample chamber, and when the rotor is rotated, the blood moves outward through the transfer channels to the processing chambers where the blood is centrifugally separated into a solid cellular component and a liquid plasma component. When the rotor speed is decreased, the plasma component backfills the capillaries resulting in uniform aliquots of plasma which may be used for subsequent analytical procedures.

  5. Direct determination of selenium in serum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using automated ultrasonic slurry sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Kang; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Wei, Bai-Luh; Hu, Chao-Chin; Yu, Jya-Jyun; Chung, Chien; Kuo, Sheng-Chu

    1998-01-01

    Selenium concentration in body fluids is a good index to establish human selenium status. This work discusses the determination of selenium in serum by ETAAS using longitudinal Zeeman-effect background correction and combining the use of automated slurry sampling. The standard reference materials bovine serum (NIST, SRM 1598) and second-generation biological freeze-dried human serum are analyzed to verify the accuracy and precision of this technique. The direct method proposed in this study is used for the determination of selenium in human serum collected from healthy people of 19-25 years. The average accuracy values of certified reference serum samples and the recovery values of spiked samples indicate this method to be an efficient and rapid technique for determining selenium in biological samples.

  6. A Tube Seepage Meter for In Situ Measurement of Seepage Rate and Groundwater Sampling.

    PubMed

    Solder, John E; Gilmore, Troy E; Genereux, David P; Solomon, D Kip

    2016-07-01

    We designed and evaluated a "tube seepage meter" for point measurements of vertical seepage rates (q), collecting groundwater samples, and estimating vertical hydraulic conductivity (K) in streambeds. Laboratory testing in artificial streambeds show that seepage rates from the tube seepage meter agreed well with expected values. Results of field testing of the tube seepage meter in a sandy-bottom stream with a mean seepage rate of about 0.5 m/day agreed well with Darcian estimates (vertical hydraulic conductivity times head gradient) when averaged over multiple measurements. The uncertainties in q and K were evaluated with a Monte Carlo method and are typically 20% and 60%, respectively, for field data, and depend on the magnitude of the hydraulic gradient and the uncertainty in head measurements. The primary advantages of the tube seepage meter are its small footprint, concurrent and colocated assessments of q and K, and that it can also be configured as a self-purging groundwater-sampling device.

  7. Preliminary results from exploratory sampling of wells for the California oil, gas, and groundwater program, 2014–15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Wright, Michael T.; Land, Michael T.; Landon, Matthew K.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Vengosh, Avner; Aiken, George R.

    2016-08-03

    This report evaluates the utility of the chemical, isotopic, and groundwater-age tracers for assessing sources of salinity, methane, and petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater overlying or near several California oil fields. Tracers of dissolved organic carbon inoil-field-formation water are also discussed. Tracer data for samples collected from 51 water wells and 4 oil wells are examined.

  8. Dynamic groundwater monitoring networks: a manageable method for reviewing sampling frequency.

    PubMed

    Moreau-Fournier, Magali F; Daughney, Christopher J

    2012-12-01

    Optimization of a water quality network through a change in sampling frequency is the only way to increase cost-efficiency without any reduction in the robustness of the data. Existing techniques define optimal sampling frequency based on analysis of historical data from the monitoring network under investigation. Their application to a large network comprised of many sites and many monitored parameters is both technical and challenging. This paper presents a simple non-parametric method for reviewing sampling frequency that is consistent with highly censored environmental data and oriented towards reduction of sampling frequency as a cost-saving measure. Based on simple descriptive statistics, the method is applicable to large networks with long time series and many monitored parameters. The method also provides metrics for interpretation of newly collected data, which enables identification of sites for which a future change in sampling frequency may be necessary, ensuring that the monitoring network is both current and adaptive. Application of this method to the New Zealand National Groundwater Monitoring Programme indicates that reduction of sampling frequency at any site would result in a significant loss of information. This paper also discusses the potential for reducing analysis frequency as an alternative to reduction of sampling frequency.

  9. Automated aerosol Raman spectrometer for semi-continuous sampling of atmospheric aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, David C.; Hill, Steven C.

    2017-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) is useful in characterizing atmospheric aerosol. It is not commonly used in studying ambient particles partly because automated instrumentation for aerosol RS has not been available. Battelle (Columbus, Ohio, USA) has developed the Resource Effective Bioidentification System (REBS) for automated detection of airborne bioagents based on RS. We use a version of the REBS that measures Raman spectra of one set of particles while the next set of particles is collected from air, then moves the newly collected particles to the analysis region and repeats. Here we investigate the use of the REBS as the core of a general-purpose automated Aerosol Raman Spectrometer (ARS) for atmospheric applications. This REBS-based ARS can be operated as a line-scanning Raman imaging spectrometer. Spectra measured by this ARS for single particles made of polystyrene, black carbon, and several other materials are clearly distinguishable. Raman spectra from a 15 min ambient sample (approximately 35-50 particles, 158 spectra) were analyzed using a hierarchical clustering method to find that the cluster spectra are consistent with soot, inorganic aerosol, and other organic compounds. The ARS ran unattended, collecting atmospheric aerosol and measuring spectra for a 7 hr period at 15-min intervals. A total of 32,718 spectra were measured; 5892 exceeded a threshold and were clustered during this time. The number of particles exhibiting the D-G bands of amorphous carbon plotted vs time (at 15-min intervals) increases during the morning commute, then decreases. This data illustrates the potential of the ARS to measure thousands of time resolved aerosol Raman spectra in the ambient atmosphere over the course of several hours. The capability of this ARS for automated measurements of Raman spectra should lead to more extensive RS-based studies of atmospheric aerosols.

  10. Automated sample exchange and tracking system for neutron research at cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rix, J E; Weber, J K R; Santodonato, L J; Hill, B; Walker, L M; McPherson, R; Wenzel, J; Hammons, S E; Hodges, J; Rennich, M; Volin, K J

    2007-01-01

    An automated system for sample exchange and tracking in a cryogenic environment and under remote computer control was developed. Up to 24 sample "cans" per cycle can be inserted and retrieved in a programed sequence. A video camera acquires a unique identification marked on the sample can to provide a record of the sequence. All operations are coordinated via a LABVIEW program that can be operated locally or over a network. The samples are contained in vanadium cans of 6-10 mm in diameter and equipped with a hermetically sealed lid that interfaces with the sample handler. The system uses a closed-cycle refrigerator (CCR) for cooling. The sample was delivered to a precooling location that was at a temperature of approximately 25 K, after several minutes, it was moved onto a "landing pad" at approximately 10 K that locates the sample in the probe beam. After the sample was released onto the landing pad, the sample handler was retracted. Reading the sample identification and the exchange operation takes approximately 2 min. The time to cool the sample from ambient temperature to approximately 10 K was approximately 7 min including precooling time. The cooling time increases to approximately 12 min if precooling is not used. Small differences in cooling rate were observed between sample materials and for different sample can sizes. Filling the sample well and the sample can with low pressure helium is essential to provide heat transfer and to achieve useful cooling rates. A resistive heating coil can be used to offset the refrigeration so that temperatures up to approximately 350 K can be accessed and controlled using a proportional-integral-derivative control loop. The time for the landing pad to cool to approximately 10 K after it has been heated to approximately 240 K was approximately 20 min.

  11. Mechanical Alteration And Contamination Issues In Automated Subsurface Sample Acquisition And Handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, B. J.; Cannon, H.; Bonaccorsi, R.; Zacny, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project's purpose is to develop and field-test drilling automation and robotics technologies for projected use in missions in the 2011-15 period. DAME includes control of the drilling hardware, and state estimation of both the hardware and the lithography being drilled and the state of the hole. A sister drill was constructed for the Mars Analog Río Tinto Experiment (MARTE) project and demonstrated automated core handling and string changeout in 2005 drilling tests at Rio Tinto, Spain. DAME focused instead on the problem of drill control while actively drilling while not getting stuck. Together, the DAME and MARTE projects demonstrate a fully automated robotic drilling capability, including hands-off drilling, adjustment to different strata and downhole conditions, recovery from drilling faults (binding, choking, etc.), drill string changeouts, core acquisition and removal, and sample handling and conveyance to in-situ instruments. The 2006 top-level goal of DAME drilling in-situ tests was to verify and demonstrate a capability for hands-off automated drilling, at an Arctic Mars-analog site. There were three sets of 2006 test goals, all of which were exceeded during the July 2006 field season. The first was to demonstrate the recognition, while drilling, of at least three of the six known major fault modes for the DAME planetary-prototype drill, and to employ the correct recovery or safing procedure in response. The second set of 2006 goals was to operate for three or more hours autonomously, hands-off. And the third 2006 goal was to exceed 3m depth into the frozen breccia and permafrost with the DAME drill (it had not gone further than 2.2m previously). Five of six faults were detected and corrected, there were 43 hours of hands-off drilling (including a 4 hour sequence with no human presence nearby), and 3.2m was the total depth. And ground truth drilling used small commercial drilling equipment in parallel in

  12. SAMPL4 & DOCK3.7: Lessons for automated docking procedures

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Ryan G.; Sterling, Teague; Weiss, Dahlia R.

    2014-01-01

    The SAMPL4 challenges were used to test current automated methods for solvation energy, virtual screening, pose and affinity prediction of the molecular docking pipeline DOCK 3.7. Additionally, first-order models of binding affinity were proposed as milestones for any method predicting binding affinity. Several important discoveries about the molecular docking software were made during the challenge: 1) Solvation energies of ligands were five-fold worse than any other method used in SAMPL4, including methods that were similarly fast, 2) HIV Integrase is a challenging target, but automated docking on the correct allosteric site performed well in terms of virtual screening and pose prediction (compared to other methods) but affinity prediction, as expected, was very poor, 3) Molecular docking grid sizes can be very important, serious errors were discovered with default settings that have been adjusted for all future work. Overall, lessons from SAMPL4 suggest many changes to molecular docking tools, not just DOCK 3.7, that could improve the state of the art. Future difficulties and projects will be discussed. PMID:24515818

  13. Automated processing of forensic casework samples using robotic workstations equipped with nondisposable tips: contamination prevention.

    PubMed

    Frégeau, Chantal J; Lett, C Marc; Elliott, Jim; Yensen, Craig; Fourney, Ron M

    2008-05-01

    An automated process has been developed for the analysis of forensic casework samples using TECAN Genesis RSP 150/8 or Freedom EVO liquid handling workstations equipped exclusively with nondisposable tips. Robot tip cleaning routines have been incorporated strategically within the DNA extraction process as well as at the end of each session. Alternative options were examined for cleaning the tips and different strategies were employed to verify cross-contamination. A 2% sodium hypochlorite wash (1/5th dilution of the 10.8% commercial bleach stock) proved to be the best overall approach for preventing cross-contamination of samples processed using our automated protocol. The bleach wash steps do not adversely impact the short tandem repeat (STR) profiles developed from DNA extracted robotically and allow for major cost savings through the implementation of fixed tips. We have demonstrated that robotic workstations equipped with fixed pipette tips can be used with confidence with properly designed tip washing routines to process casework samples using an adapted magnetic bead extraction protocol.

  14. Accelerating in vitro studies on circadian clock systems using an automated sampling device

    PubMed Central

    Furuike, Yoshihiko; Abe, Jun; Mukaiyama, Atsushi; Akiyama, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    KaiC, a core protein of the cyanobacterial circadian clock, is rhythmically autophosphorylated and autodephosphorylated with a period of approximately 24 h in the presence of two other Kai proteins, KaiA and KaiB. In vitro experiments to investigate the KaiC phosphorylation cycle consume considerable time and effort. To automate the fractionation, quantification, and evaluation steps, we developed a suite consisting of an automated sampling device equipped with an 8-channel temperature controller and accompanying analysis software. Eight sample tables can be controlled independently at different temperatures within a fluctuation of ±0.01°C, enabling investigation of the temperature dependency of clock activities simultaneously in a single experiment. The suite includes an independent software that helps users intuitively conduct a densitometric analysis of gel images in a short time with improved reliability. Multiple lanes on a gel can be detected quasi-automatically through an auto-detection procedure implemented in the software, with or without correction for lane ‘smiling.’ To demonstrate the performance of the suite, robustness of the period against temperature variations was evaluated using 32 datasets of the KaiC phosphorylation cycle. By using the software, the time required for the analysis was reduced by approximately 65% relative to the conventional method, with reasonable reproducibility and quality. The suite is potentially applicable to other clock or clock-related systems in higher organisms, relieving users from having to repeat multiple manual sampling and analytical steps. PMID:27924279

  15. Automated Mars surface sample return mission concepts for achievement of essential scientific objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.; Norton, H. N.; Darnell, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Mission concepts were investigated for automated return to Earth of a Mars surface sample adequate for detailed analyses in scientific laboratories. The minimum sample mass sufficient to meet scientific requirements was determined. Types of materials and supporting measurements for essential analyses are reported. A baseline trajectory profile was selected for its low energy requirements and relatively simple implementation, and trajectory profile design data were developed for 1979 and 1981 launch opportunities. Efficient spacecraft systems were conceived by utilizing existing technology where possible. Systems concepts emphasized the 1979 launch opportunity, and the applicability of results to other opportunities was assessed. It was shown that the baseline missions (return through Mars parking orbit) and some comparison missions (return after sample transfer in Mars orbit) can be accomplished by using a single Titan III E/Centaur as the launch vehicle. All missions investigated can be accomplished by use of Space Shuttle/Centaur vehicles.

  16. The quantification of hydrogen and methane in contaminated groundwater: validation of robust procedures for sampling and quantification.

    PubMed

    Dorgerloh, Ute; Becker, Roland; Theissen, Hubert; Nehls, Irene

    2010-10-06

    A number of currently recommended sampling techniques for the determination of hydrogen in contaminated groundwater were compared regarding the practical proficiency in field campaigns. Key characteristics of appropriate sampling procedures are reproducibility of results, robustness against varying field conditions such as hydrostatic pressure, aquifer flow, and biological activity. Laboratory set-ups were used to investigate the most promising techniques. Bubble stripping with gas sampling bulbs yielded reproducible recovery of hydrogen and methane which could be verified for groundwater sampled in two field campaigns. The methane content of the groundwater was confirmed by analysis of directly pumped samples thus supporting the trueness of the stripping results. Laboratory set-ups and field campaigns revealed that bubble stripping of hydrogen may be restricted to the type of used pump. Concentrations of dissolved hydrogen after bubble stripping with an electrically driven submersible pump were about one order of magnitude higher than those obtained from diffusion sampling. The gas chromatographic determination for hydrogen and methane requires manual injection of gas samples and detection by a pulsed discharge detector (PDD) and allows limits of quantification of 3 nM dissolved hydrogen and 1 µg L⁻¹ dissolved methane in groundwater. The combined standard uncertainty of the bubble stripping and GC/PDD quantification of hydrogen in field samples was 7% at 7.8 nM and 18% for 78 nM.

  17. Performance verification of the Maxwell 16 Instrument and DNA IQ Reference Sample Kit for automated DNA extraction of known reference samples.

    PubMed

    Krnajski, Z; Geering, S; Steadman, S

    2007-12-01

    Advances in automation have been made for a number of processes conducted in the forensic DNA laboratory. However, because most robotic systems are designed for high-throughput laboratories batching large numbers of samples, smaller laboratories are left with a limited number of cost-effective options for employing automation. The Maxwell 16 Instrument and DNA IQ Reference Sample Kit marketed by Promega are designed for rapid, automated purification of DNA extracts from sample sets consisting of sixteen or fewer samples. Because the system is based on DNA capture by paramagnetic particles with maximum binding capacity, it is designed to generate extracts with yield consistency. The studies herein enabled evaluation of STR profile concordance, consistency of yield, and cross-contamination performance for the Maxwell 16 Instrument. Results indicate that the system performs suitably for streamlining the process of extracting known reference samples generally used for forensic DNA analysis and has many advantages in a small or moderate-sized laboratory environment.

  18. An automated method for 'clumped-isotope' measurements on small carbonate samples.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Thomas W; Bernasconi, Stefano M

    2010-07-30

    Clumped-isotope geochemistry deals with the state of ordering of rare isotopes in molecules, in particular with their tendency to form bonds with other rare isotopes rather than with the most abundant ones. Among its possible applications, carbonate clumped-isotope thermometry is the one that has gained most attention because of the wide potential of applications in many disciplines of earth sciences. Clumped-isotope thermometry allows reconstructing the temperature of formation of carbonate minerals without knowing the isotopic composition of the water from which they were formed. This feature enables new approaches in paleothermometry. The currently published method is, however, limited by sample weight requirements of 10-15 mg and because measurements are performed manually. In this paper we present a new method using an automated sample preparation device coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The method is based on the repeated analysis (n = 6-8) of 200 microg aliquots of sample material and completely automated measurements. In addition, we propose to use precisely calibrated carbonates spanning a wide range in Delta(47) instead of heated gases to correct for isotope effects caused by the source of the mass spectrometer, following the principle of equal treatment of the samples and standards. We present data for international standards (NBS 19 and LSVEC) and different carbonates formed at temperatures exceeding 600 degrees C to show that precisions in the range of 10 to 15 ppm (1 SE) can be reached for repeated analyses of a single sample. Finally, we discuss and validate the correction procedure based on high-temperature carbonates instead of heated gases.

  19. Robowell: An automated process for monitoring ground water quality using established sampling protocols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    Robowell is an automated process for monitoring selected ground water quality properties and constituents by pumping a well or multilevel sampler. Robowell was developed and tested to provide a cost-effective monitoring system that meets protocols expected for manual sampling. The process uses commercially available electronics, instrumentation, and hardware, so it can be configured to monitor ground water quality using the equipment, purge protocol, and monitoring well design most appropriate for the monitoring site and the contaminants of interest. A Robowell prototype was installed on a sewage treatment plant infiltration bed that overlies a well-studied unconfined sand and gravel aquifer at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, during a time when two distinct plumes of constituents were released. The prototype was operated from May 10 to November 13, 1996, and quality-assurance/quality-control measurements demonstrated that the data obtained by the automated method was equivalent to data obtained by manual sampling methods using the same sampling protocols. Water level, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved ammonium were monitored by the prototype as the wells were purged according to U.S Geological Survey (USGS) ground water sampling protocols. Remote access to the data record, via phone modem communications, indicated the arrival of each plume over a few days and the subsequent geochemical reactions over the following weeks. Real-time availability of the monitoring record provided the information needed to initiate manual sampling efforts in response to changes in measured ground water quality, which proved the method and characterized the screened portion of the plume in detail through time. The methods and the case study described are presented to document the process for future use.

  20. Nutrient sampling slam: high resolution surface-water sampling in streams reveals patterns in groundwater chemistry and flow paths

    EPA Science Inventory

    The groundwater–surface water interface (GSWI), consisting of shallow groundwater adjacent to stream channels, is a hot spot for nitrogen removal processes, a storage zone for other solutes, and a target for restoration activities. Characterizing groundwater-surface water intera...

  1. Data Validation Package May 2015, Groundwater Sampling at the Shoal, Nevada, Site

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick; Kautsky, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Shoal, Nevada, Site (Shoal) in May 2015. Groundwater samples were collected from wells MV-1, MV-2, MV-3, MV-4, MV-5, H-3, HC-1, HC-2d, HC-3, HC-4, HC-5, HC-6, HC-7, HC-8, and HS-1. Sampling was conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department-energy­ office-legacy-management-sites). Monitoring wells MV-1, MV-2, MV-3, MV-4, MV-5, HC-2d, HC-4, HC-5, HC-7, HC-8, and HS-1 were purged prior to sampling using dedicated submersible pumps. At least one well casing volume was removed, and field parameters (temperature, pH, and specific conductance) were allowed to stabilize before samples were collected. Samples were collected from wells H-3, HC-1, HC-3, and HC-6 using a depth-specific bailer because these wells are not completed with dedicated submersible pumps. Samples were submitted under Requisition Index Number (RIN) 15057042 to ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, for the determination of bromide, gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, uranium isotopes, and total uranium (by mass); and under RIN 15057043 to the University of Arizona for the determination of carbon-14 and iodine-129. A duplicate sample from location MV-2 was included with RIN 15057042. The laboratory results from the 2015 sampling event are consistent with those of previous years with the exception of sample results from well HC-4. This well continues to be the only well with tritium concentrations above the laboratory’s minimum detectable concentration which is attributed to the wells proximity to the nuclear detonation. The tritium concentration (731 picocuries per liter [pCi/L]) is consistent with past results and is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20,000 p

  2. Integrated assessment on groundwater nitrate by unsaturated zone probing and aquifer sampling with environmental tracers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lijuan; Pang, Zhonghe; Huang, Tianming

    2012-12-01

    By employing chemical and isotopic tracers ((15)N and (18)O in NO(3)(-)), we investigated the main processes controlling nitrate distribution in the unsaturated zone and aquifer. Soil water was extracted from two soil cores drilled in a typical agricultural cropping area of the North China Plain (NCP), where groundwater was also sampled. The results indicate that evaporation and denitrification are the two major causes of the distribution of nitrate in soil water extracts in the unsaturated zone. Evaporation from unsaturated zone is evidenced by a positive correlation between chloride and nitrate, and denitrification by a strong linear relationship between [Formula: see text] and ln(NO(3)(-)/Cl). The latter is estimated to account for up to 50% of the nitrate loss from soil drainage. In the saturated zone, nitrate is reduced at varying extents (100 mg/L and 10 mg/L at two sites, respectively), largely by dilution of the aquifer water.

  3. Automated high-throughput in vitro screening of the acetylcholine esterase inhibiting potential of environmental samples, mixtures and single compounds.

    PubMed

    Froment, Jean; Thomas, Kevin V; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2016-08-01

    A high-throughput and automated assay for testing the presence of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibiting compounds was developed, validated and applied to screen different types of environmental samples. Automation involved using the assay in 96-well plates and adapting it for the use with an automated workstation. Validation was performed by comparing the results of the automated assay with that of a previously validated and standardised assay for two known AChE inhibitors (paraoxon and dichlorvos). The results show that the assay provides similar concentration-response curves (CRCs) when run according to the manual and automated protocol. Automation of the assay resulted in a reduction in assay run time as well as in intra- and inter-assay variations. High-quality CRCs were obtained for both of the model AChE inhibitors (dichlorvos IC50=120µM and paraoxon IC50=0.56µM) when tested alone. The effect of co-exposure of an equipotent binary mixture of the two chemicals were consistent with predictions of additivity and best described by the concentration addition model for combined toxicity. Extracts of different environmental samples (landfill leachate, wastewater treatment plant effluent, and road tunnel construction run-off) were then screened for AChE inhibiting activity using the automated bioassay, with only landfill leachate shown to contain potential AChE inhibitors. Potential uses and limitations of the assay were discussed based on the present results.

  4. Ground-water quality in east-central New Jersey and a plan for sampling networks

    SciTech Connect

    Harriman, D.A.; Sargent, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Groundwater quality was evaluated in seven confined aquifers and the water table aquifer in east-central New Jersey based on 237 analyses of samples collected in 1981-82, and 225 older analyses. Investigation of the effect of land use on water quality and several sampling network proposals for the region are reported. Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) concentrations exceed US EPA drinking water standards in some wells screened in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. Sodium (Na) concentrations in samples from three wells more than 800 ft deep in the Englishtown aquifer exceed the standard. Iron and Mn concentrations in this aquifer may also exceed the standards. Iron concentrations in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer exceed the standard. Based on 15 analyses of water from the Vincetown aquifer, Mn is the only constituent that exceeds the drinking water standard. In the Manasquan aquifer, 4 of the 16 Na determinations exceed the standard, and 8 of 16 Fe determinations exceed the standard. Water quality in the Atlantic City 800-ft sand is generally satisfactory. However, 12 Fe and 1 of 12 Mn determinations exceed the standards. For the Rio Grande water-bearing zone, 1 of 3 Fe determinations exceed the standard. The Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system was the most thoroughly sampled (249 chemical analyses from 209 wells). Dissolved solids, chloride, Fe, nitrate, and Mn concentrations exceed drinking water standards in some areas. 76 refs., 36 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Improved method for the storage of groundwater samples containing volatile organic analytes

    PubMed

    Kovacs; Kampbell

    1999-04-01

    The sorption of volatile organic analytes from water samples by the Teflon septum surface used with standard glass 40-ml sample collection vials was investigated. Analytes tested included alkanes, isoalkanes, olefins, cycloalkanes, a cycloalkene, monoaromatics, a polynuclear aromatic, and two chloroethenes. Both laboratory prepared test mix solutions and petroleum contaminated groundwater from three field sites were tested. A rapid loss of n-alkane and isoalkane concentrations (>10%) was observed within 24 h when stored at room temperature. Aliphatic losses were also observed (>10%) over a 21-day holding period when samples were held at 4 degrees C. Loss of the less sorptive analytes was demonstrated by exposing analyte solutions to greater Teflon surface areas. The demonstrated sorption of aliphatics from water samples by Teflon-lined septa indicates that the accuracy of volatile petroleum hydrocarbon determinations may be reduced by the traditional storage method. An alternative storage protocol is reported combining a lead foil septum surface and 1% (w/w) tribasic sodium phosphate dodecahydrate (Na3PO4. 12H2O) preservative. This method prevented loss of the test analytes, including alkanes and isoalkanes for at least 21 days at room temperature.

  6. Design of a light-oil piezomanometer for measurement of hydraulic head differences and collection of groundwater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Casey D.; Genereux, David P.; Corbett, D. Reide; Mitasova, Helena

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a device ("piezomanometer") that combines three components (an oil-water manometer, a pushable screened PVC probe, and a system for groundwater sample collection) into a single inexpensive ($130), easily built, reliable tool for rapid collection of shallow groundwater from a streambed or lake bed and accurate measurement of even very small head differences between this groundwater and overlying surface water. The piezomanometer has been tested with excellent results both in the lab and in a stream shallow enough for wading; in principle, it could be adapted for use in deeper water where work is done from a dock, boat, or other platform. The problem of gas bubbles collecting in the groundwater line (a common drawback of field manometers) was nearly eliminated by use of a three-way valve at a local elevation maximum in the groundwater line (gas bubbles in the groundwater line can be purged through this valve). Field application is illustrated here with data from a 2-day study using four piezomanometers in a North Carolina stream.

  7. Fully Automated Laser Ablation Liquid Capture Sample Analysis using NanoElectrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, Matthias; Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Laser ablation provides for the possibility of sampling a large variety of surfaces with high spatial resolution. This type of sampling when employed in conjunction with liquid capture followed by nanoelectrospray ionization provides the opportunity for sensitive and prolonged interrogation of samples by mass spectrometry as well as the ability to analyze surfaces not amenable to direct liquid extraction. METHODS: A fully automated, reflection geometry, laser ablation liquid capture spot sampling system was achieved by incorporating appropriate laser fiber optics and a focusing lens into a commercially available, liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA ) ready Advion TriVersa NanoMate system. RESULTS: Under optimized conditions about 10% of laser ablated material could be captured in a droplet positioned vertically over the ablation region using the NanoMate robot controlled pipette. The sampling spot size area with this laser ablation liquid capture surface analysis (LA/LCSA) mode of operation (typically about 120 m x 160 m) was approximately 50 times smaller than that achievable by direct liquid extraction using LESA (ca. 1 mm diameter liquid extraction spot). The set-up was successfully applied for the analysis of ink on glass and paper as well as the endogenous components in Alstroemeria Yellow King flower petals. In a second mode of operation with a comparable sampling spot size, termed laser ablation/LESA , the laser system was used to drill through, penetrate, or otherwise expose material beneath a solvent resistant surface. Once drilled, LESA was effective in sampling soluble material exposed at that location on the surface. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating the capability for different laser ablation liquid capture spot sampling modes of operation into a LESA ready Advion TriVersa NanoMate enhanced the spot sampling spatial resolution of this device and broadened the surface types amenable to analysis to include absorbent and solvent resistant

  8. Automated MALDI Matrix Coating System for Multiple Tissue Samples for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounfield, William P.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2012-03-01

    Uniform matrix deposition on tissue samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is key for reproducible analyte ion signals. Current methods often result in nonhomogenous matrix deposition, and take time and effort to produce acceptable ion signals. Here we describe a fully-automated method for matrix deposition using an enclosed spray chamber and spray nozzle for matrix solution delivery. A commercial air-atomizing spray nozzle was modified and combined with solenoid controlled valves and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control and deliver the matrix solution. A spray chamber was employed to contain the nozzle, sample, and atomized matrix solution stream, and to prevent any interference from outside conditions as well as allow complete control of the sample environment. A gravity cup was filled with MALDI matrix solutions, including DHB in chloroform/methanol (50:50) at concentrations up to 60 mg/mL. Various samples (including rat brain tissue sections) were prepared using two deposition methods (spray chamber, inkjet). A linear ion trap equipped with an intermediate-pressure MALDI source was used for analyses. Optical microscopic examination showed a uniform coating of matrix crystals across the sample. Overall, the mass spectral images gathered from tissues coated using the spray chamber system were of better quality and more reproducible than from tissue specimens prepared by the inkjet deposition method.

  9. Automated MALDI matrix coating system for multiple tissue samples for imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mounfield, William P; Garrett, Timothy J

    2012-03-01

    Uniform matrix deposition on tissue samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is key for reproducible analyte ion signals. Current methods often result in nonhomogenous matrix deposition, and take time and effort to produce acceptable ion signals. Here we describe a fully-automated method for matrix deposition using an enclosed spray chamber and spray nozzle for matrix solution delivery. A commercial air-atomizing spray nozzle was modified and combined with solenoid controlled valves and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control and deliver the matrix solution. A spray chamber was employed to contain the nozzle, sample, and atomized matrix solution stream, and to prevent any interference from outside conditions as well as allow complete control of the sample environment. A gravity cup was filled with MALDI matrix solutions, including DHB in chloroform/methanol (50:50) at concentrations up to 60 mg/mL. Various samples (including rat brain tissue sections) were prepared using two deposition methods (spray chamber, inkjet). A linear ion trap equipped with an intermediate-pressure MALDI source was used for analyses. Optical microscopic examination showed a uniform coating of matrix crystals across the sample. Overall, the mass spectral images gathered from tissues coated using the spray chamber system were of better quality and more reproducible than from tissue specimens prepared by the inkjet deposition method.

  10. Microbiological monitoring and automated event sampling at karst springs using LEO-satellites.

    PubMed

    Stadler, H; Skritek, P; Sommer, R; Mach, R L; Zerobin, W; Farnleitner, A H

    2008-01-01

    Data communication via Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Satellites between portable hydrometeorological measuring stations is the backbone of our system. This networking allows automated event sampling with short time increments also for E. coli field analysis. All activities of the course of the event-sampling can be observed on an internet platform based on a Linux-Server. Conventionally taken samples compared with the auto-sampling procedure revealed corresponding results and were in agreement with the ISO 9308-1 reference method. E. coli concentrations were individually corrected by event specific inactivation coefficients (0.10-0.14 day(-1)), compensating losses due to sample storage at spring temperature in the auto sampler.Two large summer events in 2005/2006 at an important alpine karst spring (LKAS2) were monitored including detailed analysis of E. coli dynamics (n = 271) together with comprehensive hydrological characterisations. High-resolution time series demonstrated a sudden increase of E. coli concentrations in spring water (approximately 2 log10 units) with a specific time delay after the beginning of the event. Statistical analysis suggested the spectral absorption coefficient measured at 254 nm (SAC254) as an early warning surrogate for real time monitoring of faecal input. Together with the LEO-satellite based system it is a helpful tool for early-warning systems in the field of drinking water protection.

  11. Artificial Neural Network for Total Laboratory Automation to Improve the Management of Sample Dilution.

    PubMed

    Ialongo, Cristiano; Pieri, Massimo; Bernardini, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Diluting a sample to obtain a measure within the analytical range is a common task in clinical laboratories. However, for urgent samples, it can cause delays in test reporting, which can put patients' safety at risk. The aim of this work is to show a simple artificial neural network that can be used to make it unnecessary to predilute a sample using the information available through the laboratory information system. Particularly, the Multilayer Perceptron neural network built on a data set of 16,106 cardiac troponin I test records produced a correct inference rate of 100% for samples not requiring predilution and 86.2% for those requiring predilution. With respect to the inference reliability, the most relevant inputs were the presence of a cardiac event or surgery and the result of the previous assay. Therefore, such an artificial neural network can be easily implemented into a total automation framework to sensibly reduce the turnaround time of critical orders delayed by the operation required to retrieve, dilute, and retest the sample.

  12. A modifiable microarray-based universal sensor: providing sample-to-results automation.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Rubina; Zhu, Hui; Chen, Zongyuan; Montagna, Richard A

    2016-10-01

    A microfluidic system consisting of generic single use cartridges which interface with a workstation allows the automatic performance of all necessary sample preparation, PCR analysis and interpretation of multiplex PCR assays. The cartridges contain a DNA array with 20 different 16mer DNA "universal" probes immobilized at defined locations. PCR amplicons can be detected via hybridization of user-defined "reporter" probes that are complementary at their 3' termini to one or more of the universal probes and complementary to the target amplicons at their 5' termini. The system was able to detect single-plex and multiplex PCR amplicons from various infectious agents as well as wild type and mutant alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms. The system's ease of use was further demonstrated by converting a published PCR assay for the detection of Mycobacterium genitalium in a fully automated manner. Excellent correlation between traditional manual methods and the automated analysis performed by the workstation suggests that the system can provide a means to easily design and implement a variety of customized PCR-based assays. The system will be useful to researchers or clinical investigators seeking to develop their own user defined assays. As the U.S. FDA continues to pursue regulatory oversight of LDTs, the system would also allow labs to continue to develop compliant assays.

  13. Microbiological analysis of multi-level borehole samples from a contaminated groundwater system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickup, R. W.; Rhodes, G.; Alamillo, M. L.; Mallinson, H. E. H.; Thornton, S. F.; Lerner, D. N.

    2001-12-01

    A range of bacteriological, geochemical process-related and molecular techniques have been used to assess the microbial biodegradative potential in groundwater contaminated with phenol and other tar acids. The contaminant plume has travelled 500 m from the pollutant source over several decades. Samples were obtained from the plume using a multi-level sampler (MLS) positioned in two boreholes (boreholes 59 and 60) which vertically transected two areas of the plume. Activity of the microbial community, as represented by phenol degradation potential and ability to utilise a range of substrates, was found to be influenced by the plume. Phenol degradation potential appeared to be influenced more by the concentration of the contaminants than the total bacterial cell numbers. However, in the areas of highest phenol concentration, the depression of cell numbers clearly had an effect. The types of bacteria present were assessed by culture and DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bacterial groups or processes associated with major geochemical processes, such as methanogenesis, sulphate reduction and denitrification, that have the potential to drive contaminant degradation, were detected at various borehole levels. A comparative molecular analysis of the microbial community between samples obtained from the MLS revealed the microbial community was diverse. The examination of microbial activity complemented those results obtained through chemical analysis, and when combined with hydrological data, showed that MLS samples provided a realistic profile of plume effects and could be related to the potential for natural attenuation of the site.

  14. Importance of closely spaced vertical sampling in delineating chemical and microbiological gradients in groundwater studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Harvey, R.W.; LeBlanc, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Vertical gradients of selected chemical constituents, bacterial populations, bacterial activity and electron acceptors were investigated for an unconfined aquifer contaminated with nitrate and organic compounds on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Fifteen-port multilevel sampling devices (MLS's) were installed within the contaminant plume at the source of the contamination, and at 250 and 2100 m downgradient from the source. Depth profiles of specific conductance and dissolved oxygen at the downgradient sites exhibited vertical gradients that were both steep and inversely related. Narrow zones (2-4 m thick) of high N2O and NH4+ concentrations were also detected within the contaminant plume. A 27-fold change in bacterial abundance; a 35-fold change in frequency of dividing cells (FDC), an indicator of bacterial growth; a 23-fold change in 3H-glucose uptake, a measure of heterotrophic activity; and substantial changes in overall cell morphology were evident within a 9-m vertical interval at 250 m downgradient. The existence of these gradients argues for the need for closely spaced vertical sampling in groundwater studies because small differences in the vertical placement of a well screen can lead to incorrect conclusions about the chemical and microbiological processes within an aquifer.Vertical gradients of selected chemical constituents, bacterial populations, bacterial activity and electron acceptors were investigated for an unconfined aquifer contaminated with nitrate and organic compounds on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA. Fifteen-port multilevel sampling devices (MLS's) were installed within the contaminant plume at the source of the contamination, and at 250 and 2100 m downgradient from the source. Depth profiles of specific conductance and dissolved oxygen at the downgradient sites exhibited vertical gradients that were both steep and inversely related. Narrow zones (2-4 m thick) of high N2O and NH4+ concentrations were also detected within the contaminant plume

  15. Automated Device for Asynchronous Extraction of RNA, DNA, or Protein Biomarkers from Surrogate Patient Samples.

    PubMed

    Bitting, Anna L; Bordelon, Hali; Baglia, Mark L; Davis, Keersten M; Creecy, Amy E; Short, Philip A; Albert, Laura E; Karhade, Aditya V; Wright, David W; Haselton, Frederick R; Adams, Nicholas M

    2016-12-01

    Many biomarker-based diagnostic methods are inhibited by nontarget molecules in patient samples, necessitating biomarker extraction before detection. We have developed a simple device that purifies RNA, DNA, or protein biomarkers from complex biological samples without robotics or fluid pumping. The device design is based on functionalized magnetic beads, which capture biomarkers and remove background biomolecules by magnetically transferring the beads through processing solutions arrayed within small-diameter tubing. The process was automated by wrapping the tubing around a disc-like cassette and rotating it past a magnet using a programmable motor. This device recovered biomarkers at ~80% of the operator-dependent extraction method published previously. The device was validated by extracting biomarkers from a panel of surrogate patient samples containing clinically relevant concentrations of (1) influenza A RNA in nasal swabs, (2) Escherichia coli DNA in urine, (3) Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in sputum, and (4) Plasmodium falciparum protein and DNA in blood. The device successfully extracted each biomarker type from samples representing low levels of clinically relevant infectivity (i.e., 7.3 copies/µL of influenza A RNA, 405 copies/µL of E. coli DNA, 0.22 copies/µL of TB DNA, 167 copies/µL of malaria parasite DNA, and 2.7 pM of malaria parasite protein).

  16. Automated suppression of sample-related artifacts in Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ries, Jonas; Bayer, Mathias; Csúcs, Gábor; Dirkx, Ronald; Solimena, Michele; Ewers, Helge; Schwille, Petra

    2010-05-24

    Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) in cells often suffers from artifacts caused by bright aggregates or vesicles, depletion of fluorophores or bleaching of a fluorescent background. The common practice of manually discarding distorted curves is time consuming and subjective. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of automated FCS data analysis with efficient rejection of corrupted parts of the signal. As test systems we use a solution of fluorescent molecules, contaminated with bright fluorescent beads, as well as cells expressing a fluorescent protein (ICA512-EGFP), which partitions into bright secretory granules. This approach improves the accuracy of FCS measurements in biological samples, extends its applicability to especially challenging systems and greatly simplifies and accelerates the data analysis.

  17. Evaluation of micropurging versus traditional groundwater sampling at the Department of Energy`s Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stites, M.E.; Baker, J.L.; Kearl, P.M.

    1995-08-01

    A field trial comparing the micropurge and the traditional purge and sample method of groundwater sampling was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Kansas City Plant (KCP) in 1993 and 1994. Duplicate groundwater samples were collected using traditional and micropurge methods, analyzed for selected organic and inorganic constituents, and the results compared statistically. Evaluation of the data using the Wilcoxon Sign Rank test indicates that within a 95% confidence interval, there was no significant difference between the two methods for the site contaminants and the majority of naturally occurring analytes. These analytical results were supported by visual observations with the colloidal borescope, which demonstrated impacts on the flow system in the well when using traditional sampling methods. Under selected circumstances, the results suggest replacing traditional sampling with micropurging based on reliability, cost, and waste minimization.

  18. Data from exploratory sampling of groundwater in selected oil and gas areas of coastal Los Angeles County and Kern and Kings Counties in southern San Joaquin Valley, 2014–15: California oil, gas, and groundwater project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, David B.; Davis, Tracy A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Land, Michael T.; Wright, Michael T.; Kulongoski, Justin T.

    2016-12-09

    Exploratory sampling of groundwater in coastal Los Angeles County and Kern and Kings Counties of the southern San Joaquin Valley was done by the U.S. Geological Survey from September 2014 through January 2015 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Water Quality in Areas of Oil and Gas Production Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program. The Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program was established in response to the California Senate Bill 4 of 2013 mandating that the California State Water Resources Control Board design and implement a groundwater-monitoring program to assess potential effects of well-stimulation treatments on groundwater resources in California. The U.S. Geological Survey is in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to collaboratively implement the Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program through the California Oil, Gas, and Groundwater Project.Many researchers have documented the utility of different suites of chemical tracers for evaluating the effects of oil and gas development on groundwater quality. The purpose of this exploratory sampling effort was to determine whether tracers reported in the literature could be used effectively in California. This reconnaissance effort was not designed to assess the effects of oil and gas on groundwater quality in the sampled areas. A suite of water-quality indicators and geochemical tracers were sampled at groundwater sites in selected areas that have extensive oil and gas development. Groundwater samples were collected from a total of 51 wells, including 37 monitoring wells at 17 multiple-well monitoring sites in coastal Los Angeles County and 5 monitoring wells and 9 water-production wells in southern San Joaquin Valley, primarily in Kern and Kings Counties.Groundwater samples were analyzed for field water-quality indicators; organic constituents, including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds and dissolved organic carbon indicators; naturally

  19. An Automated Algorithm to Screen Massive Training Samples for a Global Impervious Surface Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Bin; Brown de Colstoun, Eric; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tilton, James C.; Huang, Chengquan; Smith, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm is developed to automatically screen the outliers from massive training samples for Global Land Survey - Imperviousness Mapping Project (GLS-IMP). GLS-IMP is to produce a global 30 m spatial resolution impervious cover data set for years 2000 and 2010 based on the Landsat Global Land Survey (GLS) data set. This unprecedented high resolution impervious cover data set is not only significant to the urbanization studies but also desired by the global carbon, hydrology, and energy balance researches. A supervised classification method, regression tree, is applied in this project. A set of accurate training samples is the key to the supervised classifications. Here we developed the global scale training samples from 1 m or so resolution fine resolution satellite data (Quickbird and Worldview2), and then aggregate the fine resolution impervious cover map to 30 m resolution. In order to improve the classification accuracy, the training samples should be screened before used to train the regression tree. It is impossible to manually screen 30 m resolution training samples collected globally. For example, in Europe only, there are 174 training sites. The size of the sites ranges from 4.5 km by 4.5 km to 8.1 km by 3.6 km. The amount training samples are over six millions. Therefore, we develop this automated statistic based algorithm to screen the training samples in two levels: site and scene level. At the site level, all the training samples are divided to 10 groups according to the percentage of the impervious surface within a sample pixel. The samples following in each 10% forms one group. For each group, both univariate and multivariate outliers are detected and removed. Then the screen process escalates to the scene level. A similar screen process but with a looser threshold is applied on the scene level considering the possible variance due to the site difference. We do not perform the screen process across the scenes because the scenes might vary due to

  20. Evaluation of fluorogenic TSC agar for recovering Clostridium perfringens in groundwater samples.

    PubMed

    Araujo, M; Sueiro, R A; Gómez, M J; Garrido, M J

    2001-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is widely recognised as a reliable water pollution indicator. Since several media can be employed for the membrane filtration enumeration of this microorganism, the main aim of this work was to investigate the ability of fluorocult-supplemented TSC-agar (Merck) for recovering Cl. perfringens from public springs used for direct human consumption. Cl. perfringens recovery was also performed on mCP agar (Cultimed) according to Directive 98/83 as well as on TSC-Agar (Merck), TSN-Agar (Merck) and SPS-Agar (BBL) media. Variance analysis of data obtained showed no statistically significant differences in the counts obtained among all media employed in this work. However, the Cl. perfringens recovery efficiencies with TSC and fluorogenic TSC agars were significantly greater (P = < 0.05) than the corresponding values of mCP and TSN media. On the other hand, the identification of typical and atypical colonies isolated from all media demonstrated that fluorogenic TSC agar was the most specific medium for Cl. perfringens recovery in groundwater samples (85.3% of typical colonies and 82.8% of atypical colonies confirmed). In summary, the membrane filtration technique with fluorogenic TSC agar showed the best performance characteristics of all the media tested as judged by their recovery efficiency and specificity in these water samples.

  1. Determination of vanadium in groundwater samples with an improved kinetic spectrophotometric method.

    PubMed

    Bağda, Esra

    2014-01-01

    A kinetic catalytic method has been developed for the determination of vanadium based on its catalytic effect on the redox reaction of azorubin S and bromate in the presence of a sulphuric and nitric acid mixture. The reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in absorbance of the reaction mixture at 515 nm. The fixed-time method was used for 0.5-5 min. Optimization of the reaction conditions regarding concentrations of acids, dye, oxidant, masking agent, etc. was investigated. The rate of decrease in absorbance of azorubin S was proportional to the concentration of vanadium in the range of 2.0-1.05 x 10(3) ng mL(-1). 3Sb/m was 0.0129 ng mL(-1) and 10 Sb/m was 0.0432 ng mL(-1). The catalytic method based on the oxidation reaction of azorubin S and bromate shows a good selectivity for vanadium over a wide variety of interference cations and anions. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of vanadium in groundwater samples and spiked-water samples.

  2. Ground-water quality in east-central New Jersey, and a plan for sampling networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harriman, D.A.; Sargent, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Groundwater quality was evaluated in seven confined aquifers and the water table aquifer in east-central New Jersey based on 237 analyses of samples collected in 1981-82, and 225 older analyses. Investigation of the effect of land use on water quality and several sampling network proposals for the region are reported. Generally, water in the confined aquifers is of satisfactory quality for human consumption and most other uses. Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) concentrations exceed U.S. EPA drinking water standards in some wells screened in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. Sodium (Na) concentrations in samples from three wells more than 800 ft deep in the Englishtown aquifer exceed the standard. Iron and Mn concentrations in this aquifer may also exceed the standards. Iron concentrations in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer exceed the standard. Based on 15 analyses of water from the Vincetown aquifer, Mn is the only constituent that exceeds the drinking water standard. In the Manasquan aquifer, 4 of the 16 Na determinations exceed the standard, and 8 of 16 Fe determinations exceed the standard. Water quality in the Atlantic City 800-ft sand is generally satisfactory. However, 12 Fe and 1 of 12 Mn determinations exceed the standards. For the Rio Grande water-bearing zone, 1 of 3 Fe determinations exceed the standard. The Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system (the water table aquifer) was the most thoroughly sampled (249 chemical analyses from 209 wells). Dissolved solids, chloride, Fe, nitrate, and Mn concentrations exceed drinking water standards in some areas. The results of chi-square tests of constituent distributions based on analyses from 158 wells in the water table aquifer indicate that calcium is higher in industrial and commercial areas; and Mg, chloride, and nitrate-plus-nitrite is higher in residential areas. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Comparison of soil solution sampling techniques to assess metal fluxes from contaminated soil to groundwater.

    PubMed

    Coutelot, F; Sappin-Didier, V; Keller, C; Atteia, O

    2014-12-01

    The unsaturated zone plays a major role in elemental fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. A representative chemical analysis of soil pore water is required for the interpretation of soil chemical phenomena and particularly to assess Trace Elements (TEs) mobility. This requires an optimal sampling system to avoid modification of the extracted soil water chemistry and allow for an accurate estimation of solute fluxes. In this paper, the chemical composition of soil solutions sampled by Rhizon® samplers connected to a standard syringe was compared to two other types of suction probes (Rhizon® + vacuum tube and Rhizon® + diverted flow system). We investigated the effects of different vacuum application procedures on concentrations of spiked elements (Cr, As, Zn) mixed as powder into the first 20 cm of 100-cm columns and non-spiked elements (Ca, Na, Mg) concentrations in two types of columns (SiO2 sand and a mixture of kaolinite + SiO2 sand substrates). Rhizon® was installed at different depths. The metals concentrations showed that (i) in sand, peak concentrations cannot be correctly sampled, thus the flux cannot be estimated, and the errors can easily reach a factor 2; (ii) in sand + clay columns, peak concentrations were larger, indicating that they could be sampled but, due to sorption on clay, it was not possible to compare fluxes at different depths. The different samplers tested were not able to reflect the elemental flux to groundwater and, although the Rhizon® + syringe device was more accurate, the best solution remains to be the use of a lysimeter, whose bottom is kept continuously at a suction close to the one existing in the soil.

  4. Automation of sample preparation for mass cytometry barcoding in support of clinical research: protocol optimization.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Ala F; Wisnewski, Adam V; Raddassi, Khadir

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of multiplexed assays is highly important for clinical diagnostics and other analytical applications. Mass cytometry enables multi-dimensional, single-cell analysis of cell type and state. In mass cytometry, the rare earth metals used as reporters on antibodies allow determination of marker expression in individual cells. Barcode-based bioassays for CyTOF are able to encode and decode for different experimental conditions or samples within the same experiment, facilitating progress in producing straightforward and consistent results. Herein, an integrated protocol for automated sample preparation for barcoding used in conjunction with mass cytometry for clinical bioanalysis samples is described; we offer results of our work with barcoding protocol optimization. In addition, we present some points to be considered in order to minimize the variability of quantitative mass cytometry measurements. For example, we discuss the importance of having multiple populations during titration of the antibodies and effect of storage and shipping of labelled samples on the stability of staining for purposes of CyTOF analysis. Data quality is not affected when labelled samples are stored either frozen or at 4 °C and used within 10 days; we observed that cell loss is greater if cells are washed with deionized water prior to shipment or are shipped in lower concentration. Once the labelled samples for CyTOF are suspended in deionized water, the analysis should be performed expeditiously, preferably within the first hour. Damage can be minimized if the cells are resuspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) rather than deionized water while waiting for data acquisition.

  5. Establishing a novel automated magnetic bead-based method for the extraction of DNA from a variety of forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Witt, Sebastian; Neumann, Jan; Zierdt, Holger; Gébel, Gabriella; Röscheisen, Christiane

    2012-09-01

    Automated systems have been increasingly utilized for DNA extraction by many forensic laboratories to handle growing numbers of forensic casework samples while minimizing the risk of human errors and assuring high reproducibility. The step towards automation however is not easy: The automated extraction method has to be very versatile to reliably prepare high yields of pure genomic DNA from a broad variety of sample types on different carrier materials. To prevent possible cross-contamination of samples or the loss of DNA, the components of the kit have to be designed in a way that allows for the automated handling of the samples with no manual intervention necessary. DNA extraction using paramagnetic particles coated with a DNA-binding surface is predestined for an automated approach. For this study, we tested different DNA extraction kits using DNA-binding paramagnetic particles with regard to DNA yield and handling by a Freedom EVO(®)150 extraction robot (Tecan) equipped with a Te-MagS magnetic separator. Among others, the extraction kits tested were the ChargeSwitch(®)Forensic DNA Purification Kit (Invitrogen), the PrepFiler™Automated Forensic DNA Extraction Kit (Applied Biosystems) and NucleoMag™96 Trace (Macherey-Nagel). After an extensive test phase, we established a novel magnetic bead extraction method based upon the NucleoMag™ extraction kit (Macherey-Nagel). The new method is readily automatable and produces high yields of DNA from different sample types (blood, saliva, sperm, contact stains) on various substrates (filter paper, swabs, cigarette butts) with no evidence of a loss of magnetic beads or sample cross-contamination.

  6. Drug Discovery Testing Compounds in Patients Samples by Automated Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Pilar; Gorrochategui, Julián; Primo, Daniel; Robles, Alicia; Rojas, José Luis; Espinosa, Ana Belén; Gómez, Cristina; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Bennett, Teresa A; Ballesteros, Joan

    2017-03-01

    Functional ex vivo assays that predict a patient's clinical response to anticancer drugs for guiding cancer treatment have long been a goal, but few have yet proved to be reliable. To address this, we have developed an automated flow cytometry platform for drug screening that evaluates multiple endpoints with a robust data analysis system that can capture the complex mechanisms of action across different compounds. This system, called PharmaFlow, is used to test peripheral blood or bone marrow samples from patients diagnosed with hematological malignancies. Functional assays that use the whole sample, retaining all the microenvironmental components contained in the sample, offer an approach to ex vivo testing that may give results that are clinically relevant. This new approach can help to predict the patients' response to existing treatments or to drugs under development, for hematological malignancies or other tumors. In addition, relevant biomarkers can be identified that determine the patient's sensitivity, resistance, or toxicity to a given treatment. We propose that this approach, which better recapitulates the human microenvironment, constitutes a more predictive assay for personalized medicine and preclinical drug discovery.

  7. From Sample Changer to the Robotic Rheometer: Automation and High Throughput Screening in Rotational Rheometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Läuger, Jörg; Krenn, Michael

    2008-07-01

    A fully automated, robotically operated rheometer was developed. The full functionality, modularity and accuracy of the rotational rheometer are available, which means the modern principles of high-throughput screening are brought to full function on the rheometer. The basic rheometer setup remains as modular as before including the ability to run all test modes the rheometer offers with the difference that the high-throughput rheometer now performs all measuring steps automatically. In addition, the standard and proven environmental chambers of the rheometer are available. The rheometer itself runs by the standard rheometer software and the measurement data and analysis results can be transferred to a monitoring database. The sample loading and the cleaning of the geometries is assisted by a sample preparation unit and a cleaning station, respectively. The sample throughput is further maximized by the use of multiple geometries allowing the simultaneous rheological measurement by the rheometer and the cleaning of the geometries at the cleaning station by the robot. The High-Throughput Rheometer (HTR) and its special adaptation to different applications like dispersions and polymer melts are described.

  8. Design and Implementation of an Automated Illuminating, Culturing, and Sampling System for Microbial Optogenetic Applications.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Cameron J; McClean, Megan N

    2017-02-19

    Optogenetic systems utilize genetically-encoded proteins that change conformation in response to specific wavelengths of light to alter cellular processes. There is a need for culturing and measuring systems that incorporate programmed illumination and stimulation of optogenetic systems. We present a protocol for building and using a continuous culturing apparatus to illuminate microbial cells with programmed doses of light, and automatically acquire and analyze images of cells in the effluent. The operation of this apparatus as a chemostat allows the growth rate and the cellular environment to be tightly controlled. The effluent of the continuous cell culture is regularly sampled and the cells are imaged by multi-channel microscopy. The culturing, sampling, imaging, and image analysis are fully automated so that dynamic responses in the fluorescence intensity and cellular morphology of cells sampled from the culture effluent are measured over multiple days without user input. We demonstrate the utility of this culturing apparatus by dynamically inducing protein production in a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered with an optogenetic system that activates transcription.

  9. Automated measurement and quantification of heterotrophic bacteria in water samples based on the MPN method.

    PubMed

    Fuchsluger, C; Preims, M; Fritz, I

    2011-01-01

    Quantification of heterotrophic bacteria is a widely used measure for water analysis. Especially in terms of drinking water analysis, testing for microorganisms is strictly regulated by the European Drinking Water Directive, including quality criteria and detection limits. The quantification procedure presented in this study is based on the most probable number (MPN) method, which was adapted to comply with the need for a quick and easy screening tool for different kinds of water samples as well as varying microbial loads. Replacing tubes with 24-well titer plates for cultivation of bacteria drastically reduces the amount of culture media and also simplifies incubation. Automated photometric measurement of turbidity instead of visual evaluation of bacterial growth avoids misinterpretation by operators. Definition of a threshold ensures definite and user-independent determination of microbial growth. Calculation of the MPN itself is done using a program provided by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For evaluation of the method, real water samples of different origins as well as pure cultures of bacteria were analyzed in parallel with the conventional plating methods. Thus, the procedure described requires less preparation time, reduces costs and ensures both stable and reliable results for water samples.

  10. The Dual Pumping Technique (DPT) for level-determined sampling in fully screened groundwater wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, M. C.; Fulda, C.; Schäfer, W.; Kinzelbach, W.

    1998-06-01

    A new and inexpensive technique to obtain vertical hydrochemical profiles in aquifers is presented. The Dual Pumping Technique (DPT) is designed for use in fully-screened groundwater wells and represents an alternative to packer installations or similar sampling devices. Two pumps are placed at either end of the well screen. The ratio of their pumping rates is varied from 1 to 0. Depending on this ratio, the two pumps abstract variable portions of the influx distribution. A water divide develops in the well, separating the flow upward from the flow downward. A set of samples from the upper and lower pump are taken for different pumping rate ratios. Measured solute concentrations in these samples, together with the influx distribution determined by flow logging, are used to reconstruct vertical concentration profiles. The measured data are evaluated with a simple, robust algorithm, which is derived in the text and exemplified in the Appendix. The DPT was used to determine vertical concentration distributions of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (CHS) and tritium in a contaminated aquifer near Heidelberg, Germany. Comparison of the concentration profile obtained with the DPT with CHS and tritium data from a 50-m distant multilevel well showed the principal applicability of the new technique. The pattern of the vertical concentration distributions was successfully identified with the DPT, but the absolute CHS concentration values were one order of magnitude higher in the multilevel well, due to the fact that the multilevel well is probably closer to the centre of the plume than the well used for the DPT. The 3H values could be compared directly and showed an excellent agreement. Further evaluation of the DPT in a situation where a multilevel reference well is in closer vicinity to the test well is planned.

  11. California GAMA Special Study. Development of a Capability for the Analysis of Krypton-85 in Groundwater Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, Ate; Bibby, Richard K.; Moran, Jean E.; Singleton, Michael J.; Esser, Bradley K.

    2015-06-01

    A capability for the analysis of krypton-85 (85Kr) in groundwater samples was developed at LLNL. Samples are collected by extracting gas from 2000-4000 L of groundwater at the well, yielding approximately 0.2 cm3 STP krypton. Sample collection takes 1 to 4 hours. Krypton is purified in the laboratory using a combination of molecular sieve and activated charcoal traps, and transferred to a liquid scintillation vial. The 85Kr activity is measured by liquid scintillation on a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counter from PerkinElmer. The detection limit for a typical 0.2 cm3Kr sample size is 11% of the present day activity in air, corresponding to the decay corrected activity in air in 1987. The typical measurement uncertainty is below 10% for recently recharged samples. Six groundwater samples were collected, purified and counted. 85Kr was not detected in any of the samples counted at LLNL. 85Kr was detected by the low level counting laboratory of Bern University in all samples between 1.5 and 6.6 decays per minute per cm3 krypton, corresponding to decay corrected activities in air between 1971 and 1985. The new capability is an excellent complement to tritium-helium, expanding the existing suite of age dating tools available to the GAMA program (35S, 3H/3He, 14C and radiogenic helium). 85Kr can replace 3H/3He in settings where 3H/3He ages are impossible to determine (for example where terrigenic helium overwhelms tritiogenic helium) and provides additional insight into travel time distributions in complex mixed groundwater systems.

  12. A user-friendly robotic sample preparation program for fully automated biological sample pipetting and dilution to benefit the regulated bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Ouyang, Zheng; Zeng, Jianing; Yuan, Long; Zheng, Naiyu; Jemal, Mohammed; Arnold, Mark E

    2012-06-01

    Biological sample dilution is a rate-limiting step in bioanalytical sample preparation when the concentrations of samples are beyond standard curve ranges, especially when multiple dilution factors are needed in an analytical run. We have developed and validated a Microsoft Excel-based robotic sample preparation program (RSPP) that automatically transforms Watson worklist sample information (identification, sequence and dilution factor) to comma-separated value (CSV) files. The Freedom EVO liquid handler software imports and transforms the CSV files to executable worklists (.gwl files), allowing the robot to perform sample dilutions at variable dilution factors. The dynamic dilution range is 1- to 1000-fold and divided into three dilution steps: 1- to 10-, 11- to 100-, and 101- to 1000-fold. The whole process, including pipetting samples, diluting samples, and adding internal standard(s), is accomplished within 1 h for two racks of samples (96 samples/rack). This platform also supports online sample extraction (liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, protein precipitation, etc.) using 96 multichannel arms. This fully automated and validated sample dilution and preparation process has been applied to several drug development programs. The results demonstrate that application of the RSPP for fully automated sample processing is efficient and rugged. The RSPP not only saved more than 50% of the time in sample pipetting and dilution but also reduced human errors. The generated bioanalytical data are accurate and precise; therefore, this application can be used in regulated bioanalysis.

  13. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, H.

    1999-03-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  14. Analysis of zearalenone in cereal and Swine feed samples using an automated flow-through immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Urraca, Javier L; Benito-Peña, Elena; Pérez-Conde, Concepción; Moreno-Bondi, María C; Pestka, James J

    2005-05-04

    The development of a sensitive flow-though immunosensor for the analysis of the mycotoxin zearalenone in cereal samples is described. The sensor was completely automated and was based on a direct competitive immunosorbent assay and fluorescence detection. The mycotoxin competes with a horseradish-peroxidase-labeled derivative for the binding sites of a rabbit polyclonal antibody. Control pore glass covalently bound to Prot A was used for the oriented immobilization of the antibody-antigen immunocomplexes. The immunosensor shows an IC(50) value of 0.087 ng mL(-1) (RSD = 2.8%, n = 6) and a dynamic range from 0.019 to 0.422 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection (90% of blank signal) of 0.007 ng mL(-1) (RSD = 3.9%, n = 3) is lower than previously published methods. Corn, wheat, and swine feed samples have been analyzed with the device after extraction of the analyte using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The immunosensor has been validated using a corn certificate reference material and HPLC with fluorescence detection.

  15. Measurement of airborne carbonyls using an automated sampling and analysis system.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Mauro; McLaren, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Based upon the well established method of derivitization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, an instrument was developed for ambient measurement of carbonyls with significantly improved temporal resolution and detection limits through automation, direct injection, and continuous use of a single microsilica DNPH cartridge. Kinetic experiments indicate that the derivitization reaction on the cartridge is fast enough for continuous measurements with 50 min air sampling. Reaction efficiencies measured on the cartridge were 100% for the carbonyls tested, including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, acetone, and benzaldehyde. Transmission of the carbonyls through an ozone scrubber (KI) were in the range of 97-101%. Blank levels and detection limits were lower than those obtainable with conventional DNPH methods by an order of magnitude or greater. Mixing ratio detection limits of carbonyls in ambient air were 38-73 ppt for a 50 min air sample (2.5 L). The instrument made continuous measurements of carbonyls on a 2 h cycle over a period of 10 days during a field study in southwestern Ontario. Median mixing ratios were 0.58 ppb formaldehyde; 0.29 ppb acetaldehyde; 1.14 ppb acetone; and 0.45 ppb glyoxal. Glyoxal shows a significant correlation with ozone and zero intercept, consistent with a secondary source and minor direct source to the atmosphere. The method should easily be extendable to the detection of other low molecular weight carbonyls that have been previously reported using the DNPH technique.

  16. Plasma cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in pigs: automated sampling of freely moving pigs housed in the PigTurn versus manually sampled and restrained pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minimizing effects of restraint and human interaction on the endocrine physiology of animals is essential for collection of accurate physiological measurements. Our objective was to compare stress-induced cortisol (CORT) and norepinephrine (NE) responses in automated versus manual blood sampling. A ...

  17. Plasma cortisol and noradrenalin concentrations in pigs: automated sampling of freely moving pigs housed in PigTurn versus manually sampled and restrained pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minimizing the effects of restraint and human interaction on the endocrine physiology of animals is essential for collection of accurate physiological measurements. Our objective was to compare stress-induced cortisol (CORT) and noradrenalin (NorA) responses in automated versus manual blood sampling...

  18. Strategies for automated sample preparation, nucleic acid purification, and concentration of low-target-number nucleic acids in environmental and food processing samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.; Holman, David A.; Schuck, Beatrice L.; Brockman, Fred J.; Chandler, Darrell P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a rapid, automated system for nucleic acid purification and concentration from environmental and food processing samples. Our current approach involves off-line filtration and cell lysis (ballistic disintegration) functions in appropriate buffers followed by automated nucleic acid capture and purification on renewable affinity matrix microcolumns. Physical cell lysis and renewable affinity microcolumns eliminate the need for toxic organic solvents, enzyme digestions or other time- consuming sample manipulations. Within the renewable affinity microcolumn, we have examined nucleic acid capture and purification efficiency with various microbead matrices (glass, polymer, paramagnetic), surface derivitization (sequence-specific capture oligonucleotides or peptide nucleic acids), and DNA target size and concentration under variable solution conditions and temperatures. Results will be presented comparing automated system performance relative to benchtop procedures for both clean (pure DNA from a laboratory culture) and environmental (soil extract) samples, including results which demonstrate 8 minute purification and elution of low-copy nucleic acid targets from a crude soil extract in a form suitable for PCR or microarray-based detectors. Future research will involve the development of improved affinity reagents and complete system integration, including upstream cell concentration and cell lysis functions and downstream, gene-based detectors. Results of this research will ultimately lead to improved processes and instrumentation for on-line, automated monitors for pathogenic micro-organisms in food, water, air, and soil samples.

  19. Handbook: Collecting Groundwater Samples from Monitoring Wells in Frenchman Flat, CAU 98

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Jenny; Lyles, Brad; Cooper, Clay; Hershey, Ron; Healey, John

    2015-06-01

    Frenchman Flat basin on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) contains Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98, which is comprised of ten underground nuclear test locations. Environmental management of these test locations is part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended) with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the State of Nevada. A Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been approved for CAU 98 (DOE, 2011). The CADD/CAP reports on the Corrective Action Investigation that was conducted for the CAU, which included characterization and modeling. It also presents the recommended corrective actions to address the objective of protecting human health and the environment. The recommended corrective action alternative is “Closure in Place with Modeling, Monitoring, and Institutional Controls.” The role of monitoring is to verify that Contaminants of Concern (COCs) have not exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) limits (Code of Federal Regulations, 2014) at the regulatory boundary, to ensure that institutional controls are adequate, and to monitor for changed conditions that could affect the closure conditions. The long-term closure monitoring program will be planned and implemented as part of the Closure Report stage after activities specified in the CADD/CAP are complete. Groundwater at the NNSS has been monitored for decades through a variety of programs. Current activities were recently consolidated in an NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan (DOE, 2014). Although monitoring directed by the plan is not intended to meet the FFACO long-term monitoring requirements for a CAU (which will be defined in the Closure Report), the objective to ensure public health protection is similar. It is expected that data collected in accordance with the plan will support the transition to long-term monitoring at each

  20. Development of an automated multiple-target mask CD disposition system to enable new sampling strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian; Farnsworth, Jeff; Bassist, Larry; Cui, Ying; Mammen, Bobby; Padmanaban, Ramaswamy; Nadamuni, Venkatesh; Kamath, Muralidhar; Buckmann, Ken; Neff, Julie; Freiberger, Phil

    2006-03-01

    Traditional mask critical dimension (CD) disposition systems with only one or two targets is being challenged by the new requirements from mask-users as the wafer process control becomes more complicated in the newer generation of technologies. Historically, the mask shop does not necessarily measure and disposition off the same kind of CD structures that wafer fabs do. Mask disposition specifications and structures come from the frame-design and the tapeout, while wafer-level CD dispositions are mainly based on the historical process window established per CD-skew experiments and EOL (end of line) yield. In the current high volume manufacturing environment, the mask CDs are mainly dispositioned off their mean-to-target (MTT) and uniformity (6sigma) on one or two types of pre-determined structures. The disposition specification is set to ensure the printed mask will meet the design requirements and to ensure minimum deviation from them. The CD data are also used to adjust the dose of the mask exposure tools to control CD MTT. As a result, the mask CD disposition automation system was built to allow only one or two kinds of targets at most. In contrast, wafer-fabs measure a fairly wide range of different structures to ensure their process is on target and in control. The number of such structures that are considered critical is increasing due the growing complexity of the technology. To fully comprehend the wafer-level requirements, it is highly desirable to align the mask CD sample site and disposition to be the same as that of the wafer-fabs, to measure the OPC (optical proximity correction) structures or equivalent whenever possible, and to establish the true correlation between mask CD measurements vs. wafer CD measurement. In this paper, the development of an automated multiple-target mask CD disposition system with the goal of enabling new sampling strategy is presented. The pros and cons of its implementation are discussed. The new system has been inserted in

  1. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility, Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. St. John, R.L. Weiss

    2006-05-04

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF and to report leachate results in accordance with the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD.

  2. AST: an automated sequence-sampling method for improving the taxonomic diversity of gene phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chan; Mao, Fenglou; Yin, Yanbin; Huang, Jinling; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Xu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in phylogenetic inference of gene trees is how to properly sample a large pool of homologous sequences to derive a good representative subset of sequences. Such a need arises in various applications, e.g. when (1) accuracy-oriented phylogenetic reconstruction methods may not be able to deal with a large pool of sequences due to their high demand in computing resources; (2) applications analyzing a collection of gene trees may prefer to use trees with fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs), for instance for the detection of horizontal gene transfer events by identifying phylogenetic conflicts; and (3) the pool of available sequences is biased towards extensively studied species. In the past, the creation of subsamples often relied on manual selection. Here we present an Automated sequence-Sampling method for improving the Taxonomic diversity of gene phylogenetic trees, AST, to obtain representative sequences that maximize the taxonomic diversity of the sampled sequences. To demonstrate the effectiveness of AST, we have tested it to solve four problems, namely, inference of the evolutionary histories of the small ribosomal subunit protein S5 of E. coli, 16 S ribosomal RNAs and glycosyl-transferase gene family 8, and a study of ancient horizontal gene transfers from bacteria to plants. Our results show that the resolution of our computational results is almost as good as that of manual inference by domain experts, hence making the tool generally useful to phylogenetic studies by non-phylogeny specialists. The program is available at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/~zhouchan/AST.php.

  3. AST: An Automated Sequence-Sampling Method for Improving the Taxonomic Diversity of Gene Phylogenetic Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chan; Mao, Fenglou; Yin, Yanbin; Huang, Jinling; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Xu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in phylogenetic inference of gene trees is how to properly sample a large pool of homologous sequences to derive a good representative subset of sequences. Such a need arises in various applications, e.g. when (1) accuracy-oriented phylogenetic reconstruction methods may not be able to deal with a large pool of sequences due to their high demand in computing resources; (2) applications analyzing a collection of gene trees may prefer to use trees with fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs), for instance for the detection of horizontal gene transfer events by identifying phylogenetic conflicts; and (3) the pool of available sequences is biased towards extensively studied species. In the past, the creation of subsamples often relied on manual selection. Here we present an Automated sequence-Sampling method for improving the Taxonomic diversity of gene phylogenetic trees, AST, to obtain representative sequences that maximize the taxonomic diversity of the sampled sequences. To demonstrate the effectiveness of AST, we have tested it to solve four problems, namely, inference of the evolutionary histories of the small ribosomal subunit protein S5 of E. coli, 16 S ribosomal RNAs and glycosyl-transferase gene family 8, and a study of ancient horizontal gene transfers from bacteria to plants. Our results show that the resolution of our computational results is almost as good as that of manual inference by domain experts, hence making the tool generally useful to phylogenetic studies by non-phylogeny specialists. The program is available at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/~zhouchan/AST.php. PMID:24892935

  4. Computerized Analytical Data Management System and Automated Analytical Sample Transfer System at the COGEMA Reprocessing Plants in La Hague

    SciTech Connect

    Flament, T.; Goasmat, F.; Poilane, F.

    2002-02-25

    Managing the operation of large commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, such as UP3 and UP2-800 in La Hague, France, requires an extensive analytical program and the shortest possible analysis response times. COGEMA, together with its engineering subsidiary SGN, decided to build high-performance laboratories to support operations in its plants. These laboratories feature automated equipment, safe environments for operators, and short response times, all in centralized installations. Implementation of a computerized analytical data management system and a fully automated pneumatic system for the transfer of radioactive samples was a key factor contributing to the successful operation of the laboratories and plants.

  5. Automated sample preparation techniques for the determination of drug enantiomers in biological fluids using liquid chromatography with chiral stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Ceccato, A; Toussaint, B; Chiap, P; Hubert, P; Crommen, J

    1999-01-01

    The determination of drug enantiomers has become of prime importance in the field of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. Liquid chromatography (LC) is one of the most frequently used techniques for achieving the separation and quantitation of the enantiomers of drug compounds. In the bioanalytical field, the integrated systems present an interesting alternative to time-consuming sample preparation techniques such as liquid-liquid extraction. Solid phase extraction (SPE) on disposable cartridges, dialysis or column switching are sample preparation techniques that can be fully automated and applied to enantioselective analysis in biological fluids. The selection of the most appropriate LC mode and chiral stationary phase for enantioseparations in bioanalysis is discussed and some aspects of these automated sample preparation procedures are compared, such as selectivity, detectability, elution of the analytes from the extraction sorbent, sample volume and analyte stability.

  6. Investigation of Total and Hexavalent Chromium in Filtered and Unfiltered Groundwater Samples at the Tucson International Airport Superfund Site.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Fred D; McCleskey, R Blaine; Hermosillo, Edyth

    2016-10-01

    Potential health effects from hexavalent chromium in groundwater have recently become a concern to regulators at the Tucson International Airport Area Superfund site. In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 46 wells in the area to characterize the nature and extent of chromium in groundwater, to understand what proportion of total chromium is in the hexavalent state, and to determine if substantial differences are present between filtered and unfiltered chromium concentrations. Results indicate detectable chromium concentrations in all wells, over 75 % of total chromium is in the hexavalent state in a majority of wells, and filtered and unfiltered results differ substantially in only a few high-turbidity total chromium samples.

  7. Investigation of total and hexavalent chromium in filtered and unfiltered groundwater samples at the Tucson International Airport Superfund Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hermosillo, Edyth

    2016-01-01

    Potential health effects from hexavalent chromium in groundwater have recently become a concern to regulators at the Tucson International Airport Area Superfund site. In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 46 wells in the area to characterize the nature and extent of chromium in groundwater, to understand what proportion of total chromium is in the hexavalent state, and to determine if substantial differences are present between filtered and unfiltered chromium concentrations. Results indicate detectable chromium concentrations in all wells, over 75 % of total chromium is in the hexavalent state in a majority of wells, and filtered and unfiltered results differ substantially in only a few high-turbidity total chromium samples.

  8. Review of available fluid sampling tools and sample recovery techniques for groundwater and unconventional geothermal research as well as carbon storage in deep sedimentary aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff-Boenisch, Domenik; Evans, Katy

    2014-05-01

    Sampling fluids from deep wells and subsequent sample treatment prior to gas and liquid analysis requires special equipment and sampling techniques to account for the relatively high temperatures, pressures, and potential gas content present at depth. This paper reviews five major sampling methodologies, ranging from different in situ wireline samplers to producing pumps and the U-tube and discusses their advantages and drawbacks in the light of three principal applications, deep groundwater research, unconventional geothermal exploration, and carbon storage. Geochemical modelling is used to investigate the probability of decarbonation and concomitant carbonate scaling during sampling in geothermal and carbon sequestration applications. The two principal sample recovery techniques associated with the fluid samplers are also presented.

  9. Influence of acid mine drainage on microbial communities in stream and groundwater samples at Guryong Mine, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaisoo; Koo, So-Yeon; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Don; Ko, Kyung-Seok; Ko, Dong-Chan; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2009-10-01

    The effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) in a stream and groundwater near an abandoned copper mine were characterized by physicochemical properties, bacterial community structure using denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE), and microbial activity/diversity using Ecoplate technique. Based on DGGE fingerprints, the eubacterial community structures grouped into the stream water (GRS1, GRS2 and GRS3) and groundwater samples (GW1 and GW2), apparently based on differences in water temperature and the concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrate and sulfate. The most highly AMD-contaminated sample (GRS1) had additional α-Proteobacteria whereas the groundwater samples included additional β-Proteobacteria, suggesting the development of populations resistant to AMD toxicity under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Community level physiological activities on the 31 Ecoplate substrates suggested that the activities decreased with increasing concentrations of sulfate and heavy metals derived from AMD. The Shannon index showed that microbial diversity was greatest in GRS2, and lowest in GRS1, and was probably related to the level of AMD.

  10. Biogeochemical processing of nutrients in groundwater-fed stream during baseflow conditions - the value of fluorescence spectroscopy and automated high-frequency nutrient monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieroza, Magdalena; Heathwaite, Louise

    2014-05-01

    Recent research in groundwater-dominated streams indicates that organic matter plays an important role in nutrient transformations at the surface-groundwater interface known as the hyporheic zone. Mixing of water and nutrient fluxes in the hyporheic zone controls in-stream nutrients availability, dynamics and export to downstream reaches. In particular, benthic sediments can form adsorptive sinks for organic matter and reactive nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) that sustain a variety of hyporheic processes e.g. denitrification, microbial uptake. Thus, hyporheic metabolism can have an important effect on both quantity (concentration) and quality (labile vs. refractory character) of organic matter. Here high-frequency nutrient monitoring combined with spectroscopic analysis was used to provide insights into biogeochemical processing of a small, agricultural stream in the NE England subject to diffuse nutrient pollution. Biogeochemical data were collected hourly for a week at baseflow conditions when in-stream-hyporheic nutrient dynamics have the greatest impact on stream health. In-stream nutrients (total phosphorus, reactive phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen) and water quality parameters (turbidity, specific conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, redox potential) were measured in situ hourly by an automated bank-side laboratory. Concurrent hourly autosamples were retrieved daily and analysed for nutrients and fine sediments including spectroscopic analyses of dissolved organic matter - excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorbance spectroscopy. Our results show that organic matter can potentially be utilised as a natural, environmental tracer of the biogeochemical processes occurring at the surface-groundwater interface in streams. High-frequency spectroscopic characterisation of in-stream organic matter can provide useful quantitative and qualitative information on fluxes of reactive nutrients in

  11. Synoptic estimates of diffuse groundwater seepage to a spring-fed karst river at high spatial resolution using an automated radon measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, Mitra B.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Kurz, Marie J.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater (GW) seepage can provide a major source of water, solutes, and contaminants to rivers, but identifying magnitudes, directions and locations of seepage is complicated by its diffuse and heterogeneous distributions. However, such information is necessary to develop programs and policies for protecting ecosystems and managing water resources. Here, we assess GW seepage to the Ichetucknee River, a spring-fed, low gradient, gaining stream in north-central Florida, through automated longitudinal surveys of radon (222Rn) activities at three different flow conditions. A 222Rn mass balance model, which integrates groundwater and spring water end member 222Rn activities and longitudinal 222Rn distributions in river water, shows that diffuse groundwater seepage represents about 16% of the total river baseflow, consistent with previous results obtained from ion (Ca2+, Cl-, SRP and Fe) mass balances and dye tracer methods. During high river stage, the contribution from seepage increases to 18-23% of the river flow. The spatial distribution of GW seepage is more variable in the upper 2.2-km reach of the river than the lower 2.8-km reach, regardless of river flow conditions. The upper reach has a narrower flood plain than the lower reach, which limits evapotranspiration and increases hydraulic gradients toward the river following storm events. Seepage in the lower reach is also limited by hydrologic damming by the receiving river, which inundates the floodplain during high flow conditions, and reduces the hydraulic head gradient. These results demonstrate the variable nature of seepage to a gaining river in both time and space and indicate that multiple synoptic analyses of GW seepage are required to assess seepage rates, determine time-averaged solute fluxes, and develop optimal management policies for riverine ecosystems.

  12. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  13. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... frequency must be protective of human health and the environment. (d) Ground-water elevations must be... procedure is used, the Type I experiment wise error rate for each testing period shall be no less than 0.05... chart and its associated parameter values shall be protective of human health and the environment....

  14. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... frequency must be protective of human health and the environment. (d) Ground-water elevations must be... procedure is used, the Type I experiment wise error rate for each testing period shall be no less than 0.05... chart and its associated parameter values shall be protective of human health and the environment....

  15. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... frequency must be protective of human health and the environment. (d) Ground-water elevations must be... procedure is used, the Type I experiment wise error rate for each testing period shall be no less than 0.05... chart and its associated parameter values shall be protective of human health and the environment....

  16. 40 CFR 257.23 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... frequency must be protective of human health and the environment. (d) Ground-water elevations must be... procedure is used, the Type I experiment wise error rate for each testing period shall be no less than 0.05... chart and its associated parameter values shall be protective of human health and the environment....

  17. Method and Apparatus for Automated Isolation of Nucleic Acids from Small Cell Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaram, Shivshankar; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Pant, Kapil; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    RNA isolation is a ubiquitous need, driven by current emphasis on microarrays and miniaturization. With commercial systems requiring 100,000 to 1,000,000 cells for successful isolation, there is a growing need for a small-footprint, easy-to-use device that can harvest nucleic acids from much smaller cell samples (1,000 to 10,000 cells). The process of extraction of RNA from cell cultures is a complex, multi-step one, and requires timed, asynchronous operations with multiple reagents/buffers. An added complexity is the fragility of RNA (subject to degradation) and its reactivity to surface. A novel, microfluidics-based, integrated cartridge has been developed that can fully automate the complex process of RNA isolation (lyse, capture, and elute RNA) from small cell culture samples. On-cartridge cell lysis is achieved using either reagents or high-strength electric fields made possible by the miniaturized format. Traditionally, silica-based, porous-membrane formats have been used for RNA capture, requiring slow perfusion for effective capture. In this design, high efficiency capture/elution are achieved using a microsphere-based "microfluidized" format. Electrokinetic phenomena are harnessed to actively mix microspheres with the cell lysate and capture/elution buffer, providing important advantages in extraction efficiency, processing time, and operational flexibility. Successful RNA isolation was demonstrated using both suspension (HL-60) and adherent (BHK-21) cells. Novel features associated with this development are twofold. First, novel designs that execute needed processes with improved speed and efficiency were developed. These primarily encompass electric-field-driven lysis of cells. The configurations include electrode-containing constructs, or an "electrode-less" chip design, which is easy to fabricate and mitigates fouling at the electrode surface; and the "fluidized" extraction format based on electrokinetically assisted mixing and contacting of microbeads

  18. Data Validation Package April 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites August 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Jason; Smith, Fred

    2016-08-01

    This semiannual event includes sampling groundwater and surface water at the Monticello Disposal and Processing Sites. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated) and Program Directive MNT-2016-01. Complete sample sets were collected from 42 of 48 planned locations (9 of 9 former mill site wells, 13 of 13 downgradient wells, 7 of 9 downgradient permeable reactive barrier wells, 4 of 7 seeps and wetlands, and 9 of 10 surface water locations). Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Locations R6-M3, SW00-01, Seep 1, Seep 2, and Seep 5 were not sampled due to insufficient water availability. A partial sample was collected at location R4-M3 due to insufficient water. All samples from the permeable reactive barrier wells were filtered as specified in the program directive. Duplicate samples were collected from surface water location Sorenson and from monitoring wells 92-07 and RlO-Ml. Water levels were measured at all sampled wells and an additional set of wells. See Attachment2, Trip Report for additional details. The contaminants of concern (COCs) for the Monticello sites are arsenic, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate+ nitrite as nitrogen (nitrate+ nitrite as N), selenium, uranium, and vanadium. Locations with COCs that exceeded remediation goals are listed in Table 1 and Table 2. Time-concentration graphs of the COCs for all groundwater and surface water locations are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. An assessment of anomalous data is included in Attachment 4.

  19. Sampling and analysis plan for groundwater and surface water monitoring at the Y-12 Plant during calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 1996 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant. Included in this plan are the monitoring activities managed by the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization through the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Other groundwater and surface water monitoring activities, such as selected Environmental Restoration Program activities, and National Pollution Discharge Elimination System monitoring, not managed through the Y-12 Plant GWPP are not addressed in this report. The requirements of several monitoring drivers will be implemented in one comprehensive monitoring program during CY 1996. These drivers may be regulatory DOE Orders, or best-management practices. The CY 1996 monitoring program will encompass three hydrogeologic regimes: The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime. The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located within Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant. For various reasons, modifications to the CY 1996 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. For example, changes in regulatory requirements may alter the parameters specified for selected wells, or wells could be added to or deleted from the monitoring network. Al] modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  20. Sampling and analysis plan for groundwater and surface water monitoring at the Y-12 Plant during calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 1995 at the Department of Energy Y-12 Plant. Included in this plan are the monitoring activities managed by the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization through the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Other groundwater and surface water monitoring activities (e.g. selected Environmental Restoration Program activities, National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) monitoring) not managed through the Y-12 Plant GWPP are not addressed in this report. Several monitoring programs will be implemented in three hydrogeologic regimes: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located within Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of the Y-12 Plant. For various reasons, modifications to the 1995 monitoring programs may be necessary during implementation. For example, changes in regulatory requirements may alter the parameters specified for selected wells, or wells could be added to or deleted from the monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring programs will be approved by the Y-12 Plant GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  1. Random Sample Consensus: A Paradigm for Model Fitting with Applications to Image Analysis and Automated Cartography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    interpreting/smoothing data containing a significant percentage of gross errors, and thus is ideally suited for applications in automated image ... analysis where interpretation is based on the data provided by error-prone feature detectors. A major portion of the paper describes the application of

  2. Groundwater quality sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater quality sampling and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of energy and managed by martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). Groundwater sampling will be conducted by Energy Systems at 45 wells within WAG 6. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the groundwater quality monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating relative risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and also will fulfill Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim permit monitoring requirements. The sampling steps described in this plan are consistent with the steps that have previously been followed by Energy Systems when conducting RCRA sampling.

  3. Groundwater Quality Sampling and Analysis Plan for Environmental Monitoring Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater quality sampling and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). Groundwater sampling will be conducted by Energy Systems at 45 wells within WAG 6. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the groundwater quality monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating relative risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and also will fulfill Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim permit monitoring requirements. The sampling steps described in this plan are consistent with the steps that have previously been followed by Energy Systems when conducting RCRA sampling.

  4. Automated Gel Size Selection to Improve the Quality of Next-generation Sequencing Libraries Prepared from Environmental Water Samples.

    PubMed

    Uyaguari-Diaz, Miguel I; Slobodan, Jared R; Nesbitt, Matthew J; Croxen, Matthew A; Isaac-Renton, Judith; Prystajecky, Natalie A; Tang, Patrick

    2015-04-17

    Next-generation sequencing of environmental samples can be challenging because of the variable DNA quantity and quality in these samples. High quality DNA libraries are needed for optimal results from next-generation sequencing. Environmental samples such as water may have low quality and quantities of DNA as well as contaminants that co-precipitate with DNA. The mechanical and enzymatic processes involved in extraction and library preparation may further damage the DNA. Gel size selection enables purification and recovery of DNA fragments of a defined size for sequencing applications. Nevertheless, this task is one of the most time-consuming steps in the DNA library preparation workflow. The protocol described here enables complete automation of agarose gel loading, electrophoretic analysis, and recovery of targeted DNA fragments. In this study, we describe a high-throughput approach to prepare high quality DNA libraries from freshwater samples that can be applied also to other environmental samples. We used an indirect approach to concentrate bacterial cells from environmental freshwater samples; DNA was extracted using a commercially available DNA extraction kit, and DNA libraries were prepared using a commercial transposon-based protocol. DNA fragments of 500 to 800 bp were gel size selected using Ranger Technology, an automated electrophoresis workstation. Sequencing of the size-selected DNA libraries demonstrated significant improvements to read length and quality of the sequencing reads.

  5. Data Validation Package May and June 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, August 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dick; Tsosie, Bernadette

    2015-08-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). Duplicate samples were collected from locations 14(SG) and 21(M). Sampling originally scheduled for the week of May 11, 2015 was interrupted by heavy rainfall and later completed in June.

  6. Groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.H.; Giger, W.; McCarty, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a collection of 28 selected papers presented at the First International Conference on Groundwater Quality Research, at Rice University in October 1981. Several studies provide an overview of chemical and microbial contamination. Local groundwater pollution problems in the Netherlands and metals motility in New Zealand are described. In addition, the effects to groundwater quality due to the discharge of treated wastewaters in the Netherlands, Great Britain, and Houston, Texas are described. Mathematical models are presented that can be used to simulate and predict the transport of contaminants in a saturated groundwater system. Studies describing the sorption of halogenated hydrocarbons, the survival and transport of pathogenic bacteria, the biodegradation of contaminants, and anaerobic transformation in subsurface environments are included. Other topics of discussion include methods for obtaining representative groundwater samples, methods for assessing groundwater problems, methods for designing and constructing microcosms and the microbial characterization of subsurface systems.

  7. Application of a new vertical profiling tool (ESASS) for sampling groundwater quality during hollow-stem auger drilling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, P.T.; Flanagan, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    A new tool called ESASS (Enhanced Screen Auger Sampling System) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The use of ESASS, because of its unique U.S. patent design (U.S. patent no. 7,631,705 B1), allows for the collection of representative, depth-specific groundwater samples (vertical profiling) in a quick and efficient manner using a 0.305-m long screen auger during hollow-stem auger drilling. With ESASS, the water column in the flights above the screen auger is separated from the water in the screen auger by a specially designed removable plug and collar. The tool fits inside an auger of standard inner diameter (82.55 mm). The novel design of the system constituted by the plug, collar, and A-rod allows the plug to be retrieved using conventional drilling A-rods. After retrieval, standard-diameter (50.8 mm) observation wells can be installed within the hollow-stem augers. Testing of ESASS was conducted at one waste-disposal site with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination and at two reference sites with no known waste-disposal history. All three sites have similar geology and are underlain by glacial, stratified-drift deposits. For the applications tested, ESASS proved to be a useful tool in vertical profiling of groundwater quality. At the waste site, PCE concentrations measured with ESASS profiling at several depths were comparable (relative percent difference <25%) to PCE concentrations sampled from wells. Vertical profiling with ESASS at the reference sites illustrated the vertical resolution achievable in the profile system; shallow groundwater quality varied by a factor of five in concentration of some constituents (nitrate and nitrite) over short (0.61 m) distances. Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  8. Application of a new vertical profiling tool (ESASS) for sampling groundwater quality during hollow-stem auger drilling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.; Flanagan, Sarah M.

    2011-01-01

    A new tool called ESASS (Enhanced Screen Auger Sampling System) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The use of ESASS, because of its unique U.S. patent design (U.S. patent no. 7,631,705 B1), allows for the collection of representative, depth-specific groundwater samples (vertical profiling) in a quick and efficient manner using a 0.305-m long screen auger during hollow-stem auger drilling. With ESASS, the water column in the flights above the screen auger is separated from the water in the screen auger by a specially designed removable plug and collar. The tool fits inside an auger of standard inner diameter (82.55 mm). The novel design of the system constituted by the plug, collar, and A-rod allows the plug to be retrieved using conventional drilling A-rods. After retrieval, standard-diameter (50.8 mm) observation wells can be installed within the hollow-stem augers. Testing of ESASS was conducted at one waste-disposal site with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination and at two reference sites with no known waste-disposal history. All three sites have similar geology and are underlain by glacial, stratified-drift deposits. For the applications tested, ESASS proved to be a useful tool in vertical profiling of groundwater quality. At the waste site, PCE concentrations measured with ESASS profiling at several depths were comparable (relative percent difference <25%) to PCE concentrations sampled from wells. Vertical profiling with ESASS at the reference sites illustrated the vertical resolution achievable in the profile system; shallow groundwater quality varied by a factor of five in concentration of some constituents (nitrate and nitrite) over short (0.61 m) distances.

  9. Automation impact study of Army training management 2: Extension of sampling and collection of installation resource data

    SciTech Connect

    Sanquist, T.F.; McCallum, M.C.; Hunt, P.S.; Slavich, A.L.; Underwood, J.A.; Toquam, J.L.; Seaver, D.A.

    1989-05-01

    This automation impact study of Army training management (TM) was performed for the Army Development and Employment Agency (ADEA) and the Combined Arms Training Activity (CATA) by the Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The primary objective of the study was to provide the Army with information concerning the potential costs and savings associated with automating the TM process. This study expands the sample of units surveyed in Phase I of the automation impact effort (Sanquist et al., 1988), and presents data concerning installation resource management in relation to TM. The structured interview employed in Phase I was adapted to a self-administered survey. The data collected were compatible with that of Phase I, and both were combined for analysis. Three US sites, one reserve division, one National Guard division, and one unit in the active component outside the continental US (OCONUS) (referred to in this report as forward deployed) were surveyed. The total sample size was 459, of which 337 respondents contributed the most detailed data. 20 figs., 62 tabs.

  10. A device for automated direct sampling and quantitation from solid-phase sorbent extraction cards by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wachs, Timothy; Henion, Jack

    2003-04-01

    A new solid-phase extraction (SPE) device in the 96-well format (SPE Card) has been employed for automated off-line sample preparation of low-volume urine samples. On-line automated analyte elution via SPE and direct quantitation by micro ion spray mass spectrometry is reported. This sample preparation device has the format of a microtiter plate and is molded in a plastic frame which houses 96 separate sandwiched 3M Empore sorbents (0.5-mm-thickness, 8-microm particles) covered on both sides by a microfiber support material. Ninety-six discrete SPE zones, each 7 mm in diameter, are imbedded into the sheet in the conventional 9-mm pitch (spacing) of a 96-well microtiter plate. In this study one-quarter of an SPE Card (24 individual zones) was used merely as a convenience. After automated off-line interference elution of applied human urine from 24 samples, a section of SPE Card is mounted vertically on a computer-controlled X, Y, Z positioner in front of a micro ion spray direct sampling tube equipped with a beveled tip. The beveled tip of this needle robotically penetrates each SPE elution zone (sorbent disk) or stationary phase in a serial fashion. The eluted analytes are sequentially transferred directly to a microelectrosprayer to obtain tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis. This strategy precludes any HPLC separation and the associated method development. The quantitative determination of Ritalin (methylphenidate) from fortified human urine samples is demonstrated. A trideuterated internal standard of methylphenidate was used to obtain ion current response ratios between the parent drug and the internal standard. Human control urine samples fortified from 6.6 to 3300 ng/mL (normal therapeutic levels have been determined in other studies to be between 50 and 100 ng/mL urine) were analyzed and a linear calibration curve was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999, where the precision of the quality control (QC) samples ranged from 9.6% at the 24

  11. Iodine-129 Analysis of NTS Near-Field Groundwater Samples on the Multi-Collector ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R; Ramon, E; Moran, J E; Rose, T P

    2005-02-01

    Iodine was chemically separated from NTS near-field groundwater samples and analyzed for its {sup 129}I/{sup 129}I ratio on a Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS). The measured ratios were then compared to {sup 129}I/{sup 129}I ratios for identical samples run on the Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS). The MC-ICPMS results in some cases differed from the AMS values by more than an order of magnitude. The disparity in the results is due to isobaric interferences at mass 129 from polyatomic species and {sup 129}Xe in the MC-ICPMS plasma gas. It is anticipated that the interferences can be largely eliminated by (1) improving the molybdenum separation chemistry using a {sup 92}Mo-spike precipitation method, and (2) introducing O{sub 2} to the plasma gas to reduce the {sup 129}Xe interference. The MC-ICPMS detection limit for {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I (measured on reference standards) is on the order of 1E-6 or slightly lower. Most near-field groundwater samples have {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios >1E-6, and should be measurable on the MC-ICPMS once the isobaric interference issues are resolved.

  12. Automated sample-changing robot for solution scattering experiments at the EMBL Hamburg SAXS station X33.

    PubMed

    Round, A R; Franke, D; Moritz, S; Huchler, R; Fritsche, M; Malthan, D; Klaering, R; Svergun, D I; Roessle, M

    2008-10-01

    There is a rapidly increasing interest in the use of synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) for large-scale studies of biological macromolecules in solution, and this requires an adequate means of automating the experiment. A prototype has been developed of an automated sample changer for solution SAXS, where the solutions are kept in thermostatically controlled well plates allowing for operation with up to 192 samples. The measuring protocol involves controlled loading of protein solutions and matching buffers, followed by cleaning and drying of the cell between measurements. The system was installed and tested at the X33 beamline of the EMBL, at the storage ring DORIS-III (DESY, Hamburg), where it was used by over 50 external groups during 2007. At X33, a throughput of approximately 12 samples per hour, with a failure rate of sample loading of less than 0.5%, was observed. The feedback from users indicates that the ease of use and reliability of the user operation at the beamline were greatly improved compared with the manual filling mode. The changer is controlled by a client-server-based network protocol, locally and remotely. During the testing phase, the changer was operated in an attended mode to assess its reliability and convenience. Full integration with the beamline control software, allowing for automated data collection of all samples loaded into the machine with remote control from the user, is presently being implemented. The approach reported is not limited to synchrotron-based SAXS but can also be used on laboratory and neutron sources.

  13. Lab on valve-multisyringe flow injection system (LOV-MSFIA) for fully automated uranium determination in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Avivar, Jessica; Ferrer, Laura; Casas, Montserrat; Cerdà, Víctor

    2011-06-15

    The hyphenation of lab-on-valve (LOV) and multisyringe flow analysis (MSFIA), coupled to a long path length liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC), allows the spectrophotometric determination of uranium in different types of environmental sample matrices, without any manual pre-treatment, and achieving high selectivity and sensitivity levels. On-line separation and preconcentration of uranium is carried out by means of UTEVA resin. The potential of the LOV-MSFIA makes possible the fully automation of the system by the in-line regeneration of the column. After elution, uranium(VI) is spectrophotometrically detected after reaction with arsenazo-III. The determination of levels of uranium present in environmental samples is required in order to establish an environmental control. Thus, we propose a rapid, cheap and fully automated method to determine uranium(VI) in environmental samples. The limit of detection reached is 1.9 ηg of uranium and depending on the preconcentrated volume; it results in ppt levels (10.3 ηg L(-1)). Different water sample matrices (seawater, well water, freshwater, tap water and mineral water) and a phosphogypsum sample (with natural uranium content) were satisfactorily analyzed.

  14. Status Report on the Microbial Characterization of Halite and Groundwater Samples from the WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Juliet S.; Reed, Donald T.; Ams, David A.; Norden, Diana; Simmons, Karen A.

    2012-07-10

    This report summarizes the progress made in the ongoing task of characterizing the microbial community structures within the WIPP repository and in surrounding groundwaters. Through cultivation and DNA-based identification, the potential activity of these organisms is being inferred, thus leading to a better understanding of their impact on WIPP performance. Members of the three biological domains - Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya (in this case, Fungi) - that are associated with WIPP halite have been identified. Thus far, their activity has been limited to aerobic respiration; anaerobic incubations are underway. WIPP halite constitutes the near-field microbial environment. We expect that microbial activity in this setting will proceed from aerobic respiration, through nitrate reduction to focus on sulfate reduction. This is also the current WIPP performance assessment (PA) position. Sulfate reduction can occur at extremely high ionic strengths, and sulfate is available in WIPP brines and in the anhydrite interbeds. The role of methanogenesis in the WIPP remains unclear, due to both energetic constraints imposed by a high-salt environment and substrate selectivity, and it is no longer considered in PA. Archaea identified in WIPP halite thus far fall exclusively within the family Halobacteriaceae. These include Halobacterium noricense, cultivated from both low- and high-salt media, and a Halorubrum-like species. The former has also been detected in other salt mines worldwide; the latter likely constitutes a new species. Little is known of its function, but it was prevalent in experiments investigating the biodegradation of organic complexing agents in WIPP brines. Bacterial signatures associated with WIPP halite include members of the phylum Proteobacteria - Halomonas, Pelomonas, Limnobacter, and Chromohalobacter - but only the latter has been isolated. Also detected and cultivated were Salinicoccus and Nesterenkonia spp. Fungi were also isolated from halite. Although

  15. Task summary for cone penetrating testing sounding and soil and groundwater sampling Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), located in Mississippi, was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion testes conducted deep underground in the Tatum Salt Dome between 1964 and 1970. As a consequence radionuclides generated during the testing were released into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. US DOE is conducting a series of investigations as a part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (under CERCLA) This report summarizes the cone penetrometer testing (CPT) and sampling program conducted in fall 1993, providing a description of the activities and a discussion of the results. The objectives of the CPT program were to determine subsurface conditions and stratification; determine the depth to the potentiometric surface; obtain soil samples from predetermined depths; obtain groundwater samples at predetermined depths.

  16. Automated Multiple-Sample Tray Manipulation Designed and Fabricated for Atomic Oxygen Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sechkar, Edward A.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Dever, Joyce A.; Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive improvements to increase testing capacity and flexibility and to automate the in situ Reflectance Measurement System (RMS) are in progress at the Electro-Physics Branch s Atomic Oxygen (AO) beam facility of the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. These improvements will triple the system s capacity while placing a significant portion of the testing cycle under computer control for added reliability, repeatability, and ease of use.

  17. Distribution of U and REE on colloids in granitic groundwater and quality-controlled sampling at the Mizunami underground research laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munemoto, Takashi; Ohmori, Kazuaki; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2014-12-01

    Colloids and their association with analogue elements, uranium, and rare earth elements (REEs), in deep granitic groundwater were investigated at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). Groundwater was sampled from underground boreholes and gallery walls, and the colloids were separated by size-fractionated ultrafiltration (pore sizes, 0.2 μm, 10 kDa, and 1 kDa). For the groundwater sampled from fractures in excavation walls, the size-fractionated concentrations of the colloid-forming elements were approximately constant relative to different size fractions (0.2 μm, 200 kDa, 50 kDa, and 10 kDa). The contamination of Fe- and Al-bearing materials was insignificant in the filtered groundwater from fracture seepages. Changes in the concentrations of U in the groundwater sampled from boreholes and excavation walls were associated with the Al-bearing colloids, Fe-bearing colloids, and organic matter. The REE-bearing material(s) that were >0.2 μm in size were mobile in the deep granitic groundwater, rather than occurring in association with Al-bearing, Fe-bearing colloids, and organic matter. It is suggested that sampling from water-conducting fractures in host rock and colloid elimination in borehole are important components of water quality control in geochemical investigations.

  18. A compact tritium enrichment unit for large sample volumes with automated re-filling and higher enrichment factor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B; Han, L-F; Wassenaar, L I; Klaus, P M; Kainz, G G; Hillegonds, D; Brummer, D; Ahmad, M; Belachew, D L; Araguás, L; Aggarwal, P

    2016-12-01

    Tritium ((3)H) in natural waters is a powerful tracer of hydrological processes, but its low concentrations require electrolytic enrichment before precise measurements can be made with a liquid scintillation counter. Here, we describe a newly developed, compact tritium enrichment unit which can be used to enrich up to 2L of a water sample. This allows a high enrichment factor (>100) for measuring low (3)H contents of <0.05TU. The TEU uses a small cell (250mL) with automated re-filling and a CO2 bubbling technique to neutralize the high alkalinity of enriched samples. The enriched residual sample is retrieved from the cell under vacuum by cryogenic distillation at -20°C and the tritium enrichment factor for each sample is accurately determined by measuring pre- and post- enrichment (2)H concentrations with laser spectrometry.

  19. Automated Sampling and Imaging of Analytes Separated on Thin-Layer Chromatography Plates Using Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2006-01-01

    Modest modifications to the atmospheric sampling capillary of a commercial electrospray mass spectrometer and upgrades to an in-house developed surface positioning control software package (HandsFree TLC/MS ) were used to enable the automated sampling and imaging of analytes on and/or within large area surface substrates using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Sampling and imaging of rhodamine dyes separated on TLC plates were used to illustrate some of the practical applications of this system. Examples are shown for user-defined spot sampling from separated bands on a TLC plate (one or multiple spots), scanning of a complete development lane (one or multiple lanes), or imaging of analyte bands in a development lane (i.e. multiple lane scans with close spacing). The post data processing and data display aspects of the software system are also discussed.

  20. A review of single-sample-based models and other approaches for radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Han, L. F; Plummer, Niel

    2016-01-01

    Numerous methods have been proposed to estimate the pre-nuclear-detonation 14C content of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) recharged to groundwater that has been corrected/adjusted for geochemical processes in the absence of radioactive decay (14C0) - a quantity that is essential for estimation of radiocarbon age of DIC in groundwater. The models/approaches most commonly used are grouped as follows: (1) single-sample-based models, (2) a statistical approach based on the observed (curved) relationship between 14C and δ13C data for the aquifer, and (3) the geochemical mass-balance approach that constructs adjustment models accounting for all the geochemical reactions known to occur along a groundwater flow path. This review discusses first the geochemical processes behind each of the single-sample-based models, followed by discussions of the statistical approach and the geochemical mass-balance approach. Finally, the applications, advantages and limitations of the three groups of models/approaches are discussed.The single-sample-based models constitute the prevailing use of 14C data in hydrogeology and hydrological studies. This is in part because the models are applied to an individual water sample to estimate the 14C age, therefore the measurement data are easily available. These models have been shown to provide realistic radiocarbon ages in many studies. However, they usually are limited to simple carbonate aquifers and selection of model may have significant effects on 14C0 often resulting in a wide range of estimates of 14C ages.Of the single-sample-based models, four are recommended for the estimation of 14C0 of DIC in groundwater: Pearson's model, (Ingerson and Pearson, 1964; Pearson and White, 1967), Han & Plummer's model (Han and Plummer, 2013), the IAEA model (Gonfiantini, 1972; Salem et al., 1980), and Oeschger's model (Geyh, 2000). These four models include all processes considered in single-sample-based models, and can be used in different ranges of

  1. Automated fluid analysis apparatus and techniques

    DOEpatents

    Szecsody, James E.

    2004-03-16

    An automated device that couples a pair of differently sized sample loops with a syringe pump and a source of degassed water. A fluid sample is mounted at an inlet port and delivered to the sample loops. A selected sample from the sample loops is diluted in the syringe pump with the degassed water and fed to a flow through detector for analysis. The sample inlet is also directly connected to the syringe pump to selectively perform analysis without dilution. The device is airtight and used to detect oxygen-sensitive species, such as dithionite in groundwater following a remedial injection to treat soil contamination.

  2. Validation of a fully automated robotic setup for preparation of whole blood samples for LC-MS toxicology analysis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, David; Rasmussen, Brian; Linnet, Kristian

    2012-05-01

    A fully automated setup was developed for preparing whole blood samples using a Tecan Evo workstation. By integrating several add-ons to the robotic platform, the flexible setup was able to prepare samples from sample tubes to a 96-well sample plate ready for injection on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using several preparation techniques, including protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction and centrifugation, without any manual intervention. Pipetting of a known aliquot of whole blood was achieved by integrating a balance and performing gravimetric measurements. The system was able to handle 1,073 of 1,092 (98.3%) samples of whole blood from forensic material, including postmortem samples, without any need for repeating sample preparation. Only three samples required special treatment such as dilution. The addition of internal and calibration standards were validated by pipetting a solution of Orange G and measuring the weight and absorbance. Internal standard (20 µL) was added in a multi-pipetting sequence with an accuracy of 99.9% and imprecision (coefficient of variation) of 1.6%. Calibration standards were added with high accuracy at volumes as low as 6.00 µL (±0.21 µL). The general setup of the offline sample preparation and key validation parameters of a quantitative analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol is presented.

  3. Fully automated Liquid Extraction-Based Surface Sampling and Ionization Using a Chip-Based Robotic Nanoelectrospray Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    A fully automated liquid extraction-based surface sampling device utilizing an Advion NanoMate chip-based infusion nanoelectrospray ionization system is reported. Analyses were enabled for discrete spot sampling by using the Advanced User Interface of the current commercial control software. This software interface provided the parameter control necessary for the NanoMate robotic pipettor to both form and withdraw a liquid microjunction for sampling from a surface. The system was tested with three types of analytically important sample surface types, viz., spotted sample arrays on a MALDI plate, dried blood spots on paper, and whole-body thin tissue sections from drug dosed mice. The qualitative and quantitative data were consistent with previous studies employing other liquid extraction-based surface sampling techniques. The successful analyses performed here utilized the hardware and software elements already present in the NanoMate system developed to handle and analyze liquid samples. Implementation of an appropriate sample (surface) holder, a solvent reservoir, faster movement of the robotic arm, finer control over solvent flow rate when dispensing and retrieving the solution at the surface, and the ability to select any location on a surface to sample from would improve the analytical performance and utility of the platform.

  4. Sampling design for groundwater solute transport: Tests of methods and analysis of Cape Cod tracer test data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knopman, Debra S.; Voss, Clifford I.; Garabedian, Stephen P.

    1991-01-01

    Tests of a one-dimensional sampling design methodology on measurements of bromide concentration collected during the natural gradient tracer test conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, demonstrate its efficacy for field studies of solute transport in groundwater and the utility of one-dimensional analysis. The methodology was applied to design of sparse two-dimensional networks of fully screened wells typical of those often used in engineering practice. In one-dimensional analysis, designs consist of the downstream distances to rows of wells oriented perpendicular to the groundwater flow direction and the timing of sampling to be carried out on each row. The power of a sampling design is measured by its effectiveness in simultaneously meeting objectives of model discrimination, parameter estimation, and cost minimization. One-dimensional models of solute transport, differing in processes affecting the solute and assumptions about the structure of the flow field, were considered for description of tracer cloud migration. When fitting each model using nonlinear regression, additive and multiplicative error forms were allowed for the residuals which consist of both random and model errors. The one-dimensional single-layer model of a nonreactive solute with multiplicative error was judged to be the best of those tested. Results show the efficacy of the methodology in designing sparse but powerful sampling networks. Designs that sample five rows of wells at five or fewer times in any given row performed as well for model discrimination as the full set of samples taken up to eight times in a given row from as many as 89 rows. Also, designs for parameter estimation judged to be good by the methodology were as effective in reducing the variance of parameter estimates as arbitrary designs with many more samples. Results further showed that estimates of velocity and longitudinal dispersivity in one-dimensional models based on data from only five

  5. High-frequency, long-duration water sampling in acid mine drainage studies: a short review of current methods and recent advances in automated water samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hand-collected grab samples are the most common water sampling method but using grab sampling to monitor temporally variable aquatic processes such as diel metal cycling or episodic events is rarely feasible or cost-effective. Currently available automated samplers are a proven, widely used technology and typically collect up to 24 samples during a deployment. However, these automated samplers are not well suited for long-term sampling in remote areas or in freezing conditions. There is a critical need for low-cost, long-duration, high-frequency water sampling technology to improve our understanding of the geochemical response to temporally variable processes. This review article will examine recent developments in automated water sampler technology and utilize selected field data from acid mine drainage studies to illustrate the utility of high-frequency, long-duration water sampling.

  6. A new automated sample transfer system for instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Ismail, S S

    2010-01-01

    A fully automated and fast pneumatic transport system for short-time activation analysis was recently developed. It is suitable for small nuclear research reactors or laboratories that are using neutron generators and other neutron sources. It is equipped with a programmable logic controller, software package, and 12 devices to facilitate optimal analytical procedures. 550 ms were only necessary to transfer the irradiated capsule (diameter: 15 mm, length: 50 mm, weight: 4 gram) to the counting chamber at a distance of 20 meters using pressurized air (4 bars) as a transport gas.

  7. A New Automated Sample Transfer System for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    A fully automated and fast pneumatic transport system for short-time activation analysis was recently developed. It is suitable for small nuclear research reactors or laboratories that are using neutron generators and other neutron sources. It is equipped with a programmable logic controller, software package, and 12 devices to facilitate optimal analytical procedures. 550 ms were only necessary to transfer the irradiated capsule (diameter: 15 mm, length: 50 mm, weight: 4 gram) to the counting chamber at a distance of 20 meters using pressurized air (4 bars) as a transport gas. PMID:20369063

  8. Sensitivity testing of trypanosome detection by PCR from whole blood samples using manual and automated DNA extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, J; Thompson, C K; Godfrey, S S; Thompson, R C A

    2014-11-01

    Automated extraction of DNA for testing of laboratory samples is an attractive alternative to labour-intensive manual methods when higher throughput is required. However, it is important to maintain the maximum detection sensitivity possible to reduce the occurrence of type II errors (false negatives; failure to detect the target when it is present), especially in the biomedical field, where PCR is used for diagnosis. We used blood infected with known concentrations of Trypanosoma copemani to test the impact of analysis techniques on trypanosome detection sensitivity by PCR. We compared combinations of a manual and an automated DNA extraction method and two different PCR primer sets to investigate the impact of each on detection levels. Both extraction techniques and specificity of primer sets had a significant impact on detection sensitivity. Samples extracted using the same DNA extraction technique performed substantially differently for each of the separate primer sets. Type I errors (false positives; detection of the target when it is not present), produced by contaminants, were avoided with both extraction methods. This study highlights the importance of testing laboratory techniques with known samples to optimise accuracy of test results.

  9. Microbiological Comparison of Core and Groundwater Samples Collected from a Fractured Basalt Aquifier with that of Dialysis Chamber Incubated in Situ

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R. Michael; O'Connell, Sean P.; Banta, Amy; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Reysenbach, Anna-Louis; Kieft, Thomas L.; Colwell, Frederick S.

    2004-04-01

    Microorganisms associated with fractured basalt core were compared to those suspended in groundwater pumped from the same well in the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer (Idaho, USA). Two wells influenced to different degrees by a mixed-waste plume in the fractured basalt aquifer were examined. In one well, an array of dialysis cells filled with either deionized water or crushed basalt was equilibrated to compare the microorganisms collected in this fashion with those from core and groundwater samples collected in a traditional manner from the same well. Analyses were performed to characterize these samples and to provide a basis for comparison. These included total cell counts by microscopy; total biomass by phospholipid fatty acid analysis; enumerations of viable aerobic heterotrophs, groups of putative aerobic co-metabolic TCE-degraders and aerobic H2-oxidizing bacteria; mineralization of 14C- labeled acetate; and enrichments for dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria. The 16S rDNA sequences associated with DNA directly extracted from the samples were determined in selected samples following either clonal analyses or separation of PCR products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The ground water well most influenced by the waste plume had higher populations of organisms in both the groundwater and core samples. In both wells, significant differences were found between bacteria associated with the basalt core and those suspended in the groundwater. Microbial parameters measured in core samples showed high variation throughout the depth profile. Higher populations were found in the basalt- and water-filled dialysis cells incubated in the open well compared with core and groundwater samples, respectively. For a given parameter, the variation among dialysis cells incubated at different depths was much less than that observed in the core samples. Given knowledge of cell physiological changes associated with attachment and potential differences between attached

  10. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd Yussup, Nolida; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B.; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah; Ismail, Nadiah Binti

    2015-04-29

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on ‘Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)’. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  11. Data Validation Package, April and June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site, October 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Linard, Joshua; Campbell, Sam

    2016-10-01

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and­ analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected from 28 monitoring wells, three domestic wells, and six surface locations in April at the processing site as specified in the draft 2010 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Domestic wells 0476 and 0477 were sampled in June because the homes were unoccupied in April, and the wells were not in use. Duplicate samples were collected from locations 0126, 0477, and 0780. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. See Attachment 2, Trip Reports for additional details. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up. An assessment of anomalous data is included in Attachment 3. Interpretation and presentation of results, including an assessment ofthe natural flushing compliance strategy, will be reported in the upcoming 2016 Verification Monitoring Report. U.S.

  12. Well installation and documentation, and ground-water sampling protocols for the pilot National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardy, M.A.; Leahy, P.P.; Alley, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Several pilot projects are being conducted as part of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The purpose of the pilot program is to test and refine concepts for a proposed full-scale program. Three of the pilot projects are specifically designed to assess groundwater. The purpose of this report is to describe the criteria that are being used in the NAWQA pilot projects for selecting and documenting wells, installing new wells, and sampling wells for different water quality constituents. Guidelines are presented for the selection of wells for sampling. Information needed to accurately document each well includes site characteristics related to the location of the well, land use near the well, and important well construction features. These guidelines ensure the consistency of the information collected and will provide comparable data for interpretive purposes. Guidelines for the installation of wells are presented and include procedures that need to be followed for preparations prior to drilling, the selection of the drilling technique and casing type, the grouting procedure, and the well-development technique. A major component of the protocols is related to water quality sampling. Tasks are identified that need to be completed prior to visiting the site for sampling. Guidelines are presented for purging the well prior t sampling, both in terms of the volume of water pumped and the chemical stability of field parameters. Guidelines are presented concerning sampler selection as related to both inorganic and organic constituents. Documentation needed to describe the measurements and observations related to sampling each well and treating and preserving the samples are also presented. Procedures are presented for the storage and shipping of water samples, equipment cleaning, and quality assurance. Quality assurance guidelines include the description of the general distribution of the various quality assurance samples (blanks, spikes, duplicates, and

  13. April 2012 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-12

    Sampling and analysis were conducted on April 16-19, 2012, as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office Of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Duplicate samples were collected from locations SA1-1-H, HMH-5R, SA3-4-H, SA1-2-H, Pond W of GZ, and SA5-4-4. One trip blank was collected during this sampling event.

  14. GROUND WATER ISSUE: LOW-FLOW (MINIMAL DRAWDOWN) GROUND-WATER SAMPLING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper is intended to provide background information on the development of low-flow sampling procedures and its application under a variety of hydrogeologic settings. The sampling methodology described in this paper assumes that the monitoring goal is to sample monitoring wel...

  15. Summary of chemical data from onsite and laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the surficial aquifer, Las Vegas, Nevada, April and August 1993 and September 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Gunther, Charmaine D.

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from groundwater wells in and about the city of Las Vegas, Nevada, and were analyzed for selected major, minor and trace constituents. Analyses of blank and reference samples are summarized as mean and standard deviation values for all positive results.

  16. Method for Effective Calibration of Temperature Loggers with Automated Data Sampling and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungblad, S.; Josefson, L. E.; Holmsten, M.

    2011-12-01

    A highly automated calibration method for temperature loggers is presented. By using an automated procedure, a time- and cost-efficient calibration of temperature loggers is made possible. The method is directed at loggers that lack the function/property of direct reading from a display. This type of logger has to be connected to a computer for the setting-up of the measurement and again for collection of the measurement results. During the calibration, the loggers are offline. This method has been developed for temperature loggers from Gemini Data loggers, but the software and method could be modified to suit other types of loggers as well. Calibration is performed by comparison to a reference thermometer in liquid baths; and for loggers which have external sensors, only the sensor is normally placed in the bath. Loggers with internal sensors are protected from the liquid by placing them in an exterior plastic or metallic cover, and thereafter the entire loggers are placed in the bath. A digital thermometer measures the reference temperature of the bath and transmits it to a computer by way of Bluetooth. The developed calibration software, SPTempLogger, controls the logger software, and thus the communication protocol of the logger software does not need to be known. The previous method, with manual handling of the start and termination of every measuring sequence, evaluation of the resulting data and its corresponding uncertainty components, can be replaced by this automated method. Both the logger and reference measurement data are automatically downloaded once the logger has been connected to a computer after the calibration, and the calibration software started. The data are then evaluated automatically, and by statistical analysis of the confidence coefficient and standard deviation, the temperature plateaus that the calibration includes are identified. If a number of control parameters comply with the requirements, then the correction, resolution, and short

  17. Evaluation of groundwater quality and assessment of scaling potential and corrosiveness of water samples in Kadkan aquifer, Khorasan-e-Razavi Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili-Vardanjani, Mostafa; Rasa, Iraj; Amiri, Vahab; Yazdi, Mohammad; Pazand, Kaveh

    2015-02-01

    The chemical analysis of 129 groundwater samples in the Kadkan area, Khorasan-e-Razavi Province, NE of Iran was evaluated to determine the hydrochemical processes, assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation purposes, corrosiveness, and scaling potential of the groundwater. Accordingly, the suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated based on the sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent, salinity hazard, and US Salinity Laboratory hazard diagram. Based on the electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio, the dominant classes are C3-S1, C3-S2, C2-S1, and C4-S2. According to the Wilcox plot, about 50 % of the samples fall in the "Excellent to Good" and "Good to Permissible" classes. Besides, the Langelier saturation index, Ryznar stability index (RSI), Larson-Skold index, and Puckorius scaling index were evaluated for assessing the corrosiveness and scaling potential of the groundwater. Corrosiveness and scaling indices stated that the majority of samples are classified into "Aggressive" and "Very Aggressive" category. In addition, chloride and sulfate interfere in 90 % of the samples. Assessment of hydrochemical characteristics indicates Na-Mg-Cl as the predominant hydrochemical type. Spatial distribution of hydrochemical parameters indicates that hydrochemical processes are influenced by geology and hydrogeology of Kadkan aquifer. The Gibbs plots gave an indication that groundwater chemistry in this area may have acquired the chemistry mainly from evaporation and mineral precipitation. Grouping the samples based on Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis helped to more separation of similar samples. The R-mode HCA grouped analyzed parameters into two groups based on similarity of hydrochemical characteristics. As a result, the samples collected in northern and southern parts of the study area show the best quality (i.e., lowest salinity) for some purposes such as irrigation and drinking.

  18. An automated sample preparation system with mini-reactor to isolate and process submegabase fragments of bacterial DNA.

    PubMed

    Mollova, Emilia T; Patil, Vishal A; Protozanova, Ekaterina; Zhang, Meng; Gilmanshin, Rudolf

    2009-08-15

    Existing methods for extraction and processing of large fragments of bacterial genomic DNA are manual, time-consuming, and prone to variability in DNA quality and recovery. To solve these problems, we have designed and built an automated fluidic system with a mini-reactor. Balancing flows through and tangential to the ultrafiltration membrane in the reactor, cells and then released DNA can be immobilized and subjected to a series of consecutive processing steps. The steps may include enzymatic reactions, tag hybridization, buffer exchange, and selective removal of cell debris and by-products of the reactions. The system can produce long DNA fragments (up to 0.5 Mb) of bacterial genome restriction digest and perform DNA tagging with fluorescent sequence-specific probes. The DNA obtained is of high purity and floating free in solution, and it can be directly analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) or used in applications requiring submegabase DNA fragments. PFGE-ready samples of DNA restriction digests can be produced in as little as 2.1 h and require less than 10(8) cells. All fluidic operations are automated except for the injection of the sample and reagents.

  19. Laboratory and field testing of an automated atmospheric particle-bound reactive oxygen species sampling-analysis system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yungang; Hopke, Philip K; Sun, Liping; Chalupa, David C; Utell, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    In this study, various laboratory and field tests were performed to develop an effective automated particle-bound ROS sampling-analysis system. The system uses 2' 7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) fluorescence method as a nonspecific, general indicator of the particle-bound ROS. A sharp-cut cyclone and a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) were used to collect PM(2.5) atmospheric particles into slurry produced by a DCFH-HRP solution. The laboratory results show that the DCFH and H(2)O(2) standard solutions could be kept at room temperature for at least three and eight days, respectively. The field test in Rochester, NY, shows that the average ROS concentration was 8.3 ± 2.2 nmol of equivalent H(2)O(2) m(-3) of air. The ROS concentrations were observed to be greater after foggy conditions. This study demonstrates the first practical automated sampling-analysis system to measure this ambient particle component.

  20. Automated method for simultaneous lead and strontium isotopic analysis applied to rainwater samples and airborne particulate filters (PM10).

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Blanca; Avivar, Jessica; Mola, Montserrat; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor; Leal, Luz O

    2013-09-03

    A new automated, sensitive, and fast system for the simultaneous online isolation and preconcentration of lead and strontium by sorption on a microcolumn packed with Sr-resin using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detector was developed, hyphenating lab-on-valve (LOV) and multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA). Pb and Sr are directly retained on the sorbent column and eluted with a solution of 0.05 mol L(-1) ammonium oxalate. The detection limits achieved were 0.04 ng for lead and 0.03 ng for strontium. Mass calibration curves were used since the proposed system allows the use of different sample volumes for preconcentration. Mass linear working ranges were between 0.13 and 50 ng and 0.1 and 50 ng for lead and strontium, respectively. The repeatability of the method, expressed as RSD, was 2.1% and 2.7% for Pb and Sr, respectively. Environmental samples such as rainwater and airborne particulate (PM10) filters as well as a certified reference material SLRS-4 (river water) were satisfactorily analyzed obtaining recoveries between 90 and 110% for both elements. The main features of the LOV-MSFIA-ICP-MS system proposed are the capability to renew solid phase extraction at will in a fully automated way, the remarkable stability of the column which can be reused up to 160 times, and the potential to perform isotopic analysis.

  1. Laboratory and Field Testing of an Automated Atmospheric Particle-Bound Reactive Oxygen Species Sampling-Analysis System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yungang; Hopke, Philip K.; Sun, Liping; Chalupa, David C.; Utell, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, various laboratory and field tests were performed to develop an effective automated particle-bound ROS sampling-analysis system. The system uses 2′ 7′-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) fluorescence method as a nonspecific, general indicator of the particle-bound ROS. A sharp-cut cyclone and a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) were used to collect PM2.5 atmospheric particles into slurry produced by a DCFH-HRP solution. The laboratory results show that the DCFH and H2O2 standard solutions could be kept at room temperature for at least three and eight days, respectively. The field test in Rochester, NY, shows that the average ROS concentration was 8.3 ± 2.2 nmol of equivalent H2O2 m−3 of air. The ROS concentrations were observed to be greater after foggy conditions. This study demonstrates the first practical automated sampling-analysis system to measure this ambient particle component. PMID:21577270

  2. Multi-element compound specific stable isotope analysis of volatile organic compounds at trace levels in groundwater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Martín, Sara; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Schmidt, Marie; Wolfram, Diana; Richnow, Hans. H.; Gehre, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater pollution remains one of the major environmental and health concerns. A thorough understanding of sources, sinks and transformation processes of groundwater contaminants is needed to improve risk management evaluation, and to design efficient remediation and water treatment strategies. Isotopic tools provide unique information for an in-depth understanding of the fate of organic chemicals in the environment. During the last decades compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of complex mixtures, using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS), has gained popularity for the characterization and risk assessment of hazardous waste sites and for isotope forensics of organic contaminants. Multi-element isotope fingerprinting of organic substances provides a more robust framework for interpretation than the isotope analysis of only one element. One major challenge for application of CSIA is the analysis of trace levels of organic compounds in environmental matrices. It is necessary to inject 1 nmol carbon or 8 nmol hydrogen on column, to obtain an accurate and precise measurement of the isotope ratios, which is between two and three orders of magnitude larger than the amount of compound needed for conventional analysis of compound concentrations. Therefore, efficient extraction and pre-concentration techniques have to be integrated with GC-IRMS. Further research is urgently needed in this field, to evaluate the potential of novel and environmental-friendly sample pre-treatment techniques for CSIA to lower the detection limits and extending environmental applications. In this study, the novel coupling of a headspace autosampler (HS) with a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV), allowing large volume injection of headspace samples, is proposed to improve the sensitivity of CSIA. This automatic, fast and solvent free strategy provides a significant increase on the sensitivity of GC-based methods maintaining the simple headspace instrumentation

  3. Reference values for performance on the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics V3.0 in an active duty military sample.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Dennis L; Bleiberg, Joseph; Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa; Cernich, Alison N; Schwab, Karen; Ivins, Brian; Salazar, Andres M; Harvey, Sally C; Brown, Fred H; Warden, Deborah

    2006-10-01

    The Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) is a computerized measure of processing speed, cognitive efficiency, and memory. This study describes performance and psychometric properties of ANAM in an active duty, healthy military sample (N = 2,371) composed primarily of young (18-46 years) adult males. Rarely have neuropsychological reference values for use with individuals in the military been derived from a large, active duty military population, and this is the first computerized neuropsychological test battery with military-specific reference values. Although these results do not provide demographically corrected, formal normative data, they provide reference points for neuropsychologists and other health care providers who are using ANAM data in research or clinical settings, with patients of comparable demographics to the present sample.

  4. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Using an Automated Blood Sampling System and Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tse; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lin, Chia-Chun; Chien, Chao-Feng; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2012-01-01

    The safety of herbal products is one of the major concerns for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, and pharmacokinetic data of medicinal herbs guide us to design the rational use of the herbal formula. This article reviews the advantages of the automated blood sampling (ABS) systems for pharmacokinetic studies. In addition, three commonly used sample preparative methods, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are introduced. Furthermore, the definition, causes and evaluation of matrix effects in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis are demonstrated. Finally, we present our previous works as practical examples of the application of ABS systems and LC/MS for the pharmacokinetic studies of Chinese medicinal herbs. PMID:24716112

  5. Design and practices for use of automated drilling and sample handling in MARTE while minimizing terrestrial and cross contamination.

    PubMed

    Miller, David P; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Davis, Kiel

    2008-10-01

    Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) investigators used an automated drill and sample processing hardware to detect and categorize life-forms found in subsurface rock at Río Tinto, Spain. For the science to be successful, it was necessary for the biomass from other sources--whether from previously processed samples (cross contamination) or the terrestrial environment (forward contamination)-to be insignificant. The hardware and practices used in MARTE were designed around this problem. Here, we describe some of the design issues that were faced and classify them into problems that are unique to terrestrial tests versus problems that would also exist for a system that was flown to Mars. Assessment of the biomass at various stages in the sample handling process revealed mixed results; the instrument design seemed to minimize cross contamination, but contamination from the surrounding environment sometimes made its way onto the surface of samples. Techniques used during the MARTE Río Tinto project, such as facing the sample, appear to remove this environmental contamination without introducing significant cross contamination from previous samples.

  6. Fully automated determination of cannabinoids in hair samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, Frank; Junker, Heike P; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kroener, Lars; Madea, Burkhard

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a fully automated procedure using alkaline hydrolysis and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by on-fiber derivatization and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) detection of cannabinoids in human hair samples. Ten milligrams of hair was washed with deionized water, petroleum ether, and dichloromethane. After the addition of deuterated internal standards the sample was hydrolyzed with sodium hydroxide and directly submitted to HS-SPME. After absorption of analytes for an on-fiber derivatization procedure the fiber was directly placed into the headspace of a second vial containing N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) before GC-MS analysis. The limit of detection was 0.05 ng/mg for delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 0.08 ng/mg for cannabidiol (CBD), and 0.14 ng/mg for cannabinol (CBN). Absolute recoveries were in the range between 0.3 and 7.5%. Linearity was proved over a range from 0.1 to 20 ng/mg with coefficients of correlation from 0.998 to 0.999. Validation of the whole procedure revealed excellent results. In comparison with conventional methods of hair analysis this automated HS-SPME-GC-MS procedure is substantially faster. It is easy to perform without use of solvents and with minimal sample quantities, but with the same degree of sensitivity and reproducibility. The applicability was demonstrated by the analysis of 25 hair samples from several forensic cases. The following concentration ranges were determined: THC 0.29-2.20 (mean 1.7) ng/mg, CBN 0.55-4.54 (mean 1.2) ng/mg, and CBD 0.53-18.36 (mean 1.3) ng/mg. 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid could not be detected with this method.

  7. Screening urine samples for the absence of urinary tract infection using the sediMAX automated microscopy analyser.

    PubMed

    Sterry-Blunt, Rosanne E; S Randall, Karen; J Doughton, Michael; H Aliyu, Sani; Enoch, David A

    2015-06-01

    Urinalysis culminates in a workload skew within the clinical microbiology laboratory. Routine processing involves screening via manual microscopy or biochemical dipstick measurement, followed by culture for each sample. Despite this, as many as 80% of specimens are reported as negative; thus, there is vast wastage of resources and time, as well as delayed turnaround time of results as numerous negative cultures fulfil their required incubation time. Automation provides the potential for streamlining sample screening by efficiently (>30% sample exclusion) and reliably [negative predictive value (NPV) ≥ 95%] ruling out those likely to be negative, whilst also reducing resource usage and hands-on time. The present study explored this idea by using the sediMAX automated microscopy urinalysis platform. We prospectively collected and processed 1411 non-selected samples directly after routine laboratory processing. The results from this study showed multiple optimum cut-off values for microscopy. However, although optimum cut-off values permitted rule-out of 40.1% of specimens, an associated 87.5% NPV was lower than the acceptable limit of 95%. Sensitivity and specificity of leukocytes and bacteria in determining urinary tract infection was assessed by receiver operator characteristic curves with area under the curve values found to be 0.697 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.665-0.729] and 0.587 (95% CI: 0.551-0.623), respectively. We suggested that the sediMAX was not suitable for use as a rule-out screen prior to culture and further validation work must be carried out before routine use of the analyser.

  8. Plan for proposed aquifer hydraulic testing and groundwater sampling at Everest, Kansas, in January-February 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    On September 8-9, 2005, representatives of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), and Argonne National Laboratory met at the KDHE's offices in Topeka to review the status of the CCC/USDA's environmental activities in Kansas. A key CCC/USDA goal for this meeting was to obtain KDHE input on the selection of possible remedial approaches to be examined as part of the Corrective Action Study (CAS) for this site. As a result of the September meeting, the KDHE recommended several additional activities for the Everest site, to further assist in selecting and evaluating remedial alternatives for the CAS. The requested actions included the following: (1) Construction of several additional interpretive cross sections to improve the depiction of the hydrogeologic characteristics affecting groundwater and contaminant movement along the apparent main plume migration pathway to the north-northwest of the former CCC/USDA facility, and in the vicinity of the Nigh property. (2) Identification of potential locations for several additional monitoring wells, to better constrain the apparent western and northwestern margins of the existing groundwater plume. (3) Development of technical recommendations for a stepwise pumping study of the Everest aquifer unit in the area near and to the north of the Nigh property. On October 21, 2005, Argonne issued a brief Cross Section Analysis (Argonne 2006a) addressing these concerns, on behalf of the CCC/USDA. This report includes the following: (1) Preliminary recommendations for the siting of three new monitoring wells, at locations identified by the KDHE. Argonne also suggested, however, that the installation and sampling of these wells be deferred until after completion of the CAS evaluation. (2) A proposed strategy for testing of the Everest aquifer unit near the Nigh property, involving initial test pumping of the former Nigh domestic well and

  9. March 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Project Shoal Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Project Shoal Area (Shoal) in March 2011. Wells HC-1, HC-2, HC-4, HC-5, HC-6, HC-7, MV-1, MV-2 and MV-3 were sampled as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Two extra tritium samples were collected from well HC-4, one sample (HC-4-400) was collected at about 1/3 of the purge volume (135 gallons), the second sample (HC-4-400) was collected at 2/3 of purge volume (270 gallons). These additional samples were collected prior to completing the well purging process to evaluate the effects well purging has on the analytical results. Samples were not collected from locations HC-3 and HC-8 at the direction of the S.M. Stoller Corporation site lead.

  10. Variation in aluminum, iron, and particle concentrations in oxic groundwater samples collected by use of tangential-flow ultrafiltration with low-flow sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Oden, Jeannette H.; Gibs, Jacob; Rice, Donald E.; Ding, Yuan

    2002-02-01

    Particulates that move with ground water and those that are artificially mobilized during well purging could be incorporated into water samples during collection and could cause trace-element concentrations to vary in unfiltered samples, and possibly in filtered samples (typically 0.45-um (micron) pore size) as well, depending on the particle-size fractions present. Therefore, measured concentrations may not be representative of those in the aquifer. Ground water may contain particles of various sizes and shapes that are broadly classified as colloids, which do not settle from water, and particulates, which do. In order to investigate variations in trace-element concentrations in ground-water samples as a function of particle concentrations and particle-size fractions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, collected samples from five wells completed in the unconfined, oxic Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Samples were collected by purging with a portable pump at low flow (0.2-0.5 liters per minute and minimal drawdown, ideally less than 0.5 foot). Unfiltered samples were collected in the following sequence: (1) within the first few minutes of pumping, (2) after initial turbidity declined and about one to two casing volumes of water had been purged, and (3) after turbidity values had stabilized at less than 1 to 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Filtered samples were split concurrently through (1) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter, (2) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter and a 0.0029-um pore size tangential-flow filter in sequence, and (3), in selected cases, a 0.45-um and a 0.05-um pore size capsule filter in sequence. Filtered samples were collected concurrently with the unfiltered sample that was collected when turbidity values stabilized. Quality-assurance samples consisted of sequential duplicates (about 25 percent) and equipment blanks. Concentrations of particles were determined by light scattering.

  11. May 2010 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on June 7-9, 2010, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated).

  12. June 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on June 26-27, 2012, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the "Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan" completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated).

  13. Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry--semi-automated sample preparation unit as a means for facilitated practical application.

    PubMed

    Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Pomberger, Roland; Lorber, Karl E; Sipple, Ernst-Michael

    2016-03-01

    One of the challenges for the cement industry is the quality assurance of alternative fuel (e.g., solid recovered fuel, SRF) in co-incineration plants--especially for inhomogeneous alternative fuels with large particle sizes (d95⩾100 mm), which will gain even more importance in the substitution of conventional fuels due to low production costs. Existing standards for sampling and sample preparation do not cover the challenges resulting from these kinds of materials. A possible approach to ensure quality monitoring is shown in the present contribution. For this, a specially manufactured, automated comminution and sample divider device was installed at a cement plant in Rohožnik. In order to prove its practical suitability with methods according to current standards, the sampling and sample preparation process were validated for alternative fuel with a grain size >30 mm (i.e., d95=approximately 100 mm), so-called 'Hotdisc SRF'. Therefore, series of samples were taken and analysed. A comparison of the analysis results with the yearly average values obtained through a reference investigation route showed good accordance. Further investigations during the validation process also showed that segregation or enrichment of material throughout the comminution plant does not occur. The results also demonstrate that compliance with legal standards regarding the minimum sample amount is not sufficient for inhomogeneous and coarse particle size alternative fuels. Instead, higher sample amounts after the first particle size reduction step are strongly recommended in order to gain a representative laboratory sample.

  14. An Automated Laboratory-scale Methodology for the Generation of Sheared Mammalian Cell Culture Samples.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Adrian; Goldrick, Stephen; Mollet, Michael; Turner, Richard; Bender, Jean; Gruber, David; Farid, Suzanne S; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel

    2017-02-24

    Continuous disk-stack centrifugation is typically used for the removal of cells and cellular debris from mammalian cell culture broths at manufacturing-scale. The use of scale-down methods to characterise disk-stack centrifugation performance enables substantial reductions in material requirements and allows a much wider design space to be tested than is currently possible at pilot-scale. The process of scaling down centrifugation has historically been challenging due to the difficulties in mimicking the Energy Dissipation Rates (EDRs) in typical machines. This paper describes an alternative and easy-to-assemble automated capillary-based methodology to generate levels of EDRs consistent with those found in a continuous disk-stack centrifuge. Variations in EDR were achieved through changes in capillary internal diameter and the flow rate of operation through the capillary. The EDRs found to match the levels of shear in the feed zone of a pilot-scale centrifuge using the experimental method developed in this paper (2.4×10(5) W/Kg) are consistent with those obtained through previously published computational fluid dynamic (CFD) studies (2.0×10(5) W/Kg). Furthermore, this methodology can be incorporated into existing scale-down methods to model the process performance of continuous disk-stack centrifuges. This was demonstrated through the characterisation of culture hold time, culture temperature and EDRs on centrate quality.

  15. Rapid and automated sample preparation for nucleic acid extraction on a microfluidic CD (compact disk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jitae; Kido, Horacio; Zoval, Jim V.; Gagné, Dominic; Peytavi, Régis; Picard, François J.; Bastien, Martine; Boissinot, Maurice; Bergeron, Michel G.; Madou, Marc J.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid and automated preparation of PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-ready genomic DNA was demonstrated on a multiplexed CD (compact disk) platform by using hard-to-lyse bacterial spores. Cell disruption is carried out while beadcell suspensions are pushed back and forth in center-tapered lysing chambers by angular oscillation of the disk - keystone effect. During this lysis period, the cell suspensions are securely held within the lysing chambers by heatactivated wax valves. Upon application of a remote heat to the disk in motion, the wax valves release lysate solutions into centrifuge chambers where cell debris are separated by an elevated rotation of the disk. Only debris-free DNA extract is then transferred to collection chambers by capillary-assisted siphon and collected for heating that inactivates PCR inhibitors. Lysing capacity was evaluated using a real-time PCR assay to monitor the efficiency of Bacillus globigii spore lysis. PCR analysis showed that 5 minutes' CD lysis run gave spore lysis efficiency similar to that obtained with a popular commercial DNA extraction kit (i.e., IDI-lysis kit from GeneOhm Sciences Inc.) which is highly efficient for microbial cell and spore lysis. This work will contribute to the development of an integrated CD-based assay for rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases.

  16. MICROBIOLOGICAL FIELD SAMPLING AND INSTRUMENTATION IN THE ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AND GROUND-WATER POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter emphasizes the importance of microbiological sampling of soil and ground water with respect to human heath risks, laws and regulations dealing with safe drinking water, and more prevalent subsurface monitoring activities associated with chlorinated organic compounds,...

  17. Spatial Prediction and Optimized Sampling Design for Sodium Concentration in Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Shabbir, Javid; M. AbdEl-Salam, Nasser; Hussain, Tajammal

    2016-01-01

    Sodium is an integral part of water, and its excessive amount in drinking water causes high blood pressure and hypertension. In the present paper, spatial distribution of sodium concentration in drinking water is modeled and optimized sampling designs for selecting sampling locations is calculated for three divisions in Punjab, Pakistan. Universal kriging and Bayesian universal kriging are used to predict the sodium concentrations. Spatial simulated annealing is used to generate optimized sampling designs. Different estimation methods (i.e., maximum likelihood, restricted maximum likelihood, ordinary least squares, and weighted least squares) are used to estimate the parameters of the variogram model (i.e, exponential, Gaussian, spherical and cubic). It is concluded that Bayesian universal kriging fits better than universal kriging. It is also observed that the universal kriging predictor provides minimum mean universal kriging variance for both adding and deleting locations during sampling design. PMID:27683016

  18. Automated radioanalytical system incorporating microwave-assisted sample preparation, chemical separation, and online radiometric detection for the monitoring of total 99Tc in nuclear waste processing streams.

    PubMed

    Egorov, Oleg B; O'Hara, Matthew J; Grate, Jay W

    2012-04-03

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total (99)Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the (99)Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of (99)Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of (99)Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site.

  19. Revisiting the Hubble sequence in the SDSS DR7 spectroscopic sample: a publicly available Bayesian automated classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Bernardi, M.; Mei, S.; Sánchez Almeida, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present an automated morphological classification in 4 types (E, S0, Sab, Scd) of ~700 000 galaxies from the SDSS DR7 spectroscopic sample based on support vector machines. The main new property of the classification is that we associate a probability to each galaxy of being in the four morphological classes instead of assigning a single class. The classification is therefore better adapted to nature where we expect a continuous transition between different morphological types. The algorithm is trained with a visual classification and then compared to several independent visual classifications including the Galaxy Zoo first-release catalog. We find a very good correlation between the automated classification and classical visual ones. The compiled catalog is intended for use in different applications and is therefore freely available through a dedicated webpage* and soon from the CasJobs database. Full catalog is only available in electronic form at CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/525/A157 or via http://gepicom04.obspm.fr/sdss_morphology/Morphology_2010.html

  20. Determination of submicrogram-per-liter concentrations of caffeine in surface water and groundwater samples by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhardt, M.R.; Soliven, P.P.; Werner, S.L.; Vaught, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    A method for determining submicrogram-per-liter concentrations of caffeine in surface water and groundwater samples has been developed. Caffeine is extracted from a 1 L water sample with a 0.5 g graphitized carbon-based solid-phase cartridge, eluted with methylene chloride-methanol (80 + 20, v/v), and analyzed by liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection. The single-operator method detection limit for organic-free water samples was 0.02 ??g/L. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviations were 93 ?? 13% for organicfree water samples fortified at 0.04 ??g/L and 84 ?? 4% for laboratory reagent spikes fortified at 0.5 ??g/L. Environmental concentrations of caffeine ranged from 0.003 to 1.44 ??g/L in surface water samples and from 0.01 to 0.08 ??g/L in groundwater samples.

  1. Water quality and environmental isotopic analyses of ground-water samples collected from the Wasatch and Fort Union Formations in areas of coalbed methane development : implications to recharge and ground-water flow, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Ogle, Kathy Muller

    2002-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ground-water samples were evaluated as part of an investigation of lower Tertiary aquifers in the eastern Powder River Basin where coalbed methane is being developed. Ground-water samples were collected from two springs discharging from clinker, eight monitoring wells completed in the Wasatch aquifer, and 13 monitoring or coalbed methane production wells completed in coalbed aquifers. The ground-water samples were analyzed for major ions and environmental isotopes (tritium and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen) to characterize the composition of waters in these aquifers, to relate these characteristics to geochemical processes, and to evaluate recharge and ground-water flow within and between these aquifers. This investigation was conducted in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer's Office and the Bureau of Land Management. Water quality in the different aquifers was characterized by major-ion composition. Samples collected from the two springs were classified as calcium-sulfate-type and calcium-bicarbonate-type waters. All ground-water samples from the coalbed aquifers were sodium-bicarbonate-type waters as were five of eight samples collected from the overlying Wasatch aquifer. Potential areal patterns in ionic composition were examined. Ground-water samples collected during this and another investigation suggest that dissolved-solids concentrations in the coalbed aquifers may be lower south of the Belle Fourche River (generally less than 600 milligrams per liter). As ground water in coalbed aquifers flows to the north and northwest away from an inferred source of recharge (clinker in the study area), dissolved-solids concentrations appear to increase. Variation in ionic composition in the vertical dimension was examined qualitatively and statistically within and between aquifers. A relationship between ionic composition and well depth was noted and corroborates similar observations by earlier investigators in the Powder River

  2. Sampling and analysis plan for the site characterization of the waste area Grouping 1 groundwater operable unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative buildings. Site operations have contaminated groundwater, principally with radiological contamination. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to a known extent. In addition, karst geology, numerous spills, and pipeline leaks, together with the long and varied history of activities at specific facilities at ORNL, complicate contaminant migration-pathway analysis and source identification. To evaluate the extent of contamination, site characterization activity will include semiannual and annual groundwater sampling, as well as monthly water level measurements (both manual and continuous) at WAG 1. This sampling and analysis plan provides the methods and procedures to conduct site characterization for the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation of the WAG 1 Groundwater Operable Unit.

  3. An automated thermophoretic soot sampling device for laboratory-scale high-pressure flames.

    PubMed

    Leschowski, M; Dreier, T; Schulz, C

    2014-04-01

    Studying soot particle morphology in high-pressure flames via thermophoretic sampling critically depends on sampling precision, speed, and reproducibility. This is mainly limited by the challenges of applying pneumatically driven devices for burner chamber pressures higher than the pneumatic pressure. We present a pneumatically driven device for high-pressure applications up to 90 bars. The novelty is to separate the pneumatic driver section from the high-pressure environment in the burner chamber. The device was tested by sampling soot from a laminar high-pressure flame at 20 bars.

  4. October 1999 Groundwater Sampling and Data Analysis, Distler Brickyard Site, Hardin County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    J. P. Martin, L. N. Peterson; C. J. Taylor

    2000-03-01

    This report describes the results of a sampling event conducted at the Distler Brickyard Superfund Site, Hardin County, Kentucky, October 1999. The purpose of the sampling event was to evaluate the extent of natural biodegradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAH) occurring at the Site. Sampling locations were selected to evaluate three areas of the suspected CAH plume: the source area, an axial cross-section, and a downgradient transect. Due to inadequate recharge to and the poor physical condition of some monitoring wells at the Site, the sampling approach was modified to reflect wells that could be sampled. Results indicate that natural anaerobic degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons is occurring in the presumed source area around monitoring well GW-11. The primary contaminant of concern, trichloroethene, migrates downgradient from the source area into the Coarse Grained Alluvium Aquifer at concentrations slightly greater than the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL). Based on the available, the following hypothesis is proposed: the source area has been remediated through soil removal activities and subsequent anaerobic reductive dechlorination. If this is the case, this Site may be a good candidate for implementation of a monitored natural attenuation remedy. However, more data are necessary before this hypothesis can be confirmed.

  5. Multiobjective sampling design for parameter estimation and model discrimination in groundwater solute transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knopman, D.S.; Voss, C.I.

    1989-01-01

    Optimal design of a sampling network is a sequential process in which the next phase of sampling is designed on the basis of all available physical knowledge of the system. Three objectives are considered: model discrimination, parameter estimation, and cost minimization. For the first two objectives, physically based measures of the value of information obtained from a set of observations are specified. In model discrimination, value of information of an observation point is measured in terms of the difference in solute concentration predicted by hypothesized models of transport. Points of greatest difference in predictions can contribute the most information to the discriminatory power of a sampling design. Sensitivity of solute concentration to a change in a parameter contributes information on the relative variance of a parameter estimate. Inclusion of points in a sampling design with high sensitivities to parameters tends to reduce variance in parameter estimates. Cost minimization accounts for both the capital cost of well installation and the operating costs of collection and analysis of field samples. -from Authors

  6. Accelerated Evaluation of Automated Vehicles Safety in Lane-Change Scenarios Based on Importance Sampling Techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ding; Lam, Henry; Peng, Huei; Bao, Shan; LeBlanc, David J; Nobukawa, Kazutoshi; Pan, Christopher S

    2016-08-05

    Automated vehicles (AVs) must be thoroughly evaluated before their release and deployment. A widely used evaluation approach is the Naturalistic-Field Operational Test (N-FOT), which tests prototype vehicles directly on the public roads. Due to the low exposure to safety-critical scenarios, N-FOTs are time consuming and expensive to conduct. In this paper, we propose an accelerated evaluation approach for AVs. The results can be used to generate motions of the other primary vehicles to accelerate the verification of AVs in simulations and controlled experiments. Frontal collision due to unsafe cut-ins is the target crash type of this paper. Human-controlled vehicles making unsafe lane changes are modeled as the primary disturbance to AVs based on data collected by the University of Michigan Safety Pilot Model Deployment Program. The cut-in scenarios are generated based on skewed statistics of collected human driver behaviors, which generate risky testing scenarios while preserving the statistical information so that the safety benefits of AVs in nonaccelerated cases can be accurately estimated. The cross-entropy method is used to recursively search for the optimal skewing parameters. The frequencies of the occurrences of conflicts, crashes, and injuries are estimated for a modeled AV, and the achieved accelerated rate is around 2000 to 20 000. In other words, in the accelerated simulations, driving for 1000 miles will expose the AV with challenging scenarios that will take about 2 to 20 million miles of real-world driving to encounter. This technique thus has the potential to greatly reduce the development and validation time for AVs.

  7. Accelerated Evaluation of Automated Vehicles Safety in Lane-Change Scenarios Based on Importance Sampling Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ding; Lam, Henry; Peng, Huei; Bao, Shan; LeBlanc, David J.; Nobukawa, Kazutoshi; Pan, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Automated vehicles (AVs) must be thoroughly evaluated before their release and deployment. A widely used evaluation approach is the Naturalistic-Field Operational Test (N-FOT), which tests prototype vehicles directly on the public roads. Due to the low exposure to safety-critical scenarios, N-FOTs are time consuming and expensive to conduct. In this paper, we propose an accelerated evaluation approach for AVs. The results can be used to generate motions of the other primary vehicles to accelerate the verification of AVs in simulations and controlled experiments. Frontal collision due to unsafe cut-ins is the target crash type of this paper. Human-controlled vehicles making unsafe lane changes are modeled as the primary disturbance to AVs based on data collected by the University of Michigan Safety Pilot Model Deployment Program. The cut-in scenarios are generated based on skewed statistics of collected human driver behaviors, which generate risky testing scenarios while preserving the statistical information so that the safety benefits of AVs in nonaccelerated cases can be accurately estimated. The cross-entropy method is used to recursively search for the optimal skewing parameters. The frequencies of the occurrences of conflicts, crashes, and injuries are estimated for a modeled AV, and the achieved accelerated rate is around 2000 to 20 000. In other words, in the accelerated simulations, driving for 1000 miles will expose the AV with challenging scenarios that will take about 2 to 20 million miles of real-world driving to encounter. This technique thus has the potential to greatly reduce the development and validation time for AVs. PMID:27840592

  8. Investigation of Mercury Wet Deposition Physicochemistry in the Ohio River Valley through Automated Sequential Sampling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intra-storm variability and soluble fractionation was explored for summer-time rain events in Steubenville, Ohio to evaluate the physical processes controlling mercury (Hg) in wet deposition in this industrialized region. Comprehensive precipitation sample collection was conducte...

  9. Automated transmission line fault analysis using synchronized sampling at two ends

    SciTech Connect

    Kezunovic, M.; Perunicic, B.

    1996-02-01

    This paper introduces a new approach to fault analysis using synchronized sampling. A digital fault recorder with Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite receiver is the source of data for this approach. Fault analysis functions, such as fault detection, classification and location are implemented for a transmission line using synchronized samples from two ends of a line. This technique can be extremely fast, selective and accurate, providing fault analysis performance that can not easily be matched by other known techniques.

  10. Automated transmission line fault analysis using synchronized sampling at two ends

    SciTech Connect

    Kezunovic, M.; Perunicic, B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper introduces a new approach to fault analysis using synchronized sampling. A digital fault recorder with Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite receiver is the source of data for this approach. Fault analysis functions, such as fault detection, classification and location are implemented for a transmission line using synchronized samples from two ends of a line. This technique can be extremely fast, selective and accurate, providing fault analysis performance that can not easily be matched by other known techniques.

  11. High-throughput automated microfluidic sample preparation for accurate microbial genomics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soohong; De Jonghe, Joachim; Kulesa, Anthony B.; Feldman, David; Vatanen, Tommi; Bhattacharyya, Roby P.; Berdy, Brittany; Gomez, James; Nolan, Jill; Epstein, Slava; Blainey, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Low-cost shotgun DNA sequencing is transforming the microbial sciences. Sequencing instruments are so effective that sample preparation is now the key limiting factor. Here, we introduce a microfluidic sample preparation platform that integrates the key steps in cells to sequence library sample preparation for up to 96 samples and reduces DNA input requirements 100-fold while maintaining or improving data quality. The general-purpose microarchitecture we demonstrate supports workflows with arbitrary numbers of reaction and clean-up or capture steps. By reducing the sample quantity requirements, we enabled low-input (∼10,000 cells) whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and soil micro-colonies with superior results. We also leveraged the enhanced throughput to sequence ∼400 clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa libraries and demonstrate excellent single-nucleotide polymorphism detection performance that explained phenotypically observed antibiotic resistance. Fully-integrated lab-on-chip sample preparation overcomes technical barriers to enable broader deployment of genomics across many basic research and translational applications. PMID:28128213

  12. Sampling Instruction: Investigation of Hexavalent Chromium Flux to Groundwater at the 100-C-7:1 Excavation Site

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2012-05-01

    Several types of data are needed to assess the flux of Cr(VI) from the excavation into the groundwater. As described in this plan, these data include (1) temporal Cr(VI) data in the shallow groundwater beneath the pit; (2) hydrologic data to interpret groundwater flow and contaminant transport; (3) hydraulic gradient data; and (4) as a contingency action if necessary, vertical profiling of Cr(VI) concentrations in the shallow aquifer beyond the depth possible with aquifer tubes.

  13. Sample cleanup and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of polar aromatic compounds in groundwater samples from a former gas plant.

    PubMed

    Müller, M B; Zwiener, C; Frimmel, F H

    1999-11-12

    A method for the analysis of the polar aromatic compounds 1H-quinolin-4-one (Q), 10H-acridin-9-one (A), 5H-phenanthridin-6-one (P) and 9H-fluoren-9-one (F) in aqueous solutions has been developed. The method comprises steps for sample preparation (solid-phase extraction, cleanup) and analytical determination by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). For the cleanup step the suitability of two different sorbents (alternative A: silica gel, alternative B: LiChrolut EN) was investigated. Alternative B depicted several advantages, in particular higher sorbent capacity, faster and less complicated handling, higher recovery and better reproducibility. For Q, A and P, reproducibility of all method steps is better than 13%, with recovery rates ranging from 76% to 105% (n=3). Alternative B was applied to groundwater samples from a former gas plant. The analytes A and P could be detected at concentrations in the micro/l range.

  14. Groundwater-quality data in 12 GAMA study units: Results from the 2006–10 initial sampling period and the 2008–13 trend sampling period, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.

    2017-03-09

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board. From 2004 through 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples and assessed the quality of groundwater resources that supply public drinking water in 35 study units across the State. Selected sites in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. Twelve of the study units, initially sampled during 2006–11 (initial sampling period) and sampled a second time during 2008–13 (trend sampling period) to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies in the 12 study units. In these study units, 550 sampling sites were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide spatially unbiased representation of the areas assessed (grid sites, also called “status sites”). After the initial sampling period, 76 of the previously sampled status sites (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for trend sampling (“trend sites”). The 12 study units sampled both during the initial sampling and during the trend sampling period were distributed among 6 hydrogeologic provinces: Coastal (Northern and Southern), Transverse Ranges and Selected Peninsular Ranges, Klamath, Modoc Plateau and Cascades, and Sierra Nevada Hydrogeologic Provinces. For the purposes of this trend report, the six hydrogeologic provinces were grouped into two hydrogeologic regions based on location: Coastal and Mountain.The groundwater samples were analyzed for a number of synthetic organic

  15. Development of a full automation solid phase microextraction method for investigating the partition coefficient of organic pollutant in complex sample.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ruifen; Lin, Wei; Wen, Sijia; Zhu, Fang; Luan, Tiangang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-08-07

    A fully automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) depletion method was developed to study the partition coefficient of organic compound between complex matrix and water sample. The SPME depletion process was conducted by pre-loading the fiber with a specific amount of organic compounds from a proposed standard gas generation vial, and then desorbing the fiber into the targeted samples. Based on the proposed method, the partition coefficients (Kmatrix) of 4 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between humic acid (HA)/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (β-HPCD) and aqueous sample were determined. The results showed that the logKmatrix of 4 PAHs with HA and β-HPCD ranged from 3.19 to 4.08, and 2.45 to 3.15, respectively. In addition, the logKmatrix values decreased about 0.12-0.27 log units for different PAHs for every 10°C increase in temperature. The effect of temperature on the partition coefficient followed van't Hoff plot, and the partition coefficient at any temperature can be predicted based on the plot. Furthermore, the proposed method was applied for the real biological fluid analysis. The partition coefficients of 6 PAHs between the complex matrices in the fetal bovine serum and water were determined, and compared to ones obtained from SPME extraction method. The result demonstrated that the proposed method can be applied to determine the sorption coefficients of hydrophobic compounds between complex matrix and water in a variety of samples.

  16. DETERMINATION OF CHLOROPHEONIS, NITROPHENOIS AND METHYLPHENOIS IN GROUND-WATER SAMPLES USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to quantitatively determine phenolic compounds and their isomers in aqueous samples. The HPLC method can analyze a mixture of 15 contaminants in the same analytical run with an analysis time of 25 minutes. The...

  17. DETERMINATION OF CHLOROPHENOLS, NITROPHENOLS, AND METHYLPHENOLS IN GROUND-WATER SAMPLES USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to quantitatively determine phenolic compounds and their isomers in aqueous samples. The HPLC method can analyze a mixture of 15 contaminants in the same analytical run with an analysis time of 25 minutes. The...

  18. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... analysis. (c) The sampling procedures and frequency must be protective of human health and the environment... testing period. If a multiple comparisons procedure is used, the Type I experiment wise error rate for... shall be protective of human health and the environment. The parameters shall be determined...

  19. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... analysis. (c) The sampling procedures and frequency must be protective of human health and the environment... testing period. If a multiple comparisons procedure is used, the Type I experiment wise error rate for... shall be protective of human health and the environment. The parameters shall be determined...

  20. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... analysis. (c) The sampling procedures and frequency must be protective of human health and the environment... testing period. If a multiple comparisons procedure is used, the Type I experiment wise error rate for... shall be protective of human health and the environment. The parameters shall be determined...

  1. 40 CFR 258.53 - Ground-water sampling and analysis requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... analysis. (c) The sampling procedures and frequency must be protective of human health and the environment... testing period. If a multiple comparisons procedure is used, the Type I experiment wise error rate for... shall be protective of human health and the environment. The parameters shall be determined...

  2. Concentration comparison of selected constituents between groundwater samples collected within the Missouri River alluvial aquifer using purge and pump and grab-sampling methods, near the city of Independence, Missouri, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krempa, Heather M.

    2015-10-29

    Relative percent differences between methods were greater than 10 percent for most analyzed trace elements. Barium, cobalt, manganese, and boron had concentrations that were significantly different between sampling methods. Barium, molybdenum, boron, and uranium method concentrations indicate a close association between pump and grab samples based on bivariate plots and simple linear regressions. Grab sample concentrations were generally larger than pump concentrations for these elements and may be because of using a larger pore sized filter for grab samples. Analysis of zinc blank samples suggests zinc contamination in filtered grab samples. Variations of analyzed trace elements between pump and grab samples could reduce the ability to monitor temporal changes and potential groundwater contamination threats. The degree of precision necessary for monitoring potential groundwater threats and application objectives need to be considered when determining acceptable variation amounts.

  3. Use of single particle aerosol mass spectrometry for the automated nondestructive identification of drugs in multicomponent samples.

    PubMed

    Martin, Audrey N; Farquar, George R; Steele, Paul T; Jones, A Daniel; Frank, Matthias

    2009-11-15

    In this work, single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was used to identify the active drug ingredients in samples of multicomponent over-the-counter (OTC) drug tablets with minimal damage to the tablets. OTC drug tablets in various formulations were analyzed including single active ingredient tablets and multi-ingredient tablets. Using a sampling apparatus developed in-house, micrometer-sized particles were simultaneously dislodged from tablets and introduced to the SPAMS, where dual-polarity mass spectra were obtained from individual particles. Active ingredients were identified from the parent ions and fragment ions formed from each sample, and alarm files were developed for each active ingredient, allowing successful automated identification of each compound in a mixture. The alarm algorithm developed for SPAMS correctly identified all drug compounds in all single-ingredient and multi-ingredient tablets studied. A further study demonstrated the ability of this technique to identify the active ingredient in a single tablet analyzed in the presence of several other nonidentical tablets. In situ measurements were also made by sampling directly from a drug sample in its original bottle. A single tablet embedded in 11 identical tablets of different composition was detected in this manner. Overall, this work demonstrates the ability of the SPAMS technique to detect a target drug compound both in complex tablets, i.e., multidrug ingredient tablets, and complex sampling environments, i.e., multitablet sampling sources. The technique is practically nondestructive, leaving the characteristic shape, color, and imprint of a tablet intact for further analysis. Applications of this technique may include forensic and pharmaceutical analysis.

  4. Variation in aluminum, iron, and particle concentrations in oxic ground-water samples collected by use of tangential-flow ultrafiltration with low-flow sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Z.; Oden, J.H.; Gibs, J.; Rice, D.E.; Ding, Y.; ,

    2001-01-01

    Particulates that move with ground water and those that are artificially mobilized during well purging could be incorporated into water samples during collection and could cause trace-element concentrations to vary in unfiltered samples, and possibly in filtered samples (typically 0.45-um (micron) pore size) as well, depending on the particle-size fractions present. Therefore, measured concentrations may not be representative of those in the aquifer. Ground water may contain particles of various sizes and shapes that are broadly classified as colloids, which do not settle from water, and particulates, which do. In order to investigate variations in trace-element concentrations in ground-water samples as a function of particle concentrations and particle-size fractions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, collected samples from five wells completed in the unconfined, oxic Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Samples were collected by purging with a portable pump at low flow (0.2-0.5 liters per minute and minimal drawdown, ideally less than 0.5 foot). Unfiltered samples were collected in the following sequence: (1) within the first few minutes of pumping, (2) after initial turbidity declined and about one to two casing volumes of water had been purged, and (3) after turbidity values had stabilized at less than 1 to 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Filtered samples were split concurrently through (1) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter, (2) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter and a 0.0029-um pore size tangential-flow filter in sequence, and (3), in selected cases, a 0.45-um and a 0.05-um pore size capsule filter in sequence. Filtered samples were collected concurrently with the unfiltered sample that was collected when turbidity values stabilized. Quality-assurance samples consisted of sequential duplicates (about 25 percent) and equipment blanks. Concentrations of particles were determined by light scattering

  5. The T-lock: Automated compensation of radio-frequency induced sample heating

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Sebastian; Arthanari, Haribabu; Wagner, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Modern high-field NMR spectrometers can stabilize the nominal sample temperature at a precision of less than 0.1 K. However, the actual sample temperature may differ from the nominal value by several degrees because the sample heating caused by high-power radio frequency pulses is not readily detected by the temperature sensors. Without correction, transfer of chemical shifts between different experiments causes problems in the data analysis. In principle, the temperature differences can be corrected by manual procedures but this is cumbersome and not fully reliable. Here, we introduce the concept of a „T-lock“, which automatically maintains the sample at the same reference temperature over the course of different NMR experiments. The T-lock works by continuously measuring the resonance frequency of a suitable spin and simultaneously adjusting the temperature control, thus locking the sample temperature at the reference value. For three different nuclei, 13C, 17O and 31P in the compounds alanine, water, and phosphate, respectively, the T-lock accuracy was found to be < 0.1 K. The use of dummy scan periods with variable lengths allows a reliable establishment of the thermal equilibrium before the acquisition of an experiment starts. PMID:19434373

  6. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kamfai; Coen, Mauricio; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Wong, Kah-Yat; Smith, Clayton; Wilson, Scott A; Vayugundla, Siva Praneeth; Wong, Season

    2016-01-01

    Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target's nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer's heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers.

  7. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kamfai; Coen, Mauricio; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Wong, Kah-Yat; Smith, Clayton; Wilson, Scott A.; Vayugundla, Siva Praneeth; Wong, Season

    2016-01-01

    Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target’s nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer’s heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers. PMID:27362424

  8. Automation of preparation of nonmetallic samples for analysis by atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittmann, A.; Willay, G.

    1986-01-01

    For a rapid preparation of solutions intended for analysis by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry or atomic absorption spectrometry, an automatic device called Plasmasol was developed. This apparatus used the property of nonwettability of glassy C to fuse the sample in an appropriate flux. The sample-flux mixture is placed in a composite crucible, then heated at high temperature, swirled until full dissolution is achieved, and then poured into a water-filled beaker. After acid addition, dissolution of the melt, and filling to the mark, the solution is ready for analysis. The analytical results obtained, either for oxide samples or for prereduced iron ores show that the solutions prepared with this device are undistinguished from those obtained by manual dissolutions done by acid digestion or by high temperature fusion. Preparation reproducibility and analytical tests illustrate the performance of Plasmasol.

  9. Final ROI Report - Technology Transfer of Waste-Reducing Groundwater Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, C; Howard, G; Bishop, D; Tuckfield, C; Hiergesell, R

    2002-09-30

    This report presents the findings of a U.S. DOE Environmental Management technology transfer initiative of waste-reducing ground water sampling systems between Savannah River Site (SRS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) which occurred during fiscal years 2001 and 2002. The report describes the collaboration between the two sites, the deployment of the Savannah River Site Purge Water Management System at LLNL, the changes made to that system for use at LLNL, and documents the return-on-investment derived from the system's use at LLNL as well as other benefits generated through this inter-laboratory collaboration. An evaluation of the deployment of the LLNL EasyPump sampling technology at SRS will be covered in a separate report from SRS.

  10. 234U/238U isotope data from groundwater and solid-phase leachate samples near Tuba City Open Dump, Tuba City, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Horton, Robert J.; Otton, James K.; Ketterer, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    This report releases 234U/238U isotope data, expressed as activity ratios, and uranium concentration data from analyses completed at Northern Arizona University for groundwater and solid-phase leachate samples that were collected in and around Tuba City Open Dump, Tuba City, Arizona, in 2008.

  11. A self-contained polymeric cartridge for automated biological sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guolin; Lee, Daniel Yoke San; Xie, Hong; Chiew, Deon; Hsieh, Tseng-Ming; Ali, Emril Mohamed; Lun Looi, Xing; Li, Mo-Huang; Ying, Jackie Y

    2011-09-01

    Sample preparation is one of the most crucial processes for nucleic acids based disease diagnosis. Several steps are required for nucleic acids extraction, impurity washes, and DNA/RNA elution. Careful sample preparation is vital to the obtaining of reliable diagnosis, especially with low copies of pathogens and cells. This paper describes a low-cost, disposable lab cartridge for automatic sample preparation, which is capable of handling flexible sample volumes of 10 μl to 1 ml. This plastic cartridge contains all the necessary reagents for pathogen and cell lysis, DNA/RNA extraction, impurity washes, DNA/RNA elution and waste processing in a completely sealed cartridge. The entire sample preparation processes are automatically conducted within the cartridge on a desktop unit using a pneumatic fluid manipulation approach. Reagents transportation is achieved with a combination of push and pull forces (with compressed air and vacuum, respectively), which are connected to the pneumatic inlets at the bottom of the cartridge. These pneumatic forces are regulated by pinch valve manifold and two pneumatic syringe pumps within the desktop unit. The performance of this pneumatic reagent delivery method was examined. We have demonstrated the capability of the on-cartridge RNA extraction and cancer-specific gene amplification from 10 copies of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The on-cartridge DNA recovery efficiency was 54-63%, which was comparable to or better than the conventional manual approach using silica spin column. The lab cartridge would be suitable for integration with lab-chip real-time polymerase chain reaction devices in providing a portable system for decentralized disease diagnosis.

  12. On-line sample preparation for the automated sequential determination of HG in blood, urine and waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Schlemmer, G.; Erler, W.

    1995-12-31

    The accurate determination of mercury in environmental and clinical samples such as waste water, urine or blood with the cold vapour technique requires a complete oxidation and stabilization of mercury in the liquid phase prior to its reduction. It has been shown that the oxidation of all relevant organo-mercury compounds in this type of matrix can be achieved on-line by an appropriate oxidizing agent used in an open microwave system coupled to a flow injection cold vapour system. The various matrices, however, are handled individually. Blood samples, for example are diluted and injected into a neutral carrier. The acid to start the reaction is added on-line only shortly before the sample enters the heating zone of the microwave oven. Urine and waste water on the other hand are acidified already in the autosampler vessel and the microwave digestion is used for completion of the oxidation only. In this application, blood, urine and waste water, three most commonly encountered matrices, were analyzed using the same FIAS and microwave parameters in an automated run. The time for one individual measurement including the on-line deposition is about 90s. The detection limits obtained with a mercury specific detector is about 20 nm/L for urine and waste water and 100 ng/L for blood.

  13. Automated sample-scanning methods for radiation damage mitigation and diffraction-based centering of macromolecular crystals.

    PubMed

    Hilgart, Mark C; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Ogata, Craig M; Becker, Michael; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Stepanov, Sergey; Makarov, Oleg; Smith, Janet L; Fischetti, Robert F

    2011-09-01

    Automated scanning capabilities have been added to the data acquisition software, JBluIce-EPICS, at the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and the National Cancer Institute Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA CAT) at the Advanced Photon Source. A `raster' feature enables sample centering via diffraction scanning over two-dimensional grids of simple rectangular or complex polygonal shape. The feature is used to locate crystals that are optically invisible owing to their small size or are visually obfuscated owing to properties of the sample mount. The raster feature is also used to identify the best-diffracting regions of large inhomogeneous crystals. Low-dose diffraction images taken at grid positions are automatically processed in real time to provide a quick quality ranking of potential data-collection sites. A `vector collect' feature mitigates the effects of radiation damage by scanning the sample along a user-defined three-dimensional vector during data collection to maximize the use of the crystal volume and the quality of the collected data. These features are integrated into the JBluIce-EPICS data acquisition software developed at GM/CA CAT where they are used in combination with a robust mini-beam of rapidly changeable diameter from 5 µm to 20 µm. The powerful software-hardware combination is being applied to challenging problems in structural biology.

  14. Development of an Automated and Sensitive Microfluidic Device for Capturing and Characterizing Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) from Clinical Blood Samples.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Priya; Sepehri, Saedeh; Zhou, Yi; Gorin, Michael A; Paolillo, Carmela; Capoluongo, Ettore; Gleason, Kyle; Payne, Austin; Boniface, Brian; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Morgan, Todd M; Fortina, Paolo; Pienta, Kenneth J; Handique, Kalyan; Wang, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    Current analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is hindered by sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity of devices or assays as well as lack of capability of characterization of CTCs with clinical biomarkers. Here, we validate a novel technology to enrich and characterize CTCs from blood samples of patients with metastatic breast, prostate and colorectal cancers using a microfluidic chip which is processed by using an automated staining and scanning system from sample preparation to image processing. The Celsee system allowed for the detection of CTCs with apparent high sensitivity and specificity (94% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Moreover, the system facilitated rapid capture of CTCs from blood samples and also allowed for downstream characterization of the captured cells by immunohistochemistry, DNA and mRNA fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). In a subset of patients with prostate cancer we compared the technology with a FDA-approved CTC device, CellSearch and found a higher degree of sensitivity with the Celsee instrument. In conclusion, the integrated Celsee system represents a promising CTC technology for enumeration and molecular characterization.

  15. Development of an Automated and Sensitive Microfluidic Device for Capturing and Characterizing Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) from Clinical Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Priya; Sepehri, Saedeh; Zhou, Yi; Gorin, Michael A.; Paolillo, Carmela; Capoluongo, Ettore; Gleason, Kyle; Payne, Austin; Boniface, Brian; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Morgan, Todd M.; Fortina, Paolo; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Handique, Kalyan; Wang, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    Current analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is hindered by sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity of devices or assays as well as lack of capability of characterization of CTCs with clinical biomarkers. Here, we validate a novel technology to enrich and characterize CTCs from blood samples of patients with metastatic breast, prostate and colorectal cancers using a microfluidic chip which is processed by using an automated staining and scanning system from sample preparation to image processing. The Celsee system allowed for the detection of CTCs with apparent high sensitivity and specificity (94% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Moreover, the system facilitated rapid capture of CTCs from blood samples and also allowed for downstream characterization of the captured cells by immunohistochemistry, DNA and mRNA fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). In a subset of patients with prostate cancer we compared the technology with a FDA-approved CTC device, CellSearch and found a higher degree of sensitivity with the Celsee instrument. In conclusion, the integrated Celsee system represents a promising CTC technology for enumeration and molecular characterization. PMID:26808060

  16. A Simple Method for Automated Solid Phase Extraction of Water Samples for Immunological Analysis of Small Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Heub, Sarah; Tscharner, Noe; Kehl, Florian; Dittrich, Petra S; Follonier, Stéphane; Barbe, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    A new method for solid phase extraction (SPE) of environmental water samples is proposed. The developed prototype is cost-efficient and user friendly, and enables to perform rapid, automated and simple SPE. The pre-concentrated solution is compatible with analysis by immunoassay, with a low organic solvent content. A method is described for the extraction and pre-concentration of natural hormone 17β-estradiol in 100 ml water samples. Reverse phase SPE is performed with octadecyl-silica sorbent and elution is done with 200 µl of methanol 50% v/v. Eluent is diluted by adding di-water to lower the amount of methanol. After preparing manually the SPE column, the overall procedure is performed automatically within 1 hr. At the end of the process, estradiol concentration is measured by using a commercial enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). 100-fold pre-concentration is achieved and the methanol content in only 10% v/v. Full recoveries of the molecule are achieved with 1 ng/L spiked de-ionized and synthetic sea water samples.

  17. Automated on-line preconcentration of palladium on different sorbents and its determination in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Rojas, Fuensanta; Bosch Ojeda, Catalina; Cano Pavón, José Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The determination of noble metals in environmental samples is of increasing importance. Palladium is often employed as a catalyst in chemical industry and is also used with platinum and rhodium in motor car catalytic converters which might cause environmental pollution problems. Two different sorbents for palladium preconcentration in different samples were investigated: silica gel functionalized with 1,5-bis(di-2-pyridyl)methylene tbiocarbohydrazide (DPTH-gel) and [1,5-Bis(2-pyridyl)-3-sulphophenyI methylene thiocarbonohydrazide (PSTH) immobilised on an anion-exchange resin (Dowex lx8-200)]. The sorbents were tested in a micro-column, placed in the auto-sampler arm, at the flow rate 2.8 mL min(-1). Elution was performed with 4 M HCl and 4 M HNO3, respectively. Satisfactory results were obtained for two sorbents.

  18. Improving semi-automated segmentation by integrating learning with active sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Jing; Okada, Kazunori; Brown, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    Interactive segmentation algorithms such as GrowCut usually require quite a few user interactions to perform well, and have poor repeatability. In this study, we developed a novel technique to boost the performance of the interactive segmentation method GrowCut involving: 1) a novel "focused sampling" approach for supervised learning, as opposed to conventional random sampling; 2) boosting GrowCut using the machine learned results. We applied the proposed technique to the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) brain tumor segmentation, and evaluated on a dataset of ten cases from a multiple center pharmaceutical drug trial. The results showed that the proposed system has the potential to reduce user interaction while maintaining similar segmentation accuracy.

  19. Activities and summary statistics of radon-222 in stream- and ground-water samples, Owl Creek basin, north-central Wyoming, September 1991 through March 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogle, K.M.; Lee, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Radon-222 activity was measured for 27 water samples from streams, an alluvial aquifer, bedrock aquifers, and a geothermal system, in and near the 510-square mile area of Owl Creek Basin, north- central Wyoming. Summary statistics of the radon- 222 activities are compiled. For 16 stream-water samples, the arithmetic mean radon-222 activity was 20 pCi/L (picocuries per liter), geometric mean activity was 7 pCi/L, harmonic mean activity was 2 pCi/L and median activity was 8 pCi/L. The standard deviation of the arithmetic mean is 29 pCi/L. The activities in the stream-water samples ranged from 0.4 to 97 pCi/L. The histogram of stream-water samples is left-skewed when compared to a normal distribution. For 11 ground-water samples, the arithmetic mean radon- 222 activity was 486 pCi/L, geometric mean activity was 280 pCi/L, harmonic mean activity was 130 pCi/L and median activity was 373 pCi/L. The standard deviation of the arithmetic mean is 500 pCi/L. The activity in the ground-water samples ranged from 25 to 1,704 pCi/L. The histogram of ground-water samples is left-skewed when compared to a normal distribution. (USGS)

  20. Application of the freeze-dried bioluminescent bioreporter Pseudomonas putida mt-2 KG1206 to the biomonitoring of groundwater samples from monitoring wells near gasoline leakage sites.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Kong, In Chul

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the applicability of a freeze-dried bioluminescent bioreporter, Pseudomonas putida mt-2 KG1206 (called KG1206), to the biomonitoring of groundwater samples. Samples were collected from the monitoring wells of gas station tanks or old pipeline leakage sites in Korea. In general, the freeze-dried strain in the presence of pure inducer chemicals showed low bioluminescence activity and a different activity order compared with that of the subcultured strain. The effects of KNO3 as a bioluminescence stimulant were observed on the pure inducers and groundwater samples. The stimulation rates varied according to the type of inducers and samples, ranging from 2.2 to 20.5 times (for pure inducers) and from 1.1 to 11 times (for groundwater samples) the total bioluminescence of the control. No considerable correlations were observed between the bioluminescence intensity of the freeze-dried strain and the inducer concentrations in the samples (R (2) < 0.1344). However, samples without a high methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) level and those from the gas station leakage site showed reasonable correlations with the bioluminescence activity with R (2) values of 0.3551 and 0.4131, respectively. These results highlight the potential of using freeze-dried bioluminescent bacteria as a rapid, simple, and portable tool for the preliminary biomonitoring of specific pollutants at contaminated sites.

  1. High-throughput pharmacokinetics screen of VLA-4 antagonists by LC/MS/MS coupled with automated solid-phase extraction sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xinchun S; Wang, Junying; Zheng, Song; Pivnichny, James V

    2004-06-29

    Automation of plasma sample preparation for pharmacokinetic studies on VLA-4 antagonists has been achieved by using 96-well format solid-phase extraction operated by Beckman Coulter Biomek 2000 liquid handling system. A Biomek 2000 robot is used to perform fully automated plasma sample preparation tasks that include serial dilution of standard solutions, pipetting plasma samples, addition of standard and internal standard solutions, performing solid-phase extraction (SPE) on Waters OASIS 96-well plates. This automated sample preparation process takes less than 2 h for a typical pharmacokinetic study, including 51 samples, 24 standards, 9 quality controls, and 3-6 dose checks with minimal manual intervention. Extensive validation has been made to ensure the accuracy and reliability of this method. A two-stage vacuum pressure controller has been incorporated in the program to improve SPE efficiency. This automated SPE sample preparation approach combined with liquid chromatography coupled with the high sensitivity and selectivity of tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS)/MS has been successfully applied on both individual and cassette dosing for pharmacokinetic screening of a large number of VLA-4 antagonists with a limit of quantitation in the range of 1-5 ng/ml. Consequently, a significant throughput increase has been achieved along with an elimination of tedious labor and its consequential tendency to produce errors.

  2. Steady-State Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure Facility With Automated Lamp Calibration and Sample Positioning Fabricated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sechkar, Edward A.; Steuber, Thomas J.; Banks, Bruce A.; Dever, Joyce A.

    2000-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) will be placed in an orbit that will subject it to constant solar radiation during its planned 10-year mission. A sunshield will be necessary to passively cool the telescope, protecting it from the Sun s energy and assuring proper operating temperatures for the telescope s instruments. This sunshield will be composed of metalized polymer multilayer insulation with an outer polymer membrane (12 to 25 mm in thickness) that will be metalized on the back to assure maximum reflectance of sunlight. The sunshield must maintain mechanical integrity and optical properties for the full 10 years. This durability requirement is most challenging for the outermost, constantly solar-facing polymer membrane of the sunshield. One of the potential threats to the membrane material s durability is from vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation in wavelengths below 200 nm. Such radiation can be absorbed in the bulk of these thin polymer membrane materials and degrade the polymer s optical and mechanical properties. So that a suitable membrane material can be selected that demonstrates durability to solar VUV radiation, ground-based testing of candidate materials must be conducted to simulate the total 10- year VUV exposure expected during the Next Generation Space Telescope mission. The Steady State Vacuum Ultraviolet exposure facility was designed and fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to provide unattended 24-hr exposure of candidate materials to VUV radiation of 3 to 5 times the Sun s intensity in the wavelength range of 115 to 200 nm. The facility s chamber, which maintains a pressure of approximately 5 10(exp -6) torr, is divided into three individual exposure cells, each with a separate VUV source and sample-positioning mechanism. The three test cells are separated by a water-cooled copper shield plate assembly to minimize thermal effects from adjacent test cells. Part of the interior sample positioning mechanism of one

  3. Well installation and ground-water sampling plan for 1100 Area environmental monitoring wells

    SciTech Connect

    Bryce, R.W.

    1989-05-01

    This report outlines a plan for the installation and sampling of five wells between inactive waste sites in the 1100 Area of the Hanford Site and Richland City water supply wells. No contamination has been detected in water pumped from the water supply wells to date. The five wells are being installed to provide for early detection of contaminants and to provide data that may be used to make decisions concerning the management of the North Richland Well Field. This plan describes the existing waste disposal facilities and water supply wells, hydrogeology of the area, well completion specifics, and the data to be gathered from the five new wells. 26 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Quantification of 4-beta-hydroxycholesterol in human plasma using automated sample preparation and LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Angela K; Onorato, Joelle M; Ouyang, Zheng; Chang, Shu; Rodrigues, A David; Kasichayanula, Sreeneeranj; Huang, Shu-Pang; Turley, Wesley; Burrell, Richard; Bifano, Marc; Jemal, Mohammed; LaCreta, Frank; Tymiak, Adrienne; Wang-Iverson, David

    2011-09-19

    It has recently been proposed that plasma levels of 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4βHC) may be indicative of cytochrome P450 3A4 (P450 3A) activity and therefore could be used to probe for P450 3A-mediated drug-drug interactions. With this in mind, we describe a highly sensitive and precise liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the measurement of 4βHC in human plasma with a lower limit of quantification established at 2 ng/mL using 50 μL of plasma. The entire sample preparation scheme including saponification and derivatization of 4βHC to the corresponding dipicolinyl ester (DPE) was completed in less than 8 h using an automated sample preparation scheme enabling higher-throughput capabilities. Chromatographic resolution of 4βHC from 4α-hydroxycholesterol and other endogenous isobaric species was achieved in 11-min using an isocratic gradient on a C18 column. Because of endogenous concentrations of 4βHC in plasma, a stable isotope labeled (SIL) analogue, d7-4βHC, was used as a surrogate analyte and measured in the standard curve and quality control samples prepared in plasma. A second SIL analogue, d4-4βHC, was used as the internal standard. The intraday and interday accuracy for the assay was within 6% of nominal concentrations, and the precision for these measurements was less than 5% relative standard deviation. Rigorous stability assessments demonstrated adequate stability of endogenous 4βHC in plasma and the corresponding DPE derivative for the analysis of clinical study samples. The results from clinical samples following treatment with a potent P450 3A inducer (rifampin) or inhibitor (ketoconazole) are reported and demonstrate the potential future application for this highly precise and robust analytical assay.

  5. Analytical results from ground-water sampling using a direct-push technique at the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, June-July 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guertal, William R.; Stewart, Marie; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; McHale, Timthoy J.

    2004-01-01

    A joint study by the Dover National Test Site and the U.S. Geological Survey was conducted from June 27 through July 18, 2001 to determine the spatial distribution of the gasoline oxygenate additive methyl tert-butyl ether and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer underlying the Dover National Test Site at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. The study was conducted to support a planned enhanced bio-remediation demonstration and to assist the Dover National Test Site in identifying possible locations for future methyl tert-butyl ether remediation demonstrations. This report presents the analytical results from ground-water samples collected during the direct-push ground-water sampling study. A direct-push drill rig was used to quickly collect 115 ground-water samples over a large area at varying depths. The ground-water samples and associated quality-control samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds and methyl tert-butyl ether by the Dover National Test Site analytical laboratory. Volatile organic compounds were above the method reporting limits in 59 of the 115 ground-water samples. The concentrations ranged from below detection limits to maximum values of 12.4 micrograms per liter of cis-1,2-dichloroethene, 1.14 micrograms per liter of trichloroethene, 2.65 micrograms per liter of tetrachloroethene, 1,070 micrograms per liter of methyl tert-butyl ether, 4.36 micrograms per liter of benzene, and 1.8 micrograms per liter of toluene. Vinyl chloride, ethylbenzene, p,m-xylene, and o-xylene were not detected in any of the samples collected during this investigation. Methyl tert-butyl ether was detected in 47 of the 115 ground-water samples. The highest methyl tert-butyl ether concentrations were found in the surficial aquifer from -4.6 to 6.4 feet mean sea level, however, methyl tert-butyl ether was detected as deep as -9.5 feet mean sea level. Increased methane concentrations and decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations were found in

  6. Evaluation of an Automated Instrument for Inoculating and Spreading Samples onto Agar Plates.

    PubMed

    Glasson, J H; Guthrie, L H; Nielsen, D J; Bethell, F A

    2008-04-01

    The findings from a preliminary assessment of a new instrument designed for the inoculation and spreading of specimens for microbiological analysis onto agar plates are described. The study found that the instrument was able to select full or biplates from a number of input cassettes, each containing different agar types. Samples were then inoculated by the instrument onto the agar surfaces and spread by a novel plastic applicator. Following this, the instrument labeled the plates and sorted them into a number of specified output stations. It was found that the instrument was able to inoculate and spread samples over a greater proportion of the agar plate surface than the manual loop-to-plate method. As a consequence, up to 44% more usable colonies were produced per plate from clinical specimens and standard cultures. Viable counts showed that the instrument was able to detect as few as 10(2) CFU/ml in fluids and also facilitated the enumeration of organisms, particularly in specimens such as urine.

  7. Automated Image Sampling and Classification Can Be Used to Explore Perceived Naturalness of Urban Spaces.

    PubMed

    Hyam, Roger

    2017-01-01

    The psychological restorative effects of exposure to nature are well established and extend to just viewing of images of nature. A previous study has shown that Perceived Naturalness (PN) of images correlates with their restorative value. This study tests whether it is possible to detect degree of PN of images using an image classifier. It takes images that have been scored by humans for PN (including a subset that have been assessed for restorative value) and passes them through the Google Vision API image classification service. The resulting labels are assigned to broad semantic classes to create a Calculated Semantic Naturalness (CSN) metric for each image. It was found that CSN correlates with PN. CSN was then calculated for a geospatial sampling of Google Street View images across the city of Edinburgh. CSN was found to correlate with PN in this sample also indicating the technique may be useful in large scale studies. Because CSN correlates with PN which correlates with restorativeness it is suggested that CSN or a similar measure may be useful in automatically detecting restorative images and locations. In an exploratory aside CSN was not found to correlate with an indicator of socioeconomic deprivation.

  8. Improved automation of dissolved organic carbon sampling for organic-rich surface waters.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Richard P; Holden, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    In-situ UV-Vis spectrophotometers offer the potential for improved estimates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes for organic-rich systems such as peatlands because they are able to sample and log DOC proxies automatically through time at low cost. In turn, this could enable improved total carbon budget estimates for peatlands. The ability of such instruments to accurately measure DOC depends on a number of factors, not least of which is how absorbance measurements relate to DOC and the environmental conditions. Here we test the ability of a S::can Spectro::lyser™ for measuring DOC in peatland streams with routinely high DOC concentrations. Through analysis of the spectral response data collected by the instrument we have been able to accurately measure DOC up to 66 mg L(-1), which is more than double the original upper calibration limit for this particular instrument. A linear regression modelling approach resulted in an accuracy >95%. The greatest accuracy was achieved when absorbance values for several different wavelengths were used at the same time in the model. However, an accuracy >90% was achieved using absorbance values for a single wavelength to predict DOC concentration. Our calculations indicated that, for organic-rich systems, in-situ measurement with a scanning spectrophotometer can improve fluvial DOC flux estimates by 6 to 8% compared with traditional sampling methods. Thus, our techniques pave the way for improved long-term carbon budget calculations from organic-rich systems such as peatlands.

  9. Automated Image Sampling and Classification Can Be Used to Explore Perceived Naturalness of Urban Spaces

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The psychological restorative effects of exposure to nature are well established and extend to just viewing of images of nature. A previous study has shown that Perceived Naturalness (PN) of images correlates with their restorative value. This study tests whether it is possible to detect degree of PN of images using an image classifier. It takes images that have been scored by humans for PN (including a subset that have been assessed for restorative value) and passes them through the Google Vision API image classification service. The resulting labels are assigned to broad semantic classes to create a Calculated Semantic Naturalness (CSN) metric for each image. It was found that CSN correlates with PN. CSN was then calculated for a geospatial sampling of Google Street View images across the city of Edinburgh. CSN was found to correlate with PN in this sample also indicating the technique may be useful in large scale studies. Because CSN correlates with PN which correlates with restorativeness it is suggested that CSN or a similar measure may be useful in automatically detecting restorative images and locations. In an exploratory aside CSN was not found to correlate with an indicator of socioeconomic deprivation. PMID:28052110

  10. Evaluation of the appropriate time period between sampling and analyzing for automated urinalysis

    PubMed Central

    Dolscheid-Pommerich, Ramona C.; Klarmann-Schulz, Ute; Conrad, Rupert; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Zur, Berndt

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preanalytical specifications for urinalysis must be strictly adhered to avoid false interpretations. Aim of the present study is to examine whether the preanalytical factor ‘time point of analysis’ significantly influences stability of urine samples for urine particle and dipstick analysis. Materials and methods In 321 pathological spontaneous urine samples, urine dipstick (Urisys™2400, Combur-10-Test™strips, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) and particle analysis (UF-1000 i™, Sysmex, Norderstedt, Germany) were performed within 90 min, 120 min and 240 min after urine collection. Results For urine particle analysis, a significant increase in conductivity (120 vs. 90 min: P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min: P < 0.001) and a significant decrease in WBC (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001), RBC (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001), casts (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001) and epithelial cells (120 vs. 90 min P = 0.610, 240 vs. 90 min P = 0.041) were found. There were no significant changes for bacteria. Regarding urine dipstick analysis, misclassification rates between measurements were significant for pH (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001), leukocytes (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001), nitrite (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001), protein (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P<0.001), ketone (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001), blood (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001), specific gravity (120 vs. 90 min P < 0.001, 240 vs. 90 min P < 0.001) and urobilinogen (120 vs. 90 min, P = 0.031). Misclassification rates were not significant for glucose and bilirubin. Conclusion Most parameters critically depend on the time window between sampling and analysis. Our study stresses the importance of adherence to early time points in urinalysis (within 90 min). PMID:26981022

  11. Evaluation of automated sample preparation, retention time locked gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and data analysis methods for the metabolomic study of Arabidopsis species.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qun; David, Frank; Lynen, Frédéric; Rumpel, Klaus; Dugardeyn, Jasper; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Xu, Guowang; Sandra, Pat

    2011-05-27

    In this paper, automated sample preparation, retention time locked gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and data analysis methods for the metabolomics study were evaluated. A miniaturized and automated derivatisation method using sequential oximation and silylation was applied to a polar extract of 4 types (2 types×2 ages) of Arabidopsis thaliana, a popular model organism often used in plant sciences and genetics. Automation of the derivatisation process offers excellent repeatability, and the time between sample preparation and analysis was short and constant, reducing artifact formation. Retention time locked (RTL) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used, resulting in reproducible retention times and GC-MS profiles. Two approaches were used for data analysis. XCMS followed by principal component analysis (approach 1) and AMDIS deconvolution combined with a commercially available program (Mass Profiler Professional) followed by principal component analysis (approach 2) were compared. Several features that were up- or down-regulated in the different types were detected.

  12. Dried Blood Spot Proteomics: Surface Extraction of Endogenous Proteins Coupled with Automated Sample Preparation and Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas J.; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J.

    2013-08-01

    Dried blood spots offer many advantages as a sample format including ease and safety of transport and handling. To date, the majority of mass spectrometry analyses of dried blood spots have focused on small molecules or hemoglobin. However, dried blood spots are a potentially rich source of protein biomarkers, an area that has been overlooked. To address this issue, we have applied an untargeted bottom-up proteomics approach to the analysis of dried blood spots. We present an automated and integrated method for extraction of endogenous proteins from the surface of dried blood spots and sample preparation via trypsin digestion by use of the Advion Biosciences Triversa Nanomate robotic platform. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry of the resulting digests enabled identification of 120 proteins from a single dried blood spot. The proteins identified cross a concentration range of four orders of magnitude. The method is evaluated and the results discussed in terms of the proteins identified and their potential use as biomarkers in screening programs.

  13. Automated extraction and quantitation of oncogenic HPV genotypes from cervical samples by a real-time PCR-based system.

    PubMed

    Broccolo, Francesco; Cocuzza, Clementina E

    2008-03-01

    Accurate laboratory assays for the diagnosis of persistent oncogenic HPV infection are being recognized increasingly as essential for clinical management of women with cervical precancerous lesions. HPV viral load has been suggested to be a surrogate marker of persistent infection. Four independent real-time quantitative TaqMan PCR assays were developed for: HPV-16, -31, -18 and/or -45 and -33 and/or -52, -58, -67. The assays had a wide dynamic range of detection and a high degree of accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility. In order to minimize material and hands-on time, automated nucleic acid extraction was performed using a 96-well plate format integrated into a robotic liquid handler workstation. The performance of the TaqMan assays for HPV identification was assessed by comparing results with those obtained by means of PCR using consensus primers (GP5+/GP6+) and sequencing (296 samples) and INNO-LiPA analysis (31 samples). Good agreement was found generally between results obtained by real-time PCR assays and GP(+)-PCR system (kappa statistic=0.91). In conclusion, this study describes four newly developed real-time PCR assays that provide a reliable and high-throughput method for detection of not only HPV DNA but also HPV activity of the most common oncogenic HPV types in cervical specimens.

  14. Stability of isoproturon, bentazone, terbuthylazine and alachlor in natural groundwater, surface water and soil water samples stored under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Mouvet, C; Jeannot, R; Riolland, H; Maciag, C

    1997-09-01

    The stability of isoproturon, bentazone, terbuthylazine and alachlor was investigated in groundwater (GrW), surface water (SuW) and soil water from the unsaturated zone (SoW). Samples fortified with a low spiking level (LSL) of about 0.3-0.5 microgram/L and a high spiking level (HSL) of about 0.9-1.3 micrograms/L were stored for 1, 2, 14 (GrW) and 30 days (SuW and SoW) at 4 degrees C in amber glass bottles without biological inhibition. The initial pesticide concentration played a significant role, the lowest concentrations being the least stable for all pesticides. Nevertheless, after 14 days of storage, no concentration had decreased significantly compared to day 0 values, except for bentazone LSL in the GrW and SuW. Significant losses of alachlor were observed only after 30 days. Terbuthylazine and isoproturon were stable for 30 days, except for a slight loss of terbuthylazine HSL in the SoW. The very poor recovery of bentazone from the SoW gave poor results for interpretation. Overall, the stability of the molecules was highest in the GrW and lowest in the SoW. For SoW, the variability of triplicate determinations at a given storage time was, in some cases, as great as the changes in mean concentrations observed over the total 30 day storage period.

  15. Adjustable virtual pore-size filter for automated sample preparation using acoustic radiation force

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, B; Fisher, K; Ness, K; Rose, K; Mariella, R

    2008-05-22

    We present a rapid and robust size-based separation method for high throughput microfluidic devices using acoustic radiation force. We developed a finite element modeling tool to predict the two-dimensional acoustic radiation force field perpendicular to the flow direction in microfluidic devices. Here we compare the results from this model with experimental parametric studies including variations of the PZT driving frequencies and voltages as well as various particle sizes and compressidensities. These experimental parametric studies also provide insight into the development of an adjustable 'virtual' pore-size filter as well as optimal operating conditions for various microparticle sizes. We demonstrated the separation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and MS2 bacteriophage using acoustic focusing. The acoustic radiation force did not affect the MS2 viruses, and their concentration profile remained unchanged. With optimized design of our microfluidic flow system we were able to achieve yields of > 90% for the MS2 with > 80% of the S. cerevisiae being removed in this continuous-flow sample preparation device.

  16. A literature survey of information on well installation and sample collection procedures used in investigations of ground-water contamination by organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Lynch, E.A.; Cummings, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of literature on well installation and water-quality sampling, particularly as they relate to investigations of ground-water contamination by organic compounds, has been conducted. Library card files and computerized data bases were searched to identify journal articles, conference proceedings, technical reports, books, and other publications. Pertinent information has been extracted from 105 references; each reference is listed in a bibliography. Material contained in the report is organized by topical categories that include drilling methods and equipment, well construction, well development, sampling materials and equipment, decontamination of equipment, and sampling techniques and procedures. Unpublished data of the U.S. Geological Survey on sample collection are briefly cited also.

  17. The installation of the Westbay multiport ground-water sampling system in well 699-43-42K near the 216-B-3 pond

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, T.J.

    1989-09-01

    In 1988 and 1989, Pacific Northwest Laboratory installed a multiport ground-water sampling system in well 699-43-42K drilled near the 216-B-3 Pond on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state. The multiport system will be used to evaluate methods for determining the vertical distribution of contaminants and hydraulic heads in ground water. This installation was in conjunction with a similar multiport installation near the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Well 699-43-42K is adjacent to two Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) ground-water monitoring wells, which will allow for a comparison of sampling intervals and head measurements between the multiport system and the RCRA monitoring wells. Eight sampling ports were installed in the upper unconfined aquifer by backfilling at depths of 161.1 ft, 174.1 ft, 187.1 ft, 201.17 ft, 217.2 ft, 230.2 ft, 243.2 ft, and 255.2 ft below land surface. However, because of damage to the casing during installation, only the top four ports should be used for pressure measurements and sampling until repairs occur. The locations of the sampling ports were determined by the hydrogeology of the area and the screened intervals of adjacent ground-water monitoring wells. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Liquid chromatography coupled with multi-channel electrochemical detection for the determination of daidzin in rat blood sampled by an automated blood sampling system.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feifei; Zhu, Yongxin; Long, Hong; Cregor, Meloney; Xie, Fuming; Kissinger, Candice B; Kissinger, Peter T

    2002-05-25

    Daidzin, a soy-derived biologically active natural product, has been reported to inhibit mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and suppress ethanol intake. This paper describes a method for the determination of daidzin in rat blood. After administration of daidzin, blood samples were periodically collected from awake, freely moving animals by a Culex automated blood sampler. Daidzin was extracted from 50 microl of diluted blood (blood and saline at a ratio of 1:1) with ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was achieved within 12 min using a microbore C(18) (100 x 1.0 mm) 3 microm column with a mobile phase containing 20 mM sodium acetate, 0.25 mM EDTA, pH 4.3, 4% methanol and 11% acetonitrile at a flow-rate of 90 microl/min. Detection was attained using a four-channel electrochemical detector with glassy carbon electrodes using oxidation potentials of +1100, 950, 850, 750 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. The limit of detection for daidzin in rat plasma was 5 ng/ml at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1. The extraction recovery of daidzin from rat plasma was over 74%. Linearity was obtained for the range of 25-1000 ng/ml. The intra- and inter-assay precisions were in the ranges of 2.7-6.6 and 1.9-3.7%, respectively. This method is suitable to routine in vivo monitoring of daidzin in rat plasma.

  19. Development testing of the chemical analysis automation polychlorinated biphenyl standard analysis method during surface soils sampling at the David Witherspoon 1630 site

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, M.A.; Klatt, L.N.; Thompson, D.H.

    1998-02-01

    The Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) project is developing standardized, software-driven, site-deployable robotic laboratory systems with the objective of lowering the per-sample analysis cost, decreasing sample turnaround time, and minimizing human exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials associated with DOE remediation projects. The first integrated system developed by the CAA project is designed to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) content in soil matrices. A demonstration and development testing of this system was conducted in conjuction with surface soil characterization activities at the David Witherspoon 1630 Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. The PCB system consists of five hardware standard laboratory modules (SLMs), one software SLM, the task sequence controller (TSC), and the human-computer interface (HCI). Four of the hardware SLMs included a four-channel Soxhlet extractor, a high-volume concentrator, a column cleanup, and a gas chromatograph. These SLMs performed the sample preparation and measurement steps within the total analysis protocol. The fifth hardware module was a robot that transports samples between the SLMs and the required consumable supplies to the SLMs. The software SLM is an automated data interpretation module that receives raw data from the gas chromatograph SLM and analyzes the data to yield the analyte information. The TSC is a software system that provides the scheduling, management of system resources, and the coordination of all SLM activities. The HCI is a graphical user interface that presents the automated laboratory to the analyst in terms of the analytical procedures and methods. Human control of the automated laboratory is accomplished via the HCI. Sample information required for processing by the automated laboratory is entered through the HCI. Information related to the sample and the system status is presented to the analyst via graphical icons.

  20. Re-Emergence of Under-Selected Stimuli, after the Extinction of Over-Selected Stimuli in an Automated Match to Samples Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broomfield, Laura; McHugh, Louise; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    Stimulus over-selectivity occurs when one of potentially many aspects of the environment comes to control behaviour. In two experiments, adults with no developmental disabilities, were trained and tested in an automated match to samples (MTS) paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants completed two conditions, in one of which the over-selected…

  1. An automated serial Grinding, Imaging and Reconstruction Instrument (GIRI) for digital modeling of samples with weak density contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloof, A. C.; Samuels, B.; Mehra, A.; Spatzier, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first results from the new Princeton University Grinder Lab dedicated to the digital reconstruction of hidden objects through serial grinding and imaging. The purpose of a destructive technique like serial grinding is to facilitate the discovery of embedded objects with weak density contrasts outside the sensitivity limits of X-ray CT-scanning devices (Feature segmentation and object reconstruction are based on color and textural contrasts in the stack of images rather than density). The device we have developed is a retrofit imaging station designed for a precision CNC surface. The instrument is capable of processing a sample 20x25x40 cm in size at 1 micron resolution in x, y and z axes. Directly coupled to the vertical axis of the grinder is an 80 megapixel medium format camera and specialty macro lens capable of imaging a 4x5 cm surface at 5 micron resolution in full 16 bit color. The system is automated such that after each surface grind, the sample is cleaned, travels to the opposite end of the bed from the grinder wheel, is photographed, and then moved back to the grinding position. This process establishes a comprehensive archive of the specimen that is used for digital reconstruction and quantitative analysis. For example, in one night, a 7 cm thick sample can be imaged completely at 20 micron horizontal and vertical resolution without human supervision. Some of the initial results we present here include new digital reconstructions of early animal fossils, 3D sedimentary bedforms, the size and shape distribution of chondrules in chondritic meteorites, and the porosity structure of carbonate cemented reservoir rocks.

  2. An 8-year record of gas geochemistry and isotopic composition of methane during baseline sampling at a groundwater observation well in Alberta (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humez, P.; Mayer, B.; Nightingale, M.; Ing, J.; Becker, V.; Jones, Don; Lam, Vien

    2016-02-01

    Variability in baseline groundwater methane concentrations and isotopic compositions was assessed while comparing free and dissolved gas sampling approaches for a groundwater monitoring well in Alberta (Canada) over an 8-year period. Methane concentrations in dissolved gas samples ( n = 12) were on average 4,380 ± 2,452 μg/L, yielding a coefficient of variation (CV) >50 %. Methane concentrations in free gas samples ( n = 12) were on average 228,756 ± 62,498 ppm by volume, yielding a CV of 27 %. Quantification of combined sampling, sample handling and analytical uncertainties was assessed via triplicate sampling (CV of 19 % and 12 % for free gas and dissolved gas methane concentrations, respectively). Free and dissolved gas samples yielded comparable methane concentration patterns and there was evidence that sampling operations and pumping rates had a marked influence on the obtained methane concentrations in free gas. δ13CCH4 and δ2HCH4 values of methane were essentially constant (-78.6 ± 1.3 and -300 ± 3 ‰, respectively) throughout the observation period, suggesting that methane was derived from the same biogenic source irrespective of methane concentration variations. The isotopic composition of methane constitutes a robust and highly valuable baseline parameter and increasing δ13CCH4 and δ2HCH4 values during repeat sampling may indicate influx of thermogenic methane. Careful sampling and analytical procedures with identical and repeatable approaches are required in baseline-monitoring programs to generate methane concentration and isotope data for groundwater that can be reliably compared to repeat measurements once potential impact from oil and gas development, for example, may occur.

  3. Review Of Low-Flow Bladder Pump And High-Volume Air Piston Pump Groundwater Sampling Systems At Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S. S.; Bailey, G. A.; Jackson, T. O.

    2003-02-25

    Since 1996, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) has run both a portable high-volume air-piston pump system and a dedicated, low-flow bladder pump system to collect groundwater samples. The groundwater contaminants of concern at SNL/NM are nitrate and the volatile organic compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloethene (PCE). Regulatory acceptance is more common for the high-volume air piston pump system, especially for programs like SNL/NM's, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes logistical and analytical results of the groundwater sampling systems used at SNL/NM. With two modifications to the off-the-shelf low-flow bladder pump, SNL/NM consistently operates the dedicated low-flow system at depths greater than 450 feet below ground surface. As such, the low-flow sampling system requires fewer personnel, less time and materials, and generates less purge and decontamination water than does the high-volume system. However, the bladder pump cannot work in wells with less than 4 feet of water. A review of turbidity and laboratory analytical results for TCE, PCE, and chromium (Cr) from six wells highlight the affect or lack of affects the sampling systems have on groundwater samples. In the PVC wells, turbidity typically remained < 5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) regardless of the sampling system. In the wells with a stainless steel screen, turbidity typically remained < 5 NTU only with the low-flow system. When the high-volume system was used, the turbidity and Cr concentration typically increased an order of magnitude. TCE concentrations at two wells did not appear to be sensitive to the sampling method used. However, PCE and TCE concentrations dropped an order of magnitude when the high-volume system was used at two other wells. This paper recommends that SNL/NM collaborate with other facilities with similar groundwater depths, continue to pursue regulatory approval for using

  4. Review of low-flow bladder pump and high-volume air piston pump groundwater sampling systems at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Sue S.; Jackson, Timmie Okchumpulla (Weston Solutions, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Bailey, Glenn A.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1996, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) has run both a portable high-volume air-piston pump system and a dedicated, low-flow bladder pump system to collect groundwater samples. The groundwater contaminants of concern at SNL/NM are nitrate and the volatile organic compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloethene (PCE). Regulatory acceptance is more common for the high-volume air piston pump system, especially for programs like SNL/NM's, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes logistical and analytical results of the groundwater sampling systems used at SNL/NM. With two modifications to the off-the-shelf low-flow bladder pump, SNL/NM consistently operates the dedicated low-flow system at depths greater than 450 feet below ground surface. As such, the low-flow sampling system requires fewer personnel, less time and materials, and generates less purge and decontamination water than does the high-volume system. However, the bladder pump cannot work in wells with less than 4 feet of water. A review of turbidity and laboratory analytical results for TCE, PCE, and chromium (Cr) from six wells highlight the affect or lack of affects the sampling systems have on groundwater samples. In the PVC wells, turbidity typically remained < 5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) regardless of the sampling system. In the wells with a stainless steel screen, turbidity typically remained < 5 NTU only with the low-flow system. When the high-volume system was used, the turbidity and Cr concentration typically increased an order of magnitude. TCE concentrations at two wells did not appear to be sensitive to the sampling method used. However, PCE and TCE concentrations dropped an order of magnitude when the high-volume system was used at two other wells. This paper recommends that SNL/NM collaborate with other facilities with similar groundwater depths, continue to pursue regulatory approval for using

  5. Final work plan : targeted groundwater sampling and monitoring well installation for potential site reclassification at Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2006-07-11

    This ''Work Plan'' outlines the scope of work for a targeted groundwater sampling investigation and monitoring well installation at Barnes, Kansas. This activity is being conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), in accordance with the intergovernmental agreement between the KDHE and the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Data resulting from the proposed work will be used to determine the hydraulic gradient near the former CCC/USDA facility, delineate the downgradient carbon tetrachloride plume, and determine additional monitoring requirements at Barnes. The overall goal is to establish criteria for monitoring leading to potential site reclassification. The proposed work will be performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Farm Service Agency of the USDA has entered into an interagency agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance with environmental site characterization and remediation at former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities. Argonne issued a ''Master Work Plan'' (Argonne 2002) to provide general guidance for all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas. The ''Master Work Plan'', approved by the KDHE, contains the materials common to investigations at all locations in Kansas. This document must be consulted for the complete details of plans for this work associated with the former CCC/USDA facility at Barnes.

  6. Microwave-Assisted Sample Treatment in a Fully Automated Flow-Based Instrument: Oxidation of Reduced Technetium Species in the Analysis of Total Technetium-99 in Caustic Aged Nuclear Waste Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, Oleg B.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Grate, Jay W.

    2004-07-15

    An automated flow-based instrument for microwave-assisted treatment of liquid samples has been developed and characterized. The instrument utilizes a flow-through reaction vessel design that facilitates the addition of multiple reagents during sample treatment, removal of the gaseous reaction products, and enables quantitative removal of liquids from the reaction vessel for carryover-free operations. Matrix modification and speciation control chemistries that are required for the radiochemical determination of total 99Tc in caustic aged nuclear waste samples have been investigated. A rapid and quantitative oxidation procedure using peroxydisulfate in acidic solution was developed to convert reduced technetium species to pertechnetate in samples with high content of reducing organics. The effectiveness of the automated sample treatment procedures has been validated in the radiochemical analysis of total 99Tc in caustic aged nuclear waste matrixes from the Hanford site.

  7. The activity concentrations of 222Rn and corresponding health risk in groundwater samples from basement and sandstone aquifer; the correlation to physicochemical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurabu, Wedad Ali; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Heryansyah, Arien

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 222Rn and to assess the corresponding health risk in groundwater samples obtained in Juban District, Ad Dali' Governorate, Yemen. The measurements were performed by RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by DURRIDGE COMPANY Inc. The activity concentrations of 222Rn ranged from 1.0±0.2 Bq l-1 to 896.0±0.8 Bq l-1. 57% of the groundwater samples were above the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended value for Rn in water. Induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the concentrations of uranium in groundwater samples. The measured concentration of U ranged from 0.33±0.01 μg l-1 to 24.6±0.6 μg l-1. The results were comparable to internationally recommended values. The highest concentration of U and 222Rn were found to be in the basement aquifer, while the lowest concentrations of both radionuclides were in the sandstone aquifer. High concentrations of Rn are found along fault zones. The relationship between the activity concentration of 222Rn, concentration of U and physicochemical parameters were investigated. The results showed a very strong relationship between activity concentrations of 222Rn with concentrations of U and the salinity of water.

  8. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples from the Rio Grande Valley in the vicinity of Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 1993 through January 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkins, D.W.; Schlottmann, J.L.; Ferree, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate general ground-water- quality conditions and contaminant locations in the Rio Grande Valley in the vicinity of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Water samples from 36 observation wells in 12 well nests were analyzed. The well nests are located along three roads near the Rio Grande--two well nests near Paseo del Norte, five well nests near Monta?o Road, and five well nests near Rio Bravo Boulevard. The water samples were collected from October 19, 1993, through January 18, 1994. Water-quality types by major-ion composition were calcium bicarbonate (found in most samples), sodium sulfate, calcium sulfate, and calcium sulfate chloride. Nutrients were detected in all but one sample. Ammonia was detected in 34 samples, nitrite in 4 samples, and nitrate in 17 samples. Orthophosphate was detected in 31 samples. Organic carbon was detected in all samples collected. The trace elements arsenic and barium were detected in all samples and zinc in 31 samples. Fourteen samples contained detectable copper. Cadmium was detected in one sample, chromium in two samples, lead in four samples, and selenium in two samples. Mercury and silver were not detected.

  9. In vivo hippocampal measurement and memory: a comparison of manual tracing and automated segmentation in a large community-based sample.

    PubMed

    Cherbuin, Nicolas; Anstey, Kaarin J; Réglade-Meslin, Chantal; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2009-01-01

    While manual tracing is the method of choice in measuring hippocampal volume, its time intensive nature and proneness to human error make automated methods attractive, especially when applied to large samples. Few studies have systematically compared the performance of the two techniques. In this study, we measured hippocampal volumes in a large (N = 403) population-based sample of individuals aged 44-48 years using manual tracing by a trained researcher and automated procedure using Freesurfer (http://surfer.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu) imaging suite. Results showed that absolute hippocampal volumes assessed with these methods were significantly different, with automated measures using the Freesurfer software suite being significantly larger, by 23% for the left and 29% for the right hippocampus. The correlation between the two methods varied from 0.61 to 0.80, with lower correlations for hippocampi with visible abnormalities. Inspection of 2D and 3D models suggested that this difference was largely due to greater inclusion of boundary voxels by the automated method and variations in subiculum/entorhinal segmentation. The correlation between left and right hippocampal volumes was very similar by the two methods. The relationship of hippocampal volumes to selected sociodemographic and cognitive variables was not affected by the measurement method, with each measure showing an association with memory performance and suggesting that both were equally valid for this purpose. This study supports the use of automated measures, based on Freesurfer in this instance, as being sufficiently reliable and valid particularly in the context of larger sample sizes when the research question does not rely on 'true' hippocampal volumes.

  10. AN UNEXPECTED TEMPORAL PATTERN OF COLIPHAGE ISOLATION IN GROUNDWATERS SAMPLED FROM WELLS AT VARIED DISTANCES FROM RECLAIMED WATER RECHARGE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potable and monitoring wells located in close proximity to a large groundwater recharge project which utilizes a blend of surface water and reclaimed wastewater for recharge were tested for coliphage over a period of 6 months to assess the potential for virus migration. During th...

  11. Subtask 1.15-Passive Diffusion Sample Bags Made from Expanded Polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE) to Measure VOC Concentrations in Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Barry W. Botnen

    2006-08-01

    With laboratory testing of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes complete, collected data support that volatile organic compound (VOC) molecules will readily diffuse across ePTFE membranes. Membrane samples, supplied by BHA Technologies (GE Osmonics), were tested to determine diffusion rates for VOCs in groundwater. Tests were conducted using membranes with two different pore sizes, with and without thermally laminated spun bond backing, and multiple concentrations of contaminated groundwater. Results suggest that typical residence times associated with traditional samplers constructed of polyethylene (2 weeks) can be reduced by 1 week using ePTFE membranes (reducing project costs) and that VOCs will diffuse more readily at lower temperatures (2.2-3.3 C) across ePTFE materials.

  12. Automated sample preparation by pressurized liquid extraction-solid-phase extraction for the liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric investigation of polyphenols in the brewing process.

    PubMed

    Papagiannopoulos, Menelaos; Mellenthin, Annett

    2002-11-08

    The analysis of polyphenols from solid plant or food samples usually requires laborious sample preparation. The liquid extraction of these compounds from the sample is compromised by apolar matrix interferences, an excess of which has to be eliminated prior to subsequent purification and separation. Applying pressurized liquid extraction to the extraction of polyphenols from hops, the use of different solvents sequentially can partly overcome these problems. Initial extraction with pentane eliminates hydrophobic compounds like hop resins and oils and enables the straightforward automated on-line solid-phase extraction as part of an optimized LC-MS analysis.

  13. Ground-Water Data-Collection Protocols and Procedures for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Collection and Documentation of Water-Quality Samples and Related Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koterba, Michael T.; Wilde, Franceska D.; Lapham, Wayne W.

    1995-01-01

    Protocols for ground-water sampling are described in a report written in 1989 as part of the pilot program for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These protocols have been reviewed and revised to address the needs of the full-scale implementation of the NAWQA Program that began in 1991. This report, which is a collaborative effort between the NAWQA Program and the USGS Office of Water Quality, is the result of that review and revision. This report describes protocols and recommended procedures for the collection of water-quality samples and related data from wells for the NAWQA Program. Protocols and recommended procedures discussed include (1) equipment setup and other preparations for data collection; (2) well purging and field measurements; (3) collecting and processing ground-water-quality samples; (4) equipment decontamination; (5) quality-control sampling; and (6) sample handling and shipping.

  14. Determination of aluminium in groundwater samples by GF-AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS and modelling of inorganic aluminium complexes.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Kurzyca, Iwona; Novotný, Karel; Vaculovič, Tomas; Kanický, Viktor; Siepak, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water samples of the Miocene aquifer from the area of the city of Poznań (Poland). The determined aluminium content amounted from <0.0001 to 752.7 μg L(-1). The aluminium determinations were performed using three analytical techniques: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of aluminium determinations in groundwater samples for particular analytical techniques were compared. The results were used to identify the ascent of ground water from the Mesozoic aquifer to the Miocene aquifer in the area of the fault graben. Using the Mineql+ program, the modelling of the occurrence of aluminium and the following aluminium complexes: hydroxy, with fluorides and sulphates was performed. The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water using different analytical techniques as well as the chemical modelling in the Mineql+ program, which was performed for the first time and which enabled the identification of aluminium complexes in the investigated samples. The study confirms the occurrence of aluminium hydroxy complexes and aluminium fluoride complexes in the analysed groundwater samples. Despite the dominance of sulphates and organic matter in the sample, major participation of the complexes with these ligands was not stated based on the modelling.

  15. Automated Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling-HPLC-MS/MS Analysis of Drugs and Metabolites in Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    A fully automated liquid extraction-based surface sampling system utilizing a commercially available autosampler coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) detection is reported. Discrete spots selected for droplet-based sampling and automated sample queue generation for both the autosampler and MS were enabled by using in-house developed software. In addition, co-registration of spatially resolved sampling position and HPLC-MS information to generate heatmaps of compounds monitored for subsequent data analysis was also available in the software. The system was evaluated with whole-body thin tissue sections from propranolol dosed rat. The hands-free operation of the system was demonstrated by creating heatmaps of the parent drug and its hydroxypropranolol glucuronide metabolites with 1 mm resolution in the areas of interest. The sample throughput was approximately 5 min/sample defined by the time needed for chromatographic separation. The spatial distributions of both the drug and its metabolites were consistent with previous studies employing other liquid extraction-based surface sampling methodologies.

  16. Automated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography - cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy for the determination of mercury species in natural water samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao-Min; Zhang, Feng-Ping; Jiao, Bao-Yu; Rao, Jin-Yu; Leng, Geng

    2017-04-14

    An automated, home-constructed, and low cost dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) device that directly coupled to a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) - cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CVAFS) system was designed and developed for the determination of trace concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg(+)), ethylmercury (EtHg(+)) and inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)) in natural waters. With a simple, miniaturized and efficient automated DLLME system, nanogram amounts of these mercury species were extracted from natural water samples and injected into a hyphenated HPLC-CVAFS for quantification. The complete analytical procedure, including chelation, extraction, phase separation, collection and injection of the extracts, as well as HPLC-CVAFS quantification, was automated. Key parameters, such as the type and volume of the chelation, extraction and dispersive solvent, aspiration speed, sample pH, salt effect and matrix effect, were thoroughly investigated. Under the optimum conditions, linear range was 10-1200ngL(-1) for EtHg(+) and 5-450ngL(-1) for MeHg(+) and Hg(2+). Limits of detection were 3.0ngL(-1) for EtHg(+) and 1.5ngL(-1) for MeHg(+) and Hg(2+). Reproducibility and recoveries were assessed by spiking three natural water samples with different Hg concentrations, giving recoveries from 88.4-96.1%, and relative standard deviations <5.1%.

  17. Development of a fully automated open-column chemical-separation system—COLUMNSPIDER—and its application to Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analyses of igneous rock samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Vaglarov, Bogdan Stefanov; Takei, Masakazu; Suzuki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Ohsawa, Kouzou; Chang, Qing; Takahashi, Toshiro; Hirahara, Yuka; Hanyu, Takeshi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    A fully automated open-column resin-bed chemical-separation system, named COLUMNSPIDER, has been developed. The system consists of a programmable micropipetting robot that dispenses chemical reagents and sample solutions into an open-column resin bed for elemental separation. After the initial set up of resin columns, chemical reagents, and beakers for the separated chemical components, all separation procedures are automated. As many as ten samples can be eluted in parallel in a single automated run. Many separation procedures, such as radiogenic isotope ratio analyses for Sr and Nd, involve the use of multiple column separations with different resin columns, chemical reagents, and beakers of various volumes. COLUMNSPIDER completes these separations using multiple runs. Programmable functions, including the positioning of the micropipetter, reagent volume, and elution time, enable flexible operation. Optimized movements for solution take-up and high-efficiency column flushing allow the system to perform as precisely as when carried out manually by a skilled operator. Procedural blanks, examined for COLUMNSPIDER separations of Sr, Nd, and Pb, are low and negligible. The measured Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios for JB-2 and Nd isotope ratios for JB-3 and BCR-2 rock standards all fall within the ranges reported previously in high-accuracy analyses. COLUMNSPIDER is a versatile tool for the efficient elemental separation of igneous rock samples, a process that is both labor intensive and time consuming.

  18. Automated extraction of DNA from blood and PCR setup using a Tecan Freedom EVO liquid handler for forensic genetic STR typing of reference samples.

    PubMed

    Stangegaard, Michael; Frøslev, Tobias G; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders J; Morling, Niels

    2011-04-01

    We have implemented and validated automated protocols for DNA extraction and PCR setup using a Tecan Freedom EVO liquid handler mounted with the Te-MagS magnetic separation device (Tecan, Männedorf, Switzerland). The protocols were validated for accredited forensic genetic work according to ISO 17025 using the Qiagen MagAttract DNA Mini M48 kit (Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany) from fresh whole blood and blood from deceased individuals. The workflow was simplified by returning the DNA extracts to the original tubes minimizing the risk of misplacing samples. The tubes that originally contained the samples were washed with MilliQ water before the return of the DNA extracts. The PCR was setup in 96-well microtiter plates. The methods were validated for the kits: AmpFℓSTR Identifiler, SGM Plus and Yfiler (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA), GenePrint FFFL and PowerPlex Y (Promega, Madison, WI). The automated protocols allowed for extraction and addition of PCR master mix of 96 samples within 3.5h. In conclusion, we demonstrated that (1) DNA extraction with magnetic beads and (2) PCR setup for accredited, forensic genetic short tandem repeat typing can be implemented on a simple automated liquid handler leading to the reduction of manual work, and increased quality and throughput.

  19. Carotid Catheterization and Automated Blood Sampling Induce Systemic IL-6 Secretion and Local Tissue Damage and Inflammation in the Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Salivary Glands in NMRI Mice

    PubMed Central

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Rozell, Björn; Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Automated blood sampling through a vascular catheter is a frequently utilized technique in laboratory mice. The potential immunological and physiological implications associated with this technique have, however, not been investigated in detail. The present study compared plasma levels of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, GM-CSF, IFN-γ and TNF-α in male NMRI mice that had been subjected to carotid artery catheterization and subsequent automated blood sampling with age-matched control mice. Body weight and histopathological changes in the surgical area, including the salivary glands, the heart, brain, spleen, liver, kidneys and lungs were compared. Catheterized mice had higher levels of IL-6 than did control mice, but other cytokine levels did not differ between the groups. No significant difference in body weight was found. The histology revealed inflammatory and regenerative (healing) changes at surgical sites of all catheterized mice, with mild inflammatory changes extending into the salivary glands. Several catheterized mice had multifocal degenerative to necrotic changes with inflammation in the heart, kidneys and livers, suggesting that thrombi had detached from the catheter tip and embolized to distant sites. Thus, catheterization and subsequent automated blood sampling may have physiological impact. Possible confounding effects of visceral damage should be assessed and considered, when using catheterized mouse models. PMID:27832170

  20. Automated sample preparation based on the sequential injection principle. Solid-phase extraction on a molecularly imprinted polymer coupled on-line to high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Theodoridis, Georgios; Zacharis, Constantinos K; Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D; Themelis, Demetrius G; Economou, Anastasios

    2004-03-19

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) prepared using caffeine, as a template, was validated as a selective sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE), within an automated on-line sample preparation method. The polymer produced was packed in a polypropylene cartridge, which was incorporated in a flow system prior to the HPLC analytical instrumentation. The principle of sequential injection was utilised for a rapid automated and efficient SPE procedure on the MIP. Samples, buffers, washing and elution solvents were introduced to the extraction cartridge via a peristaltic pump and a multi-position valve, both controlled by appropriate software developed in-house. The method was optimised in terms of flow rates, extraction time and volume. After extraction, the final eluent from the extraction cartridge was directed to the injection loop and was subsequently analysed on HPLC. The overall set-up facilitated unattended operation, operation and improved both mixing fluidics and method development flexibility. This system may be readily built in the laboratory and can be further used as an automated platform for on-line sample preparation.

  1. Water-quality assessment of south-central Texas : comparison of water quality in surface-water samples collected manually and by automated samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ging, Patricia B.

    1999-01-01

    Surface-water sampling protocols of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program specify samples for most properties and constituents to be collected manually in equal-width increments across a stream channel and composited for analysis. Single-point sampling with an automated sampler (autosampler) during storms was proposed in the upper part of the South-Central Texas NAWQA study unit, raising the question of whether property and constituent concentrations from automatically collected samples differ significantly from those in samples collected manually. Statistical (Wilcoxon signed-rank test) analyses of 3 to 16 paired concentrations for each of 26 properties and constituents from water samples collected using both methods at eight sites in the upper part of the study unit indicated that there were no significant differences in concentrations for dissolved constituents, other than calcium and organic carbon.

  2. Results of the Analyses for 1,4-Dioxane of Groundwater Samples Collected in the Tucson Airport Remediation Project Area, South-Central Arizona, 2006-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D

    2009-01-01

    Extensive groundwater contamination resulting from industrial activities led to the listing of the Tucson International Airport Area (TIAA) as a Superfund Site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1983. Early investigations revealed elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including the chlorinated solvents trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene, in wells in the area. Several responsible parties were identified, and cleanup activities were initiated in the late 1980s using technology designed for removal of VOCs. In 2002, the compound 1,4-dioxane was discovered in wells in the TIAA area. Since then, 1,4-dioxane has been detected throughout the TIAA area at levels exceeding the USEPA Drinking Water Health Advisory value of 3 micrograms per liter (ug/L; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006). Chemical properties of 1,4-dioxane make it relatively unaffected by the treatment technologies employed in the TIAA area. In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Arizona Water Science Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment, began an investigation into the extent of groundwater contamination by 1,4-dioxane in the area. Five rounds of groundwater sampling in the TIAA area have been completed by the USGS since that time, yielding a total of 210 samples. Results from these analyses indicate less than reportable concentrations of 1,4-dioxane in 30 percent of the samples, with 46 percent of the samples having concentrations at or above the USEPA Drinking Water Health Advisory level.

  3. Summary of inorganic compositional data for groundwater, soil-water, and surface-water samples collected at the Headgate Draw subsurface drip irrigation site, Johnson County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupancic, John W.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  4. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    SciTech Connect

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  5. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS SAMPLES CONTAINING PESTICIDES, ACIDIC/BASIC/NEUTRAL SEMIVOLATILES AND VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COUPLED IN-LINE TO LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data is presented on the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with GC/MS spectrometry for the single-run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of organic compounds. The system uses commercially available automated in-line 10-m...

  6. Automation of flow injection gas diffusion-ion chromatography for the nanomolar determination of methylamines and ammonia in seawater and atmospheric samples

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Stuart W.; Wood, John W.; Fauzi, R.; Mantoura, C.

    1995-01-01

    The automation and improved design and performance of Flow Injection Gas Diffusion-Ion Chromatography (FIGD-IC), a novel technique for the simultaneous analysis of trace ammonia (NH3) and methylamines (MAs) in aqueous media, is presented. Automated Flow Injection Gas Diffusion (FIGD) promotes the selective transmembrane diffusion of MAs and NH3 from aqueous sample under strongly alkaline (pH > 12, NaOH), chelated (EDTA) conditions into a recycled acidic acceptor stream. The acceptor is then injected onto an ion chromatograph where NH3 and the MAs are fully resolved as their cations and detected conductimetrically. A versatile PC interfaced control unit and data capture unit (DCU) are employed in series to direct the selonoid valve switching sequence, IC operation and collection of data. Automation, together with other modifications improved both linearily (R2 > 0.99 MAs 0-100 nM, NH3 0-1000 nM) and precision (<8%) of FIGD-IC at nanomolar concentrations, compared with the manual procedure. The system was successfully applied to the determination of MAs and NH3 in seawater and in trapped particulate and gaseous atmospheric samples during an oceanographic research cruise. PMID:18925047

  7. A simulation-based approach for designing effective field-sampling programs to evaluate contamination risk of groundwater supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordqvist, R.; Voss, C.I.

    1996-01-01

    An approach to model discrimination and network design for evaluation of groundwater contamination risk is proposed and demonstrated by application to a site in a glaciofluvial aquifer in Sweden. The approach consists of first hypothesizing alternative conceptual models of hydrogeology at the site on the basis of both quantitative data and qualitative information. The conceptual models are then expressed as two-dimensional numerical models of groundwater flow and solute transport, and model attributes controlling risk to the water supply are determined by simulation. Model predictions of response to a specific field test are made with each model that affects risk. Regions for effective measurement networks are then identified. Effective networks are those that capture sufficient information to determine which of the hypothesized models best describes the system with a minimum of measurement points. For the example site in Sweden, the network is designed such that important system parameters may be accurately estimated at the same time as model discrimination is carried out. The site in Vansbro, Sweden, consists of a water-supply well in an esker separated (by 300m) from a wood preservation and treatment area on the esker flank by only a narrow inlet of a bordering stream. Application of the above-described risk analysis shows that, of all the hydrologic controls and parameters in the groundwater system, the only factor that controls the potential migration of wood-treatment contaminants to the well is whether the inlet's bed is pervious, creating a hydraulic barrier to lateral contaminant transport. Furthermore, the analysis localizes an area near the end of the inlet wherein the most effective measurements of drawdown would be made to discriminate between a permeable and impermeable bed. The location of this optimal area is not obvious prior to application of the above methodology.

  8. A fully automated system with online sample loading, isotope dimethyl labeling and multidimensional separation for high-throughput quantitative proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangjun; Chen, Rui; Zhu, Jun; Sun, Deguang; Song, Chunxia; Wu, Yifeng; Ye, Mingliang; Wang, Liming; Zou, Hanfa

    2010-04-01

    Multidimensional separation is often applied for large-scale qualitative and quantitative proteome analysis. A fully automated system with integration of a reversed phase-strong cation exchange (RP-SCX) biphasic trap column into vented sample injection system was developed to realize online sample loading, isotope dimethyl labeling and online multidimensional separation of the proteome samples. Comparing to conventionally manual isotope labeling and off-line fractionation technologies, this system is fully automated and time-saving, which is benefit for improving the quantification reproducibility and accuracy. As phosphate SCX monolith was integrated into the biphasic trap column, high sample injection flow rate and high-resolution stepwise fractionation could be easily achieved. Approximately 1000 proteins could be quantified in approximately 30 h proteome analysis, and the proteome coverage of quantitative analysis can be further greatly improved by prolong the multidimensional separation time. This system was applied to analyze the different protein expression level of HCC and normal human liver tissues. After three times replicated analysis, finally 94 up-regulated and 249 down-regulated (HCC/Normal) proteins were successfully obtained. These significantly regulated proteins are widely validated by both gene and proteins expression studies previously. Such as some enzymes involved in urea cycle, methylation cycle and fatty acids catabolism in liver were all observed down-regulated.

  9. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan at waste area grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document is the Groundwater Level Monitoring Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Note that this document is referred to as a SAP even though no sampling and analysis will be conducted. The term SAP is used for consistency. The procedures described herein are part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for WAG 6, which also includes monitoring tasks for seeps and springs, groundwater quality, surface water, and meteorological parameters. Separate SAPs are being issued concurrently to describe each of these monitoring programs. This SAP has been written for the use of the field personnel responsible for implementation of the EMP, with the intent that the field personnel will be able to take these documents to the field and quickly find the appropriate steps required to complete a specific task. In many cases, Field Operations Procedures (FOPs) will define the steps required for an activity. The FOPs for the EMP are referenced and briefly described in the relevant sections of the SAPs, and are contained within the FOP Manual. Both these documents (the SAP and the FOP Manual) will be available to personnel in the field.

  10. Determination of the abundance of delta15N in nitrate ion in contaminated groundwater samples using an elemental analyzer coupled to a mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Nishikawa, M; Nakasugi, O; Ii, H; Hirata, T

    2001-07-01

    A rapid method for measuring the delta15N of nitrate ion in water samples using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer coupled to an elemental analyzer system (EA-MS) was investigated. The water should be removed from the analytical sample before measurement with this system. We investigated the application of a super-absorbent polymer resin powder to various water samples. Each 1 mg of polymer resin powder can absorb about 50-100 mg of solution depending on the concentrations of major ions. Only samples which contain more than 100 mg l(-1) of nitrate-nitrogen are suitable to be absorbed by the polymer resin for the determination of delta15N of nitrate. Preconcentration by rotary evaporation was necessary for dilute samples but the temperature should be kept below 60 degrees C. The polymer resin (about 8 mg) containing the nitrate was directly analyzed using an EA-MS after being oven-dried at 80 degrees C. Good accuracy (precision +/- 0.3%) for delta15N measurements of nitrate-nitrogen in a sample without any isotope fractionation effects during pre-treatment was observed. Results for delta15N of nitrate in contaminated groundwater samples collected in the spring at a tea plantation area in Shizuoka, Japan, were from 9.8 to 10.6%, which were close to the delta15N abundance in organic fertilizers.

  11. Sampling history and 2009--2010 results for pesticides and inorganic constituents monitored by the Lake Wales Ridge Groundwater Network, central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choquette, Anne F.; Freiwald, R. Scott; Kraft, Carol L.

    2012-01-01

    7 percent, respectively, of the 2009–2010 samples. A comparison of agrichemical land-use effects on groundwater quality, determined on the basis of samples from LWRM Network wells in citrus and in non-citrus land-use areas, indicated significantly higher (p<0.05) concentrations of inorganic constituents in samples from citrus land-use areas compared to samples from non-citrus areas. These inorganic constituents include calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, potassium, nitrate, aluminum, manganese, strontium, and total nitrogen, and also specific conductance, an indicator of total dissolved solutes in water. In addition to land use, including irrigation, site differences such as soils and groundwater reduction/oxidation conditions might have contributed to the differences in some of these constituents. Pesticide detections were primarily restricted to the citrus land-use wells, where 22 of 23 wells yielded pesticide detections, with a median of four detected pesticide compounds per well. For the non-citrus land-use wells, typically surrounded by mixed land use including developed and undeveloped land, one of the eight sampled wells yielded pesticide detections consisting of norflurazon and its degradate, and the source(s) of these detections might have been active or recently active citrus orchards in the vicinity of this well. Results from the LWRM Network during the 1989 through May 2010 period have provided early warning of chemicals prone to leaching, guidance for developing or modifying chemical usage practices to minimize impacts to groundwater, and a mechanism for prioritizing State sampling of domestic wells to assure safe drinking-water supplies. Given the typically long time period (years to tens of years or longer) required to remove chemical contamination once it enters the groundwater system, groundwater monitoring is important to protect drinking-water sources as well as the numerous lakes in this region, which are closely connected with the surficial

  12. Effects of sample aging on total cholesterol values determined by the automated ferric chloride-sulfuric acid and Liebermann-Burchard procedures.

    PubMed

    Wood, P D; Bachorik, P S; Albers, J J; Stewart, C C; Winn, C; Lippel, K

    1980-04-01

    To investigate the comparability of three commonly used methods for determination of total cholesterol in plasma in several studies, we used fresh plasma samples as well as plasmas and reference sera that had been stored frozen at -15 degrees C for as long as several years. Duplicate determinations by the manual method of Abell et al. (J. Biol. Chem. 195: 357, 1952) were compared with estimates from one to five continuous-flow analyzers by the ferric chloride-sulfuric acid procedure and also with estimates from five to 13 continuous-flow analyzers by the Liebermann-Burchard procedure with calibrator, as part of the laboratory standardization activities of the Lipid Research Clinics. The agreement among all three procedures was generally within acceptable limits (within 5% of the manual method) when plasmas or sera were fresh or had been frozen for less than one month. Results by the manual method of Abell et al. agreed well with those by the automated Liebermann-Burchard method for samples that had been stored at -15 degrees C for as long as two years. However, the automated ferric chloride-sulfuric acid procedure often showed unacceptably high values (as compared with those from the manual method) for samples that had been stored frozen for a year or more. With the ferric chloride-sulfuric acid method, measured cholesterol concentration increased about 2.5% per year of storage for at least two years. We conclude that reference sera of plasmas that have been kept in long-term frozen storage (-15 degrees C) are not suitable for ongoing standardization of the automated ferric chloride-sulfuric acid assay for cholesterol.

  13. Groundwater pollution microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Bitton, G.; Gerba, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides a survey of available information on groundwater pollution microbiology. It is useful as a starting point for students and professionals investigating this topic. Subjects discussed include bacteria and virus movement through soils, carcinogenicity of some organic chemicals detected in groundwater, sampling techniques, and land treatment systems. Include references to the journal literature and a subject index.

  14. Development of a benthic-flux chamber for measurement of ground-water seepage and water sampling for mercury analysis at the sediment-water interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menheer, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    A benthic-flux chamber was constructed to collect data to determine the relation between ground- and surface-water interaction and mercury concentrations in water at the sediment- water interface. The benthic-flux chamber was successfully used to measure the rate of ground water seeping to surface water or surface water seeping to ground water, and to collect water samples for mercury analysis from the sedimentwater interface in a lake setting. The benthic-flux chamber was designed to be deployed in relatively calm fresh water lakes, in areas of water less than 2 meters deep. The groundwater seepage rate data were comparable to data from an in-line flow meter in a calibration tank and with data from two 55-gallon drum seepage meters concurrently deployed in two different lakes. The benthic-flux chamber was used to collect possible water samples for analysis of total mercury and methylmercury concentrations.

  15. Semi-automated disk-type solid-phase extraction method for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in aqueous samples and its application to natural water.

    PubMed

    Choi, J W; Lee, J H; Moon, B S; Baek, K H

    2007-07-20

    A disk-type solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was used for the extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in natural water and tap water. Since this SPE system comprised airtight glass covers with a decompression pump, it enabled continuous extraction with semi-automation. The disk-type SPE method was validated by comparing its recovery rates of spiked internal standards with those of the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The recovery ranges of both methods were similar in terms of (13)C-labeled internal standards: 64.3-99.2% for the LLE and 52.4-93.6% for the SPE. For the native spike of 1,3,6,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), the recoveries in the SPE were in the normal range of 77.9-101.1%. However, in the LLE, the recoveries of 1,3,6,8-TCDD decreased significantly. One of the reasons for the low recovery is that the solubility of this congener is high. The semi-automated SPE method was applied to the analysis of different types of water: river water, snow, sea water, raw water for drinking purposes, and tap water. PCDD/F congeners were found in some sea water and snow samples, while their concentrations in the other samples were below the limits of detection (LODs). This SPE system is appropriate for the routine analysis of water samples below 50L.

  16. Global sampling to assess the value of diverse observations in conditioning a real-world groundwater flow and transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delsman, Joost R.; Winters, Pieter; Vandenbohede, Alexander; Oude Essink, Gualbert H. P.; Lebbe, Luc

    2016-03-01

    The use of additional types of observational data has often been suggested to alleviate the ill-posedness inherent to parameter estimation of groundwater models and constrain model uncertainty. Disinformation in observational data caused by errors in either the observations or the chosen model structure may, however, confound the value of adding observational data in model conditioning. This paper uses the global generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation methodology to investigate the value of different observational data types (heads, fluxes, salinity, and temperature) in conditioning a groundwater flow and transport model of an extensively monitored field site in the Netherlands. We compared model conditioning using the real observations to a synthetic model experiment, to demonstrate the possible influence of disinformation in observational data in model conditioning. Results showed that the value of different conditioning targets was less evident when conditioning to real measurements than in a measurement error-only synthetic model experiment. While in the synthetic experiment, all conditioning targets clearly improved model outcomes, minor improvements or even worsening of model outcomes was observed for the real measurements. This result was caused by errors in both the model structure and the observations, resulting in disinformation in the observational data. The observed impact of disinformation in the observational data reiterates the necessity of thorough data validation and the need for accounting for both model structural and observational errors in model conditioning. It further suggests caution when translating results of synthetic modeling examples to real-world applications. Still, applying diverse conditioning data types was found to be essential to constrain uncertainty, especially in the transport of solutes in the model.

  17. An automated system to mount cryo-cooled protein crystals on a synchrotron beam line, using compact sample cassettes and a small-scale robot

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Aina E.; Ellis, Paul J.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Phizackerley, R. Paul

    2014-01-01

    An automated system for mounting and dismounting pre-frozen crystals has been implemented at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). It is based on a small industrial robot and compact cylindrical cassettes, each holding up to 96 crystals mounted on Hampton Research sample pins. For easy shipping and storage, the cassette fits inside several popular dry-shippers and long-term storage Dewars. A dispensing Dewar holds up to three cassettes in liquid nitrogen adjacent to the beam line goniometer. The robot uses a permanent magnet tool to extract samples from, and insert samples into a cassette, and a cryo-tong tool to transfer them to and from the beam line goniometer. The system is simple, with few moving parts, reliable in operation and convenient to use. PMID:24899734

  18. Automated analysis of mitomycin C in body fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line sample pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Tjaden, U R; de Bruijn, E A; van der Hoeven, R A; Jol, C; van der Greef, J; Lingeman, H

    1987-09-04

    A fully automated liquid chromatographic system for the bioanalysis of mitomycin C has been described. The isolation of the analyte from the biological matrix (plasma, ascites and urine) is performed using a continuous-flow system equipped with a dialysis membrane in order to remove proteins. The samples are concentrated on a reversed-phase pre-column and subsequently introduced on to a reversed-phase analytical column by applying column-switching techniques. The drug is detected by absorbance measurements at 360 nm. Using the described system up to 100 samples a day can be analysed with determination limits of the order of 1 ng/ml, with a linear dynamic range of at least three decades for plasma and urine samples. The procedure was applied to pharmacokinetic studies of ovarian cancer patients treated intraperitoneally with mitomycin C.

  19. Optimization of automated gas sample collection and isotope ratio mass spectrometric analysis of delta(13)C of CO(2) in air.

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Matthias J; Werner, Roland A; Eugster, Werner; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Wehrle, Günther; Mohn, Joachim; Buchmann, Nina

    2008-12-01

    The application of (13)C/(12)C in ecosystem-scale tracer models for CO(2) in air requires accurate measurements of the mixing ratios and stable isotope ratios of CO(2). To increase measurement reliability and data intercomparability, as well as to shorten analysis times, we have improved an existing field sampling setup with portable air sampling units and developed a laboratory setup for the analysis of the delta(13)C of CO(2) in air by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The changes consist of (a) optimization of sample and standard gas flow paths, (b) additional software configuration, and (c) automation of liquid nitrogen refilling for the cryogenic trap. We achieved a precision better than 0.1 per thousand and an accuracy of 0.11 +/- 0.04 per thousand for the measurement of delta(13)C of CO(2) in air and unattended operation of measurement sequences up to 12 h.

  20. Method and apparatus for automated processing and aliquoting of whole blood samples for analysis in a centrifugal fast analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A rotor and disc assembly for use in a centrifugal fast analyzer. The assembly is designed to process multiple samples of whole blood followed by aliquoting of the resultant serum into precisely measured samples for subsequent chemical analysis. The assembly requires minimal operator involvement with no mechanical pipetting. The system comprises (1) a whole blood sample disc, (2) a serum sample disc, (3) a sample preparation rotor, and (4) an analytical rotor. The blood sample disc and serum sample disc are designed with a plurality of precision bore capillary tubes arranged in a spoked array. Samples of blood are loaded into the blood sample disc in capillary tubes filled by capillary action and centrifugally discharged into cavities of the sample preparation rotor where separation of serum and solids is accomplished. The serum is loaded into the capillaries of the serum sample disc by capillary action and subsequently centrifugally expelled into cuvettes of the analytical rotor for analysis by conventional methods.

  1. Method and apparatus for automated processing and aliquoting of whole blood samples for analysis in a centrifugal fast analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1985-08-05

    A rotor and disc assembly for use in a centrifugal fast analyzer. The assembly is designed to process multiple samples of whole blood followed by aliquoting of the resultant serum into precisely measured samples for subsequent chemical analysis. The assembly requires minimal operator involvement with no mechanical pipetting. The system comprises: (1) a whole blood sample disc; (2) a serum sample disc; (3) a sample preparation rotor; and (4) an analytical rotor. The blood sample disc and serum sample disc are designed with a plurality of precision bore capillary tubes arranged in a spoked array. Samples of blood are loaded into the blood sample disc by capillary action and centrifugally discharged into cavities of the sample preparation rotor where separation of serum and solids is accomplished. The serum is loaded into the capillaries of the serum sample disc by capillary action and subsequently centrifugally expelled into cuvettes of the analyticaly rotor for conventional methods. 5 figs.

  2. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  3. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater level monitoring activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Groundwater level monitoring will be conducted at 129 sites within the WAG. All of the sites will be manually monitored on a semiannual basis. Forty-five of the 128 wells, plus one site in White Oak Lake, will also be equipped with automatic water level monitoring equipment. The 46 sites are divided into three groups. One group will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level, conductivity, and temperature. The other two groups will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level only. The equipment will be rotated between the two groups. The data collected from the water level monitoring will be used to support determination of the contaminant flux at WAG 6.

  4. Automated screening of 2D crystallization trials using transmission electron microscopy: a high-throughput tool-chain for sample preparation and microscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Coudray, Nicolas; Hermann, Gilles; Caujolle-Bert, Daniel; Karathanou, Argyro; Erne-Brand, Françoise; Buessler, Jean-Luc; Daum, Pamela; Plitzko, Juergen M; Chami, Mohamed; Mueller, Urs; Kihl, Hubert; Urban, Jean-Philippe; Engel, Andreas; Rémigy, Hervé-W

    2011-02-01

    We have built and extensively tested a tool-chain to prepare and screen two-dimensional crystals of membrane proteins by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at room temperature. This automated process is an extension of a new procedure described recently that allows membrane protein 2D crystallization in parallel (Iacovache et al., 2010). The system includes a gantry robot that transfers and prepares the crystalline solutions on grids suitable for TEM analysis and an entirely automated microscope that can analyze 96 grids at once without human interference. The operation of the system at the user level is solely controlled within the MATLAB environment: the commands to perform sample handling (loading/unloading in the microscope), microscope steering (magnification, focus, image acquisition, etc.) as well as automatic crystal detection have been implemented. Different types of thin samples can efficiently be screened provided that the particular detection algorithm is adapted to the specific task. Hence, operating time can be shared between multiple users. This is a major step towards the integration of transmission electron microscopy into a high throughput work-flow.

  5. A timer inventory based upon manual and automated analysis of ERTS-1 and supporting aircraft data using multistage probability sampling. [Plumas National Forest, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Gialdini, M.; Jaakkola, S.

    1974-01-01

    A quasi-operational study demonstrating that a timber inventory based on manual and automated analysis of ERTS-1, supporting aircraft data and ground data was made using multistage sampling techniques. The inventory proved to be a timely, cost effective alternative to conventional timber inventory techniques. The timber volume on the Quincy Ranger District of the Plumas National Forest was estimated to be 2.44 billion board feet with a sampling error of 8.2 percent. Costs per acre for the inventory procedure at 1.1 cent/acre compared favorably with the costs of a conventional inventory at 25 cents/acre. A point-by-point comparison of CALSCAN-classified ERTS data with human-interpreted low altitude photo plots indicated no significant differences in the overall classification accuracies.

  6. High-throughput, automated extraction of DNA and RNA from clinical samples using TruTip technology on common liquid handling robots.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Rebecca C; Gindlesperger, Alissa; Stokes, Tinsley; Brady, Dane; Thakore, Nitu; Belgrader, Philip; Cooney, Christopher G; Chandler, Darrell P

    2013-06-11

    TruTip is a simple nucleic acid extraction technology whereby a porous, monolithic binding matrix is inserted into a pipette tip. The geometry of the monolith can be adapted for specific pipette tips ranging in volume from 1.0 to 5.0 ml. The large porosity of the monolith enables viscous or complex samples to readily pass through it with minimal fluidic backpressure. Bi-directional flow maximizes residence time between the monolith and sample, and enables large sample volumes to be processed within a single TruTip. The fundamental steps, irrespective of sample volume or TruTip geometry, include cell lysis, nucleic acid binding to the inner pores of the TruTip monolith, washing away unbound sample components and lysis buffers, and eluting purified and concentrated nucleic acids into an appropriate buffer. The attributes and adaptability of TruTip are demonstrated in three automated clinical sample processing protocols using an Eppendorf epMotion 5070, Hamilton STAR and STARplus liquid handling robots, including RNA isolation from nasopharyngeal aspirate, genomic DNA isolation from whole blood, and fetal DNA extraction and enrichment from large volumes of maternal plasma (respectively).

  7. Influence of sample preparation and reliability of automated numerical refocusing in stain-free analysis of dissected tissues with quantitative phase digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Björn; Lenz, Philipp; Bettenworth, Dominik; Krausewitz, Philipp; Domagk, Dirk; Ketelhut, Steffi

    2015-05-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) has been demonstrated to be a versatile tool for high resolution non-destructive quantitative phase imaging of surfaces and multi-modal minimally-invasive monitoring of living cell cultures in-vitro. DHM provides quantitative monitoring of physiological processes through functional imaging and structural analysis which, for example, gives new insight into signalling of cellular water permeability and cell morphology changes due to toxins and infections. Also the analysis of dissected tissues quantitative DHM phase contrast prospects application fields by stain-free imaging and the quantification of tissue density changes. We show that DHM allows imaging of different tissue layers with high contrast in unstained tissue sections. As the investigation of fixed samples represents a very important application field in pathology, we also analyzed the influence of the sample preparation. The retrieved data demonstrate that the quality of quantitative DHM phase images of dissected tissues depends strongly on the fixing method and common staining agents. As in DHM the reconstruction is performed numerically, multi-focus imaging is achieved from a single digital hologram. Thus, we evaluated the automated refocussing feature of DHM for application on different types of dissected tissues and revealed that on moderately stained samples highly reproducible holographic autofocussing can be achieved. Finally, it is demonstrated that alterations of the spatial refractive index distribution in murine and human tissue samples represent a reliable absolute parameter that is related of different degrees of inflammation in experimental colitis and Crohn's disease. This paves the way towards the usage of DHM in digital pathology for automated histological examinations and further studies to elucidate the translational potential of quantitative phase microscopy for the clinical management of patients, e.g., with inflammatory bowel disease.

  8. Estimating Vertical Groundwater Velocities Using Groundwater Thermal Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriaga, M. A.; Leap, D. I.; Petruccione, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    An understanding of vertical groundwater flow through unconsolidated deposits is a component for predicting fate and transport of contaminants in the saturated zone. Groundwater movement through heterogeneous glacial deposits common to northern Indiana (USA) provided a test setting for determining if measured vertical groundwater thermal gradients could aid in calculating vertical groundwater velocity estimates. Field procedure was conducted by collecting stratified groundwater temperatures from a series of cased monitoring wells previously advanced through glacial till and outwash sedimentary sequences. Groundwater thermal gradients (temperature-depth profiles) were plotted and matched using automated computer modeling software (Microsoft Excel Solver) with published type curves to derive a dimensionless parameter for estimating vertical groundwater velocities. Data results matched predictions, to include an increase in vertical groundwater velocities during the seasonally wetter Spring; and, higher calculated vertical groundwater velocities for the finer-grained till aquitards when compared to aquifers comprised of coarser-grained outwash deposits. This study shows promise and has gathered interest both in the scientific community and environmental consulting practice for estimating vertical migration rates of contaminants (specifically those affected by advection) within the saturated zone. Government agencies or consultants, for instance, could also potentially apply this estimation technique to measure and map localized recharge rates for developing more accurate wellhead protection zones.

  9. Groundwater-quality data in seven GAMA study units: results from initial sampling, 2004-2005, and resampling, 2007-2008, of wells: California GAMA Program Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA-PBP began sampling, primarily public supply wells in May 2004. By the end of February 2006, seven (of what would eventually be 35) study units had been sampled over a wide area of the State. Selected wells in these first seven study units were resampled for water quality from August 2007 to November 2008 as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the seven study units. In the 7 study units, 462 wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Wells selected this way are referred to as grid wells or status wells. Approximately 3 years after the initial sampling, 55 of these previously sampled status wells (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for resampling. The seven resampled study units, the total number of status wells sampled for each study unit, and the number of these wells resampled for trends are as follows, in chronological order of sampling: San Diego Drainages (53 status wells, 7 trend wells), North San Francisco Bay (84, 10), Northern San Joaquin Basin (51, 5), Southern Sacramento Valley (67, 7), San Fernando–San Gabriel (35, 6), Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (91, 11), and Southeast San Joaquin Valley (83, 9). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N

  10. Comparison of immunochemical and HPLC-determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater samples of a former manufactured gas plant site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopp, Dietmar; Vaananen, Virpi; Niessner, Reinhard

    1995-10-01

    Groundwater contamination and PAH-removal with a special water purification facility were monitored over several months by a PAH-immunoassay as well as by HPLC. In the enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) a polyclonal rabbit antiserum was applied. As test format an indirect competitive microtiter plate assay was used. The water samples could be directly measured without any extraction and purification steps. With the ELISA, the limit value for the sum of PAHs of 0.2 ppb as set by the German Drinking Water Act was certainly reached. Including 114 samples no false negative (defined as a measured concentration below 0.2 ppb) but 20 (17.5%) false positive (defined as a measured concentration above 0.2 ppb) samples were found with the immunoassay. Supposing the immunochemical results to be approximate values of the total PAH concentration then these data correlate very well (r equals 0.82, n equals 114) with the sum of the 16 EPA PAHs as measured by HPLC in this study. Therefore, the ELISA could be used as a rapid screening technique to diminish the sample number for HPLC.

  11. Comparison of immunochemical and HPLC-determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater samples of a former manufactured gas plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Knopp, D.; Vaeaenaenen, V.; Niessner, R.

    1995-12-31

    Groundwater contamination and PAH-removal with a special water purification facility were monitored over several months by a PAH-immunoassay as well as by HPLC. In the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) a polyclonal rabbit antiserum was applied. As test format an indirect competitive microtiter plate assay was used. The water sampled could be directly measured without any extraction and purification steps. With the ELISA, the limit value for the sum of PAHs of 0.2 ppb as set by the German Drinking Water Act was certainly reached. Including 114 samples no false negative (defined as a measured concentration below 0.2 ppb) but 20 (17.5%) false positive (defined as a measured concentration above 0.2 ppb) samples were found with the immunoassay. Supporting the immunochemical results to be approximate values of the total PAH concentration then these data correlate very well (r=0.82, n=114) with the sum of the 16 EPA PAHs as measured by HPLC in this study. Therefore, the ELISA could be used as a rapid screening technique to diminish the sample number for HPLC.

  12. Results of soil, ground-water, surface-water, and streambed-sediment sampling at Air Force Plane 85, Columbus, Ohio, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parnell, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, prepared the Surface- and Ground- Water Monitoring Work Plan for Air Force Plant 85 (AFP 85 or Plant), Columbus, Ohio, under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program to characterize any ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination that may exist at AFP 85. The USGS began the study in November 1996. The Plant was divided into nine sampling areas, which included some previously investi gated study sites. The investigation activities included the collection and presentation of data taken during drilling and water-quality sampling. Data collection focused on the saturated and unsatur ated zones and surface water. Twenty-three soil borings were completed. Ten monitoring wells (six existing wells and four newly constructed monitoring wells) were selected for water-quality sam pling. Surface-water and streambed-sediment sampling locations were chosen to monitor flow onto and off of the Plant. Seven sites were sampled for both surface-water and streambed-sediment quality. This report presents data on the selected inorganic and organic constituents in soil, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments at AFP 85. The methods of data collection and anal ysis also are included. Knowledge of the geologic and hydrologic setting could aid Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, Restoration Division, and its governing regulatory agencies in future remediation studies.

  13. Design and evaluation of a field study on the contamination of selected volatile organic compounds and wastewater-indicator compounds in blanks and groundwater samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bender, David A.; Mueller, David K.; Rose, Donna L.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Bernard, Bruce; Zogorski, John S.

    2011-01-01

    The Field Contamination Study (FCS) was designed to determine the field processes that tend to result in clean field blanks and to identify potential sources of contamination to blanks collected in the field from selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and wastewater-indicator compounds (WICs). The VOCs and WICs analyzed in the FCS were detected in blanks collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program during 1996-2008 and 2002-08, respectively. To minimize the number of variables, the study required ordering of supplies just before sampling, storage of supplies and equipment in clean areas, and use of adequate amounts of purge-and-trap volatile-grade methanol and volatile pesticide-grade blank water (VPBW) to clean sampling equipment and to collect field blanks. Blanks and groundwater samples were collected during 2008-09 at 16 sites, which were a mix of water-supply and monitoring wells, located in 9 States. Five different sample types were collected for the FCS at each site: (1) a source-solution blank collected at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) using laboratory-purged VPBW, (2) source-solution blanks collected in the field using laboratory-purged VPBW, (3) source-solution blanks collected in the field using field-purged VPBW, (4) a field blank collected using field-purged VPBW, and (5) a groundwater sample collected from a well. The source-solution blank and field-blank analyses were used to identify, quantify, and document extrinsic contamination and to help determine the sources and causes of data-quality problems that can affect groundwater samples. Concentrations of compounds detected in FCS analyses were quantified and results were stored in the USGS National Water Information System database after meeting rigorous identification and quantification criteria. The study also utilized information provided by laboratory analysts about evidence indicating the presence of selected compounds

  14. AUTOMATED WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS IN SMALL-DIAMETER AQUIFER TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN SW; EDRINGTON RS; MAHOOD RO; VANMIDDLESWORTH PE

    2011-01-14

    Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium, strontium-90, and uranium discharges into the Columbia River along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the shoreline. Various treatment systems have and will continue to be implemented to eliminate the impact of Hanford Site contamination to the river. To optimize the various remediation strategies, it is important to understand interactions between groundwater and the surface water of the Columbia River. An automated system to record water levels in aquifer sampling tubes installed in the hyporheic zone was designed and tested to (1) gain a more complete understanding of groundwater/river water interactions based on gaining and losing conditions ofthe Columbia River, (2) record and interpret data for consistent and defensible groundwater/surface water conceptual models that may be used to better predict subsurface contaminant fate and transport, and (3) evaluate the hydrodynamic influence of extraction wells in an expanded pump-and-treat system to optimize the treatment system. A system to measure water levels in small-diameter aquifer tubes was designed and tested in the laboratory and field. The system was configured to allow manual measurements to periodically calibrate the instrument and to permit aquifer tube sampling without removing the transducer tube. Manual measurements were collected with an e-tape designed and fabricated especially for this test. Results indicate that the transducer system accurately records groundwater levels in aquifer tubes. These data are being used to refine the conceptual and numeric models to better understand interactions in the hyporheic zone of the Columbia River and the adjacent river water and groundwater, and changes in hydrochemistry relative to groundwater flux as river water recharges the aquifer and then drains back out in response to changes in the river level.

  15. Results of 2001 Groundwater Sampling in Support of Conditional No Longer Contained-In Determination for the Snake River Plain Aquifer in the Vicinity of the INTEC at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Meachum, Teresa Ray

    2002-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of sampling five groundwater monitoring wells in the vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in 2001. Information on general sampling practices, quality assurance practices, parameter concentrations, representativeness of sampling results, and cumulative cancer risk are presented. The information is provided to support a conditional No Longer Contained-In Determination for the Snake River Plain Aquifer in the vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center.

  16. Results of 2001 Groundwater Sampling in Support of Conditional No Longer Contained-In Determination for the Snake River Plain Aquifer in the Vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    Meachum, T.R.

    2002-04-26

    This report summarizes the results of sampling five groundwater monitoring wells in the vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in 2001. Information on general sampling practices, quality assurance practices, parameter concentrations, representativeness of sampling results, and cumulative cancer risk are presented. The information is provided to support a conditional No Longer Contained-In Determination for the Snake River Plain Aquifer in the vicinity of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center.

  17. A New Capability for Automated Target Selection and Sampling for use with Remote Sensing Instruments on the MER Rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castano, R.; Estlin, T.; Anderson, R. C.; Gaines, D.; Bornstein, B.; de Granville, C.; Tang, B.; Thompson, D.; Judd, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Onboard Autonomous Science Investigation System (OASIS) evaluates geologic data gathered by a planetary rover. The system is designed to operate onboard a rover identifying and reacting to serendipitous science opportunities, such as rocks with novel properties. OASIS operates by analyzing data the rover gathers, and then using machine learning techniques, prioritizing the data based on criteria set by the science team. This prioritization can be used to organize data for transmission back to Earth and it can be used to search for specific targets it has been told to find by the science team. If one of these targets is found, it is identified as a new science opportunity and a "science alert" is sent to a planning and scheduling system. After reviewing the rover's current operational status to ensure that it has enough resources to complete its traverse and act on the new science opportunity, OASIS can change the command sequence of the rover in order to obtain additional science measurements. Currently, OASIS is being applied on a new front. OASIS is providing a new rover mission technology that enables targeted remote-sensing science in an automated fashion during or after rover traverses. Currently, targets for remote sensing instruments, especially narrow field-of-view instruments (such as the MER Mini- TES spectrometer or the 2009 MSL ChemCam spectrometer) must be selected manually based on imagery already on the ground with the operations team. OASIS will enable the rover flight software to analyze imagery onboard in order to autonomously select and sequence targeted remote-sensing observations in an opportunistic fashion. We are in the process of scheduling an onboard MER experiment to demonstrate the OASIS capability in early 2009.

  18. Determination of selenium in marine biological tissues by transverse heated electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with longitudinal Zeeman background correction and automated ultrasonic slurry sampling.

    PubMed

    Méndez, H; Alava, F; Lavilla, I; Bendicho, C

    2001-01-01

    A fast, sensitive, and reliable method for determination of selenium in marine biological tissues by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with slurry sampling was developed. Slurries were prepared from fresh and frozen seafood samples that were previously homogenized, dried, and ground; particle sizes <100 microm were taken for analysis. A 3% (v/v) HNO3 solution containing 0.01% (v/v) Triton X-100 was used as slurry diluent. Slurries were mixed on an automated ultrasonic slurry sampler at 20% amplitude for 30 s just before an aliquot was injected into the furnace. The method was successfully validated against the following certified reference materials: NRCC CRM DORM-2 (Dogfish muscle); NRCC CRM TORT-2 (Lobster hepatopancreas); NRCC CRM DOLT-2 (Dogfish liver); and BCR CRM 278 (Mussel tissue), and was subsequently applied to determination of Se in 10 marine biological samples. The influences of the drying procedure (oven-, microwave-, and freeze-drying), matrix modifier amount, mass of solid material in cup, and pipetting sequence are discussed. The limit of determination of Se was 0.16 microg/g and the repeatability, estimated as between-batch precision, was in the range of 4-8%. Se contents in the samples ranged from 0.6 to 2.8 microg/g. The proposed method should be useful for fast assessment of the daily dietary intake of Se.

  19. Evaluation of automated direct sample introduction with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the screening analysis of dioxins in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Hoh, Eunha; Lehotay, Steven J; Mastovska, Katerina; Huwe, Janice K

    2008-08-01

    An automated direct sample introduction technique coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (DSI-GC x GC/TOF-MS) was applied for the development of a relatively fast and easy analytical screening method for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 4 non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish oil. Comparison of instrumental performance between DSI-GC x GC/TOF-MS and the traditional gas chromatographic high resolution mass spectrometric (GC-HRMS) method showed good agreement of results for standard solutions analyzed in blind fashion. Relatively high tolerance of the DSI technique for lipids in the final extracts enabled a streamlined sample preparation procedure that only required gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup with graphitized carbon black. The sample size for the method was 2g of cod liver oil, which achieved limits of quantitation (LOQs) of 0.019-7.8 pg/g toxic equivalent quotients for the individual PCDD/Fs. Lower detection limits can be achieved by using larger sample size and scaling up the sample preparation procedure, but this adds to the labor, time, solvent consumption, and expense of the approach. However, the streamlined method yielded 0.94 pg/g and 2.3 pg/g LOQs for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzofuran (TCDF) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachloro biphenyl (CB126), which were sufficiently low for regulatory monitoring of 2g samples. Therefore, instead of congener specific analysis, this streamlined analytical screening method for TCDF and CB126 has the potential to monitor fish oil contaminated with dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs at or above current food safety limits. Acceptable recoveries for nearly all analytes at three different spiking levels in fish oil samples were achieved with good repeatability.

  20. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from marine samples using automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and Power Prep™ clean-up.

    PubMed

    Helaleh, Murad I H; Al-Rashdan, Amal; Ibtisam, A

    2012-05-30

    An automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method followed by Power Prep™ clean-up was developed for organochlorinated pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis in environmental marine samples of fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp. OCPs and PCBs were simultaneously determined in a single chromatographic run using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-negative chemical ionization (GC-MS-NCI). About 5 g of each biological marine sample was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulphate and placed in the extraction cell of the PLE system. PLE is controlled by means of a PC using DMS 6000 software. Purification of the extract was accomplished using automated Power Prep™ clean-up with a pre-packed disposable silica column (6 g) supplied by Fluid Management Systems (FMS). All OCPs and PCBs were eluted from the silica column using two types of solvent: 80 mL of hexane and a 50 mL mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (1:1). A wide variety of fish and shellfish were collected from the fish market and analyzed using this method. The total PCB concentrations were 2.53, 0.25, 0.24, 0.24, 0.17 and 1.38 ng g(-1) (w/w) for fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp, respectively, and the corresponding total OCP concentrations were 30.47, 2.86, 0.92, 10.72, 5.13 and 18.39 ng g(-1) (w/w). Lipids were removed using an SX-3 Bio-Beads gel permeation chromatography (GPC) column. Analytical criteria such as recovery, reproducibility and repeatability were evaluated through a range of biological matrices.

  1. Fully automated sample preparation microsystem for genetic testing of hereditary hearing loss using two-color multiplex allele-specific PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Bin; Gan, Wupeng; Wang, Shuaiqin; Han, Junping; Xiang, Guangxin; Li, Cai-Xia; Sun, Jing; Liu, Peng

    2015-01-20

    A fully automated microsystem consisting of a disposable DNA extraction and PCR microchip, as well as a compact control instrument, has been successfully developed for genetic testing of hereditary hearing loss from human whole blood. DNA extraction and PCR were integrated into a single 15-μL reaction chamber, where a piece of filter paper was embedded for capturing genomic DNA, followed by in-situ PCR amplification without elution. Diaphragm microvalves actuated by external solenoids together with a "one-way" fluidic control strategy operated by a modular valve positioner and a syringe pump were employed to control the fluids and to seal the chamber during thermal cycling. Fully automated DNA extractions from as low as 0.3-μL human whole blood followed by amplifications of 59-bp β-actin fragments can be completed on the microsystem in about 100 min. Negative control tests that were performed between blood sample analyses proved the successful elimination of any contamination or carryover in the system. To more critically test the microsystem, a two-color multiplex allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) assay for detecting c.176_191del16, c.235delC, and c.299_300delAT mutations in GJB2 gene that accounts for hereditary hearing loss was constructed. Two allele-specific primers, one labeled with TAMRA for wild type and the other with FAM for mutation, were designed for each locus. DNA extraction from blood and ASPCR were performed on the microsystem, followed by an electrophoretic analysis on a portable microchip capillary electrophoresis system. Blood samples from a healthy donor and five persons with genetic mutations were all accurately analyzed with only two steps in less than 2 h.

  2. Automated Sample Preparation (ASP): Development of a Rapid Method to Sequentially Isolate Nucleic Acids and Protein from Any Sample Type by a Cartridge-Based System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-27

    goals. Specifically, CUBRC will design and manufacture a prototype cartridge(s) and test the prototype cartridge for its ability to isolate each...analyte individually and in succession. Testing will be performed on both laboratory derived samples 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...CUBRC will design and manufacture a prototype cartridge(s) and test the prototype cartridge for its ability to isolate each analyte individually and in

  3. A filter paper-based microdevice for low-cost, rapid, and automated DNA extraction and amplification from diverse sample types.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wupeng; Zhuang, Bin; Zhang, Pengfei; Han, Junping; Li, Cai-Xia; Liu, Peng

    2014-10-07

    A plastic microfluidic device that integrates a filter disc as a DNA capture phase was successfully developed for low-cost, rapid and automated DNA extraction and PCR amplification from various raw samples. The microdevice was constructed by sandwiching a piece of Fusion 5 filter, as well as a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) membrane, between two PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)) layers. An automated DNA extraction from 1 μL of human whole blood can be finished on the chip in 7 minutes by sequentially aspirating NaOH, HCl, and water through the filter. The filter disc containing extracted DNA was then taken out directly for PCR. On-chip DNA purification from 0.25-1 μL of human whole blood yielded 8.1-21.8 ng of DNA, higher than those obtained using QIAamp® DNA Micro kits. To realize DNA extraction from raw samples, an additional sample loading chamber containing a filter net with an 80 μm mesh size was designed in front of the extraction chamber to accommodate sample materials. Real-world samples, including whole blood, dried blood stains on Whatman® 903 paper, dried blood stains on FTA™ cards, buccal swabs, saliva, and cigarette butts, can all be processed in the system in 8 minutes. In addition, multiplex amplification of 15 STR (short tandem repeat) loci and Sanger-based DNA sequencing of the 520 bp GJB2 gene were accomplished from the filters that contained extracted DNA from blood. To further prove the feasibility of integrating this extraction method with downstream analyses, "in situ" PCR amplifications were successfully performed in the DNA extraction chamber following DNA purification from blood and blood stains without DNA elution. Using a modified protocol to bond the PDMS and PMMA, our plastic PDMS devices withstood the PCR process without any leakage. This study represents a significant step towards the practical application of on-chip DNA extraction methods, as well as the development of fully integrated genetic analytical systems.

  4. Depth-dependent groundwater quality sampling at City of Tallahassee test well 32, Leon County, Florida, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, William S.; Wacker, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    A test well was drilled by the City of Tallahassee to assess the suitability of the site for the installation of a new well for public water supply. The test well is in Leon County in north-central Florida. The U.S. Geological Survey delineated high-permeability zones in the Upper Floridan aquifer, using borehole-geophysical data collected from the open interval of the test well. A composite water sample was collected from the open interval during high-flow conditions, and three discrete water samples were collected from specified depth intervals within the test well during low-flow conditions. Water-quality, source tracer, and age-dating results indicate that the open interval of the test well produces water of consistently high quality throughout its length. The cavernous nature of the open interval makes it likely that the highly permeable zones are interconnected in the aquifer by secondary porosity features.

  5. Radiological Monitoring Results for Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2012-October 31, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1 (formerly LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  6. Radiological Monitoring Results for Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2011-October 31, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Mike lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1 (formerly LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  7. Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: May 1, 2010-October 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (#LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  8. Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2010-October 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (No.LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  9. CAPSTONE REPORT ON THE APPLICATION, MONITORING, AND PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS FOR GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION: VOL. 2 LONG-TERM MONITORING OF PRBS: SOIL AND GROUND WATER SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses soil and ground-water sampling methods and procedures used to evaluate the long-term performance of permeable reactive barriers (PRBS) at two sites, Elizabeth City, NC, and the Denver Federal Center near Lakewood, CO. Both PRBs were installed in 1996 and hav...

  10. Automated determination of nitrate plus nitrite in aqueous samples with flow injection analysis using vanadium (III) chloride as reductant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu; Lin, Kunning; Chen, Nengwang; Yuan, Dongxing; Ma, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Determination of nitrate in aqueous samples is an important analytical objective for environmental monitoring and assessment. Here we report the first automatic flow injection analysis (FIA) of nitrate (plus nitrite) using VCl3 as reductant instead of the well-known but toxic cadmium column for reducing nitrate to nitrite. The reduced nitrate plus the nitrite originally present in the sample react with the Griess reagent (sulfanilamide and N-1-naphthylethylenediamine dihydrochloride) under acidic condition. The resulting pink azo dye can be detected at 540 nm. The Griess reagent and VCl3 are used as a single mixed reagent solution to simplify the system. The various parameters of the FIA procedure including reagent composition, temperature, volume of the injection loop, and flow rate were carefully investigated and optimized via univariate experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range and detection limit of this method are 0-100 µM (R(2)=0.9995) and 0.1 µM, respectively. The targeted analytical range can be easily extended to higher concentrations by selecting alternative detection wavelengths or increasing flow rate. The FIA system provides a sample throughput of 20 h(-1), which is much higher than that of previously reported manual methods based on the same chemistry. National reference solutions and different kinds of aqueous samples were analyzed with our method as well as the cadmium column reduction method. The results from our method agree well with both the certified value and the results from the cadmium column reduction method (no significant difference with P=0.95). The spiked recovery varies from 89% to 108% for samples with different matrices, showing insignificant matrix interference in this method.

  11. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  12. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  13. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  14. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  15. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  16. Black tea volatiles fingerprinting by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry combined with high concentration capacity sample preparation techniques: Toward a fully automated sensomic assessment.

    PubMed

    Magagna, Federico; Cordero, Chiara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Sgorbini, Barbara; Bicchi, Carlo

    2017-06-15

    Tea prepared by infusion of dried leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, is the second world's most popular beverage, after water. Its consumption is associated with its chemical composition: it influences its sensory and nutritional quality addressing consumer preferences, and potential health benefits. This study aims to obtain an informative chemical signature of the volatile fraction of black tea samples from Ceylon by applying the principles of sensomics. In particular, several high concentration capacity (HCC) sample preparation techniques were tested in combination with GC×GC-MS to investigate chemical signatures of black tea volatiles. This platform, using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with multicomponent fiber as sampling technique, recovers 95% of the key-odorants in a fully automated work-flow. A group 123 components, including key-odorants, technological and botanical tracers, were mapped. The resulting 2D fingerprints were interpreted by pattern recognition tools (i.e. template matching fingerprinting and scripting) providing highly informative chemical signatures for quality assessment.

  17. A fully automated effervescence assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on a stepwise injection system. Determination of antipyrine in saliva samples.

    PubMed

    Medinskaia, Kseniia; Vakh, Christina; Aseeva, Darina; Andruch, Vasil; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    A first attempt to automate the effervescence assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (EA-DLLME) has been reported. The method is based on the aspiration of a sample and all required aqueous reagents into the stepwise injection analysis (SWIA) manifold, followed by simultaneous counterflow injection of the extraction solvent (dichloromethane), the mixture of the effervescence agent (0.5 mol L(-1) Na2CO3) and the proton donor solution (1 mol L(-1) CH3COOH). Formation of carbon dioxide microbubbles generated in situ leads to the dispersion of the extraction solvent in the whole aqueous sample and extraction of the analyte into organic phase. Unlike the conventional DLLME, in the case of EA-DLLME, the addition of dispersive solvent, as well as, time consuming centrifugation step for disruption of the cloudy state is avoided. The phase separation was achieved by gentle bubbling of nitrogen stream (2 mL min(-1) during 2 min). The performance of the suggested approach is demonstrated by determination of antipyrine in saliva samples. The procedure is based on the derivatization of antipyrine by nitrite-ion followed by EA-DLLME of 4-nitrosoantipyrine and subsequent UV-Vis detection using SWIA manifold. The absorbance of the yellow-colored extract at the wavelength of 345 nm obeys Beer's law in the range of 1.5-100 µmol L(-1) of antipyrine in saliva. The LOD, calculated from a blank test based on 3σ, was 0.5 µmol L(-1).

  18. A Large-Sample Test of a Semi-Automated Clavicle Search Engine to Assist Skeletal Identification by Radiograph Comparison.

    PubMed

    D'Alonzo, Susan S; Guyomarc'h, Pierre; Byrd, John E; Stephan, Carl N

    2017-01-01

    In 2014, a morphometric capability to search chest radiograph databases by quantified clavicle shape was published to assist skeletal identification. Here, we extend the validation tests conducted by increasing the search universe 18-fold, from 409 to 7361 individuals to determine whether there is any associated decrease in performance under these more challenging circumstances. The number of trials and analysts were also increased, respectively, from 17 to 30 skeletons, and two to four examiners. Elliptical Fourier analysis was conducted on clavicles from each skeleton by each analyst (shadowgrams trimmed from scratch in every instance) and compared to the search universe. Correctly matching individuals were found in shortlists of 10% of the sample 70% of the time. This rate is similar to, although slightly lower than, rates previously found for much smaller samples (80%). Accuracy and reliability are thereby maintained, even when the comparison system is challenged by much larger search universes.

  19. Versatile sample environments and automation for biological solution X-ray scattering experiments at the P12 beamline (PETRA III, DESY)

    PubMed Central

    Blanchet, Clement E.; Spilotros, Alessandro; Schwemmer, Frank; Graewert, Melissa A.; Kikhney, Alexey; Jeffries, Cy M.; Franke, Daniel; Mark, Daniel; Zengerle, Roland; Cipriani, Florent; Fiedler, Stefan; Roessle, Manfred; Svergun, Dmitri I.

    2015-01-01

    A high-brilliance synchrotron P12 beamline of the EMBL located at the PETRA III storage ring (DESY, Hamburg) is dedicated to biological small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and has been designed and optimized for scattering experiments on macromolecular solutions. Scatterless slits reduce the parasitic scattering, a custom-designed miniature active beamstop ensures accurate data normalization and the photon-counting PILATUS 2M detector enables the background-free detection of weak scattering signals. The high flux and small beam size allow for rapid experiments with exposure time down to 30–50 ms covering the resolution range from about 300 to 0.5 nm. P12 possesses a versatile and flexible sample environment system that caters for the diverse experimental needs required to study macromolecular solutions. These include an in-vacuum capillary mode for standard batch sample analyses with robotic sample delivery and for continuous-flow in-line sample purification and characterization, as well as an in-air capillary time-resolved stopped-flow setup. A novel microfluidic centrifugal mixing device (SAXS disc) is developed for a high-throughput screening mode using sub-microlitre sample volumes. Automation is a key feature of P12; it is controlled by a beamline meta server, which coordinates and schedules experiments from either standard or nonstandard operational setups. The integrated SASFLOW pipeline automatically checks for consistency, and processes and analyses the data, providing near real-time assessments of overall parameters and the generation of low-resolution models within minutes of data collection. These advances, combined with a remote access option, allow for rapid high-throughput analysis, as well as time-resolved and screening experiments for novice and expert biological SAXS users. PMID:25844078

  20. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a study in a large clinical sample of patients using a novel automated method

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rashmi; Jayatilleke, Nishamali; Broadbent, Matthew; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Foskett, Nadia; Gorrell, Genevieve; Hayes, Richard D; Jackson, Richard; Johnston, Caroline; Shetty, Hitesh; Roberts, Angus; McGuire, Philip; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify negative symptoms in the clinical records of a large sample of patients with schizophrenia using natural language processing and assess their relationship with clinical outcomes. Design Observational study using an anonymised electronic health record case register. Setting South London and Maudsley NHS Trust (SLaM), a large provider of inpatient and community mental healthcare in the UK. Participants 7678 patients with schizophrenia receiving care during 2011. Main outcome measures Hospital admission, readmission and duration of admission. Results 10 different negative symptoms were ascertained with precision statistics above 0.80. 41% of patients had 2 or more negative symptoms. Negative symptoms were associated with younger age, male gender and single marital status, and with increased likelihood of hospital admission (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.39), longer duration of admission (β-coefficient 20.5 days, 7.6–33.5), and increased likelihood of readmission following discharge (OR 1.58, 1.28 to 1.95). Conclusions Negative symptoms were common and associated with adverse clinical outcomes, consistent with evidence that these symptoms account for much of the disability associated with schizophrenia. Natural language processing provides a means of conducting research in large representative samples of patients, using data recorded during routine clinical practice. PMID:26346872

  1. Direct Sampling and Analysis from Solid Phase Extraction Cards using an Automated Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Nanoelectrospray Mass Spectrometry System

    SciTech Connect

    Walworth, Matthew J; ElNaggar, Mariam S; Stankovich, Joseph J; WitkowskiII, Charles E.; Norris, Jeremy L; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    Direct liquid extraction based surface sampling, a technique previously demonstrated with continuous flow and autonomous pipette liquid microjunction surface sampling probes, has recently been implemented as the Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis (LESA) mode on the commercially available Advion NanoMate chip-based infusion nanoelectrospray ionization system. In the present paper, the LESA mode was applied to the analysis of 96-well format custom solid phase extraction (SPE) cards, with each well consisting of either a 1 or 2 mm diameter monolithic hydrophobic stationary phase. These substrate wells were conditioned, loaded with either single or multi-component aqueous mixtures, and read out using the LESA mode of a TriVersa NanoMate or a Nanomate 100 coupled to an ABI/Sciex 4000QTRAPTM hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer and a Thermo LTQ XL linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Extraction conditions, including extraction/nanoESI solvent composition, volume, and dwell times, were optimized in the analysis of targeted compounds. Limit of detection and quantitation as well as analysis reproducibility figures of merit were measured. Calibration data was obtained for propranolol using a deuterated internal standard which demonstrated linearity and reproducibility. A 10x increase in signal and cleanup of micromolar Angiotensin II from a concentrated salt solution was demonstrated. Additionally, a multicomponent herbicide mixture at ppb concentration levels was analyzed using MS3 spectra for compound identification in the presence of isobaric interferences.

  2. Comparison of an automated ELFA and two different real-time PCR techniques for Salmonella detection in poultry samples.

    PubMed

    Rohonczy, Kata; Zoller, Linda; Hermann, Zsolt; Fodor, Andrea; Mráz, Balázs; Tabajdi-Pintér, Veronika

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA)-based and two real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods with the results of the standard culture-based method EN ISO 6579:2002 (bacteriological standard method used in the European Union) for the detection of Salmonella spp. in raw chicken meat. Our investigations were performed on 141 poultry samples sorted from supermarkets. Relative accuracy, relative specificity and relative sensitivity were determined. According to the ISO 16140:2003 criteria for validation of alternative microbiological methods, the ELFA-based method (VIDAS ICS2 + SLM), and real-time PCR methods (TaqMan, Bax) were comparable to the reference standard method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken meat. The use of these methods provide results within 48 hours with high sensitivity (100%). The TaqMan real-time PCR showed a relative specificity of 98% and both of the real-time PCR methods presented 100%.The VIDAS ICS2 + SLM and the Bax real-time PCR methods showed the highest relative accuracy (100%) and 99% in case of the TaqMan method. In conclusion, both the real-time PCR and the ELFA-based assay can be used as a rapid and user-friendly diagnostic method for detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken meat samples.

  3. Separation of plutonium and neptunium species by capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and application to natural groundwater samples.

    PubMed

    Kuczewski, Bernhard; Marquardt, Christian M; Seibert, Alice; Geckeis, Horst; Kratz, Jens Volker; Trautmann, Norbert

    2003-12-15

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was coupled to ICPMS in order to combine the good performance of this separation technique with the high sensitivity of the ICPMS for the analysis of plutonium and neptunium oxidation states. The combination of a fused-silica capillary with a MicroMist AR 30-I-FM02 nebulizer and a Cinnabar small-volume cyclonic spray chamber yielded the best separation results. With this setup, it was possible to separate a model element mixture containing neptunium (NpO2(+)), uranium (UO2(2+)), lanthanum (La3+), and thorium (Th4+) in 1 M acetic acid. The same conditions were also suitable for the separation of various oxidation states of plutonium and neptunium in different aqueous samples. All separations were obtained within less than 15 min. A detection limit of 50 ppb identical with 2 x 10(-7) M (3-fold standard deviation of a blank) was achieved. To prove the negligible disturbance of the plutonium and neptunium redox equilibria during the CE separations, plutonium and neptunium speciation by CE-ICPMS in acidic solutions was compared with the results of UV/visible absorption spectroscopy and was found to be in good agreement. The CE-ICPMS system was also applied to study the reduction of Pu(VI) in a humic acid-containing groundwater at different pH values.

  4. Automated liquid chromatographic determination of atenolol in plasma using dialysis and trace enrichment on a cation-exchange precolumn for sample handling.

    PubMed

    Chiap, P; Buraglia, B M; Ceccato, A; Hubert, P; Crommen, J

    2000-02-28

    A fully automated method involving dialysis combined with trace enrichment was developed for the liquid chromatographic (LC) determination of atenolol, a hydrophilic beta-blocking agent, in human plasma. The plasma samples were dialysed on a cellulose acetate membrane and the dialysate was reconcentrated on a short trace enrichment column (TEC) packed with a strong cation-exchange material. All sample handling operations can be executed automatically by a sample processor (ASTED system). After TEC conditioning, the plasma sample, to which the internal standard (sotalol, another hydrophilic beta-blocker) was automatically added, was introduced in the donor channel and dialysed in the static/pulsed mode. The dialysis liquid consisted of 4.3 mM phosphoric acid. When the dialysis process was discontinued, the analytes were eluted from the TEC in the back-flush mode by the LC mobile phase and transferred to the analytical column, packed with octyl silica. The LC mobile phase consisted of phosphate buffer, pH 7.0-methanol (81:19; v/v) with 1-octanesulfonate. Atenolol and the internal standard were monitored photometrically at 225 nm. The different parameters influencing the dialysis and trace enrichment processes were optimised with respect to analyte recovery. The influence of two different kinds of cation-exchange material on analyte recovery and peak efficiency was also studied. The method was then validated in the concentration range 25-1000 ng/ml. The mean recovery for atenolol was 65% and the limit of quantitation was 25 ng/ml.

  5. Post-operative corticosterone levels in plasma and feces of mice subjected to permanent catheterization and automated blood sampling.

    PubMed

    Sundbom, Renée; Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of surgical placement of permanent arterial catheters on plasma corticosterone levels, fecal corticosterone excretion and body weight in male BALB/c/Sca mice. In addition, the effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine in doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg body weight on these parameters were studied. A catheter was placed in the carotid artery during isoflurane anesthesia. Immediately after surgery, the mice were connected to an AccuSampler® μ and blood samples for plasma corticosterone quantification were collected automatically during the first 24 h postoperatively. All fecal boli produced 24 h before and 24 h after surgery were collected for fecal corticosterone excretion measures and the pre- and post-operative body weights were registered. Plasma corticosterone levels were in the range of 150-300 ng/ml after the surgical procedure and the body weight was significantly lower 24 h after surgery compared to its pre-operative value. Contrary to what was expected, the total fecal corticosterone excretion was significantly reduced 24 h after surgery, as was the defecation. Buprenorphine treatment significantly lowered the plasma corticosterone levels, but had no effect on fecal corticosterone excretion or body weight change. It was concluded that surgical placement of an arterial catheter induces a significant stress response, as judged by its effect on plasma corticosterone and body weight. Voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine improved postoperative recovery by lowering plasma corticosterone concentrations. Neither fecal corticosterone excretion nor body weight change seems suitable for postoperative stress assessment in mice in the present experimental setup.

  6. Determination of pharmaceutical compounds in surface- and ground-water samples by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahill, J.D.; Furlong, E.T.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Kolpin, D.; Anderson, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Commonly used prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceuticals are possibly present in surface- and ground-water samples at ambient concentrations less than 1 μg/L. In this report, the performance characteristics of a combined solid-phase extraction isolation and high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-MS) analytical procedure for routine determination of the presence and concentration of human-health pharmaceuticals are described. This method was developed and used in a recent national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals in USA surface waters. The selection of pharmaceuticals evaluated for this method was based on usage estimates, resulting in a method that contains compounds from diverse chemical classes, which presents challenges and compromises when applied as a single routine analysis. The method performed well for the majority of the 22 pharmaceuticals evaluated, with recoveries greater than 60% for 12 pharmaceuticals. The recoveries of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, a histamine (H2) receptor antagonist, and antihypoglycemic compound classes were less than 50%, but were retained in the method to provide information describing the potential presence of these compounds in environmental samples and to indicate evidence of possible matrix enhancing effects. Long-term recoveries, evaluated from reagent-water fortifications processed over 2 years, were similar to initial method performance. Method detection limits averaged 0.022 μg/L, sufficient for expected ambient concentrations. Compound-dependent matrix effects on HPLC/ESI-MS analysis, including enhancement and suppression of ionization, were observed as a 20–30% increase in measured concentrations for three compounds and greater than 50% increase for two compounds. Changing internal standard and more frequent ESI source maintenance minimized matrix effects. Application of the method in the national survey demonstrates that several

  7. A METHOD FOR AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF 10 ML WATER SAMPLES CONTAINING ACIDIC, BASIC, AND NEUTRAL SEMIVOLATILE COMPOUNDS LISTED IN USEPA METHOD 8270 BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COUPLED IN-LINE TO LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data is presented showing the progress made towards the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the single run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of acid, base and neutral compounds...

  8. Semivolatile organic (GC-MS) and inorganic analyses of groundwater samples during the hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) field test in Visalia, CA, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarappa, M; Knauss, K G; Kumamoto, G; Leif, R N; Newmark, R L

    1998-02-05

    Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) is a novel, in situ, thermal-remediation technology that uses hot, oxygenated groundwater to completely oxidize a wide range of organic pollutants. A field demonstration of HPO was performed during the summer of 1997 at the Southern California Edison Pole Yard in Visalia, California, a site contaminated with creosote. The goal of the field experiment was to confirm the success of HPO under field remediation conditions. The groundwater was heated by steam injections, and oxygen was added by co-injection of compressed air. The progress of the HPO remediation process was evaluated by monitoring groundwater from multiple wells for dissolved oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon, and dissolved organic contaminant levels. Analyses of groundwater chemistry allowed us to measure the concentrations of creosote components and to identify oxygenated intermediates produced by the HPO treatment. Dissolved organic carbon levels increased in response to steam injections because of the enhanced dissolution and mobilization of the creosote into the heated groundwater. Elevated concentrations of phenols and benzoic acid were measured in wells affected by the steam injections. Concentrations of other oxygenated compounds (i.e., fluorenone, anthrone, and 9,10-anthracenedione) increased in response to the steam injections. The production of these partially oxidized compounds is consistent with the aqueous-phase HPO reactions of creosote. Additional changes in the groundwater in response to steam injection were also consistent with the groundwater HPO chemistry. A drop in dissolved oxygen was observed in the aquifer targeted for the steam injections, and isotope shifts in the dissolved inorganic pool reflected the input of oxidized carbon derived from the creosote carbon.

  9. Groundwater Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Sean A.

    A good introductory groundwater textbook must strike a delicate balance in presenting the basics of the physical, chemical, geological, mathematical, and engineering aspects of the groundwater field without being too lengthy or overly detailed. Charles Fitts states that his motivation for writing Groundwater Science was to be able to “…teach concepts and quantitative analyses with a clear, lean, but thorough book.” He has succeeded in striking this balance of having just the right amount of information, and has met his goals of producing a concise book that can be used to teach the concepts and analyses necessary for the study of groundwater.Overall, Groundwater Science would serve well as the text for an introductory groundwater course at the college senior or first-year graduate level. The author and the publisher have made excellent use of two-color, gray and blue-scale images throughout the book. The graphics are crisp and explanatory. Data sets needed to work some of the problems in the book are available as text files from its Web site (http://www.academicpress.com/groundwater). I found these files to be complete and easy to understand. The references are up to date and point the reader to additional information across a wide range of groundwater issues, and also provide a number of examples to illustrate different points made in the book.

  10. First evaluation of automated specimen inoculation for wound swab samples by use of the Previ Isola system compared to manual inoculation in a routine laboratory: finding a cost-effective and accurate approach.

    PubMed

    Mischnik, Alexander; Mieth, Markus; Busch, Cornelius J; Hofer, Stefan; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Automation of plate streaking is ongoing in clinical microbiological laboratories, but evaluation for routine use is mostly open. In the present study, the recovery of microorganisms from the Previ Isola system plated polyurethane (PU) swab samples is compared to manually plated control viscose swab samples from wounds according to the CLSI procedure M40-A (quality control of microbiological transport systems). One hundred twelve paired samples (224 swabs) were analyzed. In 80/112 samples (71%), concordant culture results were obtained with the two methods. In 32/112 samples (29%), CFU recovery of microorganisms from the two methods was discordant. In 24 (75%) of the 32 paired samples with a discordant result, Previ Isola plated PU swabs were superior. In 8 (25%) of the 32 paired samples with a discordant result, control viscose swabs were superior. The quality of colony growth on culture media for further investigations was superior with Previ Isola inoculated plates compared to manual plating techniques. Gram stain results were concordant between the two methods in 62/112 samples (55%). In 50/112 samples (45%), the results of Gram staining were discordant between the two methods. In 34 (68%) of the 50 paired samples with discordant results, Gram staining of PU swabs was superior to that of control viscose swabs. In 16 (32%) of the 50 paired samples, Gram staining of control viscose swabs was superior to that of PU swabs. We report the first clinical evaluation of Previ Isola automated specimen inoculation for wound swab samples. This study suggests that use of an automated specimen inoculation system has good results with regard to CFU recovery, quality of Gram staining, and accuracy of diagnosis.

  11. Applications of Groundwater Helium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Hilton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Helium abundance and isotope variations have widespread application in groundwater-related studies. This stems from the inert nature of this noble gas and the fact that its two isotopes ? helium-3 and helium-4 ? have distinct origins and vary widely in different terrestrial reservoirs. These attributes allow He concentrations and 3He/4He isotope ratios to be used to recognize and quantify the influence of a number of potential contributors to the total He budget of a groundwater sample. These are atmospheric components, such as air-equilibrated and air-entrained He, as well as terrigenic components, including in situ (aquifer) He, deep crustal and/or mantle He and tritiogenic 3He. Each of these components can be exploited to reveal information on a number of topics, from groundwater chronology, through degassing of the Earth?s crust to the role of faults in the transfer of mantle-derived volatiles to the surface. In this review, we present a guide to how groundwater He is collected from aquifer systems and quantitatively measured in the laboratory. We then illustrate the approach of resolving the measured He characteristics into its component structures using assumptions of endmember compositions. This is followed by a discussion of the application of groundwater He to the types of topics mentioned above using case studies from aquifers in California and Australia. Finally, we present possible future research directions involving dissolved He in groundwater.

  12. Testing of an automated online EA-IRMS method for fast and simultaneous carbon content and stable isotope measurement of aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, István; Gyökös, Brigitta; Túri, Marianna; Futó, István; Filep, Ágnes; Hoffer, András; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    Comprehensive atmospheric studies have demonstrated that carbonaceous aerosol is one of the main components of atmospheric particulate matter over Europe. Various methods, considering optical or thermal properties, have been developed for quantification of the accurate amount of both organic and elemental carbon constituents of atmospheric aerosol. The aim of our work was to develop an alternative fast and easy method for determination of the total carbon content of individual aerosol samples collected on prebaked quartz filters whereby the mass and surface concentration becomes simply computable. We applied the conventional "elemental analyzer (EA) coupled online with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS)" technique which is ubiquitously used in mass spectrometry. Using this technique we are able to measure simultaneously the carbon stable isotope ratio of the samples, as well. During the developing process, we compared the EA-IRMS technique with an off-line catalytic combustion method worked out previously at Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies (HEKAL). We tested the combined online total carbon content and stable isotope ratio measurement both on standard materials and real aerosol samples. Regarding the test results the novel method assures, on the one hand, at least 95% of carbon recovery yield in a broad total carbon mass range (between 100 and 3000 ug) and, on the other hand, a good reproducibility of stable isotope measurements with an uncertainty of ± 0.2 per mill. Comparing the total carbon results obtained by the EA-IRMS and the off-line catalytic combustion method we found a very good correlation (R2=0.94) that proves the applicability of both preparation method. Advantages of the novel method are the fast and simplified sample preparation steps and the fully automated, simultaneous carbon stable isotope ratio measurement processes. Furthermore stable isotope ratio results can effectively be applied in the source apportionment

  13. Hydrogeochemical variations in groundwater periodically sampled at El Hierro (Canary Islands) and its relationships with the recent eruptive and unrest periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luengo-Oroz, Natividad; Torres, Pedro A.; Moure, David; D'Alessandro, Walter

    2014-05-01

    On 10 October 2011, a submarine volcanic eruption started 2 km south El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Since July 2011 a dense multiparametric monitoring network was deployed all over the island by Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). By the time the eruption started, almost 10000 earthquakes had been located and the deformation analyses showed a maximum deformation of more than 5 cm. After the end of the submarine eruption and up to now, several volcanic unrest processes have taken place in the island. The most relevant ones started on June 2012 and March 2013. Each of these periods has been evidenced by intense seismicity and ground deformation. In the framework of this volcanic surveillance program, the IGN team started to periodically sample five groundwater sampling sites. Some parameters have been determined directly in the field (temperature, pH, electric conductivity and alkalinity) and collected samples have been analysed in the laboratory for major (Na, K, NH4, Ca, Mg, SO4, Cl, HCO3, CO3, NO3, NO2, PO4, SiO2, Br, F) and trace elements (Be, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, U) contents. In a few cases samples for the chemical analysis of dissolved gases and for the determination of the isotopic composition of He have been collected at two of the sites. Significant increases in alkalinity have been recorded in all sampling sites correlated both to the eruptive period and also to the following unrest episodes. Such increases are probably related to the dissolution of magmatic CO2 exsolved from the rising magma batches. The magmatic contribution can be confirmed by the isotopic composition of dissolved He showing values in the range from 7.76 to 8.91 R/Ra. Since July 2011, only one important CO2 soil degassing anomaly has been detected. This anomalous flux (620 g/m2.d) was measured in a small area (0.36 km2) before the beginning of the submarine eruption and has not been detected again after the eruption onset

  14. Differential proteomic analysis of mouse macrophages exposed to adsorbate-loaded heavy fuel oil derived combustion particles using an automated sample-preparation workflow.

    PubMed

    Kanashova, Tamara; Popp, Oliver; Orasche, Jürgen; Karg, Erwin; Harndorf, Horst; Stengel, Benjamin; Sklorz, Martin; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf; Dittmar, Gunnar

    2015-08-01

    Ship diesel combustion particles are known to cause broad cytotoxic effects and thereby strongly impact human health. Particles from heavy fuel oil (HFO) operated ships are considered as particularly dangerous. However, little is known about the relevant components of the ship emission particles. In particular, it is interesting to know if the particle cores, consisting of soot and metal oxides, or the adsorbate layers, consisting of semi- and low-volatile organic compounds and salts, are more relevant. We therefore sought to relate the adsorbates and the core composition of HFO combustion particles to the early cellular responses, allowing for the development of measures that counteract their detrimental effects. Hence, the semi-volatile coating of HFO-operated ship diesel engine particles was removed by stepwise thermal stripping using different temperatures. RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to native and thermally stripped particles in submersed culture. Proteomic changes were monitored by two different quantitative mass spectrometry approaches, stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and dimethyl labeling. Our data revealed that cells reacted differently to native or stripped HFO combustion particles. Cells exposed to thermally stripped particles showed a very differential reaction with respect to the composition of the individual chemical load of the particle. The cellular reactions of the HFO particles included reaction to oxidative stress, reorganization of the cytoskeleton and changes in endocytosis. Cells exposed to the 280 °C treated particles showed an induction of RNA-related processes, a number of mitochondria-associated processes as well as DNA damage response, while the exposure to 580 °C treated HFO particles mainly induced the regulation of intracellular transport. In summary, our analysis based on a highly reproducible automated proteomic sample-preparation procedure shows a diverse cellular response, depending on the

  15. Computers bail out groundwater cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Harte, R.

    1997-01-01

    Using computers to automate groundwater remediation systems can increase efficiency and improve record keeping. This article uses an example of leakage of petroleum products from a petroleum storage facility which is mitigated within a 17 acre area. The Mistic computer center is a stand-alone processing unit that receives status inputs from each piece of equipment, interprets the condition of the system and then instructs the equipment how to respond. 1 fig.

  16. Monitoring and remediating groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Vedder, M.

    1995-03-01

    Choosing the optimum groundwater remediation process is a site-specific task. A variety of factors--including soil type, water type, water flow, water table levels and contaminant type--influence sampling and treatment techniques. Because underground contaminant plumes must first be characterized and mapped, initial sampling often is a hit or miss proposition. Historical geophysical data can be obtained from many local water boards to supplement the process. Equipment used in sampling includes drilling rigs, depth probes, bailers, sample tubing and well pumps. Once samples are collected, they are preserved with ice and transported to an environmental laboratory for analysis. Common groundwater contaminants include hydrocarbons, solvents, metals and volatile organic compounds. Typical lab analysis methods include gas chromatography and spectrometry. Remediation options include air stripping, carbon adsorption, the use of bacterial cultures, chemical precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration.

  17. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  18. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  19. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  20. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  1. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi-automated device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets using a sample of...

  2. Persistence of four s-triazine herbicides in river, sea and groundwater samples exposed to sunlight and darkness under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Simón; Vela, Nuria; Giménez, M José; Navarro, Ginés

    2004-08-15

    The persistence of terbuthylazine, simazine, atrazine and prometryn (s-triazine herbicides) was studied in sea, river and groundwaters during long-term laboratory incubation (127 days) under different laboratory conditions (light-darkness at 20 degrees C). Analysis of herbicides was performed by GC-NPD and their identity was confirmed by GC-MSD. A micro on-line method for the isolation of herbicide residues was used. The results showed that light had little effect on the removal of the four herbicides in riverwater but had a marked effect on their removal from sea and groundwater. Surprisingly, this removal appeared to be inversely proportional to the concentration of dissolved organic materials. In general, the degradation order was similar in sea and riverwaters; simazine was the most readily degraded compound (t(1/2)= 29-49 days), while terbuthylazine was the most persistent with the longest half-lives (76-331 days). In groundwater, terbuthylazine also showed greater persistence but prometryn was the compound with a fastest degradation rate, half-lives ranged from 88 days for prometryn to approximately 100 days for the other three compounds in light conditions and 263-366 days for prometryn and terbuthylazine, respectively, in darkness. Only for terbuthylazine was the remaining percentage at the end of the experiment higher than 50% under light conditions in riverwater, while in the other cases, the remaining percentage varied from 7 to 43% for simazine in seawater and atrazine in groundwater, respectively. Finally, a greater persistence was observed in groundwater for the four compounds.

  3. Groundwater-Seepage Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walthall, Harry G.; Reay, William G.

    1993-01-01

    Instrument measures seepage of groundwater into inland or coastal body of water. Positioned at depth as great as 40 meters, and measures flow at low rate and low pressure differential. Auxiliary pressure meter provides data for correlation of flow of groundwater with tides and sea states. Seepage meter operates independently for several weeks. Its sampling rate adjusted to suit hydrologic conditions; to measure more frequently when conditions changing rapidly. Used in water-quality management and for biological and geological research. Potential industrial uses include measurement of seepage of caustic and corrosive liquids.

  4. Analysis of nitrosamines in water by automated SPE and isotope dilution GC/HRMS Occurrence in the different steps of a drinking water treatment plant, and in chlorinated samples from a reservoir and a sewage treatment plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Planas, Carles; Palacios, Oscar; Ventura, Francesc; Rivera, Josep; Caixach, Josep

    2008-08-15

    A method based on automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) and isotope dilution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) has been developed for the analysis of nine nitrosamines in water samples. The combination of automated SPE and GC/HRMS for the analysis of nitrosamines has not been reported previously. The method shows as advantages the selectivity and sensitivity of GC/HRMS analysis and the high efficiency of automated SPE with coconut charcoal EPA 521 cartridges. Low method detection limits (MDLs) were achieved, along with a greater facility of the procedure and less dependence on the operator with regard to the methods based on manual SPE. Quality requirements for isotope dilution-based methods were accomplished for most analysed nitrosamines, regarding to trueness (80-120%), method precision (<15%) and MDLs (0.08-1.7 ng/L). Nineteen water samples (16 samples from a drinking water treatment plant {DWTP}, 2 chlorinated samples from a sewage treatment plant {STP} effluent, and 1 chlorinated sample from a reservoir) were analysed. Concentrations of nitrosamines in the STP effluent were 309.4 and 730.2 ng/L, being higher when higher doses of chlorine were applied. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were the main compounds identified in the STP effluent, and NDEA was detected above 200 ng/L, regulatory level for NDMA in effluents stated in Ontario (Canada). Lower concentrations of nitrosamines were found in the reservoir (20.3 ng/L) and in the DWTP samples (n.d. -28.6 ng/L). NDMA and NDEA were respectively found in the reservoir and in treated and highly chlorinated DWTP samples at concentrations above 10 ng/L (guide value established in different countries). The highest concentrations of nitrosamines were found after chlorination and ozonation processes (ozonated, treated and highly chlorinated water) in DWTP samples.

  5. Comparison of no-purge and pumped sampling methods for monitoring concentrations of ordnance-related compounds in groundwater, Camp Edwards, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoie, Jennifer G.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2012-01-01

    Field tests were conducted near the Impact Area at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to determine the utility of no-purge groundwater sampling for monitoring concentrations of ordnance-related explosive compounds and perchlorate in the sand and gravel aquifer. The no-purge methods included (1) a diffusion sampler constructed of rigid porous polyethylene, (2) a diffusion sampler constructed of regenerated-cellulose membrane, and (3) a tubular grab sampler (bailer) constructed of polyethylene film. In samples from 36 monitoring wells, concentrations of perchlorate (ClO4-), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), the major contaminants of concern in the Impact Area, in the no-purge samples were compared to concentrations of these compounds in samples collected by low-flow pumped sampling with dedicated bladder pumps. The monitoring wells are constructed of 2- and 2.5-inch-diameter polyvinyl chloride pipe and have approximately 5- to 10-foot-long slotted screens. The no-purge samplers were left in place for 13-64 days to ensure that ambient groundwater flow had flushed the well screen and concentrations in the screen represented water in the adjacent formation. The sampling methods were compared first in six monitoring wells. Concentrations of ClO4-, RDX, and HMX in water samples collected by the three no-purge sampling methods and low-flow pumped sampling were in close agreement for all six monitoring wells. There is no evidence of a systematic bias in the concentration differences among the methods on the basis of type of sampling device, type of contaminant, or order in which the no-purge samplers were tested. A subsequent examination of vertical variations in concentrations of ClO4- in the 10-foot-long screens of six wells by using rigid porous polyethylene diffusion samplers indicated that concentrations in a given well varied by less than 15 percent

  6. Groundwater quality data in 15 GAMA study units: results from the 2006–10 Initial sampling and the 2009–13 resampling of wells, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Robert

    2015-08-31

    Most constituents that were detected in groundwater samples from the trend wells were found at concentrations less than drinking-water benchmarks. Two volatile organic compounds (VOCs)—tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene—were detected in samples from one or more wells at concentrations greater than their health-based benchmarks, and three VOCs—chloroform, tetrachloroethene, and trichloroethene—were detected in at least 10 percent of the trend-well samples from the initial sampling period and the later trend sampling period. No pesticides were detected at concentrations near or greater than their health-based benchmarks. Three pesticide constituents—atrazine, deethylatrazine, and simazine—were detected in more than 10 percent of the trend-well samples in both sampling periods. Perchlorate, a constituent of special interest, was detected at a concentration greater than its health-based benchmark in samples from one trend well in the initial sampling and trend sampling periods, and in an additional trend well sample only in the trend sampling period. Most detections of nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements in samples from trend wells were less than health-based benchmarks in both sampling periods. Exceptions included nitrate, fluoride, arsenic, boron, molybdenum, strontium, and uranium; these were all detected at concentrations greater than their health-based benchmarks in at least one well sample in both sampling periods. Lead and vanadium were detected above their health-based benchmarks in one sample each collected in the initial sampling period only. The isotopic ratios of oxygen and hydrogen in water and the activities of tritium and carbon-14 generally changed little between sampling periods.

  7. Automation or De-automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlach, Igor; Wessel, Oliver

    2008-09-01

    In the global automotive industry, for decades, vehicle manufacturers have continually increased the level of automation of production systems in order to be competitive. However, there is a new trend to decrease the level of automation, especially in final car assembly, for reasons of economy and flexibility. In this research, the final car assembly lines at three production sites of Volkswagen are analysed in order to determine the best level of automation for each, in terms of manufacturing costs, productivity, quality and flexibility. The case study is based on the methodology proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. The results of the analysis indicate that fully automated assembly systems are not necessarily the best option in terms of cost, productivity and quality combined, which is attributed to high complexity of final car assembly systems; some de-automation is therefore recommended. On the other hand, the analysis shows that low automation can result in poor product quality due to reasons related to plant location, such as inadequate workers' skills, motivation, etc. Hence, the automation strategy should be formulated on the basis of analysis of all relevant aspects of the manufacturing process, such as costs, quality, productivity and flexibility in relation to the local context. A more balanced combination of automated and manual assembly operations provides better utilisation of equipment, reduces production costs and improves throughput.

  8. Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application

    SciTech Connect

    Koffman, Larry D.; Lee, Patricia L.; Cook, James R.; Wilhite, Elmer L.

    2008-01-15

    results. The application was extended to calculate full decay chains for a given parent so that an intruder calculation could be performed without any input from transport calculations, i.e. the intruder analysis was decoupled from groundwater analysis. Once this full decay chain capability was in place, the application was extended to perform a transient calculation of the dose to an intruder over a specified time range, from which the maximum dose in time was determined. Use of the transient calculation to find the maximum dose in time was a significant step forward in automating and simplifying the inadvertent intruder analysis. In conclusion: an automated application has been developed to perform inadvertent intruder analysis for SRS low-level waste facilities. The application performs a transient analysis to find the maximum dose in time for each parent considered. Due to its ease of use and the standardization of input and methods, the Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application has been adopted as standard practice for inadvertent intruder analysis at SRS.

  9. Metrology automation reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chain, Elizabeth E.

    1996-09-01

    At Motorola's MOS-12 facility automated measurements on 200- mm diameter wafers proceed in a hands-off 'load-and-go' mode requiring only wafer loading, measurement recipe loading, and a 'run' command for processing. Upon completion of all sample measurements, the data is uploaded to the factory's data collection software system via a SECS II interface, eliminating the requirement of manual data entry. The scope of in-line measurement automation has been extended to the entire metrology scheme from job file generation to measurement and data collection. Data analysis and comparison to part specification limits is also carried out automatically. Successful integration of automated metrology into the factory measurement system requires that automated functions, such as autofocus and pattern recognition algorithms, display a high degree of reliability. In the 24- hour factory reliability data can be collected automatically on every part measured. This reliability data is then uploaded to the factory data collection software system at the same time as the measurement data. Analysis of the metrology reliability data permits improvements to be made as needed, and provides an accurate accounting of automation reliability. This reliability data has so far been collected for the CD-SEM (critical dimension scanning electron microscope) metrology tool, and examples are presented. This analysis method can be applied to such automated in-line measurements as CD, overlay, particle and film thickness measurements.

  10. Automated headspace-solid-phase micro extraction-retention time locked-isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of organotin compounds in water and sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Devosa, Christophe; Vliegen, Maarten; Willaert, Bart; David, Frank; Moens, Luc; Sandra, Pat

    2005-06-24

    An automated method for the simultaneous determination of six important organotin compounds namely monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), monophenyltin (MPhT), diphenyltin (DPhT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) in water and sediment samples is described. The method is based on derivatization with sodium tetraethylborate followed by automated headspace-solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) combined with GC-MS under retention time locked (RTL) conditions. Home-synthesized deuterated organotin analogues were used as internal standards. Two high abundant fragment ions corresponding to the main tin isotopes Sn118 and Sn120 were chosen; one for quantification and one as qualifier ion. The method was validated and excellent figures of merit were obtained. Limits of quantification (LOQs) are from 1.3 to 15 ng l(-1) (ppt) for water samples and from 1.0 to 6.3 microg kg(-1) (ppb) for sediment samples. Accuracy for sediment samples was tested on spiked real-life sediment samples and on a reference PACS-2 marine harbor sediment. The developed method was used in a case-study at the harbor of Antwerp where sediment samples in different areas were taken and subsequently screened for TBT contamination. Concentrations ranged from 15 microg kg(-1) in the port of Antwerp up to 43 mg kg(-1) near a ship repair unit.

  11. Fully automated protein purification

    PubMed Central

    Camper, DeMarco V.; Viola, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining highly purified proteins is essential to begin investigating their functional and structural properties. The steps that are typically involved in purifying proteins can include an initial capture, intermediate purification, and a final polishing step. Completing these steps can take several days and require frequent attention to ensure success. Our goal was to design automated protocols that will allow the purification of proteins with minimal operator intervention. Separate methods have been produced and tested that automate the sample loading, column washing, sample elution and peak collection steps for ion-exchange, metal affinity, hydrophobic interaction and gel filtration chromatography. These individual methods are designed to be coupled and run sequentially in any order to achieve a flexible and fully automated protein purification protocol. PMID:19595984

  12. Groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Haimes, Y. . Dept. of Systems Engineering)

    1986-01-01

    The subject of these conference proceedings is the groundwater contamination. It is by nature multifarious - dealing with detection and monitoring, prevention, abatement and containment, and correction and restoration of contaminated groundwater - it intrinsically encompasses myriad disciplines, and it involves all levels of government. Also, the subject of groundwater contamination is complex because decisions concerning groundwater pollution control that are scientifically sound, technologically within the state of the art, economically feasible, politically tractable, legally sustainable, socially acceptable, morally accountable, and organizationally implementable must be grounded on appropriate information and intelligence bases in their respective areas - science, technology, economics, politics, the law, society, ethics, and management. Indeed, the human health effects (e.g., cancer, damage to the central nervous system, liver and kidney damage) and non-health effects (economic hardship to industry, agriculture, households, and municipalities; environmental impacts; social impacts) necessitate that we, as a society, address in a somber way the following variations of the same question: How safe is safe enough How clean is safe enough The enormous cost - in billions of dollars over the next decade - that various studies project for the prevention, detection and monitoring, abatement and containment, and correction and restoration of groundwater contamination make an answer to these questions even more urgent. There are sixteen papers in these proceedings.

  13. Design and Operation of a Borehole Straddle Packer for Ground-Water Sampling and Hydraulic Testing of Discrete Intervals at U.S. Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holloway, Owen G.; Waddell, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    A borehole straddle packer was developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize the vertical distribution of contaminants, head, and hydraulic properties in open-borehole wells as part of an ongoing investigation of ground-water contamination at U.S. Air Force Plant 6 (AFP6) in Marietta, Georgia. To better understand contaminant fate and transport in a crys