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Sample records for automotive propulsion systems

  1. Compact Hybrid Automotive Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.

    1986-01-01

    Power train proposed for experimental vehicle powered by internal combustion engine and electric motor. Intended for front-wheel drive automobile, power train mass produced using existing technology. System includes internal-combustion engine, electric motor, continuously variable transmission, torque converter, differential, and control and adjustment systems for electric motor and transmission. Continuously variable transmission integrated into hydraulic system that also handles power steering and power brakes. Batteries for electric motor mounted elsewhere in vehicle.

  2. Identification of propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter; Guo, Ten-Huei; Duyar, Ahmet

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a tutorial on the use of model identification techniques for the identification of propulsion system models. These models are important for control design, simulation, parameter estimation, and fault detection. Propulsion system identification is defined in the context of the classical description of identification as a four step process that is unique because of special considerations of data and error sources. Propulsion system models are described along with the dependence of system operation on the environment. Propulsion system simulation approaches are discussed as well as approaches to propulsion system identification with examples for both air breathing and rocket systems.

  3. Aluminum-air battery for automotive propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Behrin, E.

    1980-12-01

    Research on the development of aluminum-air batteries which will be used in energy efficient, economical electric vehicles is reviewed with information on the research strategy, performance characteristics of aluminum-air cells, vehicle design, and the net energy required and energy costs for producing and operating Al-air batteries. The aluminum-air battery is being developed to provide a propulsion source for a general-purpose electric vehicle that has the acceleration, range, and rapid-refueling characteristics of current automobiles. The objective is petroleum conservation in a time frame in which synthetic liquids will enter large scale production. Two parallel development paths are being pursued. These involve hardware developments using model electrodes, and research directed toward cost-effective electrodes. The project is currently directed toward developing rapidly-refuelable single cells. Successful development of battery hardware and electrodes would make possible a general-purpose vehicle with costs and energy consumption similar to advanced ICE vehicles using fuels synthesized from coal, but with the advantages of a broad primary energy base and an emissionless vehicle. (LCL)

  4. Automotive Brake Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, orginally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the basic operations of automotive brake systems on military vehicles. The course contains four study units covering hydraulic brakes, air brakes, power brakes, and auxiliary brake systems. A troubleshooting guide for…

  5. Automotive power steering system

    SciTech Connect

    VanGorder, D.H.; Wilson, K.R.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes improvement in an automotive power steering system including a pump, a servo-valve, a steering assist fluid motor, a reservoir having a reservoir chamber therein, fluid ducts; a volume of hydraulic oil; a fluid level. The improvement comprises: means defining a fill port; a cover; means connect a gas accumulator.

  6. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  7. Space Transportation Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Stewart, Mark E.; Suresh, Ambady; Owen, A. Karl

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the Space Transportation Propulsion Systems for the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) program. Topics include: 1) a review of Engine/Inlet Coupling Work; 2) Background/Organization of Space Transportation Initiative; 3) Synergy between High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCCP) and Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP); 4) Status of Space Transportation Effort, including planned deliverables for FY01-FY06, FY00 accomplishments (HPCCP Funded) and FY01 Major Milestones (HPCCP and ASTP); and 5) a review current technical efforts, including a review of the Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC), Scope of Work, RBCC Concept Aerodynamic Analysis and RBCC Concept Multidisciplinary Analysis.

  8. Propulsion system noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiler, C. E.; Heidelberg, L. J.; Karchmer, A. M.; Lansing, D. L.; Miller, B. A.; Rice, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    The progress in propulsion system noise reduction is reviewed. The noise technology areas discussed include: fan noise; advances in suppression including conventional acoustic treatment, high Mach number inlets, and wing shielding; engine core noise; flap noise from both under-the-wing and over-the-wing powered-lift systems; supersonic jet noise suppression; and the NASA program in noise prediction.

  9. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with the aerospace industry, other government agencies, and academia, is leading the effort to develop an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. The initial development of NPSS focused on the analysis and design of airbreathing aircraft engines, but the resulting NPSS framework may be applied to any system, for example: aerospace, rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and even human system modeling. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Advanced Virtual Engine Test Cell (AVETeC). NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes capabilities to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS will provide improved tools to develop custom components and to use capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multi-fidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full development life cycle.

  10. Hypersonic missile propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmar, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Pratt and Whitney is developing the technology for hypersonic components and engines. A supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) database was developed using hydrogen fueled propulsion systems for space access vehicles and serves as a point of departure for the current development of hydrocarbon scramjets. The Air Force Hypersonic Technology (HyTech) Program has put programs in place to develop the technologies necessary to demonstrate the operability, performance and structural durability of an expendable, liquid hydrocarbon fueled scramjet system that operates from Mach 4 to 8. This program will culminate in a flight type engine test at representative flight conditions. The hypersonic technology base that will be developed and demonstrated under HyTech will establish the foundation to enable hypersonic propulsion systems for a broad range of air vehicle applications from missiles to space access vehicles. A hypersonic missile flight demonstration is planned in the DARPA Affordable Rapid Response Missile Demonstrator (ARRMD) program in 2001.

  11. STOL propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denington, R. J.; Koenig, R. W.; Vanco, M. R.; Sagerser, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The selection and the characteristics of quiet, clean propulsion systems for STOL aircraft are discussed. Engines are evaluated for augmentor wing and externally blown flap STOL aircraft with the engines located both under and over the wings. Some supporting test data are presented. Optimum engines are selected based on achieving the performance, economic, acoustic, and pollution goals presently being considered for future STOL aircraft. The data and results presented were obtained from a number of contracted studies and some supporting NASA inhouse programs, most of which began in early 1972. The contracts include: (1) two aircraft and mission studies, (2) two propulsion system studies, (3) the experimental and analytic work on the augmentor wing, and (4) the experimental programs on Q-Fan. Engines are selected and discussed based on aircraft economics using the direct operating cost as the primary criterion. This cost includes the cost of the crew, fuel, aircraft, and engine maintenance and depreciation.

  12. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  13. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  14. Ship propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Kimon, P.M.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes an improved efficiency propulsion system for a ship operated at both deep and shallow water depths, and at variable loaded and ballast waterlines. This propulsion system consists of a number of elements interactive in their operation. The first component of the system detailed is a variable diameter propeller means equipped with a mechanism for varying the diameter of the propeller between a maximum extended diameter and a minimum diameter. The next component of the system depicted in the patent is a propeller shaft mounting which enables the propeller to rotate in the stern portion of the ship. The propeller shaft is characterized as extending parallel to the bottom keel of the ship and having an axis of rotation displaced from the bottom keel a distance less than one-half the maximum diameter of the propeller means but more than one-half of the minimum diameter of the propeller means. As a consequence of the systems design characteristics the ship may obtain maximum propeller efficiency by means of the extension in diameter of the propeller means when it is operated in a fully loaded condition in deep water.

  15. Emergent Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fakdi Sencianes, Andres

    2002-01-01

    almost an Engineer (2002 will be my last year as student) and the studies that I'm now ending here, in Girona, are closely related not only with science and technology subjects but with optimization and economic result obtention, too. Huge distances that separate us from everything in space have launched scientists and engineers into a new challenge: How to reach maximum speeds keeping high ratios payload/total spacecraft mass? The key limitation of chemical rockets is that their exhaust velocity is relatively low. Because achieving Earth orbit requires a high velocity change a rocket must carry far more propellant than payload. The answer to all this complications seems to stare in one way: electric propulsion systems and the possibility of taking advantatge of solar winds to thrust our crafts. possible solutions, some of them have been studied for years and now they are not a project but a reality; also newest theories bring us the possibility of dream. Improve of commom propellants, search of new ones: Investigators continued research on use of atomic species as high-energy-density propellants, which could increase the specific impulse of hydrogen/oxygen rockets by 50-150%. Nuclear fission propulsion: Centered in development of reactors for nearterm nuclear electric propulsion aplications. Multimegawatt systems based on vapor core reactors and magnetohydrodynamic power conversion. Engineers investigated new fuels for compact nuclear thermal propulsion systems. What is called plasma state?: When a gas is heated to tens of thousands or millions of degrees, atoms lose their electrons. The result is a "soup" of charged particles, or plasma, made up of negatively charged electrons and positively charged ions. No known material can contain the hot plasma necessary for rocket propulsion, but specially designed magnetic fields can. Plasma rockets: This rockets are not powered by conventional chemical reactions as today's rockets are, but by electrical energy that heats

  16. Nuclear electric propulsion systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: nuclear propulsion background; schedule for the nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) project; NEP for the Space Exploration Initiative; NEP on-going systems tasks; 20KWe mission/system study; and agenda.

  17. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

    1992-01-01

    The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of

  18. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

    1992-11-01

    The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of

  19. Automotive Stirling engine systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) program is to develop a Stirling engine for automotive use that provides a 30 percent improvement in fuel economy relative to a comparable internal-combustion engine while meeting emissions goals. This paper traces the engine systems' development efforts focusing on: (1) a summary of engine system performance for all Mod I engines; (2) the development, program conducted for the upgraded Mod I; and (3) vehicle systems work conducted to enhance vehicle fuel economy. Problems encountered during the upgraded Mod I test program are discussed. The importance of the EPA driving cycle cold-start penalty and the measures taken to minimize that penalty with the Mod II are also addressed.

  20. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    The work performed on the Ion Propulsion System Technology Task in FY90 is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with issues associated with the application of xenon ion thrusters for primary propulsion of planetary spacecraft, and the second with the investigation of technologies which will facilitate the development of larger, higher power ion thrusters to support more advanced mission applications. Most of the effort was devoted to investigation of the critical issues associated with the use of ion thrusters for planetary spacecraft. These issues may be succinctly referred to as life time, system integration, and throttling. Chief among these is the engine life time. If the engines do not have sufficient life to perform the missions of interest, then the other issues become unimportant. Ion engine life time was investigated through two experimental programs: an investigation into the reduction of ion engine internal sputter erosion through the addition of small quantities of nitrogen, and a long duration cathode life test. In addition, a literature review and analysis of accelerator grid erosion were performed. The nitrogen addition tests indicated that the addition of between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of nitrogen by mass to the xenon propellant results in a reduction in the sputter erosion of discharge chamber components by a factor of between 20 and 50, with negligible reduction in thruster performance. The long duration test of a 6.35-mm dia. xenon hollow cathode is still in progress, and has accumulated more than 4,000 hours of operation at an emission current of 25 A at the time of this writing. One of the major system integration issues concerns possible interactions of the ion thruster produced charge exchange plasma with the spacecraft. A computer model originally developed to describe the behavior of mercury ion thruster charge exchange plasmas was resurrected and modified for xenon propellant. This

  1. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  2. Mars Rocket Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Harber, Dan; Nabors, Sammy

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses the methane and carbon monoxide/LOX (McLOx) rocket for ascent from Mars as well as other critical space propulsion tasks. The system offers a specific impulse over 370 s roughly 50 s higher than existing space-storable bio-propellants. Current Mars in-situ propellant production (ISPP) technologies produce impure methane and carbon monoxide in various combinations. While separation and purification of methane fuel is possible, it adds complexity to the propellant production process and discards an otherwise useful fuel product. The McLOx makes such complex and wasteful processes unnecessary by burning the methane/CO mixtures produced by the Mars ISPP systems without the need for further refinement. Despite the decrease in rocket-specific impulse caused by the CO admixture, the improvement offered by concomitant increased propellant density can provide a net improvement in stage performance. One advantage is the increase of the total amount of propellant produced, but with a decrease in mass and complexity of the required ISPP plant. Methane/CO fuel mixtures also may be produced by reprocessing the organic wastes of a Moon base or a space station, making McLOx engines key for a human Lunar initiative or the International Space Station (ISS) program. Because McLOx propellant components store at a common temperature, very lightweight and compact common bulkhead tanks can be employed, improving overall stage performance further.

  3. Advanced cryo propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, William K.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form: (1) advanced space engine (ASE) chronology; (2) an ASE description; (3) a single expander; (4) a dual expander; (5) split expander; (6) launch vehicle start; (7) space start; (8) chemical transfer propulsion; and (9) an advanced expander test bed.

  4. Automotive transmission linkage system

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, F.Y.; Ardayfio, D.D.

    1990-10-02

    This patent describes a system for converting a manual multi-speed transmission to operate as an automatic-manual transmission, the system being disposed within a vehicle, the transmission having a conventional gearshift lever and a clutch pedal. It comprises: a gearshift position selection panel, the panel being located apart from the gearshift lever, the panel enabling a driver to select the desired gear position of the gearshift lever by manipulating the panel without the necessity of the driver handling the gearshift lever; a controller which transforms the gearshift selection of the driver to an output signal, the signal corresponding to the gearshift position selected by the driver; and actuating means for mechanically repositioning the gearshift lever automatically in accordance with the output signal.

  5. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  6. Propulsion System Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Jimmy C. M.; McClure, Erin K.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Burg, Cecile

    2002-01-01

    The Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory at the School of Aerospace Engineering in Georgia Institute of Technology has developed a core competency that enables propulsion technology managers to make technology investment decisions substantiated by propulsion and airframe technology system studies. This method assists the designer/manager in selecting appropriate technology concepts while accounting for the presence of risk and uncertainty as well as interactions between disciplines. This capability is incorporated into a single design simulation system that is described in this paper. This propulsion system design environment is created with a commercially available software called iSIGHT, which is a generic computational framework, and with analysis programs for engine cycle, engine flowpath, mission, and economic analyses. iSIGHT is used to integrate these analysis tools within a single computer platform and facilitate information transfer amongst the various codes. The resulting modeling and simulation (M&S) environment in conjunction with the response surface method provides the designer/decision-maker an analytical means to examine the entire design space from either a subsystem and/or system perspective. The results of this paper will enable managers to analytically play what-if games to gain insight in to the benefits (and/or degradation) of changing engine cycle design parameters. Furthermore, the propulsion design space will be explored probabilistically to show the feasibility and viability of the propulsion system integrated with a vehicle.

  7. 78 FR 36633 - National Automotive Sampling System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... improving data collection methods and quality control procedures, among other activities. This project is... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Automotive Sampling System AGENCY: National Highway... Automotive Sampling System (NASS) or Data Modernization (DataMod). NHTSA announces that it will hold a...

  8. Comparison of Mars Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    The propulsion system is a critical aspect of the performance and feasibility of a Mars aircraft. Propulsion system mass and performance greatly influence the aircraft s design and mission capabilities. Various propulsion systems were analyzed to estimate the system mass necessary for producing 35N of thrust within the Mars environment. Three main categories of propulsion systems were considered: electric systems, combustion engine systems and rocket systems. Also, the system masses were compared for mission durations of 1, 2, and 4 h.

  9. Supercharging system for automotive engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, T.; Yabuhara, H.; Takimoto, F.

    1988-03-15

    A supercharging system for an automotive engine is described comprising: a turbocharger driven by exhaust-gas of the engine; a supercharger; an intake passage connecting the turbocharger and the supercharger in series, for supplying air to the engine; driving means for driving the supercharger by the engine; clutch means provided in the driving means; a first bypass provided around the supercharger; a control valve provided in the first bypass; a second bypass provided around the turbine of the turbocharger; a waste gate valve provided in the second bypass; a first actuator for operating the control valve; a second actuator for operating the waste gate valve; first means for operating the second actuator to open the waste gate valve when supercharging pressure exceeds a predetermined value; an engine speed sensor for detecting speed of the engine; an engine load sensor for detecting load on the engine; and a control unit.

  10. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  11. Advanced NSTS propulsion system verification study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles

    1989-01-01

    The merits of propulsion system development testing are discussed. The existing data base of technical reports and specialists is utilized in this investigation. The study encompassed a review of all available test reports of propulsion system development testing for the Saturn stages, the Titan stages, and the Space Shuttle main propulsion system. The knowledge on propulsion system development and system testing available from specialists and managers was also 'tapped' for inclusion.

  12. Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristic parameters of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, argon MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. Overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

  13. User discrimination in automotive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

  14. Extraterrestrial surface propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, Robert L.; Blackstock, Dexter L.; Barnhouse, K.; Charalambous, Z.; Coats, J.; Danagan, J.; Davis, T.; Dickens, J.; Harris, P.; Horner, G.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar traction systems, Mars oxygen production, and Mars methane engine operation were the three topics studied during 1992. An elastic loop track system for lunar construction operations was redesigned and is being tested. A great deal of work on simulating the lunar environment to facilitate traction testing has been reported. Operation of an oxygen processor under vacuum conditions has been the focus of another design team. They have redesigned the processor facility. This included improved seals and heat shields. Assuming methane and oxygen can be produced from surface resources on Mars, a third design team has addressed the problem of using Mars atmospheric carbon dioxide to control combustion temperatures in an internal combustion engine. That team has identified appropriate tests and instrumentation. They have reported on the test rig that they designed and the computer-based system for acquiring data.

  15. Space station propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Meng, Phillip R.; Schneider, Steven J.; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: O/H rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the station. Both thrusters will utilize waste fluids as their source of propellant. The O/H rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use stored waste gases from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. This paper presents the results of experimental efforts with O/H and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability.

  16. Propulsion Systems Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; McGaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-02-01

    Topics addressed are: (1) cryogenic tankage; (2) launch vehicle TPS/insulation; (3) durable passive thermal control devices and/or coatings; (4) development and characterization of processing methods to reduce anisotropy of material properties in Al-Li; (5) durable thermal protection system (TPS); (6) unpressurized Al-Li structures (interstages, thrust structures); (7) near net shape sections; (8) pressurized structures; (9) welding and joining; (10) micrometeoroid and debris hypervelocity shields; (11) state-of-the-art shell buckling structure optimizer program to serve as a rapid design tool; (12) test philosophy; (13) reduced load cycle time; (14) structural analysis methods; (15) optimization of structural criteria; and (16) develop an engineering approach to properly trade material and structural concepts selection, fabrication, facilities, and cost.

  17. Propulsion Systems Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed are: (1) cryogenic tankage; (2) launch vehicle TPS/insulation; (3) durable passive thermal control devices and/or coatings; (4) development and characterization of processing methods to reduce anisotropy of material properties in Al-Li; (5) durable thermal protection system (TPS); (6) unpressurized Al-Li structures (interstages, thrust structures); (7) near net shape sections; (8) pressurized structures; (9) welding and joining; (10) micrometeoroid and debris hypervelocity shields; (11) state-of-the-art shell buckling structure optimizer program to serve as a rapid design tool; (12) test philosophy; (13) reduced load cycle time; (14) structural analysis methods; (15) optimization of structural criteria; and (16) develop an engineering approach to properly trade material and structural concepts selection, fabrication, facilities, and cost.

  18. Fiberoptics for propulsion control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    In aircraft systems with digital controls, fiberoptics has advantages over wire systems because of its inherent immunity to electromagnetic noise (EMI) and electromagnetic pulses (EMP). It also offers a weight benefit when metallic conductors are replaced by optical fibers. To take full advantage of the benefits of optical waveguides, passive optical sensors are also being developed to eliminate the need for electrical power to the sensor. Fiberoptics may also be used for controlling actuators on engine and airframe. In this application, the optical fibers, connectors, etc. will be subjected to high temperature and vibrations. This paper discussed the use of fiberoptics in aircraft propulsion systems together with the optical sensors and optically controlled actuators being developed to take full advantage of the benefits which fiberoptics offers. The requirements for sensors and actuators in advanced propulsion systems are identified. The benefits of using fiberoptics in place of conventional wire systems are discussed as well as the environmental conditions under which the optical components must operate.

  19. Modeling of Spacecraft Advanced Chemical Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benfield, Michael P. J.; Belcher, Jeremy A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of the Advanced Chemical Propulsion System (ACPS) model for Earth and Space Storable propellants. This model was developed by the System Technology Operation of SAIC-Huntsville for the NASA MSFC In-Space Propulsion Project Office. Each subsystem of the model is described. Selected model results will also be shown to demonstrate the model's ability to evaluate technology changes in chemical propulsion systems.

  20. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia G.

    2004-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. Because the NPSS was developed using the object-oriented paradigm, the resulting architecture is an extensible and flexible framework that is currently being used by a diverse set of participants in government, academia, and the aerospace industry. NPSS is being used by over 15 different institutions to support rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and aerospace. Full system-level simulations as well as subsystems may be modeled using NPSS. The NPSS architecture enables the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail, which is called numerical zooming. The middleware used to enable zooming and distributed simulations is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The NPSS Developer's Kit offers tools for the developer to generate CORBA-based components and wrap codes. The Developer's Kit enables distributed multi-fidelity and multi-discipline simulations, preserves proprietary and legacy codes, and facilitates addition of customized codes. The platforms supported are PC, Linux, HP, Sun, and SGI.

  1. Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portz, Ron; Alexander, Leslie; Chapman, Jack; England, Chris; Henderson, Scott; Krismer, David; Lu, Frank; Wilson, Kim; Miller, Scott

    2007-01-01

    A detailed; mission-level systems study has been performed to show the benefit resulting from engine performance gains that will result from NASA's In-Space Propulsion ROSS Cycle 3A NRA, Advanced Chemical Technology sub-topic. The technology development roadmap to accomplish the NRA goals are also detailed in this paper. NASA-Marshall and NASA-JPL have conducted mission-level studies to define engine requirements, operating conditions, and interfaces. Five reference missions have been chosen for this analysis based on scientific interest, current launch vehicle capability and trends in space craft size: a) GTO to GEO, 4800 kg, delta-V for GEO insertion only approx.1830 m/s; b) Titan Orbiter with aerocapture, 6620 kg, total delta V approx.210 m/s, mostly for periapsis raise after aerocapture; c) Enceladus Orbiter (Titan aerocapture) 6620 kg, delta V approx.2400 m/s; d) Europa Orbiter, 2170 kg, total delta V approx.2600 m/s; and e) Mars Orbiter, 2250 kg, total delta V approx.1860 m/s. The figures of merit used to define the benefit of increased propulsion efficiency at the spacecraft level include propulsion subsystem wet mass, volume and overall cost. The objective of the NRA is to increase the specific impulse of pressure-fed earth storable bipropellant rocket engines to greater than 330 seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and monomothylhydrazine propellants and greater than 335 , seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine. Achievement of the NRA goals will significantly benefit NASA interplanetary missions and other government and commercial opportunities by enabling reduced launch weight and/or increased payload. The study also constitutes a crucial stepping stone to future development, such as pump-fed storable engines.

  2. Propulsion System Models for Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual design code NDARC (NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft) was initially implemented to model conventional rotorcraft propulsion systems, consisting of turboshaft engines burning jet fuel, connected to one or more rotors through a mechanical transmission. The NDARC propulsion system representation has been extended to cover additional propulsion concepts, including electric motors and generators, rotor reaction drive, turbojet and turbofan engines, fuel cells and solar cells, batteries, and fuel (energy) used without weight change. The paper describes these propulsion system components, the architecture of their implementation in NDARC, and the form of the models for performance and weight. Requirements are defined for improved performance and weight models of the new propulsion system components. With these new propulsion models, NDARC can be used to develop environmentally-friendly rotorcraft designs.

  3. Electro-mechanical propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.F.; Stewart, J.K.

    1984-04-24

    An Electro-Mechanical Propulsion System for vehicles, wherein the prime mover, such as an internal combustion engine, drives an alternating voltage generator through a first shaft at a constant RPM controlled by a speed governor; and wherein the alternating voltage generator serves as a source of energy for an electrical energy conversion unit comprising a controlled rectifier, a polyphase signal generator, an analog control unit, and a regulated DC power supply, to further provide a variable power and frequency source for an AC traction motor coupled through a second shaft to the vehicle wheel drive system. Operator manual or pedal control of the system is further provided by a speed control potentiometer, An acceleration control potentiometer, and a torque control potentiometer.

  4. Implementation of the dawn ion propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John; Marcucci, Michael G.; Ganapath, Gani B.; Gates, Jason; Garner, Charles E.; Klatte, Marlin; Lo, John; Nakazono, Barry; Pixler, Greg

    2005-01-01

    The Dawn ion propulsion system (IPS) was intended to be simply a larger version of the ion propulsion system that flew on Deep Space 1 (DS1). Implementation of this system to meet the needs of the Dawn mission, however, required modification of some IPS components and completely new developments of others.

  5. Propulsive Reaction Control System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Phan, Linh H.; Serricchio, Frederick; San Martin, Alejandro M.

    2011-01-01

    This software models a propulsive reaction control system (RCS) for guidance, navigation, and control simulation purposes. The model includes the drive electronics, the electromechanical valve dynamics, the combustion dynamics, and thrust. This innovation follows the Mars Science Laboratory entry reaction control system design, and has been created to meet the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry, descent, and landing simulation needs. It has been built to be plug-and-play on multiple MSL testbeds [analysis, Monte Carlo, flight software development, hardware-in-the-loop, and ATLO (assembly, test and launch operations) testbeds]. This RCS model is a C language program. It contains two main functions: the RCS electronics model function that models the RCS FPGA (field-programmable-gate-array) processing and commanding of the RCS valve, and the RCS dynamic model function that models the valve and combustion dynamics. In addition, this software provides support functions to initialize the model states, set parameters, access model telemetry, and access calculated thruster forces.

  6. Multidisciplinary propulsion simulation using the numerical propulsion system simulator (NPSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, Russel W.

    1994-01-01

    Implementing new technology in aerospace propulsion systems is becoming prohibitively expensive. One of the major contributions to the high cost is the need to perform many large scale system tests. The traditional design analysis procedure decomposes the engine into isolated components and focuses attention on each single physical discipline (e.g., fluid for structural dynamics). Consequently, the interactions that naturally occur between components and disciplines can be masked by the limited interactions that occur between individuals or teams doing the design and must be uncovered during expensive engine testing. This overview will discuss a cooperative effort of NASA, industry, and universities to integrate disciplines, components, and high performance computing into a Numerical propulsion System Simulator (NPSS).

  7. NASA Technology Area 1: Launch Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnaughey, Paul; Femminineo, Mark; Koelfgen, Syri; Lepsch, Roger; Ryan, Richard M.; Taylor, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology advancements plans for the NASA Technology Area 1, Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Area (LPSTA). The draft roadmap reviews various propulsion system technologies that will be developed during the next 25 + years. This roadmap will be reviewed by the National Research Council which will issue a final report, that will include findings and recommendations.

  8. Nuclear electric propulsion reactor control systems status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferg, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    The thermionic reactor control system design studies conducted over the past several years for a nuclear electric propulsion system are described and summarized. The relevant reactor control system studies are discussed in qualitative terms, pointing out the significant advantages and disadvantages including the impact that the various control systems would have on the nuclear electric propulsion system design. A recommendation for the reference control system is made, and a program for future work leading to an engineering model is described.

  9. Electrical Systems Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide is one of a series of automotive service specialty publications that continues students' training in the automotive service trade by providing instruction in the electrical systems speciality. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence tasks lists. It contains nine units. Each unit includes some or…

  10. Intelligent imaging systems for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Chris; Huang, Yingping; Fu, Shan

    2004-03-01

    In common with many other application areas, visual signals are becoming an increasingly important information source for many automotive applications. For several years CCD cameras have been used as research tools for a range of automotive applications. Infrared cameras, RADAR and LIDAR are other types of imaging sensors that have also been widely investigated for use in cars. This paper will describe work in this field performed in C2VIP over the last decade - starting with Night Vision Systems and looking at various other Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. Emerging from this experience, we make the following observations which are crucial for "intelligent" imaging systems: 1. Careful arrangement of sensor array. 2. Dynamic-Self-Calibration. 3. Networking and processing. 4. Fusion with other imaging sensors, both at the image level and the feature level, provides much more flexibility and reliability in complex situations. We will discuss how these problems can be addressed and what are the outstanding issues.

  11. Automotive Electrical and Electronic Systems I; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive electrical and electronic system I course is designed as one of a group of quinmester courses offered in the field of automotive mechanics. General information will be given along with technical knowledge, basic skills, attitudes and values that are required for job entry level. The nine week (135 clock hour) course overcomes some…

  12. Auxiliary propulsion system flight package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company developed qualified and integrated flight, a flight test Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), on an Air Force technology satellite. The IAPS Flight Package consists of two identical Thruster Subsystems and a Diagnostic Subsystem. Each thruster subsystem (TSS) is comprised of an 8-cm ion Thruster-Gimbal-Beam Shield Unit (TGBSU); Power Electronics Unit; Digital Controller and Interface Unit (DCIU); and Propellant Tank, Valve and Feed Unit (PTVFU) plus the requisite cables. The Diagnostic Subsystem (DSS) includes four types of sensors for measuring the effect of the ion thrusters on the spacecraft and the surrounding plasma. Flight qualifications of IAPS, prior to installation on the spacecraft, consisted of performance, vibration and thermal-vacuum testing at the unit level, and thermal-vacuum testing at the subsystem level. Mutual compatibility between IAPS and the host spacecraft was demonstrated during a series of performance and environmental tests after the IAPS Flight Package was installed on the spacecraft. After a spacecraft acoustic test, performance of the ion thrusters was reverified by removing the TGBSUs for a thorough performance test at Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL). The TGBSUs were then reinstalled on the spacecraft. The IAPS Flight Package is ready for flight testing when Shuttle flights are resumed.

  13. Analytical theory of the Campini propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campini, S

    1942-01-01

    Following the description of the new propulsion system and the definition of the propulsive efficiency, this efficiency is calculated under various conditions of flight with allowance for all internal losses. The efficiency and consumption curves are plotted, their practical values discussed and the behavior of the system analyzed at various altitudes and speeds. The immediate possibilities of the new system in flight at high and very high altitudes in relation to the theoretical and experimental results are discussed in detail.

  14. Aerodynamic Flow Field Measurements for Automotive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepner, Timothy E.

    1999-01-01

    The design of a modern automotive air handling system is a complex task. The system is required to bring the interior of the vehicle to a comfortable level in as short a time as possible. A goal of the automotive industry is to predict the interior climate of an automobile using advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods. The development of these advanced prediction tools will enable better selection of engine and accessory components. The goal of this investigation was to predict methods used by the automotive industry. To accomplish this task three separate experiments were performed. The first was a laboratory setup where laser velocimeter (LV) flow field measurements were made in the heating and air conditioning unit of a Ford Windstar. The second involved flow field measurements in the engine compartment of a Ford Explorer, with the engine running idle. The third mapped the flow field exiting the center dashboard panel vent inside the Explorer, while the circulating fan operated at 14 volts. All three experiments utilized full-coincidence three-component LV systems. This enabled the mean and fluctuating velocities to be measured along with the Reynolds stress terms.

  15. OEPSS operationally efficient propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A final report on the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) is presented. A review of Launch Site Operations, OEPSS objectives, operations support structure, OEPSS Concerns List, and scope of OEPSS are summarized, along with goals of OEPSS technologies, and operations technology levels. Air-augmented ejector/rocket, flash boiling tank pressurization technology, and advanced LH2 turbopump are described. Launch facilities, operations-driven propulsion system architecture, integrated booster propulsion module, turbopump operating conditions, and payload capability using integrated engine elements are addressed among other topics.

  16. Resistojet propulsion for large spacecraft systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Resistojet propulsion systems have characteristics that are ideally suited for the on-orbit and primary propulsion requirements of large spacecraft systems. These characteristics which offer advantages over other forms of propulsion are reviewed and presented. The feasibility of resistojets were demonstrated in space whereas only a limited number of ground life tests were performed. The major technology issues associated with these ground tests are evaluated. The past performance of resistojets is summarized and, looks into the present day technology status is reviewed. The material criteria, along with possible concepts, needed to attain high performance resistojets are presented.

  17. Propulsion system for research VTOL transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsma, L. W.; Zigan, S.

    1973-01-01

    In anticipation of an eventual VTOL requirement for civil aviation, NASA has been conducting studies directed toward determining and developing the technology required for a commercial VTOL transport. In this paper, the commercial transport configurations are briefly reviewed; the propulsion system specifications and components developed by the engine study contractor are presented and described; and methods for using the lift-propulsion system for aircraft attitude control are discussed.

  18. A portable hydrazine attitude propulsion test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.

    1972-01-01

    The portable hydrazine attitude propulsion module is described that was designed and developed to support the attitude control pitch axis simulation tests performed on an air bearing table for the thermoelectric outer planet spacecraft program. The propulsion module was a self-contained, liquid hydrazine propulsion system from which the exhausted gases were generated within the catalyst bed of either of two nominal 0.22-N opposing thrusters. The module, which was designed for convenient assembly onto and removal from an air bearing table, was tested to establish its operational safety. This test history and the very conservative design of the module enabled it to be man-rated for operation in the presence of personnel. The report briefly summarizes the system operations during air bearing table tests, presents a detailed description of the propulsion module hardware, and discussing the system evolution.

  19. Review of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, Roland Antonius; Herdrich, Georg

    2015-11-01

    This article offers a summary of past efforts in the development of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion systems for space transportation. First, the generic principle of thermal propulsion is outlined: a propellant is directly heated by a power source prior to being expanded which creates a thrusting force on the rocket. This enables deriving a motivation for the use of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) relying on nuclear power sources. Then, a summary of major families of NTP systems is established on the basis of a literature survey. These families are distinguished by the nature of their power source, the most important being systems with radioisotope, fission, and fusion cores. Concepts proposing to harness the annihilation of matter and anti-matter are only touched briefly due to their limited maturity. For each family, an overview of physical fundamentals, technical concepts, and - if available - tested engines' propulsion parameters is given.

  20. Safe, Affordable, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Doughty, G. E.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  1. NSTAR Ion Propulsion System Power Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) program, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is currently developing a high performance, simplified ion propulsion system. This propulsion system, which is throttleable from 0.5- to 2.3-kW output power to the thruster, targets primary propulsion applications for planetary and Earth-space missions and has been baselined as the primary propulsion system for the first New Millennium spacecraft. The NASA Lewis Research Center is responsible for the design and delivery of a breadboard power processing unit (PPU) and an engineering model thruster (EMT) for this system and will manage the contract for the delivery of the flight hardware to JPL. The PPU requirements, which dictate a mass of less than 12 kg with an efficiency of 0.9 or greater at a 2.3-kW output, forced a departure from the state-of-the-art ion thruster PPU design. Several innovations--including dual-use topologies, simplified thruster control, and the use of ferrite magnetic materials--were necessary to meet these requirements.

  2. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Electrical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, diagnosis, repair, and adjustment of automotive electrical systems. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Fundamentals of Electrical Systems, (2) Battery Servicing, (3) Starting Systems, (4) Charging Systems, (5) Ignition Systems,…

  3. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the construction, operation, malfunction, diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of the fuel and exhaust systems used in automobiles. The course contains five study units covering fundamentals of gasoline engine fuel…

  4. LADEE Propulsion System Cold Flow Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jonathan Hunter; Chapman, Jack M.; Trinh, Hau, P.; Bell, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a NASA mission that will orbit the Moon. Its main objective is to characterize the atmosphere and lunar dust environment. The spacecraft development is being led by NASA Ames Research Center and scheduled for launch in 2013. The LADEE spacecraft will be operated with a bi-propellant hypergolic propulsion system using MMH and NTO as the fuel and oxidizer, respectively. The propulsion system utilizes flight-proven hardware on major components. The propulsion layout is composed of one 100-lbf main thruster and four 5-lbf RCS thrusters. The propellants are stored in four tanks (two parallel-connected tanks per propellant component). The propellants will be pressurized by regulated helium. A simulated propulsion system has been built for conducting cold flow test series to characterize the transient fluid flow of the propulsion system feed lines and to verify the critical operation modes, such as system priming, waterhammer, and crucial mission duty cycles. Propellant drainage differential between propellant tanks will also be assessed. Since the oxidizer feed line system has a higher flow demand than the fuel system does, the cold flow test focuses on the oxidizer system. The objective of the cold flow test is to simulate the LADEE propulsion fluid flow operation through water cold flow test and to obtain data for anchoring analytical models. The models will be used to predict the transient and steady state flow behaviors in the actual flight operations. The test activities, including the simulated propulsion test article, cold flow test, and analytical modeling, are being performed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. At the time of the abstract submission, the test article checkout is being performed. The test series will be completed by November, 2012

  5. Space station onboard propulsion system: Technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcallister, J. G.; Rudland, R. S.; Redd, L. R.; Beekman, D. H.; Cuffin, S. M.; Beer, C. M.; Mccarthy, K. K.

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to prepare for the design of the space station propulsion system. Propulsion system concepts were defined and schematics were developed for the most viable concepts. A dual model bipropellant system was found to deliver the largest amount of payload. However, when resupply is considered, an electrolysis system with 10 percent accumulators requires less resupply propellant, though it is penalized by the amount of time required to fill the accumulators and the power requirements for the electrolyzer. A computer simulation was prepared, which was originally intended to simulate the water electrolysis propulsion system but which was expanded to model other types of systems such as cold gas, monopropellant and bipropellant storable systems.

  6. A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.F.

    1996-03-01

    Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur fuels, and this may add cost to some of them. Fuels produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical fuels. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price demands an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.

  7. Analysis of UAS hybrid propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupe, Ryan M.

    Hybrid propulsion technology has been growing over last several years. With the steadily increasing cost of fuel and demand for unmanned aircraft systems to meet an ever expanding variety of responsibilities, research must be conducted into the development of alternative propulsion systems to reduce operating costs and optimize for strategic missions. One of the primary roles of unmanned aircraft systems is to provide aerial surveillance without detection. While electric propulsion systems provide a great option for lower acoustic signatures due to the lack of combustion and exhaust noise, they typically have low flight endurance due to battery limitations. Gas burning propulsion systems are ideal for long range/endurance missions due to the high energy density of hydrocarbon fuel, but can be much easier to detect. Research is conducted into the feasibility of gas/electric hybrid propulsion systems and the tradeoffs involved for reconnaissance mission scenarios. An analysis program is developed to optimize each component of the system and examine their effects on the overall performance of the aircraft. Each subsystem is parameterized and simulated within the program and tradeoffs between payload weight, range, and endurance are tested and evaluated to fulfill mission requirements.

  8. MW-Class Electric Propulsion System Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Oleson, Steven; Pencil, Eric; Mercer, Carolyn; Distefano, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Electric propulsion systems are well developed and have been in commercial use for several years. Ion and Hall thrusters have propelled robotic spacecraft to encounters with asteroids, the Moon, and minor planetary bodies within the solar system, while higher power systems are being considered to support even more demanding future space science and exploration missions. Such missions may include orbit raising and station-keeping for large platforms, robotic and human missions to near earth asteroids, cargo transport for sustained lunar or Mars exploration, and at very high-power, fast piloted missions to Mars and the outer planets. The Advanced In-Space Propulsion Project, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and High Power Electric Propulsion Demonstration Project were established within the NASA Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program to develop and advance the fundamental technologies required for these long-range, future exploration missions. Under the auspices of the High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and supported by the Advanced In-Space Propulsion and High Power Electric Propulsion Projects, the COMPASS design team at the NASA Glenn Research Center performed multiple parametric design analyses to determine solar and nuclear electric power technology requirements for representative 300-kW class and pulsed and steady-state MW-class electric propulsion systems. This paper describes the results of the MW-class electric power and propulsion design analysis. Starting with the representative MW-class vehicle configurations, and using design reference missions bounded by launch dates, several power system technology improvements were introduced into the parametric COMPASS simulations to determine the potential system level benefits such technologies might provide. Those technologies providing quantitative system level benefits were then assessed for technical feasibility, cost, and time to develop. Key assumptions and primary

  9. In-Space Chemical Propulsion System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, David C.; Woodcock, Gordon; Benfield, Michael P. J.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple, new technologies for chemical systems are becoming available and include high temperature rockets, very light propellant tanks and structures, new bipropellant and monopropellant options, lower mass propellant control components, and zero boil off subsystems. Such technologies offer promise of increasing the performance of in-space chemical propulsion for energetic space missions. A mass model for pressure-fed, Earth and space-storable, advanced chemical propulsion systems (ACPS) was developed in support of the NASA MSFC In-Space Propulsion Program. Data from flight systems and studies defined baseline system architectures and subsystems and analyses were formulated for parametric scaling relationships for all ACPS subsystem. The paper will first provide summary descriptions of the approaches used for the systems and the subsystems and then present selected analyses to illustrate use of the model for missions with characteristics of current interest.

  10. In-Space Chemical Propulsion System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, David C.; Woodcock, Gordon; Benfield, M. P. J.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple, new technologies for chemical systems are becoming available and include high temperature rockets, very light propellant tanks and structures, new bipropellant and monopropellant options, lower mass propellant control components, and zero boil off subsystems. Such technologies offer promise of increasing the performance of in-space chemical propulsion for energetic space missions. A mass model for pressure-fed, Earth and space-storable, advanced chemical propulsion systems (ACPS) was developed in support of the NASA MSFC In-Space Propulsion Program. Data from flight systems and studies defined baseline system architectures and subsystems and analyses were formulated for parametric scaling relationships for all ACPS subsystems. The paper will first provide summary descriptions of the approaches used for the systems and the subsystems and then present selected analyses to illustrate use of the model for missions with characteristics of current interest.

  11. 76 FR 72442 - Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... COMMISSION Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... automotive GPS navigation systems, components thereof, and products containing same by reason of infringement... after importation of certain automotive GPS navigation systems, components thereof, and...

  12. Technical Considerations for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews concerns involving advanced propulsion systems. The problems involved with the use of Am-242m, is that it has a high "eta" plus an order of magnitude larger fission cross section than other fissionable materials, and that it is extremely rare. However other americium isotopes are much more common, but extremely effective isotopic separation is required. Deuterium-Tritium fusion is also not attractive for space propulsion applications. Because the pulsed systems cannot breed adequate amounts of tritium and it is difficult and expensive to bring tritium from Earth. The systems that do breed tritium have severely limited performance. However, other fusion processes should still be evaluated. Another problem with advanced propellants is that inefficiencies in converting the total energy generated into propellant energy can lead to tremendous heat rejection requirements. Therefore Many. advanced propulsion concepts benefit greatly from low-mass radiators.

  13. NASA's Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnaughey, Paul K.; Femminineo, Mark G.; Koelfgen, Syri J.; Lepsch, Roger A; Ryan, Richard M.; Taylor, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Safe, reliable, and affordable access to low-Earth (LEO) orbit is necessary for all of the United States (US) space endeavors. In 2010, NASA s Office of the Chief Technologist commissioned 14 teams to develop technology roadmaps that could be used to guide the Agency s and US technology investment decisions for the next few decades. The Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Area (LPSTA) team was tasked to address the propulsion technology challenges for access to LEO. The developed LPSTA roadmap addresses technologies that enhance existing solid or liquid propulsion technologies and their related ancillary systems or significantly advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of less mature systems like airbreathing, unconventional, and other launch technologies. In developing this roadmap, the LPSTA team consulted previous NASA, military, and industry studies as well as subject matter experts to develop their assessment of this field, which has fundamental technological and strategic impacts for US space capabilities.

  14. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Emission Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, testing, and servicing of automotive emission control systems. The course is comprised of one unit, Fundamentals of Emission Systems. The unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives directions for unit completion. The…

  15. 75 FR 11938 - Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, MI; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, MI; Notice of Termination... Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, Michigan (Meridian Automotive). The petitioning group of...

  16. Propulsion System Choices and Their Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, Claude R., II; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russell, E.; Robinson, John W.

    2010-01-01

    In defining a space vehicle architecture, the propulsion system and related subsystem choices will have a major influence on achieving the goals and objectives desired. There are many alternatives and the choices made must produce a system that meets the performance requirements, but at the same time also provide the greatest opportunity of reaching all of the required objectives. Recognizing the above, the SPST Functional Requirements subteam has drawn on the knowledge, expertise, and experience of its members, to develop insight that wiIJ effectively aid the architectural concept developer in making the appropriate choices consistent with the architecture goals. This data not only identifies many selected choices, but also, more importantly, presents the collective assessment of this subteam on the "pros" and the "cons" of these choices. The propulsion system choices with their pros and cons are presented in five major groups. A. System Integration Approach. Focused on the requirement for safety, reliability, dependability, maintainability, and low cost. B. Non-Chemical Propulsion. Focused on choice of propulsion type. C. Chemical Propulsion. Focused on propellant choice implications. D. Functional Integration. Focused on the degree of integration of the many propulsive and closely associated functions, and on the choice of the engine combustion power cycle. E. Thermal Management. Focused on propellant tank insulation and integration. Each of these groups is further broken down into subgroups, and at that level the consensus pros and cons are presented. The intended use of this paper is to provide a resource of focused material for architectural concept developers to use in designing new advanced systems including college design classes. It is also a possible source of input material for developing a model for designing and analyzing advanced concepts to help identify focused technology needs and their priorities.

  17. Direct drive options for electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.

    1995-01-01

    Power processing units (PPU's) in an electric propulsion system provide many challenging integration issues. The PPU must provide power to the electric thruster while maintaining compatibility with all of the spacecraft power and data systems. Inefficiencies in the power processor produce heat, which must be radiated to the environment in order to ensure reliable operation. Although PPU efficiencies are generally greater than 0.9, heat loads are often substantial. This heat must be rejected by thermal control systems which generally have specific masses of 15-30 kg/kW. PPU's also represent a large fraction of the electric propulsion system dry mass. Simplification or elimination of power processing in a propulsion system would reduce the electric propulsion system specific mass and improve the overall reliability and performance. A direct drive system would eliminate all or some of the power supplies required to operate a thruster by directly connecting the various thruster loads to the solar array. The development of concentrator solar arrays has enabled power bus voltages in excess of 300 V which is high enough for direct drive applications for Hall thrusters such as the Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT). The option of solar array direct drive for SPT's is explored to provide a comparison between conventional and direct drive system mass.

  18. MSFC Propulsion Systems Department Knowledge Management Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccioli, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Knowledge Management (KM) project of the Propulsion Systems Department at Marshall Space Flight Center. KM is needed to support knowledge capture, preservation and to support an information sharing culture. The presentation includes the strategic plan for the KM initiative, the system requirements, the technology description, the User Interface and custom features, and a search demonstration.

  19. Propulsion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air and Space, 1978

    1978-01-01

    An introductory discussion of aircraft propulsion is included along with diagrams and pictures of piston, turbojet, turboprop, turbofan, and jet engines. Also, a table on chemical propulsion is included. (MDR)

  20. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  1. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John K.

    2000-01-01

    Advances in computational technology and in physics-based modeling are making large-scale, detailed simulations of complex systems possible within the design environment. For example, the integration of computing, communications, and aerodynamics has reduced the time required to analyze major propulsion system components from days and weeks to minutes and hours. This breakthrough has enabled the detailed simulation of major propulsion system components to become a routine part of designing systems, providing the designer with critical information about the components early in the design process. This paper describes the development of the numerical propulsion system simulation (NPSS), a modular and extensible framework for the integration of multicomponent and multidisciplinary analysis tools using geographically distributed resources such as computing platforms, data bases, and people. The analysis is currently focused on large-scale modeling of complete aircraft engines. This will provide the product developer with a "virtual wind tunnel" that will reduce the number of hardware builds and tests required during the development of advanced aerospace propulsion systems.

  2. Fuel System: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The fourth of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive fuel systems at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  3. Cooling System: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The last of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the automotive cooling system at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  4. Nuclear systems for space power and propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M.

    1971-01-01

    As exploration and utilization of space proceeds through the 1970s, 1980s, and beyond, spacecraft in earth orbit will become increasingly larger, spacecraft will travel deeper into space, and space activities will involve more complex operations. These trends require increasing amounts of energy for power and propulsion. The role to be played by nuclear energy is presented, including plans for deep space missions using radioisotope generators, the reactor power systems for earth orbiting stations and satellites, and the role of nuclear propulsion in space transportation.

  5. Study of electrical and chemical propulsion systems for auxiliary propulsion of large space systems, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    The five major tasks of the program are reported. Task 1 is a literature search followed by selection and definition of seven generic spacecraft classes. Task 2 covers the determination and description of important disturbance effects. Task 3 applies the disturbances to the generic spacecraft and adds maneuver and stationkeeping functions to define total auxiliary propulsion systems requirements for control. The important auxiliary propulsion system characteristics are identified and sensitivities to control functions and large space system characteristics determined. In Task 4, these sensitivities are quantified and the optimum auxiliary propulsion system characteristics determined. Task 5 compares the desired characteristics with those available for both electrical and chemical auxiliary propulsion systems to identify the directions technology advances should take.

  6. Electromagnetic interference filter for automotive electrical systems

    DOEpatents

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Carlson, Douglas S; Tang, David; Korich, Mark D

    2013-07-02

    A filter for an automotive electrical system includes a substrate having first and second conductive members. First and second input terminals are mounted to the substrate. The first input terminal is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second input terminal is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A plurality of capacitors are mounted to the substrate. Each of the capacitors is electrically connected to at least one of the first and second conductive members. First and second power connectors are mounted to the substrate. The first power connector is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second power connector is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A common mode choke is coupled to the substrate and arranged such that the common mode choke extends around at least a portion of the substrate and the first and second conductive members.

  7. Development of a biowaste resistojet propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The equipment, exclusive of thrustors, required to demonstrate the feasibility of a resistojet propulsion system for space station attitude control application using representative simulated crew biowaste propellants and available resistojet thrustors in the ground simulation tests is discussed. The overall objective of the program was to provide a biowaste resistojet prototype propellant management and control system sufficiently similar to the flight article to permit concept feasibility and system demonstration testing of interface compatibility, operational characteristics, and system flexibility.

  8. National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems (NIRPS): Solutions Facilitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Tom

    2011-01-01

    National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems (NIRPS) "Solutions" plans to enable our nation's future in rocket propulsion systems by leveraging existing skills and capabilities to support industry's future needs

  9. 2000 Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John; Follen, Greg; Naiman, Cynthia; Veres, Joseph; Owen, Karl; Lopez, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia, and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective. high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. Major accomplishments include the first formal release of the NPSS object-oriented architecture (NPSS Version 1) and the demonstration of a one order of magnitude reduction in computing cost-to-performance ratio using a cluster of personal computers. The paper also describes the future NPSS milestones, which include the simulation of space transportation propulsion systems in response to increased emphasis on safe, low cost access to space within NASA'S Aerospace Technology Enterprise. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners on the fiscal year 1999 effort and the actions taken over the past year to

  10. 2001 Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John; Follen, Gregory; Naiman, Cynthia; Veres, Joseph; Owen, Karl; Lopez, Isaac

    2002-01-01

    The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective, high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. Major accomplishments include the first formal release of the NPSS object-oriented architecture (NPSS Version 1) and the demonstration of a one order of magnitude reduction in computing cost-to-performance ratio using a cluster of personal computers. The paper also describes the future NPSS milestones, which include the simulation of space transportation propulsion systems in response to increased emphasis on safe, low cost access to space within NASA's Aerospace Technology Enterprise. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners on the fiscal year 2000 effort and the actions taken over the past year to

  11. Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, A.; Binderbauer, M.; Liu, F.; Qerushi, A.; Rostoker, N.; Wessel, F. J.

    2004-02-01

    The Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion System, CBFR-SPS, is an aneutronic, magnetic-field-reversed configuration, fueled by an energetic-ion mixture of hydrogen and boron11 (H-B11). Particle confinement and transport in the CBFR-SPS are classical, hence the system is scaleable. Fusion products are helium ions, α-particles, expelled axially out of the system. α-particles flowing in one direction are decelerated and their energy recovered to ``power'' the system; particles expelled in the opposite direction provide thrust. Since the fusion products are charged particles, the system does not require the use of a massive-radiation shield. This paper describes a 100 MW CBFR-SPS design, including estimates for the propulsion-system parameters and masses. Specific emphasis is placed on the design of a closed-cycle, Brayton-heat engine, consisting of heat-exchangers, turbo-alternator, compressor, and finned radiators.

  12. Thermal Propulsion Capture System Heat Exchanger Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges of manned spaceflight beyond low earth orbit and the moon is harmful radiation that astronauts would be exposed to on their long journey to Mars and further destinations. Using nuclear energy has the potential to be a more effective means of propulsion compared to traditional chemical engines (higher specific impulse). An upper stage nuclear engine would allow astronauts to reach their destination faster and more fuel efficiently. Testing these engines poses engineering challenges due to the need to totally capture the engine exhaust. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System is a concept for cost effectively and safely testing Nuclear Thermal Engines. Nominally, hydrogen exhausted from the engine is not radioactive, but is treated as such in case of fuel element failure. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System involves injecting liquid oxygen to convert the hydrogen exhaust into steam. The steam is then cooled and condensed into liquid water to allow for storage. The Thermal Propulsion Capture System concept for ground testing of a nuclear powered engine involves capturing the engine exhaust to be cooled and condensed before being stored. The hydrogen exhaust is injected with liquid oxygen and burned to form steam. That steam must be cooled to saturation temperatures before being condensed into liquid water. A crossflow heat exchanger using water as a working fluid will be designed to accomplish this goal. Design a cross flow heat exchanger for the Thermal Propulsion Capture System testing which: Eliminates the need for water injection cooling, Cools steam from 5800 F to saturation temperature, and Is efficient and minimizes water requirement.

  13. LOX/hydrocarbon auxiliary propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orton, G. F.; Mark, T. D.; Weber, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Liquid oxygen (LOX)/hydrocarbon propulsion concepts for a "second generation' orbiter auxiliary propulsion system was evaluated. The most attractive fuel and system design approach identified, and the technology advancements that are needed to provide high confidence for a subsequent system development were determined. The fuel candidates were ethanol, methane, propane, and ammonia. Even though ammonia is not a hydrocarbon, it was included for evaluation because it is clean burning and has a good technology base. The major system design options were pump versus pressure feed, cryogenic versus ambient temperature RCS propellant feed, and the degree of OMS-RCS integration. Ethanol was determined to be the best fuel candidate. It is an earth-storable fuel with a vapor pressure slightly higher than monomethyl hydrazine. A pump-fed OMS was recommended because of its high specific impulse, enabling greater velocity change and greater payload capability than a pressure fed system.

  14. Automotive Technology Evolved by Electrical and Electronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teratani, Tatsuo; Okuma, Shigeru

    Automotive electrical and electronic systems, e.g. EHV, FCV, future X-By-Wire, have recently been introduced or planned in place of mechanical systems. Drivers are demanding environmental performance (fuel consumption and weight reduction), safety and comfort. For general use of the new technologies, evolution of the automotive technology is required, including energy conversion efficiency improvement, size and weight reduction of components, cost reduction and high reliability. This paper discusses and summarizes the next generation power systems, the future vehicle image, power source combinations, and problems to be solved for development of automotive electronics.

  15. Resource Prospector Propulsion System Cold Flow Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Hunter; Holt, Kim; Addona, Brad; Trinh, Huu

    2015-01-01

    Resource Prospector (RP) is a NASA mission being led by NASA Ames Research Center with current plans to deliver a scientific payload package aboard a rover to the lunar surface. As part of an early risk reduction activity, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Johnson Space Flight Center (JSC) have jointly developed a government-version concept of a lunar lander for the mission. The spacecraft consists of two parts, the lander and the rover which carries the scientific instruments. The lander holds the rover during launch, cruise, and landing on the surface. Following terminal descent and landing the lander portion of the spacecraft become dormant after the rover embarks on the science mission. The lander will be equipped with a propulsion system for lunar descent and landing, as well as trajectory correction and attitude control maneuvers during transit to the moon. Hypergolic propellants monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide will be used to fuel sixteen 70-lbf descent thrusters and twelve 5-lbf attitude control thrusters. A total of four metal-diaphragm tanks, two per propellant, will be used along with a high-pressure composite-overwrapped pressure vessel for the helium pressurant gas. Many of the major propulsion system components are heritage missile hardware obtained by NASA from the Air Force. In parallel with the flight system design activities, a simulated propulsion system based on flight drawings was built for conducting a series of water flow tests to characterize the transient fluid flow of the propulsion system feed lines and to verify the critical operation modes such as system priming, waterhammer, and crucial mission duty cycles. The primary objective of the cold flow testing was to simulate the RP propulsion system fluid flow operation through water flow testing and to obtain data for anchoring analytical models. The models will be used to predict the transient and steady state flow behaviors in the actual flight operations. All design and

  16. Mirror fusion propulsion system - A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveny, M.; Carpenter, S.; O'Connell, T.; Schulze, N.

    1993-01-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons.

  17. Mirror fusion propulsion system: A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Carpenter, Scott A.; Deveny, Marc E.; Oconnell, T.

    1993-01-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons.

  18. Mirror fusion propulsion system: A performance comparison with alternate propulsion systems for the manned Mars Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, N.R.; Carpenter, S.A.; Deveny, M.E.; Oconnell, T.

    1993-06-01

    The performance characteristics of several propulsion technologies applied to piloted Mars missions are compared. The characteristics that are compared are Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), mission flexibility, and flight times. The propulsion systems being compared are both demonstrated and envisioned: Chemical (or Cryogenic), Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) solid core, NTR gas core, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), and a mirror fusion space propulsion system. The proposed magnetic mirror fusion reactor, known as the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS), is described. The description is an overview of a design study that was conducted to convert a mirror reactor experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) into a viable space propulsion system. Design principles geared towards minimizing mass and maximizing power available for thrust are identified and applied to the LLNL reactor design, resulting in the MFPS. The MFPS' design evolution, reactor and fuel choices, and system configuration are described. Results of the performance comparison shows that the MFPS minimizes flight time to 60 to 90 days for flights to Mars while allowing continuous return-home capability while at Mars. Total MFPS IMLEO including propellant and payloads is kept to about 1,000 metric tons.

  19. Speech recognition system for an automotive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Noso, K.; Futami, T.

    1987-01-13

    A speech recognition system is described for an automotive vehicle for activating vehicle actuators in response to predetermined spoken instructions supplied to the system via a microphone, which comprises: (a) a manually controlled record switch for deriving a record signal when activated; (b) a manually controlled recognition switch for deriving a recognition signal when activated; (c) a speech recognizer for sequentially recording reference spoken instructions whenever one reference spoken instruction is supplied to the system through the microphone while the record switch is activated, a memory having a storage area for each spoken instruction, and means for shifting access to each storage area for each spoken instruction has been recorded in the storage area provided therefore. A means is included for activating vehicle actuators sequentially whenever one recognition spoken instruction is supplied to the system via the microphone while the recognition switch is activated and when the spoken instruction to be recognized is similar to the reference spoken instruction; and (d) means for deriving skip instruction signal and for coupling the skip instruction signal to the speech recognizer to shift access from a currently accessed storage area for recording a current reference spoken instruction to a succeeding storage area for recording a succeeding reference spoken instruction even when the current reference spoken instruction is not supplied to the system through the microphone.

  20. LOX/hydrocarbon auxiliary propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orton, G. F.; Mark, T. D.; Weber, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon propulsion systems applicable to a second generation orbiter OMS/RCS were compared, and major system/component options were evaluated. A large number of propellant combinations and system concepts were evaluated. The ground rules were defined in terms of candidate propellants, system/component design options, and design requirements. System and engine component math models were incorporated into existing computer codes for system evaluations. The detailed system evaluations and comparisons were performed to identify the recommended propellant combination and system approach.

  1. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  2. Nuclear power propulsion system for spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroteev, A. S.; Oshev, Yu. A.; Popov, S. A.; Karevsky, A. V.; Solodukhin, A. Ye.; Zakharenkov, L. E.; Semenkin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The proposed designs of high-power space tugs that utilize solar or nuclear energy to power an electric jet engine are reviewed. The conceptual design of a nuclear power propulsion system (NPPS) is described; its structural diagram, gas circuit, and electric diagram are discussed. The NPPS incorporates a nuclear reactor, a thermal-to-electric energy conversion system, a system for the conversion and distribution of electric energy, and an electric propulsion system. Two criterion parameters were chosen in the considered NPPS design: the temperature of gaseous working medium at the nuclear reactor outlet and the rotor speed of turboalternators. The maintenance of these parameters at a given level guarantees that the needed electric voltage is generated and allows for power mode control. The processes of startup/shutdown and increasing/reducing the power, the principles of distribution of electric energy over loads, and the probable emergencies for the proposed NPPS design are discussed.

  3. Solar electric propulsion system /SEPS/: Tomorrow's propulsion system - Today

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Mission and system concepts relating to the SEPS project will be discussed as well as an overview of current project planning. SEPS system concept descriptions will be limited to in-house NASA concepts. The capabilities of the in-house concepts to meet a wide range of mission requirements will be described to give an indication of potential capabilities SEPS can provide to the space mission planners.

  4. Solar-Powered Electric Propulsion Systems: Engineering and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, J. W.; Kerrisk, D. J.

    1966-01-01

    Lightweight, multikilowatt solar power arrays in conjunction with electric propulsion offer potential improvements to space exploration, extending the usefulness of existing launch vehicles to higher-energy missions. Characteristics of solar-powered electric propulsion missions are outlined, and preliminary performance estimates are shown. Spacecraft system engineering is discussed with respect to parametric trade-offs in power and propulsion system design. Relationships between mission performance and propulsion system performance are illustrated. The present state of the art of electric propulsion systems is reviewed and related to the mission requirements identified earlier. The propulsion system design and test requirements for a mission spacecraft are identified and discussed. Although only ion engine systems are currently available, certain plasma propulsion systems offer some advantages in over-all system design. These are identified, and goals are set for plasma-thrustor systems to make them competitive with ion-engine systems for mission applications.

  5. Conceptual designs for antiproton space propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cassenti, B.N.

    1989-01-01

    Five conceptual designs for antimatter space propulsion systems were compared in terms of their performance characteristics. The systems examined included solid-core liquid-propellant rockets; magnetically confined gaseous-core rockets using liquid or solid propellants; plasma-core rockets; pion rockets, which are driven directly by the mass annihilation products; and ram-augmented rockets, in which antiproton annihilation is used to heat hydrogen collected in interstellar space. It was found that, in general, as the specific impulse of the propulsion system increases, the thrust decreases. The comparison between designs showed that only fusion rockets have the capability to compete in performance with mass annihilation rockets. For very-high-speed interstellar missions, pion rockets, which can have a specific impulse of 20 million sec (although with a thrust-to-engine mass ratios of only 0.01 G) will offer best performance. 36 refs.

  6. ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geppert, S.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that dc drives will be the logical choice for current production electric vehicles (EV). However, by the mid-80's, there is a good chance that the price and reliability of suitable high-power semiconductors will allow for a competitive ac system. The driving force behind the ac approach is the induction motor, which has specific advantages relative to a dc shunt or series traction motor. These advantages would be an important factor in the case of a vehicle for which low maintenance characteristics are of primary importance. A description of an EV ac propulsion system is provided, taking into account the logic controller, the inverter, the motor, and a two-speed transmission-differential-axle assembly. The main barrier to the employment of the considered propulsion system in EV is not any technical problem, but inverter transistor cost.

  7. Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristics of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. These are characterized by specific impulse, overall efficiency, input power, average thrust, power to average thrust ratio and average thrust to dry weight ratio. Several important physical characteristics such as dry system mass, accelerator length, bore size and current pulse requirement are also evaluated in appropriate cases. Only the ion engine can operate at a specific impulse beyond 2000 sec. Rail gun, MPD thruster and free radical thruster are currently characterized by low efficiencies. Mass drivers have the best performance characteristics in terms of overall efficiency, power to average thrust ratio and average thrust to dry weight ratio. But, they can only operate at low specific impulses due to large power requirements and are extremely long due to limitations of driving current. Mercury ion engines have the next best performance characteristics while operating at higher specific impulses. It is concluded that, overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

  8. Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Simplified Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Raitano, Paul; Le, Dzu K.; Ouzts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This document addresses the modeling task plan for the hypersonic GN&C GRC team members. The overall propulsion system modeling task plan is a multi-step process and the task plan identified in this document addresses the first steps (short term modeling goals). The procedures and tools produced from this effort will be useful for creating simplified dynamic models applicable to a hypersonic vehicle propulsion system. The document continues with the GRC short term modeling goal. Next, a general description of the desired simplified model is presented along with simulations that are available to varying degrees. The simulations may be available in electronic form (FORTRAN, CFD, MatLab,...) or in paper form in published documents. Finally, roadmaps outlining possible avenues towards realizing simplified model are presented.

  9. The ion propulsion system for Dawn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.; Marcucci, M. G.; Ganapathi, G. B.; Garner, C. E.; Henry, M. D.; Nakazono, B.; Noon, D.

    2003-01-01

    The Dawn Project's mission is to rendezvous and map the two heaviest main belt asteroids Vesta and Ceres. The Ion Propulsion System (IPS) for Dawn will be used for the heliocentric transfer from the Earth to Vesta, orbit capture at Vesta, transfer to a low Vesta orbit, departure and escape from Vesta, the heliocentric transfer from Vesta to Ceres, orbit capture at Ceres, and transfer to a low Ceres orbit.

  10. Multimegawatt electric propulsion system design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, J. H.; Myers, Roger M.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Piloted Mars Mission Requirements of relatively short trip times and low initial mass in Earth orbit as identified by the NASA Space Exploration Initiative, indicate the need for multimegawatt electric propulsion systems. The design considerations and results for two thruster types, the argon ion, and hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, are addressed in terms of configuration, performance, and mass projections. Preliminary estimates of power management and distribution for these systems are given. Some assessment of these systems' performance in a reference Space Exploration Initiative piloted mission are discussed. Research and development requirements of these systems are also described.

  11. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  12. Space Shuttle Propulsion System Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzyn, Ken; VanHooser, Katherine; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David

    2011-01-01

    This session includes the following sessions: (1) External Tank (ET) System Reliability and Lessons, (2) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), Reliability Validated by a Million Seconds of Testing, (3) Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Reliability via Process Control, and (4) Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Reliability via Acceptance and Testing.

  13. Materials Requirements for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Cook, Mary Beth; Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's mission to "reach the Moon and Mars" will be obtained only if research begins now to develop materials with expanded capabilities to reduce mass, cost and risk to the program. Current materials cannot function satisfactorily in the deep space environments and do not meet the requirements of long term space propulsion concepts for manned missions. Directed research is needed to better understand materials behavior for optimizing their processing. This research, generating a deeper understanding of material behavior, can lead to enhanced implementation of materials for future exploration vehicles. materials providing new approaches for manufacture and new options for In response to this need for more robust materials, NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) has established a strategic research initiative dedicated to materials development supporting NASA's space propulsion needs. The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) element directs basic and applied research to understand material behavior and develop improved materials allowing propulsion systems to operate beyond their current limitations. This paper will discuss the approach used to direct the path of strategic research for advanced materials to ensure that the research is indeed supportive of NASA's future missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  14. Review Of Laser Lightcraft Propulsion System

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Eric W.; Mead, Franklin B. Jr

    2008-04-28

    Laser-powered 'Lightcraft' systems that deliver nano-satellites to LEO have been studied for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The study was built on the extensive Lightcraft laser propulsion technology already developed by theoretical and experimental work by the AFRL's Propulsion Directorate at Edwards AFB, CA. Here we review the history and engineering-physics of the laser Lightcraft system and its propulsive performance. We will also review the effectiveness and cost of a Lightcraft vehicle powered by a high-energy laser beam. One result of this study is the significant influence of laser wavelength on the power lost during laser beam propagation through Earth's atmosphere and in space. It was discovered that energy and power losses in the laser beam are extremely sensitive to wavelength for Earth-To-Orbit missions, and this significantly affects the amount of mass that can be placed into orbit for a given maximum amount of radiated power from a ground-based laser.

  15. Engineering of the Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statham, G.; White, S.; Adams, R. B.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Santarius, J.; Alexander, R.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Philips, A.; Polsgrove, T.

    2003-01-01

    Engineering details are presented for a magnetized target fusion (MTF) propulsion system designed to support crewed missions to the outer solar system. Basic operation of an MTF propulsion system is introduced. Structural, thermal, radiation-management and electrical design details are presented. The propellant storage and supply system design is also presented. A propulsion system mass estimate and associated performance figures are given. The advantages of helium-3 as a fusion fuel for an advanced MTF system are discussed.

  16. Acoustics Research of Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Ximing; Houston, Janice D.

    2014-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces some of the highest acoustic loading over a broad frequency for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are used in the prediction of the internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle but there are challenges. Present liftoff vehicle acoustic environment prediction methods utilize stationary data from previously conducted hold-down tests; i.e. static firings conducted in the 1960's, to generate 1/3 octave band Sound Pressure Level (SPL) spectra. These data sets are used to predict the liftoff acoustic environments for launch vehicles. To facilitate the accuracy and quality of acoustic loading, predictions at liftoff for future launch vehicles such as the Space Launch System (SLS), non-stationary flight data from the Ares I-X were processed in PC-Signal in two forms which included a simulated hold-down phase and the entire launch phase. In conjunction, the Prediction of Acoustic Vehicle Environments (PAVE) program was developed in MATLAB to allow for efficient predictions of sound pressure levels (SPLs) as a function of station number along the vehicle using semiempirical methods. This consisted, initially, of generating the Dimensionless Spectrum Function (DSF) and Dimensionless Source Location (DSL) curves from the Ares I-X flight data. These are then used in the MATLAB program to generate the 1/3 octave band SPL spectra. Concluding results show major differences in SPLs between the hold-down test data and the processed Ares IX flight data making the Ares I-X flight data more practical for future vehicle acoustic environment predictions.

  17. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard R.; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion system must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of an affordable, beyond-low-Earth-orbit, manned-exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system being co-developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS0 thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing activity, and an update on flight hardware.

  18. Automated Propulsion Data Screening demonstration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, W. Andes; Choate, Timothy D.; Whitehead, Bruce A.

    1995-01-01

    A fully-instrumented firing of a propulsion system typically generates a very large quantity of data. In the case of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), data analysis from ground tests and flights is currently a labor-intensive process. Human experts spend a great deal of time examining the large volume of sensor data generated by each engine firing. These experts look for any anomalies in the data which might indicate engine conditions warranting further investigation. The contract effort was to develop a 'first-cut' screening system for application to SSME engine firings that would identify the relatively small volume of data which is unusual or anomalous in some way. With such a system, limited and expensive human resources could focus on this small volume of unusual data for thorough analysis. The overall project objective was to develop a fully operational Automated Propulsion Data Screening (APDS) system with the capability of detecting significant trends and anomalies in transient and steady-state data. However, the effort limited screening of transient data to ground test data for throttle-down cases typical of the 3-g acceleration, and for engine throttling required to reach the maximum dynamic pressure limits imposed on the Space Shuttle. This APDS is based on neural networks designed to detect anomalies in propulsion system data that are not part of the data used for neural network training. The delivered system allows engineers to build their own screening sets for application to completed or planned firings of the SSME. ERC developers also built some generic screening sets that NASA engineers could apply immediately to their data analysis efforts.

  19. A Titan Explorer Mission Utilizing Solar Electric Propulsion and Chemical Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, Michael; Coverstone, Vicki

    2003-01-01

    Mission and Systems analyses were performed for a Titan Explorer Mission scenario utilizing medium class launch vehicles, solar electric propulsion system (SEPS) for primary interplanetary propulsion, and chemical propulsion for capture at Titan. An examination of a range of system factors was performed to determine their affect on the payload delivery capability to Titan. The effect of varying the launch vehicle, solar array power, associated number of SEPS thrusters, chemical propellant combinations, tank liner thickness, and tank composite overwrap stress factor was investigated. This paper provides a parametric survey of the aforementioned set of system factors, delineating their affect on Titan payload delivery, as well as discussing aspects of planetary capture methodology.

  20. Advanced orbit transfer vehicle propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cathcart, J. A.; Cooper, T. W.; Corringrato, R. M.; Cronau, S. T.; Forgie, S. C.; Harder, M. J.; Mcallister, J. G.; Rudman, T. J.; Stoneback, V. W.

    1985-01-01

    A reuseable orbit transfer vehicle concept was defined and subsequent recommendations for the design criteria of an advanced LO2/LH2 engine were presented. The major characteristics of the vehicle preliminary design include a low lift to drag aerocapture capability, main propulsion system failure criteria of fail operational/fail safe, and either two main engines with an attitude control system for backup or three main engines to meet the failure criteria. A maintenance and servicing approach was also established for the advanced vehicle and engine concepts. Design tradeoff study conclusions were based on the consideration of reliability, performance, life cycle costs, and mission flexibility.

  1. Component research for future propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

    1981-01-01

    Factors affecting the helicopter market are reviewed. The trade-offs involving acquisition cost, mission reliability, and life cycle cost are reviewed, including civil and military aspects. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Advanced propulsion systems required to support these vehicle configurations are discussed, as well as the component technology for the engine systems. Considerations for selection of components in areas of economics and efficiency are presented.

  2. Automotive emission control and computer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, D.

    1989-01-01

    This book provides information on automotive computer technology emission control. Special emphasis is placed on the service and diagnosis of on-board computers, making this work useful for service technicians. Many easy-to-follow diagnostic charts are provided to simplify procedures.

  3. Ares I First Stage Propulsion System Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priskos, Alex S.

    2010-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle inevitable, the US is faced with the need to loft a reliable cost-effective, technologically viable solution to bring the nation s fleet of spacecraft back up to industry standard. It must not only support the International Space Station (ISS), it must also be capable of supporting human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). NASA created the Constellation Program to develop a new fleet including the launch vehicles, the spacecraft, and the mission architecture to meet those objectives. The Ares First Stage Team is tasked with developing a propulsion system capable of safely, dependably and repeatedly lofting that new fleet. To minimize technical risks and development costs, the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) of Shuttle were used as a starting point in the design and production of a new first stage element. While the first stage will provide the foundation, the structural backbone, power, and control for launch, the new propulsive element will also provide a greater total impulse to loft a safer, more powerful, fleet of space flight vehicles. Substantial design and system upgrades were required to meet the mass and trajectory requisites of the new fleet. Noteworthy innovations and design features include new forward structures, new propellant grain geometry, a new internal insulation system, and a state-of-the art avionics system. Additional advances were in materials and composite structures development, case bond liners, and thermal protection systems. Significant progress has been made in the design, development and testing of the propulsion and avionics systems for the new first stage element. Challenges, such as those anticipated with thrust oscillation, have been better characterized, and are being effectively mitigated. The test firing of the first development motor (DM-1) was a success that validated much of the engineering development to date. Substantive data has been collected and analyzed, allowing the Ares

  4. Automotive non-pressure cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, A.A.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes a non-pressure automotive engine cooling system comprising: a radiator containing a liquid coolant, coupling hoses that intercouple the radiator to the engine, pump means associated with the engine for circulating coolant through the engine and radiator. The pump means has a suction side, a radiator cap sealed on the radiator, an expansion tank disposed in the engine compartment, vent means on the tank for venting the tank to atmosphere, a coupling tube disposed between the radiator below the radiator cap and the expansion tank to enable free flow of the coolant under expansion from the radiator to the expansion tank. The radiator cap seals the radiator but provides a substantially non-pressure and unimpeded fluid path from the radiator to the coupling tube, a return line coupled from the expansion tank to the suction side of the pump means. The radiator has a gooseneck with the radiator cap sealably engaged with the gooseneck, an outlet port from the top of the radiator to which the coupling tube is connected. The outlet port is continuously open and unblocked by the radiator cap to provide free fluid flow from the radiator to the expansion tank over the entire operating temperature range, the radiator cap sealing only at the top of the gooseneck, and means for supporting the expansion tank at a position at a height corresponding to the top of the radiator. Under normal temperature operating conditions, the liquid level line is substantially the same in both the radiator and the expansion tank.

  5. A review of electric propulsion systems and mission applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondra, R.; Nock, K.; Jones, R.

    1984-01-01

    The satisfaction of growing demands for access to space resources will require new developments related to advanced propulsion and power technologies. A key technology in this context is concerned with the utilization of electric propulsion. A brief review of the current state of development of electric propulsion systems on an international basis is provided, taking into account advances in the USSR, the U.S., Japan, West Germany, China and Brazil. The present investigation, however, is mainly concerned with the U.S. program. The three basic types of electric thrusters are considered along with the intrinsic differences between chemical and electric propulsion, the resistojet, the augmented hydrazine thruster, the arcjet, the ion auxiliary propulsion system flight test, the pulsed plasma thruster, magnetoplasmadynamic propulsion, a pulsed inductive thruster, and rail accelerators. Attention is also given to the applications of electric propulsion.

  6. Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  7. Fiber optics for propulsion control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    In aircraft systems with digital controls, fiberoptics has advantages over wire systems because of its inherent immunity to electromagnetic noise (EMI) and electromagnetic pulses (EMP). It also offers a weight benefit when metallic conductors are replaced by optical fibers. To take full advantage of the benefits of optical waveguides, passive optical sensors are also being developed to eliminate the need for electrical power to the sensor. Fiberoptics may also be used for controlling actuators on engine and airframe. In this application, the optical fibers, connectors, etc. will be subjected to high temperature and vibrations. This paper discussed the use of fiberoptics in aircraft propulsion systems together with the optical sensors and optically controlled actuators being developed to take full advantage of the benefits which fiberoptics offers. The requirements for sensors and actuators in advanced propulsion systems are identified. The benefits of using fiberoptics in place of conventional wire systems are discussed as well as the environmental conditions under which the optical components must operate.

  8. Space Fission Propulsion System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M.; Van Dyke, M. K.; Godfroy, T. J.; Pedersen, K. W.; Martin, J. J.; Dickens, R.; Williams, E.; Harper, R.; Salvail, P.; Hrbud, I.

    2001-01-01

    The world's first man-made self-sustaining fission reaction was achieved in 1942. Since then fission has been used to propel submarines, generate tremendous amounts of electricity, produce medical isotopes, and provide numerous other benefits to society. Fission systems operate independently of solar proximity or orientation, and are thus well suited for deep space or planetary surface missions. In addition, the fuel for fission systems (enriched uranium) is virtually non-radioactive. The primary safety issue with fission systems is avoiding inadvertent system start. Addressing this issue through proper system design is straight-forward. Despite the relative simplicity and tremendous potential of space fission systems, the development and utilization of these systems has proven elusive. The first use of fission technology in space occurred 3 April 1965 with the US launch of the SNAP-10A reactor. There have been no additional US uses of space fission systems. While space fission systems were used extensively by the former Soviet Union, their application was limited to earth-orbital missions. Early space fission systems must be safely and affordably utilized if we are to reap the benefits of advanced space fission systems. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, working with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories, and others, has conducted preliminary research related to a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE). An unfueled core has been fabricated by LANL, and resistance heaters used to verify predicted core thermal performance by closely mimicking heat from fission. The core is designed to use only established nuclear technology and be highly testable. In FY01 an energy conversion system and thruster will be coupled to the core, resulting in an 'end-to-end' nuclear electric propulsion demonstrator being tested using resistance heaters to closely mimic heat from fission. Results of the SAFE test program will be presented. The applicability

  9. Interplanetary missions with the GDM propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Kammash, T.; Emrich, W. Jr.

    1998-01-15

    The Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion system utilizes a magnetic mirror machine in which a hot dense plasma is confined long enough to produce fusion energy while allowing a fraction of its charged particle population to escape from one end to generate thrust. The particles escaping through the opposite end have their energy converted to electric power which can be used to sustain the system in a steady state operation. With the aid of a power flow diagram the minimum demands on energy production can be established and the propulsive capability of the system can be determined by solving an appropriate set of governing equations. We apply these results to several missions within the solar system and compute the trip time by invoking a continuous burn, acceleration/deceleration type of trajectory with constant thrust and specific impulse. Ignoring gravitational effects of the planets or the sun, and neglecting the change in the Earth's position during the flight we compute the round trip time for missions from Earth to Mars, Jupiter, and Pluto using linear distances and certain payload fractions. We find that a round trip to Mars with the GDM rocket takes about 170 days while those to Jupiter and Pluto take 494 and 1566 days respectively.

  10. GPIM AF-M315E Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spores, Ronald A.; Masse, Robert; Kimbrel, Scott; McLean, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Space Technology mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) will demonstrate an operational AF-M315E green propellant propulsion system. Aerojet-Rocketdyne is responsible for the development of the propulsion system payload. This paper statuses the propulsion system module development, including thruster design and system design; Initial test results for the 1N engineering model thruster are presented. The culmination of this program will be high-performance, green AF-M315E propulsion system technology at TRL 7+, with components demonstrated to TRL 9, ready for direct infusion to a wide range of applications for the space user community.

  11. Tribopolymerization: An advanced lubrication concept for automotive engines and systems of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Furey, M.J.; Kajdas, C.; Kaltenbach, K.W.

    1997-12-31

    Advanced lubrication technologies based on the concept of tribopolymerization as a mechanism of boundary lubrication are described. Advantages of this approach as well as potential applications which could have an impact on the design, manufacture, and performance of existing and future automotive engines are presented and discussed. Tribopolymerization, a novel concept of molecular design developed by Furey and Kajdas, involves the continuous formation of thin polymeric films on rubbing surfaces; the protective films formed are self-replenishing. The antiwear compounds developed from this technology are effective with metals as well as ceramics and in the liquid as well as vapor phases. Furthermore, they are ashless and contain no harmful phosphorus or sulfur; and many are biodegradable. Thus, potential applications of this technology are diverse and include a variety of cost/performance/energy/environmental advantages. Examples include the following: (a) machining and cutting applications using thin films to reduce friction and ceramic tool wear; (b) the lubrication of ceramic engines (e.g., low heat rejection diesel engines) or ceramic components; (c) the development of ashless lubricants for existing and future automotive engines to reduce exhaust catalyst poisoning and environmental emissions; (d) ashless antiwear or ``lubricity`` additives for fuels, including gasoline, diesel and jet fuel; (e) vapor phase applications of this technology to high temperature gaseous systems or to fuel injector wear problems associated with the use of natural gas engines; and (f) the use of the concept of tribopolymerization as an enabling technology in the development of new engines and new automotive propulsion systems.

  12. Towards a Load Balancing Middleware for Automotive Infotainment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaluf, Yara; Rettberg, Achim

    In this paper a middleware for distributed automotive systems is developed. The goal of this middleware is to support the load bal- ancing and service optimization in automotive infotainment and entertainment systems. These systems provide navigation, telecommunication, Internet, audio/video and many other services where a kind of dynamic load balancing mechanisms in addition to service quality optimization mechanisms will be applied by the developed middleware in order to improve the system performance and also at the same time improve the quality of services if possible.

  13. Heatpipe space power and propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houts, M. G.; Poston, D. I.; Ranken, W. A.

    1995-04-01

    Safe, reliable, low-mass space power and propulsion systems could have numerous civilian and military applications. This paper discusses two fission-powered concepts: the Heatpipe Power System (HPS) that provides power only, and the Heatpipe Bimodal System (HBS) that provides both power and thermal propulsion. Both concepts have 10 important features. First, only existing technology and recently tested fuel forms are used. Second, fuel can be removed whenever desired, greatly facilitating system fabrication and handling. Third, full electrically heated system testing is possible, with minimal operations required to replace the heaters with fuel and ready the system for launch. Fourth, the systems are passively subcritical during launch accidents. Fifth, a modular approach is used, and most technical issues can be resolved with inexpensive module tests. Sixth, bonds between dissimilar metals are minimized. Seventh, there are no single point failures during power mode operation. Eighth, fuel burnup rate is quite low to help ensure greater than 10-year system life. Ninth, there are no pumped coolant loops, and the systems can be shut down and restarted without coolant freeze/thaw concerns. Finally, a full ground nuclear test is not needed, and development costs will be low. The baseline HPS uses SNAP-10A-style thermoelectric power converters to produce 5 kWe at a system mass of about 500 kg. The unicouple thermoelectric converters have a hot shoe temperature of 1275 K and reject waste heat at 775 K. This type of thermoelectric converter has been used extensively by the space program, demonstrating an operational lifetime of decades. At higher thermal power, the same core can produce over 10 kWe using thermoelectric converters, and over 50 kWe using advanced power conversion systems.

  14. Heatpipe space power and propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Poston, D.I.; Ranken, W.A.

    1995-07-01

    Safe, reliable, low-mass space power and propulsion systems could have numerous civilian and military applications. This paper discusses two fission-powered concepts: the Heatpipe Power System (HPS) that provides power only, and the Heatpipe Bimodal System (HBS) that provides both power and thermal propulsion. Both concepts have 10 important features. First, only existing technology and recently tested fuel forms are used. Second, fuel can be removed whenever desired, greatly facilitating system fabrication and handling. Third, full electrically heated system testing is possible, with minimal operations required to replace the heaters with fuel and ready the system for launch. Fourth, the systems are passively subcritical during launch accidents. Fifth, a modular approach is used, and most technical issues can be resolved with inexpensive module tests. Sixth, bonds between dissimilar metals are minimized. Seventh, there are no single point failures during power mode operation. Eighth, fuel burnup rate is quite low to help ensure greater than 10-year system life. Ninth, there are no pumped coolant loops, and the systems can be shut down and restarted without coolant freeze/thaw concerns. Finally, a full ground nuclear test is not needed, and development costs will be low. The baseline HPS uses SNAP-10A-style thermoelectric power converters to produce 5 kWe at a system mass of about 500 kg. The unicouple thermoelectric converters have a hot shoe temperature of 1275 K and reject waste heat at 775 K. This type of thermoelectric converter has been used extensively by the space program, demonstrating an operational lifetime of decades. At higher thermal power, the same core can produce over 10 kWe using thermoelectric converters, and over 50 kWe using advanced power conversion systems.

  15. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.T.; Hannan, N.A.; Perkins, K.R.; Buksa, J.J.; Worley, B.A.; Dobranich, D.

    1992-10-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. Since October 1991, US (DOE), (DOD) and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling. It is the intent of the interagency team to develop several levels of computer programs to simulate various NTP systems. An interagency team was formed for this task to use the best capabilities available and to assure appropriate peer review. The vision and strategy of the interagency team for developing NTP system models will be discussed in this paper. A review of the progress on the Level 1 interagency model is also presented.

  16. Designing the Space Shuttle Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David; VanHooser, Kathrine; Wlzyn, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The major elements of the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System include two reusable solid rocket motors integrated into recoverable solid rocket boosters, an expendable external fuel and oxidizer tank, and three reusable Space Shuttle Main Engines. Both the solid rocket motors and space shuttle main engines ignite prior to liftoff, with the solid rocket boosters separating about two minutes into flight. The external tank separates after main engine shutdown and is safely expended in the ocean. The SSME's, integrated into the Space Shuttle Orbiter aft structure, are reused after post landing inspections. Both the solid rocket motors and the space shuttle main engine throttle during early ascent flight to limit aerodynamic loads on the structure. The configuration is called a stage and a half as all the propulsion elements are active during the boost phase, and the SSME's continue operation to achieve orbital velocity approximately eight and a half minutes after liftoff. Design and performance challenges were numerous, beginning with development work in the 1970 s. The solid rocket motors were large, and this technology had never been used for human space flight. The SSME s were both reusable and very high performance staged combustion cycle engines, also unique to the Space Shuttle. The multi body side mount configuration was unique and posed numerous integration and interface challenges across the elements. Operation of the system was complex and time consuming. This paper discusses a number of the system level technical challenges including development and operations.

  17. Heatpipe space power and propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Poston, D.I.; Ranken, W.A.

    1995-12-01

    Safe, reliable, low-mass space power and propulsion systems could have numerous civilian and military applications. This paper discusses two fission-powered concepts: The Heatpipe Power System (HPS), which provides power only; and the Heatpipe Bimodal System (HBS), which provides both power and thermal propulsion. Both concepts have 10 important features. First, only existing technology and recently tested fuel forms are used. Second, fuel can be removed whenever desired, which greatly facilitates system fabrication and handling. Third, full electrically heated system testing of all modes is possible, with minimal operations required to replace the heaters with fuel and to ready the system for launch. Fourth, the systems are passively subcritical during launch accidents. Fifth, a modular approach is used, and most technical issues can be resolved with inexpensive module tests. Sixth, bonds between dissimilar metals are minimized. Seventh, there are no single-point failures during power mode operation. Eighth, the fuel burnup rate is quite low to help ensure >10-yr system life. Ninth, there are no pumped coolant loops, and the systems can be shut down and restarted without coolant freeze/thaw concerns. Finally, full ground nuclear test is not needed, and development costs will be low. One design for a low-power HPS uses SNAP-10A-style thermoelectric power converters to produce 5 kWe at a system mass of {approximately}500 kg. The unicouple thermoelectric converters have a hot-shoe temperature of 1275 K and reject waste heat at 775 K. This type of thermoelectric converter has been used extensively by the space program and has demonstrated an operational lifetime of decades. A core with a larger number of smaller modules (same overall size) can be used to provide up to 500 kWt to a power conversion subsystem, and a slightly larger core using a higher heatpipe to fuel ratio can provide >1 MWt.

  18. The Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion System -- Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Kammash, Terry; Tang, Ricky

    2005-02-06

    Many of the previous studies assessing the capability of the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion system employed analyses that ignored the 'ambipolar' potential. This electrostatic potential arises as a result of the rapid escape of the electrons due to their small mass. As they escape, they leave behind an excess positive charge which manifests itself in an electric field that slows down the electrons while speeding up the ions until their respective axial diffusions are equalized. The indirect effect on the ions is that their confinement time is reduced relative to that of zero potential, and hence the plasma length must be increased to accommodate that change. But as they emerge from the thruster mirror - which serves as a magnetic nozzle - the ions acquire an added energy equal to that of the potential energy, and that in turn manifests itself in increased specific impulse and thrust. We assess the propulsive performance of the GDM thruster, based on the more rigorous theory, by applying it to a round trip Mars mission employing a continuous burn acceleration/deceleration type of trajectory. We find that the length of the device and travel time decrease with increasing plasma density, while the total vehicle mass reaches a minimum at a plasma density of 3 x 1016 cm-3. At such a density, and an initial DT ion temperature of 10 keV, a travel time of 60 days is found to be achievable at GDM propulsion parameters of about 200,000 seconds of specific impulse and approximately 47 kN of thrust.

  19. 46 CFR 184.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 184.620 Section...

  20. 46 CFR 184.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 184.620 Section...

  1. 46 CFR 184.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 184.620 Section...

  2. 46 CFR 184.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 184.620 Section...

  3. 46 CFR 184.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 184.620 Section...

  4. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Hannan, N.A.; Worley, B.A.; Walton, J.T.; Perkins, K.R.; Buksa, J.J.; Dobranich, D.

    1992-11-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. This is crucial for mission analysis and for control subsystem testing as well as for the modeling of various failure modes. Performance must be accurately predicted during steady-state and transient operation, including startup, shutdown and post operation cooling. The development and application of verified and validated system models has the potential to reduce the design, testing, cost and time required for the technology to reach flight-ready status. Since October 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD) and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling.

  5. Control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J. R.; Szuch, J. R.; Merrill, W. C.; Lehtinen, B.; Soeder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    The need for a more sophisticated engine control system is discussed. The improvements in better thrust-to-weight ratios demand the manipulation of more control inputs. New technological solutions to the engine control problem are practiced. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) system is a step in the evolution to digital electronic engine control. Technology issues are addressed to ensure a growth in confidence in sophisticated electronic controls for aircraft turbine engines. The need of a control system architecture which permits propulsion controls to be functionally integrated with other aircraft systems is established. Areas of technology studied include: (1) control design methodology; (2) improved modeling and simulation methods; and (3) implementation technologies. Objectives, results and future thrusts are summarized.

  6. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a subsequent human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion subsystem must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as an enabling element of an affordable beyond low-earth orbit human-crewed exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, a status on the NASA in-house thruster and power processing is provided, and an update on acquisition for flight provided.

  7. Propulsion Progress for NASA's Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Lyles, Garry M.; Priskos, Alex S.; Kynard, Michael H.; Lavoie, Anthony R.

    2012-01-01

    Leaders from NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) will participate in a panel discussing the progress made on the program's propulsion systems. The SLS will be the nation's next human-rated heavy-lift vehicle for new missions beyond Earth's orbit. With a first launch slated for 2017, the SLS Program is turning plans into progress, with the initial rocket being built in the U.S.A. today, engaging the aerospace workforce and infrastructure. Starting with an overview of the SLS mission and programmatic status, the discussion will then delve into progress on each of the primary SLS propulsion elements, including the boosters, core stage engines, upper stage engines, and stage hardware. Included will be a discussion of the 5-segment solid rocket motors (ATK), which are derived from Space Shuttle and Ares developments, as well as the RS-25 core stage engines from the Space Shuttle inventory and the J- 2X upper stage engine now in testing (Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne). The panel will respond to audience questions about this important national capability for human and scientific space exploration missions.

  8. Auxiliary propulsion requirements for large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloy, J. E.; Smith, W. W.; Machles, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    An insight into auxiliary propulsion systems (APS) requirements for large space systems (LSS) launchable by a single shuttle is presented. In an effort to scope the APS requirements for LSS, a set of generic LSSs were defined. For each generic LSS class a specific structural configuration, representative of that most likely to serve the needs of the 1980's and 1990's was defined. The environmental disturbance forces and torques which would be acting on each specific structural configuration in LEO and GEO orbits were then determined. Auxiliary propulsion requirements were determined as a function of: generic class specific configuration, size and openness of structure, orbit, angle of orientation, correction frequency, duty cycle, number and location of thrusters and direction of thrusters and APS/LSS interactions. The results of this analysis were used to define the APS characteristics of: (1) number and distribution of thrusters, (2) thruster modulation, (3) thrust level, (4) mission energy requirements, (5) total APS mass component breakdown, and (6) state of the art adequacy/deficiency.

  9. PROPULSE 980: A Hydrogen Peroxide Enrichment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, Robert; Bromley, G.; Wanger, Robert; Pauls, Dan; Maynard, Bryon; McNeal, Curtis; Dumbacher, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The PROPULSE 980 unit is a transportable processing plant that enriches aerospace grade hydrogen peroxide from 90% to 98% final concentration. The unit was developed by Degussa-H Is, in cooperation with Orbital, NASA Marshall Space Center, and NASA Stennis Space Center. The system is a self-contained unit that houses all of the process equipment, instrumentation and controls to perform the concentration operation nearly autonomously. It is designed to produce non-bulk quantities of 98% hydrogen peroxide. The enrichment unit design also maintains system, personnel and environmental safety during all aspects of the enrichment process and final product storage. As part of the Propulse 980 checkout and final buyoff, it will be disassembled at the Degussa-H Is Corporation plant in Theodore, AL, transported to the Stennis Space Center, reassembled and subjected to a series of checkout tests to verify design objectives have been met. This paper will summarize the basic project elements and provide an update on the present status of the project.

  10. Liquid and Solid Propulsion Systems Attributes - Unique, Common and Complementary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, James L.; Lampton, Pat; Williams, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, attributes are described for solid and liquid propulsion systems based on historical data. This study is not intended to compare liquid and solid propulsion system attributes, rather to present options for their use in various mission scenarios. US launch vehicle data from 1970 to 2008 was analyzed to assess solid and liquid propulsion development cost and schedule characteristics, performance features, and safety and mission success attributes. The study assessed historical trends for liquid and solid systems, and investigated implications of those trends. It was found that the two propulsion technologies have unique, common and complementary attributes that can be leveraged to meet mission requirements.

  11. Propulsion System and Orbit Maneuver Integration in CubeSats: Trajectory Control Strategies Using Micro Ion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Jennifer; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Propulsion System and Orbit Maneuver Integration in CubeSats project aims to solve the challenges of integrating a micro electric propulsion system on a CubeSat in order to perform orbital maneuvers and control attitude. This represents a fundamentally new capability for CubeSats, which typically do not contain propulsion systems and cannot maneuver far beyond their initial orbits.

  12. Large Space Systems/Low-Thrust Propulsion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The potentially critical interactions that occur between propulsion, structures and materials, and controls for large spacecraft are considered, the technology impacts within these fields are defined and the net effect on large systems and the resulting missions is determined. Topical areas are systems/mission analysis, LSS static and dynamic characterization, and propulsion systems characterization.

  13. Engineering of the Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statham, G.; White, S.; Adams, R. B.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Santarius, J.; Alexander, R.; Fincher, S.; Polsgrove, T.; Chapman, J.; Philips, A.

    2002-01-01

    Engineering details are presented for a magnetized target fusion (MTF) propulsion system designed to support crewed missions to the outer solar system. Structural, thermal and radiation-management design details are presented. Propellant storage and supply options are also discussed and a propulsion system mass estimate is given.

  14. Space station integrated propulsion and fluid systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bicknell, B.; Wilson, S.; Dennis, M.; Shepard, D.; Rossier, R.

    1988-01-01

    The program study was performed in two tasks: Task 1 addressed propulsion systems and Task 2 addressed all fluid systems associated with the Space Station elements, which also included propulsion and pressurant systems. Program results indicated a substantial reduction in life cycle costs through integrating the oxygen/hydrogen propulsion system with the environmental control and life support system, and through supplying nitrogen in a cryogenic gaseous supercritical or subcritical liquid state. A water sensitivity analysis showed that increasing the food water content would substantially increase the amount of water available for propulsion use and in all cases, the implementation of the BOSCH CO2 reduction process would reduce overall life cycle costs to the station and minimize risk. An investigation of fluid systems and associated requirements revealed a delicate balance between the individual propulsion and fluid systems across work packages and a strong interdependence between all other fluid systems.

  15. Deployment of ERP Systems at Automotive Industries, Security Inspection (Case Study: IRAN KHODRO Automotive Company)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hatamirad; Hasan, Mehrjerdi

    Automotive industry and car production process is one of the most complex and large-scale production processes. Today, information technology (IT) and ERP systems incorporates a large portion of production processes. Without any integrated systems such as ERP, the production and supply chain processes will be tangled. The ERP systems, that are last generation of MRP systems, make produce and sale processes of these industries easier and this is the major factor of development of these industries anyhow. Today many of large-scale companies are developing and deploying the ERP systems. The ERP systems facilitate many of organization processes and make organization to increase efficiency. The security is a very important part of the ERP strategy at the organization, Security at the ERP systems, because of integrity and extensive, is more important of local and legacy systems. Disregarding of this point can play a giant role at success or failure of this kind of systems. The IRANKHODRO is the biggest automotive factory in the Middle East with an annual production over 600.000 cars. This paper presents ERP security deployment experience at the "IRANKHODRO Company". Recently, by launching ERP systems, it moved a big step toward more developments.

  16. National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems 1st Annual Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Fry, Emma; Swindell, Tina

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems (NIRPS) is a Government -wide initiative that seeks to ensure the resiliency of the Nation fs rocket propulsion community in order for the enterprise to remain vibrant and capable of providing reliable and affordable propulsion systems for the nation fs defense, civil and commercial needs. Recognizing that rocket propulsion is a multi-use technology that ensures the nation fs leadership in aerospace, the Government has a vested interest in maintaining this strategic capability through coordinated and synchronized acquisition programs and continual investments in research and development. NIRPS is a resource for collaboration and integration between all sectors of the U.S. propulsion enterprise, supporting policy development options, identifying technology requirements, and offering solutions that maximize national resources while ensuring that capability exists to meet future demand. NIRPS functions as a multi ]agency organization that our nation fs decision makers can look to for comprehensive information regarding all issues concerning the propulsion enterprise.

  17. Space vehicle propulsion systems: Environmental space hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disimile, P. J.; Bahr, G. K.

    1990-01-01

    The hazards that exist in geolunar space which may degrade, disrupt, or terminate the performance of space-based LOX/LH2 rocket engines are evaluated. Accordingly, a summary of the open literature pertaining to the geolunar space hazards is provided. Approximately 350 citations and about 200 documents and abstracts were reviewed; the documents selected give current and quantitative detail. The methodology was to categorize the various space hazards in relation to their importance in specified regions of geolunar space. Additionally, the effect of the various space hazards in relation to spacecraft and their systems were investigated. It was found that further investigation of the literature would be required to assess the effects of these hazards on propulsion systems per se; in particular, possible degrading effects on exterior nozzle structure, directional gimbals, and internal combustion chamber integrity and geometry.

  18. A pulsed cathodic arc spacecraft propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, P. R. C.; Bilek, M. M. M.; Tarrant, R. N.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2009-11-01

    We investigate the use of a centre-triggered cathodic arc as a spacecraft propulsion system that uses an inert solid as a source of plasma. The cathodic vacuum arc produces almost fully ionized plasma with a high exhaust velocity (>104 m s-1), giving a specific impulse competitive with other plasma or ion thrusters. A centre trigger design is employed that enables efficient use of cathode material and a high pulse-to-pulse repeatability. We compare three anode geometries, two pulse current profiles and two pulse durations for their effects on impulse generation, energy and cathode material usage efficiency. Impulse measurement is achieved through the use of a free-swinging pendulum target constructed from a polymer material. Measurements show that impulse is accurately controlled by varying cathode current. The cylindrical anode gave the highest energy efficiency. Cathode usage is optimized by choosing a sawtooth current profile. There is no requirement for an exhaust charge neutralization system.

  19. Liquid Bismuth Feed System for Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, T. E.; Polzin, K. A.; Stanojev, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions. For example, the VHITAL project aims td accurately, experimentally assess the performance characteristics of 10 kW-class bismuth-fed Hall thrusters - in order to validate earlier results and resuscitate a promising technology that has been relatively dormant for about two decades. A critical element of these tests will be the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre/post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work was to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides real-time propellant mass flow rate measurement and control, enabling accurate thruster performance measurements. Additionally, our approach emphasizes the development of new liquid metal flow control components and, hence, will establish a basis for the future development of components for application in spaceflight. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described - reservoir, electromagnetic pump, hotspot flow sensor, and automated control system. Particular emphasis is given to material selection and high-temperature sealing techniques. Open loop calibration test results are reported, which validate the systems capability to deliver bismuth at mass flow rates ranging from 10 to 100 mg/sec with an uncertainty of less than +/- 5%. Results of integrated vaporizer/liquid PMS tests demonstrate all of the necessary elements of a complete bismuth feed system for electric propulsion.

  20. X-37 Storable Propulsion System Design and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Henry; Popp, Chris; Rehagen, Ronald J.

    2005-01-01

    In a response to NASA's X-37 TA-10 Cycle-1 contract, Boeing assessed nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) and monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) Storable Propellant Propulsion Systems to select a low risk X-37 propulsion development approach. Space Shuttle lessons learned, planetary spacecraft, and Boeing Satellite HS-601 systems were reviewed to arrive at a low risk and reliable storable propulsion system. This paper describes the requirements, trade studies, design solutions, flight and ground operational issues which drove X-37 toward the selection of a storable propulsion system. The design of storable propulsion systems offers the leveraging of hardware experience that can accelerate progress toward critical design. It also involves the experience gained from launching systems using MMH and N2O4 propellants. Leveraging of previously flight-qualified hardware may offer economic benefits and may reduce risk in cost and schedule. This paper summarizes recommendations based on experience gained from Space Shuttle and similar propulsion systems utilizing MMH and N2O4 propellants. System design insights gained from flying storable propulsion are presented and addressed in the context of the design approach of the X-37 propulsion system.

  1. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 6; Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of OEPSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    This document is the final report for the Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) conducted by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International. This Study task studied, evaluated and identified design concepts and technologies which minimized launch and in-space operations and optimized in-space vehicle propulsion system operability.

  2. Design and Development of the MSL Descent Stage Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Jeffrey M.; Guernsey, Carl S.

    2013-01-01

    On August 5, 2012, The Mars Science Laboratory mission successfully landed the largest interplanetary rover ever built, Curiosity, on the surface of Mars. The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase of this mission was by far the most complex landing ever attempted on a planetary body. The Descent Stage Propulsion System played an integral and critical role during Curiosity's EDL. The Descent Stage Propulsion System was a one of a kind hydrazine propulsion system designed specifically for the EDL phase of the MSL mission. It was designed, built, and tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the design and development of the MSL Descent Stage Propulsion System. Driving requirements, system design, component selection, operational sequence of the system at Mars, new developments, and key challenges will be discussed.

  3. An Object Oriented Extensible Architecture for Affordable Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.

    2003-01-01

    Driven by a need to explore and develop propulsion systems that exceeded current computing capabilities, NASA Glenn embarked on a novel strategy leading to the development of an architecture that enables propulsion simulations never thought possible before. Full engine 3 Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic propulsion system simulations were deemed impossible due to the impracticality of the hardware and software computing systems required. However, with a software paradigm shift and an embracing of parallel and distributed processing, an architecture was designed to meet the needs of future propulsion system modeling. The author suggests that the architecture designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for propulsion system modeling has potential for impacting the direction of development of affordable weapons systems currently under consideration by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT).

  4. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  5. Electromagnetic interference assessment of an ion drive electric propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittlesey, A. C.

    1981-01-01

    An electric propulsion thrust system has the capability of providing a high specific impulse for long duration scientific missions in space. The EMI from the elements of an ion engine was characterized. The compatibility of ion drive electric propulsion systems with typical interplanetary spacecraft engineering was predicted.

  6. Propulsion and stabilization system for magnetically levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Coffey, Howard T.

    1993-06-29

    A propulsion and stabilization system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and stabilized by a system which includes propulsion windings mounted above and parallel to vehicle-borne suspension magnets. A linear synchronous motor is part of the vehicle guideway and is mounted above and parallel to superconducting magnets attached to the magnetically levitated vehicle.

  7. The liquid annular reactor system (LARS) propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Maise, G.; Lazareth, O.W.; Horn, F.; Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H. ); Lenard, R.X. )

    1991-01-05

    A new concept for very high specific impulse ({gt}2000 seconds) direct nuclear propulsion is described. The concept, termed LARS (Liquid Annular Reactor System) uses liquid nuclear fuel elements to heat hydrogen propellant to very high temperatures ({similar to}6000 K). Operating pressure is moderate ({similar to}10 atm), with the result that the outlet hydrogen is virtually 100% dissociated to monatomic H. The molten fuel is contained in a solid container of its own material, which is rotated to stabilize the liquid layer by centripetal force. LARS reactor designs are described, together with neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses. Power levels are on the order of 200 megawatts. Typically, LARS designs use 7 rotating fuel elements, are beryllium moderated and have critical radii of {similar to}100 cm (core L/D{approx}1.5).

  8. The Liquid Annular Reactor System (LARS) propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, James; Ludewig, Hans; Horn, Frederick; Lenard, Roger

    1990-01-01

    A concept for very high specific impulse (greater than 2000 seconds) direct nuclear propulsion is described. The concept, termed the liquid annular reactor system (LARS), uses liquid nuclear fuel elements to heat hydrogen propellant to very high temperatures (approximately 6000 K). Operating pressure is moderate (approximately 10 atm), with the result that the outlet hydrogen is virtually 100 percent dissociated to monatomic H. The molten fuel is contained in a solid container of its own material, which is rotated to stabilize the liquid layer by centripetal force. LARS reactor designs are described, together with neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses. Power levels are on the order of 200 megawatts. Typically, LARS designs use seven rotating fuel elements, are beryllium moderated, and have critical radii of approximately 100 cm (core L/D approximately equal to 1.5).

  9. A comparison of propulsion systems for potential space mission applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harvego, E.A.; Sulmeisters, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    A derivative of the NERVA nuclear rocket engine was compared with a chemical propulsion system and a nuclear electric propulsion system to assess the relative capabilities of the different propulsion system options for three potential space missions. The missions considered were (1) orbital transfer from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), (2) LEO to a lunar base, and (3) LEO to Mars. The results of this comparison indicate that the direct-thrust NERVA-derivative nuclear rocket engine has the best performance characteristics for the missions considered. The combined high thrust and high specific impulse achievable with a direct-thrust nuclear stage permits short operating times (transfer times) comparable to chemical propulsion systems, but with considerably less required propellant. While nuclear-electric propulsion systems are more fuel efficient than either direct-nuclear or chemical propulsion, they are not stand-alone systems, since their relatively low thrust levels require the use of high-thrust ferry or lander stages in high gravity applications such as surface-to-orbit propulsion. The extremely long transfer times and inefficient trajectories associated with electric propulsion systems were also found to be a significant drawback.

  10. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, James T.; Hannan, Nelson A.; Perkins, Ken R.; Buksa, John H.; Worley, Brian A.; Dobranich, Dean

    1992-01-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. This is crucial for mission analysis and for control subsystem testing as well as for the modeling of various failure modes. Performance must be accurately predicted during steady-state and transient operation, including startup, shutdown, and post operation cooling. The development and application of verified and validated system models has the potential to reduce the design, testing, and cost and time required for the technology to reach flight-ready status. Since Oct. 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling. It is the intent of the interagency team to develop several levels of computer programs to simulate various NTP systems. The first level will provide rapid, parameterized calculations of overall system performance. Succeeding computer programs will provide analysis of each component in sufficient detail to guide the design teams and experimental efforts. The computer programs will allow simulation of the entire system to allow prediction of the integrated performance. An interagency team was formed for this task to use the best capabilities available and to assure appropriate peer review.

  11. Automotive Power Flow System; Auto Mechanics I: 9043.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive power flow system course sets the foundation in the theory of operation of the standard and automatic transmission, clutch assemblies, drive-line and rear axle assemblies. This is a one or two quinmester credit course covering 45 clock hours. In the fourth quinmester course in the tenth year, instruction consists of lectures,…

  12. Volume Dynamics Propulsion System Modeling for Supersonics Vehicle Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Ma, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, the Supersonics Project is working to overcome the obstacles to supersonic commercial flight. The proposed vehicles are long slim body aircraft with pronounced aero-servo-elastic modes. These modes can potentially couple with propulsion system dynamics; leading to performance challenges such as aircraft ride quality and stability. Other disturbances upstream of the engine generated from atmospheric wind gusts, angle of attack, and yaw can have similar effects. In addition, for optimal propulsion system performance, normal inlet-engine operations are required to be closer to compressor stall and inlet unstart. To study these phenomena an integrated model is needed that includes both airframe structural dynamics as well as the propulsion system dynamics. This paper covers the propulsion system component volume dynamics modeling of a turbojet engine that will be used for an integrated vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic model and for propulsion efficiency studies.

  13. Volume Dynamics Propulsion System Modeling for Supersonics Vehicle Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Ma, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program the Supersonics Project is working to overcome the obstacles to supersonic commercial flight. The proposed vehicles are long slim body aircraft with pronounced aero-servo-elastic modes. These modes can potentially couple with propulsion system dynamics; leading to performance challenges such as aircraft ride quality and stability. Other disturbances upstream of the engine generated from atmospheric wind gusts, angle of attack, and yaw can have similar effects. In addition, for optimal propulsion system performance, normal inlet-engine operations are required to be closer to compressor stall and inlet unstart. To study these phenomena an integrated model is needed that includes both airframe structural dynamics as well as the propulsion system dynamics. This paper covers the propulsion system component volume dynamics modeling of a turbojet engine that will be used for an integrated vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic model and for propulsion efficiency studies.

  14. Advanced automotive diesel engine system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual study of an advanced automotive diesel engine is discussed. The engine concept selected for vehicle installation was a supercharged 1.4 liter, 4 cylinder spark assisted diesel of 14:1 compression ratio. A compounding unit consisting of a Lysholm compressor and expander is connected to the engine crankshaft by a belt drive. The inlet air charge is heated by the expander exhaust gas via a heat exchanger. Four levels of technology achievement on the selected engine concept were evaluated, from state-of-the-art to the ideal case. This resulted in the fuel economy increasing from 53.2 mpg to 81.7 mpg, and the 0-60 mph time decreasing from 17.6 seconds to 10.9 seconds.

  15. Combination Solar Sail and Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles L. (Inventor); Matloff, Gregory L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A propulsion system for a spacecraft includes a solar sail system and an electrodynamic tether system is presented. The solar sail system is used to generate propulsion to propel the spacecraft through space using solar photons and the electrodynamic tether system is used to generate propulsion to steer the spacecraft into orbit and to perform orbital maneuvers around a planet using the planet's magnetic field. The electrodynamic tether system can also be used to generate power for the spacecraft using the planet's magnetic field.

  16. Options For Development of Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houta, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include high specific power continuous impulse propulsion systems and bimodal nuclear thermal rockets. Despite their tremendous potential for enhancing or enabling deep space and planetary missions, to date space fission system have only been used in Earth orbit. The first step towards utilizing advanced fission propulsion systems is development of a safe, near-term, affordable fission system that can enhance or enable near-term missions of interest. An evolutionary approach for developing space fission propulsion systems is proposed.

  17. GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems at Virginia Tech

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Douglas

    2011-09-30

    The Virginia Tech GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems (CAFCS) achieved the following objectives in support of the domestic automotive industry: Expanded and updated fuel cell and vehicle technologies education programs; Conducted industry directed research in three thrust areas development and characterization of materials for PEM fuel cells; performance and durability modeling for PEM fuel cells; and fuel cell systems design and optimization, including hybrid and plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles; Developed MS and Ph.D. engineers and scientists who are pursuing careers related to fuel cells and automotive applications; Published research results that provide industry with new knowledge which contributes to the advancement of fuel cell and vehicle systems commercialization. With support from the Dept. of Energy, the CAFCS upgraded existing graduate course offerings; introduced a hands-on laboratory component that make use of Virginia Tech's comprehensive laboratory facilities, funded 15 GATE Fellowships over a five year period; and expanded our program of industry interaction to improve student awareness of challenges and opportunities in the automotive industry. GATE Center graduate students have a state-of-the-art research experience preparing them for a career to contribute to the advancement fuel cell and vehicle technologies.

  18. PEGASUS - A multi-megawatt nuclear electric propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coomes, E. P.; Cuta, J. M.; Webb, B. J.; King, D. Q.

    1986-01-01

    A propulsion system (The PEGASUS Drive) consisting of a magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster driven by a multimegawatt nuclear power system is proposed as the propulsion system for a manned Mars mission. The propulsion system described is based on a mission profile containing a 510-day burn time (for a mission time of approximately 1000 days). Electric propulsion systems have significant advantages over chemical systems, because of high specific impulse, lower propellant requirements, and lower system mass. The thermal power for the PEGASUS Drive is supplied by a boiling liquid-metal fast reactor. The system consists of the reactor, reactor shielding, power conditioning, heat rejection, and MPD thruster subsystems. It is capable of providing a maximum of 8.5 megawatts of electrical power of which 6 megawatts is needed for the thruster system, 1.5 megawatts is available for spacecraft system operations and inflight mission applications, leaving the balance for power system operation.

  19. Propulsion integration for a hybrid propulsive-lift system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, M. K.; Renshaw, J. H.; Sweet, H. S.

    1974-01-01

    In a discussion of STOL vehicles with conventional high-lift devices, the need for efficient power-augmented lift systems is presented, and the implications of quiet operation are noted. The underlying philosophy of a promising hybrid lift system with major interactions between aerodynamic, thermodynamic, acoustic, and configuration design technologies is derived. The technique by which engine and airframe-related characteristics for this application may be matched in an optimum manner is described and illustrated by describing the features of a particular short-haul commercial STOL vehicle.

  20. Propulsion system research and development for electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    An approach to propulsion subsystem technology is presented. Various tests of component reliability are described to aid in the production of better quality vehicles. component characterization work is described to provide engineering data to manufacturers on component performance and on important component propulsion system interactions.

  1. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John K.

    2000-01-01

    The cost of implementing new technology in aerospace propulsion systems is becoming prohibitively expensive and time consuming. One of the main contributors to the high cost and lengthy time is the need to perform many large-scale hardware tests and the inability to integrate all appropriate subsystems early in the design process. The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing the technologies required to enable simulations of full aerospace propulsion systems in sufficient detail to resolve critical design issues early in the design process before hardware is built. This concept, called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), is focused on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structures and heat transfer with computing and communication technologies to capture complex physical processes in a timely and cost-effective manner. The vision for NPSS, as illustrated, is to be a "numerical test cell" that enables full engine simulation overnight on cost-effective computing platforms. There are several key elements within NPSS that are required to achieve this capability: 1) clear data interfaces through the development and/or use of data exchange standards, 2) modular and flexible program construction through the use of object-oriented programming, 3) integrated multiple fidelity analysis (zooming) techniques that capture the appropriate physics at the appropriate fidelity for the engine systems, 4) multidisciplinary coupling techniques and finally 5) high performance parallel and distributed computing. The current state of development in these five area focuses on air breathing gas turbine engines and is reported in this paper. However, many of the technologies are generic and can be readily applied to rocket based systems and combined cycles currently being considered for low-cost access-to-space applications. Recent accomplishments include: (1) the development of an industry-standard engine cycle analysis program and plug 'n play

  2. Propulsion system performance resulting from an Integrated Flight/Propulsion Control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattern, Duane; Garg, Sanjay

    1992-01-01

    Propulsion system specific results are presented from the application of the Integrated Methodology for Propulsion and Airframe Control (IMPAC) design approach to Integrated Flight/Propulsion Control design for a STOVL aircraft in transition flight. The IMPAC method is briefly discussed and the propulsion system specifications for the integrated control design are examined. The structure of a linear engine controller that results from partitioning a linear centralized controller is discussed. The details of a nonlinear propulsion control system are presented, including a scheme to protect the engine operational limits: the fan surge margin and the acceleration/deceleration schedule which limits the fuel flow. Also, a simple but effective multivariable integrator windup protection scheme is investigated. Nonlinear closed-loop simulation results are presented for two typical pilot commands for transition flight: acceleration while maintaining flight path angle and a change in flight path angle while maintaining airspeed. The simulation nonlinearities include the airframe/engine coupling, the actuator and sensor dynamics and limits, the protection scheme for the engine operational limits, and the integrator windup protection. Satisfactory performance of the total airframe plus engine system for transition flight, as defined by the specifications, is maintained during the limit operation of the closed-loop engine subsystem.

  3. Propulsion system performance resulting from an integrated flight/propulsion control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattern, Duane; Garg, Sanjay

    1992-01-01

    Propulsion-system-specific results are presented from the application of the integrated methodology for propulsion and airframe control (IMPAC) design approach to integrated flight/propulsion control design for a 'short takeoff and vertical landing' (STOVL) aircraft in transition flight. The IMPAC method is briefly discussed and the propulsion system specifications for the integrated control design are examined. The structure of a linear engine controller that results from partitioning a linear centralized controller is discussed. The details of a nonlinear propulsion control system are presented, including a scheme to protect the engine operational limits: the fan surge margin and the acceleration/deceleration schedule that limits the fuel flow. Also, a simple but effective multivariable integrator windup protection scheme is examined. Nonlinear closed-loop simulation results are presented for two typical pilot commands for transition flight: acceleration while maintaining flightpath angle and a change in flightpath angle while maintaining airspeed. The simulation nonlinearities include the airframe/engine coupling, the actuator and sensor dynamics and limits, the protection scheme for the engine operational limits, and the integrator windup protection. Satisfactory performance of the total airframe plus engine system for transition flight, as defined by the specifications, was maintained during the limit operation of the closed-loop engine subsystem.

  4. NEXT Ion Propulsion System Development Status and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) project is developing next generation ion propulsion technologies to provide future NASA science missions with enhanced mission performance benefit at a low total development cost. The objective of the NEXT project is to advance next generation ion propulsion technology by producing engineering model and prototype model system components, validating these through qualification-level and integrated system testing, and ensuring preparedness for transitioning to flight system development. This paper describes the NEXT ion propulsion system development status, characteristics and performance. A review of mission analyses results conducted to date using the NEXT system is also provided.

  5. Lunar surface base propulsion system study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The efficiency, capability, and evolution of a lunar base will be largely dependent on the transportation system that supports it. Beyond Space Station in low Earth orbit (LEO), a Lunar-derived propellant supply could provide the most important resource for the transportation infrastructure. The key to an efficient Lunar base propulsion system is the degree of Lunar self-sufficiency (from Earth supply) and reasonable propulsion system performance. Lunar surface propellant production requirements must be accounted in the measurement of efficiency of the entire space transportation system. Of all chemical propellant/propulsion systems considered, hydrogen/oxygen (H/O) OTVs appear most desirable, while both H/O and aluminum/oxygen propulsion systems may be considered for the lander. Aluminized-hydrogen/oxygen and Silane/oxygen propulsion systems are also promising candidates. Lunar propellant availability and processing techniques, chemical propulsion/vehicle design characteristics, and the associated performance of the total transportation infrastructure are reviewed, conceptual propulsion system designs and vehicle/basing concepts, and technology requirements are assessed in context of a Lunar Base mission scenario.

  6. Influence of noise requirements on STOL propulsion system designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rulis, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The severity of proposed noise goals for STOL systems has resulted in a new design approach for aircraft propulsion systems. It has become necessary to consider the influence of the noise goal on the design of engine components, engine systems, and the integrated nacelle, separately and collectively, from the onset of the design effort. This integrated system design approach is required in order to effect an optimization of the propulsion and aircraft system. Results from extensive design studies and pertinent test programs are presented which show the effect of noise specifications on component and system design, and the trade offs possible of noise versus configuration and performance. The design optimization process of propulsion systems for powered lift systems is presented beginning with the component level and proceeding through to the final integrated propulsion system. Designs are presented which are capable of meeting future STOL noise regulations and the performance, installation and economic penalties are assessed as a function of noise level.

  7. A Probabilistic System Analysis of Intelligent Propulsion System Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    NASA s Intelligent Propulsion System Technology (Propulsion 21) project focuses on developing adaptive technologies that will enable commercial gas turbine engines to produce fewer emissions and less noise while increasing reliability. It features adaptive technologies that have included active tip-clearance control for turbine and compressor, active combustion control, turbine aero-thermal and flow control, and enabling technologies such as sensors which are reliable at high operating temperatures and are minimally intrusive. A probabilistic system analysis is performed to evaluate the impact of these technologies on aircraft CO2 (directly proportional to fuel burn) and LTO (landing and takeoff) NO(x) reductions. A 300-passenger aircraft, with two 396-kN thrust (85,000-pound) engines is chosen for the study. The results show that NASA s Intelligent Propulsion System technologies have the potential to significantly reduce the CO2 and NO(x) emissions. The results are used to support informed decisionmaking on the development of the intelligent propulsion system technology portfolio for CO2 and NO(x) reductions.

  8. Hierarchical Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasar, Murat; Tolani, Devendra; Ray, Asok; Shah, Neerav; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical application of Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) control theory for intelligent decision and control of a twin-engine aircraft propulsion system. A dual layer hierarchical DES controller is designed to supervise and coordinate the operation of two engines of the propulsion system. The two engines are individually controlled to achieve enhanced performance and reliability, necessary for fulfilling the mission objectives. Each engine is operated under a continuously varying control system that maintains the specified performance and a local discrete-event supervisor for condition monitoring and life extending control. A global upper level DES controller is designed for load balancing and overall health management of the propulsion system.

  9. State-of-the-Art for Small Satellite Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Khary I.

    2016-01-01

    SmallSats are a low cost access to space with an increasing need for propulsion systems. NASA, and other organizations, will be using SmallSats that require propulsion systems to: a) Conduct high quality near and far reaching on-orbit research and b) Perform technology demonstrations. Increasing call for high reliability and high performing for SmallSat components. Many SmallSat propulsion technologies are currently under development: a) Systems at various levels of maturity and b) Wide variety of systems for many mission applications.

  10. A Propulsion System for a Scientific Micro/Nanospacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Joseph C.; Yankura, George A.; Bame, David P.

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary propulsion system design for a 10-100 kg. micro/nanospacecraft for generic scientific missions is described. The design drivers resulting in this proposed system are discussed as well as current technology developments.

  11. Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Khary I.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2006-01-01

    The Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (MAPSS) is a graphical simulation environment designed for the development of advanced control algorithms and rapid testing of these algorithms on a generic computational model of a turbofan engine and its control system. MAPSS is a nonlinear, non-real-time simulation comprising a Component Level Model (CLM) module and a Controller-and-Actuator Dynamics (CAD) module. The CLM module simulates the dynamics of engine components at a sampling rate of 2,500 Hz. The controller submodule of the CAD module simulates a digital controller, which has a typical update rate of 50 Hz. The sampling rate for the actuators in the CAD module is the same as that of the CLM. MAPSS provides a graphical user interface that affords easy access to engine-operation, engine-health, and control parameters; is used to enter such input model parameters as power lever angle (PLA), Mach number, and altitude; and can be used to change controller and engine parameters. Output variables are selectable by the user. Output data as well as any changes to constants and other parameters can be saved and reloaded into the GUI later.

  12. 77 FR 34854 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Special Wage Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION... fund (NAF) automotive mechanics. These special wage schedules would replace the current commission pay practice covering DOD's NAF automotive mechanics with a flat rate pay system. Implementation of a flat...

  13. HAN-Based Monopropellant Propulsion System with Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Oleson, Steven R.

    1997-01-01

    NASA is developing a new monopropellant propulsion system for small, cost-driven spacecraft with AV requirements in the range of 10-150 m/sec. This system is based on a hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN)/water/fuel monopropellant blend which is extremely dense, environmentally benign, and promises good performance and simplicity. State-of-art (SOA) small spacecraft typically employ either hydrazine or high pressure stored gas. Herein, a 'typical' small satellite bus is used to illustrate how a HAN-based monopropellant propulsion system fulfills small satellite propulsion requirements by providing mass and/or volume savings of SOA hydrazine monopropellants with the cost benefits of a stored nitrogen gas.

  14. Aircraft Electric Propulsion Systems Applied Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at NASA are investigating the potential for electric propulsion systems to revolutionize the design of aircraft from the small-scale general aviation sector to commuter and transport-class vehicles. Electric propulsion provides new degrees of design freedom that may enable opportunities for tightly coupled design and optimization of the propulsion system with the aircraft structure and control systems. This could lead to extraordinary reductions in ownership and operating costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise annoyance levels. We are building testbeds, high-fidelity aircraft simulations, and the first highly distributed electric inhabited flight test vehicle to begin to explore these opportunities.

  15. Advanced Space Propulsion System Flowfield Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Sheldon

    1998-01-01

    Solar thermal upper stage propulsion systems currently under development utilize small low chamber pressure/high area ratio nozzles. Consequently, the resulting flow in the nozzle is highly viscous, with the boundary layer flow comprising a significant fraction of the total nozzle flow area. Conventional uncoupled flow methods which treat the nozzle boundary layer and inviscid flowfield separately by combining the two calculations via the influence of the boundary layer displacement thickness on the inviscid flowfield are not accurate enough to adequately treat highly viscous nozzles. Navier Stokes models such as VNAP2 can treat these flowfields but cannot perform a vacuum plume expansion for applications where the exhaust plume produces induced environments on adjacent structures. This study is built upon recently developed artificial intelligence methods and user interface methodologies to couple the VNAP2 model for treating viscous nozzle flowfields with a vacuum plume flowfield model (RAMP2) that is currently a part of the Plume Environment Prediction (PEP) Model. This study integrated the VNAP2 code into the PEP model to produce an accurate, practical and user friendly tool for calculating highly viscous nozzle and exhaust plume flowfields.

  16. Life prediction technologies for aeronautical propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    Fatigue and fracture problems continue to occur in aeronautical gas turbine engines. Components whose useful life is limited by these failure modes include turbine hot-section blades, vanes, and disks. Safety considerations dictate that catastrophic failures be avoided, while economic considerations dictate that catastrophic failures be avoided, while economic considerations dictate that noncatastrophic failures occur as infrequently as possible. Therefore, the decision in design is making the tradeoff between engine performance and durability. LeRC has contributed to the aeropropulsion industry in the area of life prediction technology for over 30 years, developing creep and fatigue life prediction methodologies for hot-section materials. At the present time, emphasis is being placed on the development of methods capable of handling both thermal and mechanical fatigue under severe environments. Recent accomplishments include the development of more accurate creep-fatigue life prediction methods such as the total strain version of LeRC's strain-range partitioning (SRP) and the HOST-developed cyclic damage accumulation (CDA) model. Other examples include the development of a more accurate cumulative fatigue damage rule - the double damage curve approach (DDCA), which provides greatly improved accuracy in comparison with usual cumulative fatigue design rules. Other accomplishments in the area of high-temperature fatigue crack growth may also be mentioned. Finally, we are looking to the future and are beginning to do research on the advanced methods which will be required for development of advanced materials and propulsion systems over the next 10-20 years.

  17. Restoring Redundancy to the MAP Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Davis, Gary T.; Ward, David K.; Bauer, F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe is a follow-on to the Differential Microwave Radiometer instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer. Sixteen months before launch, it was discovered that from the time of the critical design review, configuration changes had resulted in a significant migration of the spacecraft's center of mass. As a result, the spacecraft no longer had a viable backup control mode in the event of a failure of the negative pitch axis thruster. Potential solutions to this problem were identified, such as adding thruster plume shields to redirect thruster torque, adding mass to, or removing it from, the spacecraft, adding an additional thruster, moving thrusters, bending thrusters (either nozzles or propellant tubing), or accepting the loss of redundancy for the thruster. The impacts of each solution, including effects on the mass, cost, and fuel budgets, as well as schedule, were considered, and it was decided to bend the thruster propellant tubing of the two roll control thrusters, allowing that pair to be used for back-up control in the negative pitch axis. This paper discusses the problem and the potential solutions, and documents the hardware and software changes that needed to be made to implement the chosen solution. Flight data is presented to show the propulsion system on-orbit performance.

  18. Advanced supersonic technology propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szeliga, R.; Allan, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    This study had the objectives of determining the most promising conventional and variable cycle engine types; the effect of design cruise Mach number (2.2, 2.7 and 3.2) on a commercial supersonic transport; effect of advanced engine technology on the choice of engine cycle; and effect of utilizing hydrogen as the engine fuel. The technology required for the engines was defined, and the levels of development to ensure availability of this technology in advanced aircraft propulsion systems were assessed. No clearcut best conventional or variable cycle engine was identified. The dry bypass turbojet and the duct burning turbofans were initially selected as the best conventional engines, but later results, utilizing augmentation at takeoff, added the mixed-flow augmented turbofan as a promising contender. The modulating air flow, three-rotor variable cycle engine identified the performance features desired from VCE concepts (elimination of inlet drag and reduction in afterbody drag), but was a very heavy and complex engine.

  19. Integrated Propulsion/Vehicle System Structurally Optimized

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, James E.; McCurdy, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Ongoing research and testing are essential in the development of air-breathing hypersonic propulsion technology, and this year some positive advancement was made at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Recent work performed for GTX, a rocket-based combined-cycle, single-stage-to-orbit concept, included structural assessments of both the engine and flight vehicle. In the development of air-breathing engine technology, it is impractical to design and optimize components apart from the fully integrated system because tradeoffs must be made between performance and structural capability. Efforts were made to control the flight trajectory, for example, to minimize the aerodynamic heating effects. Structural optimization was applied to evaluate concept feasibility and was instrumental in the determination of the gross liftoff weight of the integrated system. Achieving low Earth orbit with even a small payload requires an aggressive approach to weight minimization through the use of lightweight, oxidation-resistant composite materials. Assessing the integrated system involved investigating the flight trajectory to determine where the critical load events occur in flight and then generating the corresponding environment at each of these events. Structural evaluation requires the mapping of the critical flight loads to finite element models, including the combined effects of aerodynamic, inertial, combustion, and other loads. NASA s APAS code was used to generate aerodynamic pressure and temperature profiles at each critical event. The radiation equilibrium surface temperatures from APAS were used to predict temperatures through the thickness. Heat transfer solutions using NASA's MINIVER code and the SINDA code (Cullimore & Ring Technologies, Littleton, CO) were calculated at selective points external to the integrated vehicle system and then extrapolated over the entire exposed surface. FORTRAN codes were written to expedite the finite element mapping of the aerodynamic heating

  20. Crewed Mission to Callisto Using Advanced Plasma Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. B.; Statham, G.; White, S.; Patton, B.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Alexander, R.; Fincher, S.; Polsgrove, T.; Chapman, J.; Hopkins, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the engineering of several vehicles designed for a crewed mission to the Jovian satellite Callisto. Each subsystem is discussed in detail. Mission and trajectory analysis for each mission concept is described. Crew support components are also described. Vehicles were developed using both fission powered magneto plasma dynamic (MPD) thrusters and magnetized target fusion (MTF) propulsion systems. Conclusions were drawn regarding the usefulness of these propulsion systems for crewed exploration of the outer solar system.

  1. PEGASUS: a multi-megawatt nuclear electric propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Cuta, J.M.; Webb, B.J.; King, D.Q.

    1985-06-01

    With the Space Transportation System (STS), the advent of space station Columbus and the development of expertise at working in space that this will entail, the gateway is open to the final frontier. The exploration of this frontier is possible with state-of-the-art hydrogen/oxygen propulsion but would be greatly enhanced by the higher specific impulse of electric propulsion. This paper presents a concept that uses a multi-megawatt nuclear power plant to drive an electric propulsion system. The concept has been named PEGASUS, PowEr GenerAting System for Use in Space, and is intended as a ''work horse'' for general space transportation needs, both long- and short-haul missions. The recent efforts of the SP-100 program indicate that a power system capable of producing upwards of 1 megawatt of electric power should be available in the next decade. Additionally, efforts in other areas indicate that a power system with a constant power capability an order of magnitude greater could be available near the turn of the century. With the advances expected in megawatt-class space power systems, the high specific impulse propulsion systems must be reconsidered as potential propulsion systems. The power system is capable of meeting both the propulsion system and spacecraft power requirements.

  2. Reliability model of a monopropellant auxiliary propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1971-01-01

    A mathematical model and associated computer code has been developed which computes the reliability of a monopropellant blowdown hydrazine spacecraft auxiliary propulsion system as a function of time. The propulsion system is used to adjust or modify the spacecraft orbit over an extended period of time. The multiple orbit corrections are the multiple objectives which the auxiliary propulsion system is designed to achieve. Thus the reliability model computes the probability of successfully accomplishing each of the desired orbit corrections. To accomplish this, the reliability model interfaces with a computer code that models the performance of a blowdown (unregulated) monopropellant auxiliary propulsion system. The computer code acts as a performance model and as such gives an accurate time history of the system operating parameters. The basic timing and status information is passed on to and utilized by the reliability model which establishes the probability of successfully accomplishing the orbit corrections.

  3. A review of nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deininger, W. D.; Nock, K. T.

    1990-01-01

    The last 25-30 years of system concepts and design philosophies for spacecraft employing nuclear-electric propulsion (NEP) are reviewed. NEP spacecraft-system design constraints and criteria are identified, including radiation exposure of humans and electronics, thermal control requirements, effluent contamination of spacecraft surfaces, surface erosion, launch-vehicle integration, operations and safety requirements, attitude control, EM interference, and power control and distribution. The impact on spacecraft design philosophy of these constraints and criteria is explored. Several NEP spacecraft are characterized and discussed with respect to the propulsion system used. The electric propulsion system catagories are electrothermal (arcjet), EM (magnetoplasmadynamic and pulsed-inductive thruster) and electrostatic (ion engine). A brief summary of the mission, nuclear power source, electric propulsion system, and spacecraft configuration are provided for each NEP spacecraft concept.

  4. Critical Propulsion Components. Volume 1; Summary, Introduction, and Propulsion Systems Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have concluded that a supersonic aircraft, if environmentally acceptable and economically viable, could successfully compete in the 21st century marketplace. However, before industry can commit to what is estimated as a 15 to 20 billion dollar investment, several barrier issues must be resolved. In an effort to address these barrier issues, NASA and Industry teamed to form the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. As part of this program, the Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) element was created and assigned the task of developing those propulsion component technologies necessary to: (1) reduce cruise emissions by a factor of 10 and (2) meet the ever-increasing airport noise restrictions with an economically viable propulsion system. The CPC-identified critical components were ultra-low emission combustors, low-noise/high-performance exhaust nozzles, low-noise fans, and stable/high-performance inlets. Propulsion cycle studies (coordinated with NASA Langley Research Center sponsored airplane studies) were conducted throughout this CPC program to help evaluate candidate components and select the best concepts for the more complex and larger scale research efforts. The propulsion cycle and components ultimately selected were a mixed-flow turbofan (MFTF) engine employing a lean, premixed, prevaporized (LPP) combustor coupled to a two-dimensional mixed compression inlet and a two-dimensional mixer/ejector nozzle. Due to the large amount of material presented in this report, it was prepared in four volumes; Volume 1: Summary, Introduction, and Propulsion System Studies, Volume 2: Combustor, Volume 3: Exhaust Nozzle, and Volume 4: Inlet and Fan/ Inlet Acoustic Team.

  5. The Prometheus 1 spacecraft preliminary electric propulsion system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, Thomas M.; Dougherty, Ryan C.; Oleson, Steven R.; Fiehler, Douglas I.; Dipprey, Neil

    2005-01-01

    The proposed Prometheus 1 mission is an ambitious plan to orbit and explore the Jovian moons of Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa. Such an ambitious mission is enabled by the first interplanetary nuclear electric propulsion (EP) system.

  6. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS): An Award Winning Propulsion System Simulation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauber, Laurel J.; Naiman, Cynthia G.

    2002-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a full propulsion system simulation tool used by aerospace engineers to predict and analyze the aerothermodynamic behavior of commercial jet aircraft, military applications, and space transportation. The NPSS framework was developed to support aerospace, but other applications are already leveraging the initial capabilities, such as aviation safety, ground-based power, and alternative energy conversion devices such as fuel cells. By using the framework and developing the necessary components, future applications that NPSS could support include nuclear power, water treatment, biomedicine, chemical processing, and marine propulsion. NPSS will dramatically reduce the time, effort, and expense necessary to design and test jet engines. It accomplishes that by generating sophisticated computer simulations of an aerospace object or system, thus enabling engineers to "test" various design options without having to conduct costly, time-consuming real-life tests. The ultimate goal of NPSS is to create a numerical "test cell" that enables engineers to create complete engine simulations overnight on cost-effective computing platforms. Using NPSS, engine designers will be able to analyze different parts of the engine simultaneously, perform different types of analysis simultaneously (e.g., aerodynamic and structural), and perform analysis in a more efficient and less costly manner. NPSS will cut the development time of a new engine in half, from 10 years to 5 years. And NPSS will have a similar effect on the cost of development: new jet engines will cost about a billion dollars to develop rather than two billion. NPSS is also being applied to the development of space transportation technologies, and it is expected that similar efficiencies and cost savings will result. Advancements of NPSS in fiscal year 2001 included enhancing the NPSS Developer's Kit to easily integrate external components of varying fidelities, providing

  7. Apollo experience report: Ascent propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, C. E.; Taylor, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The development of the Apollo lunar module ascent propulsion subsystem is documented. The ascent propulsion subsystem was designed, built, and tested to provide propulsive power for launching the ascent stage of the lunar module from the surface of the moon into lunar orbit for rendezvous with the orbiting command and service module. Because total redundancy was prohibitive in this subsystem, special emphasis had to be placed on reliability in design with adequate demonstration short of an extensive flight-demonstration program. The significant technical problems encountered during all phases of the program are identified and the corrective actions are discussed. Based on this experience, several recommendations are made for any future program with similar subsystem requirements.

  8. Automotive Control Systems: For Engine, Driveline, and Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiencke, Uwe; Nielsen, Lars

    Advances in automotive control systems continue to enhance safety and comfort and to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Reflecting the trend to optimization through integrative approaches for engine, driveline, and vehicle control, this valuable book enables control engineers to understand engine and vehicle models necessary for controller design, and also introduces mechanical engineers to vehicle-specific signal processing and automatic control. The emphasis on measurement, comparisons between performance and modeling, and realistic examples derive from the authors' unique industrial experience

  9. Energy efficient engine: Propulsion system-aircraft integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Flight performance and operating economics of future commercial transports utilizing the energy efficient engine were assessed as well as the probability of meeting NASA's goals for TSFC, DOC, noise, and emissions. Results of the initial propulsion systems aircraft integration evaluation presented include estimates of engine performance, predictions of fuel burns, operating costs of the flight propulsion system installed in seven selected advanced study commercial transports, estimates of noise and emissions, considerations of thrust growth, and the achievement-probability analysis.

  10. An Object Oriented Extensible Architecture for Affordable Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.; Lytle, John K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Driven by a need to explore and develop propulsion systems that exceeded current computing capabilities, NASA Glenn embarked on a novel strategy leading to the development of an architecture that enables propulsion simulations never thought possible before. Full engine 3 Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic propulsion system simulations were deemed impossible due to the impracticality of the hardware and software computing systems required. However, with a software paradigm shift and an embracing of parallel and distributed processing, an architecture was designed to meet the needs of future propulsion system modeling. The author suggests that the architecture designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for propulsion system modeling has potential for impacting the direction of development of affordable weapons systems currently under consideration by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT). This paper discusses the salient features of the NPSS Architecture including its interface layer, object layer, implementation for accessing legacy codes, numerical zooming infrastructure and its computing layer. The computing layer focuses on the use and deployment of these propulsion simulations on parallel and distributed computing platforms which has been the focus of NASA Ames. Additional features of the object oriented architecture that support MultiDisciplinary (MD) Coupling, computer aided design (CAD) access and MD coupling objects will be discussed. Included will be a discussion of the successes, challenges and benefits of implementing this architecture.

  11. Challenges of Embedded Computer Vision in Automotive Safety Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Dhua, Arnab S.; Kiselewich, Stephen J.; Bauson, William A.

    Vision-based automotive safety systems have received considerable attention over the past decade. Such systems have advantages compared to those based on other types of sensors such as radar, because of the availability of lowcost and high-resolution cameras and abundant information contained in video images. However, various technical challenges exist in such systems. One of the most prominent challenges lies in running sophisticated computer vision algorithms on low-cost embedded systems at frame rate. This chapter discusses these challenges through vehicle detection and classification in a collision warning system.

  12. Cryogenic system options for a superconducting aircraft propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, F.; Palmer, J.; Bertola, L.; Miller, Paul; Dodds, Graham

    2015-12-01

    There is a perceived need in the future for a move away from traditional aircraft designs in order to meet ambitious emissions and fuel burn targets. High temperature superconducting distributed propulsion may be an enabler for aircraft designs that have better propulsive efficiency and lower drag. There has been significant work considering the electrical systems required, but less on the cryogenics to enable it. This paper discusses some of the major choices to be faced in cryocooling for aircraft. The likely need for a disposable cryogen to reduce power demand is explained. A set of cryocooling methods are considered in a sensitivity study, which shows that the feasibility of the cryogenic system will depend strongly on the superconducting technology and the aircraft platform. It is argued that all three aspects must be researched and designed in close collaboration to reach a viable solution.

  13. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  14. Hybrid rocket propulsion systems for outer planet exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hubbard, G. Scott

    2016-11-01

    Outer planet exploration missions require significant propulsive capability, particularly to achieve orbit insertion. Missions to explore the moons of outer planets place even more demanding requirements on propulsion systems, since they involve multiple large ΔV maneuvers. Hybrid rockets present a favorable alternative to conventional propulsion systems for many of these missions. They typically enjoy higher specific impulse than solids, can be throttled, stopped/restarted, and have more flexibility in their packaging configuration. Hybrids are more compact and easier to throttle than liquids and have similar performance levels. In order to investigate the suitability of these propulsion systems for exploration missions, this paper presents novel hybrid motor designs for two interplanetary missions. Hybrid propulsion systems for missions to Europa and Uranus are presented and compared to conventional in-space propulsion systems. The hybrid motor design for each of these missions is optimized across a range of parameters, including propellant selection, O/F ratio, nozzle area ratio, and chamber pressure. Details of the design process are described in order to provide guidance for researchers wishing to evaluate hybrid rocket motor designs for other missions and applications.

  15. Automotive Stirling engine system component review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindes, Chip; Stotts, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The design and testing of the power and combustion control system for the basic Stirling engine, Mod II, are examined. The power control system is concerned with transparent operation, and the Mod II uses engine working gas pressure variation to control the power output of the engine. The main components of the power control system, the power control valve, the pump-down system, and the hydrogen stable system, are described. The combustion control system consists of a combustion air supply system and an air/fuel ratio control system, and the system is to maintain constant heater head temperature, and to maximize combustion efficiency and to minimize exhaust emissions.

  16. Revolutionary Propulsion Systems for 21st Century Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehra, Arun K.; Shin, Jaiwon

    2003-01-01

    The air transportation for the new millennium will require revolutionary solutions to meeting public demand for improving safety, reliability, environmental compatibility, and affordability. NASA's vision for 21st Century Aircraft is to develop propulsion systems that are intelligent, virtually inaudible (outside the airport boundaries), and have near zero harmful emissions (CO2 and Knox). This vision includes intelligent engines that will be capable of adapting to changing internal and external conditions to optimally accomplish the mission with minimal human intervention. The distributed vectored propulsion will replace two to four wing mounted or fuselage mounted engines by a large number of small, mini, or micro engines, and the electric drive propulsion based on fuel cell power will generate electric power, which in turn will drive propulsors to produce the desired thrust. Such a system will completely eliminate the harmful emissions. This paper reviews future propulsion and power concepts that are currently under development at NASA Glenn Research Center.

  17. Implementation of an Online Database for Chemical Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David B. Owen, II; McRight, Patrick S.; Cardiff, Eric H.

    2009-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University, Chemical Propulsion Information Analysis Center (CPIAC) has been working closely with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC); NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC); the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH); The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (APL); and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to capture satellite and spacecraft propulsion system information for an online database tool. The Spacecraft Chemical Propulsion Database (SCPD) is a new online central repository containing general and detailed system and component information on a variety of spacecraft propulsion systems. This paper only uses data that have been approved for public release with unlimited distribution. The data, supporting documentation, and ability to produce reports on demand, enable a researcher using SCPD to compare spacecraft easily, generate information for trade studies and mass estimates, and learn from the experiences of others through what has already been done. This paper outlines the layout and advantages of SCPD, including a simple example application with a few chemical propulsion systems from various NASA spacecraft.

  18. CVD Rhenium Engines for Solar-Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian E.; Fortini, Arthur J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Duffy, Andrew J.; Tucker, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    Solar-thermal upper-stage propulsion systems have the potential to provide specific impulse approaching 900 seconds, with 760 seconds already demonstrated in ground testing. Such performance levels offer a 100% increase in payload capability compared to state-of-the-art chemical upper-stage systems, at lower cost. Although alternatives such as electric propulsion offer even greater performance, the 6- to 18- month orbital transfer time is a far greater deviation from the state of the art than the one to two months required for solar propulsion. Rhenium metal is the only material that is capable of withstanding the predicted thermal, mechanical, and chemical environment of a solar-thermal propulsion device. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most well-established and cost-effective process for the fabrication of complex rhenium structures. CVD rhenium engines have been successfully constructed for the Air Force ISUS program (bimodal thrust/electricity) and the NASA Shooting Star program (thrust only), as well as under an Air Force SBIR project (thrust only). The bimodal engine represents a more long-term and versatile approach to solar-thermal propulsion, while the thrust-only engines provide a potentially lower weight/lower cost and more near-term replacement for current upper-stage propulsion systems.

  19. Influences of weather phenomena on automotive laser radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasshofer, R. H.; Spies, M.; Spies, H.

    2011-07-01

    Laser radar (lidar) sensors provide outstanding angular resolution along with highly accurate range measurements and thus they were proposed as a part of a high performance perception system for advanced driver assistant functions. Based on optical signal transmission and reception, laser radar systems are influenced by weather phenomena. This work provides an overview on the different physical principles responsible for laser radar signal disturbance and theoretical investigations for estimation of their influence. Finally, the transmission models are applied for signal generation in a newly developed laser radar target simulator providing - to our knowledge - worldwide first HIL test capability for automotive laser radar systems.

  20. Self-powered electric propulsion of satellite power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddell, J. B.; Mcrae, W. V.; Cerri, S. T.

    1978-01-01

    Electric propulsion using argon ion bombardment thrusters is described as a means of transferring solar power satellites from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO). A portion of the satellite GaAs solar array is constructed in LEO and provides power for ascent propulsion; the remainder of the array is constructed in GEO. The electric propulsion system is returned to LEO by detaching a section of the solar array. Alternatively, an autonomous electric propulsion vehicle is assembled in LEO and transports power satellite materials to a GEO construction site. Maximum thrust per thruster and minimum argon consumption are achieved at specific impulse (Isp) 13,000 s. The thrust/power relationship leads to minimum transportation vehicle mass, including the solar array, at Isp 9,000 s. Thruster screen, accel, and discharge supplies are obtained directly from the solar array.

  1. Propulsion stability codes for liquid propellant propulsion systems developed for use on a PC computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III; Armstrong, Wilbur C.

    1991-01-01

    Research into component modeling and system synthesis leading to the analysis of the major types of propulsion system instabilities and the characterization of various components characteristics are presented. Last year, several programs designed to run on a PC were developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. These codes covered the low, intermediate, and high frequency modes of oscillation of a liquid rocket propulsion system. No graphics were built into these programs and only simple piping layouts were supported. This year's effort was to add run time graphics to the low and intermediate frequency codes, allow new types of piping elements (accumulators, pumps, and split pipes) in the low frequency code, and develop a new code for the PC to generate Nyquist plots.

  2. Perception of risk in automotive systems.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, D G; Slovic, P

    1989-08-01

    Thirty subsystems constituting a functioning motor vehicle, including brake, steering, suspension, engine, electrical, and fuel systems, were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales. These included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's anticipatory knowledge of system defects during vehicle design, likelihood of severe consequences in the event of system failure, controllability of the vehicle, and observability of impending failure. An analysis of the resulting judgments revealed two composite factors, one representing the controllability of consequences and the other representing observability. Both factors were highly related to judgments of risk, desire for risk regulation, and anticipated recall compliance. A comparison of risk judgments with accident data suggested that for some vehicle systems, particularly those serving a communication function in the driving task, drivers may underestimate the actual risk they face when system performance has degraded. PMID:2583723

  3. Perception of risk in automotive systems.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, D G; Slovic, P

    1989-08-01

    Thirty subsystems constituting a functioning motor vehicle, including brake, steering, suspension, engine, electrical, and fuel systems, were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales. These included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's anticipatory knowledge of system defects during vehicle design, likelihood of severe consequences in the event of system failure, controllability of the vehicle, and observability of impending failure. An analysis of the resulting judgments revealed two composite factors, one representing the controllability of consequences and the other representing observability. Both factors were highly related to judgments of risk, desire for risk regulation, and anticipated recall compliance. A comparison of risk judgments with accident data suggested that for some vehicle systems, particularly those serving a communication function in the driving task, drivers may underestimate the actual risk they face when system performance has degraded.

  4. Evaluation of advanced propulsion options for the next manned transportation system: Propulsion evolution study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spears, L. T.; Kramer, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives were to examine launch vehicle applications and propulsion requirements for potential future manned space transportation systems and to support planning toward the evolution of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) engines beyond their current or initial launch vehicle applications. As a basis for examinations of potential future manned launch vehicle applications, we used three classes of manned space transportation concepts currently under study: Space Transportation System Evolution, Personal Launch System (PLS), and Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Tasks included studies of launch vehicle applications and requirements for hydrogen-oxygen rocket engines; the development of suggestions for STME engine evolution beyond the mid-1990's; the development of suggestions for STME evolution beyond the Advanced Launch System (ALS) application; the study of booster propulsion options, including LOX-Hydrocarbon options; the analysis of the prospects and requirements for utilization of a single engine configuration over the full range of vehicle applications, including manned vehicles plus ALS and Shuttle C; and a brief review of on-going and planned LOX-Hydrogen propulsion technology activities.

  5. Investigation of Propulsion System Requirements for Spartan Lite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, Mike; Gruner, Timothy; Morrissey, James; Sneiderman, Gary

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the (chemical or electric) propulsion system requirements necessary to increase the Spartan Lite science mission lifetime to over a year. Spartan Lite is an extremely low-cost (less than 10 M) spacecraft bus being developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to accommodate sounding rocket class (40 W, 45 kg, 35 cm dia by 1 m length) payloads. While Spartan Lite is compatible with expendable launch vehicles, most missions are expected to be tertiary payloads deployed by. the Space Shuttle. To achieve a one year or longer mission life from typical Shuttle orbits, some form of propulsion system is required. Chemical propulsion systems (characterized by high thrust impulsive maneuvers) and electrical propulsion systems (characterized by low-thrust long duration maneuvers and the additional requirement for electrical power) are discussed. The performance of the Spartan Lite attitude control system in the presence of large disturbance torques is evaluated using the Trectops(Tm) dynamic simulator. This paper discusses the performance goals and resource constraints for candidate Spartan Lite propulsion systems and uses them to specify quantitative requirements against which the systems are evaluated.

  6. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John; Power, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse (Isp) above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation systems.

  7. Lunar missions using chemical propulsion: System design issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1991-01-01

    To transport lunar base elements to the Moon, large high-energy propulsion systems will be required. Advanced propulsion systems for lunar missions can significantly reduce launch mass and increase the delivered payload, resulting in significant launch cost savings. In this report, the masses in low Earth orbit (LEO) are compared for several propulsion systems: nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH), oxygen/methane (O2/CH4), oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2), and metallized O2/H2/Al propellants. Also addressed are payload mass increases enabled with these systems; system design issues involving the engine thrust levels, engine commonality between the transfer vehicle and the excursion vehicle; the number of launches to place the lunar mission vehicles into LEO; and analyses of small lunar missions launched from a single Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C) flight.

  8. Integrated Main Propulsion System Performance Reconstruction Process/Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Eduardo; Elliott, Katie; Snell, Steven; Evans, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Main Propulsion System (MPS) Performance Reconstruction process provides the MPS post-flight data files needed for postflight reporting to the project integration management and key customers to verify flight performance. This process/model was used as the baseline for the currently ongoing Space Launch System (SLS) work. The process utilizes several methodologies, including multiple software programs, to model integrated propulsion system performance through space shuttle ascent. It is used to evaluate integrated propulsion systems, including propellant tanks, feed systems, rocket engine, and pressurization systems performance throughout ascent based on flight pressure and temperature data. The latest revision incorporates new methods based on main engine power balance model updates to model higher mixture ratio operation at lower engine power levels.

  9. NEXT Ion Propulsion System Development Status and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) project is developing next generation ion propulsion technologies to provide future NASA science missions with enhanced mission performance benefit at a low total development cost. The objective of the NEXT project is to advance next generation ion propulsion technology by producing engineering model system components, validating these through qualification-level and integrated system testing, and ensuring preparedness for transitioning to flight system development. As NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster technology program completes advanced development activities, it is advantageous to review the existing technology capabilities of the system under development. This paper describes the NEXT ion propulsion system development status, characteristics and performance. A review of mission analyses results conducted to date using the NEXT system is also provided.

  10. Analytical enhancement of automotive sensory system reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; King, R.W.

    1994-06-01

    The technical issues that must be addressed to assure reliable sensor systems include the following: validation (is the sensor properly functioning and/or has the component/system deteriorated); failure accommodation (can the system adequately function with a degraded sensor); and system diagnostics (what has failed, what probabilities of missed positives and false positives are acceptable and is real-time on-board response needed). Clearly, the essential activity is the development of sensors to meet the accuracy and reliability requirements in the anticipated operational environment of a vehicle over it`s useful life. However, it is equally important that the data generated by these sensors be processed to extract the information needed to assure that the sensors and the systems they are monitoring and/or controlling remain within their intended operating specifications. The purpose of this paper is to report on an analytical method used to address the above technical issues and to illustrate particular applications of this method.

  11. Primary propulsion/large space system interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyner, J. V.; Dergance, R. H.; Robertson, R. I.; Wiggins, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    An interaction study was conducted between propulsion systems and large space structures to determine the effect of low thrust primary propulsion system characteristics on the mass, area, and orbit transfer characteristics of large space systems (LSS). The LSS which were considered would be deployed from the space shuttle orbiter bay in low Earth orbit, then transferred to geosynchronous equatorial orbit by their own propulsion systems. The types of structures studied were the expandable box truss, hoop and column, and wrap radial rib each with various surface mesh densities. The impact of the acceleration forces on system sizing was determined and the effects of single point, multipoint, and transient thrust applications were examined. Orbit transfer strategies were analyzed to determine the required velocity increment, burn time, trip time, and payload capability over a range of final acceleration levels. Variables considered were number of perigee burns, delivered specific impulse, and constant thrust and constant acceleration modes of propulsion. Propulsion stages were sized for four propellant combinations; oxygen/hydrogen, oxygen/methane, oxygen/kerosene, and nitrogen tetroxide/monomethylhydrazine, for pump fed and pressure fed engine systems. Two types of tankage configurations were evaluated, minimum length to maximize available payload volume and maximum performance to maximize available payload mass.

  12. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS): OEPSS Video Script

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, George S.; Waldrop, Glen S.; Trent, Donnie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The OEPSS video film, along with the OEPSS Databooks, provides a data base of current launch experience that will be useful for design of future expendable and reusable launch systems. The focus is on the launch processing of propulsion systems. A brief 15-minute overview of the OEPSS study results is found at the beginning of the film. The remainder of the film discusses in more detail: current ground operations at the Kennedy Space Center; typical operations issues and problems; critical operations technologies; and efficiency of booster and space propulsion systems. The impact of system architecture on the launch site and its facility infrastucture is emphasized. Finally, a particularly valuable analytical tool, developed during the OEPSS study, that will provide for the "first time" a quantitative measure of operations efficiency for a propulsion system is described.

  13. Influence of Power System Technology on Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.

    1995-01-01

    Electric propulsion (EP) thruster technology, with efficient lightweight power systems can provide substantial reductions in propulsion system wet mass due to the high specific impulse (Isp) of the thrusters. Historically, the space power systems are too massive for many potential orbital missions. The objective of this paper is to show the impact of current power system technology on EP mission performance and determine what technology advancements are needed to make EP beneficial for earth orbital applications. The approach of the paper is to model the electric propulsion system and orbital mission using a partial parametric method. Various missions are analyzed from orbit maintenance to orbit transfer. Results portray the relationship between mission performance and power technology level. Conclusions show which mission applications currently have acceptable power technology, and which mission applications require power technology improvements.

  14. A hierarchy for modeling high speed propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Tom T.; Deabreu, Alex

    1991-01-01

    General research efforts on reduced order propulsion models for control systems design are overviewed. Methods for modeling high speed propulsion systems are discussed including internal flow propulsion systems that do not contain rotating machinery such as inlets, ramjets, and scramjets. The discussion is separated into four sections: (1) computational fluid dynamics model for the entire nonlinear system or high order nonlinear models; (2) high order linearized model derived from fundamental physics; (3) low order linear models obtained from other high order models; and (4) low order nonlinear models. Included are special considerations on any relevant control system designs. The methods discussed are for the quasi-one dimensional Euler equations of gasdynamic flow. The essential nonlinear features represented are large amplitude nonlinear waves, moving normal shocks, hammershocks, subsonic combustion via heat addition, temperature dependent gases, detonation, and thermal choking.

  15. 77 FR 37471 - National Automotive Sampling System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you... system. Users of NASS and crash data may comment on the future utility of current data elements, recommend additional data elements and attributes, and describe their anticipated data needs. DATES:...

  16. Solar electric propulsion system /SEPS/ program plans and system definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, R. E.; Kisko, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The status of the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS) program is reviewed. The plans for SEPS definition and development include the initiation of the SEPS definition phase, the procurement for full-scale development in 1980, delivery of the SEPS for integration and tests with the comet rendezvous spacecraft in 1984, and a launch in 1985 that involves a flyby of Halley's comet in 1985 and a subsequent rendezvous with the comet Tempel 2 in 1988. In preparation for this, the acquisition process for SEPS has been initiated based on mission requirements rather than system requirements.

  17. Multimission nuclear electric propulsion system for outer planet exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondt, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    The conceptual design configuration of a nuclear electric propulsion system (NEP) with a multimission capability for both earth orbital and electric propulsion missions is discussed. Two basic types of space reactor power system concepts are analyzed emphasizing conduction coupled and radiation coupled systems, and a radiation coupled thermoelectric panel concept is schematically represented and described in detail. A nuclear-powered 100-kWe surveillance spacecraft concept is presented and the developmental phases are given including cost estimates. In addition, a system is described that seems to have the capability to perform all the outer planet missions.

  18. Testing of the 578-DX propfan propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.C.; Fleury, R.E.; Smith, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The 578-DX Propfan Demonstrator Propulsion System, whose flight testing on an MD-80 airliner testbed was recently completed, has a powerplant encompassing a gas generator developed from engines currently used in marine and industrial applications, a novel compressor, a reduction-gear system developed under NASA auspices, a contrarotating propfan, a specialized nacelle, and a full-authority digital electronic control system. The flight test program has yielded data on (1) near- and far-field acoustic data to assess FAR36 Stage III conditions compliance; (2) data useful in the resolution of aircraft/engine integration problems; and (3) data suitable for guiding future geared propfan propulsion system development decisions.

  19. Electromagnetic emission experiences using electric propulsion systems: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Zana, Lynnette M.; Knowles, Steven C.

    1987-01-01

    As electric propulsion systems become ready to integrate with spacecraft systems, the impact of propulsion system radiated emissions are of significant interest. Radiated emissions from electromagnetic, electrostatic, and electrothermal systems have been characterized and results synopsized from the literature describing 21 space flight programs. Electromagnetic radiated emission results from ground tests and flight experiences are presented with particular attention paid to the performance of spacecraft subsystems and payloads during thruster operations. The impacts to transmission of radio frequency signals through plasma plumes are also reviewed.

  20. A Graphical User-Interface for Propulsion System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlett, Brian P.; Ryall, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    NASA LeRC uses a series of computer codes to calculate installed propulsion system performance and weight. The need to evaluate more advanced engine concepts with a greater degree of accuracy has resulted in an increase in complexity of this analysis system. Therefore, a graphical user interface was developed to allow the analyst to more quickly and easily apply these codes. The development of this interface and the rationale for the approach taken are described. The interface consists of a method of pictorially representing and editing the propulsion system configuration, forms for entering numerical data, on-line help and documentation, post processing of data, and a menu system to control execution.

  1. High Power Electric Propulsion System for NEP: Propulsion and Trajectory Options

    SciTech Connect

    Koppel, Christophe R.; Duchemin, Olivier; Valentian, Dominique

    2006-01-20

    Recent US initiatives in Nuclear Propulsion lend themselves naturally to raising the question of the assessment of various options and particularly to propose the High Power Electric Propulsion Subsystem (HPEPS) for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). The purpose of this paper is to present the guidelines for the HPEPS with respect to the mission to Mars, for automatic probes as well as for manned missions. Among the various options, the technological options and the trajectory options are pointed out. The consequences of the increase of the electrical power of a thruster are first an increase of the thrust itself, but also, as a general rule, an increase of the thruster performance due to its higher efficiency, particularly its specific impulse increase. The drawback is as a first parameter, the increase of the thruster's size, hence the so-called 'thrust density' shall be high enough or shall be drastically increased for ions thrusters. Due to the large mass of gas needed to perform the foreseen missions, the classical xenon rare gas is no more in competition, the total world production being limited to 20 -40 tons per year. Thus, the right selection of the propellant feeding the thruster is of prime importance. When choosing a propellant with lower molecular mass, the consequences at thruster level are an increase once more of the specific impulse, but at system level the dead mass may increase too, mainly because the increase of the mass of the propellant system tanks. Other alternatives, in rupture with respect to the current technologies, are presented in order to make the whole system more attractive. The paper presents a discussion on the thruster specific impulse increase that is sometime considered an increase of the main system performances parameter, but that induces for all electric propulsion systems drawbacks in the system power and mass design that are proportional to the thruster specific power increase (kW/N). The electric thruster specific

  2. Guide to Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Jason D.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Snyder, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In electric propulsion (EP) systems, accurate measurement of the propellant mass flow rate of gas or liquid to the thruster and external cathode is a key input in the calculation of thruster efficiency and specific impulse. Although such measurements are often achieved with commercial mass flow controllers and meters integrated into propellant feed systems, the variability in potential propellant options and flow requirements amongst the spectrum of EP power regimes and devices complicates meter selection, integration, and operation. At the direction of the Committee on Standards for Electric Propulsion Testing, a guide was jointly developed by members of the electric propulsion community to establish a unified document that contains the working principles, methods of implementation and analysis, and calibration techniques and recommendations on the use of mass flow meters in laboratory and spacecraft electric propulsion systems. The guide is applicable to EP devices of all types and power levels ranging from microthrusters to high-power ion engines and Hall effect thrusters. The establishment of a community standard on mass flow metering will help ensure the selection of the proper meter for each application. It will also improve the quality of system performance estimates by providing comprehensive information on the physical phenomena and systematic errors that must be accounted for during the analysis of flow measurement data. This paper will outline the standard methods and recommended practices described in the guide titled "Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems."

  3. Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Control Model Development Roadmap and Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Le, Dzu K.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Hypersonic project is directed towards fundamental research for two classes of hypersonic vehicles: highly reliable reusable launch systems (HRRLS) and high-mass Mars entry systems (HMMES). The objective of the hypersonic guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) discipline team is to develop advanced guidance and control algorithms to enable efficient and effective operation of these challenging vehicles. The ongoing work at the NASA Glenn Research Center supports the hypersonic GN&C effort in developing tools to aid the design of advanced control algorithms that specifically address the propulsion system of the HRRLSclass vehicles. These tools are being developed in conjunction with complementary research and development activities in hypersonic propulsion at Glenn and elsewhere. This report is focused on obtaining control-relevant dynamic models of an HRRLS-type hypersonic vehicle propulsion system.

  4. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, George S.

    1990-01-01

    The study was initiated to identify operations problems and cost drivers for current propulsion systems and to identify technology and design approaches to increase the operational efficiency and reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, the results of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) were organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books as follows: Volume 1, Generic Ground Operations Data; Volume 2, Ground Operations Problems; Volume 3, Operations Technology; Volume 4, OEPSS Design Concepts; and Volume 5, OEPSS Final Review Briefing, which summarizes the activities and results of the study. Summarized here are the salient results of the first year. A synopsis of each volume listed above is presented.

  5. Study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Ryuta; Tsuchiyama, Syozo

    1996-12-31

    This Abstract summarizes a series of presentations to the present Seminar, covering various aspects of a 1,000 kW PEFC system envisaged as propulsion system to equip a 1,500 DWT Cargo vessel, reported under the following titles: (1) Performance Evaluation of 1kW PEFC (2) Performance of Catalysts for CO Removal by Methanation Reaction (3) Development of a Selective Oxidation CO Removal Reactor for Methanol Reformate Gas (4) Experimental Investigation on a Turbine Compressor for Air Supply System of a Fuel Cell (5) Dynamic Simulator for PEFC Propulsion Plant (6) Power Feature Required for PEFC Powered Electric Propulsion Ship The purpose of this study is to identify subjects requiring further development toward the realization of a practical fuel cell system to power ships.

  6. Polymer Matrix Composites for Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    The Access-to-Space study identified the requirement for lightweight structures to achieve orbit with a single-stage vehicle. Thus a task was undertaken to examine the use of polymer matrix composites for propulsion components. It was determined that the effort of this task would be to extend previous efforts with polymer matrix composite feedlines and demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing large diameter feedlines with a complex shape and integral flanges, (i.e. all one piece with a 90 deg bend), and assess their performance under a cryogenic atmosphere.

  7. Dynamic model for an automotive overhead valve-gear system

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez-Adriani, J.A. )

    1989-11-01

    This research presents a lumped-parameter model, distinct from the ones developed until the present time, easily adaptable for its analog/hybrid simulation, and that combines favorably its simplicity and precision to represent appropriately an automotive valve gear system by means of the inclusion of the hydraulic lifter and of the viscous forces produced by its guide. The checking of this new mathematical model has been accomplished by means of a qualitative comparison with other models previously devised. This model will be useful in the design stage to predict the speed at which the valve jump occurs.

  8. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A gas turbine powertrain for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact is investigated. The automotive gas turbine, when installed in an automobile (3000 pounds inertia weight), provides a CFDC fuel economy of 42.8 miles per gallon based on EPA test procedures and diesel No. 2 fuel. The AGT powered vehicle substantially gives the same overall vehicle driveability and performance as a comparable production vehicle powered by a conventional spark ignition powertrain system. The emissions are less than federal standards, and a variety of fuels can be used.

  9. Handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    SciTech Connect

    Shipers, L.R.; Allen, G.C.

    1992-09-09

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

  10. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    SciTech Connect

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-10-16

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

  11. Real time digital propulsion system simulation for manned flight simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, J. R.; Hart, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    A real time digital simulation of a STOL propulsion system was developed which generates significant dynamics and internal variables needed to evaluate system performance and aircraft interactions using manned flight simulators. The simulation ran at a real-to-execution time ratio of 8.8. The model was used in a piloted NASA flight simulator program to evaluate the simulation technique and the propulsion system digital control. The simulation is described and results shown. Limited results of the flight simulation program are also presented.

  12. Plug nozzles: The ultimate customer driven propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aukerman, Carl A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study applying the plug cluster nozzle concept to the propulsion system for a typical lunar excursion vehicle. Primary attention for the design criteria is given to user defined factors such as reliability, low volume, and ease of propulsion system development. Total thrust and specific impulse are held constant in the study while other parameters are explored to minimize the design chamber pressure. A brief history of the plug nozzle concept is included to point out the advanced level of technology of the concept and the feasibility of exploiting the variables considered in this study. The plug cluster concept looks very promising as a candidate for consideration for the ultimate customer driven propulsion system.

  13. JANNAF 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Volume 1, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 16 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 17th meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) held jointly with the 35th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7 - 11 December 1998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include projectile and shaped charge jet impact vulnerability of munitions; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; damage and hot spot initiation mechanisms with energetic materials; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  14. An inertial fusion propulsion scheme for solar system exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, Terry; Galbraith, David L.

    The paper analyzes a novel fusion scheme that combines the favorable aspects of both inertial and magnetic confinement approaches as a propulsion device for potential application in solar system exploration. An appropriate set of equations for the plasma dynamics and the magnetic nozzle is used to assess the system's propulsive capability by applying the results to a round trip mission to Mars. It is found that such a device would allow a massive vehicle to make the journey in less than five months. It is shown that catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fuel results in a somewhat poorer propulsion performance than deuterium-tritium though at a significantly lower neutron production. The velocity increment generated by this system and the corresponding trip time are in excellent agreement with the predictions of Irving and Blum (1959).

  15. State-of-the-Art for Small Satellite Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Khary I.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is in the business of performing world-class, space-based, scientific research on various spacecraft platforms, which now include small satellites (SmallSats). In order to perform world class science on a SmallSat, NASA/GSFC requires that their components be highly reliable, high performing, have low power consumption, at the lowest cost possible. The Propulsion Branch (Code 597) at NASA/GSFC has conducted a SmallSat propulsion system survey to determine their availability and level of development. Based on publicly available information and unique features, this paper discusses some of the existing SmallSat propulsion systems.. The systems described in this paper do not indicate or imply any endorsement by NASA or NASA/GSFC over those not included.

  16. Overview of NASA Iodine Hall Thruster Propulsion System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler; Haag, Thomas; Dankanich, John; Polzin, Kurt; Byrne, Lawrence; Szabo, James

    2016-01-01

    NASA is continuing to invest in advancing Hall thruster technologies for implementation in commercial and government missions. The most recent focus has been on increasing the power level for large-scale exploration applications. However, there has also been a similar push to examine applications of electric propulsion for small spacecraft in the range of 300 kg or less. There have been several recent iodine Hall propulsion system development activities performed by the team of the NASA Glenn Research Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Busek Co. Inc. In particular, the work focused on qualification of the Busek 200-W BHT-200-I and development of the 600-W BHT-600-I systems. This paper discusses the current status of iodine Hall propulsion system developments along with supporting technology development efforts.

  17. Advances in computational design and analysis of airbreathing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of commercial and military aircraft depends, to a large extent, on engine manufacturers being able to achieve significant increases in propulsion capability through improved component aerodynamics, materials, and structures. The recent history of propulsion has been marked by efforts to develop computational techniques that can speed up the propulsion design process and produce superior designs. The availability of powerful supercomputers, such as the NASA Numerical Aerodynamic Simulator, and the potential for even higher performance offered by parallel computer architectures, have opened the door to the use of multi-dimensional simulations to study complex physical phenomena in propulsion systems that have previously defied analysis or experimental observation. An overview of several NASA Lewis research efforts is provided that are contributing toward the long-range goal of a numerical test-cell for the integrated, multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization of propulsion systems. Specific examples in Internal Computational Fluid Mechanics, Computational Structural Mechanics, Computational Materials Science, and High Performance Computing are cited and described in terms of current capabilities, technical challenges, and future research directions.

  18. Analysis of the combined maglev levitation, propulsion, and guidance system

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.L.; Coffey, H.T.; Rote, D.M.

    1995-03-01

    An analysis of a Japanese maglev system that uses only one set of coils in the guideway for combined levitation, propulsion, and guidance functions is presented. This preliminary study, using the dynamic circuit approach, indicates that the system is very promising.

  19. Structural Integrity and Durability of Reusable Space Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The space shuttle main engine (SSME), a reusable space propulsion system, is discussed. The advances in high pressure oxygen hydrogen rocket technology are reported to establish the basic technology and to develop new analytical tools for the evaluation in reusable rocket systems.

  20. Intelligent Propulsion System Foundation Technology: Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cooperative agreement was to develop a foundation of intelligent propulsion technologies for NASA and industry that will have an impact on safety, noise, emissions, and cost. These intelligent engine technologies included sensors, electronics, communications, control logic, actuators, smart materials and structures, and system studies. Furthermore, this cooperative agreement helped prepare future graduates to develop the revolutionary intelligent propulsion technologies that will be needed to ensure pre-eminence of the U.S. aerospace industry. This Propulsion 21 - Phase 11 program consisted of four primary research areas and associated work elements at Ohio universities: 1.0 Turbine Engine Prognostics, 2.0 Active Controls for Emissions and Noise Reduction, 3.0 Active Structural Controls and Performance, and 4.0 System Studies and Integration. Phase l, which was conducted during the period August 1, 2003, through September 30, 2004, has been reported separately.

  1. IEC fusion: The future power and propulsion system for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Coventry, Matt; Hanson, John; Hrbud, Ivana; Miley, George H.; Nadler, Jon

    2000-01-01

    Rapid access to any point in the solar system requires advanced propulsion concepts that will provide extremely high specific impulse, low specific power, and a high thrust-to-power ratio. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion is one of many exciting concepts emerging through propulsion and power research in laboratories across the nation which will determine the future direction of space exploration. This is part of a series of papers that discuss different applications of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion concept for both in-space and terrestrial use. IEC will enable tremendous advances in faster travel times within the solar system. The technology is currently under investigation for proof of concept and transitioning into the first prototype units for commercial applications. In addition to use in propulsion for space applications, terrestrial applications include desalinization plants, high energy neutron sources for radioisotope generation, high flux sources for medical applications, proton sources for specialized medical applications, and tritium production. .

  2. JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  3. JANNAF 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Kuckels, Melanie C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 25 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 37th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS), and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee (MSS) meetings. The meeting was held 13-17 November 2000 at the Naval Postgraduate School and Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, California. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: impact and thermal vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction and detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact loading; and hazard classification, and insensitive munitions testing of propellants and propulsion systems.

  4. Fuel-level detecting system for automotive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, J.; Sasaki, M.

    1988-09-27

    This patent describes a fuel-level detecting system for monitoring fuel consumption in an automotive engine and for detecting residual fuel in a fuel tank which defines a first fuel chamber being in communication with the automotive engine for supplying the fuel thereto and for receiving the fuel recirculating therefrom, and second chamber being in communication with means for supplying the fuel to the first chamber at a supply rate irrespective of consumption rate of the fuel in the first chamber, the system comprising: a first resistor means, disposed within the first fuel chamber, for detecting a first level of the fuel in the first fuel chamber, the first resistor means having a resistance value variable depending upon the first level; a second resistor means, disposed within the second fuel chamber, for detecting a second level of the fuel in the second fuel chamber, the second resistor means having a resistance value variable depending upon the second level; and means, associated with the first and second resistor means, for deriving a residual fuel amount indicative value based on the resistances of the first and second resistor means.

  5. 75 FR 22628 - Meridian Automotive Systems, Currently Known as Ventra, Ionia, MI; Amended Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Meridian Automotive Systems, Currently Known as Ventra, Ionia, MI... Trade Adjustment Assistance on October 31, 2008, applicable to workers of Meridian Automotive Systems, Ionia, Michigan. The notice was published in the Federal Register on November 13, 2008 (73 FR 67209)....

  6. 77 FR 13350 - Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... complaint filed by Beacon Navigation GmbH of Zug, Switzerland (``Beacon''). 76 FR 72443 (Nov. 23, 2011). The... COMMISSION Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... importation of certain automotive GPS navigation systems, components thereof, and products containing the...

  7. Compressed Air System Upgrade Improves Production at an Automotive Glass Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-01

    In 2000, The Visteon automotive glass plant improved its compressed air system at its automotive glass plant in Nashville, Tennessee. This improvement allowed Visteon to save $711,000 annually, reduce annual energy consumption by 7.9 million kilowatt-hours, reduce maintenance, improve system performance, and avoid $800,000 in asbestos abatement costs.

  8. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Howard; Lusby, Brian; Villemarette, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In support of NASA?s Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, a liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed (IPSTB) was designed and advanced to the Critical Design Review (CDR) stage at the Johnson Space Center. The IPSTB?s primary objectives are to study LO2/LCH4 propulsion system steady state and transient performance, operational characteristics and to validate fluid and thermal models of a LO2/LCH4 propulsion system for use in future flight design work. Two phase thermal and dynamic fluid flow models of the IPSTB were built to predict the system performance characteristics under a variety of operating modes and to aid in the overall system design work. While at ambient temperature and simulated altitude conditions at the White Sands Test Facility, the IPSTB and its approximately 600 channels of system instrumentation would be operated to perform a variety of integrated main engine and reaction control engine hot fire tests. The pressure, temperature, and flow rate data collected during this testing would then be used to validate the analytical models of the IPSTB?s thermal and dynamic fluid flow performance. An overview of the IPSTB design and analytical model development will be presented.

  9. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster: The NEXT Ion Propulsion System for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion system. The NEXT project is developing a solar electric ion propulsion system. The NEXT project is advancing the capability of ion propulsion to meet NASA robotic science mission needs. The NEXT system is planned to significantly improve performance over the state of the art electric propulsion systems, such as NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR). The status of NEXT development is reviewed, including information on the NEXT Thruster, the power processing unit, the propellant management system (PMS), the digital control interface unit, and the gimbal. Block diagrams NEXT system are presented. Also a review of the lessons learned from the Dawn and NSTAR systems is provided. In summary the NEXT project activities through 2007 have brought next-generation ion propulsion technology to a sufficient maturity level.

  10. Engine cycle design considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Collins, John T.

    1993-01-01

    A top-level study was performed which addresses nuclear thermal propulsion system engine cycle options and their applicability to support future Space Exploration Initiative manned lunar and Mars missions. Technical and development issues associated with expander, gas generator, and bleed cycle near-term, solid core nuclear thermal propulsion engines are identified and examined. In addition to performance and weight the influence of the engine cycle type on key design selection parameters such as design complexity, reliability, development time, and cost are discussed. Representative engine designs are presented and compared. Their applicability and performance impact on typical near-term lunar and Mars missions are shown.

  11. Propeller propulsion system integration: State of technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, S. J.; Vonlavante, E.

    1985-01-01

    A literature survey was performed to identify and review technical material applicable to the problem area of propeller propulsion system integration. The survey covered only aerodynamic interference aspects of the problem, and was restricted primarily to propeller effects on the airframe. The subject of airframe aerodynamic interference on the propeller was limited to the problem of vibration due to nonuniform inflow. The problem of airframe effects on propeller performance was not included. A total of 1121 references are given. The references are grouped into the subject areas of Aircraft Stability, Propulsive Efficiency, Aerodynamic Interference, Aerodynamic Interference-Propeller Vibration, and Miscellaneous.

  12. Fluid dynamic problems associated with air-breathing propulsive systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    A brief account of research activities on problems related to air-breathing propulsion is made in this final report for the step funded research grant NASA NGL 14-005-140. Problems include the aircraft ejector-nozzle propulsive system, nonconstant pressure jet mixing process, recompression and reattachment of turbulent free shear layer, supersonic turbulent base pressure, low speed separated flows, transonic boattail flow with and without small angle of attack, transonic base pressures, Mach reflection of shocks, and numerical solution of potential equation through hodograph transformation.

  13. Power Processing for a Conceptual Project Prometheus Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scina, Joseph E., Jr.; Aulisio, Michael; Gerber, Scott S.; Hewitt, Frank; Miller, Leonard; Elbuluk, Malik; Pinero, Luis R. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA has proposed a bold mission to orbit and explore the moons of Jupiter. This mission, known as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), would significantly increase NASA s capability to explore deep space by making use of high power electric propulsion. One electric propulsion option under study for JIMO is an ion propulsion system. An early version of an ion propulsion system was successfully used on NASA's Deep Space 1 mission. One concept for an ion thruster system capable of meeting the current JIMO mission requirement would have individual thrusters that are 16 to 25 kW each and require voltages as high as 8.0 kV. The purpose of this work is to develop power processing schemes for delivering the high voltage power to the spacecraft ion thrusters based upon a three-phase AC distribution system. In addition, a proposed DC-DC converter topology is presented for an ion thruster ancillary supply based upon a DC distribution system. All specifications discussed in this paper are for design convenience and are speculative in nature.

  14. Performance Optimization of the Gasdynamic Mirror Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.; Kammash, Terry

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear fusion appears to be a most promising concept for producing extremely high specific impulse rocket engines. Engines such as these would effectively open up the solar system to human exploration and would virtually eliminate launch window restrictions. A preliminary vehicle sizing and mission study was performed based on the conceptual design of a Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion system. This study indicated that the potential specific impulse for this engine is approximately 142,000 sec. with about 22,100 N of thrust using a deuterium-tritium fuel cycle. The engine weight inclusive of the power conversion system was optimized around an allowable engine mass of 1500 Mg assuming advanced superconducting magnets and a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) end plug at the mirrors. The vehicle habitat, lander, and structural weights are based on a NASA Mars mission study which assumes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion' Several manned missions to various planets were analyzed to determine fuel requirements and launch windows. For all fusion propulsion cases studied, the fuel weight remained a minor component of the total system weight regardless of when the missions commenced. In other words, the use of fusion propulsion virtually eliminates all mission window constraints and effectively allows unlimited manned exploration of the entire solar system. It also mitigates the need to have a large space infrastructure which would be required to support the transfer of massive amounts of fuel and supplies to lower a performing spacecraft.

  15. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An automotive gas turbine powertrain system which, when installed in a 1985 production vehicle (3000 pounds inertia weight), is being developed with a CFDC fuel economy of 42.8 miles per gallon based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test procedures and diesel No. 2 fuel. The AGT-powered vehicle shall give substantially the same overall vehicle driveability and performance as a comparable 1985 production vehicle powered by a conventional spark ignition powertrain system (baseline system). Gaseous emissions and particulate levels less than: NOx = 0.4 gm/mile, HC = 0.41 gm/mile, and CO = 3.4 gm/mile, and a total particulate of 0.2 gm/mile, using the same fuel as used for fuel economy measurements is expected, along with the ability to use a variety of alternate fuels.

  16. Space shuttle propulsion systems on-board checkout and monitoring system development study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Investigations on the fundamental space shuttle propulsion systems program are reported, with emphasis on in-depth reviews of preliminary drafts of the guidelines. The guidelines will be used to incorporate the onboard checkout and monitoring function into the basic design of the propulsion systems and associated interfacing systems. The analysis of checkout and monitoring requirements of the Titan 3 L expandable booster propulsion systems was completed, and the techniques for accomplishing the checkout and monitoring functions were determined. Updating results of the basic study of propulsion system checkout and monitoring is continuing.

  17. PEGASUS: A multi-megawatt nuclear electric propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coomes, Edmund P.; Cuta, Judith M.; Webb, Brent J.; King, David Q.; Patterson, Mike J.; Berkopec, Frank

    1986-01-01

    A propulsion system (PEGASUS) consisting of an electric thruster driven by a multimegawatt nuclear power system is proposed for a manned Mars mission. Magnetoplasmadynamic and mercury-ion thrusters are considered, based on a mission profile containing a 510-day burn time (for a mission time of approximately 1000 days). Both thrusters are capable of meeting the mission parameters. Electric propulsion systems have significant advantages over chemical systems, because of high specific impulse, lower propellant requirements, and lower system mass. The power for the PEGASUS system is supplied by a boiling liquid-metal fast reactor. The power system consists of the reactor, reactor shielding, power conditioning subsystems, and heat rejection subsystems. It is capable of providing a maximum of 8.5 megawatts of electrical power of which 6 megawatts is needed for the thruster system, leaving 1.5 megawatts available for inflight mission applications.

  18. Phase 1 Space Fission Propulsion System Design Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Carter, Robert; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and operated. Studies conducted in fiscal year 2001 (IISTP, 2001) show that fission electric propulsion (FEP) systems operating at 80 kWe or above could enhance or enable numerous robotic outer solar system missions of interest. At these power levels it is possible to develop safe, affordable systems that meet mission performance requirements. In selecting the system design to pursue, seven evaluation criteria were identified: safety, reliability, testability, specific mass, cost, schedule, and programmatic risk. A top-level comparison of three potential concepts was performed: an SP-100 based pumped liquid lithium system, a direct gas cooled system, and a heatpipe cooled system. For power levels up to at least 500 kWt (enabling electric power levels of 125-175 kWe, given 25-35% power conversion efficiency) the heatpipe system has advantages related to several criteria and is competitive with respect to all. Hardware-based research and development has further increased confidence in the heatpipe approach. Successful development and utilization of a "Phase 1" fission electric propulsion system will enable advanced Phase 2 and Phase 3 systems capable of providing rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system.

  19. Propulsion Systems for Aircraft. Aerospace Education II. Instructional Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This curriculum guide accompanies another publication in the Aerospace Education II series entitled "Propulsion Systems for Aircraft." The guide includes specific guidelines for teachers on each chapter in the textbook. Suggestions are included for objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points,…

  20. General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) Program, Turbine Engine System Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) Program Turbine Engine System Elements is to conduct a shared resource project to develop an affordable gas turbine engine for use on 4 to 6 place, light aircraft that will lead to revitalization of the general aviation industry in the United States, creating many new, high-quality jobs.

  1. Computational Structures Technology for Airframes and Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Housner, Jerrold M. (Compiler); Starnes, James H., Jr. (Compiler); Hopkins, Dale A. (Compiler); Chamis, Christos C. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This conference publication contains the presentations and discussions from the joint University of Virginia (UVA)/NASA Workshops. The presentations included NASA Headquarters perspectives on High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), goals and objectives of the UVA Center for Computational Structures Technology (CST), NASA and Air Force CST activities, CST activities for airframes and propulsion systems in industry, and CST activities at Sandia National Laboratory.

  2. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) 1999 Industry Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John; Follen, Greg; Naiman, Cynthia; Evans, Austin

    2000-01-01

    The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia, and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective, high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners in the development effort and the actions taken over the past year to respond to that feedback. The NPSS development was supported in FY99 by the High Performance Computing and Communications Program.

  3. Design of an integrated airframe/propulsion control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Lee, C. William; Strickland, Michael J.; Torkelson, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    The design of an integrated airframe/propulsion control system architecture is described. The design is based on a prevalidation methodology that uses both reliability and performance. A detailed account is given for the testing associated with a subset of the architecture and concludes with general observations of applying the methodology to the architecture.

  4. 46 CFR 111.33-11 - Propulsion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except that each one for mobile offshore... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Propulsion systems. 111.33-11 Section 111.33-11...

  5. 46 CFR 111.33-11 - Propulsion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except that each one for mobile offshore... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion systems. 111.33-11 Section 111.33-11...

  6. 46 CFR 111.33-11 - Propulsion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except that each one for mobile offshore... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Propulsion systems. 111.33-11 Section 111.33-11...

  7. 46 CFR 111.33-11 - Propulsion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except that each one for mobile offshore... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Propulsion systems. 111.33-11 Section 111.33-11...

  8. Structural Integrity and Durability of Reusable Space Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A two-day conference on the structural integrity and durability of reusable space propulsion systems was held on May 12 and 13, 1987, at the NASA Lewis research Center. Aerothermodynamic loads; instrumentation; fatigue, fracture, and constitutive modeling; and structural dynamics were discussed.

  9. Propulsion system assessment for very high UAV under ERAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bettner, James L.; Blandford, Craig S.; Rezy, Bernie J.

    1995-01-01

    A series of propulsion systems were configured to power a sensor platform to very high altitudes under the Experimental Research Advanced Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. The unmanned aircraft was required to carry a 100 kg instrument package to 90,000 ft altitude, collect samples and make scientific measurements for 4 hr, and then return to base. A performance screening evaluation of 11 propulsion systems for this high altitude mission was conducted. Engine configurations ranged from turboprop, spark ignition, two- and four-stroke diesel, rotary, and fuel cell concepts. Turbo and non-turbo-compounded, recuperated and nonrecuperated arrangements, along with regular JP and hydrogen fuels were interrogated. Each configuration was carried through a preliminary design where all turbomachinery, heat exchangers, and engine core concepts were sized and weighed for near-optimum design point performance. Mission analysis, which sized the aircraft for each of the propulsion systems investigated, was conducted. From the array of configurations investigated, the propulsion system for each of three different technology levels (i.e., state of the art, near term, and far term) that was best suited for this very high altitude mission was identified and recommended for further study.

  10. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion System Information Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eirc S.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    This document is a guide to New Frontiers mission proposal teams. The document describes the development and status of the NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system (IPS) technology, its application to planetary missions, and the process anticipated to transition NEXT to the first flight mission.

  11. 46 CFR 111.33-11 - Propulsion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except that each one for mobile offshore... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Propulsion systems. 111.33-11 Section 111.33-11...

  12. Space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system design study. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, P. J.; Schweickert, T. F.

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of an auxiliary propulsion system for space shuttle applications are presented. The system design data necessary for selection of preferred system concepts and the requirements for complementing component design and test programs are analyzed. The use of cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen as a propellant combination is explained on the basis of high vehicle impulse requirements, safety factors, reuse, and logistics considerations. The final configurations for the alternate propellant system, with primary emphasis on earth storable propellants is described.

  13. Space propulsion systems. Present performance limits and application and development trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, R. D.; Lo, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Typical spaceflight programs and their propulsion requirements as a comparison for possible propulsion systems are summarized. Chemical propulsion systems, solar, nuclear, or even laser propelled rockets with electrical or direct thermal fuel acceleration, nonrockets with air breathing devices and solar cells are considered. The chemical launch vehicles have similar technical characteristics and transportation costs. A possible improvement of payload by using air breathing lower stages is discussed. The electrical energy supply installations which give performance limits of electrical propulsion and the electrostatic ion propulsion systems are described. The development possibilities of thermal, magnetic, and electrostatic rocket engines and the state of development of the nuclear thermal rocket and propulsion concepts are addressed.

  14. Basic Characteristics of the Propulsion System in the Permanent Magnet-HTSC Hybrid Magnetic Conveyance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Shunsuke; Kumano, Daiki; Goto, Yasuyuki

    The Hybrid magnetically levitated transportation system has been developed. The magnetic rail is set on the ground, and the carrier with permanent magnets and high-Tc superconductors (HTSC) levitates on the rail. Repulsive force of permanent magnet is introduced to support load weight. Pinning force of the HTSC is used to support weight of the frame of the carrier and to achieve lateral stability of the carrier. In this paper, propulsion system of the conveyance system is studied. Propulsion function is installed on the carrier body. Magnetic gradient is used to get propulsion force. Propulsion force of the system is little. So propulsion rail system is introduced. Air core copper coils are installed on the magnetic rail. Interaction between current of these coils and permanent magnets on the carrier generates propulsion force. Enough propulsion force is given. Influence of the propulsion system on the levitation and guidance system is measured. Stability of levitation and guidance system is enough even when propulsion system is operated.

  15. Instructional Support System--Occupational Education II. ISSOE Automotive Mechanics Content Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Theodore

    A study was conducted to validate the Instructional Support System-Occupational Education (ISSOE) automotive mechanics curriculum. The following four steps were undertaken: (1) review of the ISSOE materials in terms of their "validity" as task statements; (2) a comparison of the ISSOE tasks to the tasks included in the V-TECS Automotive Mechanics…

  16. Overview of Propulsion Systems for a Mars Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Miller, Christopher J.; Reed, Brian D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Loyselle, Patricia L.

    2001-01-01

    The capabilities and performance of an aircraft depends greatly on the ability of the propulsion system to provide thrust. Since the beginning of powered flight, performance has increased in step with advancements in aircraft propulsion systems. These advances in technology from combustion engines to jets and rockets have enabled aircraft to exploit our atmospheric environment and fly at altitudes near the Earth's surface to near orbit at speeds ranging from hovering to several times the speed of sound. One of the main advantages of our atmosphere for these propulsion systems is the availability of oxygen. Getting oxygen basically "free" from the atmosphere dramatically increases the performance and capabilities of an aircraft. This is one of the reasons our present-day aircraft can perform such a wide range of tasks. But this advantage is limited to Earth; if we want to fly an aircraft on another planetary body, such as Mars, we will either have to carry our own source of oxygen or use a propulsion system that does not require it. The Mars atmosphere, composed mainly of carbon dioxide, is very thin. Because of this low atmospheric density, an aircraft flying on Mars will most likely be operating, in aerodynamical terms, within a very low Reynolds number regime. Also, the speed of sound within the Martian environment is approximately 20 percent less than it is on Earth. The reduction in the speed of sound plays an important role in the aerodynamic performance of both the aircraft itself and the components of the propulsion system, such as the propeller. This low Reynolds number-high Mach number flight regime is a unique flight environment that is very rarely encountered here on Earth.

  17. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: A Common Tool for Aerospace Propulsion Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.; Naiman, Cynthia G.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). This simulation is initially being used to support aeropropulsion in the analysis and design of aircraft engines. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the Aviation Safety Program and Advanced Space Transportation. NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes using the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) in the NPSS Developer's Kit to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS Developer's Kit will provide the tools to develop custom components and to use the CORBA capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities will extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multifidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full life cycle of an engine.

  18. Vehicle Propulsion Systems: Introduction to Modeling and Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzella, Lino; Sciarretta, Antonio

    In this book the longitudinal behavior of road vehicles is analyzed. The main emphasis is on the analysis and minimization of the fuel and energy consumption. Most approaches to this problem enhance the complexity of the vehicle system by adding components such as electrical motors or storage devices. Such a complex system can only be designed by means of mathematical models. This text gives an introduction to the modeling and optimization problems typically encountered when designing new propulsion systems for passenger cars.

  19. Plume Impingement Analysis for the European Service Module Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yim, John Tamin; Sibe, Fabien; Ierardo, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Plume impingement analyses were performed for the European Service Module (ESM) propulsion system Orbital Maneuvering System engine (OMS-E), auxiliary engines, and reaction control system (RCS) engines. The heat flux from plume impingement on the solar arrays and other surfaces are evaluated. This information is used to provide inputs for the ESM thermal analyses and help determine the optimal configuration for the RCS engines.

  20. Propellant Feed Subsystem for the X-34 Main Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, J. P.; Minor, R. B.; Knight, K. C.; Champion, R. H., Jr.; Russell, F. J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 vehicle demonstrates technologies and operations key to future reusable launch vehicles. The general flight performance goal of this unmanned rocket plane is Mach 8 flight at an altitude of 250,000 feet. The Main Propulsion System supplies liquid propellants to the main engine, which provides the primary thrust for attaining mission goals. Major NMS design and operational goals are aircraft-like ground operations, quick turnaround between missions, and low initial/operational costs. This paper reviews major design and analysis aspects of the X-34 propellant feed subsystem of the X-34 Main Propulsion System. Topics include system requirements, system design, the integration of flight and feed system performance, propellant acquisition at engine start, and propellant tank terminal drain.

  1. Propellant management for low thrust chemical propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlyn, K. M.; Dergance, R. H.; Aydelott, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Low-thrust chemical propulsion systems (LTPS) will be required for orbital transfer of large space systems (LSS). The work reported in this paper was conducted to determine the propellant requirements, preferred propellant management technique, and propulsion system sizes for the LTPS. Propellants were liquid oxygen (LO2) combined with liquid hydrogen (LH2), liquid methane or kerosene. Thrust levels of 100, 500, and 1000 lbf were combined with 1, 4, and 8 perigee burns for transfer from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit. This matrix of systems was evaluated with a multilayer insulation (MLI) or a spray-on-foam insulation. Vehicle sizing results indicate that a toroidal tank configuration is needed for the LO2/LH2 system. Multiple perigee burns and MLI allow far superior LSS payload capability. Propellant settling, combined with a single screen device, was found to be the lightest and least complex propellant management technique.

  2. Pulsed plasma propulsion system for North-South stationkeeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guman, W. J.; Palumbo, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    A completely integrated pulsed plasma propulsion system for North-South stationkeeping has been developed. System testing on a thrust balance has provided following new results: (1) A simple, helically coiled, spring-fed propellant subsystem for 38,284 lb-s (166,000 N-S) total impulse is feasible; (2) The propulsive performance level is compatible with North-South stationkeeping requirements; (3) Power conditioning is as simple as that of the space flight proven microthruster system; (4) Vacuum compatible, high energy density capacitors (40 joules/lb) capacitors have been developed and tested as part of the system; (5) 10,000 lb-sec of total impulse has been generated. Future improvements will include reducing electrode erosion, improving the structural rigidity of the assembly and continuously operating the system until 37,000 lb-sec of total impulse have been generated.

  3. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the development of a gas turbine engine to improve fuel economy, reduce gaseous emissions and particulate levels, and compatible with a variety of alternate fuels is reported. The powertrain is designated AGT101 and consists of a regenerated single shaft gas turbine engine, a split differential gearbox and a Ford Automatic Overdrive production transmission. The powertrain is controlled by an electronic digital microprocessor and associated actuators, instrumentation, and sensors. Standard automotive accessories are driven by engine power provided by an accessory pad on the gearbox. Component/subsystem development progress is reported in the following areas: compressor, turbine, combustion system, regenerator, gearbox/transmission, structures, ceramic components, foil gas bearing, bearings and seals, rotor dynamics, and controls and accessories.

  4. Advanced Automotive Technologies annual report to Congress, fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This annual report serves to inform the United States Congress on the progress for fiscal year 1996 of programs under the Department of Energy`s Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT). This document complies with the legislative requirement to report on the implementation of Title III of the Automotive Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978. Also reported are related activities performed under subsequent relevant legislation without specific reporting requirements. Furthermore, this report serves as a vital means of communication from the Department to all public and private sector participants. Specific requirements that are addressed in this report are: Discussion of how each research and development contract, grant, or project funded under the authority of this Act satisfies the requirements of each subsection; Current comprehensive program definition for implementing Title III; Evaluation of the state of automotive propulsion system research and development in the United States; Number and amount of contracts and grants awarded under Title III; Analysis of the progress made in developing advanced automotive propulsion system technology; and Suggestions for improvements in automotive propulsion system research and development, including recommendations for legislation.

  5. Development of Liquid Propulsion Systems Testbed at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Reginald; Nelson, Graham

    2016-01-01

    As NASA, the Department of Defense and the aerospace industry in general strive to develop capabilities to explore near-Earth, Cis-lunar and deep space, the need to create more cost effective techniques of propulsion system design, manufacturing and test is imperative in the current budget constrained environment. The physics of space exploration have not changed, but the manner in which systems are developed and certified needs to change if there is going to be any hope of designing and building the high performance liquid propulsion systems necessary to deliver crew and cargo to the further reaches of space. To further the objective of developing these systems, the Marshall Space Flight Center is currently in the process of formulating a Liquid Propulsion Systems testbed, which will enable rapid integration of components to be tested and assessed for performance in integrated systems. The manifestation of this testbed is a breadboard engine configuration (BBE) with facility support for consumables and/or other components as needed. The goal of the facility is to test NASA developed elements, but can be used to test articles developed by other government agencies, industry or academia. Joint government/private partnership is likely the approach that will be required to enable efficient propulsion system development. MSFC has recently tested its own additively manufactured liquid hydrogen pump, injector, and valves in a BBE hot firing. It is rapidly building toward testing the pump and a new CH4 injector in the BBE configuration to demonstrate a 22,000 lbf, pump-fed LO2/LCH4 engine for the Mars lander or in-space transportation. The value of having this BBE testbed is that as components are developed they may be easily integrated in the testbed and tested. MSFC is striving to enhance its liquid propulsion system development capability. Rapid design, analysis, build and test will be critical to fielding the next high thrust rocket engine. With the maturity of the

  6. Initial Cassini propulsion system in-flight characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, T. J.; Crowley, R. T.

    2002-01-01

    The Cassini Propulsion Module Subsystem has performed excellently throughout the first four years of mission operations. The PMS is the most complex interplanetary propulsion subsystem ever flown, with separate monopropellant and bipropellant propulsion modules, each replete with many redundant components.

  7. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Plasmatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster. whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  8. Effective specific impulse of external nuclear pulse propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation of a simple self-similar flow model for an external nuclear pulse propulsion system indicates that to achieve the high effective specific impulse of such a system three principal factors are required. The are (1) attaining pulses of optimum energy, (2) attaining good propellant collimation, and (3) using an ablative material for the pusher surface which has high absorptivity for radiant energy at the propellant stagnation temperature.

  9. A dynamic fault tree model of a propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Hong; Dugan, Joanne Bechta; Meshkat, Leila

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic fault tree model of the benchmark propulsion system, and solve it using Galileo. Dynamic fault trees (DFT) extend traditional static fault trees with special gates to model spares and other sequence dependencies. Galileo solves DFT models using a judicious combination of automatically generated Markov and Binary Decision Diagram models. Galileo easily handles the complexities exhibited by the benchmark problem. In particular, Galileo is designed to model phased mission systems.

  10. Methods for Decontamination of a Bipropellant Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Mark B.; Greene, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Most propulsion systems are designed to be filled and flown, draining can be done but decontamination may be difficult. Transport of these systems may be difficult as well because flight weight vessels are not designed around DOT or UN shipping requirements. Repairs, failure analysis work or post firing inspections may be difficult or impossible to perform due to the hazards of residual propellants being present.

  11. Structural Requirements for the Space Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Pravin K.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2004, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was given a vision for Space Exploration by President Bush, setting our sight on a bold new path to go back to the Moon, then to Mars and beyond. As NASA gets ready to meet the vision set by President Bush, failures are not an option. Reliability of the propulsion engine systems will play an important role in establishing an overall safe and reliable operation of these new space systems. A new standard, NASA-STD-5012, Strength and Life Assessment for Space Propulsion System Engines, has been developed to provide structural requirements for assessment of the propulsion systems engine. This standard is a complement to the current NASA-wide standard NASA-STD-5001, Structural Design and Test Factors of Safety for Spaceflight Hardware, which excluded the requirement for the engine systems (rotatory structures) along with pressure vessels. As developed, this document builds on the heritage of the multiple industrial standards related to strength and life assessment of the structures. For assuring a safe and reliable operation of a product and/or mission, establishing a set of structural assessment requirements is a key ingredient. Hence, a concentrated effort was made to improve the requirements where there are known lessons learned during the design, test, and operation phases of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and other engine development programs. Requirements delineated in this standard are also applicable for the reusable and/or human missions. It shall be noted that "reliability of a system cannot be tested and inspected but can only be achieved if it is first designed into a system." Hence, these strength and life assessment requirements for the space propulsion system engines shall be used along with other good engineering practices, requirements, and policies.

  12. Propellant Management in Booster and Upper Stage Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Mark F.

    1997-01-01

    A summary review of some of the technical issues which surround the design of the propulsion systems for Booster and Upper Stage systems are presented. The work focuses on Propellant Geyser, Slosh, and Orientation. A brief description of the concern is given with graphics which help the reader to understand the physics of the situation. The most common solutions to these problems are given with there respective advantages and disadvantages.

  13. Materials Needs for Future In-space Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles Les

    2008-01-01

    NASA is developing the next generation of in-space propulsion systems in support of robotic exploration missions throughout the solar system. The propulsion technologies being developed are non-traditional and have stressing materials performance requirements. (Chemical Propulsion) Earth-storable chemical bipropellant performance is constrained by temperature limitations of the columbium used in the chamber. Iridium/rhenium (Ir/Re) is now available and has been implemented in initial versions of Earth-Storable rockets with specific impulses (Isp) about 10 seconds higher than columbium rocket chambers. New chamber fabrication methods that improve process and performance of Ir/Re and other promising material systems are needed. (Solar Sail Propulsion) The solar sail is a propellantless propulsion system that gains momentum by reflecting sunlight. The sails need to be very large in area (from 10000 m2 up to 62500 m2) yet be very lightweight in order to achieve adequate accelerations for realistic mission times. Lightweight materials that can be manufactured in thicknesses of less than 1 micron and that are not harmed by the space environment are desired. (Aerocapture) Blunt Body Aerocapture uses aerodynamic drag to slow an approaching spacecraft and insert it into a science orbit around any planet or moon with an atmosphere. The spacecraft is enclosed by a rigid aeroshell that protects it from the entry heating and aerodynamic environment. Lightweight, high-temperature structural systems, adhesives, insulators, and ablatives are key components for improving aeroshell efficiencies at heating rates of 1000-2000 W/cu cm and beyond. Inflatable decelerators in the forms of ballutes and inflatable aeroshells will use flexible polymeric thin film materials, high temperature fabrics, and structural adhesives. The inflatable systems will be tightly packaged during cruise and will be inflated prior to entry interface at the destination. Materials must maintain strength and

  14. Options and Risk for Qualification of Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Michelle; Daniel, Charles; Cook, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Electric propulsion vehicle systems envelop a wide range of propulsion alternatives including solar and nuclear, which present unique circumstances for qualification. This paper will address the alternatives for qualification of electric propulsion spacecraft systems. The approach taken will be to address the considerations for qualification at the various levels of systems definition. Additionally, for each level of qualification the system level risk implications will be developed. Also, the paper will explore the implications of analysis verses test for various levels of systems definition, while retaining the objectives of a verification program. The limitations of terrestrial testing will be explored along with the risk and implications of orbital demonstration testing. The paper will seek to develop a template for structuring of a verification program based on cost, risk and value return. A successful verification program should establish controls and define objectives of the verification compliance program. Finally the paper will seek to address the political and programmatic factors, which may impact options for system verification.

  15. Electric Propulsion System Modeling for the Proposed Prometheus 1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiehler, Douglas; Dougherty, Ryan; Manzella, David

    2005-01-01

    The proposed Prometheus 1 spacecraft would utilize nuclear electric propulsion to propel the spacecraft to its ultimate destination where it would perform its primary mission. As part of the Prometheus 1 Phase A studies, system models were developed for each of the spacecraft subsystems that were integrated into one overarching system model. The Electric Propulsion System (EPS) model was developed using data from the Prometheus 1 electric propulsion technology development efforts. This EPS model was then used to provide both performance and mass information to the Prometheus 1 system model for total system trades. Development of the EPS model is described, detailing both the performance calculations as well as its evolution over the course of Phase A through three technical baselines. Model outputs are also presented, detailing the performance of the model and its direct relationship to the Prometheus 1 technology development efforts. These EP system model outputs are also analyzed chronologically showing the response of the model development to the four technical baselines during Prometheus 1 Phase A.

  16. Network Flow Simulation of Fluid Transients in Rocket Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Hamill, Brian; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Majumdar, Alok

    2011-01-01

    Fluid transients, also known as water hammer, can have a significant impact on the design and operation of both spacecraft and launch vehicle propulsion systems. These transients often occur at system activation and shutdown. The pressure rise due to sudden opening and closing of valves of propulsion feed lines can cause serious damage during activation and shutdown of propulsion systems. During activation (valve opening) and shutdown (valve closing), pressure surges must be predicted accurately to ensure structural integrity of the propulsion system fluid network. In the current work, a network flow simulation software (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) based on Finite Volume Method has been used to predict the pressure surges in the feed line due to both valve closing and valve opening using two separate geometrical configurations. The valve opening pressure surge results are compared with experimental data available in the literature and the numerical results compared very well within reasonable accuracy (< 5%) for a wide range of inlet-to-initial pressure ratios. A Fast Fourier Transform is preformed on the pressure oscillations to predict the various modal frequencies of the pressure wave. The shutdown problem, i.e. valve closing problem, the simulation results are compared with the results of Method of Characteristics. Most rocket engines experience a longitudinal acceleration, known as "pogo" during the later stage of engine burn. In the shutdown example problem, an accumulator has been used in the feed system to demonstrate the "pogo" mitigation effects in the feed system of propellant. The simulation results using GFSSP compared very well with the results of Method of Characteristics.

  17. Progress in Technology Validation of the Next Ion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Scott W.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system has been in advanced technology development under the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology project. The highest fidelity hardware planned has now been completed by the government/industry team, including a flight prototype model (PM) thruster, an engineering model (EM) power processing unit, EM propellant management assemblies, a breadboard gimbal, and control unit simulators. Subsystem and system level technology validation testing is in progress. To achieve the objective Technology Readiness Level 6, environmental testing is being conducted to qualification levels in ground facilities simulating the space environment. Additional tests have been conducted to characterize the performance range and life capability of the NEXT thruster. This paper presents the status and results of technology validation testing accomplished to date, the validated subsystem and system capabilities, and the plans for completion of this phase of NEXT development.

  18. Design of a Hybrid Propulsion System for Orbit Raising Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boman, N.; Ford, M.

    2004-10-01

    A trade off between conventional liquid apogee engines used for orbit raising applications and hybrid rocket engines (HRE) has been performed using a case study approach. Current requirements for lower cost and enhanced safety places hybrid propulsion systems in the spotlight. For evaluating and design of a hybrid rocket engine a parametric engineering code is developed, based on the combustion chamber characteristics of selected propellants. A single port cylindrical section of fuel grain is considered. Polyethylene (PE) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) represents the fuels investigated. The engine design is optimized to minimize the propulsion system volume and mass, while keeping the system as simple as possible. It is found that the fuel grain L/D ratio boundary condition has a major impact on the overall hybrid rocket engine design.

  19. Development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, William H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 'Development of Sensors for Ceramics Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems' program was divided into two phases. The objectives of Phase 1 were to analyze, evaluate and recommend sensor concepts for the measurement of surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. The results of this effort were previously published in NASA CR-182111. As a result of Phase 1, three approaches were recommended for further development: pyrometry, thin-film sensors, and thermographic phosphors. The objectives of Phase 2 were to fabricate and conduct laboratory demonstration tests of these systems. A summary report of the Phase 2 effort, together with conclusions and recommendations for each of the categories evaluated, has been submitted to NASA. Emittance tests were performed on six materials furnished by NASA Lewis Research Center. Measurements were made of various surfaces at high temperature using a Thermogage emissometer. This report describes the emittance test program and presents a summary of the results.

  20. Materials Needs for Future In-Space Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les

    2006-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology Project is developing the next generation of in-space propulsion systems in support of robotic exploration missions throughout the solar system. The propulsion technologies being developed are non-traditional and have stressing materials performance requirements. Earth-storable bipropellant performance is constrained by temperature limitations of the columbium used in the chamber. Iridium/rhenium (Ir/Re) is now available and has been implemented in initial versions of Earth- Storable rockets with specific impulses about 10 seconds higher than columbium rocket chambers. New chamber fabrication methods that improve process and performance of Ir/Re and other promising material systems are needed. The solar sail is a propellantless propulsion system that gains momentum by reflecting sunlight. The sails need to be very large in area (from 10000 sq m up to 62500 sq m) yet be very lightweight in order to achieve adequate accelerations for realistic mission times. Lightweight materials that can be manufactured in thicknesses of less than 1 micron and that are not harmed by the space environment are desired. Blunt Body Aerocapture uses aerodynamic drag to slow an approaching spacecraft and insert it into a science orbit around any planet or moon with an atmosphere. The spacecraft is enclosed by a rigid aeroshell that protects it from the entry heating and aerodynamic environment. Lightweight, high-temperature structural systems, adhesives, insulators, and ablatives are key components for improving aeroshell efficiencies at heating rates of 1000-2000 W/sq cm and beyond. Inflatable decelerators in the forms of ballutes and inflatable aeroshells will use flexible polymeric thin film materials, high temperature fabrics, and structural adhesives. The inflatable systems will be tightly packaged during cruise and will be inflated prior to entry interface at the destination. Materials must maintain strength and flexibility while packaged at

  1. Towards the Formal Verification of a Distributed Real-Time Automotive System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endres, Erik; Mueller, Christian; Shadrin, Andrey; Tverdyshev, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    We present the status of a project which aims at building, formally and pervasively verifying a distributed automotive system. The target system is a gate-level model which consists of several interconnected electronic control units with independent clocks. This model is verified against the specification as seen by a system programmer. The automotive system is implemented on several FPGA boards. The pervasive verification is carried out using combination of interactive theorem proving (Isabelle/HOL) and model checking (LTL).

  2. Static tests of the propulsion system. [Propfan Test Assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withers, C. C.; Bartel, H. W.; Turnberg, J. E.; Graber, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced, highly-loaded, high-speed propellers, called propfans, are promising to revolutionize the transport aircraft industry by offering a 15- to 30-percent fuel savings over the most advanced turbofans without sacrificing passenger comfort or violating community noise standards. NASA Lewis Research Center and industry have been working jointly to develop the needed propfan technology. The NASA-funded Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) Program represents a key element of this joint program. In PTA, Lockheed-Georgia, working in concert with Hamilton Standard, Rohr Industries, Gulfstream Aerospace, and Allison, is developing a propfan propulsion system which will be mounted on the left wing of a modified Gulfstream GII aircraft and flight tested to verify the in-flight characteristics of a 9-foot diameter, single-rotation propfan. The propfan, called SR-7L, was designed and fabricated by Hamilton Standard under a separate NASA contract. Prior to flight testing, the PTA propulsion system was static tested at the Rohr Brown Field facility. In this test, propulsion system operational capability was verified and data was obtained on propfan structural response, system acoustic characteristics, and system performance. This paper reports on the results of the static tests.

  3. A hierarchy for modeling high speed propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Tom T.; Deabreu, Alex

    1991-01-01

    General research efforts on reduced order propulsion models for control systems design are overviewed. Methods for modeling high speed propulsion systems are discussed including internal flow propulsion systems that do not contain rotating machinery, such as inlets, ramjets, and scramjets. The discussion is separated into four areas: (1) computational fluid dynamics models for the entire nonlinear system or high order nonlinear models; (2) high order linearized models derived from fundamental physics; (3) low order linear models obtained from the other high order models; and (4) low order nonlinear models (order here refers to the number of dynamic states). Included in the discussion are any special considerations based on the relevant control system designs. The methods discussed are for the quasi-one-dimensional Euler equations of gasdynamic flow. The essential nonlinear features represented are large amplitude nonlinear waves, including moving normal shocks, hammershocks, simple subsonic combustion via heat addition, temperature dependent gases, detonations, and thermal choking. The report also contains a comprehensive list of papers and theses generated by this grant.

  4. Status and tendencies for low to medium thrust propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Helmut; Pitt, Richard; Schwende, Manfred; Zewen, Helmut

    The previous use of space liquid propulsion systems in the low thrust range (up to approx. 400 N) has been almost entirely devoted to providing the attitude and orbit control of satellites, including apogee injection. The use of hydrazine peroxide gave way to monopropellant hydrazine in the late sixties whilst the advent of bipropellant systems came with the launch of the Symphonie satellite in 1974. In general, these propulsion systems, together with their feed system components, are more or less standardized with only minor changes required in terms of configuration or propellant mass (tank size) for each satellite. The future, however, promises much greater diversification for the low and medium thrust propulsion systems with increasing technical demands on the engines and their associated equipment. Space Station programs, like Columbus with its in-orbit servicing requirement, will require longer life components and increased modularity whilst manned launch vehicles, such as Ariane 5 with Hermes or Space Planes such as Sänger or Hotol, will demand much higher safety and reliability requirements together with maximum reusability.

  5. Design of an Electric Propulsion System for SCEPTOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, Arthur; van der Geest, Martin; Bevirt, JoeBen; Clarke, Sean; Christie, Robert J.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    The rise of electric propulsion systems has pushed aircraft designers towards new and potentially transformative concepts. As part of this effort, NASA is leading the SCEPTOR program which aims at designing a fully electric distributed propulsion general aviation aircraft. This article highlights critical aspects of the design of SCEPTOR's propulsion system conceived at Joby Aviation in partnership with NASA, including motor electromagnetic design and optimization as well as cooling system integration. The motor is designed with a finite element based multi-objective optimization approach. This provides insight into important design tradeoffs such as mass versus efficiency, and enables a detailed quantitative comparison between different motor topologies. Secondly, a complete design and Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of the air breathing cooling system is presented. The cooling system is fully integrated into the nacelle, contains little to no moving parts and only incurs a small drag penalty. Several concepts are considered and compared over a range of operating conditions. The study presents trade-offs between various parameters such as cooling efficiency, drag, mechanical simplicity and robustness.

  6. System Analysis and Performance Benefits of an Optimized Rotorcraft Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    The propulsion system of rotorcraft vehicles is the most critical system to the vehicle in terms of safety and performance. The propulsion system must provide both vertical lift and forward flight propulsion during the entire mission. Whereas propulsion is a critical element for all flight vehicles, it is particularly critical for rotorcraft due to their limited safe, un-powered landing capability. This unparalleled reliability requirement has led rotorcraft power plants down a certain evolutionary path in which the system looks and performs quite similarly to those of the 1960 s. By and large the advancements in rotorcraft propulsion have come in terms of safety and reliability and not in terms of performance. The concept of the optimized propulsion system is a means by which both reliability and performance can be improved for rotorcraft vehicles. The optimized rotorcraft propulsion system which couples an oil-free turboshaft engine to a highly loaded gearbox that provides axial load support for the power turbine can be designed with current laboratory proven technology. Such a system can provide up to 60% weight reduction of the propulsion system of rotorcraft vehicles. Several technical challenges are apparent at the conceptual design level and should be addressed with current research.

  7. Integrated propulsion/energy transfer control systems for lift-fan V/STOL aircraft. [reduction of total propulsion system and control system installation requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Rolls, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    An integrated propulsion/control system for lift-fan transport aircraft is described. System behavior from full-scale experimental and piloted simulator investigations are reported. The lift-fan transport is a promising concept for short-to-medium haul civil transportation and for other missions. The lift-fan transport concept features high cruise airspeed, favorable ride qualities, small perceived noise footprints, high utilization, transportation system flexibility, and adaptability to VTOL, V/STOL, or STOL configurations. The lift-fan transport has high direct operating costs in comparison to conventional aircraft, primarily because of propulsion system and aircraft low-speed control system installation requirements. An integrated lift-fan propulsion system/aircraft low-speed control system that reduces total propulsion system and control system installation requirements is discussed.

  8. Space Fission Propulsion System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Williams, Eric; Harper, Roger; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The world's first man-made self-sustaining fission reaction was achieved in 1942. Since then fission has been used to propel submarines, generate tremendous amounts of electricity, produce medical isotopes, and provide numerous other benefits to society. Fission systems operate independently of solar proximity or orientation, and are thus well suited for deep spare or planetary surface missions. In addition, the fuel for fission systems (enriched uranium) is virtually non-radioactive. The primary safety issue with fission systems is avoiding inadvertent system start - addressing this issue through proper system design is straightforward. Despite the relative simplicity and tremendous potential of space fission systems, the development and utilization of these systems has proven elusive. The first use of fission technology in space occurred 3 April 1965 with the US launch of the SNAP-10A reactor. There have been no additional US uses of space fission system. While space fission system were used extensively by the former Soviet Union, their application was limited to earth-orbital missions. Early space fission systems must be safely and affordably utilized if Ae are to reap the benefits of advanced space fission systems.

  9. Recent Advances in Solar Sail Propulsion Systems at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les

    2006-01-01

    Supporting NASA's Science Mission Directorate, the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is developing solar sail propulsion for use in robotic science and exploration of the solar system. Solar sail propulsion has the potential to provide longer on-station operation, increased scientific payload mass fraction, and access to previously inaccessible orbits for multiple potential science missions. Two different 20-meter solar sail systems were produced and successfully completed functional vacuum testing last year in NASA Glenn s Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station Ohio. The sails were designed and developed by ATK Space Systems and L'Garde, respectively. The sail systems consist of a central structure with four deployable booms that support the sails. The sail designs are robust enough for deployments in a one atmosphere, one gravity environment and are scalable to much larger solar sails - perhaps as large as 150 meters on a side. In addition, computational modeling and analytical simulations have been performed to assess the scalability of the technology to the large sizes (150 meters) required to implement the first generation of missions using solar sails. Life and space environmental effects testing of sail and component materials are also nearly complete. This paper will summarize recent technology advancements in solar sails and their successful ambient and vacuum environment testing.

  10. Technology Readiness of the NEXT Ion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Scott W.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system has been in advanced technology development under the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology project. The highest fidelity hardware planned has now been completed by the government/industry team, including: a flight prototype model (PM) thruster, an engineering model (EM) power processing unit, EM propellant management assemblies, a breadboard gimbal, and control unit simulators. Subsystem and system level technology validation testing is in progress. To achieve the objective Technology Readiness Level 6, environmental testing is being conducted to qualification levels in ground facilities simulating the space environment. Additional tests have been conducted to characterize the performance range and life capability of the NEXT thruster. This paper presents the status and results of technology validation testing accomplished to date, the validated subsystem and system capabilities, and the plans for completion of this phase of NEXT development. The next round of competed planetary science mission announcements of opportunity, and directed mission decisions, are anticipated to occur in 2008 and 2009. Progress to date, and the success of on-going technology validation, indicate that the NEXT ion propulsion system will be a primary candidate for mission consideration in these upcoming opportunities.

  11. Applying Contamination Modelling to Spacecraft Propulsion Systems Designs and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T.; Thomson, Shaun; Woronowicz, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants generated from the operations of a propulsion system may impinge on spacecraft critical surfaces. Plume depositions or clouds may hinder the spacecraft and instruments from performing normal operations. Firing thrusters will generate both molecular and particulate contaminants. How to minimize the contamination impact from the plume becomes very critical for a successful mission. The resulting effect from either molecular or particulate contamination of the thruster firing is very distinct. This paper will discuss the interconnection between the functions of spacecraft contamination modeling and propulsion system implementation. The paper will address an innovative contamination engineering approach implemented from the spacecraft concept design, manufacturing, integration and test (I&T), launch, to on- orbit operations. This paper will also summarize the implementation on several successful missions. Despite other contamination sources, only molecular contamination will be considered here.

  12. Development of Metal Matrix Composites for NASA'S Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    The state-of-the-art development of several aluminum and copper based Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) for NASA's advanced propulsion systems will be presented. The presentation's goal is to provide an overview of NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center's planned and on-going activities in MMC for advanced liquid rocket engines such as the X-33 vehicle's Aerospike and X-34 Fastrac engine. The focus will be on lightweight and environmental compatibility with oxygen and hydrogen of key MMC materials, within each NASA's new propulsion application, that will provide a high payoff for NASA's reusable launch vehicle systems and space access vehicles. Advanced MMC processing techniques such as plasma spray, centrifugal casting, pressure infiltration casting will be discussed. Development of a novel 3D printing method for low cost production of composite preform, and functional gradient MMC to enhanced rocket engine's dimensional stability will be presented.

  13. Titan I propulsion system modeling and possible performance improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Oreste

    This thesis features the Titan I propulsion systems and offers data-supported suggestions for improvements to increase performance. The original propulsion systems were modeled both graphically in CAD and via equations. Due to the limited availability of published information, it was necessary to create a more detailed, secondary set of models. Various engineering equations---pertinent to rocket engine design---were implemented in order to generate the desired extra detail. This study describes how these new models were then imported into the ESI CFD Suite. Various parameters are applied to these imported models as inputs that include, for example, bi-propellant combinations, pressure, temperatures, and mass flow rates. The results were then processed with ESI VIEW, which is visualization software. The output files were analyzed for forces in the nozzle, and various results were generated, including sea level thrust and ISP. Experimental data are provided to compare the original engine configuration models to the derivative suggested improvement models.

  14. A comparison of potential electric propulsion systems for orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    Electric propulsion concepts are compared on the basis of trip time for the low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) mission. Resistojet, arcjet, magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD), pulsed inductive, and ion engine thruster concepts are included. The optimum (minimum trip time) value of specific impulse is found to be dependent upon the specific mission and system being considered. As expected, the devices which can deliver good efficiency at low specific impulses promise the fastest trip times. The solution for trip time and propellant mass for the constant power, continuous low acceleration orbit transfer problem (one way and round trip) is presented in nomograph form. The influences of mission Delta V, thruster efficiency, specific impulse, power, power and propulsion system mass, and payload mass are clearly illustrated.

  15. Conceptual Design of a Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert; Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Fabinski, Leo; Maples, Charlotte; Miernik, Janie; Stratham, Geoffrey; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Turner, Matthew; Santarius, John; Percy, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a project that aims to develop a conceptual design for a Z-pinch thruster, that could be applied to develop advanced thruster designs which promise high thrust/high specific impulse propulsion. Overviews shows the concept of the design, which use annular nozzles with deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel and a Lithium mixture as a cathode, Charts show the engine performance as a function of linear mass, nozzle performance (i.e., plasma segment trajectories), and mission analysis for possible Mars and Jupiter missions using this concept for propulsion. Slides show views of the concepts for the vehicle configuration, thrust coil configuration, the power management system, the structural analysis of the magnetic nozzle, the thermal management system, and the avionics suite,

  16. Heat transfer in space power and propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.; Dunning, J. W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's planned Space Station has projected power requirements in the 75-300 kW range; attention is presently given to the range of power system configurations thus far proposed. These are a silicon solar cell system incorporating regenerative fuel cell or battery storage, with a 10-year lifetime, a solar-dynamic power system with phase-change or regenerative fuel cell energy storage, and a combination of these two alternatives. A development status evaluation is also given for the propulsion systems that may be used by next-generation boosters. These include such novel airbreathing systems as turboramjets, air liquefaction cycle rockets, airturboramjet/rockets, and supersonic combustion ramjets.

  17. Example Solar Electric Propulsion System asteroid tours using variational calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Exploration of the asteroid belt with a vehicle utilizing a Solar Electric Propulsion System has been proposed in past studies. Some of those studies illustrated multiple asteroid rendezvous with trajectories obtained using approximate methods. Most of the inadequacies of those approximations are overcome in this paper, which uses the calculus of variations to calculate the trajectories and associated payloads of four asteroid tours. The modeling, equations, and solution techniques are discussed, followed by a presentation of the results.

  18. Design of an integrated airframe/propulsion control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Lee, C. William; Strickland, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    The design of an integrated airframe/propulsion control system architecture is described. The design is based on a prevalidation methodology that used both reliability and performance tools. An account is given of the motivation for the final design and problems associated with both reliability and performance modeling. The appendices contain a listing of the code for both the reliability and performance model used in the design.

  19. An advanced optical system for laser ablation propulsion in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstue, Grant; Fork, Richard; Reardon, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel space-based ablation driven propulsion engine concept utilizing transmitted energy in the form of a series of ultra-short optical pulses. Key differences are generating the pulses at the transmitting spacecraft and the safe delivery of that energy to the receiving spacecraft for propulsion. By expanding the beam diameter during transmission in space, the energy can propagate at relatively low intensity and then be refocused and redistributed to create an array of ablation sites at the receiver. The ablation array strategy allows greater control over flight dynamics and eases thermal management. Research efforts for this transmission and reception of ultra-short optical pulses include: (1) optical system design; (2) electrical system requirements; (3) thermal management; (4) structured energy transmission safety. Research has also been focused on developing an optical switch concept for the multiplexing of the ultra-short pulses. This optical switch strategy implements multiple reflectors polished into a rotating momentum wheel device to combine the pulses from different laser sources. The optical system design must minimize the thermal load on any one optical element. Initial specifications and modeling for the optical system are being produced using geometrical ray-tracing software to give a better understanding of the optical requirements. In regards to safety, we have advanced the retro-reflective beam locking strategy to include look-ahead capabilities for long propagation distances. Additional applications and missions utilizing multiplexed pulse transmission are also presented. Because the research is in early development, it provides an opportunity for new and valuable advances in the area of transmitted energy for propulsion as well as encourages joint international efforts. Researchers from different countries can cooperate in order to find constructive and safe uses of ordered pulse transmission for propulsion in future space

  20. Self-refueling space propulsion system and operating method

    SciTech Connect

    Minovitch, M.A.

    1988-07-05

    A propulsion system is described for generating decelerating retro thrust on a space vehicle moving in the vicinity of a celestial body having an atmosphere comprising: a hypervelocity diffuser mounted on the space vehicle for ingesting atmospheric gas at orbital velocities thereby converting the directed kinetic energy of the incoming atmospheric gas stream relative to the space vehicle into thermal energy and generating decelerating retro thrust; and means for cooling the ingested gas by radiative heat transfer into space.

  1. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eissler, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  2. Propulsion element requirements using electrical power system unscheduled power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmermann, Frank; Hodge, Kathy

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of using the electrical energy from the Space Station's Electrical Power System (EPS) during the periods of peak solar insolation which is currently not specifically allocated (unscheduled power) to produce propulsion propellants, gaseous hydrogen, and oxygen by electrolyzing water is investigated. Reboost propellant requirements are emphasized, but the results are more generally relevant because the balance of recurring propellant requirements are an order of magnitude smaller and the nonrecurring requirements are not significant on an average basis.

  3. A real time Pegasus propulsion system model for VSTOL piloted simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, J. R.; Roth, S. P.; Creekmore, R.

    1981-01-01

    A real time propulsion system modeling technique suitable for use in man-in-the-loop simulator studies was developd. This technique provides the system accuracy, stability, and transient response required for integrated aircraft and propulsion control system studies. A Pegasus-Harrier propulsion system was selected as a baseline for developing mathematical modeling and simulation techniques for VSTOL. Initially, static and dynamic propulsion system characteristics were modeled in detail to form a nonlinear aerothermodynamic digital computer simulation of a Pegasus engine. From this high fidelity simulation, a real time propulsion model was formulated by applying a piece-wise linear state variable methodology. A hydromechanical and water injection control system was also simulated. The real time dynamic model includes the detail and flexibility required for the evaluation of critical control parameters and propulsion component limits over a limited flight envelope. The model was programmed for interfacing with a Harrier aircraft simulation. Typical propulsion system simulation results are presented.

  4. Vibration isolation of automotive vehicle engine using periodic mounting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiri, S.

    2005-05-01

    Customer awareness and sensitivity to noise and vibration levels have been raised through increasing television advertisement, in which the vehicle noise and vibration performance is used as the main market differentiation. This awareness has caused the transportation industry to regard noise and vibration as important criteria for improving market shares. One industry that tends to be in the forefront of the technology to reduce the levels of noise and vibration is the automobile industry. Hence, it is of practical interest to reduce the vibrations induced structural responses. The automotive vehicle engine is the main source of mechanical vibrations of automobiles. The engine is vulnerable to the dynamic action caused by engine disturbance force in various speed ranges. The vibrations of the automotive vehicle engines may cause structural failure, malfunction of other parts, or discomfort to passengers because of high level noise and vibrations. The mounts of the engines act as the transmission paths of the vibrations transmitted from the excitation sources to the body of the vehicle and passengers. Therefore, proper design and control of these mounts are essential to the attenuation of the vibration of platform structures. To improve vibration resistant capacities of engine mounting systems, vibration control techniques may be used. For instance, some passive and semi-active dissipation devices may be installed at mounts to enhance vibration energy absorbing capacity. In the proposed study, a radically different concept is presented whereby periodic mounts are considered because these mounts exhibit unique dynamic characteristics that make them act as mechanical filters for wave propagation. As a result, waves can propagate along the periodic mounts only within specific frequency bands called the "Pass Bands" and wave propagation is completely blocked within other frequency bands called the "Stop Bands". The experimental arrangements, including the design of

  5. A fusion propulsion system for rapid interplanetary travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammash, T.

    2000-07-01

    A propulsion system with capabilities that far exceed conventional and nuclear thermal systems is proposed for human exploration of the solar system and beyond. It makes use of fusion nuclear reactions, and is based on the magnetic mirror configuration which was studied extensively as a potential terrestrial power reactor. Unlike the conventional mirror machine, however, the proposed device will confine a plasma of such density and temperature as to make the ion-ion collision mean free path much shorter than the plasma length. Under these conditions the plasma behaves like a fluid and its escape from the machine is analogous to the flow of a gas into vacuum from a vessel with a hole, hence the name gasdynamic mirror (GDM) (See Fig. 1). Recent studies of this system reveal that the conditions for its performance as a propulsion system are much less stringent than those imposed by an economically viable power reactor. This is reflected by the small energy magnification factor Q (ratio of fusion power to injected power) required by the propulsion system when compared to that of the power reactor. The plasma confinement in this device is provided by a magnetic field that is stronger at the ends than it is at the center thereby providing the necessary reflecting force for containment while allowing a certain fraction of the energetic particles to escape to generate the thrust. The plasma dynamics and the corresponding propulsion characteristics of GDM can be obtained from a set of coupled conservation equations which yield, among other things, the specific impulse and thrust of such an engine. Typical values of the specific impulse is 1.26 × 10 5 seconds and a thrust of tens of kilonewtons for a system with a dry mass of about 230mT. Such a propulsion system is shown to be about 44 m long and to make a round trip to Mars in less than five months. In this paper we examine the various physics and engineering considerations that lead to the modest vehicle mass noted above.

  6. On-Orbit Propulsion System Performance of ISS Visiting Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Mary Regina M.; Swanson, Robert A.; Kamath, Ulhas P.; Hernandez, Francisco J.; Spencer, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents the culmination of over two decades of unprecedented global human endeavors to conceive, design, build and operate a research laboratory in space. Uninterrupted human presence in space since the inception of the ISS has been made possible by an international fleet of space vehicles facilitating crew rotation, delivery of science experiments and replenishment of propellants and supplies. On-orbit propulsion systems on both ISS and Visiting Vehicles are essential to the continuous operation of the ISS. This paper compares the ISS visiting vehicle propulsion systems by providing an overview of key design drivers, operational considerations and performance characteristics. Despite their differences in design, functionality, and purpose, all visiting vehicles must adhere to a common set of interface requirements along with safety and operational requirements. This paper addresses a wide variety of methods for satisfying these requirements and mitigating credible hazards anticipated during the on-orbit life of propulsion systems, as well as the seamless integration necessary for the continued operation of the ISS.

  7. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part I; Crew Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASAs Human spaceflight Architecture team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single space- ship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper provides the analysis of the interplanetary segments of the three Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions to Mars using the hybrid transportation architecture. The trajectory analysis provides departure and arrival dates and propellant needs for the three crew missions that are used by the campaign analysis team for campaign build-up and logistics aggregation analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the impact of mass growth, departure window, and propulsion system performance on the hybrid transportation architecture. The results and system analysis from this paper contribute to analyses of the other human spaceflight architecture team tasks and feed into the definition of the Evolvable Mars Campaign.

  8. Advanced Propulsion System Studies for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Joseph D. (Technical Monitor); German, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This final report addresses the following topics: Market Impact Analysis (1) assessment of general aviation, including commuter/regional, aircraft market impact due to incorporation of advanced technology propulsion system on acquisition and operating costs, job creation and/or manpower demand, and future fleet size; (2) selecting an aircraft and engine for the study by focusing on the next generation 19-passenger commuter and the Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine growth. Propulsion System Analysis Conducted mission analysis studies and engine cycle analysis to define a new commuter mission and required engine performance, define acquisition and operating costs and, select engine configuration and initiated preliminary design for hardware modifications required. Propulsion System Benefits (1) assessed and defined engine emissions improvements, (2) assessed and defined noise reduction potential and, (3) conducted a cost analysis impact study. Review of Relevant NASA Programs Conducted literature searches using NERAC and NASA RECON services for related technology in the emissions and acoustics area. Preliminary Technology Development Plans Defined plan to incorporate technology improvements for an FJ44-2 growth engine in performance, emissions, and noise suppression.

  9. Development of An Intelligent Flight Propulsion Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Rysdyk, R. T.; Leonhardt, B. K.

    1999-01-01

    The initial design and demonstration of an Intelligent Flight Propulsion and Control System (IFPCS) is documented. The design is based on the implementation of a nonlinear adaptive flight control architecture. This initial design of the IFPCS enhances flight safety by using propulsion sources to provide redundancy in flight control. The IFPCS enhances the conventional gain scheduled approach in significant ways: (1) The IFPCS provides a back up flight control system that results in consistent responses over a wide range of unanticipated failures. (2) The IFPCS is applicable to a variety of aircraft models without redesign and,(3) significantly reduces the laborious research and design necessary in a gain scheduled approach. The control augmentation is detailed within an approximate Input-Output Linearization setting. The availability of propulsion only provides two control inputs, symmetric and differential thrust. Earlier Propulsion Control Augmentation (PCA) work performed by NASA provided for a trajectory controller with pilot command input of glidepath and heading. This work is aimed at demonstrating the flexibility of the IFPCS in providing consistency in flying qualities under a variety of failure scenarios. This report documents the initial design phase where propulsion only is used. Results confirm that the engine dynamics and associated hard nonlineaaities result in poor handling qualities at best. However, as demonstrated in simulation, the IFPCS is capable of results similar to the gain scheduled designs of the NASA PCA work. The IFPCS design uses crude estimates of aircraft behaviour. The adaptive control architecture demonstrates robust stability and provides robust performance. In this work, robust stability means that all states, errors, and adaptive parameters remain bounded under a wide class of uncertainties and input and output disturbances. Robust performance is measured in the quality of the tracking. The results demonstrate the flexibility of

  10. Reciprocating Pump Systems for Space Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J C

    2004-06-10

    Small propellant pumps can reduce rocket hardware mass, while increasing chamber pressure to improve specific impulse. The maneuvering requirements for planetary ascent require an emphasis on mass, while those of orbiting spacecraft indicate that I{sub SP} should be prioritized during pump system development. Experimental efforts include initial testing with prototype lightweight components while raising pump efficiency to improve system I{sub SP}.

  11. RS-34 Phoenix (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Utilization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Kos, Larry; Bruno, Cy

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in conjunction with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne conducted a study to evaluate potential in-space applications for the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the decommissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bipropellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System, renamed Phoenix. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in October 2009. RS-34 propulsion system components were harvested from stages supplied by the USAF and used on the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study sought to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions: 1) small satellite delivery (SSD), 2) orbital debris removal (ODR), 3) ISS re-supply, 4) SLS kick stage, 5) manned GEO servicing precursor mission, and an Earth-Moon L-2 Waypoint mission. The small satellite delivery and orbital debris removal missions were found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. It is believed that this technology will enable a small, low-cost multiple satellite delivery to multiple orbital locations with a single

  12. RS-34 Phoenix (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Utilization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Kos, Larry; Burnside, Christopher G.; Bruno, Cy

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in conjunction with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne conducted a study to evaluate potential in-space applications for the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program, specifically the pressure-fed storable bipropellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System, renamed Phoenix. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in October 2009. RS-34 propulsion system components were harvested from stages supplied by the USAF and used on the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. As originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study sought to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions: 1) small satellite delivery (SSD), 2) orbital debris removal (ODR), 3) ISS re-supply, 4) SLS kick stage, 5) manned GEO servicing precursor mission, and an Earth-Moon L-2 Waypoint mission. The small satellite delivery and orbital debris removal missions were found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. It is believed that this technology will enable a small, low-cost multiple satellite delivery to multiple orbital locations with a single boost. For both the small

  13. Optical design of automotive headlight system incorporating digital micromirror device.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chuan-Cheng; Fang, Yi-Chin; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Hsueh, Bo-Ren; Wang, Shuan-Fu; Wu, Bo-Wen; Lai, Wei-Chi; Chen, Yi-Liang

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, the popular adaptive front-lighting automobile headlight system has become a main emphasis of research that manufacturers will continue to focus great efforts on in the future. In this research we propose a new integral optical design for an automotive headlight system with an advanced light-emitting diode and digital micromirror device (DMD). Traditionally, automobile headlights have all been designed as a low beam light module, whereas the high beam light module still requires using accessory lamps. In anticipation of this new concept of integral optical design, we have researched and designed a single optical system with high and low beam capabilities. To switch on and off the beams, a DMD is typically used. Because DMDs have the capability of redirecting incident light into a specific angle, they also determine the shape of the high or low light beam in order to match the standard of headlight illumination. With collocation of the multicurvature reflection lens design, a DMD can control the light energy distribution and thereby reinforce the resolution of the light beam.

  14. Start-up analysis for automotive PEM fuel cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Francesco, M.; Arato, E.

    The development of fuel cell cars can play an important role in resolving transport problems, due to the high environmental compatibility and high efficiency of this kind of vehicle. Among the different types of fuel cells, proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are considered the best solution for automotive applications at the moment. In this work, constructive criteria are discussed with the aim of obtaining a power generation module adaptable to a wide range of cars. A particular problem in accomplishing the overall project is represented by the definition of the compressor system for air feeding. In this work, the design approach to the problem will be delineated: some options are reviewed and the best solution is analysed. The transient response of the system (fuel cell and compressor) is investigated in order to optimise the start-up running through a model of a fuel cell stack and a compressor simulation. The model and its results are proposed as a work procedure to solve the problem, by varying external conditions: in fact, to perform the system start-up under stable conditions, the air relative humidity and temperature must be maintained in a proper range of values. The approach here presented has been utilised for the definition of the characteristics of the power module and layout of a middle-size hybrid city bus in the framework of a project promoted by the European Union.

  15. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation for Space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Karl

    2000-01-01

    Current system simulations are mature, difficult to modify, and poorly documented. Probabilistic life prediction techniques for space applications are in their early application stage. Many parts of the full system, variable fidelity simulation, have been demonstrated individually or technology is available from aeronautical applications. A 20% reduction in time to design with improvements in performance and risk reduction is anticipated. GRC software development will proceed with similar development efforts in aeronautical simulations. Where appropriate, parallel efforts will be encouraged/tracked in high risk areas until success is assured.

  16. ENABLER Nuclear Propulsion System Conceptual Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauley, Keith A.; Woodham, Kurt; Ohi, Don; Haga, Heath; Henderson, Bo

    2004-02-01

    The Titan Corporation conducted a systems engineering study to develop an overall architecture that meets both the articulated and unarticulated requirements on the Prometheus Program with the least development effort. Key elements of the Titan-designed ENABLER system include a thermal fission reactor, thermionic power converters, sodium heat pipes, ion thruster engines, and a radiation shield and deployable truss to protect the payload. The overall design is scaleable over a wide range of power requirements from 10s of kilowatts to 10s of megawatts.

  17. Conceptual Design of a Supersonic Business Jet Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Program (UEETP) is developing a suite of technology to enhance the performance of future aircraft propulsion systems. Areas of focus for this suite of technology include: Highly Loaded Turbomachinery, Emissions Reduction, Materials and Structures, Controls, and Propulsion-Airframe Integration. The two major goals of the UEETP are emissions reduction of both landing and take-off nitrogen oxides (LTO-NO(x)) and mission carbon dioxide (CO2) through fuel burn reductions. The specific goals include a 70 percent reduction in the current LTO-NO(x) rule and an 8 percent reduction in mission CO2 emissions. In order to gain insight into the potential applications and benefits of these technologies on future aircraft, a set of representative flight vehicles was selected for systems level conceptual studies. The Supersonic Business Jet (SBJ) is one of these vehicles. The particular SBJ considered in this study has a capacity of 6 passengers, cruise Mach Number of 2.0, and a range of 4,000 nautical miles. Without the current existence of an SBJ the study of this vehicle requires a two-phased approach. Initially, a hypothetical baseline SBJ is designed which utilizes only current state of the art technology. Finally, an advanced SBJ propulsion system is designed and optimized which incorporates the advanced technologies under development within the UEETP. System benefits are then evaluated and compared to the program and design requirements. Although the program goals are only concerned with LTO-NO(x) and CO2 emissions, it is acknowledged that additional concerns for an SBJ include take-off noise, overland supersonic flight, and cruise NO(x) emissions at high altitudes. Propulsion system trade-offs in the conceptual design phase acknowledge these issues as well as the program goals. With the inclusion of UEETP technologies a propulsion system is designed which performs at 81% below the LTO-NO(x) rule, and reduces fuel burn by 23 percent

  18. Internal fluid mechanics research on supercomputers for aerospace propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Brent A.; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Szuch, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The Internal Fluid Mechanics Division of the NASA Lewis Research Center is combining the key elements of computational fluid dynamics, aerothermodynamic experiments, and advanced computational technology to bring internal computational fluid mechanics (ICFM) to a state of practical application for aerospace propulsion systems. The strategies used to achieve this goal are to: (1) pursue an understanding of flow physics, surface heat transfer, and combustion via analysis and fundamental experiments, (2) incorporate improved understanding of these phenomena into verified 3-D CFD codes, and (3) utilize state-of-the-art computational technology to enhance experimental and CFD research. Presented is an overview of the ICFM program in high-speed propulsion, including work in inlets, turbomachinery, and chemical reacting flows. Ongoing efforts to integrate new computer technologies, such as parallel computing and artificial intelligence, into high-speed aeropropulsion research are described.

  19. Development of Metal Matrix Composites for NASA's Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.; Elam, S.

    2001-01-01

    The state-of-the-art development of several Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) for NASA's advanced propulsion systems will be presented. The goal is to provide an overview of NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center's on-going activities in MMC components for advanced liquid rocket engines such as the X-33 vehicle's Aerospike engine and X-34's Fastrac engine. The focus will be on lightweight, low cost, and environmental compatibility with oxygen and hydrogen of key MMC materials, within each of NASA's new propulsion application, that will provide a high payoff for NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicles and space access vehicles. In order to fabricate structures from MMC, effective joining methods must be developed to join MMC to the same or to different monolithic alloys. Therefore, a qualitative assessment of MMC's welding and joining techniques will be outlined.

  20. Initial Galileo propulsion system in-flight characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, T. J.; Krug, F. A.; Froidevaux, B. M.

    1993-06-01

    The Galilee RetroPropulsion Module (RPM) has performed excellently throughout the first three years of mission operations. The RPM is a state-of-the-art, pressure-fed, bipropellant propulsion system, provided to NASA by Germany. Due to efficient navigation, propellant margin has substantially increased since launch, enabling extensive contingency maneuvering and the second asteroid flyby while maintaining the confidence level for successfully completing the orbital tour of the planet Jupiter, beginning in 1995. The RPM has responded very well to the challenges brought about by the attempts to deploy the Galileo High Gain Antenna. No thruster thermal instabilities have been observed during maneuvers through the end of 1992; however, lateral thruster performance shifts have been nonnegligible and remain unexplained. Nearly all Galileo thrusters are exceeding ground performance test levels by 1-7 percent.

  1. Common Lunar Lander vehicle propulsion system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, C. D.; Riccio, Joseph R.; Moore, Landon

    1993-01-01

    The Common Lunar Lander (CLL) is a concept for a small, unpiloted vehicle which would provide a low-cost capability to land any of a variety of payloads in the 200 kg class at any point on the surface of the moon. Initiated as a precursor mission for the First Lunar Outpost, it also has considerable potential for use by the scientific community at large. A series of studies has been conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center to define initial requirements and to initiate the design process. This paper describes the propulsion subsystem design as it existed at the CLL System Design Review. The propulsion subsystem design is described in detail along with the planned operations concept, including the unique concept of using pulsing of main engines for thrust modulation. Design options and trades considered and the verification process philosophy which was being planned for the program are discussed.

  2. SEPS comet rendezvous performance assessment. [Solar Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, C. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of delivered payload capability for a number of selected rendezvous missions to periodic comets with launch opportunities through the years 1986-1996. These missions are chosen using a selection criteria that considers both expected scientific interest and earth-based sighting considerations. Some 22 mission opportunities are found that satisfies the selection criteria. Spacecraft performance is presented for each mission opportunity based on use of a space shuttle, a twin stage inertial-upper-stage, and a conceptual solar-electric-propulsion-system with a nominal rendezvous 50 days before comet perihelion. Additional trajectory and propulsion enhancements are investigated for several comet rendezvous missions in order to improve spacecraft performance. An indirect transfer trajectory for an Encke mission is shown to offer substantial delivered payload. In addition the use of concentrator solar arrays is considered for several of the more interesting comet missions.

  3. Propulsion System Materials Program semiannual progress report for April 1995 through September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the DOE, NASA, and DOD advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. These programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a 5-year program plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. During the course of the Propulsion System Materials Program, remarkable progress has been made in the development of reliable structural ceramics. However, further work is needed to reduce the cost of ceramics to facilitate their commercial introduction, especially in the highly cost-sensitive automotive market. To this end, the direction of the Propulsion System Materials Program is now shifting toward reducing the cost of ceramics to facilitate commercial introduction of ceramic components for near-term engine applications. In response to extensive input from industry, the plan is to extend the engine types which were previously supported to include near-term (5--10 years) applications in conventional automobile and diesel truck engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. A systematic approach to reducing the cost of components is envisioned. The work elements are as follows: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, low-expansion ceramics, and testing and data base development.

  4. Fuel processors for automotive fuel cell systems : a parametric analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E. D.; Kumar, R.; Ahluwalia, R. K.; Krumpelt, M.

    2001-12-15

    An autothermally-reformed, gasoline-fueled automotive polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) system has been modeled and analyzed for the fuel processor and total system performance. The purpose of the study is to identify the influence of various operating parameters on the system performance and to investigate related tradeoff scenarios. Results of steady-state analyses at the design rated power level are presented and discussed. The effects of the following parameters are included in the analysis: operating pressure (3 and 1 atm), reforming temperature (1000-1300 K), water-to-fuel and air-to-fuel reactant feed ratios, electrochemical fuel utilization, and thermal integration of the fuel processor and the fuel cell stack subsystems. The analyses are also used to evaluate the impact of those parameters on the concentrations of methane and carbon monoxide in the processed reformate. Both of these gases can be reduced to low levels with adequate water-to-carbon used in the fuel processor. Since these two species represent corresponding amounts of hydrogen that would not be available for electrochemical oxidation in the fuel cell stack, it is important to maintain them at low levels. Subject to the assumptions used in the analyses, particularly that of thermodynamic equilibrium, it was determined that reforming temperatures of 1100 K, a water-to-carbon mole ratio of 1.5-2.5, and the use of fuel cell exhaust energy in the fuel processor subsystem can yield fuel processor efficiencies of 82-84%, and total system efficiencies of 40-42% can be achieved. For the atmospheric pressure system, if the exhaust energy is not used in the fuel processor subsystem, the fuel processor efficiency would drop to 75-82% and the total system efficiency would drop below 40%. At higher reforming temperatures, say 1300 K, the fuel processor efficiency would decrease to 78%, and the total system efficiency would drop below 39%, even with the use of the fuel cell stack exhaust energy.

  5. Preliminary Assessment of Using Gelled and Hybrid Propellant Propulsion for VTOL/SSTO Launch Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan; OLeary, Robert; Pelaccio, Dennis G.

    1998-01-01

    A novel, reusable, Vertical-Takeoff-and-Vertical-Takeoff-and-Landing, Single-Stage-to-Orbit (VTOL/SSTO) launch system concept, named AUGMENT-SSTO, is presented in this paper to help quantify the advantages of employing gelled and hybrid propellant propulsion system options for such applications. The launch vehicle system concept considered uses a highly coupled, main high performance liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen (LO2/LH2) propulsion system, that is used only for launch, while a gelled or hybrid propellant propulsion system auxiliary propulsion system is used during final orbit insertion, major orbit maneuvering, and landing propulsive burn phases of flight. Using a gelled or hybrid propellant propulsion system for major orbit maneuver burns and landing has many advantages over conventional VTOL/SSTO concepts that use LO2/LH2 propulsion system(s) burns for all phases of flight. The applicability of three gelled propellant systems, O2/H2/Al, O2/RP-1/Al, and NTO/MMH/Al, and a state-of-the-art (SOA) hybrid propulsion system are examined in this study. Additionally, this paper addresses the applicability of a high performance gelled O2/H2 propulsion system to perform the primary, as well as the auxiliary propulsion system functions of the vehicle.

  6. Investigation of Exoskeletal Engine Propulsion System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, Joseph M.; Palac, Donald T.; Hunter, James E.; Myers, David E.; Snyder, Christopher A.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; McCurdy, David R.; Dougherty, Kevin T.

    2005-01-01

    An innovative approach to gas turbine design involves mounting compressor and turbine blades to an outer rotating shell. Designated the exoskeletal engine, compression (preferable to tension for high-temperature ceramic materials, generally) becomes the dominant blade force. Exoskeletal engine feasibility lies in the structural and mechanical design (as opposed to cycle or aerothermodynamic design), so this study focused on the development and assessment of a structural-mechanical exoskeletal concept using the Rolls-Royce AE3007 regional airliner all-axial turbofan as a baseline. The effort was further limited to the definition of an exoskeletal high-pressure spool concept, where the major structural and thermal challenges are represented. The mass of the high-pressure spool was calculated and compared with the mass of AE3007 engine components. It was found that the exoskeletal engine rotating components can be significantly lighter than the rotating components of a conventional engine. However, bearing technology development is required, since the mass of existing bearing systems would exceed rotating machinery mass savings. It is recommended that once bearing technology is sufficiently advanced, a "clean sheet" preliminary design of an exoskeletal system be accomplished to better quantify the potential for the exoskeletal concept to deliver benefits in mass, structural efficiency, and cycle design flexibility.

  7. NASA Glenn Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) Icing Facility Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Queito P.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) was recently upgraded to perform engine inlet ice crystal testing in an altitude environment. The system installed 10 spray bars in the inlet plenum for ice crystal generation using 222 spray nozzles. As an altitude test chamber, PSL is capable of simulation of in-flight icing events in a ground test facility. The system was designed to operate at altitudes from 4,000 ft. to 40,000 ft. at Mach numbers up to 0.8M and inlet total temperatures from -60F to +15F.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide-based propulsion and power systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Melof, Brian Matthew; Keese, David L.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Ruffner, Judith Alison; Escapule, William Rusty

    2004-04-01

    Less toxic, storable, hypergolic propellants are desired to replace nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and hydrazine in certain applications. Hydrogen peroxide is a very attractive replacement oxidizer, but finding acceptable replacement fuels is more challenging. The focus of this investigation is to find fuels that have short hypergolic ignition delays, high specific impulse, and desirable storage properties. The resulting hypergolic fuel/oxidizer combination would be highly desirable for virtually any high energy-density applications such as small but powerful gas generating systems, attitude control motors, or main propulsion. These systems would be implemented on platforms ranging from guided bombs to replacement of environmentally unfriendly existing systems to manned space vehicles.

  9. Computational simulation of concurrent engineering for aerospace propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1992-01-01

    Results are summarized of an investigation to assess the infrastructure available and the technology readiness in order to develop computational simulation methods/software for concurrent engineering. These results demonstrate that development of computational simulations methods for concurrent engineering is timely. Extensive infrastructure, in terms of multi-discipline simulation, component-specific simulation, system simulators, fabrication process simulation, and simulation of uncertainties - fundamental in developing such methods, is available. An approach is recommended which can be used to develop computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering for propulsion systems and systems in general. Benefits and facets needing early attention in the development are outlined.

  10. Computational simulation for concurrent engineering of aerospace propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Results are summarized for an investigation to assess the infrastructure available and the technology readiness in order to develop computational simulation methods/software for concurrent engineering. These results demonstrate that development of computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering is timely. Extensive infrastructure, in terms of multi-discipline simulation, component-specific simulation, system simulators, fabrication process simulation, and simulation of uncertainties--fundamental to develop such methods, is available. An approach is recommended which can be used to develop computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering of propulsion systems and systems in general. Benefits and issues needing early attention in the development are outlined.

  11. Asteroids as Propulsion Systems of Space Ships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Currently, rockets are used to change the trajectory of space ships and probes. This method is very expensive and requires a lot of fuel, which limits the feasibility of space stations, interplanetary space ships, and probes. Sometimes space probes use the gravity field of a planet However, there am only nine planets in the Solar System, all separated by great distances. There are tons of millions of asteroids in outer space. This paper offers a revolutionary method for changing the trajectory of space probes. The method uses the kinetic or rotary energy of asteroids, comet nuclei, meteorites or other space bodies (small planets, natural planetary satellites, space debris, etc.) to increase (to decrease) ship (probe) speed up to 1000 m/sec (or more) and to achieve any new direction in outer space. The flight possibilities of space ships and probes are increased by a factor of millions.

  12. Full fuel-cycle comparison of forklift propulsion systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L. L.; Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-11-05

    Hydrogen has received considerable attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) investigates the technical and economic feasibility of promising new technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells. A recent report for DOE identified three near-term markets for fuel cells: (1) Emergency power for state and local emergency response agencies, (2) Forklifts in warehousing and distribution centers, and (3) Airport ground support equipment markets. This report examines forklift propulsion systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell propulsion for existing technologies based on batteries and fossil fuels. Industry data and the Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources, back to the primary feedstocks for fuel production. Also considered are other environmental concerns at work locations. The benefits derived from using fuel-cell propulsion are determined by the sources of electricity and hydrogen. In particular, fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen made from the reforming of natural gas had lower impacts than those using hydrogen from electrolysis.

  13. Analysis of the Space Propulsion System Problem Using RAVEN

    SciTech Connect

    diego mandelli; curtis smith; cristian rabiti; andrea alfonsi

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the solution of the space propulsion problem using a PRA code currently under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). RAVEN (Reactor Analysis and Virtual control ENviroment) is a multi-purpose Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) software framework that allows dispatching different functionalities. It is designed to derive and actuate the control logic required to simulate the plant control system and operator actions (guided procedures) and to perform both Monte- Carlo sampling of random distributed events and Event Tree based analysis. In order to facilitate the input/output handling, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and a post-processing data-mining module are available. RAVEN allows also to interface with several numerical codes such as RELAP5 and RELAP-7 and ad-hoc system simulators. For the space propulsion system problem, an ad-hoc simulator has been developed and written in python language and then interfaced to RAVEN. Such simulator fully models both deterministic (e.g., system dynamics and interactions between system components) and stochastic behaviors (i.e., failures of components/systems such as distribution lines and thrusters). Stochastic analysis is performed using random sampling based methodologies (i.e., Monte-Carlo). Such analysis is accomplished to determine both the reliability of the space propulsion system and to propagate the uncertainties associated to a specific set of parameters. As also indicated in the scope of the benchmark problem, the results generated by the stochastic analysis are used to generate risk-informed insights such as conditions under witch different strategy can be followed.

  14. Atmospheric environmental implications of propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Allan J.; Bennett, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    Three independent studies have been conducted for assessing the impact of rocket launches on the earth's environment. These studies have addressed issues of acid rain in the troposphere, ozone depletion in the stratosphere, toxicity of chemical rocket exhaust products, and the potential impact on global warming from carbon dioxide emissions from rocket launches. Local, regional, and global impact assessments were examined and compared with both natural sources and anthropogenic sources of known atmospheric pollutants with the following conclusions: (1) Neither solid nor liquid rocket launches have a significant impact on the earth's global environment, and there is no real significant difference between the two. (2) Regional and local atmospheric impacts are more significant than global impacts, but quickly return to normal background conditions within a few hours after launch. And (3) vastly increased space launch activities equivalent to 50 U.S. Space Shuttles or 50 Russian Energia launches per year would not significantly impact these conclusions. However, these assessments, for the most part, are based upon homogeneous gas phase chemistry analysis; heterogeneous chemistry from exhaust particulates, such as aluminum oxide, ice contrails, soot, etc., and the influence of plume temperature and afterburning of fuel-rich exhaust products, need to be further addressed. It was the consensus of these studies that computer modeling of interactive plume chemistry with the atmosphere needs to be improved and computer models need to be verified with experimental data. Rocket exhaust plume chemistry can be modified with propellant reformulation and changes in operating conditions, but, based upon the current state of knowledge, it does not appear that significant environmental improvements from propellant formulation changes can be made or are warranted. Flight safety, reliability, and cost improvements are paramount for any new rocket system, and these important aspects

  15. Performance and Cost Evaluation of Cryogenic Solid Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adirim, Harry; Lo, Roger; Knecht, Thomas; Reinbold, Georg-Friedrich; Poller, Sascha

    2002-01-01

    cooling equipment and its operation during fabrication and launch, neither were there problems with thrust to weight ratio of un-cooled but insulated Cryogenic Solid Motors which ascend into their trajectory while leaving the cooling equipment at the launch pad. In performance calculations for new launchers with CSP-replacements of boosters or existing stages, ARIANE 5 and a 3-stage launcher with CSP - 1st stage into GTO serve as examples. For keeping payload-capacity in the reference orbit constant, the modeling of a rocket system essentially requires a process of iteration, in which the propellant mass is varied as central parameter and - with the help of a CSP mass-model - all other dimensions of the booster are derived from mass models etc. accordingly. The process is repeated until the payload resulting from GTO track-optimization corresponds with that of the model ARIANE 5 in sufficient approximation. Under the assumptions made, the application of cryogenic motors lead to a clear reduction of the launch mass. This is essentially caused by the lower propellant mass and secondary by the reduced structure mass. Finally cost calculations have been made by ASTRIUM and demonstrated the cost saving potential of CSP propulsion. For estimating development, production, ground facilities, and operating cost, the parametric cost modeling tool has been used in combination with Cost Estimating Relationships (CER). Parametric cost models only allow comparative analyses, therefore ARIANE 5 in its current (P1) configuration has been estimated using the same mission model as for the CSP launcher. As conclusion of these cost assessment can be stated, that the utilization of cryogenic solid propulsion could offer a considerable cost savings potential. Academic and industrial cooperation is crucial for the challenging R&D work required. It will take the combined capacities of all experts involved to unlock the promises of clean, high Isp CSP propulsion for chemical Earth

  16. Systems Analysis Developed for All-Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for all-electric aircraft propulsion as a means to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. Among the technologies under consideration for these concepts are advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. A multidisciplinary effort is underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop and evaluate concepts for revolutionary, nontraditional fuel cell power and propulsion systems for aircraft applications. As part of this effort, system studies are being conducted to identify concepts with high payoff potential and associated technology areas for further development. To support this effort, a suite of component models was developed to estimate the mass, volume, and performance for a given system architecture. These models include a hydrogen-air PEM fuel cell; an SOFC; balance-of-plant components (compressor, humidifier, separator, and heat exchangers); compressed gas, cryogenic, and liquid fuel storage tanks; and gas turbine/generator models for hybrid system applications. First-order feasibility studies were completed for an all-electric personal air vehicle utilizing a fuel-cell-powered propulsion system. A representative aircraft with an internal combustion engine was chosen as a baseline to provide key parameters to the study, including engine power and subsystem mass, fuel storage volume and mass, and aircraft range. The engine, fuel tank, and associated ancillaries were then replaced with a fuel cell subsystem. Various configurations were considered including a PEM fuel cell with liquid hydrogen storage, a direct methanol PEM fuel cell, and a direct internal reforming SOFC/turbine hybrid system using liquid methane fuel. Each configuration was compared with the baseline case on a mass and range basis.

  17. INSPACE CHEMICAL PROPULSION SYSTEMS AT NASA's MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER: HERITAGE AND CAPABILITIES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McRight, P. S.; Sheehy, J. A.; Blevins, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is well known for its contributions to large ascent propulsion systems such as the Saturn V rocket and the Space Shuttle external tank, solid rocket boosters, and main engines. This paper highlights a lesser known but very rich side of MSFC-its heritage in the development of in-space chemical propulsion systems and its current capabilities for spacecraft propulsion system development and chemical propulsion research. The historical narrative describes the flight development activities associated with upper stage main propulsion systems such as the Saturn S-IVB as well as orbital maneuvering and reaction control systems such as the S-IVB auxiliary propulsion system, the Skylab thruster attitude control system, and many more recent activities such as Chandra, the Demonstration of Automated Rendezvous Technology (DART), X-37, the X-38 de-orbit propulsion system, the Interim Control Module, the US Propulsion Module, and multiple technology development activities. This paper also highlights MSFC s advanced chemical propulsion research capabilities, including an overview of the center s Propulsion Systems Department and ongoing activities. The authors highlight near-term and long-term technology challenges to which MSFC research and system development competencies are relevant. This paper concludes by assessing the value of the full range of aforementioned activities, strengths, and capabilities in light of NASA s exploration missions.

  18. Evaluation of an attributive measurement system in the automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simion, C.

    2016-08-01

    Measurement System Analysis (MSA) is a critical component for any quality improvement process. MSA is defined as an experimental and mathematical method of determining how much the variation within the measurement process contributes to overall process variability and it falls into two categories: attribute and variable. Most problematic measurement system issues come from measuring attribute data, which are usually the result of human judgment (visual inspection). Because attributive measurement systems are often used in some manufacturing processes, their assessment is important to obtain the confidence in the inspection process, to see where are the problems in order to eliminate them and to guide the process improvement. It was the aim of this paper to address such a issue presenting a case study made in a local company from the Sibiu region supplying products for the automotive industry, specifically the bag (a technical textile component, i.e. the fabric) for the airbag module. Because defects are inherent in every manufacturing process and in the field of airbag systems a minor defect can influence their performance and lives depend on the safety feature, there is a stringent visual inspection required on the defects of the bag material. The purpose of this attribute MSA was: to determine if all inspectors use the same criteria to determine “pass” from “fail” product (i.e. the fabric); to assess company inspection standards against customer's requirements; to determine how well inspectors are conforming to themselves; to identify how inspectors are conforming to a “known master,” which includes: how often operators ship defective product, how often operators dispose of acceptable product; to discover areas where training is required, procedures must be developed and standards are not available. The results were analyzed using MINITAB software with its module called Attribute Agreement Analysis. The conclusion was that the inspection process must

  19. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Estes, Robert D.; Cosmo, Mario L.

    2001-01-01

    This is the Annual Report #2 entitled "The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)" prepared by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. This report covers the period of activity from 1 August 2000 through 30 July 2001. The topics include: 1) Updated System Performance; 2) Mission Analysis; 3) Updated Dynamics Reference Mission; 4) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations; 5) Comparison of ED tethers and electrical thrusters; 6) Kalman filters for mission estimation; and 7) Delivery of interactive software for ED tethers.

  20. The USCG Island Class patrol boat propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthey, F.N.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is having 16 new 110 foot Island Class patrol boats built by Bollinger Machine Shop and Shipyard, Inc. of Lockport, LA. Bollinger is producing the patrol boats under license to Vosper Thornycroft (UK Limited). There are a number of propulsion system design features incorporated in the Island Class patrol boats carried over from the original Vosper design which are unique to the Coast Guard. A sampling of those features includes; Paxman Valenta 16CM main engines, underwater main engine exhausts, key less propeller shafts, Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen AG (ZF) reduction gears and a multiple station control system.

  1. Dynamic interactions between hypersonic vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flandro, G. A.; Roach, R. L.; Buschek, H.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the development of a flexible simulation model for scramjet hypersonic propulsion systems. The primary goal is determination of sensitivity of the thrust vector and other system parameters to angle of attack changes of the vehicle. Such information is crucial in design and analysis of control system performance for hypersonic vehicles. The code is also intended to be a key element in carrying out dynamic interaction studies involving the influence of vehicle vibrations on propulsion system/control system coupling and flight stability. Simple models are employed to represent the various processes comprising the propulsion system. A method of characteristics (MOC) approach is used to solve the forebody and external nozzle flow fields. This results in a very fast computational algorithm capable of carrying out the vast number of simulation computations needed in guidance, stability, and control studies. The three-dimensional fore- and aft body (nozzle) geometry is characterized by the centerline profiles as represented by a series of coordinate points and body cross-section curvature. The engine module geometry is represented by an adjustable vertical grid to accommodate variations of the field parameters throughout the inlet and combustor. The scramjet inlet is modeled as a two-dimensional supersonic flow containing adjustable sidewall wedges and multiple fuel injection struts. The inlet geometry including the sidewall wedge angles, the number of injection struts, their sweepback relative to the vehicle reference line, and strut cross-section are user selectable. Combustion is currently represented by a Rayleigh line calculation including corrections for variable gas properties; improved models are being developed for this important element of the propulsion flow field. The program generates (1) variation of thrust magnitude and direction with angle of attack, (2) pitching moment and line of action of the thrust vector, (3) pressure and temperature

  2. The ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geppert, S.

    1981-01-01

    A functional prototype of an electric vehicle ac propulsion system was built consisting of a 18.65 kW rated ac induction traction motor, pulse width modulated (PWM) transistorized inverter, two speed mechanically shifted automatic transmission, and an overall drive/vehicle controller. Design developmental steps, and test results of individual components and the complex system on an instrumented test frame are described. Computer models were developed for the inverter, motor and a representative vehicle. A preliminary reliability model and failure modes effects analysis are given.

  3. Planetary spacecraft - SEPS interface design. [Solar Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    The interactions between a spacecraft which would rendezvous with the comet Tempel II, the stage, and the mission design are summarized along with solar electric propulsion system design issues. Attention is given to data communication, the spacecraft pointing control system, spacecraft power, plasma interactions, the release of a probe to study the comet Halley, and thruster usage. It was concluded that for a planetary mission design using a low-thrust stage, the control of the mission should reside in the payload spacecraft and that the power should be provided by the stage; the NASA standard 28 VDC bus is recommended.

  4. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that use superconducting motors to drive multiple distributed turbofans. Conventional electric motors are too large and heavy to be practical for this application; therefore, superconducting motors are required. In order to improve aircraft maneuverability, variable-speed power converters are required to throttle power to the turbofans. The low operating temperature and the need for lightweight components that place a minimum of additional heat load on the refrigeration system open the possibility of incorporating extremely efficient cryogenic power conversion technology. This Phase II project is developing critical components required to meet these goals.

  5. A Review of Propulsion Industrial Base Studies and an Introduction to the National Institute of Rocket Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Fry, Emma K.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade there have been over 40 studies that have examined the state of the industrial base and infrastructure that supports propulsion systems development in the United States. This paper offers a comprehensive, systematic review of these studies and develops conclusions and recommendations in the areas of budget, policy, sustainment, infrastructure, workforce retention and development and mission/vision and policy. The National Institute for Rocket Propulsion System (NIRPS) is a coordinated, national organization that is responding to the key issues highlighted in these studies. The paper outlines the case for NIRPS and the specific actions that the Institute is taking to address these issues.

  6. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: A Multidisciplinary Design System for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John K.

    1999-01-01

    Advances in computational technology and in physics-based modeling are making large scale, detailed simulations of complex systems possible within the design environment. For example, the integration of computing, communications, and aerodynamics has reduced the time required to analyze ma or propulsion system components from days and weeks to minutes and hours. This breakthrough has enabled the detailed simulation of major propulsion system components to become a routine part of design process and to provide the designer with critical information about the components early in the design process. This paper describes the development of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), a multidisciplinary system of analysis tools that is focussed on extending the simulation capability from components to the full system. This will provide the product developer with a "virtual wind tunnel" that will reduce the number of hardware builds and tests required during the development of advanced aerospace propulsion systems.

  7. Mission Benefits of Gridded Ion and Hall Thruster Hybrid Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Polsgrove, Tara

    2006-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project Office has been developing the NEXT gridded ion thruster system and is planning to procure a low power Hall system. The new ion propulsion systems will join NSTAR as NASA's primary electric propulsion system options. Studies have been performed to show mission benefits of each of the stand alone systems. A hybrid ion propulsion system (IPS) can have the advantage of reduced cost, decreased flight time and greater science payload delivery over comparable homogeneous systems. This paper explores possible advantages of combining various thruster options for a single mission.

  8. NASA Lewis Propulsion Systems Laboratory Customer Guide Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.

    1994-01-01

    This manual describes the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Lewis Research Center. The PSL complex supports two large engine test cells (PSL-3 and PSL-4) that are capable of providing flight simulation to altitudes of 70,000 ft. Facility variables at the engine or test-article inlet, such as pressure, temperature, and Mach number (up to 3.0 for PSL-3 and up to 6.0 planned for PSL-4), are discussed. Support systems such as the heated and cooled combustion air systems; the altitude exhaust system; the hydraulic system; the nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen systems; hydrogen burners; rotating screen assemblies; the engine exhaust gas-sampling system; the infrared imaging system; and single- and multiple-axis thrust stands are addressed. Facility safety procedures are also stated.

  9. Service Life Extension of the ISS Propulsion System Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Grant, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a result of international collaboration in building a sophisticated laboratory of an unprecedented scale in Low Earth Orbit. After a complex assembly sequence spanning over a decade, some of the early modules launched at the beginning of the program would reach the end of their certified lives, while the newer modules were just being commissioned into operation. To maximize the return on global investments in this one-of-a-kind orbiting platform that was initially conceived for a service life until 2016, it is essential for the cutting edge research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. ISS Program is assessing individual modules in detail to extend the service life of the ISS to 2024, and possibly to 2028. Without life extension, Functional Cargo Block (known by its Russian acronym as FGB) and the Service Module (SM), two of the early modules on the Russian Segment, would reach the end of their certified lives in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Both FGB and SM are critical for the propulsive function of the ISS. This paper describes the approach used for the service life extension of the FGB propulsion system. Also presented is an overview of the system description along with the process adopted for developing the life test plans based on considerations of system failure modes, fault tolerance and safety provisions. Tests and analyses performed, important findings and life estimates are summarized. Based on the life extension data, FGB propulsion system, in general, is considered ready for a service life until 2028.

  10. Service Life Extension of the ISS Propulsion System Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Grant, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a result of international collaboration in building a sophisticated laboratory of an unprecedented scale in Low Earth Orbit. After a complex assembly sequence spanning over a decade, some of the early modules launched at the beginning of the program would reach the end of their certified lives, while the newer modules were just being commissioned into operation. To maximize the return on global investments in this one-of-a-kind orbiting platform that was initially conceived for a service life until 2016, it is essential for the cutting edge research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. ISS Program is assessing individual modules in detail to extend the service life of the ISS to 2024, and possibly to 2028. Without life extension, Functional Cargo Block (known by its Russian acronym as FGB) and the Service Module (SM), two of the early modules on the Russian Segment, would reach the end of their certified lives in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Both FGB and SM are critical for the propulsive function of the ISS. This paper describes the approach used for the service life extension of the FGB propulsion system. Also presented is an overview of the system description along with the process adopted for developing the life test plans based on considerations of system failure modes, fault tolerance and safety provisions. Tests and analyses performed, important findings and life estimates are summarized. Based on the life extension data, FGB propulsion system, in general, is considered ready for a service life until 2028.

  11. Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies - Neptune System Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. Omair; Amini, Rashied; Ervin, Joan; Lang, Jared; Landau, Damon; Oleson, Steven; Spilker, Thomas; Strange, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The Neptune System Explorer (NSE) mission concept study assessed opportunities to conduct Cassini-like science at Neptune with a radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) based spacecraft. REP is based on powering an electric propulsion (EP) engine with a radioisotope power source (RPS). The NSE study was commissioned under the Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies (JREPS) project, which sought to determine the technical feasibility of flagship class REP applications. Within JREPS, special emphasis was given toward identifying tall technology tent poles, as well as recommending any new RPS technology developments that would be required for complicated REP missions. Based on the goals of JREPS, multiple RPS (e.g. thermoelectric and Stirling based RPS) and EP (e.g. Hall and ion engines) technology combinations were traded during the NSE study to determine the most favorable REP design architecture. Among the findings from the study was the need for >400We RPS systems, which was driven by EP operating powers and the requirement for a long-lived mission in the deep solar system. Additionally multiple development and implementation risks were identified for the NSE concept, as well as REP missions in general. Among the strengths of the NSE mission would be the benefits associated with RPS and EP use, such as long-term power (approx. 2-3kW) at Neptune and flexible trajectory options for achieving orbit or tours of the Neptune system. Although there are still multiple issues to mitigate, the NSE concept demonstrated distinct advantages associated with using REP for deep space flagship-class missions.

  12. Future Air Force aircraft propulsion control systems: The extended summary paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skira, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Hydromechanical control technology simply cannot compete against the performance benefits offered by electronics. Future military aircraft propulsion control systems will be full authority, digital electronic, microprocessor base systems. Anticipating the day when microprocessor technology will permit the integration and management of aircraft flight control, fire control and propulsion control systems, the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory is developing control logic algorithms for a real time, adaptive control and diagnostic information system.

  13. Multimegawatt nuclear power systems for nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Results from systems analysis studies of multimegawatt nuclear power systems are presented for application to nuclear electric propulsion. Specific mass estimates are presented for nearer term SP-100 reactor-based potassium Rankine and Brayton power systems for piloted and cargo missions. Growth SP-100/Rankine systems were found to range from roughly 7 to 10 kg/kWe specific mass depending on full power life requirements. The SP-100/Rankine systems were also found to result in a 4-kg/kWe savings in specific mass over SP-100/Brayton systems. The potential of advanced, higher temperature reactor and power conversion technologies for achieving reduced mass Rankine and Brayton systems was also investigated. A target goal of 5 kg/kWe specific mass was deemed reasonable given either 1400 K potassium Rankine with 1500 K lithium-cooled reactors or 2000 K gas cooled reactors with Brayton conversion.

  14. Applications of nuclear reactor power systems to electric propulsion missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaupp, R. W.; Sawyer, C. D.

    1971-01-01

    The performance of nuclear electric propulsion systems (NEP) has been evaluated for a wide variety of missions in an attempt to establish the commonality of NEP system requirements. Emphasis was given to those requirements and system characteristics that serve as guidelines for current technology development programs. Various interactions and tradeoffs between NEP system and mission parameters are described. The results show that the most significant factors in selecting NEP system size are launch mode (direct or spiral escape) and, to a weaker extent, launch vehicle capability. Other factors such as mission, payload, and thrust time constraints, have little influence, thus allowing one NEP system to be used for many missions. The results indicated that a 100 kWe NEP would be suitable for most direct escape missions and a 250 kWe NEP system would be suitable for more demanding missions that use the spiral escape mode.

  15. Cycle Trades for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, C.; Guidos, M.; Greene, W.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear fission has been used as a reliable source for utility power in the United States for decades. Even in the 1940's, long before the United States had a viable space program, the theoretical benefits of nuclear power as applied to space travel were being explored. These benefits include long-life operation and high performance, particularly in the form of vehicle power density, enabling longer-lasting space missions. The configurations for nuclear rocket systems and chemical rocket systems are similar except that a nuclear rocket utilizes a fission reactor as its heat source. This thermal energy can be utilized directly to heat propellants that are then accelerated through a nozzle to generate thrust or it can be used as part of an electricity generation system. The former approach is Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) and the latter is Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP), which is then used to power thruster technologies such as ion thrusters. This paper will explore a number of indirect-NTP engine cycle configurations using assumed performance constraints and requirements, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each cycle configuration, and present preliminary performance and size results. This paper is intended to lay the groundwork for future efforts in the development of a practical NTP system or a combined NTP/NEP hybrid system.

  16. High energy density propulsion systems and small engine dynamometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study investigates all possible methods of powering small unmanned vehicles, provides reasoning for the propulsion system down select, and covers in detail the design and production of a dynamometer to confirm theoretical energy density calculations for small engines. Initial energy density calculations are based upon manufacturer data, pressure vessel theory, and ideal thermodynamic cycle efficiencies. Engine tests are conducted with a braking type dynamometer for constant load energy density tests, and show true energy densities in excess of 1400 WH/lb of fuel. Findings and Conclusions. Theory predicts lithium polymer, the present unmanned system energy storage device of choice, to have much lower energy densities than other conversion energy sources. Small engines designed for efficiency, instead of maximum power, would provide the most advantageous method for powering small unmanned vehicles because these engines have widely variable power output, loss of mass during flight, and generate rotational power directly. Theoretical predictions for the energy density of small engines has been verified through testing. Tested values up to 1400 WH/lb can be seen under proper operating conditions. The implementation of such a high energy density system will require a significant amount of follow-on design work to enable the engines to tolerate the higher temperatures of lean operation. Suggestions are proposed to enable a reliable, small-engine propulsion system in future work. Performance calculations show that a mature system is capable of month long flight times, and unrefueled circumnavigation of the globe.

  17. Nuclear thermal propulsion transportation systems for lunar/Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Mcilwain, Melvin C.; Pellaccio, Dennis G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion technology development is underway at NASA and DoE for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to Mars, with initial near-earth flights to validate flight readiness. Several reactor concepts are being considered for these missions, and important selection criteria will be evaluated before final selection of a system. These criteria include: safety and reliability, technical risk, cost, and performance, in that order. Of the concepts evaluated to date, the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) derivative (NDR) is the only concept that has demonstrated full power, life, and performance in actual reactor tests. Other concepts will require significant design work and must demonstrate proof-of-concept. Technical risk, and hence, development cost should therefore be lowest for the concept, and the NDR concept is currently being considered for the initial SEI missions. As lighter weight, higher performance systems are developed and validated, including appropriate safety and astronaut-rating requirements, they will be considered to support future SEI application. A space transportation system using a modular nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) system for lunar and Mars missions is expected to result in significant life cycle cost savings. Finally, several key issues remain for NTR's, including public acceptance and operational issues. Nonetheless, NTR's are believed to be the 'next generation' of space propulsion systems - the key to space exploration.

  18. 2010 JPC Abstract: Ares I First Stage Propulsion System Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priskos, Alex S.

    2010-01-01

    In November 2005, NASA created the Constellation Program to develop an entirely new fleet of spacecraft to include the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and Ares V Cargo Launch vehicles. This mission architecture included the Orion capsule (which would be used to transport astronauts to low-Earth orbit and beyond), the Altair lunar lander, and an Earth departure stage. The Ares First Stage Team has made significant progress on the design of a propulsion system to meet the objectives of the Constellation Program. Work on a first stage element propulsion system capable of lofting a new fleet of spacecraft is well underway. To minimize technical risks and development costs, the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) of Shuttle served as a starting point in the design of a new motor that would meet the requirements of those new vehicles. This new propulsive element will provide greater total impulse utilizing a fifth segment to loft a safer, more powerful fleet of space flight vehicles. Performance requirements, basic architecture, and obsolescence issues were all factors in determining the new first stage element design and configuration. Early efforts focused on creating designs that would be capable of supporting the requisite loads and environments. While the motor casings are Shuttle legacy, because of Ares I s unique in-line configuration, the first stage will require entirely new forward structures (forward skirt, forward skirt extension, aeroshell, and frustum) and a modified systems tunnel. The use of composites facilitated a change in the geometry, which in turn afforded the ability to focus strength where it was needed without additional mass. The Ares First Stage rocket motor casting tooling was designed and built to achieve a propellant grain geometry that produces the specific required ballistic profile. The new propellant formulation is a polybutadiene acrylonitrile (PBAN) copolymer, which has been modified to attain the desired burn rate and retain adequate tailoring

  19. Probabilistic assessment of space nuclear propulsion system nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Ball, Richard D.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1994-01-01

    In assessing the reliability of a space nuclear propulsion system (SNPS) nozzle, uncertainties associated with the following design parameters were considered: geometry, boundary conditions, material behavior, and thermal and pressure loads. A preliminary assessment of the reliability was performed using NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress), a finite-element computer code developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The sensitivity of the nozzle reliability to the uncertainties in the random variables was quantified. With respect to the effective stress, preliminary results showed that the nozzle spatial geometry uncertainties have the most significant effect at low probabilities whereas the inner wall temperature has the most significant effect at higher probabilities.

  20. Effect of Correlation on Multi-Engine Rocket Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. R.; Breneman, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    A matter of great concern in the design and operation of multi-engine rocket propulsion systems is the effect of the premature shutdown of one engine on the vehicle. This probability that a premature shutdown will cause a vehicle loss is termed correlation. Based on airbreathing experiences as well as rocket engine data the best estimate of this correlation is made and then applied to the overall multi-engine reliability problem to demonstrate its potential effect. At this point, follow-on analyses are pointed out that illustrate how any potential failures that may cause a correlatable event can be eliminated; thus bringing this correlation to almost 0.

  1. Web-Based Distributed Simulation of Aeronautical Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Desheng; Follen, Gregory J.; Pavlik, William R.; Kim, Chan M.; Liu, Xianyou; Blaser, Tammy M.; Lopez, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    An application was developed to allow users to run and view the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) engine simulations from web browsers. Simulations were performed on multiple INFORMATION POWER GRID (IPG) test beds. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) was used for brokering data exchange among machines and IPG/Globus for job scheduling and remote process invocation. Web server scripting was performed by JavaServer Pages (JSP). This application has proven to be an effective and efficient way to couple heterogeneous distributed components.

  2. Shuttle Propulsion System Major Events and the Final 22 Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous lessons have been documented from the Space Shuttle Propulsion elements. Major events include loss of the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) on STS-4 and shutdown of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) during ascent on STS-51F. On STS-112 only half the pyrotechnics fired during release of the vehicle from the launch pad, a testament for redundancy. STS-91 exhibited freezing of a main combustion chamber pressure measurement and on STS-93 nozzle tube ruptures necessitated a low liquid level oxygen cut off of the main engines. A number of on pad aborts were experienced during the early program resulting in delays. And the two accidents, STS-51L and STS-107, had unique heritage in history from early program decisions and vehicle configuration. Following STS-51L significant resources were invested in developing fundamental physical understanding of solid rocket motor environments and material system behavior. And following STS-107, the risk of ascent debris was better characterized and controlled. Situational awareness during all mission phases improved, and the management team instituted effective risk assessment practices. The last 22 flights of the Space Shuttle, following the Columbia accident, were characterized by remarkable improvement in safety and reliability. Numerous problems were solved in addition to reduction of the ascent debris hazard. The Shuttle system, though not as operable as envisioned in the 1970's, successfully assembled the International Space Station (ISS). By the end of the program, the remarkable Space Shuttle Propulsion system achieved very high performance, was largely reusable, exhibited high reliability, and was a heavy lift earth to orbit propulsion system. During the program a number of project management and engineering processes were implemented and improved. Technical performance, schedule accountability, cost control, and risk management were effectively managed and implemented. Award fee contracting was implemented to provide

  3. Structural Integrity and Durability of Reusable Space Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A two-day conference on the structural integrity and durability of reusable space propulsion systems was held on 14 to 15 May 1991 at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Presentations were made by industry, university, and government researchers organized into four sessions: (1) aerothermodynamic loads; (2) instrumentation; (3) fatigue, fracture, and constitutive modeling; and (4) structural dynamics. The principle objectives were to disseminate research results and future plans in each of four areas. This publication contains extended abstracts and the visual material presented during the conference. Particular emphasis is placed on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and the SSME turbopump.

  4. ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

    2010-09-01

    The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with in-situ resource utilization. Significance to applications such as sample return missions is also considered. Key material selections for radioisotope encapsulation techniques are presented.

  5. Flight Test of Propulsion Monitoring and Diagnostic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabel, Steve; Elgersma, Mike

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this program was to perform flight tests of the propulsion monitoring and diagnostic system (PMDS) technology concept developed by Honeywell under the NASA Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiment (AGATE) program. The PMDS concept is intended to independently monitor the performance of the engine, providing continuous status to the pilot along with warnings if necessary as well as making the data available to ground maintenance personnel via a special interface. These flight tests were intended to demonstrate the ability of the PMDS concept to detect a class of selected sensor hardware failures, and the ability to successfully model the engine for the purpose of engine diagnosis.

  6. Advanced Models for Aeroelastic Analysis of Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Mahajan, Aparajit

    1996-01-01

    This report describes an integrated, multidisciplinary simulation capability for aeroelastic analysis and optimization of advanced propulsion systems. This research is intended to improve engine development, acquisition, and maintenance costs. One of the proposed simulations is aeroelasticity of blades, cowls, and struts in an ultra-high bypass fan. These ducted fans are expected to have significant performance, fuel, and noise improvements over existing engines. An interface program was written to use modal information from COBSTAN and NASTRAN blade models in aeroelastic analysis with a single rotation ducted fan aerodynamic code.

  7. A Comparison of Electric Propulsion Systems for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiehler, Douglas; Oleson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Earth-Mars trajectories for multiple solar-powered spacecraft configurations were generated using Hall and ion propulsion systems utilizing the Direct Trajectory Optimization Method. Payload and power trades versus trip time were examined. Performance was compared for purely interplanetary flight and interplanetary flight with estimated spiral in to Mars orbit. Evaluating current ion and Hall thruster technologies, similar payload masses were delivered by each at equivalent trip times, but with the Hall thruster operating at a power level 10 kilowatts, on average, less than the ion thruster. The power difference for equivalent payload delivered should result in a significant cost savings.

  8. Computer programs for calculating potential flow in propulsion system inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, N. O.; Button, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    In the course of designing inlets, particularly for VTOL and STOL propulsion systems, a calculational procedure utilizing three computer programs evolved. The chief program is the Douglas axisymmetric potential flow program called EOD which calculates the incompressible potential flow about arbitrary axisymmetric bodies. The other two programs, original with Lewis, are called SCIRCL AND COMBYN. Program SCIRCL generates input for EOD from various specified analytic shapes for the inlet components. Program COMBYN takes basic solutions output by EOD and combines them into solutions of interest, and applies a compressibility correction.

  9. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phase 2. [propulsion system performance, design analysis and technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A continuation of the NASA/P and WA study to evaluate various types of propulsion systems for advanced commercial supersonic transports has resulted in the identification of two very promising engine concepts. They are the Variable Stream Control Engine which provides independent temperature and velocity control for two coannular exhaust streams, and a derivative of this engine, a Variable Cycle Engine that employs a rear flow-inverter valve to vary the bypass ratio of the cycle. Both concepts are based on advanced engine technology and have the potential for significant improvements in jet noise, exhaust emissions and economic characteristics relative to current technology supersonic engines. Extensive research and technology programs are required in several critical areas that are unique to these supersonic Variable Cycle Engines to realize these potential improvements. Parametric cycle and integration studies of conventional and Variable Cycle Engines are reviewed, features of the two most promising engine concepts are described, and critical technology requirements and required programs are summarized.

  10. Control of propulsion systems for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiller, K. W.; Drain, D. I.

    1976-01-01

    The propulsion control requirements of supersonic aircraft are presented. Integration of inlet, engine, and airframe controls is discussed. The application of recent control theory developments to propulsion control design is described. Control component designs for achieving reliable, responsive propulsion control are also discussed.

  11. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballance, Judy; Johnson, Les; Rogacki, John R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta II Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) second stage. ProSEDS, which is planned to fly in 2001, will use the flight proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5km bare wire plus 10 km spectra or dyneema) from a Delta II second stage to achieve approximately 0.4N drag thrust. ProSEDS will utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. The ProSEDs instrumentation includes a Langmuir probe and Differential Ion Flux Probe, which will determine the characteristics of the ambient ionospheric plasma. Two Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers will be used (one on the Delta and one on the endmass) to help determine tether dynamics and to limit transmitter operations to occasions when the spacecraft is over selected ground stations, The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission, which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. An immediate application of ProSEDS technology is for the deorbit of spent satellites for orbital debris mitigation. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer and debris mitigation it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

  12. The Livingstone Model of a Main Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajwa, Anupa; Sweet, Adam; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Livingstone is a discrete, propositional logic-based inference engine that has been used for diagnosis of physical systems. We present a component-based model of a Main Propulsion System (MPS) and say how it is used with Livingstone (L2) in order to implement a diagnostic system for integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) for the Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX). We start by discussing the process of conceptualizing such a model. We describe graphical tools that facilitated the generation of the model. The model is composed of components (which map onto physical components), connections between components and constraints. A component is specified by variables, with a set of discrete, qualitative values for each variable in its local nominal and failure modes. For each mode, the model specifies the component's behavior and transitions. We describe the MPS components' nominal and fault modes and associated Livingstone variables and data structures. Given this model, and observed external commands and observations from the system, Livingstone tracks the state of the MPS over discrete time-steps by choosing trajectories that are consistent with observations. We briefly discuss how the compiled model fits into the overall PITEX architecture. Finally we summarize our modeling experience, discuss advantages and disadvantages of our approach, and suggest enhancements to the modeling process.

  13. Completely modular Thermionic Reactor Ion Propulsion System (TRIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.; Kikin, G. M.; Sawyer, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    The nuclear reactor powered ion propulsion system described is an advanced completely modularized system which lends itself to development of prototype and/or flight type components without the need for complete system tests until late in the development program. This modularity is achieved in all of the subsystems and components of the electric propulsion system including (1) the thermionic fuel elements, (2) the heat rejection subsystem (heat pipes), (3) the power conditioning modules, and (4) the ion thrusters. Both flashlight and external fuel type in-core thermionic reactors are considered as the power source. The thermionic fuel elements would be useful over a range of reactor power levels. Electrical heated acceptance testing in their flight configuration is possible for the external fuel case. Nuclear heated testing by sampling methods could be used for acceptance testing of flashlight fuel elements. The use of heat pipes for cooling the collectors and as a means of heat transport to the radiator allows early prototype or flight configuration testing of a small module of the heat rejection subsystem as opposed to full scale liquid metal pumps and radiators in a large vacuum chamber. The power conditioner (p/c) is arranged in modules with passive cooling.

  14. Validation of a Biofeedback System for Wheelchair Propulsion Training

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liyun; Kwarciak, Andrew M.; Rodriguez, Russell; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Richter, W. Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design and validation of the OptiPush Biofeedback System, a commercially available, instrumented wheel system that records handrim biomechanics and provides stroke-by-stroke biofeedback and targeting for 11 propulsion variables. Testing of the system revealed accurate measurement of wheel angle (0.02% error), wheel speed (0.06% error), and handrim loads. The maximum errors in static force and torque measurements were 3.80% and 2.05%, respectively. Measured forces were also found to be highly linear (0.985 < slope < 1.011) and highly correlated to the reference forces (r2 > .998). Dynamic measurements of planar forces (Fx and Fy) and axle torque also had low error (−0.96 N to 0.83 N for force and 0.10 Nm to 0.14 Nm for torque) and were highly correlated (r > .986) with expected force and torque values. Overall, the OptiPush Biofeedback System provides accurate measurement of wheel dynamics and handrim biomechanics and may be a useful tool for improving manual wheelchair propulsion. PMID:22110977

  15. Lunar lander and return propulsion system trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Moreland, Robert; Sanders, Gerald B.; Robertson, Edward A.; Amidei, David; Mulholland, John

    1993-01-01

    This trade study was initiated at NASA/JSC in May 1992 to develop and evaluate main propulsion system alternatives to the reference First Lunar Outpost (FLO) lander and return-stage transportation system concept. Thirteen alternative configurations were developed to explore the impacts of various combinations of return stage propellants, using either pressure or pump-fed propulsion systems and various staging options. Besides two-stage vehicle concepts, the merits of single-stage and stage-and-a-half options were also assessed in combination with high-performance liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen propellants. Configurations using an integrated modular cryogenic engine were developed to assess potential improvements in packaging efficiency, mass performance, and system reliability compared to non-modular cryogenic designs. The selection process to evaluate the various designs was the analytic hierarchy process. The trade study showed that a pressure-fed MMH/N2O4 return stage and RL10-based lander stage is the best option for a 1999 launch. While results of this study are tailored to FLO needs, the design date, criteria, and selection methodology are applicable to the design of other crewed lunar landing and return vehicles.

  16. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 4: OEPSS design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, George S.; Ziese, James M.; Farhangi, Shahram

    1990-01-01

    This study was initiated to identify operations problems and cost drivers for current propulsion systems and to identify technology and design approaches to increase the operational efficiency and reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, the results of the OEPSS study have been organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books. This volume describes three propulsion concepts that will simplify the propulsion system design and significantly reduce operational requirements. The concepts include: (1) a fully integrated, booster propulsion module concept for the ALS that avoids the complex system created by using autonomous engines with numerous artificial interfaces; (2) an LOX tank aft concept which avoids potentially dangerous geysering in long LOX propellant lines; and (3) an air augmented, rocket engine nozzle afterburning propulsion concept that will significantly reduce LOX propellant requirements, reduce vehicle size and simplify ground operations and ground support equipment and facilities.

  17. Data base for the prediction of airframe/propulsion system interference effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, O. J.; Perkins, E. W.; Kuhn, G. D.; Perkins, S. C., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Supersonic tactical aircraft with highly integrated jet propulsion systems were investigated. Primary attention was given to those interference effects which impact the external aerodynamics of the aircraft.

  18. Spacecraft Chemical Propulsion Systems at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center: Heritage and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McRight, Patrick S.; Sheehy, Jeffrey A.; Blevins, John A.

    2005-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is well known for its contributions to large ascent propulsion systems such as the Saturn V and the Space Shuttle. This paper highlights a lesser known but equally rich side of MSFC - its heritage in spacecraft chemical propulsion systems and its current capabilities for in-space propulsion system development and chemical propulsion research. The historical narrative describes the efforts associated with developing upper-stage main propulsion systems such as the Saturn S-IVB as well as orbital maneuvering and reaction control systems such as the S-IVB auxiliary propulsion system, the Skylab thruster attitude control system, and many more recent activities such as Chandra, the Demonstration of Automated Rendezvous Technology, X-37, the X-38 de-orbit propulsion system, the Interim Control Module, the US Propulsion Module, and several technology development activities. Also discussed are MSFC chemical propulsion research capabilities, along with near- and long-term technology challenges to which MSFC research and system development competencies are relevant.

  19. Design of Electrical Systems for Rocket Propulsion Test Facilities at the John C. Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Mark S.; Davis, Dawn M.; Bakker, Henry J.; Jensen, Scott L.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the design of the electrical systems that are required for the testing of rockets at the Rocket Propulsion Facility at NASA Stennis Space Center (NASA SSC). NASA/SSC s Mission in Rocket Propulsion Testing Is to Acquire Test Performance Data for Verification, Validation and Qualification of Propulsion Systems Hardware. These must be accurate reliable comprehensive and timely. Data acquisition in a rocket propulsion test environment is challenging: severe temporal transient dynamic environments, large thermal gradients, vacuum to 15 ksi pressure regimes SSC has developed and employs DAS, control systems and control systems and robust instrumentation that effectively satisfies these challenges.

  20. Modular Pulsed Plasma Electric Propulsion System for Cubesats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Andres Dono; Gazulla, Oriol Tintore; Teel, George Lewis; Mai, Nghia; Lukas, Joseph; Haque, Sumadra; Uribe, Eddie; Keidar, Michael; Agasid, Elwood

    2014-01-01

    Current capabilities of CubeSats must be improved in order to perform more ambitious missions. Electric propulsion systems will play a key role due to their large specific impulse. Compared to other propulsion alternatives, their simplicity allows an easier miniaturization and manufacturing of autonomous modules into the nano and pico-satellite platform. Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPTs) appear as one of the most promising technologies for the near term. The utilization of solid and non-volatile propellants, their low power requirements and their proven reliability in the large scale make them great candidates for rapid implementation. The main challenges are the integration and miniaturization of all the electronic circuitry into a printed circuit board (PCB) that can satisfy the strict requirements that CubeSats present. NASA Ames and the George Washington University have demonstrated functionality and control of three discrete Micro-Cathode Arc Thrusters (CAT) using a bench top configuration that was compatible with the ARC PhoneSat Bus. This demonstration was successfully conducted in a vaccum chamber at the ARC Environmental Test Laboratory. A new effort will integrate a low power Plasma Processing Unit and two plasma thrusters onto a single printed circuit board that will utilize less than 13 U of Bus volume. The target design will be optimized for the accommodation into the PhoneSatEDISON Demonstration of SmallSatellite Networks (EDSN) bus as it uses the same software interface application, which was demonstrated in the previous task. This paper describes the design, integration and architecture of the proposed propulsion subsystem for a planned Technology Demonstration Mission. In addition, a general review of the Pulsed Plasma technology available for CubeSats is presented in order to assess the necessary challenges to overcome further development.

  1. Investigation of propulsion system for large LNG ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, R. P.; Nik, Wan Mohd Norsani Wan

    2012-09-01

    Requirements to move away from coal for power generation has made LNG as the most sought after fuel source, raising steep demands on its supply and production. Added to this scenario is the gradual depletion of the offshore oil and gas fields which is pushing future explorations and production activities far away into the hostile environment of deep sea. Production of gas in such environment has great technical and commercial impacts on gas business. For instance, laying gas pipes from deep sea to distant receiving terminals will be technically and economically challenging. Alternative to laying gas pipes will require installing re-liquefaction unit on board FPSOs to convert gas into liquid for transportation by sea. But, then because of increased distance between gas source and receiving terminals the current medium size LNG ships will no longer remain economical to operate. Recognizing this business scenario shipowners are making huge investments in the acquisition of large LNG ships. As power need of large LNG ships is very different from the current small ones, a variety of propulsion derivatives such as UST, DFDE, 2-Stroke DRL and Combined cycle GT have been proposed by leading engine manufacturers. Since, propulsion system constitutes major element of the ship's capital and life cycle cost, which of these options is most suited for large LNG ships is currently a major concern of the shipping industry and must be thoroughly assessed. In this paper the authors investigate relative merits of these propulsion options against the benchmark performance criteria of BOG disposal, fuel consumption, gas emissions, plant availability and overall life cycle cost.

  2. Systems Analysis Initiated for All-Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    A multidisciplinary effort is underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop concepts for revolutionary, nontraditional fuel cell power and propulsion systems for aircraft applications. There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for electric propulsion as well as an auxiliary power unit to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. A systems analysis effort was initiated to assess potential concepts in an effort to identify those configurations with the highest payoff potential. Among the technologies under consideration are advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells, alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. Prior to this effort, the majority of fuel cell analysis done at Glenn was done for space applications. Because of this, a new suite of models was developed. These models include the hydrogen-air PEM fuel cell; internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell; balance-of-plant components (compressor, humidifier, separator, and heat exchangers); compressed gas, cryogenic, and liquid fuel storage tanks; and gas turbine/generator models for hybrid system applications. Initial mass, volume, and performance estimates of a variety of PEM systems operating on hydrogen and reformate have been completed for a baseline general aviation aircraft. Solid oxide/turbine hybrid systems are being analyzed. In conjunction with the analysis efforts, a joint effort has been initiated with Glenn s Computer Services Division to integrate fuel cell stack and component models with the visualization environment that supports the GRUVE lab, Glenn s virtual reality facility. The objective of this work is to provide an environment to assist engineers in the integration of fuel cell propulsion systems into aircraft and provide a better understanding of the interaction between system components and the resulting effect on the overall design and performance of the aircraft. Initially, three

  3. Summary of Propulsion System Needs in Support of Project Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil; Lorier, Terry; Baine, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In January 2004, the President of the United States established the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) to return man to the moon and ultimately to extend manned space travel to Mars. This paper will summarize the manned space flight liquid propulsion system needs in support of Project Constellation over the next 10 years. It will include all engine needs to return man to the moon. An overview of engines currently under contract, those baselined but not yet under contract, and those engine needs that hav.e yet to be initiated. Project Constellation includes the components as shown Figure 1. Liquid propulsion systems supporting the manned portion of these elements include the following: the Crew Exploration Vehicle named Orion (crew module reaction control system (CMRCS), service module Orion Main Engine (OME), service module auxiliary RCS, and service module reaction control system (SMRCS)), the Crew Launch Vehicle named Ares 1 (J2X upper stage, first stage roll control system, second stage reaction control system, and the Ares I-X roll control system), the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle named Ares V (RS68B first stage booster, J-2X upper stage, roll control systems, and the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) (powered by the same Ares V Upper Stage J-2X), and the Lunar Lander named Altair with both descent and ascent stages (lunar orbit insertion and descent main engine, ascent main engine, and attitude control systems for both stages). In addition, there may be additional engine needs for early demonstrators, but those will not be speculated on as part of this paper. Also, other portions of the VSE architecture, including the planned Orion abort demonstrations and the Lunar Precursor Robotic Program, are not addressed here as they either use solid motors or are focused on unmanned precursor missions.

  4. Resurrected DSCOVR Propulsion System - Challenges and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varia, Apurva P.; Scroggins, Ashley R.

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), formerly known as Triana, is a unique mission, not because of its objectives but because of how long it was in storage before launch. The Triana spacecraft was built in the late 90s and later renamed as DSCOVR, but the project was canceled before the spacecraft was launched. The nearly-complete spacecraft was put in controlled storage for 10 years, until the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provided funding for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to refurbish the spacecraft. On February 11, 2015, DSCOVR was launched on a Falcon 9 v1.1 from launch complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. This paper describes the DSCOVR propulsion system, which utilizes ten 4.5 N thrusters in blowdown mode to perform Midcourse Correction (MCC) maneuvers, Lissajous Orbit Insertion (LOI) at Lagrangian point L1, momentum unloading maneuvers, and station keeping delta-v maneuvers at L1. This paper also describes the testing that was performed, including susbsystem-level and spacecraft-level tests, to verify the propulsion system's integrity for flight. Finally, this paper concludes with a discussion of the challenges and lessons learned during this unique mission, including replacement of a bent thruster and installation of an auxiliary heater over existing propellant line heaters.

  5. Evaluation of a torch ignition system for propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Robert Joseph

    In recent years NASA has had a renewed interest in oxygen and methane as propellants for propulsion. The drive for this combination comes from several factors including ease of land-based storage, handling safety, in situ resource utilization, and a relatively clean burning process when compared with the widely used hypergolic propellants. This project is part of a larger goal of the Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (cSETR) to better understand all aspects of using LOX/CH4 propellants to create future hardware that is specially optimized for these propellants. This paper discusses the literature background and reasons that led to the design of a swirl torch igniter that uses a spark ignition system meant to be used as a main engine ignition source. The main goal is to create a flammability map for all phases of propellant inlet conditions to determine what temperature, pressure, and flow rate combinations will lead to reliable and repeatable ignition. This comes from the contemplation that the torch igniter will be fed from the main engine's tank boil off to eliminate the need for extra tanks and to reduce the overall weight of the propulsion system. The current data encompasses flammability maps for three out of six combinations as well as the discussion of design changes that lead to successful ignition of liquid propellants. Possible design changes as well as the goal of future tests are also discussed.

  6. Conceptual Design of an MTF Space Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Schmidt, G. R.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Turchi, P. J.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Most fusion propulsion concepts that have been investigated in the past employ some form of inertial or magnetic confinement separately, and are encumbered by the need for advanced drivers (e.g. laser) or steady-state magnetic confinement systems (e.g. superconductors) that have historically resulted in large, massive spacecraft designs. Here we present a comparatively new approach, Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF), which offers a nearer-term avenue for realizing the tremendous performance benefits of fusion propulsion. MTF attempts to combine the favorable attributes of both inertially and magnetically confined fusion to achieve both efficient and low-cost compressional plasma heating and energy confinement. The key advantage of MTF is its less demanding requirements for driver energy and power processing. Additional features include: 1) very low system masses and volumes, 2) relatively low waste heat, 3) substantial utilization of energy from product neutrons, 4) efficient, low peak-power drivers based on existing pulsed power technology, 5) very high Isp , specific power and thrust, and 6) relatively affordable R&D pathways. MTF overcomes many of the problems associated with traditional fusion techniques, thus making it particularly attractive for space applications. Isp greater than 50,000 seconds and specific powers greater than 20 kilowatts/kilogram appear feasible using relatively near-term pulse power and plasma gun technology.

  7. Conceptual Design of an MTF Space Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, G. R.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Turchi, P. J.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most fusion propulsion concepts that have been investigated in the past employ some form of inertial or magnetic confinement separately, and are encumbered by the need for advanced drivers (e.g. laser) or steady-state magnetic confinement systems (e.g. superconductors) that have historically resulted in large, massive spacecraft designs. Here we present a comparatively new approach, Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF), which offers a nearer-term avenue for realizing the tremendous performance benefits of fusion propulsion. MTF attempts to combine the favorable attributes of both inertially and magnetically confined fusion to achieve both efficient and low-cost compressional plasma heating and energy confinement. The key advantage of MTF is its less demanding requirements for driver energy and power processing. Additional features include: 1) very low system masses and volumes, 2) high gain and relatively low waste heat, 3) substantial utilization of energy from product neutrons, 4) efficient, low peak-power drivers based on existing pulsed power technology, and 5) very high I(sub sp), specific power and thrust. MTF overcomes many of the problems associated with traditional fusion techniques, thus making it particularly attractive for space applications. I(sub sp) greater than 50,000 seconds and specific powers greater than 20 kilowatts/kilogram appear feasible using relatively near-term pulse power and plasma gun technology.

  8. Controls and Health Management Technologies for Intelligent Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2004-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of an Intelligent Engine. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Engine are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This paper describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  9. Development of actively cooled panels for advanced propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, Brett K.

    1998-01-01

    Development of actively cooled flowpath panels for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) propulsion system was a critical task in the development plan of the air vehicle system. This task encompassed development of design requirements and loads, and component design and testing. In the early 90's the effort focused on six cooled panel designs based in five different materials (NARloy-Z, Haynes 188, MoRe, IN909, C/C and C/SiC), each satisfying requirements in a different area of the propulsion flowpath. Eventually, three of these designs were fabricated and tested. For these tests, two primary facilities were used. The first was a radiant heating facility at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), and the second, a vitiated air heater at General Applied Science Laboratories (GASL) Inc. In these facilities, tests were run to validate thermal and mechanical models and to demonstrate coating durability and effectiveness. Additional tests to assess the damage tolerance of these designs were planned but never run. These tests ultimately exposed strengths and weaknesses in the designs and the analysis methods.

  10. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Rote, D.M.; He, J.; Johnson, L.R.

    1994-01-04

    A propulsion and stabilization system are described comprising a series of coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance, and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension. 8 figures.

  11. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Rote, Donald M.; He, Jianliang; Johnson, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system comprising a series of FIG. 8 coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the FIG. 8 coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension.

  12. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Rote, D.M.; He, Jianliang; Johnson, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses a propulsion and stabilization system comprising a series of figure 8 coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the figure 8 coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension.

  13. A Brief Review of the Need for Robust Smart Wireless Sensor Systems for Future Propulsion Systems, Distributed Engine Controls, and Propulsion Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Behbahani, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Smart Sensor Systems with wireless capability operational in high temperature, harsh environments are a significant component in enabling future propulsion systems to meet a range of increasingly demanding requirements. These propulsion systems must incorporate technology that will monitor engine component conditions, analyze the incoming data, and modify operating parameters to optimize propulsion system operations. This paper discusses the motivation towards the development of high temperature, smart wireless sensor systems that include sensors, electronics, wireless communication, and power. The challenges associated with the use of traditional wired sensor systems will be reviewed and potential advantages of Smart Sensor Systems will be discussed. A brief review of potential applications for wireless smart sensor networks and their potential impact on propulsion system operation, with emphasis on Distributed Engine Control and Propulsion Health Management, will be given. A specific example related to the development of high temperature Smart Sensor Systems based on silicon carbide electronics will be discussed. It is concluded that the development of a range of robust smart wireless sensor systems are a foundation for future development of intelligent propulsion systems with enhanced capabilities.

  14. A real time Pegasus propulsion system model for VSTOL piloted simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, J. R.; Roth, S. P.; Creekmore, R.

    1981-01-01

    A Pegasus-Harrier propulsion system is selected as a baseline for developing mathematical modeling and simulation techniques for VSTOL. Initially, static and dynamic propulsion system characteristics are modeled in detail to form a nonlinear aerothermodynamic digital computer simulation of a Pegasus engine. From this high fidelity simulation, a real-time propulsion model is formulated by applying a piecewise linear state variable methodology. A hydromechanical and water injection control system is also simulated. It is noted that the real-time dynamic model includes the detail and flexibility required for evaluating critical control parameters and propulsion component limits over a limited flight envelope.

  15. On-Board Propulsion System Analysis of High Density Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of the performance and density of on-board propellants on science payload mass of Discovery Program class missions is evaluated. A propulsion system dry mass model, anchored on flight-weight system data from the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous mission is used. This model is used to evaluate the performance of liquid oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxylammonium nitrate, and oxygen difluoride oxidizers with hydrocarbon and metal hydride fuels. Results for the propellants evaluated indicate that the state-of-art, Earth Storable propellants with high performance rhenium engine technology in both the axial and attitude control systems has performance capabilities that can only be exceeded by liquid oxygen/hydrazine, liquid oxygen/diborane and oxygen difluoride/diborane propellant combinations. Potentially lower ground operations costs is the incentive for working with nontoxic propellant combinations.

  16. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-01-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  17. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-06-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  18. Integrated hydrogen/oxygen technology applied to auxiliary propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhardt, David L.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the Integrated Hydrogen/Oxygen Technology (IHOT) study was to determine if the vehicle/mission needs and technology of the 1990's support development of an all cryogenic H2/O2 system. In order to accomplish this, IHOT adopted the approach of designing Integrated Auxiliary Propulsion Systems (IAPS) for a representative manned vehicle; the advanced manned launch system. The primary objectives were to develop IAPS concepts which appeared to offer viable alternatives to state-of-the-art (i.e., hypergolic, or earth-storable) APS approaches. The IHOT study resulted in the definition of three APS concepts; two cryogenic IAPS, and a third concept utilizing hypergolic propellants.

  19. Liquid Metal Propellant Feed System for Plasma Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, T. E.

    2004-01-01

    High-power plasma thrusters that utilize molten metallic propellants (e.g., the Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerator) are currently being investigated as a primary propulsion option for in-space nuclear-electric systems. A critical component of the thruster is the propellant feed system, which must reliably and accurately pump liquid metal into the thruster discharge chamber. We present design details and calibration results for a compact liquid metal propellant feed system that contains no moving parts, for use in laboratory testing of plasma thrusters. Feed line pressure is maintained using an MHD flow coupler, and the flow rate is monitored using a simple voltage divider, which is submerged in the propellant reservoir. Results for lithium and gallium propellants show capability to meter propellant at flow rates up to 10 +/- 0.1 mg/s.

  20. Noble gas storage and delivery system for ion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, Dwight Douglas (Inventor); Ramos, Charlie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for storing and delivering a noble gas for an ion propulsion system where an adsorbent bearing a noble gas is heated within a storage vessel to desorb the noble gas which is then flowed through a pressure reduction device to a thruster assembly. The pressure and flow is controlled using a flow restrictor and low wattage heater which heats an adsorbent bed containing the noble gas propellant at low pressures. Flow rates of 5-60 sccm can be controlled to within about 0.5% or less and the required input power is generally less than 50 W. This noble gas storage and delivery system and method can be used for earth orbit satellites, and lunar or planetary space missions.

  1. Automated screening of propulsion system test data by neural networks, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, W. Andes; Whitehead, Bruce A.

    1992-01-01

    The evaluation of propulsion system test and flight performance data involves reviewing an extremely large volume of sensor data generated by each test. An automated system that screens large volumes of data and identifies propulsion system parameters which appear unusual or anomalous will increase the productivity of data analysis. Data analysts may then focus on a smaller subset of anomalous data for further evaluation of propulsion system tests. Such an automated data screening system would give NASA the benefit of a reduction in the manpower and time required to complete a propulsion system data evaluation. A phase 1 effort to develop a prototype data screening system is reported. Neural networks will detect anomalies based on nominal propulsion system data only. It appears that a reasonable goal for an operational system would be to screen out 95 pct. of the nominal data, leaving less than 5 pct. needing further analysis by human experts.

  2. Automotive Gas Turbine Power System-Performance Analysis Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    1997-01-01

    An open cycle gas turbine numerical modelling code suitable for thermodynamic performance analysis (i.e. thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, cycle state points, working fluid flowrates etc.) of automotive and aircraft powerplant applications has been generated at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Technology Division. The use this code can be made available to automotive gas turbine preliminary design efforts, either in its present version, or, assuming that resources can be obtained to incorporate empirical models for component weight and packaging volume, in later version that includes the weight-volume estimator feature. The paper contains a brief discussion of the capabilities of the presently operational version of the code, including a listing of input and output parameters and actual sample output listings.

  3. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS) will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The initial flight of ProSEDS is scheduled to fly aboard an Air Force Delta II rocket in the summer of 2002. In orbit, ProSEDS will deploy from a Delta II second stage. It will be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire cornected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. This photograph shows Less Johnson, a scientist at MSFC inspecting the nonconducting part of a tether as it exits a deployer similar to the one to be used in the ProSEDS experiment. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at MSFC.

  4. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie is of NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS). ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The tether would be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire tether connected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  5. Optimal propulsion system design for a micro quad rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.

    2011-12-01

    Currently a 50 gram micro quad rotor vehicle is being developed in collaboration with Daedalus Flight Systems. Optimization of the design at this scale requires a systematic study to be carried out to investigate the factors that affect the vehicles performance. Endurance of hovering vehicles at this scale is severely limited by the low efficiencies of their propulsion systems and rotor design and optimization has been performed in the past in an attempt to increase endurance, but proper coupling of the rotor with the motor has been lacking. The current study chose to investigate the factors that had the greatest effect on the vehicle's endurance through analysis of the propulsion system. Therefore, a coupled aerodynamic and structural analysis was carried out that incorporated low Reynolds number airfoil table lookup in order to predict micro rotor performance. A parametric study on rotor design was performed further determine the effect of different rotor designs on hover performance. The experiments performed showed that airfoil camber had the biggest impact on rotor efficiency and other factors such as leading edge shape, number of blades, max camber location, and blade planform taper only had negligible influence on performance. Systematic studies of the interactions between micro rotor blades operating in close proximity to each other were performed in order to determine the changes in rotor efficiency that might occur in a compact quad rotor design. Tests done on the effect of rotor separation demonstrated that there is a negligible interaction between rotors operating near each other. Brushless motors were also tested systematically and characterized by their torque, rpm, and efficiency. It was found that the maximum efficiency of the motors tested was only 60%, which has significant effects on the efficiency of the coupled system. A method for rotor and motor coupling was also established that utilized the motor efficiency curves and the known torque and

  6. Configuration Management File Manager Developed for Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    One of the objectives of the High Performance Computing and Communication Project's (HPCCP) Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is to provide a common and consistent way to manage applications, data, and engine simulations. The NPSS Configuration Management (CM) File Manager integrated with the Common Desktop Environment (CDE) window management system provides a common look and feel for the configuration management of data, applications, and engine simulations for U.S. engine companies. In addition, CM File Manager provides tools to manage a simulation. Features include managing input files, output files, textual notes, and any other material normally associated with simulation. The CM File Manager includes a generic configuration management Application Program Interface (API) that can be adapted for the configuration management repositories of any U.S. engine company.

  7. Recovery energy from ship propulsion system based on microelectronic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanoaia, F.; Nicorescu, M.

    2009-01-01

    All shipping companies are involved in the several management programs for increasing of efficiency of transportation on the sea. Optimal transportation is one of actual tendency in the world shipbuilding which requests a lot of human resources in design development respectively in construction of the ships. One direction with very good results is to use one part of propulsion energy for electrical power generating on board with multiple technical and economical advantages. Based on this, more resources in research and design are encouraged by development projects in order to increase the efficiency of described system. Even if, power-generating plant is one of classic ship mecatronics system, it must to be continuously perfected in the way of decreasing of specific fuel consumption as well in the increasing of the friableness and endurance.

  8. Energy Efficient Engine: Flight propulsion system final design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald Y.; Stearns, E. Marshall

    1985-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) is a NASA program to create fuel saving technology for future transport engines. The Flight Propulsion System (FPS) is the engine designed to achieve E3 goals. Achieving these goals required aerodynamic, mechanical and system technologies advanced beyond that of current production engines. These technologies were successfully demonstrated in component rigs, a core engine and a turbofan ground test engine. The design and benefits of the FPS are presented. All goals for efficiency, environmental considerations, and economic payoff were met. The FPS has, at maximum cruise, 10.67 km (35,000 ft), M0.8, standard day, a 16.9 percent lower installed specific fuel consumption than a CF6-50C. It provides an 8.6 percent reduction in direct operating cost for a short haul domestic transport and a 16.2 percent reduction for an international long distance transport.

  9. Energy efficient engine: Flight propulsion system preliminary analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. P.; Beitler, R. S.; Bobinger, R. O.; Broman, C. L.; Gravitt, R. D.; Heineke, H.; Holloway, P. R.; Klem, J. S.; Nash, D. O.; Ortiz, P.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of an advanced flight propulsion system (FPS), suitable for introduction in the late 1980's to early 1990's, was more fully defined. It was determined that all goals for efficiency, environmental considerations, and economics could be met or exceeded with the possible exception of NOx emission. In evaluating the FPS, all aspects were considered including component design, performance, weight, initial cost, maintenance cost, engine system integration (including nacelle), and aircraft integration considerations. The current FPS installed specific fuel consumption was reduced 14.2% from that of the CF6-50C reference engine. When integrated into an advanced, subsonic, study transport, the FPS produced a fuel burn savings of 15 to 23% and a direct operating cost reduction of 5 to 12% depending on the mission and study aircraft characteristics relative to the reference engine.

  10. Dawn Ion Propulsion System - Initial Checkout After Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Mikes, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The first 80 days after launch of the Dawn mission were dedicated to the checkout of the spacecraft with a major emphasis on the ion propulsion system. All three ion thrusters, all three thruster-gimbal assemblies, both power processor units, both digital interface and control units, and the entire xenon feed system were completely checked out and every component was found to be in good health. Direct thrust measurements agreed well with preflight expected values for all three thrusters over the entire throttle range. Thruster electrical operating parameters and power processor units efficiencies also agreed well with preflight expected values based on acceptance test data. Two of the three ion thrusters were fully checked out within 30 days after launch. Checkout of all three thrusters was completed 64 days after launch. Deterministic thrusting with the IPS began on December 17, 2007.

  11. Space propulsion and power beaming using millimeter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benford, J.; Dickinson, R.

    1995-11-01

    Past schemes for using beamed microwave power for space propulsion and providing power to space platforms have used microwaves below 10 GHz. Recent expansions of the high power microwave technology domain offer fundamental reassessment of the following missions: (1) location of orbital debris, (2) supplying power to loitering high-altitude airplanes, (3) satellite battery recharging, (4) imaging of asteroids, (5) orbit raising and transfer, (6) interplanetary probe launch to the outer planets and comets, and ultimately (7) launch into Earth orbit. This group of applications may be done by a ground-based system. The system would start small, being built for the near Earth missions, and be enlarged incrementally as the technology matures and confidence develops. Of particular interest are sources in the millimeter range where there are low loss atmospheric windows and MJ pulses are available in quasi-CW operation. A development scenario for these missions using millimeter wave technology is described.

  12. Space transportation systems, launch systems, and propulsion for the Space Exploration Initiative: Results from Project Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, T.; Hiland, J.; Orletsky, D.; Augenstein, B.; Miller, M.

    1991-01-01

    A number of transportation and propulsion options for Mars exploration missions are analyzed. As part of Project Outreach, RAND received and evaluated 350 submissions in the launch vehicle, space transportation, and propulsion areas. After screening submissions, aggregating those that proposed identical or nearly identical concepts, and eliminating from further consideration those that violated known physical princples, we had reduced the total number of viable submissions to 213. In order to avoid comparing such disparate things as launch vehicles and electric propulsion systems, six broad technical areas were selected to categorize the submissions: space transportation systems; earth-to-orbit (ETO) launch systems; chemical propulsion; nuclear propulsion; low-thrust propulsion; and other. To provide an appropriate background for analyzing the submissions, an extensive survey was made of the various technologies relevant to the six broad areas listed above. We discuss these technologies with the intent of providing the reader with an indication of the current state of the art, as well as the advances that might be expected within the next 10 to 20 years.

  13. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Leslie; Johnson, Les; Brown, Norman S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta 11 Expendable Launch Vehicle second stage. ProSEDS, which is planned on an Air Force GPS Satellite replacement mission in June 2002, will use the flight proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5 km bare wire plus 10 km non-conducting Dyneema) from a Delta 11 second stage to achieve approx. 0.4N drag thrust. ProSEDS will utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. The ProSEDS instrumentation includes Langmuir probes and Differential Ion Flux Probes, which will determine the characteristics of the ambient ionospheric plasma. Two Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers will be used (one on the Delta and one on the endmass) to help determine tether dynamics and to limit transmitter operations to occasions when the spacecraft is over selected ground stations. The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission, which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. An immediate application of ProSEDS technology is for the removal of spent satellites for orbital debris mitigation. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer and debris mitigation it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

  14. Design of an FMCW radar baseband signal processing system for automotive application.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jau-Jr; Li, Yuan-Ping; Hsu, Wei-Chiang; Lee, Ta-Sung

    2016-01-01

    For a typical FMCW automotive radar system, a new design of baseband signal processing architecture and algorithms is proposed to overcome the ghost targets and overlapping problems in the multi-target detection scenario. To satisfy the short measurement time constraint without increasing the RF front-end loading, a three-segment waveform with different slopes is utilized. By introducing a new pairing mechanism and a spatial filter design algorithm, the proposed detection architecture not only provides high accuracy and reliability, but also requires low pairing time and computational loading. This proposed baseband signal processing architecture and algorithms balance the performance and complexity, and are suitable to be implemented in a real automotive radar system. Field measurement results demonstrate that the proposed automotive radar signal processing system can perform well in a realistic application scenario. PMID:26811804

  15. Design of an FMCW radar baseband signal processing system for automotive application.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jau-Jr; Li, Yuan-Ping; Hsu, Wei-Chiang; Lee, Ta-Sung

    2016-01-01

    For a typical FMCW automotive radar system, a new design of baseband signal processing architecture and algorithms is proposed to overcome the ghost targets and overlapping problems in the multi-target detection scenario. To satisfy the short measurement time constraint without increasing the RF front-end loading, a three-segment waveform with different slopes is utilized. By introducing a new pairing mechanism and a spatial filter design algorithm, the proposed detection architecture not only provides high accuracy and reliability, but also requires low pairing time and computational loading. This proposed baseband signal processing architecture and algorithms balance the performance and complexity, and are suitable to be implemented in a real automotive radar system. Field measurement results demonstrate that the proposed automotive radar signal processing system can perform well in a realistic application scenario.

  16. Lessons Learned from the Development of the MSL Descent Stage Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guernsey, Carl S.; Weiss, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Development of the MSL descent stage propulsion system required a number of new propulsion hardware developments incorporating technologies not normally found in spacecraft propulsion subsystems. These developments were driven by the relatively high (25,000 N) maximum thrust level and the requirement for precise throttling of the main engines. This paper presents lessons learned in the course of these developments, including surprises and anomalies discovered at both the component and subsystem levels.

  17. Review of Special Standards in Quality Management Systems Audits in Automotive Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šurinová, Yulia

    2013-12-01

    Quality management systems (QMS) in automotive industry generally have several differences in comparison with other industrial branches. Different customers have their own specific requirements, including requirements for quality audits. Audits are one of the coretools of quality management to make the PDCA (Plan - Do - Check - Act) cycle work. As a matter of fact, compliance with ISO/TS 16949:2009 requirements is a condition for supplying the automotive industry. However, there are some standards which co-exist together with the ISO 9001 based management systems and technical specification for QMS in automotive ISO/TS16949. Which are those specific standards in automotive industry and what standard to use and why - those are the questions to be answered in this paper. The aim of the paper is to review what standards are used for audits implementation in automotive industry in the Slovak Republic, and why the organizations keep following those "extra" standards even if certification for ISO/TS 16949 is required by all the car makers. The paper is structured as follows: after short introduction to the topic and related terms, presented is our methodology. . In the third section, the achieved results are discussed. And finally, the principal findings of the paper, limitations and conclusions are presented.

  18. Thermal Management Tools for Propulsion System Trade Studies and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Kevin; Hodge, Ernie

    2011-01-01

    Energy-related subsystems in modern aircraft are more tightly coupled with less design margin. These subsystems include thermal management subsystems, vehicle electric power generation and distribution, aircraft engines, and flight control. Tighter coupling, lower design margins, and higher system complexity all make preliminary trade studies difficult. A suite of thermal management analysis tools has been developed to facilitate trade studies during preliminary design of air-vehicle propulsion systems. Simulink blocksets (from MathWorks) for developing quasi-steady-state and transient system models of aircraft thermal management systems and related energy systems have been developed. These blocksets extend the Simulink modeling environment in the thermal sciences and aircraft systems disciplines. The blocksets include blocks for modeling aircraft system heat loads, heat exchangers, pumps, reservoirs, fuel tanks, and other components at varying levels of model fidelity. The blocksets have been applied in a first-principles, physics-based modeling and simulation architecture for rapid prototyping of aircraft thermal management and related systems. They have been applied in representative modern aircraft thermal management system studies. The modeling and simulation architecture has also been used to conduct trade studies in a vehicle level model that incorporates coupling effects among the aircraft mission, engine cycle, fuel, and multi-phase heat-transfer materials.

  19. Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen propulsion system concepts for electric vehicles were compared to determine the differences in components and battery pack to achieve the basic performance level. Design tradeoffs were made for selected configurations to find the optimum component characteristics required to meet all performance goals. The anticipated performance when using nickel-zinc batteries rather than the standard lead-acid batteries was also evaluated. The two systems selected for the final conceptual design studies included a system with a flywheel energy storage unit and a basic system that did not have a flywheel. The flywheel system meets the range requirement with either lead-acid or nickel-zinc batteries and also the acceleration of zero to 89 km/hr in 15 s. The basic system can also meet the required performance with a fully charged battery, but, when the battery approaches 20 to 30 percent depth of discharge, maximum acceleration capability gradually degrades. The flywheel system has an estimated life-cycle cost of $0.041/km using lead-acid batteries. The basic system has a life-cycle cost of $0.06/km. The basic system, using batteries meeting ISOA goals, would have a life-cycle cost of $0.043/km.

  20. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling of the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle for AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Seiel, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report

  1. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling of the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle for AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Seidel, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the lowboom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural-aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report.

  2. 46 CFR 62.35-5 - Remote propulsion-control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... automatic propulsion-control locations. (e) Control system details. (1) Each operator control device must... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remote propulsion-control systems. 62.35-5 Section 62.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL...

  3. 46 CFR 62.35-5 - Remote propulsion-control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... remote and automatic propulsion-control locations. (e) Control system details. (1) Each operator control... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote propulsion-control systems. 62.35-5 Section 62.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL...

  4. 46 CFR 62.35-5 - Remote propulsion-control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... automatic propulsion-control locations. (e) Control system details. (1) Each operator control device must... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Remote propulsion-control systems. 62.35-5 Section 62.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL...

  5. 46 CFR 62.35-5 - Remote propulsion-control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... automatic propulsion-control locations. (e) Control system details. (1) Each operator control device must... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Remote propulsion-control systems. 62.35-5 Section 62.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL...

  6. 46 CFR 62.35-5 - Remote propulsion-control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... automatic propulsion-control locations. (e) Control system details. (1) Each operator control device must... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Remote propulsion-control systems. 62.35-5 Section 62.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL...

  7. Design issues for propulsion systems using metallized propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan; Rapp, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Metallized propellants are liquid propellants that contain metal particles. These particles are suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Aluminum is used as the metal additive. The addition of metal to conventional propellants can increase their specific impulse and their density over conventional propellants, and consequently, the payload delivered on Mars and lunar transportation vehicles, Earth-to-Orbit vehicles and upper stages for robotic planetary missions. Gelled fuels also provide increased safety during accidental propellant leakage or spills. To take full advantage of these potential performance increases, there are changes that must be made to the vehicle design. The differences are discussed between metallized propellant and traditional liquid propellants and their effect on the propulsion system design. These differences include the propellant density, mixture ratio, engine performance, and propellant rheology. Missions related to the Space Exploration Initiative are considered as design examples to illustrate these issues.

  8. Propulsion system study for Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. E.; Hirschkron, R.; Warren, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion system technologies applicable to the generation of commuter airline aircraft expected to enter service in the 1990's are identified and evaluated in terms of their impact on aircraft operating economics and fuel consumption. The most promising technologies in the areas of engine, propeller, gearbox, and nacelle design are recommended for future research. Each item under consideration is evaluated relative to a modern baseline engine, the General Electric CT7-5, in a current technology aircraft flying a fixed range and payload. The analysis is presented for two aircraft sizes (30 and 50 passenger), over a range of mission lengths (100 to 1100 km) and fuel costs ($264 to $396 per cu m).

  9. Proposal of Space Reactor for Nuclear Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Hidetaka; Nishiyama, Takaaki; Nakashima, Hideki

    Currently, the solar battery, the chemical cell, and the RI battery are used for the energy source in space. However, it is difficult for them to satisfy requirements for deep space explorations. Therefore, other electric power sources which can stably produce high electric energy output, regardless of distance from the sun, are necessary to execute such missions. Then, we here propose small nuclear reactors as power sources for deep space exploration, and consider a conceptual design of a small nuclear reactor for Nuclear Electric Propulsion System. It is found from nuclear analyses that the Gas-Cooled reactor could not meet the design requirement imposed on the core mass. On the other hand, a light water reactor is found to be a promising alternative to the Gas-Cooled reactor.

  10. Internal computational fluid mechanics on supercomputers for aerospace propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, Bernhard H.; Benson, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    The accurate calculation of three-dimensional internal flowfields for application towards aerospace propulsion systems requires computational resources available only on supercomputers. A survey is presented of three-dimensional calculations of hypersonic, transonic, and subsonic internal flowfields conducted at the Lewis Research Center. A steady state Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) solution of flow in a Mach 5.0, mixed compression inlet, a Navier-Stokes solution of flow in the vicinity of a terminal shock, and a PNS solution of flow in a diffusing S-bend with vortex generators are presented and discussed. All of these calculations were performed on either the NAS Cray-2 or the Lewis Research Center Cray XMP.

  11. Comprehensive Design Reliability Activities for Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, R. L.; Whitley, M. R.; Knight, K. C.

    2000-01-01

    This technical publication describes the methodology, model, software tool, input data, and analysis result that support aerospace design reliability studies. The focus of these activities is on propulsion systems mechanical design reliability. The goal of these activities is to support design from a reliability perspective. Paralleling performance analyses in schedule and method, this requires the proper use of metrics in a validated reliability model useful for design, sensitivity, and trade studies. Design reliability analysis in this view is one of several critical design functions. A design reliability method is detailed and two example analyses are provided-one qualitative and the other quantitative. The use of aerospace and commercial data sources for quantification is discussed and sources listed. A tool that was developed to support both types of analyses is presented. Finally, special topics discussed include the development of design criteria, issues of reliability quantification, quality control, and reliability verification.

  12. Cellular structure of detonation utilized in propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, XuDong; Fan, BaoChun; Gui, MingYue; Pan, ZhenHua

    2012-10-01

    How to confine a detonation in a combustor is a key issue of detonation applications in propulsion systems. Based on achieving schemes, detonations applied in the combustor, including pulse detonation wave (PDW), oblique detonation wave (ODW) and rotating detonation wave (RDW), are different from that described by the classic CJ theory in fine structures and its self-sustaining mechanisms. In this work, the cellular structures and flow fields of ODW and RDW were obtained numerically, and the fundamental characteristics and self-sustaining mechanisms of the detonations were analyzed and discussed. ODW front consists of three parts: the ZND-like front, the single-headed triple point front and the dual-headed triple point front. Cellular structures of RDW are heterogeneous, and the cell size near the outer wall is smaller than that near the inner wall.

  13. CARS Temperature and Species Measurements For Air Vehicle Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.; Grisch, Frederic; Klimenko, Dmitry; Clauss, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method has recently been used in the United States and Europe to probe several different types of propulsion systems for air vehicles. At NASA Langley Research Center in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure temperature and the mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in a supersonic combustor, representative of a scramjet engine. At Wright- Patterson Air Force Base in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure temperature and mole fractions of N2, O2 and CO2, in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled, gas-turbine combustor. At ONERA in France and the DLR in Germany researchers have used CARS to measure temperature and species concentrations in cryogenic LOX-H2 rocket combustion chambers. The primary aim of these measurements has been to provide detailed flowfield information for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation.

  14. Flow Analysis of X-34 Main Propulsion System Feedlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce; Garcia, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) configuration includes the liquid oxygen (LOX) and rocket propellant #1 (RP-1) feedlines. The flow analyses of these feedlines were performed and documented in previous studies. These analyses predicted a relatively low inlet distortion and nearly even flow split at the engine interface. The new design for these MPS feedlines has been recommended recently. The new configuration includes a tighter radius in the RP-1 feedline and a neck-down section between the gimbals. Conversely, the LOX feedline is very similar to the previous design. There were concerns that this new RP-1 configuration might generate a greater flow distortion at the engine interface than the original design. To resolve this issue, a Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to determine the flow Field in the new RP-1 feedlines.

  15. Solar Power System Analyses for Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Gefert, Leon P.

    1999-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) mission architectures are applicable to a wide range of NASA missions including human Mars exploration and robotic exploration of the outer planets. In this paper, we discuss the conceptual design and detailed performance analysis of an SEP stage electric power system (EPS). EPS performance, mass and area predictions are compared for several PV array technologies. Based on these studies, an EPS design for a 1-MW class, Human Mars Mission SEP stage was developed with a reasonable mass, 9.4 metric tons, and feasible deployed array area, 5800 sq m. An EPS was also designed for the Europa Mapper spacecraft and had a mass of 151 kg and a deployed array area of 106 sq m.

  16. 78 FR 48467 - Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Products and Service Solutions Division, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Department's notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on February 22, 2013 (Volume 78 FR... Employment and Training Administration Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Products and Service Solutions... workers of Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Product and Service Solutions Division, Original...

  17. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  18. Application of a SNTP-Based Propulsion/Power System to Solar System Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venetoklis, Peter S.; Nelson, Caroline V.; Gustafson, Eric R.

    1994-07-01

    A ``bi-modal'' nuclear propulsion and power system based on the United States Air Force's (USAF's)* Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) technology is applied to a set of high energy Solar system exploration missions. Performance comparisons are made to a baseline mission set developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory utilizing a nuclear electric propulsion system based on the SP-100 space power system. Orbiters and probes of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, a Grand Tour of the Galilean moons of Jupiter, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return, and a Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous mission are analyzed. The first five missions utilizing SP- 100 required a Shuttle-C or equivalent heavy lift launcher. With the bi-modal PBR system, the payload goals are deliverable in the same transit times, but on the smaller, existing Titan IV launcher. Furthermore, all optional payloads originally available only at increased transit time are accommodated. Available mass margins for these missions are 20%-85% of the power/propulsion system mass, providing significant robustness. The same missions were analyzed on a Titan III launcher in order to pursue further cost reductions. Substantial payload masses (1000 kg or more) were found to be available in all cases with reasonable transit times, coinciding well with the current ``lighter, faster, cheaper'' NASA philosophy.

  19. Fault self-diagnosis designing method of the automotive electronic control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yangyan; Yang, Zhigang; Fu, Xiaolin

    2005-12-01

    The fault self-diagnosis system is an important component of an the automotive electronic control system. Designers of automotive electronic control systems urgently require or need a complete understanding of the self-diagnosis designing method of the control system in order to apply it in practice. Aiming at this exigent need, self-diagnosis methods of designing sensors, electronic control unit (ECU), and actuators, which are the three main parts of automotive electronic control systems, are discussed in this paper. According to the fault types and characteristics of commonly used sensors, self-diagnosis designing methods of the sensors are discussed. Then fault diagnosis techniques of sensors utilizing signal detection and analytical redundancy are analysed and summarized respectively, from the viewpoint of the self-diagnosis designing method. Also, problems about failure self-diagnosis of ECU are analyzed here. For different fault types of an ECU, setting up a circuit monitoring method and a self-detection method of the hardware circuit are adopted respectively. Using these two methods mentioned above, a real-time and on-line technique of failure self-diagnosis is presented. Furthermore, the failure self-diagnosis design method of ECU are summarized. Finally, common faults of actuators are analyzed and the general design method of the failure self-diagnosis system is presented. It is suggested that self-diagnosis design methods relative to the failure of automotive electronic control systems can offer a useful approach to designers of control systems.

  20. Millwater Pumping System Optimization Improves Efficiency and Saves Energy at an Automotive Glass Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-03-01

    In 2001, the Visteon automotive glass plant in Nashville, Tennessee renovated its millwater pumping system. This improvement saved the plant $280,000 annually in energy and operating costs, reduced annual energy consumption by 3.2 million kilowatt-hours, reduced water consumption, improved system performance, and reduced use of water treatment chemicals.

  1. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 5: Fuel and Carburetion Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, Ludy

    This student guide is for Unit 5, Fuel and Carburetion Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting and servicing the fuel and carburetion systems. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 218-219. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  2. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 2: Charging System. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Roger L.; Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 2, Charging System, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with how to test the charging system. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 209-210. An introduction tells how this unit fits into the total tune-up service, defines…

  3. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting, testing, and servicing an emission control system. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 221-222. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  4. AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

  5. 46 CFR 121.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shutdown. (1) One of the means may be the ability to readily disconnect the remote engine control linkage to permit local operation. (2) A multiple engine vessel with independent remote propulsion control... propulsion engine, at the main pilot house control station, which is independent of the engine's...

  6. 46 CFR 121.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shutdown. (1) One of the means may be the ability to readily disconnect the remote engine control linkage to permit local operation. (2) A multiple engine vessel with independent remote propulsion control... propulsion engine, at the main pilot house control station, which is independent of the engine's...

  7. 46 CFR 121.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shutdown. (1) One of the means may be the ability to readily disconnect the remote engine control linkage to permit local operation. (2) A multiple engine vessel with independent remote propulsion control... propulsion engine, at the main pilot house control station, which is independent of the engine's...

  8. 46 CFR 121.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shutdown. (1) One of the means may be the ability to readily disconnect the remote engine control linkage to permit local operation. (2) A multiple engine vessel with independent remote propulsion control... propulsion engine, at the main pilot house control station, which is independent of the engine's...

  9. 46 CFR 121.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shutdown. (1) One of the means may be the ability to readily disconnect the remote engine control linkage to permit local operation. (2) A multiple engine vessel with independent remote propulsion control... propulsion engine, at the main pilot house control station, which is independent of the engine's...

  10. Interaction between propulsion and levitation system in the HTSC-permanent magnet conveyance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, S.; Nishio, R.; Hashikawa, T.

    2010-11-01

    The magnetically levitated conveyance system has been developed. Pinning force of high temperature bulk superconductors (HTSC) are used for the levitation and the guidance of the carrier. The magnetic rail is set on the ground, and flux from the magnetic rail is pinned by HTSCs on the carrier body. To increase the load weight, the repulsive force of the permanent magnet is introduced. The hybrid levitation system is composed. The repulsive force by the permanent magnet between the load stage on the carrier and the magnetic rail on the ground is used to support the load weight. As the load stage is connected to the carrier body by the linear sliders, the mass of the load weight does not act on the carrier body. The interaction between the electromagnet and the permanent magnet under the load stage generates the propulsion force. The electromagnet is constructed by the air core coils, and excited only when the load stage passes. The interaction between the propulsion and the levitation system is investigated. Disturbance of the propulsion system on the levitation and the guidance force is measured. The results show the influence of the propulsion electromagnet on the pinning force is little, and this propulsion system works effectively.

  11. Propulsion Health Management System Development for Affordable and Reliable Operation of Space Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Maul, William A.; Garg, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    The constraints of future Exploration Missions will require unique integrated system health management capabilities throughout the mission. An ambitious launch schedule, human-rating requirements, long quiescent periods, limited human access for repair or replacement, and long communication delays, all require an integrated approach to health management that can span distinct, yet interdependent vehicle subsystems, anticipate failure states, provide autonomous remediation and support the Exploration Mission from beginning to end. Propulsion is a critical part of any space exploration mission, and monitoring the health of the propulsion system is an integral part of assuring mission safety and success. Health management is a somewhat ubiquitous technology that encompasses a large spectrum of physical components and logical processes. For this reason, it is essential to develop a systematic plan for propulsion health management system development. This paper provides a high-level perspective of propulsion health management systems, and describes a logical approach for the future planning and early development that are crucial to planned space exploration programs. It also presents an overall approach, or roadmap, for propulsion health management system development and a discussion of the associated roadblocks and challenges.

  12. X-34 Main Propulsion System Design and Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champion, R. J., Jr.; Darrow, R. J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The X-34 program is a joint industry/government program to develop, test, and operate a small, fully-reusable hypersonic flight vehicle, utilizing technologies and operating concepts applicable to future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) systems. The vehicle will be capable of Mach 8 flight to 250,000 feet altitude and will demonstrate an all composite structure, composite RP-1 tank, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Fastrac engine, and the operability of an advanced thermal protection systems. The vehicle will also be capable of carrying flight experiments. MSFC is supporting the X-34 program in three ways: Program Management, the Fastrac engine as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE), and the design of the Main Propulsion System (MPS). The MPS Product Development Team (PDT) at MSFC is responsible for supplying the MPS design, analysis, and drawings to Orbital. The MPS consists of the LOX and RP-1 Fill, Drain, Feed, Vent, & Dump systems and the Helium & Nitrogen Purge, Pressurization, and Pneumatics systems. The Reaction Control System (RCS) design was done by Orbital. Orbital is the prime contractor and has responsibility for integration, procurement, and construction of all subsystems. The paper also discusses the design, operation, management, requirements, trades studies, schedule, and lessons learning with the MPS and RCS designs.

  13. Integrated System Modeling for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Stephen W.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has long been identified as a key enabling technology for space exploration beyond LEO. From Wernher Von Braun's early concepts for crewed missions to the Moon and Mars to the current Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 and recent lunar and asteroid mission studies, the high thrust and specific impulse of NTP opens up possibilities such as reusability that are just not feasible with competing approaches. Although NTP technology was proven in the Rover / NERVA projects in the early days of the space program, an integrated spacecraft using NTP has never been developed. Such a spacecraft presents a challenging multidisciplinary systems integration problem. The disciplines that must come together include not only nuclear propulsion and power, but also thermal management, power, structures, orbital dynamics, etc. Some of this integration logic was incorporated into a vehicle sizing code developed at NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) in the early 1990s called MOMMA, and later into an Excel-based tool called SIZER. Recently, a team at GRC has developed an open source framework for solving Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) problems called OpenMDAO. A modeling approach is presented that builds on previous work in NTP vehicle sizing and mission analysis by making use of the OpenMDAO framework to enable modular and reconfigurable representations of various NTP vehicle configurations and mission scenarios. This approach is currently applied to vehicle sizing, but is extensible to optimization of vehicle and mission designs. The key features of the code will be discussed and examples of NTP transfer vehicles and candidate missions will be presented.

  14. Design, operation, and critical issues of the U.S. Space Station Freedom propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morano, Joseph S.; Henderson, John B.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Space Station Freedom Manned Base (SSFMB) propulsion system is a gaseous hydrogen/oxygen-based system for primary reboost, attitude control, and station contingencies using electrolyzed water as a propellant. A secondary propulsion reboost system employs multipropellant resistojets which utilize the various waste gases generated during normal station operations. The hydrogen/oxygen propulsion system is comprised of several modules which contain thrusters, propellant storage tanks, regulation subsystems, water electrolysis units, electronic controls, and fluid plumbing. The resistojet system is comprised of one module containing the resistojets, regulators, electronic controls, and fluid plumbing. The waste gas propellant storage takes place in the Fluid Management System.

  15. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This report describes progress and work performed during January through June 1984 to develop technology for an Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) engine for automotive applications. Work performed during the first eight periods initiated design and analysis, ceramic development, component testing, and test bed evaluation. Project effort conducted under this contract is part of the DOE Gas Turbine Highway Vehicle System Program. This program is oriented at providing the United States automotive industry the high-risk long-range techology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact. Technology resulting from this program is intended to reach the marketplace by the early 1990s.

  16. Space station integrated propulsion and fluid systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, L.; Bergman, D.; Bicknell, B.; Wilson, S.

    1987-01-01

    This Databook addresses the integration of fluid systems of the Space Station program. It includes a catalog of components required for the Space Station elements fluid systems and information on potential hardware commonality. The components catalog is in four parts. The first part lists the components defined for all the fluid systems identified in EP 2.1, Space Station Program Fluid Systems Configuration Databook. The components are cross-referenced in three sections. Section 2.1 lists the components by the fluid system in which they are used. Section 2.2 lists the components by type. Section 2.3 lists by the type of fluid media handled by the component. The next part of the catalog provides a description of the individual component. This section (2.4) is made up of data retrieved from Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace component data base. The third part is an assessment of propulsion hardware technology requirements. Section 2.5 lists components identified during the study as requiring development prior to flight qualification. Finally, Section 2.6 presents the results of the evaluation of commonality between components. The specific requirements of each component have been reviewed and duplication eliminated.

  17. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  18. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries) were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  19. Beyond Electric Propulsion: Non-Propulsive Benefits of Nuclear Power for the Exploration of the Outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrin, Robert M.

    1994-07-01

    In the past, most studies dealing with the benefits of space nuclear electric power systems for solar system exploration have focused on the potential of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) to enhance missions by increasing delivered payload, decreasing LEO mass, or reducing trip time. While important, such mission enhancements have failed to go to the heart of the concerns of the scientific community supporting interplanetary exploration. To put the matter succinctly, scientists don't buy delivered payload - they buy data returned. With nuclear power we can increase both the quantity of data returned, by enormously increasing data communication rates, and the quality of data by enabling a host of active sensing techniques otherwise impossible. These non-propulsive mission enhancement capabilities of space nuclear power have been known in principle for many years, but they have not been adequately documented. As a result, support for the development of space nuclear power by the interplanetary exploration community has been much less forceful than it might otherwise be. In this paper we shall present mission designs that take full advantage of the potential mission enhancements offered by space nuclear power systems in the 10 to 100 kWe range, not just for propulsion, but to radically improve, enrich, and expand the science return itself. Missions considered include orbiter missions to each of the outer planets. It will be shown that be using hybrid trajectories combining chemical propulsion with NEP and (in certain cases) gravity assists, that it is possible, using a Titan IV-Centaur launch vehicle, for high-powered spacecraft to be placed in orbit around each of the outer planets with electric propulsion burn times of less than 4 years. Such hybrid trajectories therefore make the outer solar-system available to near-term nuclear electric power systems. Once in orbit, the spacecraft will utilize multi-kilowatt communication systems, similar to those now employed by

  20. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report covers the following main topics: 1) Updated Reference Mission. The reference ProSEDS (Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System) mission is evaluated for an updated launch date in the Summer of 2002 and for the new 80-s current operating cycle. Simulations are run for nominal solar activity condition at the time of launch and for extreme conditions of dynamic forcing. Simulations include the dynamics of the system, the electrodynamics of the bare tether, the neutral atmosphere and the thermal response of the tether. 2) Evaluation of power delivered by the tether system. The power delivered by the tethered system during the battery charging mode is computed under the assumption of minimum solar activity for the new launch date. 3) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations. A number of new deployment profiles were derived based on the latest results of the deployment ground tests. The flight profile is then derived based on the friction characteristics obtained from the deployment tests of the F-1 tether. 4) Analysis/estimation of deployment flight data. A process was developed to estimate the deployment trajectory of the endmass with respect to the Delta and the final libration amplitude from the data of the deployer turn counters. This software was tested successfully during the ProSEDS mission simulation at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) EDAC (Environments Data Analysis Center).