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Sample records for automotive sensor manufacturing

  1. Automotive vehicle sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  2. Automotive Sensors and MEMS Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonomura, Yutaka

    - Automotive sensors are used for emission gas purification, energy conservation, car kinematic performance, safety and ITS (intelligent transportation system). The comparison of the sensor characteristics was made for their application area. Many kinds of the principles are applied for the sensors. There are two types of sensors, such as physical and chemical one. Many of the automotive sensors are physical type such as mechanical sensors. And a gas sensor is a chemical type. The sensors have been remarkably developed with the advancement of the MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology. In this paper, gas, pressure, combustion pressure, acceleration, magnetic, and angular rate sensors for automotive use are explained with their features. The sensors are key devices to control cars in the engine, power train, chassis and safety systems. The environment resistance, long term reliability, and low cost are required for the automotive sensors. They are very hard to be resolved. However, the sensor technology contributes greatly to improving global environment, energy conservation, and safety. The applications of automotive sensors will be expanded with the automobile developments.

  3. Robust optical sensors for safety critical automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Locht, Cliff; De Knibber, Sven; Maddalena, Sam

    2008-02-01

    Optical sensors for the automotive industry need to be robust, high performing and low cost. This paper focuses on the impact of automotive requirements on optical sensor design and packaging. Main strategies to lower optical sensor entry barriers in the automotive market include: Perform sensor calibration and tuning by the sensor manufacturer, sensor test modes on chip to guarantee functional integrity at operation, and package technology is key. As a conclusion, optical sensor applications are growing in automotive. Optical sensor robustness matured to the level of safety critical applications like Electrical Power Assisted Steering (EPAS) and Drive-by-Wire by optical linear arrays based systems and Automated Cruise Control (ACC), Lane Change Assist and Driver Classification/Smart Airbag Deployment by camera imagers based systems.

  4. REVIEW ARTICLE: Sensors for automotive telematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J. D.; Austin, L.

    2000-02-01

    This article reviews the current practice in sensors and sensor applications for automotive and traffic-control systems. Sensors to control engine fuelling, ignition and transmission (known as the powertrain) are reviewed and the likely course of future development is discussed in the light of regulatory and market requirements as well as trends in sensor design and manufacture. Sensor needs for suspension, braking and control of traction are also reviewed and the likely introduction of wheel and tyre sensors to enhance driving safety is discussed. The recent trend towards vehicle-mounted devices to sense the vehicle's environment (such as radar, optical, ultrasound, capacitive and image-based systems) and the implications of the introduction of safety-critical automotive systems such as adaptive cruise control are discussed. Sensors for initiating the deployment of safety systems such as airbags, together with transducers for disconnecting fuel pumps and vehicle batteries in the event of a crash, are reviewed. The paper includes a brief discussion of highway-based sensors for measuring vehicle speed and presence and concludes with a discussion of the likely future developments in the field.

  5. Thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Masaki; Nakajima, Yasushi; Saito, Masanori; Satou, Fuminori; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes three low-cost thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors having a 1,536, 2,304, and 10,800 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) respectively and two experimental automotive application systems. The FPAs are basically fabricated with a conventional IC process and micromachining technologies and have a low cost potential. Among these sensors, the sensor having 2,304 elements provide high responsivity of 5,500 V/W and a very small size with adopting a vacuum-sealed package integrated with a wide-angle ZnS lens. One experimental system incorporated in the Nissan ASV-2 is a blind spot pedestrian warning system that employs four infrared imaging sensors. This system helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person"s body. The system can also prevent the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian. The other is a rearview camera system with an infrared detection function. This system consists of a visible camera and infrared sensors, and it helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a rear blind spot. Various issues that will need to be addressed in order to expand the automotive applications of IR imaging sensors in the future are also summarized. This performance is suitable for consumer electronics as well as automotive applications.

  6. Forward-looking automotive radar sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganci, Paul; Potts, Steven; Okurowski, Frank

    1995-12-01

    For intelligent cruise control (ICC) and forward looking collision warning systems to be successful products they must provide robust performance in a complex roadway environment. Inconveniences caused by dropped tracks and nuisance alarms will not be tolerated by consumers, and would likely result in rejection of these new technologies in the marketplace. The authors report on a low-cost automotive millimeter wave (MMW) radar design which addresses shortcomings associated with previously reported ICC system implementations. The importance of the sensor's ability to identify and separately track all obstacles in the field of view is discussed. The applicability of the MMW's FM-CW sensor implementation to collision warning systems is also discussed.

  7. Automotive MEMS sensors based on additive technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, A. A.; Sokolov, A. V.; Pisliakov, A. V.; Oblov, K. Yu; Samotaev, N. N.; Kim, V. P.; Tkachev, S. V.; Gubin, S. P.; Potapov, G. N.; Kokhtina, Yu V.; Nisan, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The application of MEMS devices is one of the recent trends in sensor technology. However, traditional silicon MEMS have some intrinsic limitations, when applied to the monitoring of high temperature/high humidity processes. Thin ceramic films of alumina, zirconia or LTCC fixed on rigid frame made of the same ceramic material in combination with ink and aerosol jet printing of functional materials (heaters, temperature, pressure, gas sensitive elements) provides a cheap, flexible, and high-performance alternative for silicon MEMS devices used as gas sensors, gas flowmeters, lambda probes, bolometric matrices for automotive and general application.

  8. 76 FR 72674 - Approval for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Subzone 29F, Hitachi Automotive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ..., Hitachi Automotive Systems Americas, Inc., (Automotive Components), Harrodsburg, KY Pursuant to its... manufacturing authority on behalf of Hitachi Automotive Systems Americas, Inc. (Hitachi), operator of...

  9. Industrial waste recycling at an automotive component manufacturing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffurs, J.A.; Hubler, R.L.; Behaylo, D.P.

    1995-09-01

    The AC Rochester Division of General Motors Corporation (GM) develops and manufacturers automotive components for engine management systems at nine facilities in the US. Its largest facility is located in flint, Michigan, and is known as the Flint East site. The Flint East site covers nearly two square miles and consists of several plants housing manufacturing operations for spark plugs, glow plugs, oil filters, air filters, air cleaner assemblies, fuel pumps, fuel level sensors, cruise control systems, and other components. The volume and diversity of the scrap and wastes generated from these operations require skillful waste management to provide environmentally safe and cost-effective disposal options. Over time, a full-scale recycling and waste disposal operation evolved at Flint East. The operation has grown over the past thirty years to handle over 68,000 tons of material annually. Flint East`s program is regarded as a model industrial waste reduction and recycling operation. Elements of the program are presented here as a guide to establishing a successful industrial recycling program.

  10. Rain Simulation for the Test of Automotive Surround Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasirlioglu, Sinan; Riener, Andreas; Doric, Igor

    2017-04-01

    The WHO Global Health Observatory data indicates that over 1.25 million people die in traffic accidents annually. To save lives, car manufacturers spend lot of efforts on the development of novel safety systems aiming to avoid or mitigate accidents and provide maximum protection for vehicle occupants as well as vulnerable road users. All the safety features mainly rely on data from surround sensors such as radar, lidar and camera and intelligent vehicles today use these environmental data for instant decision making and vehicle control. As already small errors in sensor data measurements could lead to catastrophes like major injuries or road traffic fatalities, it is of utmost importance to ensure high reliability and accuracy of sensors and safety systems. This work focuses on the influence of environmental factors such as rain conditions, as it is known that rain drops scatter the electromagnetic waves. The result is incorrect measurements with a direct negative impact on environment detection. To identify potential problems of sensors under varying environmental conditions, systems are today tested in real-world settings with two main problems: First, tests are time-consuming and second, environmental conditions are not reproducible. Our approach to test the influence of weather on automotive sensors is to use an indoor rain simulator. Our artificial rain maker, installed at CARISSMA (Center of Automotive Research on Integrated Safety Systems and Measurement Area), is parametrized with rain characteristics measured in the field using a standard disdrometer. System behavior on artificial rain is compared and validated with natural rainfall. With this simulator it is finally possible to test environmental influence at various levels and under reproducible conditions. This saves lot of efforts required for the test process itself and furthermore has a positive impact on the reliability of sensor systems due to the fact that test driven development is enabled.

  11. Cobalt asthma in metalworkers from an automotive engine valve manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Walters, G I; Robertson, A S; Moore, V C; Burge, P S

    2014-07-01

    Cobalt asthma has previously been described in cobalt production workers, diamond polishers and glassware manufacturers. To describe a case series of occupational asthma (OA) due to cobalt, identified at the Birmingham Heartlands Occupational Lung Disease Unit, West Midlands, UK. Cases of cobalt asthma from a West Midlands' manufacturer of automotive engine valves, diagnosed between 1996 and 2005, were identified from the SHIELD database of OA. Case note data on demographics, employment status, asthma symptoms and diagnostic tests, including spirometry, peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements, skin prick testing (SPT) and specific inhalational challenge (SIC) tests to cobalt chloride, were gathered, and descriptive statistics used to illustrate the data. The natural history of presentations has been described in detail, as well as a case study of one of the affected workers. Fourteen metalworkers (86% male; mean age 44.9 years) were diagnosed with cobalt asthma between 1996 and 2005. Workers were principally stellite grinders, stellite welders or machine setter-operators. All workers had positive Occupational Asthma SYStem analyses of serial PEF measurements, and sensitization to cobalt chloride was demonstrated in nine workers, by SPT or SIC. We have described a series of 14 workers with cobalt asthma from the automotive manufacturing industry, with objective evidence for sensitization. Health care workers should remain vigilant for cobalt asthma in the automotive manufacturing industry. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Defective Reduction in Automotive Headlining Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittichai, Saranya; Chutima, Parames

    2016-05-01

    In an automobile parts manufacturing company, currently the headlining process has a lot of wastes resulting in a high cost of quality per year. In this paper, the Six Sigma method is used to reduce the defects in the headlining process. Cause-and-effect matrix and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) were adopted to screen the factors that affect the quality of headlining. The 2k-1 fractional factorials design was also use to determine the potential preliminary root causes. The full factorial experiments was conducted to identify appropriate settings of the significant factors. The result showed that the process can reduce the defects of headlining from 12.21% to 6.95%

  13. Acute traumatic injuries in automotive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Warner, M; Baker, S P; Li, G; Smith, G S

    1998-10-01

    Motor vehicle manufacturing, with its varied tasks, challenging work environment, and diverse worker populations, presents many hazards to employees. This study examined routinely collected surveillance data from a major motor vehicle manufacturer to identify injury types, high-risk workers, causes of injury, and factors associated with work loss. Injury and personnel data were used to calculate injury rates. Injury data were from the routinely collected medical and safety surveillance system on occupational injuries. The number of persons working in the plants was estimated using year-end personnel reports. Key word searches supplementing the analyses provided insight into the specific circumstances of injury. The most common injuries were sprains/strains (39% of the total), lacerations (22%), and contusions (15%). Forty-nine percent of the injuries resulted in one or more lost or restricted workdays; 25% resulted in 7 or more lost or restricted workdays. The injuries most likely to result in work loss were amputations, hernias and fractures. Sprains/strains accounted for 65% of all lost workdays. Injury rates ranged from 13.8 per 100 person-years at stamping plants to 28.7 at parts depots. Even within similar types of plants, injury rates varied widely, with a twofold difference among the individual assembly plants in overall injury rates. Injury surveillance systems with descriptive data on injury events shed light on the circumstances under which certain types of injuries occur and can provide the basis for preventive interventions. Sources of variation and potential biases are discussed, providing guidance for those interested in designing and using surveillance systems for occupational injuries.

  14. 77 FR 60672 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 99, Fisker Automotive, Inc., (Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 99, Fisker Automotive..., has requested manufacturing authority on behalf of Fisker Automotive, Inc., within FTZ 99--Site 2... restriction listed below; Now, therefore, the Board hereby orders: The application for manufacturing...

  15. Manufacturing Aspects of Advanced Polymer Composites for Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Klaus; Almajid, Abdulhakim A.

    2013-04-01

    Composite materials, in most cases fiber reinforced polymers, are nowadays used in many applications in which light weight and high specific modulus and strength are critical issues. The constituents of these materials and their special advantages relative to traditional materials are described in this paper. Further details are outlined regarding the present markets of polymer composites in Europe, and their special application in the automotive industry. In particular, the manufacturing of parts from thermoplastic as well as thermosetting, short and continuous fiber reinforced composites is emphasized.

  16. Chopper Gun Trajectory Optimization for Spray Forming in Automotive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Heping; Xi, Ning; Sheng, Weihua; Chen, Yifan; Dahl, Jeffrey

    2004-06-01

    Automatic chopper gun trajectory generation for spray forming is highly desirable for today's automotive manufacturing. Generating chopper gun trajectories for free-form surfaces to satisfy thickness requirements is still highly challenging due to the complex geometry of free-form surfaces. A CAD-guided chopper gun trajectory generation system for free-form surfaces has been developed in our previous work. A complex surface has to be divided into several patches to satisfy the given constraints. Optimization algorithms are developed to integrate the trajectories of patches to form a trajectory for the free-form surface. A thickness verification method is also provided to verify the generated trajectories. The results of experiments and simulations have shown that the trajectory generation system achieves satisfactory performance. This trajectory generation method can also be applied in many other CAD-guided robot trajectory planning applications.

  17. The digital compensation technology system for automotive pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bin; Li, Quanling; Lu, Yi; Luo, Zai

    2011-05-01

    Piezoresistive pressure sensor be made of semiconductor silicon based on Piezoresistive phenomenon, has many characteristics. But since the temperature effect of semiconductor, the performance of silicon sensor is also changed by temperature, and the pressure sensor without temperature drift can not be produced at present. This paper briefly describe the principles of sensors, the function of pressure sensor and the various types of compensation method, design the detailed digital compensation program for automotive pressure sensor. Simulation-Digital mixed signal conditioning is used in this dissertation, adopt signal conditioning chip MAX1452. AVR singlechip ATMEGA128 and other apparatus; fulfill the design of digital pressure sensor hardware circuit and singlechip hardware circuit; simultaneously design the singlechip software; Digital pressure sensor hardware circuit is used to implementing the correction and compensation of sensor; singlechip hardware circuit is used to implementing to controll the correction and compensation of pressure sensor; singlechip software is used to implementing to fulfill compensation arithmetic. In the end, it implement to measure the output of sensor, and contrast to the data of non-compensation, the outcome indicates that the compensation precision of compensated sensor output is obviously better than non-compensation sensor, not only improving the compensation precision but also increasing the stabilization of pressure sensor.

  18. The digital compensation technology system for automotive pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bin; Li, Quanling; Lu, Yi; Luo, Zai

    2010-12-01

    Piezoresistive pressure sensor be made of semiconductor silicon based on Piezoresistive phenomenon, has many characteristics. But since the temperature effect of semiconductor, the performance of silicon sensor is also changed by temperature, and the pressure sensor without temperature drift can not be produced at present. This paper briefly describe the principles of sensors, the function of pressure sensor and the various types of compensation method, design the detailed digital compensation program for automotive pressure sensor. Simulation-Digital mixed signal conditioning is used in this dissertation, adopt signal conditioning chip MAX1452. AVR singlechip ATMEGA128 and other apparatus; fulfill the design of digital pressure sensor hardware circuit and singlechip hardware circuit; simultaneously design the singlechip software; Digital pressure sensor hardware circuit is used to implementing the correction and compensation of sensor; singlechip hardware circuit is used to implementing to controll the correction and compensation of pressure sensor; singlechip software is used to implementing to fulfill compensation arithmetic. In the end, it implement to measure the output of sensor, and contrast to the data of non-compensation, the outcome indicates that the compensation precision of compensated sensor output is obviously better than non-compensation sensor, not only improving the compensation precision but also increasing the stabilization of pressure sensor.

  19. Vision-based traffic data collection sensor for automotive applications.

    PubMed

    Llorca, David F; Sánchez, Sergio; Ocaña, Manuel; Sotelo, Miguel A

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a complete vision sensor onboard a moving vehicle which collects the traffic data in its local area in daytime conditions. The sensor comprises a rear looking and a forward looking camera. Thus, a representative description of the traffic conditions in the local area of the host vehicle can be computed. The proposed sensor detects the number of vehicles (traffic load), their relative positions and their relative velocities in a four-stage process: lane detection, candidates selection, vehicles classification and tracking. Absolute velocities (average road speed) and global positioning are obtained after combining the outputs provided by the vision sensor with the data supplied by the CAN Bus and a GPS sensor. The presented experiments are promising in terms of detection performance and accuracy in order to be validated for applications in the context of the automotive industry.

  20. Vision-Based Traffic Data Collection Sensor for Automotive Applications

    PubMed Central

    Llorca, David F.; Sánchez, Sergio; Ocaña, Manuel; Sotelo, Miguel. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a complete vision sensor onboard a moving vehicle which collects the traffic data in its local area in daytime conditions. The sensor comprises a rear looking and a forward looking camera. Thus, a representative description of the traffic conditions in the local area of the host vehicle can be computed. The proposed sensor detects the number of vehicles (traffic load), their relative positions and their relative velocities in a four-stage process: lane detection, candidates selection, vehicles classification and tracking. Absolute velocities (average road speed) and global positioning are obtained after combining the outputs provided by the vision sensor with the data supplied by the CAN Bus and a GPS sensor. The presented experiments are promising in terms of detection performance and accuracy in order to be validated for applications in the context of the automotive industry. PMID:22315572

  1. Simulation of Assembly Line Balancing in Automotive Component Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Muthanna; Mohd Razali, Noraini

    2016-02-01

    This study focuses on the simulation of assembly line balancing in an automotive component in a vendor manufacturing company. A mixed-model assembly line of charcoal canister product that is used in an engine system as fuel's vapour filter was observed and found that the current production rate of the line does not achieve customer demand even though the company practices buffer stock for two days in advance. This study was carried out by performing detailed process flow and time studies along the line. To set up a model of the line by simulation, real data was taken from a factory floor and tested for distribution fit. The data gathered was then transformed into a simulation model. After verification of the model by comparing it with the actual system, it was found that the current line efficiency is not at its optimum condition due to blockage and idle time. Various what-if analysis were applied to eliminate the cause. Proposed layout shows that the line is balanced by adding buffer to avoid the blockage. Whereas, manpower is added the stations to reduce process time therefore reducing idling time. The simulation study was carried out using ProModel software.

  2. Radar sensors for automotive collision warning and avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosch, Theodore O.

    1995-06-01

    Many different sensors and systems, from sonar to machine vision, have been installed on ground vehicles and automobiles. This paper describes the use of radar to improve driving safety and convenience. Radars are valuable sensors for all weather operation and experiments with automotive radar sensors have been conducted for over 40 years. This paper shows the advantages and disadvantages of applying microwave and millimeter wave radar to obstacle detection and collision avoidance in a roadway environment. The performance differences between avoidance and warning sensors are discussed and a problem set is devised for a typical forward-looking collision warning application. Various radar systems have been applied to this problem that include pulse and continuous wave transceivers. These system types are evaluated as to their suitability as a collision warning sensor. The various possible solutions are reduced to a small number of candidate radar types, and one such radar was chosen for full scale development. A low cost frequency modulated/continuous wave radar system was developed for automotive collision warning. The radar is attached to the sun visor inside the vehicle, and has been in operation for over four years. The radar monitors the range and range-rate of other vehicles and obstacles, and warns the driver when it perceives that a dangerous situation is developing. A system description and measured data is presented that shows how the 24.075 to 24.175 GHz band can be used for an adequate early warning system.

  3. [Noise hazard and hearing loss in workers in automotive component manufacturing industry in Guangzhou, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Liang, Jiabin; Rong, Xing; Zhou, Hao; Duan, Chuanwei; Du, Weijia; Liu, Yimin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate noise hazard and its influence on hearing loss in workers in the automotive component manufacturing industry. Noise level in the workplace of automotive component manufacturing enterprises was measured and hearing examination was performed for workers to analyze the features and exposure levels of noise in each process, as well as the influence on hearing loss in workers. In the manufacturing processes for different products in this industry, the manufacturing processes of automobile hub and suspension and steering systems had the highest degrees of noise hazard, with over-standard rates of 79.8% and 57.1%, respectively. In the different technical processes for automotive component manufacturing, punching and casting had the highest degrees of noise hazard, with over-standard rates of 65.0% and 50%, respectively. The workers engaged in the automotive air conditioning system had the highest rate of abnormal hearing ability (up to 3.1%). In the automotive component manufacturing industry, noise hazard exceeds the standard seriously. Although the rate of abnormal hearing is lower than the average value of the automobile manufacturing industry in China, this rate tends to increase gradually. Enough emphasis should be placed on the noise hazard in this industry.

  4. 78 FR 16247 - Approval for Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 203, SGL Automotive Carbon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 203, SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing), Moses Lake, Washington Pursuant to its authority... requested export-only manufacturing authority on behalf of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, within FTZ...

  5. Technology Roadmap for Energy Reduction in Automotive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2008-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), in collaboration with the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR), hosted a technology roadmap workshop in Troy, Michigan in May 2008. The purpose of the workshop was to explore opportunities for energy reduction, discuss the challenges and barriers that might need to be overcome, and identify priorities for future R&D. The results of the workshop are presented in this report.

  6. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2016-04-08

    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)--which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles--is heavily concentrated in east Asia. Currently, China, Japan, and Korea collectively host 88% of all LIB cell and 79% of automotive LIB cell manufacturing capacity. Mature supply chains and strong cumulative production experience suggest that most LIB cell production will remain concentrated in Asia. However, other regions--including North America--could be competitive in the growing automotive LIB cell market under certain conditions. To illuminate the factors that drive regional competitiveness in automotive LIB cell production, this study models cell manufacturing cost and minimum sustainable price, and examines development of LIB supply chains and current LIB market conditions. Modeled costs are for large format, 20-Ah stacked pouch cells with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide (NMC) cathodes and graphite anodes suitable for automotive application. Production volume is assumed to be at commercial scale, 600 MWh per year.

  7. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2008-04-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  8. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2016-04-01

    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) — which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles — is heavily concentrated in East Asia. To illuminate the factors that drive regional competitiveness in automotive LIB cell production, this study models cell manufacturing cost and minimum sustainable price, and examines development of LIB supply chains and current LIB market conditions. The study shows that factors driving the cost competitiveness of LIB manufacturing locations are mostly built—supply chain developments and competition, access to materials, and production expertise. Some regional costs — including cost of capital, labor, and materials — are significant and should be considered.

  9. LOW-COST COMPOSITES IN VEHICLE MANUFACTURE - Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Holbery, Jim; Houston, Dan

    2006-11-01

    In the last decade, natural fiber composites have experienced rapid growth in the European automotive market, and this trend appears to be global in scale, provided the cost and performance is justified against competing technologies. However, mass reduction, recyclability, and performance requirements can be met today by competing systems such as injection-molded unreinforced thermoplastics; natural fiber composites will continue to expand their role in automotive applications only if such technical challenges as moisture stability, fiber-polymer interface compatibility, and consistent, repeatable fiber sources are available to supply automotive manufacturers. Efforts underway by Tier I and II automotive suppliers to explore hybrid glass-natural fiber systems, as well as applications that exploit such capabilities as natural fiber sound dampening characteristics, could very well have far-reaching effects. In addition, the current development underway of bio-based resins such as Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biodegradable polyesters and bio-based polyols could provide fully bio-based composite options to future automotive designers. In short, the development of the natural fiber composite market would make a positive impact on farmers and small business owners on a global scale, reduce US reliance on foreign oil, improve environmental quality through the development of a sustainable resource supply chain, and achieve a better CO2 balance over the vehicle?s lifetime with near-zero net greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Hydrogen gas sensor and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    McKee, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A sensor for measuring the pressure of hydrogen gas in a nuclear reactor, and method of manufacturing the same. The sensor comprises an elongated tube of hydrogen permeable material which is connected to a pressure transducer through a feedthrough tube which passes through a wall at the boundary of the region in which hydrogen is present. The tube is pressurized and flushed with hydrogen gas at an elevated temperature during the manufacture of the sensor in order to remove all gasses other than hydrogen from the device.

  11. Sol-gel processed alumina based materials in microcalorimeter sensor device fabrication for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nakouzi, S.R.; McBride, J.R.; Nietering, K.E.; Narula, C.K.

    1996-12-31

    The application of sol-gel processed materials in a variety of sensors has been proposed. The authors describe microcalorimeter sensor devices employing sol-gel processed alumina based materials which can be used to monitor pollutants in automotive exhaust. These sensors operate by measuring changes in resistance upon catalysis and are economically acceptable for automotive applications. It is important to point out that automobiles will be required to have a means of monitoring exhaust gases by on-board sensors as mandated by the EPA and the California Air Resources Board (OBD-II).

  12. Future directions for the development of virtual reality within an automotive manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Glyn; Salanitri, Davide; Waterfield, Brian

    2016-03-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can reduce time and costs, and lead to increases in quality, in the development of a product. Given the pressure on car companies to reduce time-to-market and to continually improve quality, the automotive industry has championed the use of VR across a number of applications, including design, manufacturing, and training. This paper describes interviews with 11 engineers and employees of allied disciplines from an automotive manufacturer about their current physical and virtual properties and processes. The results guided a review of research findings and scientific advances from the academic literature, which formed the basis of recommendations for future developments of VR technologies and applications. These include: develop a greater range of virtual contexts; use multi-sensory simulation; address perceived differences between virtual and real cars; improve motion capture capabilities; implement networked 3D technology; and use VR for market research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Statistical sensor fusion of ECG data using automotive-grade sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, A.; Rehg, T.; Rasshofer, R.

    2015-11-01

    Driver states such as fatigue, stress, aggression, distraction or even medical emergencies continue to be yield to severe mistakes in driving and promote accidents. A pathway towards improving driver state assessment can be found in psycho-physiological measures to directly quantify the driver's state from physiological recordings. Although heart rate is a well-established physiological variable that reflects cognitive stress, obtaining heart rate contactless and reliably is a challenging task in an automotive environment. Our aim was to investigate, how sensory fusion of two automotive grade sensors would influence the accuracy of automatic classification of cognitive stress levels. We induced cognitive stress in subjects and estimated levels from their heart rate signals, acquired from automotive ready ECG sensors. Using signal quality indices and Kalman filters, we were able to decrease Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of heart rate recordings by 10 beats per minute. We then trained a neural network to classify the cognitive workload state of subjects from heart rate and compared classification performance for ground truth, the individual sensors and the fused heart rate signal. We obtained an increase of 5 % higher correct classification by fusing signals as compared to individual sensors, staying only 4 % below the maximally possible classification accuracy from ground truth. These results are a first step towards real world applications of psycho-physiological measurements in vehicle settings. Future implementations of driver state modeling will be able to draw from a larger pool of data sources, such as additional physiological values or vehicle related data, which can be expected to drive classification to significantly higher values.

  14. Brief: Lean drilling - Introducing the application of automotive lean manufacturing techniques to well construction

    SciTech Connect

    Wardt, J.P. de

    1995-02-01

    The automotive industry has advanced from craft production through mass production to lean production, which combines the advantages of craft and mass production while avoiding the high cost of the former and the rigidity of the latter. The application of lean production created the most developed form of customer/supplier relationships and achieved the highest productivity and quality in the industry. Studies have shown that productivity exceeds mass production by as much as 50% and that the associated highest level of quality is free. This outstanding result was not achieved through automation but through development and adoption of new organizational concepts. The drilling industry today most closely resembles the automotive craft production of the past; mass production has not been adopted owing mainly to the nonrepetitive nature of drilling activities. Studies have concluded that lean manufacturing can replace both mass and craft production in all areas of industrial activity. Consequently, lean manufacturing has the potential to be applied to drilling or, more appropriately, well construction. This paper describes the key elements of lean manufacturing and presents an analogy with the well-construction industry that provides the necessary insight for the well-construction industry to adopt them. The results achieved in the automotive industry show that major cost savings and improvements in quality can be achieved in the well-construction industry through this application.

  15. LOW-COST COMPOSITES IN VEHICLE MANUFACTURE - Low-Cost Composites in Automotive and Heavy Vehicle Manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Glenn J.

    2006-11-01

    The automotive and heavy vehicle manufacturing markets are extremely sensitive to costs. Margins are not high in these markets and differences in fixed costs and national infrastructure between different companies and countries creates a highly competitive environment. Composites can offer tremendous competitive advantages in this industry to help differentiate between products by offering increased safety, strength, fuel efficiency, and recyclability. However, composites are by definition more complex than the largely monolithic materials they replace. This leads to a situation where the composite solution to a structural problem is often a higher-cost solution. To successfully implement a composite material into an engineering system there is a need to drive down the costs of the composite materials. This can be done through the use of low-cost raw material precursors, low-cost manufacturing methods, or by using composites of high specific stiffness so that less material is needed in the structure. In this issue we have gathered five papers describing some of the recent advances in the application of low-cost composites to automotive and heavy vehicle manufacturing. These papers cover metal-matrix composites (MMCs), carbon fiber and natural fiber polymer-based composites, and a unique reaction-processed cermet. The papers included here are by no means exhaustive of the increasing new composite applications in transportation manufacturing, but give a flavor of some of the current research directions.

  16. A survey for rhinitis in an automotive ring manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Uk; Jin, Ku-Won; Koh, Dong-Hee; Kim, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Sang; Park, Doo-Yong

    2008-08-01

    We report findings regarding otolaryngologist-confirmed rhinitis, current exposure to MWF aerosols, fungi, and endotoxins for workers in a plant manufacturing automobile piston rings. Questionnaire data showed that 61.5% of 187 workers exhibited rhinitis-related symptoms. Rhinitis was confirmed in 99 of 115 workers whom were medically examined. Otolaryngologist-confirmed rhinitis was present in 10 of 19 grinding workers (52.6%), 67 of 142 production workers (47.2%), and 22 of 26 quality control (QC) workers (84.6%). These rates are much higher than the rates of rhinitis-related symptoms in automobile plants and other occupational settings and quite high even allowing for the common occurrence of rhinitis in the general population. We found that rhinitis could develop even in workers exposed to less than 0.5mg/m(3) MWF aerosol. The average exposure to fungi exceeded 10 x 10(3) CFU/m(3), a level higher than that reported for other automobile plants. Although we were unable to identify significant risk factors for rhinitis using only the physician-confirmed rhinitis cases, this study concludes that exposure to MWF aerosol, which would include microbes and metals, could contribute to a high occurrence of rhinitis in grinding and production workers. Forty-nine workers (63.6%) of 77 rhinitis patients in grinding and production operations were determined to handle synthetic MWF directly. For QC workers, for whom the prevalence of physician-confirmed rhinitis was highest, exposure to a low level of MWF aerosol, including specific microbe species we couldn't identify, bright light, dry air, and certain work characteristics during inspection are possible risk factors for development of rhinitis. Further studies including identification of fungi species should be conducted so a firm conclusion can be made regarding the development of rhinitis in QC manufacturing plant workers.

  17. Embedding Sensors During Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sbriglia, Lexey Raylene

    2015-08-10

    This PowerPoint presentation had the following headings: Fused deposition modeling (FDM); Open source 3D printing; Objectives; Vibration analysis; Equipment; Design; Material choices; Failure causes, such as tension, bubbling; Potential solutions; Simulations; Embedding the sensors; LabView programming; Alternate data acquisition; Problem and proposed solution; and, Conclusions

  18. Application of High Performance Computing for Automotive Design and Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.

    1999-04-01

    This project developed new computer simulation tools which can be used in DOE internal combustion engine and weapons simulation programs currently being developed. Entirely new massively parallel computer modeling codes for chemically reactive and incompressible fluid mechanics with interactive physics sub-models were developed. Chemically reactive and aerodynamic flows are central parts in many DOE systems. Advanced computer modeling codes with new chemistry and physics capabilities can be used on massively parallel computers to handle more complex problems associated with chemically reactive propulsion systems, energy efficiency, enhanced performance and durability, multi-fuel capability and reduced pollutant emissions. The work for this project is also relevant to the design, development and application of advanced user-friendly computer codes for new high-performance computing platforms for manufacturing and which will also impact and interact with the U.S.'s advanced communications program. Finite element method (FEM) formulations were developed that are directly usable in simulating rapid deformation resulting from collision, impact, projectiles, etc. This simulation capability is applicable to both DOE (e.g., surety and penetration) and DoD (e.g., armor) applications. The models of plate and shell composite structures were developed for simulation of glass continuous strand mat and braided composite in thermoset polymer matrix. The developed numerical tools based upon the fundamental mechanisms responsible for damage evolution in continuous-fiber organic-matrix composites. This class of materials is especially relevant because of their high strength to mass ratio, anisotropic behavior, and general application in most transportation and weapon delivery systems. The high-performance computational tools developed are generally applicable to a broad spectrum of materials with similar fiber structures.

  19. [Emission characteristics and safety evaluation of volatile organic compounds in manufacturing processes of automotive coatings].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Pei-Yuan; Li, Jian-Jun; Liao, Dong-Qi; Tu, Xiang; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in an automotive coating manufacturing enterprise. Air samples were taken from eight different manufacturing areas in three workshops, and the species of VOCs and their concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Safety evaluation was also conducted by comparing the concentration of VOCs with the permissible concentration-short term exposure limit (PC-STEL) regulated by the Ministry of Health. The results showed that fifteen VOCs were detected in the indoor air of the automotive coatings workshop, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, trimethylbenzene and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, Their concentrations widely ranged from 0.51 to 593.14 mg x m(-3). The concentrations of TVOCs were significantly different among different manufacturing processes. Even in the same manufacturing process, the concentrations of each component measured at different times were also greatly different. The predominant VOCs of indoor air in the workshop were identified to be ethylbenzene and butyl acetate. The concentrations of most VOCs exceeded the occupational exposure limits, so the corresponding control measures should be taken to protect the health of the workers.

  20. Micromachined Fabry-Perot interferometric pressure sensor for automotive combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.B.; Yu, C.M.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Sheem, S.K.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, the authors report a dynamic cylinder pressure sensor for automotive combustion engine. The pressure is sensed by measuring the pressure-induced deflection of a membrane via a Fabry-Perot optical interferometric effect. The sensor is micromachined on a silicon wafer to minimize the cost and the size and to enhance the device quality in high-volume production mode. As a preliminary test, they measured the pressure of an air compressor using the micromachined miniature sensor.

  1. The use of fatigue tests in the manufacture of automotive steel wheels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozyner, P.; Rychlik, A.

    2016-08-01

    Production for the automotive industry must be particularly sensitive to the aspect of safety and reliability of manufactured components. One of such element is the rim, where durability is a feature which significantly affects the safety of transport. Customer complaints regarding this element are particularly painful for the manufacturer because it is almost always associated with the event of accident or near-accident. Authors propose original comprehensive method of quality control at selected stages of rims production: supply of materials, production and pre-shipment inspections. Tests by the proposed method are carried out on the originally designed inertial fatigue machine The machine allows bending fatigue tests in the frequency range of 0 to 50 Hz at controlled increments of vibration amplitude. The method has been positively verified in one of rims factory in Poland. Implementation resulted in an almost complete elimination of complaints resulting from manufacturing and material errors.

  2. Reliability Evaluation of Micro Heater and its Application for Automotive Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Takio; Tsujimura, Yoshinori; Mizuno, Takuya; Koyama, Yuichi; Kida, Masahito; Yamada, Tessho

    A heat resistant micro heater consisting of a Pt thin film and a diaphragm was developed for automotive sensors and its reliability was evaluated from the mechanical and thermal points of view. The dominant failure modes for instant overheating and longtime heating were found to be de-lamination of the Pt film and electromigration of Pt, respectively. The life time was estimated to be over 10 years when the average heater temperature was 400°C (the peak temperature was over 600°C). As automotive sensors utilized this micro heater, the developed air flow meter and air quality sensor are described with features and evaluation methods unique to these sensors.

  3. Lightweighting Automotive Materials for Increased Fuel Efficiency and Delivering Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capabilities to U.S. Manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Steve

    2013-09-11

    Abstract The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), to bring together research and development (R&D) collaborations to develop and accelerate the knowledgebase and infrastructure for lightweighting materials and manufacturing processes for their use in structural and applications in the automotive sector. The purpose/importance of this DOE program: • 2016 CAFÉ standards. • Automotive industry technology that shall adopt the insertion of lightweighting material concepts towards manufacturing of production vehicles. • Development and manufacture of advanced research tools for modeling and simulation (M&S) applications to reduce manufacturing and material costs. • U.S. competitiveness that will help drive the development and manufacture of the next generation of materials. NCMS established a focused portfolio of applied R&D projects utilizing lightweighting materials for manufacture into automotive structures and components. Areas that were targeted in this program: • Functionality of new lightweighting materials to meet present safety requirements. • Manufacturability using new lightweighting materials. • Cost reduction for the development and use of new lightweighting materials. The automotive industry’s future continuously evolves through innovation, and lightweight materials are key in achieving a new era of lighter, more efficient vehicles. Lightweight materials are among the technical advances needed to achieve fuel/energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: • Establish design criteria methodology to identify the best materials for lightweighting. • Employ state-of-the-art design tools for optimum material development for their specific applications. • Match new manufacturing technology to production volume. • Address new process variability with new production-ready processes.

  4. A Study to Determine the Educational Needs of Industrial Technologists in the Automotive-Type Manufacturing Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ronald Walter

    Questionnaires were used to gather data about educational needs of industrial technologists in the automotive-type manufacturing industries in the United States. Each of the 101 establishments received four questionnaires; 67 (66.3 percent) returned one or more of the questionnaires. The responses of the selected individuals were analyzed by…

  5. Statistical modeling and data fusion of automotive sensors for object detection applications in a driving environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, Miguel A.

    In this work, we consider the application of classical statistical inference to the fusion of data from different sensing technologies for object detection applications in order to increase the overall performance for a given active safety automotive system. Research evolved mainly around a centralized sensor fusion architecture assuming that three non-identical sensors, modeled by corresponding probability density functions (pdfs), provide discrete information of target being present or absent with associated probabilities of detection and false alarm for the sensor fusion engine. The underlying sensing technologies are the following standard automotive sensors: 24.5 GHz radar, high dynamic range infrared camera and a laser-radar. A complete mathematical framework was developed to select the optimal decision rule based on a generalized multinomial distribution resulting from a sum of weighted Bernoulli random variables from the Neyman-Pearson lemma and the likelihood ratio test. Moreover, to better understand the model and to obtain upper bounds on the performance of the fusion rules, we assumed exponential pdfs for each sensor and a parallel mathematical expression was obtained based on a generalized gamma distribution resulting from a sum of weighted exponential random variables for the situation when the continuous random vector of information is available. Mathematical expressions and results were obtained for modeling the following case scenarios: (i) non-identical sensors, (ii) identical sensors, (iii) combination of nonidentical and identical sensors, (iv) faulty sensor operation, (v) dominant sensor operation, (vi) negative sensor operation, and (vii) distributed sensor fusion. The second and final part of this research focused on: (a) simulation of statistical models for each sensing technology, (b) comparisons with distributed fusion, (c) overview of dynamic sensor fusion and adaptive decision rules.

  6. Application of commercial sensor manufacturing methods for NOx/NH3 mixed potential sensors for emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Brosha, Eric L; Mukundan, Rangachary; Nelson, Mark A; Sekhar, Praveen; Williamson, Todd; Garzon, Fernando H

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to develop a low cost on-board Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x})/Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) sensor that can not only be used for emissions control but has the potential to improve efficiency through better monitoring of the combustion process and feedback control in both vehicle and stationary systems. Over the past decade, Los AJamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a unique class of electrochemical gas sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen and nitrogen oxides. These sensors are based on the mixed-potential phenomenon and are a modification of the existing automotive lambda (oxygen) sensor and have the potential to meet the stringent sensitivity, selectivity and stability requirements of an on-board emissions/engine control sensor system. The current state of the art LANL technology is based on the stabilization of the electrochemical interfaces and relies on an externally heated, hand-made, tape cast device. We are now poised to apply our patented sensing principles in a mass production sensor platform that is more suitable for real world engine-out testing such as on dynamometers for vehicle applications and for exhaust-out testing in heavy boilers/SCR systems in power plants. In this present work, our goal is to advance towards commercialization of this technology by packaging the unique LANL sensor design in a standard automotive sensor-type platform. This work is being performed with the help of a leading US technical ceramics firm, utilizing commercial manufacturing techniques. Initial tape cast platforms with screen printed metal oxide and Pt sensor electrodes have shown promising results but also clearly show the need for us to optimize the electrode and electrolyte compositions/morphologies and interfaces of these devices in order to demonstrate a sensitive, selective, and stable NO{sub x} sensor. Our previous methods and routes to preparing stable and reproducible mixed potential sensors

  7. Intelligent Production Monitoring and Control based on Three Main Modules for Automated Manufacturing Cells in the Automotive Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Ulrich; Kretzschmann, Ralf; Algebra, A. Vargas Veronica

    2008-06-12

    The automotive industry is distinguished by regionalization and customization of products. As consequence, the diversity of products will increase while the lot sizes will decrease. Thus, more product types will be handled along the process chain and common production paradigms will fail. Although Rapid Manufacturing (RM) methodology will be used for producing small individual lot sizes, new solution for joining and assembling these components are needed. On the other hand, the non-availability of existing operational knowledge and the absence of dynamic and explicit knowledge retrieval minimize the achievement of on-demand capabilities. Thus, in this paper, an approach for an Intelligent Production System will be introduced. The concept is based on three interlinked main modules: a Technology Data Catalogue (TDC) based on an ontology system, an Automated Scheduling Processor (ASP) based on graph theory and a central Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) for real-time sensor/actor communication. The concept is being implemented in a laboratory set-up with several assembly and joining processes and will be experimentally validated in some research and development projects.

  8. Intelligent Production Monitoring and Control based on Three Main Modules for Automated Manufacturing Cells in the Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Ulrich; Kretzschmann, Ralf; Algebra, A. Vargas Veronica

    2008-06-01

    The automotive industry is distinguished by regionalization and customization of products. As consequence, the diversity of products will increase while the lot sizes will decrease. Thus, more product types will be handled along the process chain and common production paradigms will fail. Although Rapid Manufacturing (RM) methodology will be used for producing small individual lot sizes, new solution for joining and assembling these components are needed. On the other hand, the non-availability of existing operational knowledge and the absence of dynamic and explicit knowledge retrieval minimize the achievement of on-demand capabilities. Thus, in this paper, an approach for an Intelligent Production System will be introduced. The concept is based on three interlinked main modules: a Technology Data Catalogue (TDC) based on an ontology system, an Automated Scheduling Processor (ASP) based on graph theory and a central Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) for real-time sensor/actor communication. The concept is being implemented in a laboratory set-up with several assembly and joining processes and will be experimentally validated in some research and development projects.

  9. Millimeter-wave radar sensor for automotive intelligent cruise control (ICC)

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.E.; Crain, A.; Curran, A.; Campbell, R.A.; Drubin, C.A.; Miccioli, W.F.

    1997-12-01

    If automotive intelligent cruise-control (ICC) systems are to be successful in the marketplace, they must provide robust performance in a complex roadway environment. Inconveniences caused by reduced performance during inclement weather, interrupted performance due to dropped tracks, and annoying nuisance alarms will not be tolerated by the consumer, and would likely result in the rejection of this technology in the marketplace. An all-weather automotive millimeter-wave (MMW) radar sensor is described that uses a frequency-modulation coplanar-wave (FMCW) radar design capable of acquiring and tracking all obstacles in its field of view. Design tradeoffs are discussed and radar-sensor test results are presented along with the applicability of the radar to collision-warning systems.

  10. Broadband image sensors for biomedical, security, and automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Achyut; Sengupta, Rabi; Krishnan, Anupriya; Islam, Saif; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S.; Dhar, Nibir

    2007-09-01

    Detectors (sensor) having detection capability ranging from visible to near-infrared region are very much required for multi-color image sensor, necessary for next generation bio-medical, bio-chem(ical), and security applications. The capability of using broadband detection in a single sensor would help to receive real-time imaging not detectable using today's CCD or CMOS sensor. We proposed a detector structure as a single sensor element (pixel) having the detection capability ranging from visible to 1.7 μm, wavelengths requiring in bio-chem, biomedical cell detection and security application. This invited paper has two-fold objectives: (a) provide a comprehensive overview of conventional photo detectors array (focal-plan array) and their types, being used in today's imaging, and (b) introduce a development of multi-color detector array (image sensor) which authors pioneered. The features of proposed multi-color detector are simple structure, low-cost, high quantum efficiency, high sensitivity, and high speed. Performance results so far attained will be presented along with its possible applications.

  11. Conductometric soot sensor for automotive exhausts: initial studies.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Gunter; Feistkorn, Constanze; Wiegärtner, Sven; Heinrich, Andreas; Brüggemann, Dieter; Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    In order to reduce the tailpipe particulate matter emissions of Diesel engines, Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) are commonly used. Initial studies using a conductometric soot sensor to monitor their filtering efficiency, i.e., to detect a malfunction of the DPF, are presented. The sensors consist of a planar substrate equipped with electrodes on one side and with a heater on the other. It is shown that at constant speed-load points, the time until soot percolation occurs or the resistance itself are reproducible means that can be well correlated with the filtering efficiency of a DPF. It is suggested to use such a sensor setup for the detection of a DPF malfunction.

  12. Conductometric Soot Sensor for Automotive Exhausts: Initial Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Gunter; Feistkorn, Constanze; Wiegärtner, Sven; Heinrich, Andreas; Brüggemann, Dieter; Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    In order to reduce the tailpipe particulate matter emissions of Diesel engines, Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) are commonly used. Initial studies using a conductometric soot sensor to monitor their filtering efficiency, i.e., to detect a malfunction of the DPF, are presented. The sensors consist of a planar substrate equipped with electrodes on one side and with a heater on the other. It is shown that at constant speed-load points, the time until soot percolation occurs or the resistance itself are reproducible means that can be well correlated with the filtering efficiency of a DPF. It is suggested to use such a sensor setup for the detection of a DPF malfunction. PMID:22294888

  13. Conductometric Sensors for Monitoring Degradation of Automotive Engine Oil†

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Usman; Dickert, Franz L.

    2011-01-01

    Conductometric sensors have been fabricated by applying imprinted polymers as receptors for monitoring engine oil quality. Titania and silica layers are synthesized via the sol-gel technique and used as recognition materials for acidic components present in used lubricating oil. Thin-film gold electrodes forming an interdigitated structure are used as transducers to measure the conductance of polymer coatings. Optimization of layer composition is carried out by varying the precursors, e.g., dimethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DMAPTMS), and aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES). Characterization of these sensitive materials is performed by testing against oil oxidation products, e.g., carbonic acids. The results depict that imprinted aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) polymer is a promising candidate for detecting the age of used lubricating oil. In the next strategy, polyurethane-nanotubes composite as sensitive material is synthesized, producing appreciable differentiation pattern between fresh and used oils at elevated temperature with enhanced sensitivity. PMID:22164094

  14. Conductometric sensors for monitoring degradation of automotive engine oil.

    PubMed

    Latif, Usman; Dickert, Franz L

    2011-01-01

    Conductometric sensors have been fabricated by applying imprinted polymers as receptors for monitoring engine oil quality. Titania and silica layers are synthesized via the sol-gel technique and used as recognition materials for acidic components present in used lubricating oil. Thin-film gold electrodes forming an interdigitated structure are used as transducers to measure the conductance of polymer coatings. Optimization of layer composition is carried out by varying the precursors, e.g., dimethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DMAPTMS), and aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES). Characterization of these sensitive materials is performed by testing against oil oxidation products, e.g., carbonic acids. The results depict that imprinted aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) polymer is a promising candidate for detecting the age of used lubricating oil. In the next strategy, polyurethane-nanotubes composite as sensitive material is synthesized, producing appreciable differentiation pattern between fresh and used oils at elevated temperature with enhanced sensitivity.

  15. Roadmap for Lean implementation in Indian automotive component manufacturing industry: comparative study of UNIDO Model and ISM Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, J. R.; Mantha, S. S.; Rane, S. B.

    2014-07-01

    The demands for automobiles increased drastically in last two and half decades in India. Many global automobile manufacturers and Tier-1 suppliers have already set up research, development and manufacturing facilities in India. The Indian automotive component industry started implementing Lean practices to fulfill the demand of these customers. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has taken proactive approach in association with Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India (ACMA) and the Government of India to assist Indian SMEs in various clusters since 1999 to make them globally competitive. The primary objectives of this research are to study the UNIDO-ACMA Model as well as ISM Model of Lean implementation and validate the ISM Model by comparing with UNIDO-ACMA Model. It also aims at presenting a roadmap for Lean implementation in Indian automotive component industry. This paper is based on secondary data which include the research articles, web articles, doctoral thesis, survey reports and books on automotive industry in the field of Lean, JIT and ISM. ISM Model for Lean practice bundles was developed by authors in consultation with Lean practitioners. The UNIDO-ACMA Model has six stages whereas ISM Model has eight phases for Lean implementation. The ISM-based Lean implementation model is validated through high degree of similarity with UNIDO-ACMA Model. The major contribution of this paper is the proposed ISM Model for sustainable Lean implementation. The ISM-based Lean implementation framework presents greater insight of implementation process at more microlevel as compared to UNIDO-ACMA Model.

  16. A Survey on Optimal Signal Processing Techniques Applied to Improve the Performance of Mechanical Sensors in Automotive Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Wilmar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a survey on recent applications of optimal signal processing techniques to improve the performance of mechanical sensors is made. Here, a comparison between classical filters and optimal filters for automotive sensors is made, and the current state of the art of the application of robust and optimal control and signal processing techniques to the design of the intelligent (or smart) sensors that today's cars need is presented through several experimental results that show that the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques is the clear way to go. However, the switch between the traditional methods of designing automotive sensors and the new ones cannot be done overnight because there are some open research issues that have to be solved. This paper draws attention to one of the open research issues and tries to arouse researcher's interest in the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques.

  17. A styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/carbon nanotube-based smart force sensor for automotive tire deformation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Min-Young; Kim, Ji-Sik; Lee, Ho-Geun; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Gi-Woo

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides a preliminary study on the piezoresistive effect of a styrene-butadiene Rubber (SBR), one of the main ingredients of automotive tire, dispersed with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to explore its feasibility as a force sensor embedded in automotive tires. Typically, the application of CNTs has been successfully applied to the mechanical sensing technology such as a stress/strain and impact sensor. In this study, the potential of using the SBR/CNT as a force sensor for monitoring automotive tire deformation is evaluated for the first time. Experimental results show that the electrical resistance of the SBR/CNT composite changes in response to the sinusoidal loading, as well as static compressive load. These piezoresistive responses of the SBR/CNT composite will be used for sensing the tire deformation caused by the vehicle loading or cracks of tires.

  18. The costs of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in automotive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Punnett, L

    1999-01-01

    Inadequate application of ergonomic principles to the design of workplaces and individual jobs has adverse consequences for worker health and safety, especially in terms of strains, sprains, and other musculoskeletal disorders. In addition to the human pain and suffering, other losses are externalized to workers, with adverse financial and psychosocial impacts. There are also costs to employers through workers' compensation claims, scrap, and decreased production quality, medical insurance premiums, labor turnover, and adverse impacts on labor relations, although many of these are not linked by traditional accounting methods to ergonomic problems per se. Data collected in five plants of two major U.S. automotive manufacturing companies in the last decade have been used to estimate some of the costs associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), only some of which resulted in workers compensation claims. In one plant in 1984-85, the payroll cost of all back and shoulder disorders was at least $320 per year per worker, not including workers' compensation premiums or claims paid. A large proportion of these costs were accrued by "unreported" cases, that is, cases that either had never been reported to the plant clinic or had been reported in the past and were considered administratively to have recovered. In the other four plants, annual costs associated with in-plant medical visits for MSDs in 1989-93 were almost as high as those resulting from compensation claims. At least one-half of these disorders were estimated to be attributable to physical ergonomic exposures in the workplace and thus preventable. These data are consistent with estimates by others that the real costs to employers are at least two to three times the amount paid in workers' compensation cases, and that at least 50 percent of all work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the working population could be prevented by appropriate ergonomic job design. Furthermore, recent

  19. High-power pulsed diode laser for automotive scanning radar sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Yuji; Matsushita, Noriyuki; Kato, Hisaya; Abe, Katsunori; Atsumi, Kinya

    2000-02-01

    High performance pulsed AlGaAs/GaAs wide stripe diode laser has been developed for the automotive distance-measuring scanning radar sensor. The laser diode is required high output power of 15 W and a long time reliability in spite of being used in a harsh environment such as wide temperature range, mechanical vibrations at the front bumper and so on. The device is designed by employing a multiple quantum well structure as an active layer for high output power with low drive current and high temperature operations. Moreover we reduce catastrophic optical damage power level and control the beam divergence angle by introducing optimized optical waveguide layers. In the chips bonding part, we developed a new thin film Au-Sn-Ni solder system. The bonding temperature can be lowered by using this system, whereby the thermal damage to the laser diode can be reduced. Furthermore, highly stable bonding is carried out by improving wetting ability in this system. We have achieved more than 22 W light output power at 20A pulse current under room temperature and more than 16 W light output power under 90 degrees Celsius. High reliability over 10,000 hours is performed for automotive use under pulsed operation at 90 degrees Celsius, 50 ns pulse width, 8 kHz frequency and 15 W light output power.

  20. Closing the Loop with Sensors in Commercial Building Systems: Applying Lessons from Automotive Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantese, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    Automotive systems have evolved extensively over the past 50 years, providing a fully integrated system of sub-systems that work in concert for optimal vehicle level closed loop control. In this talk we look at several automotive sub-systems: stability and control, safety and security, emissions and comfort, diagnostics and maintenance, infotainment and communications; with an eye toward understanding their technology drivers and associated value propositions. Conversely, we examine how commercial building systems currently are represented as a collection of sub-systems that often work independently of each other for local optimization, often relying upon open loop control systems developed and installed decades ago. Reasoning primarily by analogy we explore opportunities for energy and efficiency, comfort and environment, and safety/security; asking whether there is sufficient value associated with a new class of building sensors and how those technologies might be brought to bear in improving performance. Finally, we examine the fundamental architecture of detection systems built upon sensing elements, with the aim of understanding trade-offs between: detection, false alarm rate, power, and cost.

  1. Batch-processed semiconductor gas sensor array for the selective detection of NOx in automotive exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hani; Kim, Minki; Kim, Yongjun

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports on a semiconductor gas sensor array to detect nitrogen oxides (NOx) in automotive exhaust gas. The proposed semiconductor gas sensor array consisted of one common electrode and three individual electrodes to minimize the size of the sensor array, and three sensing layers [TiO2 + SnO2 (15 wt%), SnO2, and Ga2O3] were deposited using screen printing. In addition, sensing materials were sintered under the same conditions in order to take advantage of batch processing. The sensing properties of the proposed sensor array were verified by experimental measurements, and the selectivity improved by using pattern recognition.

  2. New six degree of freedom position sensor greatly improves flexible manufacturing -- but will manufacturers adapt?

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C. S., LLNL

    1998-03-02

    The manufacturing industry needs better multi-dimensional position sensors to keep pace with increased speed and capabilities of automated equipment and robots. The market for laser and vision sensors is growing at a rapid speed; however, most of the robot- mounted sensors are one or two dimensional, three dimensional at most, while the robotics industry has progressed to 6-axis machines, leaving a gross mismatch in its capability to perform and sense the required task. A new laser sensor provides information. on up to six degrees of position, enabling robots to sense as well as it can physically manipulate, and opening the door to vast improvements in flexible manufacturing. To expedite these improvements, the manufacturing industry should take a lead and not let an outdated norm hinder implementation.

  3. Catalysts as sensors--a promising novel approach in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment.

    PubMed

    Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NO(x) traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NO(x)-loading of lean NO(x) traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters.

  4. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from Manufacturing and Automotive Career Pathway Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from automotive and…

  5. Further Structural Intelligence for Sensors Cluster Technology in Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mekid, Samir

    2006-01-01

    With the ever increasing complex sensing and actuating tasks in manufacturing plants, intelligent sensors cluster in hybrid networks becomes a rapidly expanding area. They play a dominant role in many fields from macro and micro scale. Global object control and the ability to self organize into fault-tolerant and scalable systems are expected for high level applications. In this paper, new structural concepts of intelligent sensors and networks with new intelligent agents are presented. Embedding new functionalities to dynamically manage cooperative agents for autonomous machines are interesting key enabling technologies most required in manufacturing for zero defects production.

  6. Quality control of automotive engine oils with mass-sensitive chemical sensors--QCMs and molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Dickert, F L; Forth, P; Lieberzeit, P A; Voigt, G

    2000-04-01

    Molecularly imprinted polyurethanes were used as sensor materials for monitoring the degradation of automotive engine oils. Imprinting with characteristic oils permits the analysis of these complex mixtures without accurately knowing their composition. Mass-sensitive quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) coated with such layers exhibit mass effects in addition to frequency shifts caused by viscosity, which can be compensated by an uncoated quartz or a non-imprint layer. Incorporation of degradation products into the imprinted coatings is a bulk phenomenon, which is proven by variation of the sensor layer height. Therefore, the resulting sensor effects are determined by the degradation products in the oil.

  7. Manufacturing of Wearable Sensors for Human Health and Performance Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Azar

    2015-03-01

    Continuous monitoring of physiological and biological parameters is expected to improve performance and medical outcomes by assessing overall health status and alerting for life-saving interventions. Continuous monitoring of these parameters requires wearable devices with an appropriate form factor (lightweight, comfortable, low energy consuming and even single-use) to avoid disrupting daily activities thus ensuring operation relevance and user acceptance. Many previous efforts to implement remote and wearable sensors have suffered from high cost and poor performance, as well as low clinical and end-use acceptance. New manufacturing and system level design approaches are needed to make the performance and clinical benefits of these sensors possible while satisfying challenging economic, regulatory, clinical, and user-acceptance criteria. In this talk we will review several recent design and manufacturing efforts aimed at designing and building prototype wearable sensors. We will discuss unique opportunities and challenges provided by additive manufacturing, including 3D printing, to drive innovation through new designs, faster prototyping and manufacturing, distributed networks, and new ecosystems. We will also show alternative hybrid self-assembly based integration techniques for low cost large scale manufacturing of single use wearable devices. Coauthors: Prabhjot Singh and Jeffrey Ashe.

  8. Shape deposition manufacturing of smart metallic structures with embedded sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaochun; Golnas, Anastasios; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2000-06-01

    The need to obtain information on the performance and lifetime of a tool in service is of prime importance to many industries. It calls for on-line acquisition of information such as temperature and strain values from tools and structures. With embedded sensors, structures are capable of monitoring parameters at critical locations not accessible to ordinary sensors. To embed sensors in the functional structures, especially structures, Shape Deposition Manufacturing (SDM) is a methodology capable of integrating sensors during the production of tooling or structural components. Thin film sensors and fiber optic sensors have been identified as two promising candidates to be integrated in metallic structures. Embedded thin film strain gages have been characterized in a four-point bending test and the results, showing linearity and no hysteresis, match with those from the theoretical model and commercially available strain gages. Fiber optic sensors have been successfully embedded in nickel and stainless steel structures. The embedded fiber optic sensors have been used to measure temperatures and strains. They provide higher sensitivity, good accuracy, and high temperature capacity. Based on fiber optic sensor embedding techniques, a remote temperature/strain sensing system suitable rotating objects, such as turbine blades, has been developed. The developed techniques can be harnessed for rapid prototyping of smart metallic structures.

  9. Electrooptic polymer voltage sensor and method of manufacture thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottsche, Allan (Inventor); Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An optical voltage sensor utilizing an electrooptic polymer is disclosed for application to electric power distribution systems. The sensor, which can be manufactured at low cost in accordance with a disclosed method, measures voltages across a greater range than prior art sensors. The electrooptic polymer, which replaces the optical crystal used in prior art sensors, is sandwiched directly between two high voltage electrodes. Voltage is measured by fiber optical means, and no voltage division is required. The sample of electrooptic polymer is fabricated in a special mold and later mounted in a sensor housing. Alternatively, mold and sensor housing may be identical. The sensor housing is made out of a machinable polymeric material and is equipped with two opposing optical windows. The optical windows are mounted in the bottom of machined holes in the wall of the mold. These holes provide for mounting of the polarizing optical components and for mounting of the fiber optic connectors. One connecting fiber is equipped with a light emitting diode as a light source. Another connecting fiber is equipped with a photodiode as a detector.

  10. "Cut-and-Paste" Manufacture of Multiparametric Epidermal Sensor Systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shixuan; Chen, Ying-Chen; Nicolini, Luke; Pasupathy, Praveenkumar; Sacks, Jacob; Su, Becky; Yang, Russell; Sanchez, Daniel; Chang, Yao-Feng; Wang, Pulin; Schnyer, David; Neikirk, Dean; Lu, Nanshu

    2015-11-04

    Multifunctional epidermal sensor systems (ESS) are manufactured with a highly cost and time effective, benchtop, and large-area "cut-and-paste" method. The ESS made out of thin and stretchable metal and conductive polymer ribbons can be noninvasively laminated onto the skin surface to sense electrophysiological signals, skin temperature, skin hydration, and respiratory rate. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Towards a manufacturing ecosystem for integrated photonic sensors (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Benjamin L.

    2017-03-01

    Laboratory-scale demonstrations of optical biosensing employing structures compatible with CMOS fabrication, including waveguides, Mach-Zehnder interferometers, ring resonators, and photonic crystals, have provided ample validation of the promise of these technologies. However, to date there are relatively few examples of integrated photonic biosensors in the commercial sphere. The lack of successful translation from the laboratory to the marketplace is due in part to a lack of robust manufacturing processes for integrated photonics overall. This talk will describe efforts within the American Institute for Manufacturing Photonics (AIM Photonics), a public-private consortium funded by the Department of Defense, State governments, Universities, and Corporate partners to accelerate manufacturing of integrated photonic sensors.

  12. A high resolution capacitive imaging sensor for manufacturing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, J.L.; Wiczer, J.J.

    1990-09-06

    A high resolution capacitive image sensing technique for measuring edge and surface profiles during manufacturing processes has been invented. A prototype device utilizing this technique consists of two 0.020 in. (500 {mu}m) diameter electrodes fabricated on a printed circuit board with a 0.010 in. (250 {mu}m) gap between them. As the device is mechanically scanned over the workpiece, the spatial variations in the edge or surface to be measured interfere with an electric field imposed between the electrodes, altering the mutual capacitance. The sensor functions as a near field proximity sensor producing range images of surface imperfections. This sensor has been used in applications requiring a preview image of burrs on the edge of a machined part and other processes requiring an inspection image after automated deburring operations. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  13. The healthy worker survivor effect and mortality at two automotive engine manufacturing plants.

    PubMed

    Park, R M

    1996-12-01

    Attributes such as time since hire or length of followup may be important in occupational mortality due to the "healthy worker survivor effect." In a regression analysis of mortality odds ratios at two automotive engine plants, strong effects of overall employment duration (latency weighted) were observed in addition to effects for (similarly weighted) cumulative exposures. The duration effects were negative for several cancer and noncancer outcomes, and confounded exposure effects. The lung cancer odds ratio declined to 0.68 (95% CI = 0.51, 0.90) at the mean duration of employment. With control for employment duration, adjusted lung cancer odds ratios for work as millwrights increased from 3.0 to 3.8, and for work in cylinder head production, from 3.3 to 3.9. Several causes of death with strong duration effects were smoking-related, suggesting diminished smoking risk factors with increasing employment duration. Similarly, trends for cirrhosis of the liver mortality suggested the alcohol risk factor is smaller in long-duration workers. If personal risk factors are an important component of the healthy worker survivor effect, they could be powerful negative confounders of exposure-response for related outcomes. Including a term for employment duration in regression models appears to partially correct for healthy worker survivor bias.

  14. Advanced computational simulation for design and manufacturing of lightweight material components for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Simunovic, S.; Aramayo, G.A.; Zacharia, T.; Toridis, T.G.; Bandak, F.; Ragland, C.L.

    1997-04-01

    Computational vehicle models for the analysis of lightweight material performance in automobiles have been developed through collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, and George Washington University. The vehicle models have been verified against experimental data obtained from vehicle collisions. The crashed vehicles were analyzed, and the main impact energy dissipation mechanisms were identified and characterized. Important structural parts were extracted and digitized and directly compared with simulation results. High-performance computing played a key role in the model development because it allowed for rapid computational simulations and model modifications. The deformation of the computational model shows a very good agreement with the experiments. This report documents the modifications made to the computational model and relates them to the observations and findings on the test vehicle. Procedural guidelines are also provided that the authors believe need to be followed to create realistic models of passenger vehicles that could be used to evaluate the performance of lightweight materials in automotive structural components.

  15. Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of automotive lighting equipment and accessories

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, M.; Couch, B.; Handmaker, A.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a Pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacture who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lac the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) we established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures outboard motors for water craft. Three basic subunits received from other manufacturing plants undergo primarily painting and assembly operations in order to produce the final product. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that paint overspray waste and spent clean-up solvent are generated in large quantities and that significant cost savings could be achieved by installing robotic paint application equipment. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  16. Relationships among particle number, surface area, and respirable mass concentrations in automotive engine manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Heitbrink, William A; Evans, Douglas E; Ku, Bon Ki; Maynard, Andrew D; Slavin, Thomas J; Peters, Thomas M

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between particle number, surface area, and respirable mass concentration measured simultaneously in a foundry and an automotive engine machining and assembly center. Aerosol concentrations were measured throughout each plant with a condensation particle counter for number concentration, a diffusion charger for active surface area concentration, and an optical particle counter for respirable mass concentration. At selected locations, particle size distributions were characterized with the optical particle counter and an electrical low pressure impactor. Statistical analyses showed that active surface area concentration was correlated with ultrafine particle number concentration and weakly correlated with respirable mass concentration. Correlation between number and active surface area concentration was stronger during winter (R2 = 0.6 for both plants) than in the summer (R2 = 0.38 and 0.36 for the foundry and engine plant respectively). The stronger correlation in winter was attributed to use of direct-fire gas fired heaters that produced substantial numbers of ultrafine particles with a modal diameter between 0.007 and 0.023 mu m. These correlations support findings obtained through theoretical analysis. Such analysis predicts that active surface area increasingly underestimates geometric surface area with increasing particle size, particularly for particles larger than 100 nm. Thus, a stronger correlation between particle number concentration and active surface area concentration is expected in the presence of high concentrations of ultrafine particles. In general, active surface area concentration may be a concentration metric that is distinct from particle number concentration and respirable mass concentration. For future health effects or toxicological studies involving nano-materials or ultrafine aerosols, this finding needs to be considered, as exposure metrics may influence data interpretation.

  17. Sensor tip for a robotic gripper and method of manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, Robert D. (Inventor); Jackson, Gregory T. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A sensor tip (10) for use in a robotic hand has a three-dimensional compliant elastomeric body (12) with an outer boundary (22) having a circular base (24) and a convex surface (26) extending therefrom. Four strain transducers (14, 16, 18, and 20) produce electrical signals indicative of the strain at various positions near the boundary of the elastomeric body (12) resulting from forces exerted upon the sensor tip (10) by an object which the robotic hand is manipulating. The transducers (14, 16, 18, and 20) are positioned about the convex surface (26) so as to produce signals that may be decoupled to determine the normal and tangential forces and the applied torque. A buffer amplifier circuit (34), one for each of the transducers (14, 16, 18, and 20), receives the signals and provides quasi-steady state force information. The circuit (34) connects the respective transducer (40) in a feedback loop around an amplifier (36) and has desirable attributes for static charge buffering. The sensor tip (10) is calibrated to determine proportionality constants for the decoupling algorithm for use of a force delivering system (60), which uses voice coils (74) to apply a force that is linearly related to the current introduced to each of the coils (74). A method of manufacture of the sensor tip (10) results in improved bonding between the transducers (14, 16, 18, and 20) and the elastomeric body (12) for better performance and longer life of the sensor tip (10).

  18. Sensor tip for a robotic gripper and method of manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, Robert D. (Inventor); Jackson, Gregory T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A sensor tip (10) for use in a robotic hand has a three-dimensional compliant elastomeric body (12) with an outer boundary (22) having a circular base (24) and a convex surface (26) extending therefrom. Four strain transducers (14, 16, 18, and 20) produce electrical signals indicative of the strain at various positions near the boundary of the elastomeric body (12) resulting from forces exerted upon the sensor tip (10) by an object which the robotic hand is manipulating. The transducers (14, 16, 18, and 20) are positioned about the convex surface (26) so as to produce signals that may be decoupled to determine the normal and tangential forces and the applied torque. A buffer amplifier circuit (34), one for each of the transducers (14, 16, 18, and 20), receives the signals and provides quasi-steady state force information. The circuit (34) connects the respective transducer (40) in a feedback loop around an amplifier (36) and has desirable attributes for static charge buffering. The sensor tip (10) is calibrated to determine proportionality constants for the decoupling algorithm for use of a force delivering system (60), which uses voice coils (74) to apply a force that is linearly related to the current introduced to each of the coils (74). A method of manufacture of the sensor tip (10) results in improved bonding between the transducers (14, 16, 18, and 20) and the elastomeric body (12) for better performance and longer life of the sensor tip (10).

  19. Dispersion of Heat Flux Sensors Manufactured in Silicon Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ziouche, Katir; Lejeune, Pascale; Bougrioua, Zahia; Leclercq, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the dispersion performances related to the manufacturing process of heat flux sensors realized in CMOS (Complementary metal oxide semi-conductor) compatible 3-in technology. In particular, we have studied the performance dispersion of our sensors and linked these to the physical characteristics of dispersion of the materials used. This information is mandatory to ensure low-cost manufacturing and especially to reduce production rejects during the fabrication process. The results obtained show that the measured sensitivity of the sensors is in the range 3.15 to 6.56 μV/(W/m2), associated with measured resistances ranging from 485 to 675 kΩ. The dispersions correspond to a Gaussian-type distribution with more than 90% determined around average sensitivity Se¯ = 4.5 µV/(W/m2) and electrical resistance R¯ = 573.5 kΩ within the interval between the average and, more or less, twice the relative standard deviation. PMID:27294929

  20. Monitoring of manufacturing processes in the automotive industry using indoor location system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, LM; Belu, N.; Rachieru, N.; Mazăre, AG; Anghel, D.-C.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a method for locating the operators, equipment and parts using radio communications systems. Specifically there will be radio transceiver arranged in a network of active and passive radio receivers placed on personnel, equipment or parts. Based on a radio triangulation method, it is determined the location of the all resources and parts involved in manufacturing process. The transceivers communicate with each other via “routers” - also components of the network. Such a structure may extend over large distances even in indoor spaces where there are obstacles (walls between rooms). The location is done by determining the power of transmission signal for at least three end points. The receiver position is then transmitted over the network through routers, to a central server where all positions of the resources are centralized. Our solution is a non-invasive and low cost method for determining resource position in the factory. The system can be used for both resource planning production for current process more efficient and for further analysis of the movement of resources during previous processes with possible adjustments to the workspace and re-planning of resources for future processes.

  1. Manufacturing temperature and turbidity sensor based on ATMega 8535 microcontroller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuzula, Nike Ika; Sakinah, Wazirotus; Endarko

    2017-01-01

    The manufacturing of temperature and turbidity measurement system based on ATMega 8535 microcontroller has been done. To measure temperature, this system uses LM35 and photodiode to measure water turbidity. The principle of LM35 sensor is comparing temperature based on its resistance. Thus temperature that is converted to voltage can be detected. The Turbidity system in this experiment is using Nephelometer method with the light scattered by suspended particles in fluid, with LED and photodiode parallel to each other. This system can measure turbidity in 1 NTU - 200 NTU with a close distance (1 inch) and a maximum relative error of 3.09% for the temperature measurement and also 3,12 % for turbidity measurement.

  2. Additive manufacturing of stretchable tactile sensors: Processes, materials, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatani, Morteza

    3D printing technology is becoming more ubiquitous every day especially in the area of smart structures. However, fabrication of multi-material, functional, and smart structures is problematic because of the process and material limitations. This thesis sought to develop a Direct Print Photopolymerization (DPP) fabrication technique that appreciably extends the manufacturing space for the 3D smart structures. This method employs a robotically controlled micro-extrusion of a filament equipped with a photopolymerization process. The ability to use polymers and ultimately their nanocomposites in this process is the advantage of the proposed process over the current fabrication methods in the fabrication of 3D structures featuring mechanical, physical, and electrical functionalities. In addition, this study focused to develop a printable, conductive, and stretchable nanocomposite based on a photocurable and stretchable liquid resin filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). This nanocomposite exhibited piezoresistivity, means its resistivity changes as it deforms. This property is a favorable factor in developing resistance based tactile sensors. They were also able to resist high tensile strains while they showed conductivity. Furthermore, this study offered a possible and low-cost method to have a unique and highly stretchable pressure sensitive polymer. This disruptive pressure sensitive polymer composed of an Ionic Liquid (IL) and a stretchable photopolymer embedded between two layers of Carbon Nanotube (CNTs) based stretchable electrodes. The developed IL-polymer showed both field effect property and piezoresistivity that can detect large tensile strains up 30%. In summary, this research study focused to present feasible methods and materials for printing a 3D smart structure especially in the context of flexible tactile sensors. This study provides a foundation for the future efforts in fabrication of skin like tactile sensors in three-dimensional motifs

  3. Dynamic Strain Measurements on Automotive and Aeronautic Composite Components by Means of Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, Alfredo; Chiesura, Gabriele; Luyckx, Geert; Degrieck, Joris; Kaufmann, Markus; Vanlanduit, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of the internal deformations occurring in real-life composite components is a very challenging task, especially for those components that are rather difficult to access. Optical fiber sensors can overcome such a problem, since they can be embedded in the composite materials and serve as in situ sensors. In this article, embedded optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are used to analyze the vibration characteristics of two real-life composite components. The first component is a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer automotive control arm; the second is a glass fiber-reinforced polymer aeronautic hinge arm. The modal parameters of both components were estimated by processing the FBG signals with two interrogation techniques: the maximum detection and fast phase correlation algorithms were employed for the demodulation of the FBG signals; the Peak-Picking and PolyMax techniques were instead used for the parameter estimation. To validate the FBG outcomes, reference measurements were performed by means of a laser Doppler vibrometer. The analysis of the results showed that the FBG sensing capabilities were enhanced when the recently-introduced fast phase correlation algorithm was combined with the state-of-the-art PolyMax estimator curve fitting method. In this case, the FBGs provided the most accurate results, i.e., it was possible to fully characterize the vibration behavior of both composite components. When using more traditional interrogation algorithms (maximum detection) and modal parameter estimation techniques (Peak-Picking), some of the modes were not successfully identified. PMID:26516854

  4. Design, study, and achievement of a fiber optic amplitude modulation sensor for angular position detection: application to an automotive steering sytem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javahiraly, Nicolas; Perrotton, Cédric; Chakari, Ayoub; Meyrueis, Patrick

    2009-05-01

    The reliable, accurate and low cost measurement of angular position is an important challenge for numerous industries such as aerospace or automotive industries. We propose a new optical fiber angular position sensor connected to an automotive power steering column. This sensor allows the measurement of the angular position of a car steering wheel over a large range (+/- 3 turns of wheel). The wheel rotation induces micro-bending in the transducer part of the optical fiber sensing system. This system operates as an amplitude modulation sensor based on mode coupling in the transducing fiber in the case when all the modes are equally excited. We study the sensor's response both theoretically and experimentally with a multimode step index optical fiber [Rf (fiber radius) = 300μm rc (core radius) = 50μm nc (core index) = 1,457; N.A. = 0, 22 and the wavelength is 632, 8 nm at the ambient Temperature (20°C)]. This sensor has been tested between (-3x360) and (+3x360) degrees with 0,147 sensitivity. We show that the sensitivity can be controlled as a function of the sensor's length and the study of the sensor's output power as a function of the angular position has been achieved. We compare modeling and experimental validation and we conclude by a perspective of what could be soon an industrial sensor.

  5. Dynamic Strain Measurements on Automotive and Aeronautic Composite Components by Means of Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Alfredo; Chiesura, Gabriele; Luyckx, Geert; Degrieck, Joris; Kaufmann, Markus; Vanlanduit, Steve

    2015-10-26

    The measurement of the internal deformations occurring in real-life composite components is a very challenging task, especially for those components that are rather difficult to access. Optical fiber sensors can overcome such a problem, since they can be embedded in the composite materials and serve as in situ sensors. In this article, embedded optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are used to analyze the vibration characteristics of two real-life composite components. The first component is a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer automotive control arm; the second is a glass fiber-reinforced polymer aeronautic hinge arm. The modal parameters of both components were estimated by processing the FBG signals with two interrogation techniques: the maximum detection and fast phase correlation algorithms were employed for the demodulation of the FBG signals; the Peak-Picking and PolyMax techniques were instead used for the parameter estimation. To validate the FBG outcomes, reference measurements were performed by means of a laser Doppler vibrometer. Sensors 2015, 15 27175 The analysis of the results showed that the FBG sensing capabilities were enhanced when the recently-introduced fast phase correlation algorithm was combined with the state-of-the-art PolyMax estimator curve fitting method. In this case, the FBGs provided the most accurate results, i.e. it was possible to fully characterize the vibration behavior of both composite components. When using more traditional interrogation algorithms (maximum detection) and modal parameter estimation techniques (Peak-Picking), some of the modes were not successfully identified.

  6. Development process of automotive microsensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, William C.

    1995-05-01

    The phased product development approach can be applied advantageously to develop and manufacture automotive microsensors. The phased approach involves a multifunctional team from innovation to development to eventual production and maintenance phases. The key advantage of this approach is the shortened development cycle and fast product introduction, while minimizing waste of resources and lowering risk of product failure. When applied to the product cycles of automotive sensors based on micromachining technology, this approach elucidates several critical considerations. In particular, since industrial application of micromachining technology is still at the infant stage, standards and design rules are not firmly established. Therefore, several important activities must be initiated simultaneously from the start of the innovation phase, which proves to be crucial to the prudent decision of technology alternatives and sensor system configuration. The use of a multifunctional team, as mandated in the phased approach, enables coherent development and optimization of the sense element, the fabrication technology, the packaging approach, the interface circuit configuration, and design features that allow efficient test and assembly flow. Also, with intermediate milestones within each phase, risk assessment and necessary midcourse adjustment to technology trade- offs can be both timely and accurate. Accelerometers, one of the most developed micromachined sensors, serve as representative examples that illustrate how the phased approach can benefits the commercialization of the newly established and rapidly expanding field of micromechanics.

  7. Sensors and Micromachined Devices for the Automotive and New Markets: The Delphi Delco Electronics MEMS Story.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logsdon, James

    2002-03-01

    This presentation will provide a brief history of the development of MEMS products and technology, beginning with the manifold absolute pressure sensor in the late seventies through the current variety of Delphi Delco Electronics sensors available today. The technology development of micromachining from uncompensated P plus etch stops to deep reactive ion etching and the technology development of wafer level packaging from electrostatic bonding to glass frit sealing and silicon to silicon direct bonding will be reviewed.

  8. A rapid method for identifying and characterizing structural impacts using distributed sensors: An application for automotive pedestrian protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Andrew C.

    This research is motivated by recent activity to improve automotive safety, especially for pedestrians. In many parts of the world today, injuries and fatalities from road accidents are a significant problem. Safety features such as seat restraints and air bags provide considerable levels of protection for car occupants; however, no such protective measures currently exist for pedestrians. Drawing upon the success and effectiveness of occupant air bag systems, current research aims to develop similar devices for pedestrians. These active pedestrian protection systems deploy a safety feature such as an external air bag when a pedestrian is hit by a vehicle. Contact with the front bumper induces a body rotation that may result in a violent head collision. The deployable safety device provides a cushioning surface for the vulnerable pedestrian during impact. The challenge of such a system is an effective sensory unit that can rapidly and correctly discriminate pedestrian impacts from non-pedestrian ones. The fast kinematics of the automobile-pedestrian impact leaves a minimal amount of time for signal processing and computation. This research study focuses on a discrimination scheme that satisfies both the time and accuracy requirements for a proposed sensory system for pedestrian protection. A unique methodology was developed to identify structural impacts using dominant frequency features extracted from sensory data. Contact sensors mounted on the front bumper of an automobile measure the strain response from an impact event. The dominant frequencies obtained from these sensor signals are greatly influenced by the impact object's properties and can be used to discriminate between different objects. Extensive tests were conducted to gather sensor data and validate the proposed methodology and impact discrimination algorithm. Results of the impact tests indicate that the approach is sound, and the sensory system effectively identifies "pedestrian" impacts within a

  9. Energy-autonomous wireless sensor nodes for automotive applications, powered by thermoelectric energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehne, P.; Lickert, F.; Bäumker, E.; Kroener, M.; Woias, P.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we will first present the measurement of temperatures on different positions at a diesel-powered car. As a result, several locations are identified as suitable to implement a wireless sensor node powered by thermal energy harvesting. Based on the data gained a thermoelectric generator (TEG) has been selected, and measurements of energy generation have been performed. Further, a complete energy-autonomous wireless sensor node was designed, including the TEG with its mounting bracket, an electronic power management, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) sensor node. Based on temperature differences from -10 K up to 75.3 K occurring in test drives, a low power set up was chosen to achieve a system startup time below 10 minutes and to ensure service even under difficult ambient conditions, like high ambient temperatures or a slow movement of the car in stocking traffic. 2 minutes after starting the engine a power about of 10 mW is available from the chosen TEG, and in peak the power exceeds 1 W. In a 50 minute test drive it was possible to generate 650 J of energy. This information was used to develop the complete system, demonstrating the opportunity to deploy energy-autonomous wireless sensor nodes in a car, e.g. for exhaust gas monitoring. The system is used to gather sensor data, like temperature and humidity, and transmits data successfully via BLE to a prepared main node based on a Raspberry Pi.

  10. Development and testing of a magnetic position sensor system for automotive and avionics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Bryan C.; Nelson, Carl V.

    2001-08-01

    A magnetic sensor system has been developed to measure the 3-D location and orientation of a rigid body relative to an array of magnetic dipole transmitters. A generalized solution to the measurement problem has been formulated, allowing the transmitter and receiver parameters (position, orientation, number, etc.) to be optimized for various applications. Additionally, the method of images has been used to mitigate the impact of metallic materials in close proximity to the sensor. The resulting system allows precise tracking of high-speed motion in confined metal environments. The sensor system was recently configured and tested as an abdomen displacement sensor for an automobile crash-test dummy. The test results indicate a positional accuracy of approximately 1 mm rms during 20 m/s motions. The dynamic test results also confirmed earlier covariance model predictions, which were used to optimize the sensor geometry. A covariance analysis was performed to evaluate the applicability of this magnetic position system for tracking a pilot's head motion inside an aircraft cockpit. Realistic design parameters indicate that a robust tracking system, consisting of lightweight pickup coils mounted on a pilot's helmet, and an array of transmitter coils distributed throughout a cockpit, is feasible. Recent test and covariance results are presented.

  11. Impact of increasing productivity on work content and psychosocial work characteristics in Chaku-Chaku assembly lines - a follow-up study in a German automotive manufacturing company.

    PubMed

    Enríquez-Díaz, José-Alonso; Kotzab, Daniel; Sytch, Alina; Frieling, Ekkehart

    2012-01-01

    The current study aims at evaluating the reorganization of work processes on the basis of studies of three assembly lines in a well known component manufacture of the German automotive industry. It is of particular interest to evaluate the impact of the introduction of Chaku-Chaku assembly lines on the production goals, distribution of activities during one typical work day and psychosocial characteristics of the work environment. Findings indicate that the Chaku-Chaku assembly lines could represent a successful production strategy in order to enhance the output levels of work systems. However, the data show that interviewed assembly workers have spent more time on value added activities than before. The intensive perception of the time spent on main work activities (direct value added activities) and a simultaneous decrease of available discretionary time between work tasks seem to be related to the low level of the reported psychosocial work characteristics.

  12. Multi-material additive manufacturing of robot components with integrated sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Matt; Cox, Bryan; Galla, Matt; Krueger, Paul S.; Richer, Edmond; Cohen, Adam L.

    2015-06-01

    Fabricating a robotic component comprising 100s of distributed, connected sensors can be very difficult with current approaches. To address these challenges, we are developing a novel additive manufacturing technology to enable the integrated fabrication of robotic structural elements with distributed, interconnected sensors and actuators. The focus is on resistive and capacitive sensors and electromagnetic actuators, though others are anticipated. Anticipated applications beyond robotics include advanced prosthetics, wearable electronics, and defense electronics. This paper presents preliminary results for printing polymers and conductive material simultaneously to form small sensor arrays. Approaches to optimizing sensor performance are discussed.

  13. Automotive aluminum recycling in 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This article examines the aluminium recycling industry's ability to handle effectively the increased amounts of automotive aluminium scrap resulting from increased amounts of wrought and cast aluminium alloys in automobile manufacturing. This study takes a system-wide view of both volume and composition aspects of automotive aluminium recycling.

  14. SixDOF position sensor: enabling manufacturing flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.

    1998-03-24

    A small, non-contact optical sensor invented by the author attaches to a robot (or other machines), enabling the robot to detect objects, adjust its alignment in all six degrees of freedom (SixDOF), and read a task from a code on the part. Thus, the SixDOF sensor provides robots more intelligence to operate autonomously and adapt to changes without human intervention. A description of the sensor is provided. Also, an operating arrangement of a robot using the SixDOF sensor is presented with performance results described.

  15. Research on sensor design for internet of things and laser manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Yao, Jianquan; Guo, Ling; Zhang, Yanchun

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we will introduce the research on sensor design for IOT (Internet of Things) and laser manufacturing, and supporting the establishment of local area IOT. The main contents include studying on the structure designing of silicon micro tilt sensor, data acquisition and processing, addressing implanted and building Local Area IOT with wireless sensor network technology. At last, it is discussed the status and trends of the Internet of Things from the promoters, watchers, pessimists and doers.

  16. Passive multivariable temperature and conductivity RFID sensors for single-use biopharmaceutical manufacturing components.

    PubMed

    Potyrailo, Radislav A; Wortley, Timothy; Surman, Cheryl; Monk, David; Morris, William G; Vincent, Mark; Diana, Rafael; Pizzi, Vincent; Carter, Jeffrey; Gach, Gerard; Klensmeden, Staffan; Ehring, Hanno

    2011-01-01

    Single-use biopharmaceutical manufacturing requires monitoring of critical manufacturing parameters. We have developed an approach for passive radio-frequency identification (RFID)-based sensing that converts ubiquitous passive 13.56 MHz RFID tags into inductively coupled sensors. We combine several measured parameters from the resonant sensor antenna with multivariate data analysis and deliver unique capability of multiparameter sensing and rejection of environmental interferences with a single sensor. We demonstrate here the integration of these RFID sensors into single-use biopharmaceutical manufacturing components. We have tested these sensors for over 500 h for measurements of temperature and solution conductivity with the accuracy of 0.1°C (32-48°C range) and accuracy of 0.3-2.9 mS/cm (0.5-230 mS/cm range). We further demonstrate simultaneous temperature and conductivity measurements with an individual RFID sensor with the accuracy of 0.2°C (5-60°C range) and accuracy of 0.9 mS/cm (0.5-183 mS/cm range). Developed RFID sensors provide several important features previously unavailable from other single-use sensing technologies such as the same sensor platform for measurements of physical, chemical, and biological parameters; multi-parameter monitoring with individual sensors; and simultaneous digital identification.

  17. Automotive Applications of MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barua, Debojit

    2001-03-01

    Application of MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) in the automotive industry has a relatively long history with the introduction of pressure sensors for engine control systems. The next significant inroad came with the introduction of silicon accelerometers for safety systems. Opportunities for MEMS are opening up with other sensor requirements in systems such as Vehicle Dynamics and Navigation. We shall discuss some of the automotive applications of MEMS from the users point of view. In particular, requirements due to harsh environment, reliability and durability, and of course, cost will be reviewed. Finally, we will discuss some applications in the area of actuators.

  18. Process for manufacture of thick film hydrogen sensors

    DOEpatents

    Perdieu, Louisa H.

    2000-09-09

    A thick film process for producing hydrogen sensors capable of sensing down to a one percent concentration of hydrogen in carrier gasses such as argon, nitrogen, and air. The sensor is also suitable to detect hydrogen gas while immersed in transformer oil. The sensor includes a palladium resistance network thick film printed on a substrate, a portion of which network is coated with a protective hydrogen barrier. The process utilizes a sequence of printing of the requisite materials on a non-conductive substrate with firing temperatures at each step which are less than or equal to the temperature at the previous step.

  19. Process for manufacturing shell membrane force and deflection sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yong-Lae (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Black, Richard James (Inventor); Cutkosky, Mark R. (Inventor); Chau, Kelvin K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A sensor for force is formed from an elastomeric cylinder having a region with apertures. The apertures have passageways formed between them, and an optical fiber is introduced into these passageways, where the optical fiber has a grating for measurement of tension positioned in the passageways between apertures. Optionally, a temperature measurement sensor is placed in or around the elastomer for temperature correction, and if required, a copper film may be deposited in the elastomer for reduced sensitivity to spot temperature variations in the elastomer near the sensors.

  20. Thermocouples--The Most Widely Used Temperature Sensor in Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers predict that future developments in nanotechnology will bring incredible, almost inconceivable, change to the manufacturing industry. For now, though, one of technology's most trusted tools remains very relevant: In the field of thermometry, thermocouples are a tried and true technology. As a consequence, material on thermocouples…

  1. Thermocouples--The Most Widely Used Temperature Sensor in Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers predict that future developments in nanotechnology will bring incredible, almost inconceivable, change to the manufacturing industry. For now, though, one of technology's most trusted tools remains very relevant: In the field of thermometry, thermocouples are a tried and true technology. As a consequence, material on thermocouples…

  2. Review of Batteryless Wireless Sensors Using Additively Manufactured Microwave Resonators

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The significant improvements observed in the field of bulk-production of printed microchip technologies in the past decade have allowed the fabrication of microchip printing on numerous materials including organic and flexible substrates. Printed sensors and electronics are of significant interest owing to the fast and low-cost fabrication techniques used in their fabrication. The increasing amount of research and deployment of specially printed electronic sensors in a number of applications demonstrates the immense attention paid by researchers to this topic in the pursuit of achieving wider-scale electronics on different dielectric materials. Although there are many traditional methods for fabricating radio frequency (RF) components, they are time-consuming, expensive, complicated, and require more power for operation than additive fabrication methods. This paper serves as a summary/review of improvements made to the additive printing technologies. The article focuses on three recently developed printing methods for the fabrication of wireless sensors operating at microwave frequencies. The fabrication methods discussed include inkjet printing, three-dimensional (3D) printing, and screen printing. PMID:28891947

  3. Review of Batteryless Wireless Sensors Using Additively Manufactured Microwave Resonators.

    PubMed

    Memon, Muhammad Usman; Lim, Sungjoon

    2017-09-09

    The significant improvements observed in the field of bulk-production of printed microchip technologies in the past decade have allowed the fabrication of microchip printing on numerous materials including organic and flexible substrates. Printed sensors and electronics are of significant interest owing to the fast and low-cost fabrication techniques used in their fabrication. The increasing amount of research and deployment of specially printed electronic sensors in a number of applications demonstrates the immense attention paid by researchers to this topic in the pursuit of achieving wider-scale electronics on different dielectric materials. Although there are many traditional methods for fabricating radio frequency (RF) components, they are time-consuming, expensive, complicated, and require more power for operation than additive fabrication methods. This paper serves as a summary/review of improvements made to the additive printing technologies. The article focuses on three recently developed printing methods for the fabrication of wireless sensors operating at microwave frequencies. The fabrication methods discussed include inkjet printing, three-dimensional (3D) printing, and screen printing.

  4. Automotive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Guigard, Selma E; Shariaty, Pooya; Niknaddaf, Saeid; Lashaki, Masoud Jahandar; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature from 2014 related to automotive wastes is presented. Topics include solid wastes from autobodies and tires as well as vehicle emissions to soil and air as a result of the use of conventional and alternative fuels. Potential toxicological and health risks related to automotive wastes are also discussed.

  5. Pyrolyzed-parylene based sensors and method of manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method (and resulting structure) for fabricating a sensing device. The method includes providing a substrate comprising a surface region and forming an insulating material overlying the surface region. The method also includes forming a film of carbon based material overlying the insulating material and treating to the film of carbon based material to pyrolyzed the carbon based material to cause formation of a film of substantially carbon based material having a resistivity ranging within a predetermined range. The method also provides at least a portion of the pyrolyzed carbon based material in a sensor application and uses the portion of the pyrolyzed carbon based material in the sensing application. In a specific embodiment, the sensing application is selected from chemical, humidity, piezoelectric, radiation, mechanical strain or temperature.

  6. Applications of the Integrated High-Performance CMOS Image Sensor to Range Finders — from Optical Triangulation to the Automotive Field

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jih-Huah; Pen, Cheng-Chung; Jiang, Joe-Air

    2008-01-01

    With their significant features, the applications of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors covers a very extensive range, from industrial automation to traffic applications such as aiming systems, blind guidance, active/passive range finders, etc. In this paper CMOS image sensor-based active and passive range finders are presented. The measurement scheme of the proposed active/passive range finders is based on a simple triangulation method. The designed range finders chiefly consist of a CMOS image sensor and some light sources such as lasers or LEDs. The implementation cost of our range finders is quite low. Image processing software to adjust the exposure time (ET) of the CMOS image sensor to enhance the performance of triangulation-based range finders was also developed. An extensive series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the designed range finders. From the experimental results, the distance measurement resolutions achieved by the active range finder and the passive range finder can be better than 0.6% and 0.25% within the measurement ranges of 1 to 8 m and 5 to 45 m, respectively. Feasibility tests on applications of the developed CMOS image sensor-based range finders to the automotive field were also conducted. The experimental results demonstrated that our range finders are well-suited for distance measurements in this field. PMID:27879789

  7. Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  8. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  9. Applications and use of in-situ chemical sensors in semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolliver, Donald L.; Atkinson, George H.

    1997-07-01

    The use of in-situ chemical sensors in semiconductor wafer fabrication will increase significantly over the next five years. Advanced gas phase and liquid phase real time, non contaminating chemical sensors will be applied in four major categories of use. These four areas of application are: (1) Upstream measurements of trace contaminants in high purity process gases and liquids. (2) In-the-chamber or in-the- process bath measurements of chemical species of on line active process tools. (3) Real time, on line, downstream measurements of gas phase and liquid phase effluents coming from semiconductor wafer process tools. (4) Semiconductor industrial hygiene and safety monitors for toxic substances in the work place. This paper will review each of these major applications for both gases and liquids as they will need to be integrated into semiconductor wafer manufacturing over time. Some existing sensor applications currently exist. This review will focus extensively on in-situ real time chemical monitoring sensors.

  10. Electrostatic sensors for SPIDER experiment: Design, manufacture of prototypes, and first tests

    SciTech Connect

    Brombin, M. Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Barzon, A.; Franchin, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Trevisan, L.; Schiesko, L.

    2014-02-15

    A system of electrostatic sensors has been designed for the SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) experiment, prototype RF source of the ITER NBI (neutral beam injection). A prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested at the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) facility, where the plasma environment is similar to that of SPIDER. Different aspects concerning the mechanical manufacturing and the signal conditioning are presented, among them the RF compensation adopted to reduce the RF effects which could lead to overestimated values of the electron temperature. The first commissioning tests provided ion saturation current values in the range assumed for the design, so the deduced plasma density estimate is consistent with the expected values.

  11. Electrostatic sensors for SPIDER experiment: Design, manufacture of prototypes, and first tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brombin, M.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Barzon, A.; Franchin, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.; Schiesko, L.; Taliercio, C.; Trevisan, L.

    2014-02-01

    A system of electrostatic sensors has been designed for the SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) experiment, prototype RF source of the ITER NBI (neutral beam injection). A prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested at the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) facility, where the plasma environment is similar to that of SPIDER. Different aspects concerning the mechanical manufacturing and the signal conditioning are presented, among them the RF compensation adopted to reduce the RF effects which could lead to overestimated values of the electron temperature. The first commissioning tests provided ion saturation current values in the range assumed for the design, so the deduced plasma density estimate is consistent with the expected values.

  12. Detection of lead derived from automotive scrap residue using a direct push fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy metal sensor.

    PubMed

    Mosier-Boss, P A; Lieberman, S H

    2005-12-01

    At Naval Base Point Loma in San Diego, California, a canyon had been filled with construction debris and automotive scrap residue (ASR), the latter of which included lead acid batteries. A magnetic survey and induced potential (IP)/DC resistivity survey showed the presence of anomalies at the western end of the site where historic records indicated that the ASR had been placed. Lead concentration depth profiles were obtained in situ and in real time at the site using a direct push fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (FO-LIBS) sensor probe. Lead, along with strontium and titanium, was detected at depths of 7 to 8 m bgs. These results provided confirmation that the magnetic/IP anomalies at the site are due to ASR.

  13. Results of an electron beam test with prototype silicon sensors manufactured by Infineon Technologies Austria AG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treberspurg, W.; Bartl, U.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Hacker, J.; König, A.; Wübben, T.

    2015-05-01

    The demand on silicon based sensors continuously increased since they have been used the first time in particle physics for tracking purposes. In accordance with this development the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (HEPHY) and the European semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG engaged in a cooperation to develop prototype p-on-n silicon strip sensors. The sensors of two independent batches with slightly varying production processes are evaluated. To investigate their performance, modules have been assembled with an analogue readout chip (APV25) and operated in an electron beam test. An already well-studied problem of poorly isolated strips, restricted to a small region of the sensor could be further investigated at one sensor and has proven to be cured at the others. Therefore charge sharing effects and their dependency on the bias voltage have been investigated on different regions of the sensors. Furthermore the recorded data of the modules, including one gamma irradiated, document the functionality of the devices.

  14. Development of Low Cost Sensors for Hydrogen Safety Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Holmes, W., Jr.; Lauf, R.J.; Maxey, L.C.; Salter, C.; Walker, D.

    1999-04-07

    We are developing rugged and reliable hydrogen safety sensors that can be easily manufactured. Potential applications also require an inexpensive sensor that can be easily deployed. Automotive applications demand low cost, while personnel safety applications emphasize light-weight, battery-operated, and wearable sensors. Our current efforts involve developing and optimizing sensor materials for stability and compatibility with typical thick-film manufacturing processes. We are also tailoring the sensor design and size along with various packaging and communication schemes for optimal acceptance by end users.

  15. Characterization of embedded fiber optic strain sensors into metallic structures via ultrasonic additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, John J.; Hehr, Adam J.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2016-04-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors measure deviation in a reflected wavelength of light to detect in-situ strain. These sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference, and the inclusion of multiple FBGs on the same fiber allows for a seamlessly integrated sensing network. FBGs are attractive for embedded sensing in aerospace applications due to their small noninvasive size and prospect of constant, real-time nondestructive evaluation. In this study, FBG sensors are embedded in aluminum 6061 via ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM), a rapid prototyping process that uses high power ultrasonic vibrations to weld similar and dissimilar metal foils together. UAM was chosen due to the desire to embed FBG sensors at low temperatures, a requirement that excludes other additive processes such as selective laser sintering or fusion deposition modeling. In this paper, the embedded FBGs are characterized in terms of birefringence losses, post embedding strain shifts, consolidation quality, and strain sensing performance. Sensors embedded into an ASTM test piece are compared against an exterior surface mounted foil strain gage at both room and elevated temperatures using cyclic tensile tests.

  16. Automotive Sectors (NAICS 336, 4231, 8111)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find regulatory, compliance, and enforcement information for environmental laws and regulations for the automotive sectors, which includes transportation equipment manufacturing, and establishments involved in repair and maintenance services for vehicles

  17. Miniaturization of an optical 3D sensor by additive manufacture of metallic mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigel, Andre; Merkel, Markus; Heinrich, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    Based on progress in the field of additive manufacturing optical components can now be printed with rapid prototyping technologies. In this contribution the possibilities of rapid prototyping for optical metrology are exemplified by the fabrication of miniaturized reflectors and the construction of a miniaturized metrology system designed for an industrial metrology application. Focusing on the manufacturing and post processing steps the process chain to fabricate the miniaturized mirror is described. This includes an evaluation of the mirror based on roughness measurements. The reflectors are later utilized in a miniaturized sensor system to scan the interior of small pipes. The additively manufactured mirror is used in the metrology system to create a defined sampling signal within the cavity. Thereby the sensor system generates a point cloud of the internal surfaces using a 3D acquisition algorithm based on the laser triangulation principle. Part of this contribution will be the setup, the 3D acquisition and calibration principle as well as an evaluation of the metrology system. To optimize the point cloud acquisition three different hardware setups were designed using different cameras and calibration algorithms. These three approaches are evaluated and compared.

  18. Challenges in the development of sensors for monitoring automobile emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.S.; Pham, A.Q.

    1997-02-20

    A new generation of on-board automotive sensors are needed for diagnosis and control of engines and catalytic converters. With regard to catalytic converters, the intent of these regulations is to ensure that the vehicle operator is informed when emission control system are no longer performing adequately. In order to be commercialized, sensors for emission control must meet certain criteria, including low cost, reliability, and manufacturability. We have been developing solid state electrochemical sensors for emission control. Most recently, our work has focused on the development of hydrocarbon sensors for monitoring catalytic converter performance. Previous work was concerned with the development of an oxygen sensor having appropriate sensitivity for lean-burn engines. Operational limits for oxygen sensors have been defined and new materials have been developed for hydrocarbon sensors. Technical results are presented here as well as challenges to be met in the development of materials and designs for new chemical sensors for monitoring automotive emissions.

  19. Automotive Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Desmond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in automotive mechanics at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  20. Automotive Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Desmond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in automotive mechanics at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  1. Visualization of complex automotive data.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jeffrey A

    2007-01-01

    Making complicated data easier to understand has always been a challenge. Four types of visualization applications (CAD, generalized, specialized, and custom) have successfully been used by automotive manufacturers such as General Motors to help meet this goal. Here are some ways that common processes can be developed for all types of visualization.

  2. Applications of the Integrated High-Performance CMOS Image Sensor to Range Finders - from Optical Triangulation to the Automotive Field.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jih-Huah; Pen, Cheng-Chung; Jiang, Joe-Air

    2008-03-13

    With their significant features, the applications of complementary metal-oxidesemiconductor (CMOS) image sensors covers a very extensive range, from industrialautomation to traffic applications such as aiming systems, blind guidance, active/passiverange finders, etc. In this paper CMOS image sensor-based active and passive rangefinders are presented. The measurement scheme of the proposed active/passive rangefinders is based on a simple triangulation method. The designed range finders chieflyconsist of a CMOS image sensor and some light sources such as lasers or LEDs. Theimplementation cost of our range finders is quite low. Image processing software to adjustthe exposure time (ET) of the CMOS image sensor to enhance the performance oftriangulation-based range finders was also developed. An extensive series of experimentswere conducted to evaluate the performance of the designed range finders. From theexperimental results, the distance measurement resolutions achieved by the active rangefinder and the passive range finder can be better than 0.6% and 0.25% within themeasurement ranges of 1 to 8 m and 5 to 45 m, respectively. Feasibility tests onapplications of the developed CMOS image sensor-based range finders to the automotivefield were also conducted. The experimental results demonstrated that our range finders arewell-suited for distance measurements in this field.

  3. Meteorological Data Quality from Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) Sensors on Commercial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. H.; Pietras, J.; Heppner, P.; Evans, J. D.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Mobile Platform Environmental Data (MoPED) system acquires real-time data on weather conditions from commercial fleet providers and provides them to the National Weather Service (NWS) for use in operations and numerical models. The MoPED system assesses the quality of these data by comparing them to observations from airport weather stations when the mobile platforms are in sufficiently close proximity (in space and time). We have devised a set of quality control algorithms that are applied to vehicle observation datasets to qualify them for dissemination to NWS. Commercial vehicles participating in MoPED have a third-party suite of sensors for ambient air temperature, relative humidity, light level, precipitation intensity, atmospheric pressure, ozone, and road temperature. In addition, some vehicles also generate meteorological data from sensors built into the vehicles themselves (original equipment manufacturer (OEM) sensors) which conform to the SAE J1939 standard for onboard vehicle networking. These sensors, known as OEM J-data sensors, measure numerous parameters associated with emissions control and engine performance - including ambient air temperature and atmospheric pressure. Time-tagged and transmitted to the MoPED system, these OEM J-data measurements can be a tremendous source of weather data for NWS if they can be extracted and communicated in real-time from the vehicles. We are working with a commercial fleet (who have OEM J-data available) to determine suitability of these data for NWS. To ensure the overall quality of the data, we have developed a methodology for assessing the suitability of classes of vehicles and sensors for inclusion in the MoPED dissemination, for the continued assessment of individual vehicles once their class has been accepted into MoPED, and for identifying corrective measures (such as adjusting measurements to correct for individual sensor offsets). A byproduct of that methodology is a multi-component model for sources

  4. Titanium aluminide automotive engine valves

    SciTech Connect

    Hartfield-Wuensch, S.E.; Sperling, A.A.; Morrison, R.S.; Dowling, W.E. Jr.; Allison, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The low density and high elevated temperature strength make titanium aluminide alloys an excellent candidate for automotive exhaust valve applications. Lighter weight valve train components allow either improved performance or reduction of valve spring loads which reduce noise and friction, thereby improving fuel economy. The key to successful application of TiAl alloys for automotive engine valves is not optimization of strength and ductility, but rather the development of a low-cost, high-volume manufacturing method. Different manufacturing approaches will be discussed in this paper, along with their advantages and disadvantages. Currently, casting appears to be the lowest-cost alternative that produces adequate material properties and emphasis is being placed on this manufacturing approach. The results of several successful engine tests will also be discussed, including results on a binary TiAl alloy. However, these engine tests have indicated that TiAl alloy valves will require tip protection and stem coating.

  5. Ultrasonic Dynamic Vector Stress Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Froggatt, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Stress inferred from measurements in specimens rather than in bonded gauges. Ultrasonic dynamic vector stress sensor (UDVSS) measures changes in dynamic directional stress occurring in material or structure at location touched by device when material or structure put under cyclic load. Includes phase-locked loop, synchronous amplifier, and contact probe. Useful among manufacturers of aerospace and automotive structures for stress testing and evaluation of designs.

  6. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO₂ and NH₃ Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems.

    PubMed

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-02-23

    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO₂ and NH₃ gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO₂ and 15 ppm-NH₃ is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time.

  7. Manufacturing challenges of optical current and voltage sensors for utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yakymyshyn, C.P.; Brubaker, M.A.; Johnston, P.M.; Reinbold, C.

    1997-12-01

    Measurement of voltages and currents in power transmission and distribution systems are critical to the electric utility industry for both revenue metering and reliability. Nonconventional instrument transformers based on intensity modulation of optical signals have been reported in the literature for more than 20 years. Recently described devices using passive bulk optical sensor elements include the Electro-Optic Voltage Transducer (EOVT) and Magneto-Optic Current Transducer (MOCT). These technologies offer substantial advantages over conventional instrument transformers in accuracy, optical isolation bandwidth, environmental compatibility, weight and size. This paper describes design and manufacturing issues associated with the EOVT and the Optical Metering Unit (OMU) recently introduced by ABB with field installation results presented for prototype units in the 345 kV and 420 kV voltage classes. The OMU incorporates an EOVT and MOCT to monitor the voltage and current on power transmission lines using a single free-standing device.

  8. Sensor-based atomic layer deposition for rapid process learning and enhanced manufacturability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wei

    In the search for sensor based atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to accelerate process learning and enhance manufacturability, we have explored new reactor designs and applied in-situ process sensing to W and HfO 2 ALD processes. A novel wafer scale ALD reactor, which features fast gas switching, good process sensing compatibility and significant similarity to the real manufacturing environment, is constructed. The reactor has a unique movable reactor cap design that allows two possible operation modes: (1) steady-state flow with alternating gas species; or (2) fill-and-pump-out cycling of each gas, accelerating the pump-out by lifting the cap to employ the large chamber volume as ballast. Downstream quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) sampling is applied for in-situ process sensing of tungsten ALD process. The QMS reveals essential surface reaction dynamics through real-time signals associated with byproduct generation as well as precursor introduction and depletion for each ALD half cycle, which are then used for process learning and optimization. More subtle interactions such as imperfect surface saturation and reactant dose interaction are also directly observed by QMS, indicating that ALD process is more complicated than the suggested layer-by-layer growth. By integrating in real-time the byproduct QMS signals over each exposure and plotting it against process cycle number, the deposition kinetics on the wafer is directly measured. For continuous ALD runs, the total integrated byproduct QMS signal in each ALD run is also linear to ALD film thickness, and therefore can be used for ALD film thickness metrology. The in-situ process sensing is also applied to HfO2 ALD process that is carried out in a furnace type ALD reactor. Precursor dose end-point control is applied to precisely control the precursor dose in each half cycle. Multiple process sensors, including quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and QMS are used to provide real time process information. The

  9. Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Hanspeter; Lüönd, Felix; Schlatter, Jürg; Auderset, Kevin; Jordan-Gerkens, Anke; Nowak, Andreas; Ebert, Volker; Buhr, Egbert; Klein, Tobias; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mamakos, Athanasios; Riccobono, Francesco; Discher, Kai; Högström, Richard; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Quincey, Paul

    2014-08-01

    The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today's opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

  10. Tank-automotive robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  11. Electrohydraulic Forming of Near Net Shape Automotive Panels

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the electrohydraulic forming (EHF) process as a near net shape automotive panel manufacturing technology that simultaneously reduces the energy embedded in vehicles and the energy consumed while producing automotive structures.

  12. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive glass...

  13. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive glass...

  14. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.70 Applicability; description of the automotive...

  15. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.70 Applicability; description of the automotive glass...

  16. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.70 Applicability; description of the automotive...

  17. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.70 Applicability; description of the automotive...

  18. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering...

  19. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive glass...

  20. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive glass...

  1. The effects of short pulse laser surface cleaning on porosity formation and reduction in laser welding of aluminium alloy for automotive component manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlShaer, A. W.; Li, L.; Mistry, A.

    2014-12-01

    Laser welding of aluminium alloys typically results in porosity in the fusion zones, leading to poor mechanical and corrosion performances. Mechanical and chemical cleaning of surfaces has been used previously to remove contaminants for weld joint preparations. However, these methods are slow, ineffective (e.g. due to hydrogen trapping) or lead to environmental hazards. This paper reports the effects of short pulsed laser surface cleaning on porosity formation and reduction in laser welding of AC-170PX (AA6014) aluminium sheets (coated with Ti/Zr and lubricated using a dry lubricant AlO70) with two types of joints: fillet edge and flange couch, using an AA4043 filler wire for automotive component assembly. The effect of laser cleaning on porosity reduction during laser welding using a filler wire has not been reported before. In this work, porosity and weld fusion zone geometry were examined prior to and after laser cleaning. The nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser cleaning was found to reduce porosity significantly in the weld fusion zones. For the fillet edge welds, porosity was reduced to less than 0.5% compared with 10-80% without laser cleaning. For flange couch welds, porosity was reduced to 0.23-0.8% with laser cleaning from 0.7% to 4.3% without laser cleaning. This has been found to be due to the elimination of contaminations and oxide layers that contribute to the porosity formation. The laser cleaning is based on thermal ablation. This research focuses on porosity reduction in laser welding of aluminium alloy. Weld quality was investigated for two joints, fillet edge and flange couch joints. The effect of laser cleaning on porosity reduction after welding was investigated. It was found that laser cleaning reduced porosity less than 1% in both joints. Weld dimensions and strength were evaluated and discussed for both types of joints.

  2. Springback Compensation Process for High Strength Steel Automotive Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onhon, M. Fatih

    2016-08-01

    This paper is about an advanced stamping simulation methodology used in automotive industry to shorten total die manufacturing times in a new vehicle project by means of benefiting leading edge virtual try-out technology.

  3. Manufacturing technology of integrated textile-based sensor networks for in situ monitoring applications of composite wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haentzsche, Eric; Mueller, Ralf; Huebner, Matthias; Ruder, Tristan; Unger, Reimar; Nocke, Andreas; Cherif, Chokri

    2016-10-01

    Based on in situ strain sensors consisting of piezo-resistive carbon filament yarns (CFYs), which have been successfully integrated into textile reinforcement structures during their textile-technological manufacturing process, a continuous load of fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) components has been realised. These sensors are also suitable for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The two-dimensional sensor layout is made feasible by the usage of a modular warp yarn path manipulation unit. Using a functional model of a small wind turbine blade in thermoset composite design, the sensor function for basic SHM applications (e.g. static load monitoring) are demonstrated. Any mechanical loads along the pressure or suction side of the wind turbine blade can be measured and calculated via a correlative change in resistance of the CFYs within the textile reinforcement plies. Performing quasi-static load tests on both tensile specimen and full-scale wind turbine blade, elementary results have been obtained concerning electro-mechanical behaviour and spatial resolution of global and even local static stresses according to the CFY sensor integration length. This paper demonstrates the great potential of textile-based and textile-technological integrated sensors in reinforcement structures for future SHM applications of FRPs.

  4. Advanced Materials for Automotive Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisza, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper some recent material developments will be overviewed mainly from the point of view of automotive industry. In car industry, metal forming is one of the most important manufacturing processes imposing severe restrictions on materials; these are often contradictory requirements, e.g. high strength simultaneously with good formability, etc. Due to these challenges and the ever increasing demand new material classes have been developed; however, the more and more wide application of high strength materials meeting the requirements stated by the mass reduction lead to increasing difficulties concerning the formability which requires significant technological developments as well. In this paper, the recent materials developments will be overviewed from the point of view of the automotive industry.

  5. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Chiu, W.; Darooka, D.; Mullings, D. M.; Johnson, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual design study for a Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine (CASE) is performed. Year 1990 structural ceramic technology is assumed. Structural and performance analyses of the conceptual design are performed as well as a manufacturing and cost analysis. The general conclusions from this study are that such an engine would be 10-26% more efficient over its performance map than the current metal Automotive Stirling Reference Engine (ASRE). Cost of such a ceramic engine is likely to be somewhat higher than that of the ASRE but engine cost is very sensitive to the ultimate cost of the high purity, ceramic powder raw materials required to fabricate high performance parts. When the design study is projected to the year 2000 technology, substantinal net efficiency improvements, on the order of 25 to 46% over the ASRE, are computed.

  6. The Impact of Housing on the Characteristics of Ceramic Pressure Sensors--An Issue of Design for Manufacturability.

    PubMed

    Santo Zarnik, Marina; Belavic, Darko; Novak, Franc

    2015-12-14

    An exploratory study of the impact of housing on the characteristics of a low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) pressure sensor is presented. The ceramic sensor structure is sealed in a plastic housing. This may have non-negligible effect on the final characteristics and should be considered in the early design phase. The manufacturability issue mainly concerning the selection of available housing and the most appropriate materials was considered with respect to different requirements for low and high pressure ranges of operation. Numerical predictions showed the trends and helped reveal the critical design parameters. Proper selection of the adhesive material remains an essential issue. Curing of the epoxy adhesive may introduce non-negligible residual stresses, which considerably influence the sensor's characteristics.

  7. RFID sensors as the common sensing platform for single-use biopharmaceutical manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Surman, Cheryl; Monk, David; Morris, William G.; Wortley, Timothy; Vincent, Mark; Diana, Rafael; Pizzi, Vincent; Carter, Jeffrey; Gach, Gerard; Klensmeden, Staffan; Ehring, Hanno

    2011-08-01

    The lack of reliable single-use sensors prevents the biopharmaceutical industry from fully embracing single-use biomanufacturing processes. Sensors based on the same detection platform for all critical parameters in single-use bioprocess components would be highly desirable to significantly simplify their installation, calibration and operation. We review here our approach for passive radio-frequency identification (RFID)-based sensing that does not rely on costly proprietary RFID memory chips with an analog input but rather implements ubiquitous passive 13.56 MHz RFID tags as inductively coupled sensors with at least 16 bit resolution provided by a sensor reader. The developed RFID sensors combine several measured parameters from the resonant sensor antenna with multivariate data analysis and deliver unique capability of multiparameter sensing and rejection of environmental interferences with a single sensor. This general sensing approach provides an elegant solution for both analytical measurement and identification and documentation of the measured location.

  8. Superconducting transition edge sensors and methods for design and manufacture thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadleir, John E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for forming sensors using transition edge sensors (TES) and sensors therefrom are described. The method includes forming a plurality of sensor arrays includes at least one TES device. The TES device includes a TES device body, a first superconducting lead contacting a first portion of the TES device body, and a second superconducting lead contacting of a second portion of the TES device body, where the first and second superconducting leads separated on the TES device body by a lead spacing. The lead spacing can be selected to be different for at least two of the plurality of sensor arrays. The method also includes determining a transition temperature for each of the plurality of sensor arrays and generating a signal responsive to detecting a change in the electrical characteristics of one of the plurality of sensor arrays meeting a transition temperature criterion.

  9. SOI technology for power management in automotive and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, Johannes M. C.; Hosey, George P.

    2017-02-01

    Semiconductor on Insulator (SOI) technology offers an assortment of opportunities for chip manufacturers in the Power Management market. Recent advances in the automotive and industrial markets, along with emerging features, the increasing use of sensors, and the ever-expanding "Internet of Things" (IoT) are providing for continued growth in these markets while also driving more complex solutions. The potential benefits of SOI include the ability to place both high-voltage and low-voltage devices on a single chip, saving space and cost, simplifying designs and models, and improving performance, thereby cutting development costs and improving time to market. SOI also offers novel new approaches to long-standing technologies.

  10. Automotive Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement between Boeing North America and BSR Products, Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials are now used to insulate race cars. BSR has created special TPS blanket insulation kits for use on autos that take part in NASCAR events, and other race cars through its nationwide catalog distribution system. Temperatures inside a race car's cockpit can soar to a sweltering 140 to 160 degrees, with the extreme heat coming through the engine firewall, transmission tunnel, and floor. It is common for NASCAR drivers to endure blisters and burns due to the excessive heat. Tests on a car insulated with the TPS material showed a temperature drop of some 50 degrees in the driver's cockpit. BSR-TPS Products, Inc. now manufactures insulation kits for distribution to race car teams around the world.

  11. Association between use of synthetic metalworking fluid and risk of developing rhinitis-related symptoms in an automotive ring manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Uk; Jin, Ku-Won; Koh, Dong-Hee; Kim, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Sang; Park, Doo-Yong

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the association between synthetic metalworking fluid (MWF) and rhinitis-related symptoms. At a plant manufacturing piston rings for automobiles, we interviewed grinders (19) and manufacturing workers (142) in operations where synthetic or semisynthetic MWF is handled, and administrative office workers (44) regarding the principal symptoms of rhinitis (nasal stuffiness, runny nose, anosmia, nasal itchiness, rhinorrhea, headache, epistaxis, and post-nasal drip). In addition, we assessed the current exposure of workers handling MWF to MWF aerosols, fungi, and endotoxins. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between MWF surrogates indicative of MWF exposure and each rhinitis-related nasal symptom. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for sex, age, smoking habit, and duration of employment. Among grinders handling synthetic MWF, the frequency of complaints of the dominant symptoms was 66.7% for nasal stuffiness, 77.8% for anosmia, 77.8% for runny nose, and 50.0% for headache. These rates are quite high even allowing for the common occurrence of rhinitis in the general population. Twenty eight of 34 grinding and manufacturing workers (82.4%) sampled were exposed to MWF mist above the threshold limit of 0.2 mg/m(3) listed as a notice of intended change by the American Conference for Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). The percentage of workers exposed to MWF mist >0.5 mg/m(3) was 17.6%. Most workers were exposed to fungi levels >103 CFU/m(3). All exposures to endotoxins were <50 EU/m(3). Logistic regression analysis found that use of synthetic MWF was significantly associated with excess risk of nasal stuffiness (OR 3.5), nasal itchiness (OR 2.0), and runny nose (OR 2.1). The use of semi-synthetic MWF had little or no impact on the risk of developing rhinitis-related nasal symptoms. Grinding workers handling synthetic MWF had an increased risk of nasal stuffiness

  12. Embedding of MEMS pressure and temperature sensors in carbon fiber composites: a manufacturing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidinejad, Amir; Joshi, Shiv P.

    2000-06-01

    In this paper embedding of surface mount pressure and temperature sensors in the Carbon fiber composites are described. A commercially available surface mount pressure and temperature sensor are used for embedding in a composite lay- up of IM6/HST-7, IM6/3501 and AS4/E7T1-2 prepregs. The fabrication techniques developed here are the focus of this paper and provide for a successful embedding procedure of pressure sensors in fibrous composites. The techniques for positioning and insulating, the sensor and the lead wires, from the conductive carbon prepregs are described and illustrated. Procedural techniques are developed and discussed for isolating the sensor's flow-opening, from the exposure to the prepreg epoxy flow and exposure to the fibrous particles, during the autoclave curing of the composite laminate. The effects of the autoclave cycle (if any) on the operation of the embedded pressure sensor are discussed.

  13. Optical wafer metrology sensors for process-robust CD and overlay control in semiconductor device manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Boef, Arie J.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents three optical wafer metrology sensors that are used in lithography for robustly measuring the shape and position of wafers and device patterns on these wafers. The first two sensors are a level sensor and an alignment sensor that measure, respectively, a wafer height map and a wafer position before a new pattern is printed on the wafer. The third sensor is an optical scatterometer that measures critical dimension-variations and overlay after the resist has been exposed and developed. These sensors have different optical concepts but they share the same challenge that sub-nm precision is required at high throughput on a large variety of processed wafers and in the presence of unknown wafer processing variations. It is the purpose of this paper to explain these challenges in more detail and give an overview of the various solutions that have been introduced over the years to come to process-robust optical wafer metrology.

  14. Real-time interferometric monitoring and measuring of photopolymerization based stereolithographic additive manufacturing process: sensor model and algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.; Rosen, D. W.

    2017-01-01

    As additive manufacturing is poised for growth and innovations, it faces barriers of lack of in-process metrology and control to advance into wider industry applications. The exposure controlled projection lithography (ECPL) is a layerless mask-projection stereolithographic additive manufacturing process, in which parts are fabricated from photopolymers on a stationary transparent substrate. To improve the process accuracy with closed-loop control for ECPL, this paper develops an interferometric curing monitoring and measuring (ICM&M) method which addresses the sensor modeling and algorithms issues. A physical sensor model for ICM&M is derived based on interference optics utilizing the concept of instantaneous frequency. The associated calibration procedure is outlined for ICM&M measurement accuracy. To solve the sensor model, particularly in real time, an online evolutionary parameter estimation algorithm is developed adopting moving horizon exponentially weighted Fourier curve fitting and numerical integration. As a preliminary validation, simulated real-time measurement by offline analysis of a video of interferograms acquired in the ECPL process is presented. The agreement between the cured height estimated by ICM&M and that measured by microscope indicates that the measurement principle is promising as real-time metrology for global measurement and control of the ECPL process.

  15. Cryogenic fiber optic temperature sensor and method of manufacturing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochergin, Vladimir (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention teaches the fiber optic sensors temperature sensors for cryogenic temperature range with improved sensitivity and resolution, and method of making said sensors. In more detail, the present invention is related to enhancement of temperature sensitivity of fiber optic temperature sensors at cryogenic temperatures by utilizing nanomaterials with a thermal expansion coefficient that is smaller than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber but larger in absolute value than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber at least over a range of temperatures.

  16. Chemicals for the automotive industry

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.A.G.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of advanced materials, surface treatments, and clean fuels/lubricants now used to manufacture, propel, and maintain motor vehicles. The book examines recent advancements and current research, illustrating the progress to date, future trends, new applications, and the effects of these of automotive chemicals on the environment (including pollution, recyclability, and efficiency). Environmental considerations and their effect on the industry are covered in discussions about such topics as biodegradable lubricants, oxygenated diesel and ignition engine fuels, oils, and recyclable, lightweight plastic components.

  17. Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2015-06-01

    This study highlights the U.S. foothold in automotive lithium-ion battery (LIB) production, globally. U.S.-based manufacturers comprise 17% of global production capacity. With increasing demand for electric and hybrid electric vehicles and U.S. vehicle manufacturers' proximity to customers, there is a growing opportunity for the United States to compete globally in the automotive LIB market.

  18. Optical Manufacturing and Testing Requirements Identified by the NASA Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Barney, Rich; Bauman, Jill; Feinberg, Lee; Mcleese, Dan; Singh, Upendra

    2011-01-01

    In August 2010, the NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) commissioned an assessment of 15 different technology areas of importance to the future of NASA. Technology assessment #8 (TA8) was Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems (SIOSS). SIOSS assess the needs for optical technology ranging from detectors to lasers, x-ray mirrors to microwave antenna, in-situ spectrographs for on-surface planetary sample characterization to large space telescopes. The needs assessment looked across the entirety of NASA and not just the Science Mission Directorate. This paper reviews the optical manufacturing and testing technologies identified by SIOSS which require development in order to enable future NASA high priority missions.

  19. Techno-economic requirements for automotive composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Scot

    1993-01-01

    New technology generally serves two main goals of the automotive industry: one is to enable vehicles to comply with various governmental regulations and the other is to provide a competitive edge in the market. The latter goal can either be served through improved manufacturing and design capabilities, such as computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing, or through improved product performance, such as anti-lock braking (ABS). Although safety features are sometimes customer driven, such as the increasing use of airbags and ABS, most are determined by regulations as outlined by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). Other standards, set by the Environmental Protection Agency, determine acceptable levels of emissions and fuel consumption. State governments, such as in California, are also setting precedent standards, such as requiring manufacturers to offer zero-emission vehicles as a certain fraction of their sales in the state. The drive to apply new materials in the automobile stems from the need to reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency. Topics discussed include: new lightweight materials; types of automotive materials; automotive composite applications; the role for composite materials in automotive applications; advantages and disadvantages of composite materials; material substitution economics; economic perspective; production economics; and composite materials production economics.

  20. Force and deflection sensor with shell membrane and optical gratings and method of manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yong-Lae (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Black, Richard James (Inventor); Cutkosky, Mark R. (Inventor); Chau, Kelvin K (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A sensor for force is formed from an elastomeric cylinder having a region with apertures. The apertures have passageways formed between them, and an optical fiber is introduced into these passageways, where the optical fiber has a grating for measurement of tension positioned in the passageways between apertures. Optionally, a temperature measurement sensor is placed in or around the elastomer for temperature correction, and if required, a copper film may be deposited in the elastomer for reduced sensitivity to spot temperature variations in the elastomer near the sensors.

  1. Tokamak Physics EXperiment (TPX): Toroidal magnet design, development and manufacture. SDRL 31, Magnet sensors. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.M.

    1995-08-18

    The requirement for magnet sensors to verify the TF magnet system operation and aid in diagnostic assessment are defined. However, generally one does not specify such a system in the absence of a definition of the local I&C system. Also, one would expect that there would be great benefit (economy, redundancy, compatibility, etc.) in specifying common components for all of the magnet system. Thus specifying the sensors requirement we have tried to be flexible to accommodate future adjustments to these systems.

  2. Social Sensors (S2ensors): A Kind of Hardware-Software-Integrated Mediators for Social Manufacturing Systems Under Mass Individualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kai; Jiang, Ping-Yu

    2017-09-01

    Currently, little work has been devoted to the mediators and tools for multi-role production interactions in the mass individualization environment. This paper proposes a kind of hardware-software-integrated mediators called social sensors (S2ensors) to facilitate the production interactions among customers, manufacturers, and other stakeholders in the social manufacturing systems (SMS). The concept, classification, operational logics, and formalization of S2ensors are clarified. S2ensors collect subjective data from physical sensors and objective data from sensory input in mobile Apps, merge them into meaningful information for decision-making, and finally feed the decisions back for reaction and execution. Then, an S2ensors-Cloud platform is discussed to integrate different S2ensors to work for SMSs in an autonomous way. A demonstrative case is studied by developing a prototype system and the results show that S2ensors and S2ensors-Cloud platform can assist multi-role stakeholders interact and collaborate for the production tasks. It reveals the mediator-enabled mechanisms and methods for production interactions among stakeholders in SMS.

  3. Intelligent imaging systems for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Chris; Huang, Yingping; Fu, Shan

    2004-03-01

    In common with many other application areas, visual signals are becoming an increasingly important information source for many automotive applications. For several years CCD cameras have been used as research tools for a range of automotive applications. Infrared cameras, RADAR and LIDAR are other types of imaging sensors that have also been widely investigated for use in cars. This paper will describe work in this field performed in C2VIP over the last decade - starting with Night Vision Systems and looking at various other Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. Emerging from this experience, we make the following observations which are crucial for "intelligent" imaging systems: 1. Careful arrangement of sensor array. 2. Dynamic-Self-Calibration. 3. Networking and processing. 4. Fusion with other imaging sensors, both at the image level and the feature level, provides much more flexibility and reliability in complex situations. We will discuss how these problems can be addressed and what are the outstanding issues.

  4. Automotive Parts Management Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Edward J.

    Members of the automotive parts distribution industry responded to a survey on the specific attitudes, values, knowledge, and skills necessary for students planning to enter the industry, as the basis for revision of an associate degree curriculum in Automotive Parts Management. The survey instrument, sent to 252 industry members (99 responded),…

  5. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  6. Automotive Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's interest in and potential to pass successfully a training program in automotive mechanics or in a similar automotive job. Section 1 describes the assessment, correlates the work performed and worker traits required for completing the work sample, and lists related…

  7. Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

    This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive…

  8. Kentucky's Automotive Certification Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Office of Vocational Education.

    The state of Kentucky recognized a need to standardize automotive mechanics training throughout the state and to establish minimum guidelines for the quality of instruction in such programs. To meet these needs, the Office of Vocational Education selected the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) and began the certification…

  9. Supercharging system for automotive engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, T.; Yabuhara, H.; Takimoto, F.

    1988-03-15

    A supercharging system for an automotive engine is described comprising: a turbocharger driven by exhaust-gas of the engine; a supercharger; an intake passage connecting the turbocharger and the supercharger in series, for supplying air to the engine; driving means for driving the supercharger by the engine; clutch means provided in the driving means; a first bypass provided around the supercharger; a control valve provided in the first bypass; a second bypass provided around the turbine of the turbocharger; a waste gate valve provided in the second bypass; a first actuator for operating the control valve; a second actuator for operating the waste gate valve; first means for operating the second actuator to open the waste gate valve when supercharging pressure exceeds a predetermined value; an engine speed sensor for detecting speed of the engine; an engine load sensor for detecting load on the engine; and a control unit.

  10. Cost-effective manufacturing of compact TDLAS sensors for hazardous area applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frish, Michael B.; Laderer, Mathew C.; Smith, Clinton J.; Ehid, Ryan; Dallas, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is finding ever increasing utility for industrial process measurement and control. The technique's sensitivity and selectivity benefit continuous concentration measurements of specific gas components in complex gas mixtures which are often laden with liquids or solid particulates. Tradeoff options among optical path length, absorption linestrength, linewidth, cross-interferences, and sampling methodology enable sensor designers to optimize detection for specific applications. Emerging applications are demanding increasing numbers of distributed miniaturized sensors at diminishing costs. In these applications, the TDLAS specificity is a key attribute, and its high sensitivity enables novel sampling package designs with short optical path lengths. This paper describes a miniature hermetically-sealed backscatter TDLAS transceiver package designed for high-volume production at acceptable cost. Occupying a volume less than 1in3 and weighing less than 0.06 lb, the transceiver is a key component of TDLAS sensors intended for in-situ measurements of potentially explosive gas mixtures.

  11. Application of x-ray sensors for in-line and non-invasive monitoring of mass flow rate in continuous tablet manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Sudarshan; Troscinski, Rachel; Schmall, Nicholas; Lim, Jongmook; Nagy, Zoltan; Reklaitis, Gintaras

    2017-08-31

    The progress in continuous downstream manufacturing of oral solid doses demands effective real-time process management, with monitoring at its core. This study evaluates the feasibility of using a commercial sensor to measure the mass flow rate of the particulates, a critical process variable in continuous manufacturing. The sensor independently measures x-ray attenuation and cross-correlation velocimetry of particulate flow in real-time. Steady-state flow rates of blends comprised primarily of acetaminophen and microcrystalline-cellulose are monitored using the sensor, with simultaneous weighing scale measurements, in order to calibrate the sensor and investigate the measurement accuracy. The free-fall flow measurement of the powder and granule blends in a conduit is linearly proportional to the x-ray attenuation. Relative standard deviations (RSD) of ∼3-7% for 1 second monitoring are observed and a measurement error of approximately 5% suggest the usability of the sensor for real-time monitoring. The sensor measurement is robust for operational variations in composition, addition of lubricant or glidant and reuse of material for PAT tool calibration. The measurement RSD depends on particulate flow dynamics at the sensor location. This requires experimental evaluation for a given material at the sensor location, in order to capture the flow dynamics of the particulate stream through the sensor. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. ATIP: Automotive Technician Internship Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Anza Coll., Cupertino, CA.

    The Automotive Technology Department (ATD) of De Anza College (DAC) in Cupertino, California, in partnership with the Automotive Service Council of California, received funding to develop and implement a 2-year, competency-based certification program for automotive service technicians. Students in the Automotive Technician Internship Program…

  13. Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites for future automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, K.

    2016-05-01

    After a brief introduction to polymer composite properties and markets, the state of the art activities in the field of manufacturing of advanced composites for automotive applications are elucidated. These include (a) long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFT) for secondary automotive components, and (b) continuous carbon fiber reinforced thermosetting composites for car body applications. It is followed by future possibilities of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites for e.g. (i) crash elements, (ii) racing car seats, and (iii) production and recycling of automotive fenders.

  14. SMART composite high pressure vessels with integrated optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazejewski, Wojciech; Czulak, Andrzej; Gasior, Pawel; Kaleta, Jerzy; Mech, Rafal

    2010-04-01

    In this paper application of integrated Optical Fiber Sensors for strain state monitoring of composite high pressure vessels is presented. The composite tanks find broad application in areas such as: automotive industry, aeronautics, rescue services, etc. In automotive application they are mainly used for gaseous fuels storage (like CNG or compressed Hydrogen). In comparison with standard steel vessels, composite ones have many advantages (i.e. high mechanical strength, significant weight reduction, etc). In the present work a novel technique of vessel manufacturing, according to this construction, was applied. It is called braiding technique, and can be used as an alternative to the winding method. During braiding process, between GFRC layers, two types of optical fiber sensors were installed: point sensors in the form of FBGs as well as interferometric sensors with long measuring arms (SOFO®). Integrated optical fiber sensors create the nervous system of the pressure vessel and are used for its structural health monitoring. OFS register deformation areas and detect construction damages in their early stage (ensure a high safety level for users). Applied sensor system also ensured a possibility of strain state monitoring even during the vessel manufacturing process. However the main application of OFS based monitoring system is to detect defects in the composite structure. An idea of such a SMART vessel with integrated sensor system as well as an algorithm of defect detection was presented.

  15. Automotive Manufacturing and Repair Technician Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlinden, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    It's been more than three years since the U.S. automobile industry nearly collapsed. A controversial federal bailout, an increase in consumer demand, and a growing interest in environmentally friendly fuel-efficient vehicles and related technologies have combined to help create a remarkable recovery. Total U.S. sales of light vehicles in 2012 are…

  16. Automotive Manufacturing and Repair Technician Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlinden, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    It's been more than three years since the U.S. automobile industry nearly collapsed. A controversial federal bailout, an increase in consumer demand, and a growing interest in environmentally friendly fuel-efficient vehicles and related technologies have combined to help create a remarkable recovery. Total U.S. sales of light vehicles in 2012 are…

  17. Program Evaluation - Automotive Lightweighting Materials Program Research and Development Projects Assessment of Benefits - Case Studies No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.

    2003-01-23

    This report is the second of a series of studies to evaluate research and development (R&D) projects funded by the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) Program of the Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The objectives of the program evaluation are to assess short-run outputs and long-run outcomes that may be attributable to the ALM R&D projects. The ALM program focuses on the development and validation of advanced technologies that significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. Funded projects range from fundamental materials science research to applied research in production environments. Collaborators on these projects include national laboratories, universities, and private sector firms, such as leading automobile manufacturers and their suppliers. Three ALM R&D projects were chosen for this evaluation: Design and Product Optimization for Cast Light Metals, Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures, and Rapid Tooling for Functional Prototyping of Metal Mold Processes. These projects were chosen because they have already been completed. The first project resulted in development of a comprehensive cast light metal property database, an automotive application design guide, computerized predictive models, process monitoring sensors, and quality assurance methods. The second project, the durability of lightweight composite structures, produced durability-based design criteria documents, predictive models for creep deformation, and minimum test requirements and suggested test methods for establishing durability properties and characteristics of random glass-fiber composites for automotive structural composites. The durability project supported Focal Project II, a validation activity that demonstrates ALM program goals and reduces the lead time for bringing new technology into the marketplace. Focal

  18. Manufacturing and testing of active composite panels with embedded piezoelectric sensors and actuators: wires out by molded-in holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.; Pourjalali, Saeid

    2003-08-01

    This work presents manufacturing and testing of active composite panels (ACPs) with embedded piezoelectric sensors and actuators. The composite material employed here is a plain weave carbon epoxy prepreg fabric with about 0.33 mm ply thickness. The piezoelectric patches employed here are Continuum Control Corporation, CCC, (recently Continuum Photonics, Inc) active fiber composite patches with 0.33 mm thickness, i.e. close to the composite ply thickness. Composite cut-out layers are used to fill the space around the embedded piezoelectric patches to minimize the problems associated with ply drops in composites. The piezoelectric patches were embedded inside the composite laminate. High-temperature wires were soldered to the piezoelectric leads, insulated from the carbon substructure by high-temperature materials, and were taken out of the composite laminates employing a molded-in hole technique that reduces the stress concentration as opposed to a drilled hole, and thereby enhancing the performance of the composite structure. The laminated ACP"s were co-cured inside an autoclave employing the cure cycle recommended by the composite material supplier. The curie temperature of the embedded piezoelectric patches should be well above the curing temperature of the composite materials as was the case here. The manufactured ACP beams and plates were trimmed and then tested for their functionality. Vibration suppression as well as simultaneous vibration suppression and precision positioning tests, using PID control as well as Hybrid Adaptive Control techniques were successfully conducted on the manufactured ACP beams and their functionality were demonstrated. Recommendations on the use of this embedding technique for ACPs are provided.

  19. Evaluation of risk and benefit in thermal effusivity sensor for monitoring lubrication process in pharmaceutical product manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Jumpei; Kato, Yoshiteru; Uemoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-08-01

    In the process design of tablet manufacturing, understanding and control of the lubrication process is important from various viewpoints. A detailed analysis of thermal effusivity data in the lubrication process was conducted in this study. In addition, we evaluated the risk and benefit in the lubrication process by a detailed investigation. It was found that monitoring of thermal effusivity detected mainly the physical change of bulk density, which was changed by dispersal of the lubricant and the coating powder particle by the lubricant. The monitoring of thermal effusivity was almost the monitoring of bulk density, thermal effusivity could have a high correlation with tablet hardness. Moreover, as thermal effusivity sensor could detect not only the change of the conventional bulk density but also the fractional change of thermal conductivity and thermal capacity, two-phase progress of lubrication process could be revealed. However, each contribution of density, thermal conductivity, or heat capacity to thermal effusivity has the risk of fluctuation by formulation. After carefully considering the change factor with the risk to be changed by formulation, thermal effusivity sensor can be a useful tool for monitoring as process analytical technology, estimating tablet hardness and investigating the detailed mechanism of the lubrication process.

  20. Measurement system for temperature dependent noise characterization of magnetoresistive sensors.

    PubMed

    Nording, F; Weber, S; Ludwig, F; Schilling, M

    2017-03-01

    Magnetoresistive (MR) sensors and sensor systems are used in a large variety of applications in the field of industrial automation, automotive business, aeronautic industries, and instrumentation. Different MR sensor technologies like anisotropic magnetoresistive, giant magnetoresistive, and tunnel magnetoresistive sensors show strongly varying properties in terms of magnetoresistive effect, response to magnetic fields, achievable element miniaturization, manufacturing effort, and signal-to-noise ratio. Very few data have been reported so far on the comparison of noise performance for different sensor models and technologies, especially including the temperature dependence of their characteristics. In this paper, a stand-alone measurement setup is presented that allows a comprehensive characterization of MR sensors including sensitivity and noise over a wide range of temperatures.

  1. Measurement system for temperature dependent noise characterization of magnetoresistive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nording, F.; Weber, S.; Ludwig, F.; Schilling, M.

    2017-03-01

    Magnetoresistive (MR) sensors and sensor systems are used in a large variety of applications in the field of industrial automation, automotive business, aeronautic industries, and instrumentation. Different MR sensor technologies like anisotropic magnetoresistive, giant magnetoresistive, and tunnel magnetoresistive sensors show strongly varying properties in terms of magnetoresistive effect, response to magnetic fields, achievable element miniaturization, manufacturing effort, and signal-to-noise ratio. Very few data have been reported so far on the comparison of noise performance for different sensor models and technologies, especially including the temperature dependence of their characteristics. In this paper, a stand-alone measurement setup is presented that allows a comprehensive characterization of MR sensors including sensitivity and noise over a wide range of temperatures.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensors and Method of Manufacturing and Using Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W. (Inventor); Xu, Jennifer C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A gas sensor comprises a substrate layer; a pair of interdigitated metal electrodes, said electrodes include upper surfaces, the electrodes selected from the group consisting of Pt, Pd, Au, Ir, Ag, Ru, Rh, In, Os, and their alloys. A first layer of solid electrolyte staying in between electrode fingers and partially on said upper surfaces of said electrodes, said first layer selected from NASICON, LISICON, KSICON and.beta.''-Alumina. A second layer of metal carbonate(s) as an auxiliary electrolyte engaging said upper surfaces of the electrodes and the first solid electrolyte. The metal carbonates selected from the group consisting of the following ions Na.sup.+, K.sup.+, Li.sup.+, Ag.sup.+, H.sup.+, Pb.sup.2+, Sr.sup.2+, Ba.sup.2+, and any combination thereof. An extra layer of metal oxide selected from the group consisting of SnO.sub.2, In.sub.2O.sub.3, TiO.sub.2, WO.sub.3, ZnO, Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, ITO, CdO, U.sub.3O.sub.8, Ta.sub.2O.sub.5, BaO, MoO.sub.2, MoO.sub.3, V.sub.2O.sub.5, Nb.sub.2O.sub.5, CuO, Cr.sub.2O.sub.3, La.sub.2O.sub.3, RuO.sub.3, RuO.sub.2, ReO.sub.2, ReO.sub.3, Ag.sub.2O, CoO, Cu.sub.2O, SnO, NiO, Pr.sub.2O.sub.3, BaO, PdO.sub.2, HfO.sub.3, HfO.sub.3 or other metal oxide and their mixtures residing above and in engagement with the second electrolyte to improve sensor performance and/or to reduce sensor heating power consumption.

  3. Low-cost far infrared bolometer camera for automotive use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieider, Christian; Wissmar, Stanley; Ericsson, Per; Halldin, Urban; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Göran; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Pettersson, Håkan; Eriksson, Dick; Jakobsen, Henrik; Kvisterøy, Terje; Franks, John; VanNylen, Jan; Vercammen, Hans; VanHulsel, Annick

    2007-04-01

    A new low-cost long-wavelength infrared bolometer camera system is under development. It is designed for use with an automatic vision algorithm system as a sensor to detect vulnerable road users in traffic. Looking 15 m in front of the vehicle it can in case of an unavoidable impact activate a brake assist system or other deployable protection system. To achieve our cost target below €100 for the sensor system we evaluate the required performance and can reduce the sensitivity to 150 mK and pixel resolution to 80 x 30. We address all the main cost drivers as sensor size and production yield along with vacuum packaging, optical components and large volume manufacturing technologies. The detector array is based on a new type of high performance thermistor material. Very thin Si/SiGe single crystal multi-layers are grown epitaxially. Due to the resulting valence barriers a high temperature coefficient of resistance is achieved (3.3%/K). Simultaneously, the high quality crystalline material provides very low 1/f-noise characteristics and uniform material properties. The thermistor material is transferred from the original substrate wafer to the read-out circuit using adhesive wafer bonding and subsequent thinning. Bolometer arrays can then be fabricated using industry standard MEMS process and materials. The inherently good detector performance allows us to reduce the vacuum requirement and we can implement wafer level vacuum packaging technology used in established automotive sensor fabrication. The optical design is reduced to a single lens camera. We develop a low cost molding process using a novel chalcogenide glass (GASIR®3) and integrate anti-reflective and anti-erosion properties using diamond like carbon coating.

  4. Design concepts for a composite door frame system for general automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Conceptual design, manufacturing process, and costs are explored to determine the feasibility of replacing present steel parts in automotive door structures with various composite materials. The problems of conforming to present anti-intrusion specifications with advanced materials are examined and discussed. Modest weight reductions, at competitive costs, were identified for the utilization of specific composite materials in automotive door structures.

  5. Evaluation of Manufacturability of Embedded Sensors and Controls with Canned Rotor Pump System

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Fugate, David L; Melin, Alexander M; Holcomb, David Eugene; Wilson, Dane F; Silva, Pamela C; Cruz Molina, Carola

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the current status of fabrication and assembly planning for the magnetic bearing, canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating I&C into nuclear power plant components. The report identifies material choices and fabrication sequences for all of the required parts and the issues that need to be either resolved or accommodated during the manufacturing process. Down selection between material options has not yet been performed. Potential suppliers for all of the necessary materials have also been identified. The assembly evaluation begins by logically subdividing the pump into modules, which are themselves decomposed into individual parts. Potential materials and fabrication processes for each part in turn are then evaluated. The evaluation process includes assessment of the environmental compatibility requirements and the tolerances available for the selected fabrication processes. A description of the pump power/control electronics is also provided. The report also includes exploded views of the modules that show the integration of the various parts into modules that are then assembled to form the pump. Emphasis has been placed on thermal environment compatibility and the part dimensional changes during heat-up. No insurmountable fabrication or assembly challenges have been identified.

  6. Ultra-miniature all-glass Fabry-Pérot pressure sensor manufactured at the tip of a multimode optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinet, Éric; Cibula, Edvard; Đonlagić, Denis

    2007-09-01

    The design and fabrication of an ultra-miniature all-glass pressure sensor with a diameter of 125 μm are presented. The sensor consists of a thin flexible silica membrane fused on a capillary tube section, which is assembled at the tip of a standard multimode fiber, thus forming a Fabry-Pérot air cavity whose length depends on applied pressure. Controlled polishing steps including on-line tuning of the diaphragm thickness during the manufacturing process achieve good repeatability and high sensitivity of the pressure sensor. The prototypes obtained with the described manufacturing method could easily have a sensitivity of ~2 nm/kPa (~0.3 nm/mmHg) with a record, so far, of ~5 nm/kPa (~0.7 nm/mmHg). The relatively simple fabrication technique using common and inexpensive equipments and materials combined with the fact that such sensitive sensors with multimode fiber could be interrogated with low-cost commercial interrogators (such as those using white-light interferometry) make this option very attractive for many applications involving pressure measurement. The sensor significant size reduction is valuable especially for the medical field, for applications such as minimally invasive patient health monitoring and diagnostics or small animals testing. Disposable sensors with ultra-miniature size will certainly open the way for new medical diagnostics and therapies.

  7. Smart automotive bumper based on a multimode optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyrueis, Patrick; Kress, Bernard; Fischer, Sylvain

    2007-09-01

    We are presenting a novel shock sensor device based on multimode optical fiber. This device is an elementary fiber sensor tailored for the transportation industry, and especially the automotive industry, allowing detection of shocks and the measurement of the deformation of surface external of the system. We also show how a plurality for such sensors can be combined in order to detect and characterize the shock in order to trigger an adapted response from the vehicle for added safety.

  8. A Highly Efficient Sensor Platform Using Simply Manufactured Nanodot Patterned Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Rasappa, Sozaraj; Ghoshal, Tandra; Borah, Dipu; Senthamaraikannan, Ramsankar; Holmes, Justin D.; Morris, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly is a low-cost means to nanopattern surfaces. Here, we use these nanopatterns to directly print arrays of nanodots onto a conducting substrate (Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated glass) for application as an electrochemical sensor for ethanol (EtOH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection. The work demonstrates that BCP systems can be used as a highly efficient, flexible methodology for creating functional surfaces of materials. Highly dense iron oxide nanodots arrays that mimicked the original BCP pattern were prepared by an ‘insitu’ BCP inclusion methodology using poly(styrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO). The electrochemical behaviour of these densely packed arrays of iron oxide nanodots fabricated by two different molecular weight PS-b-PEO systems was studied. The dual detection of EtOH and H2O2 was clearly observed. The as-prepared nanodots have good long term thermal and chemical stability at the substrate and demonstrate promising electrocatalytic performance. PMID:26290188

  9. Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensors and Method of Manufacturing and Using Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W. (Inventor); Xu, Jennifer C. (Inventor); Liu, Chung Chiun (Inventor); Ward, Benjamin J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gas sensor includes a substrate and a pair of interdigitated metal electrodes selected from the group consisting of Pt, Pd, Au, Ir, Ag, Ru, Rh, In, and Os. The electrodes each include an upper surface. A first solid electrolyte resides between the interdigitated electrodes and partially engages the upper surfaces of the electrodes. The first solid electrolyte is selected from the group consisting of NASICON, LISICON, KSICON, and .beta.''-Alumina (beta prime-prime alumina in which when prepared as an electrolyte is complexed with a mobile ion selected from the group consisting of Na.sup.+, K.sup.+, Li.sup.+, Ag.sup.+, H.sup.+, Pb.sup.2+, Sr.sup.2+ or Ba.sup.2+). A second electrolyte partially engages the upper surfaces of the electrodes and engages the first solid electrolyte in at least one point. The second electrolyte is selected from the group of compounds consisting of Na.sup.+, K.sup.+, Li.sup.+, Ag.sup.+, H.sup.+, Pb.sup.2+, Sr.sup.2+ or Ba.sup.2+ ions or combinations thereof.

  10. Electronic manufacturing process improvement (EMPI) for automatic winding of quadrupole fiber optic gyro sensor coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, Gregory S.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this EMPI program was to design an Automatic Coil Winding Station (ACWS) for winding Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) sensor coils through the use of TQM, QFD, etc., followed by use of Taguchi an other statistical techniques to optimize the coil winding process. Four phases were involved: Process Definition, Critical Factor Identification, Variability Reduction, and SPC Implementation. Winding FOG coils is both difficult and fragile in that it is a quadrupole wind - as apposed to the conventional thread wind - compounded by the requirement for low tension precision, high-fiber packing density, and always risk of damage to the delicate fiber itself. The critical factor identification in the quadrupole winding process was reduced to fiber crossover - a significant detrimental influence on gyro performance - which, in turn, was closely identified with fiber gap control. The station was completed and deployed to the field where production coils are currently being wound. The ACWS not only lowered the required labor skill but succeeded in reducing the winding cycle time to 1 hour (from 24 hours) and touch labor time to 0.3 hours (from 24 hours) while improving the yield and performance through improved process control.

  11. Application of hand-held mobility spectrometers as sensors in manufacturing industries

    PubMed Central

    Allinson, Graeme

    1998-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) are small, lightweight, extremely robust devices with low power requirements, no moving parts, no absolute requirement for gases or vacuums, that can be operated at ambient temperatures and pressures, and yet are capable of measuring vapour phase concentrations of organic chemicals at very low levels (sub-μg/l). IMS are capable of analysing complex mixtures and producing a simple spectral output. Volatile components produce measurable negative and positive product ions in the spectrometer through chemical ionization. The spectra produced are essentially the vapour phase fingerprints of the target molecules/mixture. Quantitative data can be obtained provided instrument response is within the linear dynamic range of these instruments, but most practical applications of IMS have used the technology in a qualitative manner in situations which require just an above/below threshold or positive/ negative response. In the manufacturing industry there are many examples where the aroma/odour of raw materials has safety or product quality implications. IMS was not developed to replace traditional methods of analysis, e.g. GC/MS or sensory panels, but rather to provide a rapid, qualitative response complementary to more established methods. This paper reports on the use of a hand-held ion mobility spectrometer to characterize the vapours produced by volatile organic compounds,fresh herbs and retail spice mixtures at ambient temperature and pressure. The results show that by monitoring in both ion acquisition modes, ion mobility spectrometers are capable of discriminating between a wide range of products. PMID:18924815

  12. Rapid manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore sensors by trans-chip illumination lithography.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Xander J A; Jonsson, Magnus P; Plesa, Calin; Soni, Gautam V; Dekker, Cees; Dekker, Nynke H

    2012-11-30

    In recent years, the concept of nanopore sensing has matured from a proof-of-principle method to a widespread, versatile technique for the study of biomolecular properties and interactions. While traditional nanopore devices based on a nanopore in a single layer membrane supported on a silicon chip can be rapidly fabricated using standard microfabrication methods, chips with additional insulating layers beyond the membrane region can provide significantly lower noise levels, but at the expense of requiring more costly and time-consuming fabrication steps. Here we present a novel fabrication protocol that overcomes this issue by enabling rapid and reproducible manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore experiments. The fabrication protocol, termed trans-chip illumination lithography, is based on illuminating a membrane-containing wafer from its backside such that a photoresist (applied on the wafer's top side) is exposed exclusively in the membrane regions. Trans-chip illumination lithography permits the local modification of membrane regions and hence the fabrication of nanopore chips containing locally patterned insulating layers. This is achieved while maintaining a well-defined area containing a single thin membrane for nanopore drilling. The trans-chip illumination lithography method achieves this without relying on separate masks, thereby eliminating time-consuming alignment steps as well as the need for a mask aligner. Using the presented approach, we demonstrate rapid and reproducible fabrication of nanopore chips that contain small (12 μm × 12 μm) free-standing silicon nitride membranes surrounded by insulating layers. The electrical noise characteristics of these nanopore chips are shown to be superior to those of simpler designs without insulating layers and comparable in quality to more complex designs that are more challenging to fabricate.

  13. Contour scanning of textile preforms using a light-section sensor for the automated manufacturing of fibre-reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R.; Niggemann, C.; Mersmann, C.

    2008-04-01

    Fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP) are particularly suitable for components where light-weight structures with advanced mechanical properties are required, e.g. for aerospace parts. Nevertheless, many manufacturing processes for FRP include manual production steps without an integrated quality control. A vital step in the process chain is the lay-up of the textile preform, as it greatly affects the geometry and the mechanical performance of the final part. In order to automate the FRP production, an inline machine vision system is needed for a closed-loop control of the preform lay-up. This work describes the development of a novel laser light-section sensor for optical inspection of textile preforms and its integration and validation in a machine vision prototype. The proposed method aims at the determination of the contour position of each textile layer through edge scanning. The scanning route is automatically derived by using texture analysis algorithms in a preliminary step. As sensor output a distinct stage profile is computed from the acquired greyscale image. The contour position is determined with sub-pixel accuracy using a novel algorithm based on a non-linear least-square fitting to a sigmoid function. The whole contour position is generated through data fusion of the measured edge points. The proposed method provides robust process automation for the FRP production improving the process quality and reducing the scrap quota. Hence, the range of economically feasible FRP products can be increased and new market segments with cost sensitive products can be addressed.

  14. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO2 and NH3 Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L.; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO2 and NH3 gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO2 and 15 ppm-NH3 is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time. PMID:26907298

  15. Magnesium for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    VanFleteren, R.

    1996-05-01

    Die cast magnesium parts are rapidly replacing steel and aluminum structural components in automotive applications, as design engineers seek to reduce assembly costs, raise fuel efficiency, and improve safety. Dozens of automotive components are now die cast from magnesium alloys, including seat stanchions, valve covers, steering wheels, and a variety of steering column components. Because of their excellent castability, complex magnesium die castings can sometimes consolidate several components and eliminate assembly steps. Highly ductile magnesium alloys such as AM60B (6% aluminum) and AM50A (5% aluminum) are important in helping to meet automotive industry crash-energy requirements for car seating and steering components. AZ91D (9% aluminum, 1% zinc) alloys are making removable rear seats in new minivans much easier to handle.

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE. PROGRAM OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    INFORMATIONAL TOPICS COVERED IN THE TEXT MATERIALS AND SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILMS FOR A 2-YEAR, 55 MODULE PROGRAM IN AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE ARE GIVEN. THE 30 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1" ARE AVAILABLE AS VT 005 655 - VT 005 684, AND THE 25 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2" ARE AVAILABLE…

  17. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive mechanics I and II. The six units in automotive mechanics I are as follows: orientation and safety; tools, equipment, and manuals; measurement; automotive engines; basic electrical systems; and fuel systems. Automotive…

  18. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive mechanics I and II. The six units in automotive mechanics I are as follows: orientation and safety; tools, equipment, and manuals; measurement; automotive engines; basic electrical systems; and fuel systems. Automotive…

  19. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE. PROGRAM OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    INFORMATIONAL TOPICS COVERED IN THE TEXT MATERIALS AND SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILMS FOR A 2-YEAR, 55 MODULE PROGRAM IN AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE ARE GIVEN. THE 30 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1" ARE AVAILABLE AS VT 005 655 - VT 005 684, AND THE 25 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2" ARE AVAILABLE…

  20. Sensor-based monitoring and inspection of surface morphology in ultraprecision manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Prahalad Krishna

    This research proposes approaches for monitoring and inspection of surface morphology with respect to two ultraprecision/nanomanufacturing processes, namely, ultraprecision machining (UPM) and chemical mechanical planarization (CMP). The methods illustrated in this dissertation are motivated from the compelling need for in situ process monitoring in nanomanufacturing and invoke concepts from diverse scientific backgrounds, such as artificial neural networks, Bayesian learning, and algebraic graph theory. From an engineering perspective, this work has the following contributions: 1. A combined neural network and Bayesian learning approach for early detection of UPM process anomalies by integrating data from multiple heterogeneous in situ sensors (force, vibration, and acoustic emission) is developed. The approach captures process drifts in UPM of aluminum 6061 discs within 15 milliseconds of their inception and is therefore valuable for minimizing yield losses. 2. CMP process dynamics are mathematically represented using a deterministic multi-scale hierarchical nonlinear differential equation model. This process-machine inter-action (PMI) model is evocative of the various physio-mechanical aspects in CMP and closely emulates experimentally acquired vibration signal patterns, including complex nonlinear dynamics manifest in the process. By combining the PMI model predictions with features gathered from wirelessly acquired CMP vibration signal patterns, CMP process anomalies, such as pad wear, and drifts in polishing were identified in their nascent stage with high fidelity (R2 ~ 75%). 3. An algebraic graph theoretic approach for quantifying nano-surface morphology from optical micrograph images is developed. The approach enables a parsimonious representation of the topological relationships between heterogeneous nano-surface fea-tures, which are enshrined in graph theoretic entities, namely, the similarity, degree, and Laplacian matrices. Topological invariant

  1. Superplastic forming of stainless steel automotive components

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, B.; Elmer, J.; Carol, L.

    1997-02-06

    Exhaust emission standards are governmentally controlled standards, which are increasingly stringent, forcing alternate strategies to meet these standards. One approach to improve the efficiency of the exhaust emission equipment is to decrease the time required to get the catalytic converter to optimum operating temperature. To accomplish this, automotive manufacturers are using double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds to reduce heat loss of the exhaust gases to the converter. The current method to manufacture double wall stainless steel exhaust components is to use a low-cost alloy with good forming properties and extensively form, cut, assemble, and weld the pieces. Superplastic forming (SPF) technology along with alloy improvements has potential at making this process more cost effective. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and USCAR Low Emission Partnership (LEP) worked under a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) to evaluate material properties, SPF behavior, and welding behavior of duplex stainless steel alloy for automotive component manufacturing. Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has a separate CRADA with the LEP to use SPF technology to manufacture a double wall stainless steel exhaust component. As a team these CRADAs developed and demonstrated a technical plan to accomplish making double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds.

  2. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-15

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  3. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-01

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  4. Automotive Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

  5. Automotive Technology Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Idaho state curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction in automotive technology. The document begins with a list of all tasks covered by the curriculum, a short course outline, and a curriculum framework that explains major content, laboratory activities, and intended outcomes.…

  6. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; Ragazzi, Ronald

    This guide designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in the area of automotive emission control curriculum includes four areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  7. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; And Others

    This publication contains instructional materials for both teachers and students for a course in automotive emission control. Instructional materials in this publication are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes 16 units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the basic components of a…

  8. Personal Achievement Mathematics: Automotive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baenziger, Betty

    Utilizing word problems relevant to automotive mechanics, this workbook presents a concept-oriented approach to competency development in 13 areas of basic mathematics: (1) the expression of numbers as figures and words; (2) the addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers, fractions, and decimals; (3) scientific notation;…

  9. Bringing Excellence to Automotive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Večeřa, Pavel; Paulová, Iveta

    2012-12-01

    Market situation and development in recent years shows, that organization's ability to meet customer requirements is not enough. Successful organizations are able to exceed the expectations of all stakeholders. They are building their excellence systematically. Our contribution basically how the excellence in automotive is created using EFQM Excellence Model in Total Quality Management.

  10. Automotive Brake Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, orginally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the basic operations of automotive brake systems on military vehicles. The course contains four study units covering hydraulic brakes, air brakes, power brakes, and auxiliary brake systems. A troubleshooting guide for…

  11. Automotive Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, David B.

    Intended for a 1- or 2-month curriculum in auto mechanics, this student manual on automotive pollution control was developed by a subject matter specialist at an area vocational school and tested in a vocational auto shop. Intended either for use in an integrated curriculum or for use in teaching pollution control as a separate course, these 12…

  12. Success Story of Radar Technology in Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinecke, Marc-Michael; Jerhot, Jiři

    2012-05-01

    The radar technology has a long history of over more than one century. In contrast to this its application in the automotive domain is a quite young activity. The enablers of this relatively new research field are presented in this article from a car manufacturers perspective covering aspects of signal processing algorithms, hardware and driver assistance applications.

  13. Low-cost visible-near infrared sensor for on-line monitoring of fat and fatty acids content during the manufacturing process of the milk.

    PubMed

    Villar, Alberto; Gorritxategi, Eneko; Aranzabe, Estibaliz; Fernández, Santiago; Otaduy, Deitze; Fernández, Luis A

    2012-12-15

    This paper describes the calibration, validation and testing process of a low-cost on-line visible-near infrared (400-1100 nm) sensor for the monitoring of fat and fatty acids content in milk during the manufacturing process of milk. The optical, mechanical and electronic designs of the sensor have been developed in Tekniker IK4 research centre just as its manufacturing process. The measurement range of the sensor is 400-1100 nm thus it covers the visible range (400-780 nm) and the short-wave near infrared (780-1100 nm). Chemometric techniques were applied with the purpose of obtaining a predictive model for each parameter correlating the spectra obtained by the sensor with the parameters analysed in the laboratory. The models were developed by Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) obtaining one model for each parameter. The raw milk samples used in this work were provided by CAPSA (Asturias, Spain). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Current Automotive Holometry Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.

    1990-04-01

    Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

  15. Get Your Automotive Program Nationally Certified!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Automotive programs that nationally certified enhance student recruitment and give students better employment opportunities. Technicians who earn the Automotive Service Excellence credential have joined the ranks of professionals in the automotive service industry. (Author/JOW)

  16. Get Your Automotive Program Nationally Certified!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Automotive programs that nationally certified enhance student recruitment and give students better employment opportunities. Technicians who earn the Automotive Service Excellence credential have joined the ranks of professionals in the automotive service industry. (Author/JOW)

  17. International forensic automotive paint database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishea, Gregory A.; Buckle, Joe L.; Ryland, Scott G.

    1999-02-01

    The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current, validated, searchable, automotive paint database that is used to identify make(s), model(s), and year(s) of questioned paint samples in hit-and-run fatalities and other associated investigations involving automotive paint.

  18. GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-31

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the UAB GATE Center of Excellence in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications. The first Phase of the UAB DOE GATE center spanned the period 2005-2011. The UAB GATE goals coordinated with the overall goals of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicles Technologies initiative and DOE GATE program. The FCVT goals are: (1) Development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost; (2) To provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills in advanced automotive technologies. The UAB GATE focused on both the FCVT and GATE goals in the following manner: (1) Train and produce graduates in lightweight automotive materials technologies; (2) Structure the engineering curricula to produce specialists in the automotive area; (3) Leverage automotive related industry in the State of Alabama; (4) Expose minority students to advanced technologies early in their career; (5) Develop innovative virtual classroom capabilities tied to real manufacturing operations; and (6) Integrate synergistic, multi-departmental activities to produce new product and manufacturing technologies for more damage tolerant, cost-effective, and lighter automotive structures.

  19. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, William D.; Shaltens, Richard K.

    1997-01-01

    The development and verification of automotive Stirling engine (ASE) component and system technology is described as it evolved through two experimental engine designs: the Mod 1 and the Mod 2. Engine operation and performance and endurance test results for the Mod 1 are summarized. Mod 2 engine and component development progress is traced from the original design through hardware development, laboratory test, and vehicle installation. More than 21,000 hr of testing were accomplished, including 4800 hr with vehicles that were driven more dm 59,000 miles. Mod 2 engine dynamometer tests demonstrated that the engine system configuration had accomplished its performance goals for power (60 kW) and efficiency (38.5%) to within a few percent. Tests with the Mod 2 engine installed in a delivery van demonstrated combined metro-highway fuel economy improvements consistent with engine performance goals and the potential for low emission levels. A modified version of the Mod 2 has been identified as a manufacturable design for an ASE. As part of the ASE project, the Industry Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP), NASA Technology Utilization (TU) project, and the industry-funded Stirling Natural Gas Engine program were undertaken to transfer ASE technology to end users. The results of these technology transfer efforts are also summarized.

  20. Methods of suppressing automotive interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taggart, H. E.

    1981-11-01

    Automotive manufacturers utilize several techniques to reduce EMI emanating from the vehicle. The techniques include resistor spark plugs, resistor spark plug cables, use of silicone lubricant in the distributor, use of capacitors as filters, placement of grounding straps at key locations, conductive fan belt discharge, and tire static-charge reduction. If even further reduction is needed to obtain the maximum capability of a specific mobile communication system, additional suppression techniques are discussed which are effective at frequencies from approximately 30 to 1000 MHz. Measurement results show that the EMI from a new production-line automobile, measured in accordance with SAE Standard J551g, can be reduced as much as 10 to 15 dB by employing these suppression techniques. The amount of degradation to a mobile narrow-band FM receiver, such as the type used by law enforcement agencies, can be measured using the measurement technique described. This same technique can then be used as a tool to further reduce EMI from the vehicle components.

  1. Manufacture of a Polyaniline Nanofiber Ammonia Sensor Integrated with a Readout Circuit Using the CMOS-MEMS Technique

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mao-Chen; Dai, Ching-Liang; Chan, Chih-Hua; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the fabrication of a polyaniline nanofiber ammonia sensor integrated with a readout circuit on a chip using the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and a post-process. The micro ammonia sensor consists of a sensing resistor and an ammonia sensing film. Polyaniline prepared by a chemical polymerization method was adopted as the ammonia sensing film. The fabrication of the ammonia sensor needs a post-process to etch the sacrificial layers and to expose the sensing resistor, and then the ammonia sensing film is coated on the sensing resistor. The ammonia sensor, which is of resistive type, changes its resistance when the sensing film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas. A readout circuit is employed to convert the resistance of the ammonia sensor into the voltage output. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the ammonia sensor is about 0.88 mV/ppm at room temperature. PMID:22399944

  2. Automotive Chassis; Automotive Mechanics-Basic: 9043.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive chassis course is designed to familiarize the beginning student of the history and development of the automobile with basic concepts common to the automobile industry, and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. It is one quinmester in a series of quinmester outlines…

  3. Automotive Engines; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive engines course studies and demonstrates the theory and principles of operation of the automotive four stroke cycle engine. The student will develop an understanding of the systems necessary to make the engine perform as designed, such as cooling, fuel, ignition and lubrication. This is a one or two quinmester credit course of 45…

  4. Introduction to Automotive Service. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document provides instruction for high-priority competencies on task lists developed by the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence. Contained in this teacher's guide are the materials necessary to teach 11 competency-based instructional units related to the automotive service industry. The following instructional units are…

  5. Automotive Electricity: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The third of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive electricity at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  6. Introduction to Automotive Service. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document provides instruction for high-priority competencies on task lists developed by the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence. Contained in this teacher's guide are the materials necessary to teach 11 competency-based instructional units related to the automotive service industry. The following instructional units are…

  7. Resistive flex sensors: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saggio, Giovanni; Riillo, Francesco; Sbernini, Laura; Quitadamo, Lucia Rita

    2016-01-01

    Resistive flex sensors can be used to measure bending or flexing with relatively little effort and a relatively low budget. Their lightness, compactness, robustness, measurement effectiveness and low power consumption make these sensors useful for manifold applications in diverse fields. Here, we provide a comprehensive survey of resistive flex sensors, taking into account their working principles, manufacturing aspects, electrical characteristics and equivalent models, useful front-end conditioning circuitry, and physic-bio-chemical aspects. Particular effort is devoted to reporting on and analyzing several applications of resistive flex sensors, related to the measurement of body position and motion, and to the implementation of artificial devices. In relation to the human body, we consider the utilization of resistive flex sensors for the measurement of physical activity and for the development of interaction/interface devices driven by human gestures. Concerning artificial devices, we deal with applications related to the automotive field, robots, orthosis and prosthesis, musical instruments and measuring tools. The presented literature is collected from different sources, including bibliographic databases, company press releases, patents, master’s theses and PhD theses.

  8. Molded GASIR ® infrared optics for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimond, Y.; Bellec, Y.

    2006-05-01

    Umicore IR Glass has developed an industrial process to manufacture low cost chalcogenide glasses. These materials called GASIR® are transparent in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm atmospheric windows which allows to use them in all the sensing and thermal imaging applications where Germanium and ZnSe usually stands. During the past 5 years, Umicore has developed and produced with and for its customers various GASIR ® optics in low and medium volume for military and civilian applications. But from the beginning of last year, the company is also very active in the automotive market. For that reason, a huge work of development on optics quality has been done to comply with automotive requests. Umicore's GASIR ® optics are used for instance in the night vision system that BMW launched in September 2005 on its 7-series. This system which will be described in this paper was developed by Umicore's customer, automotive TIER1 producer Autoliv.

  9. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles.

  10. Sensor based real-time process monitoring for ultra-precision manufacturing processes with non-linearity and non-stationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyca, Omer Faruk

    This research investigates methodologies for real-time process monitoring in ultra-precision manufacturing processes, specifically, chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) and ultra-precision machining (UPM), are investigated in this dissertation. The three main components of this research are as follows: (1) developing a predictive modeling approaches for early detection of process anomalies/change points, (2) devising approaches that can capture the non-Gaussian and non-stationary characteristics of CMP and UPM processes, and (3) integrating multiple sensor data to make more reliable process related decisions in real-time. In the first part, we establish a quantitative relationship between CMP process performance, such as material removal rate (MRR) and data acquired from wireless vibration sensors. Subsequently, a non-linear sequential Bayesian analysis is integrated with decision theoretic concepts for detection of CMP process end-point for blanket copper wafers. Using this approach, CMP polishing end-point was detected within a 5% error rate. Next, a non-parametric Bayesian analytical approach is utilized to capture the inherently complex, non-Gaussian, and non-stationary sensor signal patterns observed in CMP process. An evolutionary clustering analysis, called Recurrent Nested Dirichlet Process (RNDP) approach is developed for monitoring CMP process changes using MEMS vibration signals. Using this novel signal analysis approach, process drifts are detected within 20 milliseconds and is assessed to be 3-7 times faster than traditional SPC charts. This is very beneficial to the industry from an application standpoint, because, wafer yield losses will be mitigated to a great extent, if the onset of CMP process drifts can be detected timely and accurately. Lastly, a non-parametric Bayesian modeling approach, termed Dirichlet Process (DP) is combined with a multi-level hierarchical information fusion technique for monitoring of surface finish in UPM process

  11. Automotive Engine Maintenance and Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide students with an understanding of automotive engine maintenance and repair. The course contains six study units covering automotive engine maintenance and repair; design classification; engine malfunction, diagnosis, and repair; engine disassembly; engine…

  12. Automotive Technology. Career Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.

    The curriculum guide is designed to provide students with realistic training in automotive technology theory and practice within the secondary educational framework and to prepare them for entry into an occupation or continuing postsecondary education. The learning modules are grouped into three areas: small engines, automotive technology, and…

  13. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  14. Ultracapacitors for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus; Wright, Randy; Hunt, Gary

    In response to a growing consensus in the auto industry that ultracapacitors can potentially play a key role in the modern vehicle power distribution network, a task force was created at the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to tackle issues facing the fledging industry. The task force embarked on first developing and establishing standards for performance and abuse tolerance of ultracapacitors in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and National Labs. Subsequently, potential applications in the automotive industry were identified and a consensus requirement specification was drawn as a development guide for the industry.

  15. Overview of Automotive Core Tools: Applications and Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Jigar A.; Desai, Darshak

    2017-08-01

    Continuous improvement of product and process quality is always challenging and creative task in today's era of globalization. Various quality tools are available and used for the same. Some of them are successful and few of them are not. Considering the complexity in the continuous quality improvement (CQI) process various new techniques are being introduced by the industries, as well as proposed by researchers and academia. Lean Manufacturing, Six Sigma, Lean Six Sigma is some of the techniques. In recent years, there are new tools being opted by the industry, especially automotive, called as Automotive Core Tools (ACT). The intention of this paper is to review the applications and benefits along with existing research on Automotive Core Tools with special emphasis on continuous quality improvement. The methodology uses an extensive review of literature through reputed publications—journals, conference proceedings, research thesis, etc. This paper provides an overview of ACT, its enablers, and exertions, how it evolved into sophisticated methodologies and benefits used in organisations. It should be of value to practitioners of Automotive Core Tools and to academics who are interested in how CQI can be achieved using ACT. It needs to be stressed here that this paper is not intended to scorn Automotive Core Tools, rather, its purpose is limited only to provide a balance on the prevailing positive views toward ACT.

  16. Overview of Automotive Core Tools: Applications and Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Jigar A.; Desai, Darshak

    2016-06-01

    Continuous improvement of product and process quality is always challenging and creative task in today's era of globalization. Various quality tools are available and used for the same. Some of them are successful and few of them are not. Considering the complexity in the continuous quality improvement (CQI) process various new techniques are being introduced by the industries, as well as proposed by researchers and academia. Lean Manufacturing, Six Sigma, Lean Six Sigma is some of the techniques. In recent years, there are new tools being opted by the industry, especially automotive, called as Automotive Core Tools (ACT). The intention of this paper is to review the applications and benefits along with existing research on Automotive Core Tools with special emphasis on continuous quality improvement. The methodology uses an extensive review of literature through reputed publications—journals, conference proceedings, research thesis, etc. This paper provides an overview of ACT, its enablers, and exertions, how it evolved into sophisticated methodologies and benefits used in organisations. It should be of value to practitioners of Automotive Core Tools and to academics who are interested in how CQI can be achieved using ACT. It needs to be stressed here that this paper is not intended to scorn Automotive Core Tools, rather, its purpose is limited only to provide a balance on the prevailing positive views toward ACT.

  17. Automotive Mg Research and Development in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Joseph A.; Jackman, Jennifer; Li, Naiyi; Osborne, Richard J.; Powell, Bob R.; Sklad, Philip S

    2006-01-01

    Expanding world economic prosperity and probable peaking of conventional petroleum production in the coming decades require efforts to increase the efficiency of, and the development of alternatives to, petroleum-based fuels used in automotive transportation. North America has been aggressively pursuing both approaches for over ten years. Mainly as a result of lower prices due to global sourcing, magnesium has recently emerged as a serious candidate for lightweighting, and thus increasing the fuel efficiency of, automotive transportation. Automotive vehicles produced in North America currently use more Mg than vehicles produced elsewhere in the world, but the amounts per vehicle are very small in comparison to other materials such as steel, aluminum and plastics. The reasons, besides price, are primarily a less-developed state of technology for Mg in automotive transportation applications and lack of familiarity by the vehicle manufacturers with the material. This paper reviews some publicly-known, recent, present and future North American research and development activities in Mg for automotive applications.

  18. Planar Zeolite Film-Based Potentiometric Gas Sensors Manufactured by a Combined Thick-Film and Electroplating Technique

    PubMed Central

    Marr, Isabella; Reiß, Sebastian; Hagen, Gunter; Moos, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Zeolites are promising materials in the field of gas sensors. In this technology-oriented paper, a planar setup for potentiometric hydrocarbon and hydrogen gas sensors using zeolites as ionic sodium conductors is presented, in which the Pt-loaded Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is applied using a thick-film technique between two interdigitated gold electrodes and one of them is selectively covered for the first time by an electroplated chromium oxide film. The influence of the sensor temperature, the type of hydrocarbons, the zeolite film thickness, and the chromium oxide film thickness is investigated. The influence of the zeolite on the sensor response is briefly discussed in the light of studies dealing with zeolites as selectivity-enhancing cover layers. PMID:22164042

  19. Grain Refiner Effect on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the A356 Automotive Wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre-De la Torre, E.; Afeltra, U.; Gómez-Esparza, C. D.; Camarillo-Cisneros, J.; Pérez-Bustamante, R.; Martínez-Sánchez, R.

    2013-12-01

    A356 aluminum alloy automotive wheels, 17 inch in diameter, were produced by low-pressure die casting. Contents of Al-5Ti-B (ATB) master alloy were added from 0 to 0.79 wt.%. Microstructural and mechanical properties were evaluated under industrial casting process conditions. The obtained results from mechanical testing provide evidence that additions of 0.13 and 0.27 wt.% of ATB have an improvement on the mechanical performance of the automotive wheels. This can be compared with the use of a grain refiner's higher concentrations, leading to a significant reduction in the cost-benefit ratio for the manufacturing of A356 automotive wheels.

  20. Greening up Auto Part Manufacturing: A Collaboration between Academia and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneas, Kristi A.; Armstrong, Drew L.; Brank, Alice R.; Johnson, Amanda L.; Kissinger, Chelsea A.; Mabe, Adam R.; Sezer, Ozge; Fontinell, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Historically, manufacture of automotive electronic components and screen-printing of automotive instrument clusters at DENSO Manufacturing Tennessee, Inc. required washing of equipment such as screens, stencils, and jigs with sizable quantities of volatile organic compounds and hazardous air pollutants. Collaborative efforts between the Maryville…

  1. Greening up Auto Part Manufacturing: A Collaboration between Academia and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneas, Kristi A.; Armstrong, Drew L.; Brank, Alice R.; Johnson, Amanda L.; Kissinger, Chelsea A.; Mabe, Adam R.; Sezer, Ozge; Fontinell, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Historically, manufacture of automotive electronic components and screen-printing of automotive instrument clusters at DENSO Manufacturing Tennessee, Inc. required washing of equipment such as screens, stencils, and jigs with sizable quantities of volatile organic compounds and hazardous air pollutants. Collaborative efforts between the Maryville…

  2. Automotive batteries. (Bibliography from the Global Mobility database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, manufacture, and marketing of automotive batteries. Included are nickel-cadmium, nickel metal hydride, sodium sulfur, zinc-air, lead-acid, and polymer batteries. Testing includes life-cycling, performance and peak-power characteristics, and vehicle testing of near-term batteries. Also mentioned are measurement equipment, European batteries, and electric vehicle battery development. (Contains a minimum of 76 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Automotive batteries. (Bibliography from the Global Mobility database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, manufacture, and marketing of automotive batteries. Included are nickel-cadmium, nickel metal hydride, sodium sulfur, zinc-air, lead-acid, and polymer batteries. Testing includes life-cycling, performance and peak-power characteristics, and vehicle testing of near-term batteries. Also mentioned are measurement equipment, European batteries, and electric vehicle battery development. (Contains a minimum of 71 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. High-Temperature Alloys for Automotive Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Titran, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Stirling engine is external-combustion engine that offers fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations. One of most critical areas in engine development concerns material selection for component parts. Alloys CG-27 and XF-818 identified capable of withstanding rigorous requirements of automotive Stirling engine. Alloys chosen for availability, performance, and manufacturability. Advanced iron-base alloys have potential for variety of applications, including stationary solar-power systems.

  5. Modeling and Manufacturing of a Micromachined Magnetic Sensor Using the CMOS Process without Any Post-Process

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Jian-Zhi; Wu, Chyan-Chyi; Dai, Ching-Liang

    2014-01-01

    The modeling and fabrication of a magnetic microsensor based on a magneto-transistor were presented. The magnetic sensor is fabricated by the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process without any post-process. The finite element method (FEM) software Sentaurus TCAD is utilized to analyze the electrical properties and carriers motion path of the magneto-transistor. A readout circuit is used to amplify the voltage difference of the bases into the output voltage. Experiments show that the sensitivity of the magnetic sensor is 354 mV/T at the supply current of 4 mA. PMID:24732100

  6. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership

    2011-01-31

    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly developed

  7. History and evolution of warning labels for automotive friction products.

    PubMed

    Kopelovich, Luda M; Thuett, Kerry A; Chapman, Pamela S; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2014-04-01

    There have been claims over the years that asbestos-containing product manufacturers did not sufficiently warn end users early enough regarding the potential health hazards associated with their products (1930s-1990s). To address this issue, we compared the content of the warnings associated with asbestos-containing friction products (brakes, clutches, and gaskets) manufactured by the US automotive industries to what was expected by regulatory agencies during the time period in which an understanding of asbestos health hazards was being developed. We ended our evaluation around 1990, since asbestos-containing manufacturer supplied automotive products were functionally removed from commerce by 1985 in the United States. We assessed the warnings issued in users' manuals, technical service bulletins, product packaging materials, and labels placed on products themselves. Based on our evaluation, regulatory agencies had no guidelines regarding specific warning language for finished friction products, particularly when a product contained encapsulated asbestos fibers (i.e., modified by a bonding agent). Even today, federal regulations do not require labeling on encapsulated products when, based on professional judgment or sampling, user exposure is not expected to exceed the OSHA PEL. We concluded that, despite limited regulatory guidance, the US automotive industry provided adequate warnings with regards to its friction products.

  8. Selected examples of intelligent (micro) sensor systems: state-of-the-art and tendencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter R.

    2006-03-01

    The capability of intelligent sensors to have more intelligence built into them continues to drive their application in areas including automotive, aerospace and defense, industrial, intelligent house and wear, medical and homeland security. In principle it is difficult to overestimate the importance of intelligent (micro) sensors or sensor systems within advanced societies but one characteristic feature is the global market for sensors, which is now about 20 billion annually. Therefore sensors or sensor systems play a dominant role in many fields from the macro sensor in manufacturing industry down to the miniaturized sensor for medical applications. The diversity of sensors precludes a complete description of the state-of-the-art; selected examples will illustrate the current situation. MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) devices are of special interest in the context of micro sensor systems. In past the main requirements of a sensor were in terms of metrological performance. The electrical (or optical) signal produced by the sensor needed to match the measure relatively accurately. Such basic functionality is no longer sufficient. Data processing near the sensor, the extraction of more information than just the direct sensor information by signal analysis, system aspects and multi-sensor information are the new demands. A shifting can be observed away from aiming to design perfect single-function transducers and towards the utilization of system-based sensors as system components. In the ideal case such systems contain sensors, actuators and electronics. They can be realized in monolithic, hybrid or discrete form—which kind is used depends on the application. In this article the state-of-the-art of intelligent sensors or sensor systems is reviewed using selected examples. Future trends are deduced.

  9. Usefulness of a large field of view sensor for physicochemical, textural, and yield predictions under industrial goat cheese (Murcia al Vino) manufacturing conditions.

    PubMed

    Rovira, S; García, V; Ferrandini, E; Carrión, J; Castillo, M; López, M B

    2012-11-01

    The applicability of a light backscatter sensor with a large field of view was tested for on-line monitoring of coagulation and syneresis in a goat cheese (Murcia al Vino) manufactured under industrial conditions. Cheesemaking was carried out concurrently in a 12-L pilot vat and a 10,000-L industrial vat following the normal cheesemaking protocol. Cheese moisture, whey fat content, hardness, springiness, and adhesiveness were measured during syneresis. The results obtained show that cutting time is best predicted by considering the coagulation ratio at the inflection point and the percentage increase in the ratio during coagulation, with no need for the first derivative. The large field of view reflectance ratio provided good results for the prediction of moisture content, yield, hardness, springiness, and adhesiveness of the final cheese.

  10. Automotive suspension system

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai, S.

    1986-11-11

    This patent describes an automotive suspension system comprising a wheel support for supporting a wheel, and a wheel supporting member for connecting the wheel support to the vehicle body. The wheel supporting member includes front and rear resilient supporting means spaced from each other by a predetermined distance in the longitudinal direction of the vehicle body and the direction of the toe of the wheel is adapted to be changed according to deformation of the front and rear resilient supporting means. The load-deformation characteristics of the front and rear resilient supporting means are selected so that the ratio of the amount of deformation of the front resilient supporting means for a given load to that of the rear resilient supporting means for the same load changes according to the magnitude of external side forces acting on the wheel, thereby changing the steering characteristics according to the magnitude of external force. The deformation is that in right and left or width directions of the vehicle body caused by the side forces.

  11. Automotive sulfate emission data.

    PubMed Central

    Somers, J H

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses automotive sulfate emission results obtained by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA, General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, and Esso. This work has been directed towards obtaining sulfate emission factors for cars with and without catalyst. While the EPA and Chrysler investigations have found significant sulfate formation in noncatalyst cars, GM, Ford, and Esso have found only trace levels from noncatalyst cars. All of these investigators agree that much higher quantities of sulfate are emitted from catalyst cars. The work done to date shows pelleted catalysts to have much lower sulfate emissions over the low speed-EPA Federal Test Procedures than monolith catalysts. This is probably due to temporary storage of sulfates on the catalyst due to chemical interaction with the alumina pellets. The sulfate compounds are, to a large degree, emitted later under higher speed conditions which result in higher catalyst temperatures which decompose the alumina salt. Future work will be directed towards further elucidation of this storage mechanism as well as determining in detail how factors such as air injection rate and catalyst location affect sulfate emissions. PMID:50932

  12. Active gated imaging for automotive safety applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Yoav; Sonn, Ezri

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the Active Gated Imaging System (AGIS), in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast gated-camera equipped with a unique Gated-CMOS sensor, and a pulsed Illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest which are then processed by computer vision real-time algorithms. In recent years we have learned the system parameters which are most beneficial to night-time driving in terms of; field of view, illumination profile, resolution and processing power. AGIS provides also day-time imaging with additional capabilities, which enhances computer vision safety applications. AGIS provides an excellent candidate for camera-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the path for autonomous driving, in the future, based on its outstanding low/high light-level, harsh weather conditions capabilities and 3D potential growth capabilities.

  13. Switching by Domain-Wall Automotion in Asymmetric Ferromagnetic Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawass, Mohamad-Assaad; Richter, Kornel; Bisig, Andre; Reeve, Robert M.; Krüger, Benjamin; Weigand, Markus; Stoll, Hermann; Krone, Andrea; Kronast, Florian; Schütz, Gisela; Kläui, Mathias

    2017-04-01

    Spintronic applications based on magnetic domain-wall (DW) motion, such as magnetic data storage, sensors, and logic devices, require approaches to reliably manipulate the magnetization in nanowires. In this paper, we report the direct dynamic experimental visualization of reliable switching from the onion to the vortex state by DW automotion at zero field in asymmetric ferromagnetic rings using a uniaxial field pulse. Employing time-resolved x-ray microscopy, we demonstrate that depending on the detailed spin structure of the DWs and the size and geometry of the rings, the automotive propagation can be tailored during the DW relaxation from the higher-energy onion state to the energetically favored vortex state, where both DWs annihilate. Our measurements show DW automotion with an average velocity of about 60 m /s , which is a significant speed for spintronic devices. Such motion is mostly governed by local forces resulting from the geometry variations in the device. A closer study of the annihilation process via micromagnetic simulations reveals that a new vortex is nucleated in between the two initial walls. We demonstrate that the annihilation of DWs through automotion in our scheme always occurs with the detailed topological nature of the walls influencing only the DW dynamics on a local scale. The simulations show good quantitative agreement with our experimental results. These findings shed light on a robust and reliable switching process of the onion state in ferromagnetic rings, which paves the way for further optimization of these devices.

  14. Dow Corning photonics: the silicon advantage in automotive photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Terry V.; Paquet, Rene; Norris, Ann; Pettersen, Babette

    2005-02-01

    The Automotive Market offers several opportunities for Dow Corning to leverage the power of silicon-based materials. Dow Corning Photonics Solutions has a number of developments that may be attractive for the emergent photonics needs in automobiles, building on 40 years of experience as a leading Automotive supplier with a strong foundation of expertise and an extensive product offering- from encapsulents and highly reliable resins, adhesives, insulating materials and other products, ensuring that the advantage of silicones are already well-embedded in Automotive systems, modules and components. The recent development of LED encapsulants of exceptional clarity and stability has extended the potential for Dow Corning"s strength in Photonics to be deployed "in-car". Demonstration of board-level and back-plane solutions utilising siloxane waveguide technology offers new opportunities for systems designers to integrate optical components at low cost on diverse substrates. Coupled with work on simple waveguide technology for sensors and data communications applications this suite of materials and technology offerings is very potent in this sector. The harsh environment under hood and the very extreme thermal range that materials must sustain in vehicles due to both their engine and the climate is an applications specification that defines the siloxane advantage. For these passive optics applications the siloxanes very high clarity at the data-communications wavelengths coupled with extraordinary stability offers significant design advantage. The future development of Head-Up-Displays for instrumentation and data display will offer yet more opportunities to the siloxanes in Automotive Photonics.

  15. n-Hexane-related peripheral neuropathy among automotive technicians--California, 1999-2000.

    PubMed

    2001-11-16

    Solvents, glues, spray paints, coatings, silicones, and other products contain normal (n-) hexane, a petroleum distillate and simple aliphatic hydrocarbon. n-Hexane is an isomer of hexane and was identified as a peripheral neurotoxin in 1964. Since then, many cases of n-hexane-related neurotoxicity have occurred in printing plants, sandal shops, and furniture factories in Asia, Europe, and the United States. This report describes an investigation of n-hexane-associated peripheral neuropathy in an automotive technician, an occupation in which this condition has not been reported, and summarizes the results of two other case investigations in the automotive repair industry. The findings suggest that solvent manufacturers should avoid using hexane when producing automotive degreasing products, and automotive technicians should avoid regular contact with hexane-based cleaning solvents.

  16. An automotive transmission for automotive gas turbine power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A joint government-industry program was initiated to investigate the two-shaft gas turbine concept as an alternative to present-day automotive powerplants. Both were examined, compared and evaluated on the basis of the federal automotive driving cycle in terms of specific fuel/power/speed characteristics of the engine and the efficiency and performance of the transmission. The results showed that an optimum match of vehicle, gas turbine engine, and conventional automatic transmission is capable of a significant improvement in fuel economy. This system offers many advantages that should lead to its wide acceptance in future vehicles.

  17. An automotive transmission for automotive gas turbine power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A joint government-industry program was initiated to investigate the two-shaft gas turbine concept as an alternative to present-day automotive powerplants. Both were examined, compared and evaluated on the basis of the federal automotive driving cycle in terms of specific fuel/power/speed characteristics of the engine and the efficiency and performance of the transmission. The results showed that an optimum match of vehicle, gas turbine engine, and conventional automatic transmission is capable of a significant improvement in fuel economy. This system offers many advantages that should lead to its wide acceptance in future vehicles.

  18. Importance of Projects in Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babeľová, Zdenka Gyurák; Lenhardtová, Zuzana; Cagáňová, Dagmar; Weidlichová-Luptáková, Stanislava

    2010-01-01

    For automotive companies, research and development is the key to success for new generation of products. The aim of this article is to accent the importance of innovations and innovations-focused projects in automotive industry. Relevance of co-operation between automotive industry and educational institutions is noticed in the article, too. Furthermore, history of automotive industry in Slovakia is outlined in the article. Main part of the article is focused on project AUTOCLUSTERS.

  19. NOx Sensor Development

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2010-11-01

    NO{sub x} compounds, specifically NO and NO{sub 2}, are pollutants and potent greenhouse gases. Compact and inexpensive NO{sub x} sensors are necessary in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles to meet government emission requirements and enable the more rapid introduction of more efficient, higher fuel economy CIDI vehicles. Because the need for a NO{sub x} sensor is recent and the performance requirements are extremely challenging, most are still in the development phase. Currently, there is only one type of NO{sub x} sensor that is sold commercially, and it seems unlikely to meet more stringent future emission requirements. Automotive exhaust sensor development has focused on solid-state electrochemical technology, which has proven to be robust for in-situ operation in harsh, high-temperature environments (e.g., the oxygen stoichiometric sensor). Solid-state sensors typically rely on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the oxygen-ion conducting electrolyte and then target different types of metal or metal-oxide electrodes to optimize the response. Electrochemical sensors can be operated in different modes, including amperometric (a current is measured) and potentiometric (a voltage is measured), both of which employ direct current (dc) measurements. Amperometric operation is costly due to the electronics necessary to measure the small sensor signal (nanoampere current at ppm NO{sub x} levels), and cannot be easily improved to meet the future technical performance requirements. Potentiometric operation has not demonstrated enough promise in meeting long-term stability requirements, where the voltage signal drift is thought to be due to aging effects associated with electrically driven changes, both morphological and compositional, in the sensor. Our approach involves impedancemetric operation, which uses alternating current (ac) measurements at a specified frequency. The approach is described in detail in previous reports and several publications

  20. Multi-task single lens for automotive vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulet, Patrice; Konen, Pierre; Thibault, Simon

    2009-05-01

    The increasing trend to use vision sensors in transportation is driven both by legislation and consumer demands for higher safety and better driving experiences. Awareness of what surrounds an automotive vehicle can directly affect the safe driving and maneuvering of that vehicle. Consequently, panoramic 360° field-of-view (FoW) imaging is becoming an industry prerequisite. However, to obtain a complete view of the area around a vehicle, several sensor systems are necessary. This paper explains how panomorph optics can satisfy the needs of various vision applications with only one sensor or panomorph lens configuration. A panomorph lens is a hemispheric wide-angle anamorphic lens with enhanced resolution in a predefined zone of interest. Because panomorph lenses feature an optimal pixel-per-degree relationship, the resulting vision systems provide ideal area coverage, which in turn reduces and maximizes the processing. Here we present how panomorph technology is one of the most promising ways to integrate many automotive vision applications (processing/viewing) onto one single camera module. For example: a single panomorph sensor on the front of a vehicle could provide all the information necessary for assistance in crash avoidance, lane tracking, early warning alerts, parking aids, road sign and pedestrian detection, as well as various video monitoring views for difficult areas such as blind spots. Keywords: wide-angle lens, panoramic, panomorph, immersive, hemispheric, anamorphic, 360° vision systems, vision sensors, automotive vehicles, field of view, transportation, driver assistance systems, lane tracking, blind spot, pedestrian detection, road sign detection, parking assistance

  1. On-chip copper-dielectric interference filters for manufacturing of ambient light and proximity CMOS sensors.

    PubMed

    Frey, Laurent; Masarotto, Lilian; D'Aillon, Patrick Gros; Pellé, Catherine; Armand, Marilyn; Marty, Michel; Jamin-Mornet, Clémence; Lhostis, Sandrine; Le Briz, Olivier

    2014-07-10

    Filter technologies implemented on CMOS image sensors for spectrally selective applications often use a combination of on-chip organic resists and an external substrate with multilayer dielectric coatings. The photopic-like and near-infrared bandpass filtering functions respectively required by ambient light sensing and user proximity detection through time-of-flight can be fully integrated on chip with multilayer metal-dielectric filters. Copper, silicon nitride, and silicon oxide are the materials selected for a technological proof-of-concept on functional wafers, due to their immediate availability in front-end semiconductor fabs. Filter optical designs are optimized with respect to specific performance criteria, and the robustness of the designs regarding process errors are evaluated for industrialization purposes.

  2. Manufactures and Characterizations of Photodiode Thin Film Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) Doped by Niobium and Iron as Light Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahrul, Muhammad; Syafutra, Heriyanto; Arif, Ardian; Irzaman, Indro; Nur, Muhammad; Siswadi

    2010-12-01

    Pure Ba0,5Sr0,5TiO3 (BST) thin film, BST doped by niobium (BNST) and BST doped by iron (BFST) have been synthesized on p-type Si (100) substrates using Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) methods followed by spin coating and annealing techniques. Current-voltage characterizations on these sample result in agreement that all of the BST, BNST, and BFST thin films have photodiode properties. Electrical conductivity values of BST, BNST, and BFST are in the range of conductivity values of semiconductor materials. Niobium or iron doping on the BST samples increase their conductivity value their dielectric constant. This conductivity values may change when a light is exposed on the film surface. Absorbance and reflectance characterizations show that the BST, BNST, and BFST thin films absorb certain range of visible and infrared light. It is convincing that the BST, BNST, and BFST thin films might be used as photodiode light sensor.

  3. Automotive Fuel and Carburetor; Automotive Mechanics 3: 9047.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help students become employable with the skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values necessary for performing the required services of the automotive fuel and carburetor systems mechanic. The course is an introduction to the automobile fuel and carburetion systems. Basic manipulative…

  4. Prospects of metal science in the automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliner, R. E.

    1997-10-01

    In January 1932, the first trucks rolled off the assembly line at the Gorky Automotive Plant (GAZ). In the past 65 years, the makes of trucks and cars and the way they are manufactured have changed more than once, but the range of metal-science problems that have to be tackled at the GAZ has remained unchanged. These are the choice of materials, heat-treatment schedules, and test techniques. Now that new economic relations have come to govern the market and the opportunity exists for user-oriented control over the quality of the metal supplied, the GAZ metal scientists have a stronger leverage through which they can assure the efficient use of metals and thus to promote metal science, one of the basic sciences serving the automotive industry.

  5. Strategies of performance self-monitoring in automotive production.

    PubMed

    Faye, Hélène; Falzon, Pierre

    2009-09-01

    Production in the automotive industry, based on assembly line work, is now characterized by lean manufacturing and customization. This results in greater flexibility and increased quality demands, including worker performance self-monitoring. The objectives of this study are to refine the concept of performance self-monitoring and to characterize the strategies developed by operators to achieve it. Data were collected based on the method of individual auto-confrontation, consisting of two steps: eleven assembly-line operators of a French automotive company were individually observed and video-taped while they were working; an interview then allowed each operator to discuss his/her activity based on the video-tape. This study expands the concept of performance self-monitoring by highlighting three types of strategies directly oriented toward quality: prevention, feedback control and control action strategies.

  6. Impact of novel thermoelectric materials on automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brignone, Mauro; Ziggiotti, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Despite the fact that thermoelectric (TE) devices are compact, quiet, rugged, stable and very reliable, thermoelectrics have found only niche applications because they are also inefficient (less that 5% conversion efficiency is typical) and costly. The key to more widespread acceptance of thermoelectric is the development of materials that are capable of higher conversion efficiency, but other fundamental materials parameters play a role not less important to open to large applications and markets. In particular the automotive sector requires low materials density, materials made from widely-available pure elements with very large supply chains, non-toxicity of elements and potential compliance with REACH and RoHS obligations and low raw material cost combined with low manufacturing costs. The impact of novel TE materials on automotive application will be described focusing on promising nano magnesium silicide and skutterudites.

  7. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering for Magnesium in Automotive Body Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, John E.; Liu, Baicheng; Boyle, Kevin P.; Hector, Lou; McCune, Robert

    This paper provides an overview and progress report for an international collaborative project which aims to develop an ICME infrastructure for magnesium for use in automotive body applications. Quantitative processing-micro structure-property relationships are being developed for extruded Mg alloys, sheet-formed Mg alloys and high pressure die cast Mg alloys. These relationships are captured in computational models which are then linked with manufacturing process simulation and used to provide constitutive models for component performance analysis. The long term goal is to capture this information in efficient computational models and in a web-centered knowledge base. The work is being conducted at leading universities, national labs and industrial research facilities in the US, China and Canada. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP), Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan).

  8. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University

    SciTech Connect

    Nigle N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

  9. Readings in the Automotive Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGise, Joe

    Designed for reluctant readers in vocational high school, this selection of readings emphasizes general information about the automotive trade. Articles have been selected from a variety of auto magazines and trade journals. Each article is followed by an assortment of exercises designed to enable the student to further develop vocabulary and…

  10. Ceramics potential in automotive powerplants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    The paper addresses the potential that ceramic materials can play an important role in future automotive powerplants - both advanced heat engines and advanced battery systems. A number of related experimental programs are reviewed including ceramics for gasoline and diesel piston engines, gas turbine and Stirling Engines and sodium-sulfur batteries. A strong integrated program to develop ceramics technology is recommended.

  11. Automotive Technology. Technical Committee Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Technical Committee Report prepared by industry representatives in Idaho lists the skills currently necessary for an employee in that state to obtain a job in automotive technology, retain a job once hired, and advance in that occupational field. (Task lists are grouped according to duty areas generally used in industry settings, and are used…

  12. Readings in the Automotive Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGise, Joe

    Designed for reluctant readers in vocational high school, this selection of readings emphasizes general information about the automotive trade. Articles have been selected from a variety of auto magazines and trade journals. Each article is followed by an assortment of exercises designed to enable the student to further develop vocabulary and…

  13. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following: the Stirling reference engine system design; components and subsystems; F-40 baseline Stirling engine installation and test; the first automotive engine to be built on the program; computer development activities; and technical assistance to the Government. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are given.

  14. Ceramic technology for automotive turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents an update on ceramic technology for automotive turbines. Progress in research and development of improved ceramics is reviewed, including approaches for assessing time-dependent strength characteristics. Processes for making shapes are discussed, and the design and testing of selected ceramic turbine components are reviewed.

  15. Ceramic technology for automotive turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents an update on ceramic technology for automotive turbines. Progress in research and development of improved ceramics is reviewed, including approaches for assessing time-dependent strength characteristics. Processes for making shapes are discussed, and the design and testing of selected ceramic turbine components are reviewed.

  16. Automotive Technology. Technical Committee Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Technical Committee Report prepared by industry representatives in Idaho lists the skills currently necessary for an employee in that state to obtain a job in automotive technology, retain a job once hired, and advance in that occupational field. (Task lists are grouped according to duty areas generally used in industry settings, and are used…

  17. Automotive Technologies. State Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    This document, which lists the technical automotive technologies competencies identified by representatives from business, industry, and labor as well as technical educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary…

  18. Innovative Technology in Automotive Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John

    2007-01-01

    Automotive Technology combines hands-on training along with a fully integrated, interactive, computerized multistationed facility. Our program is a competency based, true open-entry/open-exit program that utilizes flexible self-paced course outlines. It is designed around an industry partnership that promotes community and economic development,…

  19. Automotive Mechanics. Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 33 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 33 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in automotive mechanics. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-9 enabling objectives. For each enabliing objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps…

  20. Innovative Technology in Automotive Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John

    2007-01-01

    Automotive Technology combines hands-on training along with a fully integrated, interactive, computerized multistationed facility. Our program is a competency based, true open-entry/open-exit program that utilizes flexible self-paced course outlines. It is designed around an industry partnership that promotes community and economic development,…

  1. Automotive Mechanics. Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 33 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 33 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in automotive mechanics. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-9 enabling objectives. For each enabliing objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps…

  2. Automotive Cooling and Lubricating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide new mechanics with a source of study materials to assist them in becoming more proficient in their jobs. The course contains four study units covering automotive cooling system maintenance, cooling system repair, lubricating systems, and lubrication…

  3. Automotive Electronics. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackert, Howard C.; Heiserman, Russell L.

    This learning module addresses computers and their applications in contemporary automobiles. The text provides students with information on automotive microcomputers and hands-on activities that will help them see how semiconductors and digital logic devices fit into the modern repair facility. The module contains nine instructional units that…

  4. A comparative study of multi-sensor data fusion methods for highly accurate assessment of manufactured parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannachi, Ammar; Kohler, Sophie; Lallement, Alex; Hirsch, Ernest

    2015-04-01

    3D modeling of scene contents takes an increasing importance for many computer vision based applications. In particular, industrial applications of computer vision require efficient tools for the computation of this 3D information. Routinely, stereo-vision is a powerful technique to obtain the 3D outline of imaged objects from the corresponding 2D images. As a consequence, this approach provides only a poor and partial description of the scene contents. On another hand, for structured light based reconstruction techniques, 3D surfaces of imaged objects can often be computed with high accuracy. However, the resulting active range data in this case lacks to provide data enabling to characterize the object edges. Thus, in order to benefit from the positive points of various acquisition techniques, we introduce in this paper promising approaches, enabling to compute complete 3D reconstruction based on the cooperation of two complementary acquisition and processing techniques, in our case stereoscopic and structured light based methods, providing two 3D data sets describing respectively the outlines and surfaces of the imaged objects. We present, accordingly, the principles of three fusion techniques and their comparison based on evaluation criterions related to the nature of the workpiece and also the type of the tackled application. The proposed fusion methods are relying on geometric characteristics of the workpiece, which favour the quality of the registration. Further, the results obtained demonstrate that the developed approaches are well adapted for 3D modeling of manufactured parts including free-form surfaces and, consequently quality control applications using these 3D reconstructions.

  5. Dyed red, green, and blue photoresist for manufacture of high-resolution color filter arrays for image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Douglas J.; DiMenna, William; Flaim, Tony D.; Mercado, Ramil; Sun, Sam

    2003-05-01

    We are developing a set of dyed red, green, and blue color filter coatings for the fabrication of high resolution CCD and CMOS image sensor arrays. The resists contain photosensitive polymer binders and various curing agents, soluble organic dyes, and solvents. The new dyed photoresists are sensitive to i-line radiation, primarily at 365 nm, and are negative-working, requiring less than 500 mJ of exposure energy for patterning. The coatings are developed in standard Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide (TMAH) developers. Many dyes were examined in order to achieve the desired spectral properties as well as the meet the solvent solubility and thermal stability requirements. Computer modeling was utilized to determine the correct proportions of dye(s) in each resist, after which the modeling results were verified by actual formulation and testing. Thermal stability of the dyes was determined using isothermal. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) at 200°C for 30 minutes. The dyes were evaluated in both traditional (free radical) and novel polymer systems to see if adequate sensitivity, resolution, and feature quality could be obtained. The studies showed that traditional free radical-based photochemistries are marginal at best for high resolution (1-2 micron) applications. To overcome this limitation, a new polymer system having photodimerizable functional units and acid functional groups was developed to impart photosensitivity and developer solubility, respectively. This system, which does not use free radical-initiated photopolymerization as a mechanism for patterning, shows low exposure dose requirements and is capable of resolving features less than 2 micron in size.

  6. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from the processes which laminate a plastic sheet between two layers of glass, and which prepare the... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE...

  7. Cost Estimating Collision Damage; Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 3: 9037.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course planned to help the student to become employable and to provide them with the skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values necessary for performing the service expected of the automotive body repairman and to perform basic collision damage estimates. Emphasis is on utilization of manufacturer's…

  8. Fracture testing and analysis of adhesively bonded joints for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Boeman, R.G.; Warren, C.D.

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began a cooperative effort with the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to conduct research and development that would overcome technological hurdles to the adhesive bonding of current and future automotive materials. This effort is part of a larger Department of Energy (DOE) program to promote the use of lighter weight materials in automotive structures for the purpose of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing environmental pollutant emissions. In accomplishing this mission, the bonding of similar and dissimilar materials was identified as being of primary importance to the automotive industry since this enabling technology would give designers the freedom to choose from an expanded menu of low mass materials for component weight reduction. This paper concentrates on the details of developing accurate fracture test methods for adhesively bonded joints in the automotive industry. The test methods being developed are highly standardized and automated so that industry suppliers will be able to pass on reliable data to automotive designers in a timely manner. Mode I fracture tests have been developed that are user friendly and automated for easy data acquisition, data analysis, test control and test repeatability. The development of this test is discussed. In addition, materials and manufacturing issues are addressed which are of particular importance when designing adhesive and composite material systems.

  9. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center. 2015 Research Highlights -- Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber.

  10. Economic and Environmental Tradeoffs in New Automotive Painting Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Geffen, Charlette A.; Field, III, F. R.; Isaacs, J. A.

    1998-10-01

    Painting is the most expensive unit operation in automobile manufacturing and the source of over 90 percent of the air, water and solid waste emissions at the assembly plant. While innovative paint technologies such as waterborne or powder paints can potentially improve plant environmental performance, implementing these technologies often requires major capital investment. A process-based technical cost model was developed for examining the environmental and economic implications of automotive painting at the unit operation level. The tradeoffs between potential environmental benefits and their relative costs are evaluated for current and new technologies.

  11. Part Transportation Improvement in Warehouse of an Automotive Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choojan, Tiwapom; Chutima, Parames

    2016-05-01

    This research is focus on the problems cause the assembly line stop in a Japanese automotive manufacturer in Thailand. The problem arose from not being able to supply parts to the assembly line in time and supplying wrong parts to the assembly line. Methods to resolve these problems involved the followings: 1) design new tag labels, 2) improve operations method and 3) redesign the parts storage layout and supply routes. The result showed that the time for transferring parts from the warehouse to the preparing area and the overlapped routes were reduced. Moreover, the supply accuracy from the preparation area to the assembly line was improved.

  12. Automotive Stirling engine development program - Overview and status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N. P.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of the automotive-Stirling-engine development program being undertaken by DOE and NASA Lewis is reviewed. The program goals and the reference-engine design are explained, and the modifications introduced to improve performance and lower manufacturing costs are discussed and illustrated, including part-power optimization; increased operating temperature (from 720 to 820 C); 45.4-kg weight reduction; elimination of Co and reduction of Cr used; and improved seals, ceramic components, and high-temperature alloys. The test program, some difficulties encountered, and results after 2042 h are summarized.

  13. Drawn arc aluminum stud welding for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, S.

    2002-08-01

    Federal regulations have been enacted to significantly reduce atmospheric pollution caused by motor vehicles. This forced the automotive manufacturers to improve fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks by using lightweight materials such as aluminum. The focus of the current study is to develop welding procedures using the drawn arc process for 5754-0 and 6061-T6 aluminum alloys. The mechanical and macrostructural characteristics of the welded joints were evaluated using tensile tests, torque tests, and optical microscopy. Preliminary study indicates that these alloys can be welded with a minimal amount of porosity and good mechanical properties.

  14. Automotive Stirling engine development program - Overview and status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N. P.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of the automotive-Stirling-engine development program being undertaken by DOE and NASA Lewis is reviewed. The program goals and the reference-engine design are explained, and the modifications introduced to improve performance and lower manufacturing costs are discussed and illustrated, including part-power optimization; increased operating temperature (from 720 to 820 C); 45.4-kg weight reduction; elimination of Co and reduction of Cr used; and improved seals, ceramic components, and high-temperature alloys. The test program, some difficulties encountered, and results after 2042 h are summarized.

  15. Fuel Cells for Non-automotive Uses: Status and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Upreti, Girish; Greene, David L; Duleep, K. G.; Sawhney, Rupinder S

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cells are in varying stages ofcommercialization for both automotive and non-automotive applications. The fuel cell industry has made substantial progress but still needs to reduce costs and improve performance to compete successfully with established technologies. In just 5 years, costs have been reduced by a factor of two while improving efficiency and durability. Based on interviews with fuel cell manufacturers in the U.S., Japan and the EU and information from published sources, a model of non-automotive fuel cell markets is constructed and used to estimate the impacts of government policies and to project the potential evolution of the industry to 2025. The model includes the effects of learning-by-doing, scale economies and exogenous technological progress on component and system costs, estimates customer choices between fuel cell and competing established technologies, and attempts to measure the impacts of government policies. With continued policy support it appears likely that the industry can become self-sustaining within the next decade.

  16. Automotive Stirling engine systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) program is to develop a Stirling engine for automotive use that provides a 30 percent improvement in fuel economy relative to a comparable internal-combustion engine while meeting emissions goals. This paper traces the engine systems' development efforts focusing on: (1) a summary of engine system performance for all Mod I engines; (2) the development, program conducted for the upgraded Mod I; and (3) vehicle systems work conducted to enhance vehicle fuel economy. Problems encountered during the upgraded Mod I test program are discussed. The importance of the EPA driving cycle cold-start penalty and the measures taken to minimize that penalty with the Mod II are also addressed.

  17. Recycling used automotive oil filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peaslee, Kent D.

    1994-02-01

    Over 400 million used automotive oil filters are discarded in the United States each year, most of which are disposed of in landfills wasting valuable resources and risking contamination of ground- and surface-water supplies. This article summarizes U.S. bureau of Mines research evaluating scrap prepared from used automotive oil filters. Experimental results show that crushed and drained oil filters have a bulk density that is higher than many typical scrap grades, a chemical analysis low in residual elements (except tin due to use of tin plate in filters), and an overall yield, oil-filter scrap to cast steel, of 76% to 85%, depending on the method used to prepare the scrap.

  18. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  19. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  20. Advanced computational research in materials processing for design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.

    1994-12-31

    The computational requirements for design and manufacture of automotive components have seen dramatic increases for producing automobiles with three times the mileage. Automotive component design systems are becoming increasingly reliant on structural analysis requiring both overall larger analysis and more complex analyses, more three-dimensional analyses, larger model sizes, and routine consideration of transient and non-linear effects. Such analyses must be performed rapidly to minimize delays in the design and development process, which drives the need for parallel computing. This paper briefly describes advanced computational research in superplastic forming and automotive crash worthiness.

  1. Roll forming technology for manufacturing axisymmetric automotive components

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C.K.; Lesuer, D.R.; Bieh, T.G.; Yang, H.s.; Brown, K.R.; Kaibyshev, R.O.; Petrov, E.N.

    1997-10-28

    A unique roll forming technology that permits complex axisymmetric components, such as automobile wheels and turbine disks, to be formed in a single forming operation, has been developed by two Russian Institute, the Institute of Technical Physics of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center and the Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems. This process was used to fabricate automobile wheels from a Russian AVT alloy, a 6010 aluminum alloy equivalent. The process included steps of isothermal roll forming of preforms into wheels shapes, all at 430C for the AVT alloy. The microstructure and mechanical properties were evaluated at various locations in the finished wheels by optical metallography and tensile testing at elevated temperatures. Tensile properties were obtained by stain-rate change tests and tensile tests to failure at high strain rates. Microstructure and mechanical propertied of the preforms and blanks were also evaluated. The results indicate that dynamically recovered microstructures were developed during the processing, which showed relatively high strain rate sensitivity and rendered sufficiently plasticity at the elevated temperature for wheel fabrication process.

  2. A survey of mortality at two automotive engine manufacturing plants.

    PubMed

    Park, R M; Mirer, F E

    1996-12-01

    Mortality at two engine plants was analyzed using proportional mortality and logistic regression models of mortality odds ratios to expand previous observations of increased cancers of the stomach, pancreas, and bladder, and cirrhosis of the liver among workers exposed to machining fluids. Causes of death and work histories were available for 1,870 decendents. There was a significant excess of deaths coded as diabetes for white men in both plants (PMR = 25/16.7 = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.20), and a deficit of respiratory diseases. Black men had fewer than expected diabetes deaths and more emphysema deaths. Elevated PMRs for cancers of the stomach, pancreas, prostate, bladder, and kidney were not statistically significant in plantwide populations. However, stomach cancer mortality increased with duration in camshaft and crankshaft production at Plant 1 (OR = 5.1, 95% CI = 1.6, 17; at mean duration of exposed cases), and among tool room workers (OR = 6.3, 95% CI = 1.3, 31), but these results were based on five cases. Nitrosamines were probably present in camshaft and crankshaft grinding at Plant 1. Pancreas cancer risk increased among workers at both plants ever employed in inspection (OR = 2.5, 16), in machining with straight oil (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.04, 12), or in skilled trades (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.1, 7.5). Lung cancer increased in cylinder head machining (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.4, 11), millwright work (OR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.6, 9.0), and in Plant 2 generally (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 0.97, 2.2). Potential lung carcinogens included heat treatment emissions, chlorinated oils, and coal tar fumes (millwrights). Bladder cancer increased with duration among workers grinding in straight oil MF (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.15, 7.8) and in machining/heat-treat operations (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.14, 7.2).

  3. The analysis of experimental data obtained from automotives tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, R. M.; Radulescu, V. J.; Neagu, D.; Trocan, C.; Copae, I.

    2016-08-01

    The paper highlights the three important and inseparably aspects of the systemic approach of automotives dynamics: taking into account the human-vehicle-field interaction, dealing movement with algorithms specific to system theory and analysis of experimental data with algorithms specific to signals theory.Within the paper, the systemic approach regarding vehicles dynamics is based on experimental data obtained from tests, whereby it is analyzed the movement and there are obtained movement mathematical models through algorithms of systems identification.Likewise, there are shown main analysis methods for experimental data, which uses probability theory, information theory, correlation analysis and variance analysis;in addition, there are highlighted possibilities given by time analysis, frequency analysis and data time-frequency analysis. Identification algorithms and highlighted analysis procedures assure the study of automotives dynamics and fuel saving,by directly using experimental data, or by using mathematical models and applying concepts and algorithms specific to systems theory. Experimental data were obtained by testing automotives with electronic control devices and by using acquisition and storage equipmentsfor data given by the on-board computer and taken from embedded sensors.

  4. The Liquid Crystal Shutter In Automotive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haven, Thomas J.; Melcher, Dean

    1988-10-01

    The Liquid Crystal Shutter (LCS) is being developed for the automotive market. Liquid crystal material that meets operation to 85°C has been screened. Thin film heaters have been explored to obtain -40°C operation. Sunlight viewability has been improved and system colors have been matched to standard vacuum fluorescent automotive instrumentation. Successful completion of automotive humidity and thermal cycling tests have led to the adaptation of a flex connector.

  5. Material structure and processes required for the manufacture of micromechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrobis, Kenneth J.; Christenson, J.; Staller, Steve E.; Freeman, J.; Gadgil, Prashant

    1997-09-01

    The field of micromechanics is rapidly expanding in both the number of research groups and the number of materials being employed. Although this diversity is a strong indication of a healthy field, care must be taken to keep the focus on producing products and processes which can be transferred to the manufacturing facility. During the 1980s polysilicon was shown to contain a significant amount of process flexibility and economic potential. Although the demonstration of polysilicon sensors was noticed and in some cases pursued by industry, single-crystal silicon sensors continue to dominate the products used by the primary sensor customer, the automotive industry. A similar trend which also began in the 1980s was the use of the LIGA process for sensor fabrication. Once again, this field showed a significant amount of economic promise. However, for the resources being invested and the number of research groups pursuing this process, significant problems exist with respect to product manufacturability. Although LIGA remains an exciting field of research, new micromechanical processes or materials may greatly reduce the window of device profitability before the difficulties associated with LIGA can be brought under control. Oddly enough, it is the same material which polysilicon has failed to displace which may limit the LIGA process to only one application area, that area being magnetics. New deep anisotropic etching systems and new substrate suppliers for micromachining applications, along with the knowledge and experience industry already possesses, will maintain single crystal silicon as the sensor material of choice for the 1990s and beyond. This article reviews the material stability and processes associated with polysilicon, single crystal silicon, and electrodeposits. Emphasis will be placed on the inherent material structure and processes required to manufacture a profitable device.

  6. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  7. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  8. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  9. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING WOOD EAVE AND STUCCO RAKEBOARD ON GABLE END, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  10. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END OF MAIN WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  11. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  12. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING WOOD EAVE AND STUCCO RAKEBOARD ON GABLE END. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  13. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  14. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  15. Synchrotron FTIR characterisation of automotive primer surfacer paint coatings for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Maric, Mark; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm; Lewis, Simon W; Pitts, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy was used to characterise and assess the chemical diversity of electrocoat primer, primer surfacer and basecoats of automotive paint samples from 75 vehicles representing a range of international car manufacturers. Significant diversity was found in the synchrotron FTIR data from the primer surfacer coats. Classification using principal component analysis revealed 14 discrete groups, which could be associated with the country of manufacture, the specific manufacturer and manufacturing plant, the year of manufacture of the vehicle and in some instances the number of layers in the paint system. The model generated from the primer surfacer was significantly more discriminating than a previous model generated from FTIR analysis of clear coats of the same vehicles. Analysis of the primer surfacer also avoids issues of possible environmental degradation and component migration seen with FTIR analysis of automotive clear coats. Providing such information concerning vehicle origin would aid in the development of investigative leads from the analysis of questioned automotive paint samples located at the scene of a crime or on the body/clothing of a hit and run victim.

  16. Carbon footprint of automotive ignition coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Huey-Ling; Chen, Chih-Ming; Sun, Chin-Huang; Lin, Hung-Di

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, environmental issues, such as climate change and global warming due to the excessive development of industry, have attracted increasing attention of citizens worldwide. It is known that CO2 accounts for the largest proportion of greenhouse gases. Therefore, how to reduce CO2 emissions during the life cycle of a product to lessen its impact on environment is an important topic in the industrial society. Furthermore, it is also of great significance to cut down the required energy so as to lower its production costs during the manufacturing process nowadays. This study presents the carbon footprint of an automotive ignition coil and its partial materials are defined to explore their carbon emissions and environmental impact. The model IPCC GWP100a calculates potential global greenhouse effect by converting them into CO2 equivalents. In this way, the overall carbon footprint of an ignition coil can be explored. By using IPCC GWP100a, the results display that the shell has the most carbon emissions. The results can help the industry reduce the carbon emissions of an ignition coil product.

  17. Advanced Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    manufacturing will enable the mass customization of products and create new market opportunities in the commercial sector. Flexible manufacturing ...the mass customization of products and create new market opportunities in the commercial sector. One of the most promising flexible manufacturing ... manufacturing , increase efficiency and productivity. Research in leading edge technologies continues to promise exciting new manufacturing methods

  18. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  19. Vibration reduction on automotive shafts using piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Holger; Riedel, Mathias; Schmidt, Knut; Bianchini, Emanuele

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on active vibration reduction for automotive shafts with the use of piezoelectric material. The work focuses on an axle of an Audi A2. The demand in the automobile sector for higher comfort in the vehicle is of a great importance alongside the requirements of lighter weight and low fuel consumption. These requirements are typically in conflict with each other. One solution is the use of intelligent materials instead of viscoelastic materials and proof mass absorbers. These solutions are quite heavy especially at low frequencies. Active vibration control and piezoelectric devices are advantageous in this application due to their low mass to performance ratio. Our research study explores the use of such piezoelectric devices for an axle. In conjunction with electronics it will reduce vibrations in the first natural bending mode of the axle. Laboratory tests simulated the condition present in the road. At first a stationary set up was used, then a simulated disturbance was input at the attachment points of the shaft. Finally, a test with rotating shaft was performed. Piezoelectric devices (custom QuickPacks from ACX, a Division of Cymer) were used as sensors and as actuators to properly control the axle during the different operating conditions. The power consumption of each actuator pair was less than 20W. The work described here details the test setup, the control strategy, the hardware implementation as well as the test results obtained.

  20. 76 FR 1599 - Foreign-Trade Zone 203-Moses Lake, Washington; Application for Manufacturing Authority, SGL...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 203--Moses Lake, Washington; Application for Manufacturing Authority, SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing), Moses Lake, WA An application... Corporation, grantee of FTZ 203, requesting export-only manufacturing authority on behalf of SGL...

  1. Petroleum Marketing. Selling Automotive Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luter, Robert R.

    This textbook contains material for the individualized instruction of students training for careers in service stations; automotive, tire, battery, and accessory retail stores; oil jobbers and petroleum product wholesalers, or any wholesale or retail establishment that sells automotive products and services. Included among the topics addressed in…

  2. Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a course on becoming an automotive brakes specialist, based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The course consists of three instructional units: service brake hydraulic system and wheel bearings, service drum brakes, and service disc brakes. Depending on the…

  3. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Body Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive body repair I and II. The nine units in automotive body repair I are as follows: introduction; related information; basic tool usage and safety; body and frame construction; basic sheet metal repair; preparing for…

  4. Using Technology to Enhance an Automotive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Denis Ashton uses technology in his automotive technology program at East Valley Institute of Technology (EVIT) to positively impact student outcomes. Ashton, the department chair for the automotive programs at EVIT, in Mesa, Arizona, says that using an interactive PowerPoint curriculum makes learning fun for students and provides immediate…

  5. Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a course on becoming an automotive brakes specialist, based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The course consists of three instructional units: service brake hydraulic system and wheel bearings, service drum brakes, and service disc brakes. Depending on the…

  6. An Analysis of the Automotive Service Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfrey, Prince J.; Morse, David L.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the automotive service advisor occupation. The automotive service advisor is responsible primarily for sales and services and at the same time may be called upon to supervise other service center…

  7. Petroleum Marketing. Selling Automotive Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luter, Robert R.

    This textbook contains material for the individualized instruction of students training for careers in service stations; automotive, tire, battery, and accessory retail stores; oil jobbers and petroleum product wholesalers, or any wholesale or retail establishment that sells automotive products and services. Included among the topics addressed in…

  8. Automotive Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2015-03-01

    Considerable fuel energy, as much as 70%, is not converted to useful work by internal combustion engines but is instead rejected as waste heat, and more than half of the waste heat, nearly 40% of fuel energy, is contained in vehicle exhaust gas. This provides an opportunity to recover some of the wasted fuel energy and convert it from heat into useful work, subject to the laws of thermodynamics, and thereby improve vehicle energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) materials have been extensively researched and TE devices are now being developed for operation at high temperatures corresponding to automotive exhaust gases for direct solid-state conversion of heat into electricity. This has stimulated substantial progress in the development of practical TE generator (TEG) systems for large-scale commercialization. A significant enabler of this progress has been the US Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program through funding for low cost solutions for automotive TE waste heat recovery to improve fuel economy. Our current project at General Motors has culminated in the identification of the potential supply chain for all components and assembly of an automotive TEG. A significant focus has been to develop integrated and iterative modeling tools for a fully optimized TEG design that includes all components and subsystems (TE modules, heat exchangers, thermal interfaces, electrical interconnects, power conditioning, and vehicle integration for maximal use of TEG power). We have built and tested a new, low-cost Initial TEG prototype based on state-of-the-art production-scale skutterudite TE modules, novel heat exchanger designs, and practical solutions to the many technical challenges for optimum TEG performance. We will use the results for our Initial TEG prototype to refine our modeling and design tools for a Final automotive TEG system prototype. Our recent results will be presented. Thanks to: J.R. Salvador, E.R. Gundlach, D. Thompson, N.K. Bucknor, M

  9. Process Modeling of Low-Pressure Die Casting of Aluminum Alloy Automotive Wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, C.; Duan, J.; Yao, L.; Maijer, D. M.; Cockcroft, S. L.

    2013-09-01

    Although on initial inspection, the aluminum alloy automotive wheel seems to be a relatively simple component to cast based on its shape, further insight reveals that this is not the case. Automotive wheels are in a select group of cast components that have strict specifications for both mechanical and aesthetic characteristics due to their important structural requirements and their visibility on a vehicle. The modern aluminum alloy automotive wheel continues to experience tightened tolerances relating to defects to improve mechanical performance and/or the physical appearance. Automotive aluminum alloy wheels are assessed against three main criteria: wheel cosmetics, mechanical performance, and air tightness. Failure to achieve the required standards in any one of these categories will lead to the wheel either requiring costly repair or being rejected and remelted. Manufacturers are becoming more reliant on computational process modeling as a design tool for the wheel casting process. This article discusses and details examples of the use of computational process modeling as a predictive tool to optimize the casting process from the standpoint of defect minimization with the emphasis on those defects that lead to failure of aluminum automotive wheels, namely, macroporosity, microporosity, and oxide films. The current state of applied computational process modeling and its limitations with regard to wheel casting are discussed.

  10. Narrow and broadband sound reduction in automotive panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanardi, Marco; Schmidt, Knut; Kunze, Holger

    2001-06-01

    The possibility of using active control to reduce the sound radiated from a thin automotive panel between 30 and 250 Hz was explored. A steel panel representing a typical automotive application was selected, and QuickPack piezoceramic actuators were bonded on one side of the panel as a disturbance source, with inputs ranging from single-frequency sine wave to broadband band-limited white noise. A finite element model was created to determine the best sound radiating modes within the frequency band of interest, calculate mode shapes and determine the optimal location and size of the control actuators and sensors. Custom QuickPack devices were selected and bonded based on the results of the FEM. Optimal control laws were determined, using system models based on control and disturbance transfer functions. For narrowband control an inductive shunt was designed, where the kinetic energy generated when the plate moves is dissipated in a resonant RLC electric circuit. Also, both narrowband and broadband multiple input - multiple output (MIMO) control algorithms with two sensor and two actuator channels were designed and implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP). The overall sound radiated from the plate was reduced by 3dB RMS between 30-250Hz, while the peak sound reduction obtained at the target mode was 24dB.

  11. Zeolite-based Impedimetric Gas Sensor Device in Low-cost Technology for Hydrocarbon Gas Detection

    PubMed Central

    Reiß, Sebastian; Hagen, Gunter; Moos, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Due to increasing environmental concerns the need for inexpensive selective gas sensors is increasing. This work deals with transferring a novel zeolite-based impedimetric hydrocarbon gas sensor principle, which has been originally manufactured in a costly combination of photolithography, thin-film processes, and thick-film processes to a low-cost technology comprising only thick-film processes and one electroplating step. The sensing effect is based on a thin chromium oxide layer between the interdigital electrodes and a Pt-loaded ZSM-5 zeolite film. When hydrocarbons are present in the sensor ambient, the electrical sensor impedance increases strongly and selectively. In the present work, the chromium oxide film is electroplated on Au screen-printed interdigital electrodes and then oxidized to Cr2O3. The electrode area is covered with the screen-printed zeolite. The sensor device is self-heated utilizing a planar platinum heater on the backside. The best sensor performance is obtained at a frequency of 3 Hz at around 350 °C. The good selectivity of the original sensor setup could be confirmed, but a strong cross-sensitivity to ammonia occurs, which might prohibit its original intention for use in automotive exhausts. PMID:27873966

  12. Zeolite-based Impedimetric Gas Sensor Device in Low-cost Technology for Hydrocarbon Gas Detection.

    PubMed

    Reiß, Sebastian; Hagen, Gunter; Moos, Ralf

    2008-12-05

    Due to increasing environmental concerns the need for inexpensive selective gas sensors is increasing. This work deals with transferring a novel zeolite-based impedimetric hydrocarbon gas sensor principle, which has been originally manufactured in a costly combination of photolithography, thin-film processes, and thick-film processes to a lowcost technology comprising only thick-film processes and one electroplating step. The sensing effect is based on a thin chromium oxide layer between the interdigital electrodes and a Pt-loaded ZSM-5 zeolite film. When hydrocarbons are present in the sensor ambient, the electrical sensor impedance increases strongly and selectively. In the present work, the chromium oxide film is electroplated on Au screen-printed interdigital electrodes and then oxidized to Cr₂O₃. The electrode area is covered with the screen-printed zeolite. The sensor device is self-heated utilizing a planar platinum heater on the backside. The best sensor performance is obtained at a frequency of 3 Hz at around 350 °C. The good selectivity of the original sensor setup could be confirmed, but a strong cross-sensitivity to ammonia occurs, which might prohibit its original intention for use in automotive exhausts.

  13. Framework for Identifying Cybersecurity Risks in Manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Hutchins, Margot J.; Bhinge, Raunak; Micali, Maxwell K.; ...

    2015-10-21

    Increasing connectivity, use of digital computation, and off-site data storage provide potential for dramatic improvements in manufacturing productivity, quality, and cost. However, there are also risks associated with the increased volume and pervasiveness of data that are generated and potentially accessible to competitors or adversaries. Enterprises have experienced cyber attacks that exfiltrate confidential and/or proprietary data, alter information to cause an unexpected or unwanted effect, and destroy capital assets. Manufacturers need tools to incorporate these risks into their existing risk management processes. This article establishes a framework that considers the data flows within a manufacturing enterprise and throughout its supplymore » chain. The framework provides several mechanisms for identifying generic and manufacturing-specific vulnerabilities and is illustrated with details pertinent to an automotive manufacturer. Finally, in addition to providing manufacturers with insights into their potential data risks, this framework addresses an outcome identified by the NIST Cybersecurity Framework.« less

  14. Framework for Identifying Cybersecurity Risks in Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, Margot J.; Bhinge, Raunak; Micali, Maxwell K.; Robinson, Stefanie L.; Sutherland, John W.; Dornfeld, David

    2015-10-21

    Increasing connectivity, use of digital computation, and off-site data storage provide potential for dramatic improvements in manufacturing productivity, quality, and cost. However, there are also risks associated with the increased volume and pervasiveness of data that are generated and potentially accessible to competitors or adversaries. Enterprises have experienced cyber attacks that exfiltrate confidential and/or proprietary data, alter information to cause an unexpected or unwanted effect, and destroy capital assets. Manufacturers need tools to incorporate these risks into their existing risk management processes. This article establishes a framework that considers the data flows within a manufacturing enterprise and throughout its supply chain. The framework provides several mechanisms for identifying generic and manufacturing-specific vulnerabilities and is illustrated with details pertinent to an automotive manufacturer. Finally, in addition to providing manufacturers with insights into their potential data risks, this framework addresses an outcome identified by the NIST Cybersecurity Framework.

  15. Space Software for Automotive Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    John Thousand of Wolverine Western Corp. put his aerospace group to work on an unfamiliar job, designing a brake drum using computer design techniques. Computer design involves creation of a mathematical model of a product and analyzing its effectiveness in simulated operation. Technique enables study of performance and structural behavior of a number of different designs before settling on a final configuration. Wolverine employees attacked a traditional brake drum problem, the sudden buildup of heat during fast and repeated braking. Part of brake drum not confined tends to change its shape under combination of heat, physical pressure and rotational forces, a condition known as bellmouthing. Since bellmouthing is a major factor in braking effectiveness, a solution of problem would be a major advance in automotive engineering. A former NASA employee, now a Wolverine employee, knew of a series of NASA computer programs ideally suited to confronting bellmouthing. Originally developed as aids to rocket engine nozzle design, it's capable of analyzing problems generated in a rocket engine or automotive brake drum by heat, expansion, pressure and rotational forces. Use of these computer programs led to new brake drum concept featuring a more durable axle, and heat transfer ribs, or fins, on hub of drum.

  16. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that…

  17. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that…

  18. Work-related heat stress concerns in automotive industries: a case study from Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Ayyappan, Ramalingam; Sankar, Sambandam; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Balakrishnan, Kalpana

    2009-11-11

    Work-related heat stress assessments, the quantification of thermal loads and their physiological consequences have mostly been performed in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries (many of which are also tropical), limited attempts have been made to create detailed job-exposure profiles for various sectors. We present here a case study from Chennai in southern India that illustrates the prevalence of work-related heat stress in multiple processes of automotive industries and the efficacy of relatively simple controls in reducing prevalence of the risk through longitudinal assessments. We conducted workplace heat stress assessments in automotive and automotive parts manufacturing units according to the protocols recommended by NIOSH, USA. Sites for measurements included indoor locations with process-generated heat exposure, indoor locations without direct process-generated heat exposure and outdoor locations. Nearly 400 measurements of heat stress were made over a four-year period at more than 100 locations within eight units involved with automotive or automotive parts manufacturing in greater Chennai metropolitan area. In addition, cross-sectional measurements were made in select processes of glass manufacturing and textiles to estimate relative prevalence of heat stress. Results indicate that many processes even in organised large-scale industries have yet to control heat stress-related hazards adequately. Upwards of 28% of workers employed in multiple processes were at risk of heat stress-related health impairment in the sectors assessed. Implications of longitudinal baseline data for assessing efficacy of interventions as well as modelling potential future impacts from climate change (through contributions from worker health and productivity impairments consequent to increases in ambient temperature) are described. The study re-emphasises the need for recognising heat stress as an important occupational health risk in both formal

  19. Work-related heat stress concerns in automotive industries: a case study from Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Ayyappan, Ramalingam; Sankar, Sambandam; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Balakrishnan, Kalpana

    2009-01-01

    Background Work-related heat stress assessments, the quantification of thermal loads and their physiological consequences have mostly been performed in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries (many of which are also tropical), limited attempts have been made to create detailed job-exposure profiles for various sectors. We present here a case study from Chennai in southern India that illustrates the prevalence of work-related heat stress in multiple processes of automotive industries and the efficacy of relatively simple controls in reducing prevalence of the risk through longitudinal assessments. Methods We conducted workplace heat stress assessments in automotive and automotive parts manufacturing units according to the protocols recommended by NIOSH, USA. Sites for measurements included indoor locations with process-generated heat exposure, indoor locations without direct process-generated heat exposure and outdoor locations. Nearly 400 measurements of heat stress were made over a four-year period at more than 100 locations within eight units involved with automotive or automotive parts manufacturing in greater Chennai metropolitan area. In addition, cross-sectional measurements were made in select processes of glass manufacturing and textiles to estimate relative prevalence of heat stress. Results Results indicate that many processes even in organised large-scale industries have yet to control heat stress-related hazards adequately. Upwards of 28% of workers employed in multiple processes were at risk of heat stress-related health impairment in the sectors assessed. Implications of longitudinal baseline data for assessing efficacy of interventions as well as modelling potential future impacts from climate change (through contributions from worker health and productivity impairments consequent to increases in ambient temperature) are described. Conclusions The study re-emphasises the need for recognising heat stress as an important

  20. Wireless sensor platform

    DOEpatents

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2017-08-08

    A wireless sensor platform and methods of manufacture are provided. The platform involves providing a plurality of wireless sensors, where each of the sensors is fabricated on flexible substrates using printing techniques and low temperature curing. Each of the sensors can include planar sensor elements and planar antennas defined using the printing and curing. Further, each of the sensors can include a communications system configured to encode the data from the sensors into a spread spectrum code sequence that is transmitted to a central computer(s) for use in monitoring an area associated with the sensors.

  1. 76 FR 30908 - Foreign-Trade Zone 203-Moses Lake, Washington, Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, SGL...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Authority, SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber); Notice of Temporary Approval On January 4...-Trade Zone (FTZ) 203, requesting authority on behalf of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC (SGL) to manufacture carbon fiber under FTZ procedures solely for export within Site 3 of FTZ 203 in Moses...

  2. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Activities performed on Mod I engine testing and test results; the manufacture, assembly, and test of a Mod I engine in the United States; design initiation of the Mod I-A engine system; transient performance testing; Stirling reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies; components and subsystems; and the study and test of low cost alloys are summarized.

  3. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, W.; Piller, S.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Activities performed on Mod I engine testing and test results, progress in manufacturing, assembling and testing of a Mod I engine in the United States, P40 Stirling engine dynamometer and multifuels testing, analog/digital controls system testing, Stirling reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies, components and subsystems, and computer code development are summarized.

  4. Thermal management in pyrometer modules for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liess, Martin; Hausner, Martin; Ernst, Henrik; Karagözoglu, Hermann; Schilz, Jürgen

    2006-04-01

    Thermopile pyrometer modules are the state of the art for contactless temperature measurement in automotive applications. Here sensors have to operate precisely in a challenging thermal environment. While the compensation of the steady state ambient temperature is a well known technique in thermopile radiation temperature sensors, transient thermal effects are still an issue. The change of the ambient temperature as well as temperature flow through the sensor can lead to substantial errors due to unwanted thermal gradients within the device. In the thermopile chip they leads to an error signal since the measurement principle is based on quantifying thermal gradients of the chip that result from the detected IR-radiation. Thermal gradients in the cap and between cap and thermopile chip lead to an exchange of heat radiation between thermopile chip and cap that is erroneously detected and thus also leads to errors. Different methods were developed that separately or in combination allow for a significant improvement of the accuracy and signal stability. The methods are based on the reduction of thermal gradients within the thermopile chip and the entire sensor device (isothermal, high thermal mass cap), reduction of radiation exchange between the sensor chip and the housing (low emissive inner cap surface) and prediction and software compensation of the error signal.

  5. Lean Manufacturing Auto Cluster at Chennai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2012-10-01

    Due the presence of lot of automotive Industry, Chennai is known as Detroit of India, that producing over 40 % of the Indian vehicle and components. Lean manufacturing concepts have been widely recognized as an important tool in improving the competitiveness of industries. This is a continuous process involving everyone, starting from management to the shop floor. Automotive Component Industries (ACIs) in Ambattur Industrial Estate, Chennai has formed special purpose vehicle (SPV) society namely Ambattur Industrial Estate Manufacturers Association (AIEMA) Technology Centre (ATC) lean manufacturing cluster (ATC-LMC) during July 2010 under lean manufacturing competitiveness scheme, that comes under National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme of Government of India. The Tripartite Agreement is taken place between National Productivity Council, consultants and cluster (ATC-LMC). The objective is to conduct diagnostic study, study on training and application of various lean manufacturing techniques and auditing in ten ACIs. The methodology adopted is collection of primary data/details from ten ACIs. In the first phase, diagnostic study is done and the areas for improvement in each of the cluster member companies are identified. In the second phase, training programs and implementation is done on 5S and other areas. In the third phase auditing is done and found that the lean manufacturing techniques implementation in ATC-LMC is sustainable and successful in every cluster companies, which will not only enhance competitiveness but also decrease cost, time and increase productivity. The technical efficiency of LMC companies also increases significantly.

  6. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications. 2009 Update

    SciTech Connect

    James, Brian D.; Kalinoski, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Kevin N.

    2010-01-01

    This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light duty automobiles.

  7. Mass Production Cost Estimation For Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systesm for Automotive Applications. 2010 Update

    SciTech Connect

    James, Brian D.; Kalinoski, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Kevin N.

    2010-09-30

    This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct-hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light-duty automobiles.

  8. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Smith, G.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Meacher, J.

    1986-01-01

    This is the ninth Semiannual Technical Progress Report prepared under the Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program. It covers the twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth quarters of activity after award of the contract. Quarterly Technical Progress Reports related program activities from the first through the thirteenth quarters; thereafter, reporting was changed to a Semiannual format. This report summarizes the study of higher-power kinematic Stirling engines for transportation use, development testing of Mod I Stirling engines, and component development activities. Component development testing included successful conical fuel nozzle testing and functional checkout of Mod II controls and auxiliaries on Mod I engine test beds. Overall program philosophy is outlined and data and test results are presented.

  9. Electrohydraulic Forming of Near-Net Shape Automotive Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Golovaschenko, Sergey F.

    2013-09-26

    The objective of this project was to develop the electrohydraulic forming (EHF) process as a near-net shape automotive panel manufacturing technology that simultaneously reduces the energy embedded in vehicles and the energy consumed while producing automotive structures. Pulsed pressure is created via a shockwave generated by the discharge of high voltage capacitors through a pair of electrodes in a liquid-filled chamber. The shockwave in the liquid initiated by the expansion of the plasma channel formed between two electrodes propagates towards the blank and causes the blank to be deformed into a one-sided die cavity. The numerical model of the EHF process was validated experimentally and was successfully applied to the design of the electrode system and to a multi-electrode EHF chamber for full scale validation of the process. The numerical model was able to predict stresses in the dies during pulsed forming and was validated by the experimental study of the die insert failure mode for corner filling operations. The electrohydraulic forming process and its major subsystems, including durable electrodes, an EHF chamber, a water/air management system, a pulse generator and integrated process controls, were validated to be capable to operate in a fully automated, computer controlled mode for forming of a portion of a full-scale sheet metal component in laboratory conditions. Additionally, the novel processes of electrohydraulic trimming and electrohydraulic calibration were demonstrated at a reduced-scale component level. Furthermore, a hybrid process combining conventional stamping with EHF was demonstrated as a laboratory process for a full-scale automotive panel formed out of AHSS material. The economic feasibility of the developed EHF processes was defined by developing a cost model of the EHF process in comparison to the conventional stamping process.

  10. Forecast of aluminum usage in the automotive market and subsequent impact on the recycling infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Tessieri, M.B.; Ng, G.K.

    1995-12-31

    With the increasing environmental demands and higher fuel efficiency standards on auto manufacturers, the use of aluminum in automotive applications is expected to show significant growth for the balance of this decade. Cast and wrought aluminum usage is reviewed by auto part and alloy family for the year 2000 automobile. The analysis addresses the effect of this increased volume on the recycling infrastructure and identifies issues and opportunities, which will face the recycling industry.

  11. 78 FR 36633 - National Automotive Sampling System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... upgrade the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) by improving the information technology (IT...; Modernize the information technology (IT) infrastructure; Re-examine the electronic formats in which the..., provide information on the new sample design and describe the information ] technology...

  12. Automotive applications for advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of nonaerospace applications for advanced composite materials with special emphasis on the automotive applications. The automotive industry has to satisfy exacting requirements to reduce the average fuel consumption of cars. A feasible approach to accomplish this involves the development of composites cars with a total weight of 2400 pounds and a fuel consumption of 33 miles per gallon. In connection with this possibility, the automotive companies have started to look seriously at composite materials. The aerospace industry has over the past decade accumulated a considerable data base on composite materials and this is being made available to the nonaerospace sector. However, the automotive companies will place prime emphasis on low cost resins which lend themselves to rapid fabrication techniques.

  13. Automotive applications for advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of nonaerospace applications for advanced composite materials with special emphasis on the automotive applications. The automotive industry has to satisfy exacting requirements to reduce the average fuel consumption of cars. A feasible approach to accomplish this involves the development of composites cars with a total weight of 2400 pounds and a fuel consumption of 33 miles per gallon. In connection with this possibility, the automotive companies have started to look seriously at composite materials. The aerospace industry has over the past decade accumulated a considerable data base on composite materials and this is being made available to the nonaerospace sector. However, the automotive companies will place prime emphasis on low cost resins which lend themselves to rapid fabrication techniques.

  14. Sensors, Volume 1, Fundamentals and General Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandke, Thomas; Ko, Wen H.

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume deals with the fundamentals and common principles of sensors and covers the wide areas of principles, technologies, signal processing, and applications. Contents include: Sensor Fundamentals, e.g. Sensor Parameters, Modeling, Design and Packaging; Basic Sensor Technologies, e.g. Thin and Thick Films, Integrated Magnetic Sensors, Optical Fibres and Intergrated Optics, Ceramics and Oxides; Sensor Interfaces, e.g. Signal Processing, Multisensor Signal Processing, Smart Sensors, Interface Systems; Sensor Applications, e.g. Automotive: On-board Sensors, Traffic Surveillance and Control, Home Appliances, Environmental Monitoring, etc. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialits and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  15. Improving Compressed Air Energy Efficiency in Automotive Plants - Practical Examples and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Kissock, Professor Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The automotive industry is the largest industry in the United States in terms of the dollar value of production [1]. U.S. automakers face tremendous pressure from foreign competitors, which have an increasing manufacturing presence in this country. The Big Three North American Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler are reacting to declining sales figures and economic strain by working more efficiently and seeking out opportunities to reduce production costs without negatively affecting the production volume or the quality of the product. Successful, cost-effective investment and implementation of the energy efficiency technologies and practices meet the challenge of maintaining the output of high quality product with reduced production costs. Automotive stamping and assembly plants are typically large users of compressed air with annual compressed air utility bills in the range of $2M per year per plant. This paper focuses on practical methods that the authors have researched, analyzed and implemented to improve compressed air system efficiency in automobile manufacturing facilities. It describes typical compressed air systems in automotive stamping and assembly plants, and compares these systems to best practices. The paper then presents a series of examples, organized using the method of inside-out approach, which strategically identifies the energy savings in the compressed air system by first minimizing end-use demand, then minimizing distribution losses, and finally making improvements to primary energy conversion equipment, the air compressor plant.

  16. Image Sensors Enhance Camera Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, a Jet Propulsion Laboratory team led by Eric Fossum researched ways of improving complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors in order to miniaturize cameras on spacecraft while maintaining scientific image quality. Fossum s team founded a company to commercialize the resulting CMOS active pixel sensor. Now called the Aptina Imaging Corporation, based in San Jose, California, the company has shipped over 1 billion sensors for use in applications such as digital cameras, camera phones, Web cameras, and automotive cameras. Today, one of every three cell phone cameras on the planet feature Aptina s sensor technology.

  17. Concepts for particle foam based ultralight automotive interior parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trassl, C.; Altstädt, V.; Schreier, P.

    2014-05-01

    The described concepts for modern automotive interior parts are based on polypropylene (PP). These interior parts have a core of expanded polypropylene particle foam (EPP) and a decorative layer of a thermoplastic polyolefin elastomer (TPO) film. Compared with conventional solutions in the field of automotive interior parts, they are characterised mainly due to the avoidance of material mixtures so that they have better recycling properties and are significantly lighter in spite of comparable crash behaviour. Because of the optimized combination of positive component properties (specifically, the rigidity of the carrier, lower density combined with the better crash behaviour of the EPP foam core and good haptic and optical properties of the film), the multi-material system compensates the disadvantages of the individual components. In addition, the integration of all process steps into a new single-step manufacturing process combined with the elimination of an additional surface treatment means that the new ultra-light concept should lead to a significant reduction in the costs and cycle time.

  18. Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications.

    PubMed

    Kuş, Abdil

    2009-01-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters.

  19. The Formability of Friction Stir Welds in Automotive Stamping Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Glenn J.; Davies, Richard W.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; wazny, scott; Kaunitz, Leon; Waldron, D.

    2005-04-01

    Automobile body and truck cab structures are composed primarily of stampings formed from monolithic and constant gage blanks. Cost and weight penalties can arrise when strength or other requirements in one small area of the part leads to the use of a material or gage that is overmatched to the needs of the rest of the stamping. Tailor Welded Blanks (TWBs) are hybrid sheet products composed of either different materials or different thickness sheets that are joined together, then subjected to a stamping operation to create a formed assembly. The strategy is employed generally to save weight and material costs in the formed assembly by placing higher strength or thicker sections only where needed. The forming or stamping process requires the joint to be severely deformed along with the parent sheets. Aluminum TWBs for automotive applications are particularly problematic because of the low formability of aluminum weld metal. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a process recently applied to Aluminum TWBs that has the potential to produce a higher quality weld. The current study presents data on the mechanical properties, formability, and FSW weld process parameter development for friction stir woined, aluminum, Tailor Welded Blanks. Friction stir welded TWBs can be shown to have higher formability, higher ductility, and lower defect content than many competing joining processes, and they can be fabricated at speeds appropriate for automotive manufacturing.

  20. The Formability of Friction Stir Welds in Automotive Stamping Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Glenn J.; Davies, Richard W.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Wazny, Scott; Kaunitz, Leon; Waldron, Douglas J.

    2006-02-01

    Automobile body and truck cab structures are composed primarily of stampings formed from monolithic and constant gage blanks. Cost and weight penalties can arise when strength or other requirements in one small area of the part leads to the use of a material or gage that is overmatched to the needs of the rest of the stamping. Tailor Welded Blanks (TWBs) are hybrid sheet products composed of either different materials or different thickness sheets that are joined together, then subjected to a stamping operation to create a formed assembly. The strategy is employed generally to save weight and material costs in the formed assembly by placing higher strength or thicker sections only where needed. The forming or stamping process requires the joint to be severely deformed along with the parent sheets. Aluminum TWBs for automotive applications are particularly problematic because of the low formability of aluminum weld metal. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a process recently applied to Aluminum TWBs that has the potential to produce a higher quality weld. The current study presents data on the mechanical properties, formability, and FSW weld process parameter development for friction stir welded aluminum, Tailor Welded Blanks. Friction stir welded TWBs can be shown to have higher formability, higher ductility, and lower defect content than many competing joining processes, and they can be fabricated at speeds appropriate for automotive manufacturing.

  1. Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kuş, Abdil

    2009-01-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters. PMID:22573995

  2. Sensors, Volume 8, Micro- and Nanosensor Technology - Trends in Sensor Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert; Meixner, Hans

    1996-12-01

    Sensors is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This final volume of the series uncovers trends in sensor technology and gives a comprehensive overview of the sensor market. The use of sensors in microsystems and in vacuum microelectronic as well as in acoustic wave devices is discussed. Present and emerging applications of sensors in aerospace, environmental, automotive, and medical industries, among others, are described. This volume is an indispensable reference work for both specialists and newcomers, researchers and developers

  3. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  4. Impact detection for smart automotive damage mitigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peelamedu, Saravanan M.; Ciocanel, Constantin; Naganathan, Nagi G.

    2004-10-01

    Occupant safety and severity of vehicle damage are important factors in automotive vehicle design. Smart automobiles of the future could potentially use distributed smart material sensors and actuators in order to identify impact and take appropriate evasive or mitigative actions. This provides the motivation for this study. The first part of this study is focused on detecting the location and magnitude of impact, particularly for the case where the automotive structure is subjected to minimal damage. This is accomplished by developing a generalized algorithm using the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory, the Rayleigh-Ritz energy approach, and the Lagrangian-Hamilton principle. The level of performance of this methodology is demonstrated for impacts on a simply supported rectangular plate. Different case studies for static as well as impact loading with point as well as area contacts are presented. An algorithm using deconvolution for identifying impact location and magnitude has been developed and implemented. Additionally, the influence of damage on the structural vibratory content is studied via a frequency analysis. Modal analyses for undamaged and damaged plates, with nine different damage locations and six different damage sizes, are performed. Changes in frequency and mode shapes are observed as regards the severity of the damage.

  5. Impact detection for smart automotive damage mitigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peelamedu, Saravanan M.; Naganathan, Ganapathy

    2000-06-01

    Occupant safety and severity of vehicle damage are important factors in automotive vehicle design. Smart automobiles of the future could potentially use distributed smart material sensors and actuators in order to identify impact and take appropriate evasive or mitigative actions. This provides the motivation for this study. The first part of this study is focused on detecting the location and magnitude of impact, particularly for the case where the automotive structure is subjected to minimal damage. This is accomplished by developing a generalized algorithm using the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory, the Rayleigh-Ritz energy approach, and the Lagrangian-Hamilton principle. The level of performance of this methodology is demonstrated for impacts on a simply supported rectangular plate. Different case studies for static as well as impact loading with point as well as area contacts are presented. An algorithm using deconvolution for identifying impact location and magnitude has been developed and implemented. Additionally, the influence of damage on the structural vibratory content is studied via a frequency analysis. The modal analysis for undamaged and damaged plates, with nine different damage locations and six different damage sizes are performed. Changes in frequency and mode shapes are observed in regard to the severity of the damage.

  6. An Organizational Knowledge Ontology for Automotive Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellingrath, Bernd; Witthaut, Markus; Böhle, Carsten; Brügger, Stephan

    The currently completed ILIPT (Intelligent Logistics for Innovative Product Technologies) project was concerned with the concept of the “5 day car” (a customized car that is delivered within five days after its ordering) and encompassed extensive research on the required production and logistics network structures and processes. As car manufacturers in the automotive industry (commonly referred to as OEMs) rely heavily on their suppliers, the major challenge lies in the organization of inter-enterprise cooperation supported by information systems (IS) in an efficient manner. A common understanding of supply chain concepts is indispensable for this. Ontologies as formal representations of concepts can be used as a semantic basis for cooperation. Relevant results from ILIPT are presented followed by a concept as well as a prototype of how to transfer the theoretical findings to a practical implementation, in this case a multi-agent system.

  7. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium... Assistance on March 18, 2010, applicable to workers of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson... have occurred involving workers in support of the Anderson, South Carolina location of Plastic Omnium...

  8. Secondary-Postsecondary Curriculum Development in Automotive Mechanics. Automotive Electrical Competencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepner, Ronald

    Developed as part of a competency-based curriculum in automotive mechanics which is usable by students at both the secondary and postsecondary levels, this learning package focuses on automotive electrical systems. It is the first unit to be published in a series of eight which will cover the eight subject areas on the national certification…

  9. Automotive Electrical and Electronic Systems I; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive electrical and electronic system I course is designed as one of a group of quinmester courses offered in the field of automotive mechanics. General information will be given along with technical knowledge, basic skills, attitudes and values that are required for job entry level. The nine week (135 clock hour) course overcomes some…

  10. Automotive Refinishing II; Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 2: 9035.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Part of the Dade County Public School (Florida)Quinmester Program, the automotive refinishing course outline is a continuation of automotive refinishing 1 and emphasizes the practical application of color coating and sheet metal refinishing. Overall refinishing with enamels, lacquers, and acrylics are included as well as spot repair painting and…

  11. Automotive Electrical and Electronic System II; Automotive Mechanics-Intermediate: 9045.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive electrical and electronic system course is an intermediate course designed for the student who has completed automotive Electrical and Electronic System I. The theory and principles of operation of the components of the starting and charging systems and other electrical accessory systems in the automobile will be learned by the…

  12. Automotive History and Development of the Automobile; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive history and development of the automobile course is designed to familiarize the beginning student with basic concepts common to the automobile history and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. A course outline is provided and seven pages of post-tests are included in the…

  13. Secondary-Postsecondary Curriculum Development in Automotive Mechanics. Automotive Electrical Competencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepner, Ronald

    Developed as part of a competency-based curriculum in automotive mechanics which is usable by students at both the secondary and postsecondary levels, this learning package focuses on automotive electrical systems. It is the first unit to be published in a series of eight which will cover the eight subject areas on the national certification…

  14. The Relationship between Organizational Commitment and Organizational Climate in Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Adela J.; Scott, D. R.; Pace, R. Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational climate. Subjects were chosen from three large Australian automotive component manufacturing companies. A questionnaire was administered to 1,413 employees from forty-two countries of origin. A 97.8 percent response rate yielded 1,382…

  15. The Relationship between Organizational Commitment and Organizational Climate in Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Adela J.; Scott, D. R.; Pace, R. Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational climate. Subjects were chosen from three large Australian automotive component manufacturing companies. A questionnaire was administered to 1,413 employees from forty-two countries of origin. A 97.8 percent response rate yielded 1,382…

  16. Automotive Radar and Lidar Systems for Next Generation Driver Assistance Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasshofer, R. H.; Gresser, K.

    2005-05-01

    Automotive radar and lidar sensors represent key components for next generation driver assistance functions (Jones, 2001). Today, their use is limited to comfort applications in premium segment vehicles although an evolution process towards more safety-oriented functions is taking place. Radar sensors available on the market today suffer from low angular resolution and poor target detection in medium ranges (30 to 60m) over azimuth angles larger than ±30°. In contrast, Lidar sensors show large sensitivity towards environmental influences (e.g. snow, fog, dirt). Both sensor technologies today have a rather high cost level, forbidding their wide-spread usage on mass markets. A common approach to overcome individual sensor drawbacks is the employment of data fusion techniques (Bar-Shalom, 2001). Raw data fusion requires a common, standardized data interface to easily integrate a variety of asynchronous sensor data into a fusion network. Moreover, next generation sensors should be able to dynamically adopt to new situations and should have the ability to work in cooperative sensor environments. As vehicular function development today is being shifted more and more towards virtual prototyping, mathematical sensor models should be available. These models should take into account the sensor's functional principle as well as all typical measurement errors generated by the sensor.

  17. Advanced automotive diesel assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekar, R.; Tozzi, L.

    1983-01-01

    Cummins Engine Company completed an analytical study to identify an advanced automotive (light duty) diesel (AAD) power plant for a 3,000-pound passenger car. The study resulted in the definition of a revolutionary diesel engine with several novel features. A 3,000-pound car with this engine is predicted to give 96.3, 72.2, and 78.8 MPG in highway, city, and combined highway-city driving, respectively. This compares with current diesel powered cars yielding 41.7, 35.0, and 37.7 MPG. The time for 0-60 MPH acceleration is 13.9 sec. compared to the baseline of 15.2 sec. Four technology areas were identified as crucial in bringing this concept to fruition. They are: (1) part-load preheating, (2) positive displacement compounding, (3) spark assisted diesel combustion system, and (4) piston development for adiabatic, oilless diesel engine. Marketing and planning studies indicate that an aggressive program with significant commitment could result in a production car in 10 years from the date of commencement.

  18. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The third quarter (April-June, 1978) effort of the Ford/DOE Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program is reported, specifically Task 1 of that effort, which is Fuel Economy Assessment. At the end of this quarter the total fourth generation fuel economy projection was 26.12 MPG (gasoline) with a confidence level of 44%. This represents an improvement of 66.4% over the baseline M-H fuel economy of 15.7 MPG. The confidence level for the original 20.6 MPG goal has been increased from 53% to 57%. Engine 3X17 has accumulated a total of 213 hours of variable speed running. A summary of the individual sub-tasks of Task 1 are given. The sub-tasks are grouped into two categories: Category 1 consists of those sub-tasks which are directly related to fuel economy and Category 2 consists of those sub-tasks which are not directly related to fuel economy but are an integral part of the Task 1 effort.

  19. User discrimination in automotive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

  20. Environmental Strategies for Sustainable Manufacturing Process of Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireitseu, Maxim

    2017-09-01

    This research is focused on the strategic road mapping of composite manufacturing process and aims to understand the sustainability and related costs of composite part manufacturing. A manufacturing route of a serial automotive component is mapped and modelled using the following steps: (1) a holistic, cradle to grave product model for both manuflacturing and assembly operations, (2) development of life-cycle model and analytical tools, and (3) direct data collection and measure of environmental impacts of manufacturing. Besides the theoretical outcomes recommendations are given considering further recycling and recovery of materials so as to provide further direction for sustainability research in carbon and glass fibre composites.

  1. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) 2015 Research Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, Michael; Mone, Christopher; Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Das, Sujit; Mann, Margaret; Gossett, Scott

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber. This booklet summarizes key findings of CEMAC work to date, describes CEMAC's research methodology, and describes work to come.

  2. Advanced gas turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Progress in the development of a gas turbine engine to improve fuel economy, reduce gaseous emissions and particulate levels, and compatible with a variety of alternate fuels is reported. The powertrain is designated AGT101 and consists of a regenerated single shaft gas turbine engine, a split differential gearbox and a Ford Automatic Overdrive production transmission. The powertrain is controlled by an electronic digital microprocessor and associated actuators, instrumentation, and sensors. Standard automotive accessories are driven by engine power provided by an accessory pad on the gearbox. Component/subsystem development progress is reported in the following areas: compressor, turbine, combustion system, regenerator, gearbox/transmission, structures, ceramic components, foil gas bearing, bearings and seals, rotor dynamics, and controls and accessories.

  3. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the development of a gas turbine engine to improve fuel economy, reduce gaseous emissions and particulate levels, and compatible with a variety of alternate fuels is reported. The powertrain is designated AGT101 and consists of a regenerated single shaft gas turbine engine, a split differential gearbox and a Ford Automatic Overdrive production transmission. The powertrain is controlled by an electronic digital microprocessor and associated actuators, instrumentation, and sensors. Standard automotive accessories are driven by engine power provided by an accessory pad on the gearbox. Component/subsystem development progress is reported in the following areas: compressor, turbine, combustion system, regenerator, gearbox/transmission, structures, ceramic components, foil gas bearing, bearings and seals, rotor dynamics, and controls and accessories.

  4. Monitoring automotive oil degradation: analytical tools and onboard sensing technologies.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L

    2012-09-01

    Engine oil experiences a number of thermal and oxidative phases that yield acidic products in the matrix consequently leading to degradation of the base oil. Generally, oil oxidation is a complex process and difficult to elucidate; however, the degradation pathways can be defined for almost every type of oil because they mainly depend on the mechanical status and operating conditions. The exact time of oil change is nonetheless difficult to predict, but it is of great interest from an economic and ecological point of view. In order to make a quick and accurate decision about oil changes, onboard assessment of oil quality is highly desirable. For this purpose, a variety of physical and chemical sensors have been proposed along with spectroscopic strategies. We present a critical review of all these approaches and of recent developments to analyze the exact lifetime of automotive engine oil. Apart from their potential for degradation monitoring, their limitations and future perspectives have also been investigated.

  5. Management status of end-of-life vehicles and development strategies of used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjun; Chen, Ming

    2012-11-01

    Recycling companies play a leading role in the system of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in China. Automotive manufacturers in China are rarely involved in recycling ELVs, and they seldom provide dismantling information for recycling companies. In addition, no professional shredding plant is available. The used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China has yet to take shape because of the lack of supporting technology and profitable models. Given the rapid growth of the vehicle population and electronic control units in automotives in China, the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry requires immediate development. This paper analyses the current recycling system of ELVs in China and introduces the automotive product recycling technology roadmap as well as the recycling industry development goals. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of the current used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China are analysed comprehensively based on the 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' (SWOT) method. The results of the analysis indicate that this recycling industry responds well to all the factors and has good opportunities for development. Based on the analysis, new development strategies for the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in accordance with the actual conditions of China are presented.

  6. 26 CFR 48.4063-1 - Tax-free sales of bodies to chassis manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax-free sales of bodies to chassis..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4063-1 Tax-free sales of bodies to... not apply to bodies sold by the manufacturer thereof to a manufacturer (but not an importer) of...

  7. 26 CFR 48.4063-1 - Tax-free sales of bodies to chassis manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax-free sales of bodies to chassis..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4063-1 Tax-free sales of bodies to... not apply to bodies sold by the manufacturer thereof to a manufacturer (but not an importer) of...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4063-1 - Tax-free sales of bodies to chassis manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax-free sales of bodies to chassis..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4063-1 Tax-free sales of bodies to... not apply to bodies sold by the manufacturer thereof to a manufacturer (but not an importer) of...

  9. 26 CFR 48.4063-1 - Tax-free sales of bodies to chassis manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax-free sales of bodies to chassis..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4063-1 Tax-free sales of bodies to... not apply to bodies sold by the manufacturer thereof to a manufacturer (but not an importer) of...

  10. 75 FR 47631 - Douglas Battery Manufacturing Co., Currently Known as Lexington Road Properties, Inc., Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Douglas Battery Manufacturing Co., Currently Known as Lexington Road... January 6, 2010, applicable to workers of Douglas Battery Manufacturing Co., including on-site leased... engaged in the production of automotive and industrial batteries. New information shows that in...

  11. The End of Car Manufacturing in Australia: What Is the Role of Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanwick, John; Circelli, Michelle; Lu, Tham

    2015-01-01

    The loss of jobs in the automotive manufacturing industry, together with a more general decline of the manufacturing industry in Australia, has implications for the types of skills needed in the labour market. Both of these scenarios affect particular groups of people, such as displaced car workers, but within that category other groups such as…

  12. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  13. Platinum availability for future automotive technologies.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Elisa; Field, Frank R; Kirchain, Randolph E

    2012-12-04

    Platinum is an excellent catalyst, can be used at high temperatures, and is stable in many aggressive chemical environments. Consequently, platinum is used in many current industrial applications, notably automotive catalytic converters, and prospective vehicle fuel cells are expected to rely upon it. Between 2005 and 2010, the automotive industry used approximately 40% of mined platinum. Future automotive industry growth and automotive sales shifts toward new technologies could significantly alter platinum demand. The potential risks for decreased platinum availability are evaluated, using an analysis of platinum market characteristics that describes platinum's geophysical constraints, institutional efficiency, and dynamic responsiveness. Results show that platinum demand for an automotive fleet that meets 450 ppm greenhouse gas stabilization goals would require within 10% of historical growth rates of platinum supply before 2025. However, such a fleet, due largely to sales growth in fuel cell vehicles, will more strongly constrain platinum supply in the 2050 time period. While current platinum reserves are sufficient to satisfy this increased demand, decreasing platinum ore grade and continued concentration of platinum supply in a single geographic area are availability risk factors to platinum end-users.

  14. Thin-film thermomechanical sensors embedded in metallic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golnas, Anastasios M.

    2000-10-01

    The ability to monitor in real time the thermo-mechanical responses of tools, equipment, and structural components has been very appealing to the aerospace, automotive, drilling, and manufacturing industries. So far, the challenge has been to instrument the tools, equipment, or structural components with a number of sensors in an economical way and also protect the sensors from the environment which the tools, etc. are exposed to. In this work, a sequence of manufacturing processes that can be used to build thin-film temperature and strain sensors on internal surfaces of metallic structures is proposed and demonstrated. The use of thin-film techniques allows the parallel fabrication of sensor arrays, whereas a layered manufacturing scheme permits the creation of sensors on the internal surfaces of metallic parts and their subsequent embedding. Thin-film sensors are deposited on an aluminum oxide film, which is grown on a stainless steel substrate. The oxide is deposited by reactive sputtering. The sensors are sputter-deposited from alloy targets, shaped via micromachining and partially covered with a passivation layer of aluminum oxide. The thin-film structure is then covered by two protective electroplated layers of copper and nickel for protection during the deposition of the embedding layers. Embedding is accomplished by using a high-power infrared laser to melt an invar powder bed on top of the protective layers. Among the issues that emerged during the definition of the fabrication sequence were: the long-term stability of reactive deposition, the presence of pinholes in the dielectric layers, the optimal combination of materials and thickness of the protective layers, the bonding at the various interfaces, and the heat input and residual stresses resulting from the high-temperature embedding process. Finally, a finite element model was constructed in order to simulate the high-temperature embedding process. The heat transfer analysis performed on the model

  15. Integration of smart materials into high-volume manufacturing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Emanuele

    2006-03-01

    The integration of smart materials such as piezoelectric devices and shape memory alloys into structures has been typically limited to a bonding process that occurs as a secondary operation. Such an operation is not only costly for high volume applications but also has the potential of degrading the performance of the actuator or sensor due to the bonding agent selected. The work presented here explores the integration of piezoelectric materials using a high volume injection molding process. The process used is typical for large automotive components such as bumpers, instrument panels and other body panels. Different materials were evaluated, including plastics and both bare and packaged smart materials. Temperature and flow rate were also changed to investigate the effects on the durability of the materials. Both electrical and mechanical properties were tested with the key parameters including, void content, shifting from initial position, strain transfer and peal strength. It was found that good integration of piezoelectric materials could be achieved and electro-mechanical properties were improved as compared to a secondary bonding operation. Integration of screen-printed electrical circuits for electrical connectivity for piezoelectric materials will be evaluated in future research. In conclusion, a step forward was made in developing a multifunctional material based upon smart materials and conventional high volume manufacturing processes.

  16. Development of a MEMS-rate sensor with PZT actuation and sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royle, Christopher M.; Fox, Colin H.

    2002-07-01

    This paper relates to the development of a novel rate sensor for a wide range of potential applications in the automotive field, amongst others. The sensor is based on the dynamic behavior of an active, vibrating silicon structure that uses thin-film piezoelectric material for actuation and sensing functions, and can be manufactured using silicon micro-machining techniques. The use of piezo-electric material for drive and pickoff offers potentially significant advantages over electrostatic/capacitive means in terms of achievable actuation forces and simplicity of structural design. This paper gives an overview of the design and analysis of a prototype sensor. The design concept is described and a low-order mathematical model, incorporating the inertial behavior of the structure and the interaction between the silicon structure and the piezo-drives and pickoffs is presented. This model allows the basic sensitivity of the sensor to be quantified. The design of a prototype sensor is then described. Some preliminary test results are presented, illustrating the feasibility of the concept.

  17. Studies in process modeling, design, monitoring, and control, with applications to polymer composites manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasagupta, Deepak

    2002-01-01

    High material and manufacturing costs have hindered the introduction of advanced polymer composite materials into mainstream civilian applications such as automotive. Even though high-fidelity models for several polymer composite manufacturing processes have become available over the past several years and offer significant benefits in manufacturing cost reduction, concerns about their inflexibility and maintenance has adversely affected their widespread usage. This research seeks to advance process modeling and design in polymer composites manufacturing to address these concerns. Other more general issues in measurement validation and distributed control are also addressed. Using a rigorous 3-D model of the injected pultrusion (IP) process validated recently, an algorithm was developed for process and equipment design with integrated economic, operability and environmental considerations. The optimum design promised enhanced throughput as well as reduction in the time and expenses of the current purely experimental approaches. Scale-up issues in IP were analyzed, and refinements to overcome some drawbacks in the model were suggested. The process model was then extended to simulate the co-injection resin transfer molding (CIRTM) process used for manufacture of foam-core sandwich composites. A 1-D isothermal model for real-time control was also developed. Process optimization using these models and experimental parametric studies increased the debond fracture toughness of sandwiches by 78% over current technology. To ensure the availability of validated measurements from process instrumentation, a novel in-situ sensor modeling approach to sensor validation was proposed. Both active and passive, time and frequency domain techniques were developed, and experimentally verified using temperature and flow sensors. A model-based dynamic estimator to predict the true measurement online was also validated. The effect of network communication delay on stability and control

  18. View of automotive repair and gas station, facing southwest from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of automotive repair and gas station, facing southwest from across Pope Street. Garage built for storage of employee automobiles in left background - Automotive Repair & Gas Station, Southwest corner of Pope Street & Olympic Avenue, Port Gamble, Kitsap County, WA

  19. Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehousefield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehouse-field Equipment Repair Shop Building's wall to the right, looking from the south - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  20. View of south elevation of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south elevation of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with the Warehouse Fabrication Shop and Stack in the background, looking from the southwest - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  1. Millimeter-wave silicon-based ultra-wideband automotive radar transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vipul

    Since the invention of the integrated circuit, the semiconductor industry has revolutionized the world in ways no one had ever anticipated. With the advent of silicon technologies, consumer electronics became light-weight and affordable and paved the way for an Information-Communication-Entertainment age. While silicon almost completely replaced compound semiconductors from these markets, it has been unable to compete in areas with more stringent requirements due to technology limitations. One of these areas is automotive radar sensors, which will enable next-generation collision-warning systems in automobiles. A low-cost implementation is absolutely essential for widespread use of these systems, which leads us to the subject of this dissertation---silicon-based solutions for automotive radars. This dissertation presents architectures and design techniques for mm-wave automotive radar transceivers. Several fully-integrated transceivers and receivers operating at 22-29 GHz and 77-81 GHz are demonstrated in both CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS technologies. Excellent performance is achieved indicating the suitability of silicon technologies for automotive radar sensors. The first CMOS 22-29-GHz pulse-radar receiver front-end for ultra-wideband radars is presented. The chip includes a low noise amplifier, I/Q mixers, quadrature voltage-controlled oscillators, pulse formers and variable-gain amplifiers. Fabricated in 0.18-mum CMOS, the receiver achieves a conversion gain of 35-38.1 dB and a noise figure of 5.5-7.4 dB. Integration of multi-mode multi-band transceivers on a single chip will enable next-generation low-cost automotive radar sensors. Two highly-integrated silicon ICs are designed in a 0.18-mum BiCMOS technology. These designs are also the first reported demonstrations of mm-wave circuits with high-speed digital circuits on the same chip. The first mm-wave dual-band frequency synthesizer and transceiver, operating in the 24-GHz and 77-GHz bands, are demonstrated. All

  2. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Rohdenburg, C.; Vatsky, A.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Activities performed on Mod I engine testing and test results, testing of the Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analyses, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, upgraded Mod I performance and testing, Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studied, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low cost casting alloys are summarized. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

  3. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Mod I engine testing and test results, the test of a Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analysis, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, Mod I-A engine performance are discussed. Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low-cost casting alloys are also covered. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

  4. Manufacturing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  5. Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, James L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in manufacturing technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to manufacturing, materials processing, personnel management, production management,…

  6. Can Distance Learning Be Used to Teach Automotive Management Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noto, Teresa L.

    2011-01-01

    Today's automotive college students will shape the future of the automobile industry. The success of college-level automotive programs has long been dependent on the students' ability to participate in hands-on classroom based interactions. In this article, distance learning and how it can be used to teach automotive management skills, as well as…

  7. Engine Performance Specialist. Instructor's Manual. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide is one of a series automotive service specialty publications that continues students' training in the automotive service trade by providing instruction in the engine performance specialty. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. Each of the 16 units includes some or all of the basic…

  8. Can Distance Learning Be Used to Teach Automotive Management Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noto, Teresa L.

    2011-01-01

    Today's automotive college students will shape the future of the automobile industry. The success of college-level automotive programs has long been dependent on the students' ability to participate in hands-on classroom based interactions. In this article, distance learning and how it can be used to teach automotive management skills, as well as…

  9. Engine Performance Specialist. Instructor's Manual. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide is one of a series automotive service specialty publications that continues students' training in the automotive service trade by providing instruction in the engine performance specialty. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. Each of the 16 units includes some or all of the basic…

  10. 7 CFR 3201.101 - Automotive care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automotive care products. 3201.101 Section 3201.101... Designated Items § 3201.101 Automotive care products. (a) Definition. Products such as waxes, buffing..., and fragrances that are formulated for cleaning and protecting automotive surfaces. (b)...

  11. Best Practices in School-to-Careers: The Automotive Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Employer Leadership Council, Washington, DC.

    This document highlights the school-to-careers (STC) partnerships connecting workplace experiences to classroom learning to prepare students for successful employment in the automotive industry. First, the current state of the automotive industry is reviewed and the role of STC in addressing automotive service needs is explained. Next, the…

  12. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  13. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  14. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  15. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  16. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  17. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands.

  18. Status and Trend of Automotive Power Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Zhenxian

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive requirements in aspects of cost, reliability, efficiency, form factor, weight, and volume for power electronics modules in modern electric drive vehicles have driven the development of automotive power packaging technology intensively. Innovation in materials, interconnections, and processing techniques is leading to enormous improvements in power modules. In this paper, the technical development of and trends in power module packaging are evaluated by examining technical details with examples of industrial products. The issues and development directions for future automotive power module packaging are also discussed.

  19. Fatigue life of automotive rubber jounce bumper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, R. S.; Ali, Aidy

    2010-05-01

    It is evident that most rubber components in the automotive industry are subjected to repetitive loading. Vigorous research is needed towards improving the safety and reliability of the components. The study was done on an automotive rubber jounce bumper with a rubber hardness of 60 IRHD. The test was conducted in displacement-controlled environment under compressive load. The existing models by Kim, Harbour, Woo and Li were adopted to predict the fatigue life. The experimental results show strong similarities with the predicted models.

  20. Mod I automotive Stirling engine mechanical development

    SciTech Connect

    Simetkosky, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Mod I Stirling engine was the first automotive Stirling engine designed specifically for automotive application. Testing of these engines has revealed several deficiencies in engine mechanical integrity which have been corrected by redesign or upgrade. The main deficiencies uncovered during the Mod I program lie in the combustion, auxiliary, main seal, and heater head areas. This paper will address each of the major area deficiencies in detail, and describe the corrective actions taken as they apply to the Mod I and the next Stirling-engine design, the Upgraded Mod I (a redesign to incorporate new materials for cost/weight reduction and improved performance).

  1. Low-cost thermo-electric infrared FPAs and their automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Masaki; Ohta, Yoshimi; Fukuyama, Yasuhiro

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes three low-cost infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) having a 1,536, 2,304, and 10,800 elements and experimental vehicle systems. They have a low-cost potential because each element consists of p-n polysilicon thermocouples, which allows the use of low-cost ultra-fine microfabrication technology commonly employed in the conventional semiconductor manufacturing processes. To increase the responsivity of FPA, we have developed a precisely patterned Au-black absorber that has high infrared absorptivity of more than 90%. The FPA having a 2,304 elements achieved high resposivity of 4,300 V/W. In order to reduce package cost, we developed a vacuum-sealed package integrated with a molded ZnS lens. The camera aiming the temperature measurement of a passenger cabin is compact and light weight devices that measures 45 x 45 x 30 mm and weighs 190 g. The camera achieves a noise equivalent temperature deviation (NETD) of less than 0.7°C from 0 to 40°C. In this paper, we also present a several experimental systems that use infrared cameras. One experimental system is a blind spot pedestrian warning system that employs four infrared cameras. It can detect the infrared radiation emitted from a human body and alerts the driver when a pedestrian is in a blind spot. The system can also prevent the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian. Another system uses a visible-light camera and infrared sensors to detect the presence of a pedestrian in a rear blind spot and alerts the driver. The third system is a new type of human-machine interface system that enables the driver to control the car's audio system without letting go of the steering wheel. Uncooled infrared cameras are still costly, which limits their automotive use to high-end luxury cars at present. To promote widespread use of IR imaging sensors on vehicles, we need to reduce their cost further.

  2. MEMS device for mass market gas and chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkade, Brian R.; Daly, James T.; Johnson, Edward A.

    2000-08-01

    Gas and chemical sensors are used in many applications. Industrial health and safety monitors allow companies to meet OSHA requirements by detecting harmful levels of toxic or combustible gases. Vehicle emissions are tested during annual inspections. Blood alcohol breathalizers are used by law enforcement. Refrigerant leak detection ensures that the Earth's ozone layer is not being compromised. Industrial combustion emissions are also monitored to minimize pollution. Heating and ventilation systems watch for high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) to trigger an increase in fresh air exchange. Carbon monoxide detectors are used in homes to prevent poisoning from poor combustion ventilation. Anesthesia gases are monitored during a patients operation. The current economic reality is that two groups of gas sensor technologies are competing in two distinct existing market segments - affordable (less reliable) chemical reaction sensors for consumer markets and reliable (expensive) infrared (IR) spectroscopic sensors for industrial, laboratory, and medical instrumentation markets. Presently high volume mass-market applications are limited to CO detectros and on-board automotive emissions sensors. Due to reliability problems with electrochemical sensor-based CO detectors there is a hesitancy to apply these sensors in other high volume applications. Applications such as: natural gas leak detection, non-invasive blood glucose monitoring, home indoor air quality, personal/portable air quality monitors, home fire/burnt cooking detector, and home food spoilage detectors need a sensor that is a small, efficient, accurate, sensitive, reliable, and inexpensive. Connecting an array of these next generation gas sensors to wireless networks that are starting to proliferate today creates many other applications. Asthmatics could preview the air quality of their destinations as they venture out into the day. HVAC systems could determine if fresh air intake was actually better than the air

  3. 79 GHz UWB automotive short range radar - Spectrum allocation and technology trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloecher, H.-L.; Sailer, A.; Rollmann, G.; Dickmann, J.

    2009-05-01

    Automotive UWB (Ultra-Wideband) short range radar (SSR) is on the market as a key technology for novel comfort and safety systems. SiGe based 79 GHz UWB SRR will be a definite candidate for the long term substitution of the 24 GHz UWB SRR. This paper will give an overview of the finished BMBF joint project KOKON and the recently started successing project RoCC, which concentrate on the development of this technology and sensor demonstrators. In both projects, the responsibilities of Daimler AG deal with application based sensor specification, test and evaluation of realized sensor demonstrators. Recent UWB SRR frequency regulation approaches and activitites will be introduced. Furthermore, some first results of Daimler activities within RoCC will be presented, dealing with the packaging and operation of these sensors within the complex car environment.

  4. Using Failure Mode and Effects Analysis to design a comfortable automotive driver seat.

    PubMed

    Kolich, Mike

    2014-07-01

    Given enough time and use, all designs will fail. There are no fail-free designs. This is especially true when it comes to automotive seating comfort where the characteristics and preferences of individual customers are many and varied. To address this problem, individuals charged with automotive seating comfort development have, traditionally, relied on iterative and, as a result, expensive build-test cycles. Cost pressures being placed on today's vehicle manufacturers have necessitated the search for more efficient alternatives. This contribution aims to fill this need by proposing the application of an analytical technique common to engineering circles (but new to seating comfort development), namely Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA). An example is offered to describe how development teams can use this systematic and disciplined approach to highlight potential seating comfort failure modes, reduce their risk, and bring capable designs to life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Automotive Lightweight Materials: the Roles of Nde in Bringing New Materials Into Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasch, Cameron J.

    2008-02-01

    The automotive industry is in the midst of a time of tremendous change. There is an almost perfect storm of changing governmental and market requirements seeking much higher fuel economy, low or no carbon dioxide emissions, and much higher crash and safety performance. Moreover, this occurs in a globe-spanning market that has more low-cost manufacturers than ever before. This confluence of factors leads to new vehicles with many new types of powertrains having unprecedented power densities and highly-engineered body structures with many new materials and joining methods. These are being turned out with shorter lead times, higher quality requirements, and continuous cost pressures. This talk will review the role in NDE in bringing new materials and processes to market, some of the applications in production, and to highlight some of the current NDE needs driven by these forces on the automotive industry.

  6. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

  7. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Ernst, W.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Meacher, J.

    1985-01-01

    Development test activities on Mod I engines directed toward evaluating technologies for potential inclusion in the Mod II engine are summarized. Activities covered include: test of a 12-tube combustion gas recirculation combustor; manufacture and flow-distribution test of a two-manifold annular heater head; piston rod/piston base joint; single-solid piston rings; and a digital air/fuel concept. Also summarized are results of a formal assessment of candidate technologies for the Mod II engine, and preliminary design work for the Mod II. The overall program philosophy weight is outlined, and data and test results are presented.

  8. An investigation of low ergonomics risk awareness, among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Fazilah Abdul; Razali, Noraini; Najmiyah Jaafar, Nur

    2016-02-01

    Currently there are many automotive companies still unable to effectively prevent consequences of poor ergonomics in their manufacturing processes. This study purpose is to determine the surrounding factors that influence low ergonomics risk awareness among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industry. In this study there are four variables, low ergonomic risk awareness, inappropriate method and tools, tight development schedule and lack of management support. The survey data were gathered from 245 respondents of local automotive companies in Malaysia. The data was analysed through multiple regression and moderated regression using the IBM SPSS software. Study results revealed that low ergonomic risk awareness has influenced by inappropriate method and tool, and tight development schedule. There were positive linear relationships between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools, and tight development schedule. The more inappropriate method and tools applied; the lower their ergonomic risk awareness. The more tight development schedule is the lower ergonomic risk awareness. The relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools depends on staff's age, and education level. Furthermore the relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and tight development schedule depends on staff's working experience and number of project involvement. The main contribution of this paper was identified the number of factors of low ergonomics risk awareness and offers better understanding on ergonomics among researchers and automotive manufacturer's employees during product development process.

  9. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  10. Solidification studies of automotive heat exchanger materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, T.; Jaradeh, M.; Kamgou Kamaga, H.

    2006-11-01

    Modifications of the aluminum alloy AA 3003 have been studied to improve and tailorits properties for applications in automotive heat exchangers. Laboratory techniques have been applied to simulate industrial direct-chill casting, and some basic solidification studies have been conducted. The results are coupled to structures observed in industrial-size ingots and discussed in terms of structure-property relations.

  11. PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE TRADES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WORTHING, ROBERT

    DESIGNED FOR STUDENT USE, THIS MANUAL PRESENTS RELATED INFORMATION AND LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS FOR A 1-YEAR COURSE IN APPLIED PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY ESSEX COUNTY AUTOMOTIVE TEACHERS. CONTENT HEADINGS ARE -- (1) MATTER AND ITS PROPERTIES (15 EXPERIMENTS), (2) MECHANICS (4 EXPERIMENTS), (3) HEAT (3 EXPERIMENTS), (4) ELECTRICITY (8…

  12. Energy Cost Reduction for Automotive Service Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    This handbook on energy cost reduction for automotive service facilities consists of four sections. The importance and economic benefits of energy conservation are discussed in the first section. In the second section six energy cost reduction measures are discussed: relamping interior areas; relamping and reducing interior lighting; setting back…

  13. Automotive Mechanics Occupational Performance Survey. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borcher, Sidney D.; Leiter, Paul B.

    The purpose of this federally-funded interim report is to present the results of a task inventory analysis survey of automotive mechanics completed by project staff within the Instructional Systems Design Program at the Center for Vocational and Technical Education. Intended for use in curriculum development for vocational education programs in…

  14. Basic Automotive Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a basic automotive mechanics program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational…

  15. Automotive Service Technology. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of an automotive service technology program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational…

  16. Automotive Technology. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of an automotive technology program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational Titles…

  17. Metrics for Automotive Merchandising, Petroleum Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students in automotive merchandising and petroleum marketing classes, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know…

  18. National Apprenticeship Standards for Automotive Machinist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.

    These 24 standards have been adopted by the Automotive Service Industry Association to provide well-planned, properly supervised training for apprentices to develop into competent machinists. The goal of the standards is to establish and maintain high criteria of workmanship, to develop knowledge by workers of technical and theoretical aspects of…

  19. Orientation: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The first six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the basic theory and practice of a beginning course at the secondary and post-secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction…

  20. Automotive Stirling engine development program: A success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, W. K.

    1987-01-01

    The original 5-yr Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been extended to 10 years due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

  1. Automotive Stirling engine development program - A success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, William K.

    1987-01-01

    The original 5-year Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been extended to 10 years due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

  2. Computer aided engineering analysis of automotive bumpers

    SciTech Connect

    Glance, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a description of a general purpose, computer-aided engineering design methodology which has been employed in the design of automotive bumper systems. A comparison of computer-aided analysis predictions with actual test data is presented. Two case histories of bumper system designs are discussed.

  3. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  4. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…

  5. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…

  6. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 15 terminal objectives for a basic automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hours daily) course for organized classroom and shop experiences designed to enable the student to develop…

  7. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Automotive Technician Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the automotive technician cluster. The document begins with overviews of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  8. Gas sensing using porous materials for automotive applications.

    PubMed

    Wales, Dominic J; Grand, Julien; Ting, Valeska P; Burke, Richard D; Edler, Karen J; Bowen, Chris R; Mintova, Svetlana; Burrows, Andrew D

    2015-07-07

    Improvements in the efficiency of combustion within a vehicle can lead to reductions in the emission of harmful pollutants and increased fuel efficiency. Gas sensors have a role to play in this process, since they can provide real time feedback to vehicular fuel and emissions management systems as well as reducing the discrepancy between emissions observed in factory tests and 'real world' scenarios. In this review we survey the current state-of-the-art in using porous materials for sensing the gases relevant to automotive emissions. Two broad classes of porous material - zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) - are introduced, and their potential for gas sensing is discussed. The adsorptive, spectroscopic and electronic techniques for sensing gases using porous materials are summarised. Examples of the use of zeolites and MOFs in the sensing of water vapour, oxygen, NOx, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen are then detailed. Both types of porous material (zeolites and MOFs) reveal great promise for the fabrication of sensors for exhaust gases and vapours due to high selectivity and sensitivity. The size and shape selectivity of the zeolite and MOF materials are controlled by variation of pore dimensions, chemical composition (hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity), crystal size and orientation, thus enabling detection and differentiation between different gases and vapours.

  9. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Smith, G.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Meacher, J.

    1986-01-01

    The major accomplishments were the completion of the Basic Stirling Engine (BSE) and the Stirling Engine System (SES) designs on schedule, the approval and acceptance of those designs by NASA, and the initiation of manufacture of BSE components. The performance predictions indicate the Mod II engine design will meet or exceed the original program goals of 30% improvement in fuel economy over a conventional Internal Combustion (IC) powered vehicle, while providing acceptable emissions. This was accomplished while simultaneously reducing Mod II engine weight to a level comparable with IC engine power density, and packaging the Mod II in a 1985 Celebrity with no external sheet metal changes. The projected mileage of the Mod II Celebrity for the combined urban and highway CVS cycle is 40.9 mpg which is a 32% improvement over the IC Celebrity. If additional potential improvements are verified and incorporated in the Mod II, the mileage could increase to 42.7 mpg.

  10. Multifuctional integrated sensors (MFISES).

    SciTech Connect

    Homeijer, Brian D.; Roozeboom, Clifton

    2015-10-01

    Many emerging IoT applications require sensing of multiple physical and environmental parameters for: completeness of information, measurement validation, unexpected demands, improved performance. For example, a typical outdoor weather station measures temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, light intensity, rainfall, wind speed and direction. Existing sensor technologies do not directly address the demand for cost, size, and power reduction in multi-paramater sensing applications. Industry sensor manufacturers have developed integrated sensor systems for inertial measurements that combine accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers, but do not address environmental sensing functionality. In existing research literature, a technology gap exists between the functionality of MEMS sensors and the real world applications of the sensors systems.

  11. Laser speckle velocimetry for robot manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrett, Thomas O. H.; Bandari, Yashwanth K.; Michel, Florent; Ding, Jialuo; Williams, Stewart W.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2017-06-01

    A non-contact speckle correlation sensor for the measurement of robotic tool speed is presented for use in robotic manufacturing and is capable of measuring the in-plane relative velocities between a robot end-effector and the workpiece or other surface. The sensor performance was assessed in the laboratory with the sensor accuracies found to be better than 0:01 mm/s over a 70 mm/s velocity range. Finally an example of the sensors application to robotic manufacturing is presented where the sensor was applied to tool speed measurement for path planning in the wire and arc additive manufacturing process using a KUKA KR150 L110/2 industrial robot.

  12. Exhaust gas sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hiller, J.; Miree, T.J.

    1997-02-09

    The automotive industry needed a fast, reliable, under-the-hood method of determining nitrogen oxides in automobile exhaust. Several technologies were pursued concurrently. These sensing technologies were based on light absorption, electrochemical methods, and surface mass loading. The Y-12 plant was selected to study the methods based on light absorption. The first phase was defining the detailed technical objectives of the sensors--this was the role of the automobile companies. The second phase was to develop prototype sensors in the laboratories--the national laboratories. The final phase was testing of the prototype sensors by the automobile industries. This program was canceled a few months into what was to be a three-year effort.

  13. Technical note: spine loading in automotive seating.

    PubMed

    Zenk, R; Franz, M; Bubb, H; Vink, P

    2012-03-01

    For car manufacturers, seat comfort is becoming more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. Therefore, many studies on participative seat comfort are carried out. In this paper, an objective assessment approach is reported which evaluates the concept of "optimal load distribution", based on the identification of a close relationship between the pressure on the seat and the discomfort felt by the person sitting. An in vivo measurement of the pressure in the spinal disc, which is an indicator of the load in the spine, was performed. For this research, a pressure sensor was implanted with a canula in the middle of the disc intervertebralis of a participant. The local pressure on the disc was established for the participant in an automobile seat set in various seat positions. The results indicate that in the seat position with the pressure distribution corresponding to the most comfortable posture the pressure in the intervertebral disc is lowest. The pressure in this position is 0.5 bar, while in the upright seated position the pressure is 1.6 bar. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Acoustic response variability in automotive vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, E.; Mace, B. R.; Ferguson, N. S.

    2009-03-01

    A statistical analysis of a series of measurements of the audio-frequency response of a large set of automotive vehicles is presented: a small hatchback model with both a three-door (411 vehicles) and five-door (403 vehicles) derivative and a mid-sized family five-door car (316 vehicles). The sets included vehicles of various specifications, engines, gearboxes, interior trim, wheels and tyres. The tests were performed in a hemianechoic chamber with the temperature and humidity recorded. Two tests were performed on each vehicle and the interior cabin noise measured. In the first, the excitation was acoustically induced by sets of external loudspeakers. In the second test, predominantly structure-borne noise was induced by running the vehicle at a steady speed on a rough roller. For both types of excitation, it is seen that the effects of temperature are small, indicating that manufacturing variability is larger than that due to temperature for the tests conducted. It is also observed that there are no significant outlying vehicles, i.e. there are at most only a few vehicles that consistently have the lowest or highest noise levels over the whole spectrum. For the acoustically excited tests, measured 1/3-octave noise reduction levels typically have a spread of 5 dB or so and the normalised standard deviation of the linear data is typically 0.1 or higher. Regarding the statistical distribution of the linear data, a lognormal distribution is a somewhat better fit than a Gaussian distribution for lower 1/3-octave bands, while the reverse is true at higher frequencies. For the distribution of the overall linear levels, a Gaussian distribution is generally the most representative. As a simple description of the response variability, it is sufficient for this series of measurements to assume that the acoustically induced airborne cabin noise is best described by a Gaussian distribution with a normalised standard deviation between 0.09 and 0.145. There is generally

  15. Ergonomics and Kaizen as strategies for competitiveness: a theoretical and practical in an automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Leandro; Balbinotti, Giles; Varasquin, Adriano; Gontijo, Leila

    2012-01-01

    With increased international competitiveness in the automotive industry, came the concern of the companies save costs and lower production costs. For this purpose many ways are designed to reduce costs and waste of raw materials and reduce activities that do not aggregate value to manufacturing processes. In the early XVII appears the manufacturing system, which processes were hard with little concern for the health and safety of employees and conditions of the workplace. After the advent of the production system called lean manufacturing, a new paradigm in terms of production system capable of providing high levels of productivity and quality. It is based on waste elimination that occur during the production process. After began a new way of thinking, creating a culture of continuous improvement and lean process with no waste and reducing costs, without neglecting the welfare worker and improving the conditions of their work environment. This paper presents a reflection on the application of ergonomics in a lean production system of an automotive industry, using methodology based on the Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) to gain performance and improving the conditions of the workplace, also will be presented with positive and negative points in using this methodology in relation to ergonomics. The research will be conducted by collecting data 'in loco' and interviews with workers. Some studies show that in companies that are lean system and using the methodology of Kaizen, the results of product quality, levels of absenteeism and accidents are better than those obtained in companies that do not apply the same concept.

  16. Manufacturing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Obara, Clifford J.; Martin, Glen L.; Domack, Christopher S.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, natural laminar flow (NLF) has been proven to be achievable on modern smooth airframe surfaces over a range of cruise flight conditions representative of most current business and commuter aircraft. Published waviness and boundary layer transition measurements on several modern metal and composite airframes have demonstrated the fact that achievable surface waviness is readily compatible with laminar flow requirements. Currently, the principal challenge to the manufacture of NLF-compatible surfaces is two-dimensional roughness in the form of steps and gaps at structural joints. Results of recent NASA investigations on manufacturing tolerances for NLF surfaces, including results of a flight experiment are given. Based on recent research, recommendations are given for conservative manufacturing tolerances for waviness and shaped steps.

  17. Sensors for Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschulena, G.

    1988-01-01

    Sensors are one of the key elements for the automation in the manufacturing and process technology. The sensor field is presently within a restructuring process, directed to a stronger utilization of solid state technologies. This restructuring is governed by the utilization of solid state physical effects, by the use of reproducible fabrication techniques, and by the market driving forces. The state of the art of sensors in modern fabrication techniques will be demonstrated in examples, namely for sensors in silicon technology, in thin film technology and in thick film/screen printing technology. Some important physical and technological problems to be solved for the development of new and advanced sensor families will be outlined. Sensor development is strongly directed to the minaturization of devices and to the integration of different sensors to multisensors, as well as the integration between sensors and microelectronics.

  18. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Devices Using Additive-Subtractive Manufacturing Techniques: Application to Waste-Heat Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    optimizing cutting speed and power while maintaining surface quality and interface properties. Key parameters are obtained from these experiments and used to develop a process that can be used to fabricate a working TEG directly onto the waste-heat component surface. A TEG module has been fabricated for the first time entirely by using thermal spray technology and laser micromachining. The target applications include automotive exhaust systems and other high-volume industrial waste heat sources. The application of TEGs for thermoelectrically powered sensors for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) is presented. In conclusion, more ways to improve the fabrication process of TEGs are suggested.

  19. Technical Assessment of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Thanh; Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Peng, J. -K; Kromer, Matt; Lasher, Stephen; McKenney, Kurtis; Law, Karen; Sinha, Jayanti

    2010-09-01

    This technical report describes DOE's assessment of the performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications. The on-board performance (by Argonne National Lab) and high-volume manufacturing cost (by TIAX LLC) were estimated for compressed hydrogen storage tanks. The results were compared to DOE's 2010, 2015, and ultimate full fleet hydrogen storage targets. The Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency as well as the off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen were also documented in the report.

  20. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease among automotive plant workers--Ohio, 2001.

    PubMed

    2001-05-11

    During March 12-15, 2001, four cases of Legionnaires' disease (LD) among workers at an automotive engine manufacturing plant (plant X) were reported to the Cuyahoga County Board of Health, Cleveland, Ohio; all four diagnoses were confirmed by Legionella urine antigen. Illness onset among the four workers occurred during March 2-4; two workers died. Beginning March 14, CDC assisted state and local health departments with an investigation to identify new cases and potential sources of Legionella transmission in the plant. This report summarizes the investigation; findings indicate an epidemiologic association with exposure to one of the plant finishing lines but did not identify a specific source.

  1. Advanced high temperature materials for the energy efficient automotive Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, R. H.; Stephens, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The Stirling Engine is under investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternative to the internal combustion engine for automotive applications. The Stirling Engine is an external combustion engine that offers the advantage of high fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations compared to current internal combustion automotive engines. The most critical component from a materials viewpoint is the heater head consisting of the cylinders, heating tubes, and regenerator housing. Materials requirements for the heater head include compatibility with hydrogen, resistance to hydrogen permeation, high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance and high temperature creep-rupture and fatigue properties. A continuing supporting materials research and technology program has identified the wrought alloys CG-27 and 12RN72 and the cast alloys XF-818 and NASAUT 4G-A1 as candidate replacements for the cobalt containing alloys used in current prototype engines. Based on the materials research program in support of the automotive Stirling engine it is concluded that manufacture of the engine is feasible from low cost iron-base alloys rather than the cobalt alloys rather than the cobalt alloys used in prototype engines. This paper will present results of research that led to this conclusion.

  2. Tribopolymerization: An advanced lubrication concept for automotive engines and systems of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Furey, M.J.; Kajdas, C.; Kaltenbach, K.W.

    1997-12-31

    Advanced lubrication technologies based on the concept of tribopolymerization as a mechanism of boundary lubrication are described. Advantages of this approach as well as potential applications which could have an impact on the design, manufacture, and performance of existing and future automotive engines are presented and discussed. Tribopolymerization, a novel concept of molecular design developed by Furey and Kajdas, involves the continuous formation of thin polymeric films on rubbing surfaces; the protective films formed are self-replenishing. The antiwear compounds developed from this technology are effective with metals as well as ceramics and in the liquid as well as vapor phases. Furthermore, they are ashless and contain no harmful phosphorus or sulfur; and many are biodegradable. Thus, potential applications of this technology are diverse and include a variety of cost/performance/energy/environmental advantages. Examples include the following: (a) machining and cutting applications using thin films to reduce friction and ceramic tool wear; (b) the lubrication of ceramic engines (e.g., low heat rejection diesel engines) or ceramic components; (c) the development of ashless lubricants for existing and future automotive engines to reduce exhaust catalyst poisoning and environmental emissions; (d) ashless antiwear or ``lubricity`` additives for fuels, including gasoline, diesel and jet fuel; (e) vapor phase applications of this technology to high temperature gaseous systems or to fuel injector wear problems associated with the use of natural gas engines; and (f) the use of the concept of tribopolymerization as an enabling technology in the development of new engines and new automotive propulsion systems.

  3. Realistic opto-mechanical simulation and tolerancing of an automotive optical transmitter coupling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervaeke, Michael; Moens, Els; Meuret, Youri; Ottevaere, Heidi; Van Buggenhout, Carl; De Pauw, Piet; Thienpont, Hugo

    2010-05-01

    The advent of Plastic Optical Fibre (POF) opened perspectives for numerous applications in the field of datacommunications. POF is increasingly popular in the automotive industry as a robust, lightweight, electromagnetic interference free, easy and cheap to install alternative to electrical wiring for high-speed entertainment, navigation and data acquisition systems in cars. The main challenge for the introduction of datacommunication systems based on POF is imposed by the working conditions of automotive applications: systems should remain fully functional in a temperature range from -40 °C to +115 °C . Furthermore, standardisation and mechanical design considerations put a number of other boundary conditions. We designed a misalignment-tolerant optical coupling system according to the Media Oriented Systems Transport standard (MOST) to convey the divergent beam from a Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode (RCLED) into a Step-Index (SI) multimode POF mounted in a detachable ferrule. In this contribution we describe the methodology to synthesize the dimensions and tolerances on the optical components in the coupling system. A Monte Carlo optimisation algorithm on the full three-dimensional (3D) description of the complete RCLED package and detachable POF ferrule was used to allow a realistic modelling of all misalignments that could occur in the production chain. We select the best suited system according to manufacturing and assembly capabilities as well as its suitability for automotive applications.

  4. Evaluation of the Benefits Attributable to Automotive Lighweight Materials Program Research and Development Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.

    2002-01-11

    The purpose of this project is to identify and test methods appropriate for estimating the benefits attributable to research and development (R and D) projects funded by the Automotive Lightweight Materials (ALM) Program of the Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program focuses on the development and validation of advanced lightweight materials technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The work supports the goals of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Up to thirty percent of the improvement required to meet the PNGV goal of tripling vehicle fuel economy and much of its cost, safety, and recyclability goal depend on the lightweight materials. Funded projects range from basic materials science research to applied research in production environments. Collaborators on these projects include national laboratories, universities, and private sector firms, such as leading automobile manufacturers and their suppliers.

  5. Ultrahigh carbon steel for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.

    1995-12-04

    Ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs), which contain 1--2.1% carbon, have remarkable structural properties for automotive application when processed to achieve fine ferrite grains with fine spheroidized carbides. When processed for high room temperature ductility, UHCS can have good tensile ductility but significantly higher strength than current automotive high strength steels. The material can also be made superplastic at intermediate temperatures and exhibits excellent die fill capability. Furthermore, they can be made hard with high compression ductility. In wire form it is projected that UHCS can exhibit extremely high strengths (5,000 MPa) for tire cord applications. Examples of structural components that have been formed from fine-grained spheroidized UHCSs are illustrated.

  6. Springback prediction of TWIP automotive sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kanghwan; Yoo, Donghoon; Seo, Min Hong; Park, Sung-Ho; Chung, Kwansoo

    2009-08-01

    In an effort to reduce the weight of vehicles, automotive companies are replacing conventional steel parts with light weight alloys and/or with advanced high strength steels (AHSS) such as dual-phase (DP), twinning induced plasticity (TWIP), and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. The main objective of this work is to experimentally and numerically evaluate the macro-performance of the automotive TWIP sheet in conjunction with springback. In order to characterize the mechanical properties, simple tension and tension-compression tests were performed to determine anisotropic properties, as well as the Bauschinger, transient, and permanent softening behaviors during reverse loading. For numerical simulations, the anisotropic yield function Yld2000-2d was utilized along with the combined isotropic-kinematic hardening law based on the modified Chaboche model. Springback verification was performed for the unconstrained cylindrical bending and 2D draw bending tests.

  7. Polymer matrix nanocomposites for automotive structural components

    DOE PAGES

    Naskar, Amit K.; Keum, Jong K.; Boeman, Raymond G.

    2016-12-06

    Over the past several decades, the automotive industry has expended significant effort to develop lightweight parts from new easy-to-process polymeric nanocomposites. These materials have been particularly attractive because they can increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, attempts to reinforce soft matrices by nanoscale reinforcing agents at commercially deployable scales have been only sporadically successful to date. This situation is due primarily to the lack of fundamental understanding of how multiscale interfacial interactions and the resultant structures affect the properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this paper, we critically evaluate the state of the art in the field andmore » propose a possible path that may help to overcome these barriers. Finally, only once we achieve a deeper understanding of the structure–properties relationship of polymer matrix nanocomposites will we be able to develop novel structural nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties for automotive applications.« less

  8. The AGT 101 advanced automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A development program is described whose goal is the accumulation of the technology base needed by the U.S. automotive industry for the production of automotive gas turbine powertrains. Such gas turbine designs must exhibit reduced fuel consumption, a multi-fuel capability, and low exhaust emissions. The AGT101 powertrain described is a 74.6 kW, regenerated single-shaft gas turbine, operating at a maximum inlet temperature of 1644 K and coupled to a split differential gearbox and automatic overdrive transmission. The engine's single stage centrifugal compressor and single stage radial inflow turbine are mounted on a common shaft, and will operate at a maximum rotor speed of 100,000 rpm. All high temperature components, including the turbine rotor, are ceramic.

  9. Torsion vehicle model test for automotive vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, M. K. Mohd; Ho, C. S.; Ma'at, N.

    2017-04-01

    Torsion vehicle model test of Simple Structural Surfaces (SSS) model for automotive vehicle sedan is proposed in this paper to demonstrate the importance of providing continuous load path within the vehicle structures. The proposed approach is relatively easy to understand as compared to Finite Element Method (FEM). The results prove that the proposed vehicle model test is capable to show that a satisfactory load paths can five a sufficient structural stiffness within the vehicle structure. It is clearly observed that the global torsion stiffness reduces significantly when only one panel is removed from the complete SSS model. The results also five a food agreement with respect to the theoretical hypothesis as the structure is less stiff in torsion in an open section condition. The SSS model and the corresponding torsion test is obviously useful to give an overview of vehicle structural integrity. It can be potentially integrated with FEM to speed up the design process of automotive vehicle.

  10. Automotive Stirling engine: Mod II design report

    SciTech Connect

    Nightingale, N.P.

    1986-10-01

    The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod II, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, and demonstrate poor performance. Installed in a General Motors 1985 Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has a predicted combined fuel economy on unleaded gasoline of 17.5 km/L (41 mi/gal) - a value 50% above the current vehicle fleet average. The Mod II Stirling engine is a four-cylinder V-drive design with a single crankshaft. The engine is also equipped with all the controls and auxiliaries necessary for automotive operation. 35 figs.

  11. Automotive Stirling engine: Mod 2 design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, Noel P.

    1986-01-01

    The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod 2, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, demonstrating poor performance. Installed in a General Motors Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has a predicted combined fuel economy on unleaded gasoline of 17.5 km/l (41 mpg)- a value 50% above the current vehicle fleet average. The Mod 2 Stirling engine is a four-cylinder V-drive design with a single crankshaft. The engine is also equipped with all the controls and auxiliaries necessary for automotive operation.

  12. The AGT 101 advanced automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A development program is described whose goal is the accumulation of the technology base needed by the U.S. automotive industry for the production of automotive gas turbine powertrains. Such gas turbine designs must exhibit reduced fuel consumption, a multi-fuel capability, and low exhaust emissions. The AGT101 powertrain described is a 74.6 kW, regenerated single-shaft gas turbine, operating at a maximum inlet temperature of 1644 K and coupled to a split differential gearbox and automatic overdrive transmission. The engine's single stage centrifugal compressor and single stage radial inflow turbine are mounted on a common shaft, and will operate at a maximum rotor speed of 100,000 rpm. All high temperature components, including the turbine rotor, are ceramic.

  13. The intelligent automotive battery, "CYBOX ®"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Keizo; Yamada, Yoshifumi; Otsu, Koji; Machiyama, Yoshiaki; Emori, Akihiko; Okoshi, Teturo

    An intelligent battery to monitor battery states for an automotive use was newly developed. A main parameter to monitor battery states are based on the measurement of voltage variations that are to fluctuate immediately after an engine ignition. The developed monitoring unit is embedded into the lead-acid battery "CYBOX ®" which does not have a current monitoring unit. The monitoring unit that has an alarm system which is compact and highly reliable essentially diagnoses the state of charge and the state of health of battery states in order to inform automotive user of the adequate timing of replace, recharge, and the hazardous state of overcharge of batteries. The battery-monitoring unit has an optical data transfer system to extract internal data from external device. The battery-monitoring unit also has a data acquisition instrument which receives more detailed monitored historical data from the optical data transfer system of the monitoring unit.

  14. The AGT101 technology - An automotive alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackley, R. A.; Davis, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Gas Turbine Powertrain System Development Project is oriented at providing the United States automotive industry the technology base necessary to produce gas turbine powertrains for automotive applications that will have: (1) reduced fuel consumption, (2) the ability to use a variety of fuels, (3) low emissions, and (4) competitive cost/performance. The AGT101 powertrain being developed consists of a regenerated single-shaft gas turbine engine flat rated at 74.6 kW (100 hp) coupled to a split-differential gearbox and a Ford automatic overdrive production transmission. Performance predictions for the AGT101 powertrain represent a 59-percent improvement in mileage estimates over a 1985 conventionally-powered automobile for the combined federal driving cycle.

  15. Polymer matrix nanocomposites for automotive structural components.

    PubMed

    Naskar, Amit K; Keum, Jong K; Boeman, Raymond G

    2016-12-06

    Over the past several decades, the automotive industry has expended significant effort to develop lightweight parts from new easy-to-process polymeric nanocomposites. These materials have been particularly attractive because they can increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, attempts to reinforce soft matrices by nanoscale reinforcing agents at commercially deployable scales have been only sporadically successful to date. This situation is due primarily to the lack of fundamental understanding of how multiscale interfacial interactions and the resultant structures affect the properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this Perspective, we critically evaluate the state of the art in the field and propose a possible path that may help to overcome these barriers. Only once we achieve a deeper understanding of the structure-properties relationship of polymer matrix nanocomposites will we be able to develop novel structural nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties for automotive applications.

  16. Polymer matrix nanocomposites for automotive structural components

    SciTech Connect

    Naskar, Amit K.; Keum, Jong K.; Boeman, Raymond G.

    2016-12-06

    Over the past several decades, the automotive industry has expended significant effort to develop lightweight parts from new easy-to-process polymeric nanocomposites. These materials have been particularly attractive because they can increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, attempts to reinforce soft matrices by nanoscale reinforcing agents at commercially deployable scales have been only sporadically successful to date. This situation is due primarily to the lack of fundamental understanding of how multiscale interfacial interactions and the resultant structures affect the properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this paper, we critically evaluate the state of the art in the field and propose a possible path that may help to overcome these barriers. Finally, only once we achieve a deeper understanding of the structure–properties relationship of polymer matrix nanocomposites will we be able to develop novel structural nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties for automotive applications.

  17. Tribocharging behaviour of automotive powder coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Aline; Saleh, Khashayar; Guigon, Pierre; Czechowski, Claire

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this work was to build a device allowing the measurement of tribocharging during the fluidization and pneumatic transport of automotive powder coatings. The experimental setup included a fluidization unit, a transport pipe and two 'Faraday cups' allowing continuous monitoring of particle charge. Two batches of industrial automotive powder primers, as well as several other types of powders were tested: alumina, silica... The experimental variables were the length of the conveying pipe and the air flow rate. The results showed that the net amount of acquired tribocharge increases with the length of conveying pipe. The experimental device and procedure allowed to well classify tested powders according to their rate of tribocharging and their maximum charge. More specially, this study pointed out a net difference between electrostatic properties of two powder primers, which behave very differently in the industrial application unit.

  18. Polymer matrix nanocomposites for automotive structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Keum, Jong K.; Boeman, Raymond G.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past several decades, the automotive industry has expended significant effort to develop lightweight parts from new easy-to-process polymeric nanocomposites. These materials have been particularly attractive because they can increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, attempts to reinforce soft matrices by nanoscale reinforcing agents at commercially deployable scales have been only sporadically successful to date. This situation is due primarily to the lack of fundamental understanding of how multiscale interfacial interactions and the resultant structures affect the properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this Perspective, we critically evaluate the state of the art in the field and propose a possible path that may help to overcome these barriers. Only once we achieve a deeper understanding of the structure-properties relationship of polymer matrix nanocomposites will we be able to develop novel structural nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties for automotive applications.

  19. Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-07

    We simulate “automotion,” the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20 nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

  20. Automotive Fiber Optic Technology: Application Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gregory D.

    1989-02-01

    Function content in automobiles has been projected to increase throughout the '90s. Accordingly, electromagnetic compatibility will become increasingly difficult to attain with all-conductor-based data transmission. The need for alternatives such as fiber optics is assumed. This paper discusses the issues to be addressed when using fiber optics in automotive data transmission applications. Connectors, packaging and data transmission subsystem impact are covered.

  1. Friction of Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2013-01-01

    This brief overview of friction-related issues in materials for automobiles is invited for a special issue on automotive materials in the ASM journal AM&P. It describes a range of areas in a ground vehicle in which friction must be controlled or minimized. Applications range from piston rings to tires, and from brakes to fuel injector components. A perspective on new materials and lubricants, and the need for validation testing is presented.

  2. Valve operating system for an automotive engine

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, S.

    1988-03-15

    In a valve operating system for an automotive engine having two or more intake valves for one cylinder, a camshaft having cams for operating the intake valves, the system is described comprising: one of the cams being rotatably and axially slidably mounted on the camshaft; clutch means for engaging the slidable cam with the camshaft at a predetermined angular position; shifting means for axially shifting the slidable cam to engage the cam with the camshaft by the clutch means.

  3. Injuries to Pregnant Occupants in Automotive Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Klinich, Kathleen DeSantis; Schneider, Lawrence W.; Moore, Jamie L.; Pearlman, Mark D.

    1998-01-01

    Injuries unique to pregnant occupants involved in motor-vehicle crashes include placental abruption, uterine rupture or laceration, and direct fetal injury. The mechanisms and characteristics of these injuries are discussed using examples from a literature review and from recent investigations of crashes involving pregnant occupants. In addition, a review of the relationship between the pregnant driver and automotive restraints and the steering wheel illustrates how injury potential may differ from the non-pregnant occupant.

  4. Directions for computational mechanics in automotive crashworthiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, James A.; Khalil, T. B.

    1993-08-01

    The automotive industry has used computational methods for crashworthiness since the early 1970's. These methods have ranged from simple lumped parameter models to full finite element models. The emergence of the full finite element models in the mid 1980's has significantly altered the research direction. However, there remains a need for both simple, rapid modeling methods and complex detailed methods. Some directions for continuing research are discussed.

  5. Occupational skin diseases in automotive industry workers.

    PubMed

    Yakut, Yunus; Uçmak, Derya; Akkurt, Zeynep Meltem; Akdeniz, Sedat; Palanci, Yilmaz; Sula, Bilal

    2014-03-01

    Studies on occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry are few. To investigate the prevalence of occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry. Between September and December 2011, a total of 405 workers from the automotive repair industry in Diyarbakır were interviewed. They were active workers in the repair industry who had been employed for at least six months. Business owners, sellers of spare parts and accounting officers were not included. The employees were examined at their workplaces and the working conditions were observed. Detailed dermatological examination was performed. The mean age of the 405 workers who participated in the study was 27.7 ± 10.3. The mean working time of employees was 13.3 ± 10.4 years. All of the employees were male. Dermatological diseases were not detected in 144 out of 405 workers (35.6%) and at least one condition was diagnosed in 261 (64.4%). The most frequent diagnosis was callus, hyperkeratosis, clavus (27.7%), followed by nail changes (16.8%) and superficial mycoses (12.1%). Contact dermatitis was seen at a rate of 5.9%. Traumatic lesions such as hyperkeratotic lesions and nail changes were found most frequently. Traumatic lesions were common among individuals who did not use gloves. Most nail changes were localized leuconychia, a finding not reported in the studies on automotive industry workers. In accordance with the literature, irritant contact dermatitis was observed in patients with a history of atopy and who had been working for a long time. Occupational skin diseases comprise an important field in dermatology, deserving much attention. Further studies on occupational dermatology are necessary.

  6. General Motors automotive fuel cell program

    SciTech Connect

    Fronk, M.H.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of the second phase of the GM/DOE fuel cell program is to develop and test a 30 kW fuel cell powerplant. This powerplant will be based on a methanol fuel processor and a proton exchange membrane PM fuel cell stack. In addition, the 10 kW system developed during phase I will be used as a {open_quotes}mule{close_quotes} to test automotive components and other ancillaries, needed for transient operation.

  7. Directions for computational mechanics in automotive crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, James A.; Khalil, T. B.

    1993-01-01

    The automotive industry has used computational methods for crashworthiness since the early 1970's. These methods have ranged from simple lumped parameter models to full finite element models. The emergence of the full finite element models in the mid 1980's has significantly altered the research direction. However, there remains a need for both simple, rapid modeling methods and complex detailed methods. Some directions for continuing research are discussed.

  8. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L.; LaBarge, W.

    1997-04-01

    The CRADA between Delphi Automotive Systems (Delphi; formerly General Motors - AC Delco, Systems) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research (LMER) on automotive catalysts was completed at the end of FY96, after a ten month, no-cost extension. The CRADA was aimed at improved performance and lifetime of noble metal based three-way-catalysts (TWC), which are the primary catalytic system for automotive emission control systems. While these TWC can meet the currently required emission standards, higher than optimum noble metal loadings are often required to meet lifetime requirements. In addition, more stringent emission standards will be imposed in the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts. Initially in a fresh catalyst, the active material is often distributed on a very fine scale, approaching single atoms or small atomic clusters. As such, a wide range of analytical techniques have been employed to provide high spatial resolution characterization of the evolving state of the catalytic material.

  9. Aerodynamic Flow Field Measurements for Automotive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepner, Timothy E.

    1999-01-01

    The design of a modern automotive air handling system is a complex task. The system is required to bring the interior of the vehicle to a comfortable level in as short a time as possible. A goal of the automotive industry is to predict the interior climate of an automobile using advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods. The development of these advanced prediction tools will enable better selection of engine and accessory components. The goal of this investigation was to predict methods used by the automotive industry. To accomplish this task three separate experiments were performed. The first was a laboratory setup where laser velocimeter (LV) flow field measurements were made in the heating and air conditioning unit of a Ford Windstar. The second involved flow field measurements in the engine compartment of a Ford Explorer, with the engine running idle. The third mapped the flow field exiting the center dashboard panel vent inside the Explorer, while the circulating fan operated at 14 volts. All three experiments utilized full-coincidence three-component LV systems. This enabled the mean and fluctuating velocities to be measured along with the Reynolds stress terms.

  10. GM's (General Motors Corp. ) outlook on future automotive fuels and lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Colucci, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Significant fuel and lubricant challenges for the petroleum and automotive industries in the 1980's include improvements in light-duty automotive diesel fuel quality to meet the EPA particulates standard of 0.2 g/mi by 1985, to improve low-temperature operability, and to avoid water-related problems (GM's redesigned fuel system for its 5.7 l. diesels can reduce waxing and water-in-diesel fuel problems); improvement in the fuel-saving qualities of lubricants and implementation of a system, notably the ASTM engine-dynamometer test, to measure these improvements; development of an unleaded gasoline fuel waiver-request system based on the composition of the fuel additives; other engine-fuel improvements to mitigate the effects of an increased use of knock sensors on octane quality and to meet the requirements of redesigned gasoline-fueled, spark-ignition engines; and implementation of a system to generate adequate nonpetroleum fuels, particularly from oil shale and coal, for automotive testing, because thes two sources are the most likely supplements to, and replacements for, oil-based fuels in the 1990's and beyond. Work in progress at GM and GM-supported programs on fuel economy improvements and alternative fuels are also discussed.

  11. Adoption of JMM practices - A key to performance improvement of a local automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohiuddin, A. K. M.; Haji, A. Jabbar Julia Bt.; Khan, Ahsan Ali; Mustafizul Karim, A. N.

    2017-03-01

    It is imperative for a manufacturing company all over the world to constantly look for ways to increase productivity and at the same time to lower cost to secure a competitive position. It is recognized that practices associated with Japanese Manufacturing Management (JMM) can yield a superior competitive advantage in terms of productivity, quality and provide overall successful business performance. This paper discusses the transfer of the best practices of the JMM locally and analyses the impact of adoption and adaptation of the management system as an in-depth case study conducted in a Malaysian automotive company. This study is to identify what are the changes in terms of the philosophy and practices undertaken by the company and ascertain the impact of the JMM on its manufacturing and financial performances. The elements of business performance from the viewpoint of manufacturing are based on safety, Parts Per Million (PPM), in-line Defect per Unit (DPU), First Time Quality (FTQ), cycle time, productivity, efficiency and stock level. The results show a positive impact to the automotive plant manufacturing performance. For example, safety index has reduced to 0 major accident occurrences. The PPM and In-line DPU have improved by 98% and 91% respectively whereas the FTQ has improved by 167%. Cycle time has reduced from 20 to 6 minutes and productivity increased up to 43% whilst the efficiency reached at 99.9%. The stock level was reduced from half month to 3 days after the adoption of the JMM. The revenue has increased up to 92%, the percentage of expenses has reduced from 11.04% to 3.06% giving an improvement of 72% whilst the net profit has increased from 5.33% to 8.15%. The Return of Asset (RoA) and Return of Equity (RoE) also showed slight improvement despite the effects from the restructuring exercise, Tsunami calamity and fluctuation in Japanese exchange rate.

  12. Overview: DOE/NASA automotive gas turbine and Stirling projects

    SciTech Connect

    Beremand, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of the automotive gas turbine and automotive Stirling engine technology projects being carried out by NASA Lewis Research Center for the Department of Energy's Automotive Technology Development Division. This report: (1) discusses the projects as they were formulated and being carried out in accordance with PL 95-238 Auto Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978; (2) presents substantive technology accomplishments; and (3) briefly addresses future path options of the program.

  13. State, Parameter, and Unknown Input Estimation Problems in Active Automotive Safety Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanomchoeng, Gridsada

    A variety of driver assistance systems such as traction control, electronic stability control (ESC), rollover prevention and lane departure avoidance systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers to reduce driver burden, partially automate normal driving operations, and reduce accidents. The effectiveness of these driver assistance systems can be significant enhanced if the real-time values of several vehicle parameters and state variables, namely tire-road friction coefficient, slip angle, roll angle, and rollover index, can be known. Since there are no inexpensive sensors available to measure these variables, it is necessary to estimate them. However, due to the significant nonlinear dynamics in a vehicle, due to unknown and changing plant parameters, and due to the presence of unknown input disturbances, the design of estimation algorithms for this application is challenging. This dissertation develops a new approach to observer design for nonlinear systems in which the nonlinearity has a globally (or locally) bounded Jacobian. The developed approach utilizes a modified version of the mean value theorem to express the nonlinearity in the estimation error dynamics as a convex combination of known matrices with time varying coefficients. The observer gains are then obtained by solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A number of illustrative examples are presented to show that the developed approach is less conservative and more useful than the standard Lipschitz assumption based nonlinear observer. The developed nonlinear observer is utilized for estimation of slip angle, longitudinal vehicle velocity, and vehicle roll angle. In order to predict and prevent vehicle rollovers in tripped situations, it is necessary to estimate the vertical tire forces in the presence of unknown road disturbance inputs. An approach to estimate unknown disturbance inputs in nonlinear systems using dynamic model inversion and a modified version of the mean value theorem is

  14. Long-Time Stability of Ni-Ti-Shape Memory Alloys for Automotive Safety Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strittmatter, Joachim; Gümpel, Paul

    2011-07-01

    In automotive a lot of electromagnetically, pyrotechnically or mechanically driven actuators are integrated to run comfort systems and to control safety systems in modern passenger cars. Using shape memory alloys (SMA) the existing systems could be simplified, performing the same function through new mechanisms with reduced size, weight, and costs. A drawback for the use of SMA in safety systems is the lack of materials knowledge concerning the durability of the switching function (long-time stability of the shape memory effect). Pedestrian safety systems play a significant role to reduce injuries and fatal casualties caused by accidents. One automotive safety system for pedestrian protection is the bonnet lifting system. Based on such an application, this article gives an introduction to existing bonnet lifting systems for pedestrian protection, describes the use of quick changing shape memory actuators and the results of the study concerning the long-time stability of the tested NiTi-wires. These wires were trained, exposed up to 4 years at elevated temperatures (up to 140 °C) and tested regarding their phase change temperatures, times, and strokes. For example, it was found that A P-temperature is shifted toward higher temperatures with longer exposing periods and higher temperatures. However, in the functional testing plant a delay in the switching time could not be detected. This article gives some answers concerning the long-time stability of NiTi-wires that were missing till now. With this knowledge, the number of future automotive applications using SMA can be increased. It can be concluded, that the use of quick changing shape memory actuators in safety systems could simplify the mechanism, reduce maintenance and manufacturing costs and should be insertable also for other automotive applications.

  15. 75 FR 24748 - Johnson Controls, Inc., Automotive Experience Division, Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration Johnson Controls, Inc., Automotive Experience Division, Including... of Johnson Controls, Inc., Automotive Experience Division, Greenfield, Ohio. The notice was published... production of foam inserts for the automotive seating industry. New information shows that Johnson Controls...

  16. 75 FR 11938 - Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, MI; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, MI; Notice of Termination... Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, Michigan (Meridian Automotive). The petitioning group of workers...

  17. Final report: U.S. competitive position in automotive technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Michael B.; Cheney, Margaret; Thomas, Patrick; Kroll, Peter

    2002-09-30

    Patent data are presented and analyzed to assess the U.S. competitive position in eleven advanced automotive technology categories, including automotive fuel cells, hydrogen storage, advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles and others. Inventive activity in most of the technologies is found to be growing at a rapid pace, particularly in advanced batteries, automotive fuel cells and ultracapacitors. The U.S. is the clear leader in automotive fuel cells, on-board hydrogen storage and light weight materials. Japan leads in advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles, ultracapacitors, and appears to be close to overtaking the U.S. in other areas of power electronics.

  18. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... following form may be accepted as evidence that the commodity is a “Canadian article”: All materials... production of any intermediate product used at any stage in the chain of production in Canada or the United... certificate in the following form may be accepted as evidence that the commodity is nevertheless a...

  19. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... following form may be accepted as evidence that the commodity is a “Canadian article”: All materials... production of any intermediate product used at any stage in the chain of production in Canada or the United... certificate in the following form may be accepted as evidence that the commodity is nevertheless a...

  20. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... following form may be accepted as evidence that the commodity is a “Canadian article”: All materials... production of any intermediate product used at any stage in the chain of production in Canada or the United... certificate in the following form may be accepted as evidence that the commodity is nevertheless a...