Science.gov

Sample records for automotive sensor manufacturing

  1. Automotive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  2. Automotive vehicle sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  3. Robust optical sensors for safety critical automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Locht, Cliff; De Knibber, Sven; Maddalena, Sam

    2008-02-01

    Optical sensors for the automotive industry need to be robust, high performing and low cost. This paper focuses on the impact of automotive requirements on optical sensor design and packaging. Main strategies to lower optical sensor entry barriers in the automotive market include: Perform sensor calibration and tuning by the sensor manufacturer, sensor test modes on chip to guarantee functional integrity at operation, and package technology is key. As a conclusion, optical sensor applications are growing in automotive. Optical sensor robustness matured to the level of safety critical applications like Electrical Power Assisted Steering (EPAS) and Drive-by-Wire by optical linear arrays based systems and Automated Cruise Control (ACC), Lane Change Assist and Driver Classification/Smart Airbag Deployment by camera imagers based systems.

  4. Forward-looking automotive radar sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganci, Paul; Potts, Steven; Okurowski, Frank

    1995-12-01

    For intelligent cruise control (ICC) and forward looking collision warning systems to be successful products they must provide robust performance in a complex roadway environment. Inconveniences caused by dropped tracks and nuisance alarms will not be tolerated by consumers, and would likely result in rejection of these new technologies in the marketplace. The authors report on a low-cost automotive millimeter wave (MMW) radar design which addresses shortcomings associated with previously reported ICC system implementations. The importance of the sensor's ability to identify and separately track all obstacles in the field of view is discussed. The applicability of the MMW's FM-CW sensor implementation to collision warning systems is also discussed.

  5. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, A.; Fitzek, F.; Rasshofer, R. H.

    2012-09-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insights into the object classification process. The impact of raw radar data properties can be directly observed in every layer of the classification system by avoiding machine learning and tracking. This gives information on the limiting factors of raw radar data in terms of classification decision making. To accomplish the very challenging distinction between pedestrians and static objects, five significant and stable object features from the spatial distribution and Doppler information are found. Experimental results with data from a 77 GHz automotive radar sensor show that over 95% of pedestrians can be classified correctly under optimal conditions, which is compareable to modern machine learning systems. The impact of the pedestrian's direction of movement, occlusion, antenna beam elevation angle, linear vehicle movement, and other factors are investigated and discussed. The results show that under real life conditions, radar only based pedestrian recognition is limited due to insufficient Doppler frequency and spatial resolution as well as antenna side lobe effects.

  6. Industrial waste recycling at an automotive component manufacturing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffurs, J.A.; Hubler, R.L.; Behaylo, D.P.

    1995-09-01

    The AC Rochester Division of General Motors Corporation (GM) develops and manufacturers automotive components for engine management systems at nine facilities in the US. Its largest facility is located in flint, Michigan, and is known as the Flint East site. The Flint East site covers nearly two square miles and consists of several plants housing manufacturing operations for spark plugs, glow plugs, oil filters, air filters, air cleaner assemblies, fuel pumps, fuel level sensors, cruise control systems, and other components. The volume and diversity of the scrap and wastes generated from these operations require skillful waste management to provide environmentally safe and cost-effective disposal options. Over time, a full-scale recycling and waste disposal operation evolved at Flint East. The operation has grown over the past thirty years to handle over 68,000 tons of material annually. Flint East`s program is regarded as a model industrial waste reduction and recycling operation. Elements of the program are presented here as a guide to establishing a successful industrial recycling program.

  7. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. 10.84 Section 10.84 Customs Duties U.S... CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Automotive Products § 10.84...

  8. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. 10.84 Section 10.84 Customs Duties U.S... CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Automotive Products § 10.84...

  9. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. 10.84 Section 10.84 Customs Duties U.S... CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Automotive Products § 10.84...

  10. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. 10.84 Section 10.84 Customs Duties U.S... CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Automotive Products § 10.84...

  11. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. 10.84 Section 10.84 Customs Duties U.S... CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Automotive Products § 10.84...

  12. Defective Reduction in Automotive Headlining Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittichai, Saranya; Chutima, Parames

    2016-05-01

    In an automobile parts manufacturing company, currently the headlining process has a lot of wastes resulting in a high cost of quality per year. In this paper, the Six Sigma method is used to reduce the defects in the headlining process. Cause-and-effect matrix and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) were adopted to screen the factors that affect the quality of headlining. The 2k-1 fractional factorials design was also use to determine the potential preliminary root causes. The full factorial experiments was conducted to identify appropriate settings of the significant factors. The result showed that the process can reduce the defects of headlining from 12.21% to 6.95%

  13. The digital compensation technology system for automotive pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bin; Li, Quanling; Lu, Yi; Luo, Zai

    2010-12-01

    Piezoresistive pressure sensor be made of semiconductor silicon based on Piezoresistive phenomenon, has many characteristics. But since the temperature effect of semiconductor, the performance of silicon sensor is also changed by temperature, and the pressure sensor without temperature drift can not be produced at present. This paper briefly describe the principles of sensors, the function of pressure sensor and the various types of compensation method, design the detailed digital compensation program for automotive pressure sensor. Simulation-Digital mixed signal conditioning is used in this dissertation, adopt signal conditioning chip MAX1452. AVR singlechip ATMEGA128 and other apparatus; fulfill the design of digital pressure sensor hardware circuit and singlechip hardware circuit; simultaneously design the singlechip software; Digital pressure sensor hardware circuit is used to implementing the correction and compensation of sensor; singlechip hardware circuit is used to implementing to controll the correction and compensation of pressure sensor; singlechip software is used to implementing to fulfill compensation arithmetic. In the end, it implement to measure the output of sensor, and contrast to the data of non-compensation, the outcome indicates that the compensation precision of compensated sensor output is obviously better than non-compensation sensor, not only improving the compensation precision but also increasing the stabilization of pressure sensor.

  14. The digital compensation technology system for automotive pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bin; Li, Quanling; Lu, Yi; Luo, Zai

    2011-05-01

    Piezoresistive pressure sensor be made of semiconductor silicon based on Piezoresistive phenomenon, has many characteristics. But since the temperature effect of semiconductor, the performance of silicon sensor is also changed by temperature, and the pressure sensor without temperature drift can not be produced at present. This paper briefly describe the principles of sensors, the function of pressure sensor and the various types of compensation method, design the detailed digital compensation program for automotive pressure sensor. Simulation-Digital mixed signal conditioning is used in this dissertation, adopt signal conditioning chip MAX1452. AVR singlechip ATMEGA128 and other apparatus; fulfill the design of digital pressure sensor hardware circuit and singlechip hardware circuit; simultaneously design the singlechip software; Digital pressure sensor hardware circuit is used to implementing the correction and compensation of sensor; singlechip hardware circuit is used to implementing to controll the correction and compensation of pressure sensor; singlechip software is used to implementing to fulfill compensation arithmetic. In the end, it implement to measure the output of sensor, and contrast to the data of non-compensation, the outcome indicates that the compensation precision of compensated sensor output is obviously better than non-compensation sensor, not only improving the compensation precision but also increasing the stabilization of pressure sensor.

  15. Safeguarding teleoperation using automotive radar sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesbrecht, Jared; Fairbrother, Blaine

    2011-05-01

    The Multi-Agent Tactical Sentry Unmanned Ground Vehicle, developed at Defence R&D Canada - Suffield, has been in service with the Canadian Forces for six years. This tele-operated wheeled vehicle provides a capability for point detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear agents. During the service life of this system, it has become apparent that a means of automatically detecting obstacles in tele-operated and semi-autonomous modes would greatly increase the safety and reliability of the vehicle in cluttered or human occupied operating environments. This paper documents the design of such a system based on a 24 GHz automotive radar.

  16. Temperature-compensated miniature cylinder pressure sensor for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, Marek T.

    2004-03-01

    The 1.7 mm diameter pressure sensor utilizes the principle of light intensity changes, transmitted by two optical fibers, upon reflection from a specially shaped, metal diaphragm deflecting under the effect of pressure. In an ultra low-cost and durable design suitable for automotive applications the sensor compensates for all major temperature effects encountered in combustion engines. The auto-referencing function performed by the sensor"s signal conditioner compensates for the temperature induced LED, photodiode, and fiber-to-opto-electronics coupling errors, sensor thermal drift, as well as fiber bending related light intensity changes. The direct bonding of optical fibers to the photodiode and LED chips results in minimum thermal errors and high part-to-part consistency. Sensor head materials and dimensions are optimized to compensate for the sensitivity changes associated with the diaphragm"s Young"s modulus temperature dependence. The miniature signal conditioner, based on an LED-photodiode transceiver and an ASIC, can be integrated within an automotive connector or a package small enough to fit inside the engine head. Over the signal conditioner temperature range of -40°C to 150°C and the sensor head continuous range of -40°C to 300°C a typical total accuracy of 1-2% is achieved.

  17. DC-offset effect cancelation method using mean-padding FFT for automotive UWB radar sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Yeonghwan; Kim, Sang-Dong; Lee, Jong-Hun

    2011-06-01

    To improve road safety and realize intelligent transportation, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) radars sensor in the 24 GHz domain are currently under development for many automotive applications. Automotive UWB radar sensor must be small, require low power and inexpensive. By employing a direct conversion receiver, automotive UWB radar sensor is able to meet size and cost reduction requirements. We developed Automotive UWB radar sensor for automotive applications. The developed receiver of the automotive radar sensor is direct conversion architecture. Direct conversion architecture poses a dc-offset problem. In automotive UWB radar, Doppler frequency is used to extract velocity. The Doppler frequency of a vehicle can be detected using zero-padding Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). However, a zero-padding FFT error is occurs due to DC-offset problem in automotive UWB radar sensor using a direct conversion receiver. Therefore, dc-offset problem corrupts velocity ambiguity. In this paper we proposed a mean-padding method to reduce zero-padding FFT error due to DC-offset in automotive UWB radar using direct conversion receiver, and verify our proposed method with computer simulation and experiment using developed automotive UWB radar sensor. We present the simulation results and experiment result to compare velocity measurement probability of the zero-padding FFT and the mean-padding FFT. The proposed algorithm simulated using Matlab and experimented using designed the automotive UWB radar sensor in a real road environment. The proposed method improved velocity measurement probability.

  18. Vision-based traffic data collection sensor for automotive applications.

    PubMed

    Llorca, David F; Sánchez, Sergio; Ocaña, Manuel; Sotelo, Miguel A

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a complete vision sensor onboard a moving vehicle which collects the traffic data in its local area in daytime conditions. The sensor comprises a rear looking and a forward looking camera. Thus, a representative description of the traffic conditions in the local area of the host vehicle can be computed. The proposed sensor detects the number of vehicles (traffic load), their relative positions and their relative velocities in a four-stage process: lane detection, candidates selection, vehicles classification and tracking. Absolute velocities (average road speed) and global positioning are obtained after combining the outputs provided by the vision sensor with the data supplied by the CAN Bus and a GPS sensor. The presented experiments are promising in terms of detection performance and accuracy in order to be validated for applications in the context of the automotive industry. PMID:22315572

  19. Vision-Based Traffic Data Collection Sensor for Automotive Applications

    PubMed Central

    Llorca, David F.; Sánchez, Sergio; Ocaña, Manuel; Sotelo, Miguel. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a complete vision sensor onboard a moving vehicle which collects the traffic data in its local area in daytime conditions. The sensor comprises a rear looking and a forward looking camera. Thus, a representative description of the traffic conditions in the local area of the host vehicle can be computed. The proposed sensor detects the number of vehicles (traffic load), their relative positions and their relative velocities in a four-stage process: lane detection, candidates selection, vehicles classification and tracking. Absolute velocities (average road speed) and global positioning are obtained after combining the outputs provided by the vision sensor with the data supplied by the CAN Bus and a GPS sensor. The presented experiments are promising in terms of detection performance and accuracy in order to be validated for applications in the context of the automotive industry. PMID:22315572

  20. Vision-based traffic data collection sensor for automotive applications.

    PubMed

    Llorca, David F; Sánchez, Sergio; Ocaña, Manuel; Sotelo, Miguel A

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a complete vision sensor onboard a moving vehicle which collects the traffic data in its local area in daytime conditions. The sensor comprises a rear looking and a forward looking camera. Thus, a representative description of the traffic conditions in the local area of the host vehicle can be computed. The proposed sensor detects the number of vehicles (traffic load), their relative positions and their relative velocities in a four-stage process: lane detection, candidates selection, vehicles classification and tracking. Absolute velocities (average road speed) and global positioning are obtained after combining the outputs provided by the vision sensor with the data supplied by the CAN Bus and a GPS sensor. The presented experiments are promising in terms of detection performance and accuracy in order to be validated for applications in the context of the automotive industry.

  1. Simulation of Assembly Line Balancing in Automotive Component Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Muthanna; Mohd Razali, Noraini

    2016-02-01

    This study focuses on the simulation of assembly line balancing in an automotive component in a vendor manufacturing company. A mixed-model assembly line of charcoal canister product that is used in an engine system as fuel's vapour filter was observed and found that the current production rate of the line does not achieve customer demand even though the company practices buffer stock for two days in advance. This study was carried out by performing detailed process flow and time studies along the line. To set up a model of the line by simulation, real data was taken from a factory floor and tested for distribution fit. The data gathered was then transformed into a simulation model. After verification of the model by comparing it with the actual system, it was found that the current line efficiency is not at its optimum condition due to blockage and idle time. Various what-if analysis were applied to eliminate the cause. Proposed layout shows that the line is balanced by adding buffer to avoid the blockage. Whereas, manpower is added the stations to reduce process time therefore reducing idling time. The simulation study was carried out using ProModel software.

  2. Electrochemical NO{sub x} Sensors for Automotive Diesel Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L P; Pham, A Q; Glass, R S

    2002-11-25

    New emissions regulations will increase the need for compact, inexpensive sensors for monitoring and control of automotive exhaust gas pollutants. Species of interest include hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}). The current work is directed towards the development of fast, high sensitivity electrochemical NO{sub x} sensors for automotive diesel applications. We have investigated potentiometric NO sensors with good sensitivity and fast response when operated in 10% O{sub 2}. The sensors consist of yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates attached with NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} sensing electrodes and Pt reference electrodes. A composite NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Rh sensing electrode is shown to give significantly faster response than NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} alone. The exact role of the Rh in enhancing the response speed is not clear at present. However, the Rh appears to accumulate at the contacts between the NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles and may enhance the inter-particle electronic conduction. Ongoing testing of these sensors is being performed to elucidate the sensing mechanisms and to quantify cross sensitivity to, for example, NO{sub 2}.

  3. Radar sensors for automotive collision warning and avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosch, Theodore O.

    1995-06-01

    Many different sensors and systems, from sonar to machine vision, have been installed on ground vehicles and automobiles. This paper describes the use of radar to improve driving safety and convenience. Radars are valuable sensors for all weather operation and experiments with automotive radar sensors have been conducted for over 40 years. This paper shows the advantages and disadvantages of applying microwave and millimeter wave radar to obstacle detection and collision avoidance in a roadway environment. The performance differences between avoidance and warning sensors are discussed and a problem set is devised for a typical forward-looking collision warning application. Various radar systems have been applied to this problem that include pulse and continuous wave transceivers. These system types are evaluated as to their suitability as a collision warning sensor. The various possible solutions are reduced to a small number of candidate radar types, and one such radar was chosen for full scale development. A low cost frequency modulated/continuous wave radar system was developed for automotive collision warning. The radar is attached to the sun visor inside the vehicle, and has been in operation for over four years. The radar monitors the range and range-rate of other vehicles and obstacles, and warns the driver when it perceives that a dangerous situation is developing. A system description and measured data is presented that shows how the 24.075 to 24.175 GHz band can be used for an adequate early warning system.

  4. 78 FR 16247 - Approval for Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 203, SGL Automotive Carbon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 203, SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing), Moses Lake, Washington Pursuant to its authority... requested export-only manufacturing authority on behalf of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, within FTZ...

  5. 76 FR 72674 - Approval for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Subzone 29F, Hitachi Automotive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ..., notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (76 FR 9000, 2-16-2011) and the..., Hitachi Automotive Systems Americas, Inc., (Automotive Components), Harrodsburg, KY Pursuant to its... manufacturing authority on behalf of Hitachi Automotive Systems Americas, Inc. (Hitachi), operator of...

  6. Technology Roadmap for Energy Reduction in Automotive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2008-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), in collaboration with the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR), hosted a technology roadmap workshop in Troy, Michigan in May 2008. The purpose of the workshop was to explore opportunities for energy reduction, discuss the challenges and barriers that might need to be overcome, and identify priorities for future R&D. The results of the workshop are presented in this report.

  7. Hydrogen gas sensor and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    McKee, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A sensor for measuring the pressure of hydrogen gas in a nuclear reactor, and method of manufacturing the same. The sensor comprises an elongated tube of hydrogen permeable material which is connected to a pressure transducer through a feedthrough tube which passes through a wall at the boundary of the region in which hydrogen is present. The tube is pressurized and flushed with hydrogen gas at an elevated temperature during the manufacture of the sensor in order to remove all gasses other than hydrogen from the device.

  8. Embedding Sensors During Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sbriglia, Lexey Raylene

    2015-08-10

    This PowerPoint presentation had the following headings: Fused deposition modeling (FDM); Open source 3D printing; Objectives; Vibration analysis; Equipment; Design; Material choices; Failure causes, such as tension, bubbling; Potential solutions; Simulations; Embedding the sensors; LabView programming; Alternate data acquisition; Problem and proposed solution; and, Conclusions

  9. LOW-COST COMPOSITES IN VEHICLE MANUFACTURE - Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Holbery, Jim; Houston, Dan

    2006-11-01

    In the last decade, natural fiber composites have experienced rapid growth in the European automotive market, and this trend appears to be global in scale, provided the cost and performance is justified against competing technologies. However, mass reduction, recyclability, and performance requirements can be met today by competing systems such as injection-molded unreinforced thermoplastics; natural fiber composites will continue to expand their role in automotive applications only if such technical challenges as moisture stability, fiber-polymer interface compatibility, and consistent, repeatable fiber sources are available to supply automotive manufacturers. Efforts underway by Tier I and II automotive suppliers to explore hybrid glass-natural fiber systems, as well as applications that exploit such capabilities as natural fiber sound dampening characteristics, could very well have far-reaching effects. In addition, the current development underway of bio-based resins such as Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biodegradable polyesters and bio-based polyols could provide fully bio-based composite options to future automotive designers. In short, the development of the natural fiber composite market would make a positive impact on farmers and small business owners on a global scale, reduce US reliance on foreign oil, improve environmental quality through the development of a sustainable resource supply chain, and achieve a better CO2 balance over the vehicle?s lifetime with near-zero net greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Statistical sensor fusion of ECG data using automotive-grade sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, A.; Rehg, T.; Rasshofer, R.

    2015-11-01

    Driver states such as fatigue, stress, aggression, distraction or even medical emergencies continue to be yield to severe mistakes in driving and promote accidents. A pathway towards improving driver state assessment can be found in psycho-physiological measures to directly quantify the driver's state from physiological recordings. Although heart rate is a well-established physiological variable that reflects cognitive stress, obtaining heart rate contactless and reliably is a challenging task in an automotive environment. Our aim was to investigate, how sensory fusion of two automotive grade sensors would influence the accuracy of automatic classification of cognitive stress levels. We induced cognitive stress in subjects and estimated levels from their heart rate signals, acquired from automotive ready ECG sensors. Using signal quality indices and Kalman filters, we were able to decrease Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of heart rate recordings by 10 beats per minute. We then trained a neural network to classify the cognitive workload state of subjects from heart rate and compared classification performance for ground truth, the individual sensors and the fused heart rate signal. We obtained an increase of 5 % higher correct classification by fusing signals as compared to individual sensors, staying only 4 % below the maximally possible classification accuracy from ground truth. These results are a first step towards real world applications of psycho-physiological measurements in vehicle settings. Future implementations of driver state modeling will be able to draw from a larger pool of data sources, such as additional physiological values or vehicle related data, which can be expected to drive classification to significantly higher values.

  11. Future directions for the development of virtual reality within an automotive manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Glyn; Salanitri, Davide; Waterfield, Brian

    2016-03-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can reduce time and costs, and lead to increases in quality, in the development of a product. Given the pressure on car companies to reduce time-to-market and to continually improve quality, the automotive industry has championed the use of VR across a number of applications, including design, manufacturing, and training. This paper describes interviews with 11 engineers and employees of allied disciplines from an automotive manufacturer about their current physical and virtual properties and processes. The results guided a review of research findings and scientific advances from the academic literature, which formed the basis of recommendations for future developments of VR technologies and applications. These include: develop a greater range of virtual contexts; use multi-sensory simulation; address perceived differences between virtual and real cars; improve motion capture capabilities; implement networked 3D technology; and use VR for market research. PMID:26164106

  12. Future directions for the development of virtual reality within an automotive manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Glyn; Salanitri, Davide; Waterfield, Brian

    2016-03-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can reduce time and costs, and lead to increases in quality, in the development of a product. Given the pressure on car companies to reduce time-to-market and to continually improve quality, the automotive industry has championed the use of VR across a number of applications, including design, manufacturing, and training. This paper describes interviews with 11 engineers and employees of allied disciplines from an automotive manufacturer about their current physical and virtual properties and processes. The results guided a review of research findings and scientific advances from the academic literature, which formed the basis of recommendations for future developments of VR technologies and applications. These include: develop a greater range of virtual contexts; use multi-sensory simulation; address perceived differences between virtual and real cars; improve motion capture capabilities; implement networked 3D technology; and use VR for market research.

  13. Brief: Lean drilling - Introducing the application of automotive lean manufacturing techniques to well construction

    SciTech Connect

    Wardt, J.P. de

    1995-02-01

    The automotive industry has advanced from craft production through mass production to lean production, which combines the advantages of craft and mass production while avoiding the high cost of the former and the rigidity of the latter. The application of lean production created the most developed form of customer/supplier relationships and achieved the highest productivity and quality in the industry. Studies have shown that productivity exceeds mass production by as much as 50% and that the associated highest level of quality is free. This outstanding result was not achieved through automation but through development and adoption of new organizational concepts. The drilling industry today most closely resembles the automotive craft production of the past; mass production has not been adopted owing mainly to the nonrepetitive nature of drilling activities. Studies have concluded that lean manufacturing can replace both mass and craft production in all areas of industrial activity. Consequently, lean manufacturing has the potential to be applied to drilling or, more appropriately, well construction. This paper describes the key elements of lean manufacturing and presents an analogy with the well-construction industry that provides the necessary insight for the well-construction industry to adopt them. The results achieved in the automotive industry show that major cost savings and improvements in quality can be achieved in the well-construction industry through this application.

  14. A survey for rhinitis in an automotive ring manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Uk; Jin, Ku-Won; Koh, Dong-Hee; Kim, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Sang; Park, Doo-Yong

    2008-08-01

    We report findings regarding otolaryngologist-confirmed rhinitis, current exposure to MWF aerosols, fungi, and endotoxins for workers in a plant manufacturing automobile piston rings. Questionnaire data showed that 61.5% of 187 workers exhibited rhinitis-related symptoms. Rhinitis was confirmed in 99 of 115 workers whom were medically examined. Otolaryngologist-confirmed rhinitis was present in 10 of 19 grinding workers (52.6%), 67 of 142 production workers (47.2%), and 22 of 26 quality control (QC) workers (84.6%). These rates are much higher than the rates of rhinitis-related symptoms in automobile plants and other occupational settings and quite high even allowing for the common occurrence of rhinitis in the general population. We found that rhinitis could develop even in workers exposed to less than 0.5mg/m(3) MWF aerosol. The average exposure to fungi exceeded 10 x 10(3) CFU/m(3), a level higher than that reported for other automobile plants. Although we were unable to identify significant risk factors for rhinitis using only the physician-confirmed rhinitis cases, this study concludes that exposure to MWF aerosol, which would include microbes and metals, could contribute to a high occurrence of rhinitis in grinding and production workers. Forty-nine workers (63.6%) of 77 rhinitis patients in grinding and production operations were determined to handle synthetic MWF directly. For QC workers, for whom the prevalence of physician-confirmed rhinitis was highest, exposure to a low level of MWF aerosol, including specific microbe species we couldn't identify, bright light, dry air, and certain work characteristics during inspection are possible risk factors for development of rhinitis. Further studies including identification of fungi species should be conducted so a firm conclusion can be made regarding the development of rhinitis in QC manufacturing plant workers. PMID:18716389

  15. [Emission characteristics and safety evaluation of volatile organic compounds in manufacturing processes of automotive coatings].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Pei-Yuan; Li, Jian-Jun; Liao, Dong-Qi; Tu, Xiang; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in an automotive coating manufacturing enterprise. Air samples were taken from eight different manufacturing areas in three workshops, and the species of VOCs and their concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Safety evaluation was also conducted by comparing the concentration of VOCs with the permissible concentration-short term exposure limit (PC-STEL) regulated by the Ministry of Health. The results showed that fifteen VOCs were detected in the indoor air of the automotive coatings workshop, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, trimethylbenzene and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, Their concentrations widely ranged from 0.51 to 593.14 mg x m(-3). The concentrations of TVOCs were significantly different among different manufacturing processes. Even in the same manufacturing process, the concentrations of each component measured at different times were also greatly different. The predominant VOCs of indoor air in the workshop were identified to be ethylbenzene and butyl acetate. The concentrations of most VOCs exceeded the occupational exposure limits, so the corresponding control measures should be taken to protect the health of the workers.

  16. [Emission characteristics and safety evaluation of volatile organic compounds in manufacturing processes of automotive coatings].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Pei-Yuan; Li, Jian-Jun; Liao, Dong-Qi; Tu, Xiang; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in an automotive coating manufacturing enterprise. Air samples were taken from eight different manufacturing areas in three workshops, and the species of VOCs and their concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Safety evaluation was also conducted by comparing the concentration of VOCs with the permissible concentration-short term exposure limit (PC-STEL) regulated by the Ministry of Health. The results showed that fifteen VOCs were detected in the indoor air of the automotive coatings workshop, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, trimethylbenzene and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, Their concentrations widely ranged from 0.51 to 593.14 mg x m(-3). The concentrations of TVOCs were significantly different among different manufacturing processes. Even in the same manufacturing process, the concentrations of each component measured at different times were also greatly different. The predominant VOCs of indoor air in the workshop were identified to be ethylbenzene and butyl acetate. The concentrations of most VOCs exceeded the occupational exposure limits, so the corresponding control measures should be taken to protect the health of the workers. PMID:24640895

  17. Micromachined Fabry-Perot interferometric pressure sensor for automotive combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.B.; Yu, C.M.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Sheem, S.K.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, the authors report a dynamic cylinder pressure sensor for automotive combustion engine. The pressure is sensed by measuring the pressure-induced deflection of a membrane via a Fabry-Perot optical interferometric effect. The sensor is micromachined on a silicon wafer to minimize the cost and the size and to enhance the device quality in high-volume production mode. As a preliminary test, they measured the pressure of an air compressor using the micromachined miniature sensor.

  18. The use of fatigue tests in the manufacture of automotive steel wheels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozyner, P.; Rychlik, A.

    2016-08-01

    Production for the automotive industry must be particularly sensitive to the aspect of safety and reliability of manufactured components. One of such element is the rim, where durability is a feature which significantly affects the safety of transport. Customer complaints regarding this element are particularly painful for the manufacturer because it is almost always associated with the event of accident or near-accident. Authors propose original comprehensive method of quality control at selected stages of rims production: supply of materials, production and pre-shipment inspections. Tests by the proposed method are carried out on the originally designed inertial fatigue machine The machine allows bending fatigue tests in the frequency range of 0 to 50 Hz at controlled increments of vibration amplitude. The method has been positively verified in one of rims factory in Poland. Implementation resulted in an almost complete elimination of complaints resulting from manufacturing and material errors.

  19. Application of commercial sensor manufacturing methods for NOx/NH3 mixed potential sensors for emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Brosha, Eric L; Mukundan, Rangachary; Nelson, Mark A; Sekhar, Praveen; Williamson, Todd; Garzon, Fernando H

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to develop a low cost on-board Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x})/Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) sensor that can not only be used for emissions control but has the potential to improve efficiency through better monitoring of the combustion process and feedback control in both vehicle and stationary systems. Over the past decade, Los AJamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a unique class of electrochemical gas sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen and nitrogen oxides. These sensors are based on the mixed-potential phenomenon and are a modification of the existing automotive lambda (oxygen) sensor and have the potential to meet the stringent sensitivity, selectivity and stability requirements of an on-board emissions/engine control sensor system. The current state of the art LANL technology is based on the stabilization of the electrochemical interfaces and relies on an externally heated, hand-made, tape cast device. We are now poised to apply our patented sensing principles in a mass production sensor platform that is more suitable for real world engine-out testing such as on dynamometers for vehicle applications and for exhaust-out testing in heavy boilers/SCR systems in power plants. In this present work, our goal is to advance towards commercialization of this technology by packaging the unique LANL sensor design in a standard automotive sensor-type platform. This work is being performed with the help of a leading US technical ceramics firm, utilizing commercial manufacturing techniques. Initial tape cast platforms with screen printed metal oxide and Pt sensor electrodes have shown promising results but also clearly show the need for us to optimize the electrode and electrolyte compositions/morphologies and interfaces of these devices in order to demonstrate a sensitive, selective, and stable NO{sub x} sensor. Our previous methods and routes to preparing stable and reproducible mixed potential sensors

  20. Lightweighting Automotive Materials for Increased Fuel Efficiency and Delivering Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capabilities to U.S. Manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Steve

    2013-09-11

    Abstract The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), to bring together research and development (R&D) collaborations to develop and accelerate the knowledgebase and infrastructure for lightweighting materials and manufacturing processes for their use in structural and applications in the automotive sector. The purpose/importance of this DOE program: • 2016 CAFÉ standards. • Automotive industry technology that shall adopt the insertion of lightweighting material concepts towards manufacturing of production vehicles. • Development and manufacture of advanced research tools for modeling and simulation (M&S) applications to reduce manufacturing and material costs. • U.S. competitiveness that will help drive the development and manufacture of the next generation of materials. NCMS established a focused portfolio of applied R&D projects utilizing lightweighting materials for manufacture into automotive structures and components. Areas that were targeted in this program: • Functionality of new lightweighting materials to meet present safety requirements. • Manufacturability using new lightweighting materials. • Cost reduction for the development and use of new lightweighting materials. The automotive industry’s future continuously evolves through innovation, and lightweight materials are key in achieving a new era of lighter, more efficient vehicles. Lightweight materials are among the technical advances needed to achieve fuel/energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: • Establish design criteria methodology to identify the best materials for lightweighting. • Employ state-of-the-art design tools for optimum material development for their specific applications. • Match new manufacturing technology to production volume. • Address new process variability with new production-ready processes.

  1. Intelligent Production Monitoring and Control based on Three Main Modules for Automated Manufacturing Cells in the Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Ulrich; Kretzschmann, Ralf; Algebra, A. Vargas Veronica

    2008-06-01

    The automotive industry is distinguished by regionalization and customization of products. As consequence, the diversity of products will increase while the lot sizes will decrease. Thus, more product types will be handled along the process chain and common production paradigms will fail. Although Rapid Manufacturing (RM) methodology will be used for producing small individual lot sizes, new solution for joining and assembling these components are needed. On the other hand, the non-availability of existing operational knowledge and the absence of dynamic and explicit knowledge retrieval minimize the achievement of on-demand capabilities. Thus, in this paper, an approach for an Intelligent Production System will be introduced. The concept is based on three interlinked main modules: a Technology Data Catalogue (TDC) based on an ontology system, an Automated Scheduling Processor (ASP) based on graph theory and a central Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) for real-time sensor/actor communication. The concept is being implemented in a laboratory set-up with several assembly and joining processes and will be experimentally validated in some research and development projects.

  2. Intelligent Production Monitoring and Control based on Three Main Modules for Automated Manufacturing Cells in the Automotive Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Ulrich; Kretzschmann, Ralf; Algebra, A. Vargas Veronica

    2008-06-12

    The automotive industry is distinguished by regionalization and customization of products. As consequence, the diversity of products will increase while the lot sizes will decrease. Thus, more product types will be handled along the process chain and common production paradigms will fail. Although Rapid Manufacturing (RM) methodology will be used for producing small individual lot sizes, new solution for joining and assembling these components are needed. On the other hand, the non-availability of existing operational knowledge and the absence of dynamic and explicit knowledge retrieval minimize the achievement of on-demand capabilities. Thus, in this paper, an approach for an Intelligent Production System will be introduced. The concept is based on three interlinked main modules: a Technology Data Catalogue (TDC) based on an ontology system, an Automated Scheduling Processor (ASP) based on graph theory and a central Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) for real-time sensor/actor communication. The concept is being implemented in a laboratory set-up with several assembly and joining processes and will be experimentally validated in some research and development projects.

  3. Interrogation system for a fiber-Bragg-grating strain sensor for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falciai, Riccardo; Vannini, Andrea

    2001-09-01

    In this paper a derivative spectrometer, utilizing an FFP tunable filter for the wavelength shift detection and an electronic device for the signal processing, was realized and tested for data acquisition and elaboration from a fiber-Bragg-grating strain sensor system for automotive applications. The result of measurements carried out both under static and dynamic conditions have been compared with those performed with a strain gauge.

  4. A new high-integrated weak field sensor for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiessen, T.; Prochaska, M.

    2009-05-01

    Especially in the field of automotive applications smart sensor systems for magnetic field sensing face increasing requirements concerning low cost, low power consumption and high magnetic performance. Over the past years AMR sensors play a decisive role in this application area because of their robustness and stability. In the following a high-integrated smart sensor system for magnetic field sensing is presented. A novel approach for the detection of weak magnetic fields is shown, which is based on an AC-excitation of AMR elements. In contrast to common used sensors this concept is based on a nonlinear AMR element without Barber pole construction. By means of this methodology sensitivity as well as temperature and life time stability is significantly improved, while the production costs compared to common-used sensors are reduced. Within this novel approach new signal conditioning algorithms and analog circuit topologies are presented, which are able to meet low offset and low noise requirements.

  5. Σ-Δ modulator for a programmable gain, low-power, high-linearity automotive sensor interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Rosa, Jose M.; Medeiro, Fernando; Perez-Verdu, Belen; del Rio, Rocio; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Angel

    2003-04-01

    Smart sensors play a critical role in modern automotive electronic systems, covering a wide range of data capturing functions and operating under adverse environmental conditions - temperature range of [-40¦C,175¦C]. In such sensors, the signal provided by transducers is composed of an offset voltage, which depends on the manufacturing process, and a low-frequency signal carrying the information. In practice, the offset voltage is subject to temperature variations, thus causing a shifting of the signal range to be measured. Therefore, the measuring circuit driving the sensor, normally formed by a low-noise preamplifier and an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC), must accommodate the complete range of possible offsets and real signals. In this scenario, the use of ADCs based on Sigma-Delta Modulators (SDMs) is convenient for several reasons. On the one hand, the noise-shaping performed by SDMs allows to achieve high resolution (16-17bits), in the band of interest (10-20kHz), with less power consumption than full Nyquist ADCs. On the other hand, the action of feedback renders SDMs very linear, and high-linearity is a must for automotive applications. Last but not least, the robustness of SDMs with respect to circuit imperfections make them suitable to include programmable gain without significant performance degradation. This feature allows to accommodate the complete range of possible offsets and information signals in a sensor interface with relaxed specifications for the preamplifier circuitry. This paper describes the design and implementation of a third-order cascade (2-1) SDM with programmable gain in a 0.35mm CMOS technology - the type of technology commonly employed for automotive applications (deep submicron is mostly employed for telecom). It is capable of handling signals up to 20-kHz bandwidth with 17-bit resolution. The programmable gain is implemented by a capacitor array whose unitary capacitors are connected or disconnected depending on the value of

  6. Conductometric soot sensor for automotive exhausts: initial studies.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Gunter; Feistkorn, Constanze; Wiegärtner, Sven; Heinrich, Andreas; Brüggemann, Dieter; Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    In order to reduce the tailpipe particulate matter emissions of Diesel engines, Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) are commonly used. Initial studies using a conductometric soot sensor to monitor their filtering efficiency, i.e., to detect a malfunction of the DPF, are presented. The sensors consist of a planar substrate equipped with electrodes on one side and with a heater on the other. It is shown that at constant speed-load points, the time until soot percolation occurs or the resistance itself are reproducible means that can be well correlated with the filtering efficiency of a DPF. It is suggested to use such a sensor setup for the detection of a DPF malfunction. PMID:22294888

  7. Fiber optic force sensor: application to automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javahiraly, Nicolas; Chakari, Ayoub

    2014-09-01

    We propose the study and the design of an ultra sensitive polarimetric torque sensor. The principle is based on the measurement of the torsion angle  induced on the shaft when a torque T is applied on it. This optical torque sensor has been tested for Aluminum, Steel and Plexiglas shafts with different geometries. The torsion angle has been measured with 0,001° accuracy. The torsion angle is then studied as a function of the applied torque. The comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results give us respectively 4.33%, 1.30% and 1.24% for the Plexiglas, the Aluminum and the Steel shafts. These results permit us good perspectives for our applications

  8. Conductometric sensors for monitoring degradation of automotive engine oil.

    PubMed

    Latif, Usman; Dickert, Franz L

    2011-01-01

    Conductometric sensors have been fabricated by applying imprinted polymers as receptors for monitoring engine oil quality. Titania and silica layers are synthesized via the sol-gel technique and used as recognition materials for acidic components present in used lubricating oil. Thin-film gold electrodes forming an interdigitated structure are used as transducers to measure the conductance of polymer coatings. Optimization of layer composition is carried out by varying the precursors, e.g., dimethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DMAPTMS), and aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES). Characterization of these sensitive materials is performed by testing against oil oxidation products, e.g., carbonic acids. The results depict that imprinted aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) polymer is a promising candidate for detecting the age of used lubricating oil. In the next strategy, polyurethane-nanotubes composite as sensitive material is synthesized, producing appreciable differentiation pattern between fresh and used oils at elevated temperature with enhanced sensitivity. PMID:22164094

  9. Conductometric Sensors for Monitoring Degradation of Automotive Engine Oil†

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Usman; Dickert, Franz L.

    2011-01-01

    Conductometric sensors have been fabricated by applying imprinted polymers as receptors for monitoring engine oil quality. Titania and silica layers are synthesized via the sol-gel technique and used as recognition materials for acidic components present in used lubricating oil. Thin-film gold electrodes forming an interdigitated structure are used as transducers to measure the conductance of polymer coatings. Optimization of layer composition is carried out by varying the precursors, e.g., dimethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DMAPTMS), and aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES). Characterization of these sensitive materials is performed by testing against oil oxidation products, e.g., carbonic acids. The results depict that imprinted aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) polymer is a promising candidate for detecting the age of used lubricating oil. In the next strategy, polyurethane-nanotubes composite as sensitive material is synthesized, producing appreciable differentiation pattern between fresh and used oils at elevated temperature with enhanced sensitivity. PMID:22164094

  10. Conductometric sensors for monitoring degradation of automotive engine oil.

    PubMed

    Latif, Usman; Dickert, Franz L

    2011-01-01

    Conductometric sensors have been fabricated by applying imprinted polymers as receptors for monitoring engine oil quality. Titania and silica layers are synthesized via the sol-gel technique and used as recognition materials for acidic components present in used lubricating oil. Thin-film gold electrodes forming an interdigitated structure are used as transducers to measure the conductance of polymer coatings. Optimization of layer composition is carried out by varying the precursors, e.g., dimethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DMAPTMS), and aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES). Characterization of these sensitive materials is performed by testing against oil oxidation products, e.g., carbonic acids. The results depict that imprinted aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) polymer is a promising candidate for detecting the age of used lubricating oil. In the next strategy, polyurethane-nanotubes composite as sensitive material is synthesized, producing appreciable differentiation pattern between fresh and used oils at elevated temperature with enhanced sensitivity.

  11. A Survey on Optimal Signal Processing Techniques Applied to Improve the Performance of Mechanical Sensors in Automotive Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Wilmar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a survey on recent applications of optimal signal processing techniques to improve the performance of mechanical sensors is made. Here, a comparison between classical filters and optimal filters for automotive sensors is made, and the current state of the art of the application of robust and optimal control and signal processing techniques to the design of the intelligent (or smart) sensors that today's cars need is presented through several experimental results that show that the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques is the clear way to go. However, the switch between the traditional methods of designing automotive sensors and the new ones cannot be done overnight because there are some open research issues that have to be solved. This paper draws attention to one of the open research issues and tries to arouse researcher's interest in the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques.

  12. A styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/carbon nanotube-based smart force sensor for automotive tire deformation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Min-Young; Kim, Ji-Sik; Lee, Ho-Geun; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Gi-Woo

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides a preliminary study on the piezoresistive effect of a styrene-butadiene Rubber (SBR), one of the main ingredients of automotive tire, dispersed with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to explore its feasibility as a force sensor embedded in automotive tires. Typically, the application of CNTs has been successfully applied to the mechanical sensing technology such as a stress/strain and impact sensor. In this study, the potential of using the SBR/CNT as a force sensor for monitoring automotive tire deformation is evaluated for the first time. Experimental results show that the electrical resistance of the SBR/CNT composite changes in response to the sinusoidal loading, as well as static compressive load. These piezoresistive responses of the SBR/CNT composite will be used for sensing the tire deformation caused by the vehicle loading or cracks of tires.

  13. Roadmap for Lean implementation in Indian automotive component manufacturing industry: comparative study of UNIDO Model and ISM Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, J. R.; Mantha, S. S.; Rane, S. B.

    2014-07-01

    The demands for automobiles increased drastically in last two and half decades in India. Many global automobile manufacturers and Tier-1 suppliers have already set up research, development and manufacturing facilities in India. The Indian automotive component industry started implementing Lean practices to fulfill the demand of these customers. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has taken proactive approach in association with Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India (ACMA) and the Government of India to assist Indian SMEs in various clusters since 1999 to make them globally competitive. The primary objectives of this research are to study the UNIDO-ACMA Model as well as ISM Model of Lean implementation and validate the ISM Model by comparing with UNIDO-ACMA Model. It also aims at presenting a roadmap for Lean implementation in Indian automotive component industry. This paper is based on secondary data which include the research articles, web articles, doctoral thesis, survey reports and books on automotive industry in the field of Lean, JIT and ISM. ISM Model for Lean practice bundles was developed by authors in consultation with Lean practitioners. The UNIDO-ACMA Model has six stages whereas ISM Model has eight phases for Lean implementation. The ISM-based Lean implementation model is validated through high degree of similarity with UNIDO-ACMA Model. The major contribution of this paper is the proposed ISM Model for sustainable Lean implementation. The ISM-based Lean implementation framework presents greater insight of implementation process at more microlevel as compared to UNIDO-ACMA Model.

  14. New six degree of freedom position sensor greatly improves flexible manufacturing -- but will manufacturers adapt?

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C. S., LLNL

    1998-03-02

    The manufacturing industry needs better multi-dimensional position sensors to keep pace with increased speed and capabilities of automated equipment and robots. The market for laser and vision sensors is growing at a rapid speed; however, most of the robot- mounted sensors are one or two dimensional, three dimensional at most, while the robotics industry has progressed to 6-axis machines, leaving a gross mismatch in its capability to perform and sense the required task. A new laser sensor provides information. on up to six degrees of position, enabling robots to sense as well as it can physically manipulate, and opening the door to vast improvements in flexible manufacturing. To expedite these improvements, the manufacturing industry should take a lead and not let an outdated norm hinder implementation.

  15. The costs of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in automotive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Punnett, L

    1999-01-01

    Inadequate application of ergonomic principles to the design of workplaces and individual jobs has adverse consequences for worker health and safety, especially in terms of strains, sprains, and other musculoskeletal disorders. In addition to the human pain and suffering, other losses are externalized to workers, with adverse financial and psychosocial impacts. There are also costs to employers through workers' compensation claims, scrap, and decreased production quality, medical insurance premiums, labor turnover, and adverse impacts on labor relations, although many of these are not linked by traditional accounting methods to ergonomic problems per se. Data collected in five plants of two major U.S. automotive manufacturing companies in the last decade have been used to estimate some of the costs associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), only some of which resulted in workers compensation claims. In one plant in 1984-85, the payroll cost of all back and shoulder disorders was at least $320 per year per worker, not including workers' compensation premiums or claims paid. A large proportion of these costs were accrued by "unreported" cases, that is, cases that either had never been reported to the plant clinic or had been reported in the past and were considered administratively to have recovered. In the other four plants, annual costs associated with in-plant medical visits for MSDs in 1989-93 were almost as high as those resulting from compensation claims. At least one-half of these disorders were estimated to be attributable to physical ergonomic exposures in the workplace and thus preventable. These data are consistent with estimates by others that the real costs to employers are at least two to three times the amount paid in workers' compensation cases, and that at least 50 percent of all work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the working population could be prevented by appropriate ergonomic job design. Furthermore, recent

  16. Infrared in automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predmesky, Ronald L.; Zaluzec, Matthew J.

    1997-04-01

    As the automotive industry continues to develop advanced materials and manufacturing processes, infrared imaging has the potential to become a major tool in process monitoring and closed loop process control. This paper reviews five novel applications of infrared imaging in applications such as product testing, component manufacture, and vehicle assembly. Infrared was found to be effective as a diagnostics tool for characterizing disc brake systems and electronic engine control sensors. The effectiveness of infrared to qualify fuel nozzle backspray was used to optimize hardware design for fuel systems. Finally, infrared was found to be useful in vehicle assembly operations in the installation of windshield glass and instrument panel hardware where visual inspection was impractical. The speed of image capture and the availability of image processing software for real time image processing and closed loop process control will no doubt find more applications as infrared imaging finds its niche in the automotive industry.

  17. Further Structural Intelligence for Sensors Cluster Technology in Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mekid, Samir

    2006-01-01

    With the ever increasing complex sensing and actuating tasks in manufacturing plants, intelligent sensors cluster in hybrid networks becomes a rapidly expanding area. They play a dominant role in many fields from macro and micro scale. Global object control and the ability to self organize into fault-tolerant and scalable systems are expected for high level applications. In this paper, new structural concepts of intelligent sensors and networks with new intelligent agents are presented. Embedding new functionalities to dynamically manage cooperative agents for autonomous machines are interesting key enabling technologies most required in manufacturing for zero defects production.

  18. High-power pulsed diode laser for automotive scanning radar sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Yuji; Matsushita, Noriyuki; Kato, Hisaya; Abe, Katsunori; Atsumi, Kinya

    2000-02-01

    High performance pulsed AlGaAs/GaAs wide stripe diode laser has been developed for the automotive distance-measuring scanning radar sensor. The laser diode is required high output power of 15 W and a long time reliability in spite of being used in a harsh environment such as wide temperature range, mechanical vibrations at the front bumper and so on. The device is designed by employing a multiple quantum well structure as an active layer for high output power with low drive current and high temperature operations. Moreover we reduce catastrophic optical damage power level and control the beam divergence angle by introducing optimized optical waveguide layers. In the chips bonding part, we developed a new thin film Au-Sn-Ni solder system. The bonding temperature can be lowered by using this system, whereby the thermal damage to the laser diode can be reduced. Furthermore, highly stable bonding is carried out by improving wetting ability in this system. We have achieved more than 22 W light output power at 20A pulse current under room temperature and more than 16 W light output power under 90 degrees Celsius. High reliability over 10,000 hours is performed for automotive use under pulsed operation at 90 degrees Celsius, 50 ns pulse width, 8 kHz frequency and 15 W light output power.

  19. Closing the Loop with Sensors in Commercial Building Systems: Applying Lessons from Automotive Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantese, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    Automotive systems have evolved extensively over the past 50 years, providing a fully integrated system of sub-systems that work in concert for optimal vehicle level closed loop control. In this talk we look at several automotive sub-systems: stability and control, safety and security, emissions and comfort, diagnostics and maintenance, infotainment and communications; with an eye toward understanding their technology drivers and associated value propositions. Conversely, we examine how commercial building systems currently are represented as a collection of sub-systems that often work independently of each other for local optimization, often relying upon open loop control systems developed and installed decades ago. Reasoning primarily by analogy we explore opportunities for energy and efficiency, comfort and environment, and safety/security; asking whether there is sufficient value associated with a new class of building sensors and how those technologies might be brought to bear in improving performance. Finally, we examine the fundamental architecture of detection systems built upon sensing elements, with the aim of understanding trade-offs between: detection, false alarm rate, power, and cost.

  20. Manufacturing of Wearable Sensors for Human Health and Performance Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Azar

    2015-03-01

    Continuous monitoring of physiological and biological parameters is expected to improve performance and medical outcomes by assessing overall health status and alerting for life-saving interventions. Continuous monitoring of these parameters requires wearable devices with an appropriate form factor (lightweight, comfortable, low energy consuming and even single-use) to avoid disrupting daily activities thus ensuring operation relevance and user acceptance. Many previous efforts to implement remote and wearable sensors have suffered from high cost and poor performance, as well as low clinical and end-use acceptance. New manufacturing and system level design approaches are needed to make the performance and clinical benefits of these sensors possible while satisfying challenging economic, regulatory, clinical, and user-acceptance criteria. In this talk we will review several recent design and manufacturing efforts aimed at designing and building prototype wearable sensors. We will discuss unique opportunities and challenges provided by additive manufacturing, including 3D printing, to drive innovation through new designs, faster prototyping and manufacturing, distributed networks, and new ecosystems. We will also show alternative hybrid self-assembly based integration techniques for low cost large scale manufacturing of single use wearable devices. Coauthors: Prabhjot Singh and Jeffrey Ashe.

  1. Catalysts as sensors--a promising novel approach in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment.

    PubMed

    Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NO(x) traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NO(x)-loading of lean NO(x) traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters. PMID:22163575

  2. Catalysts as sensors--a promising novel approach in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment.

    PubMed

    Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NO(x) traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NO(x)-loading of lean NO(x) traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters.

  3. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from Manufacturing and Automotive Career Pathway Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from automotive and…

  4. Quality control of automotive engine oils with mass-sensitive chemical sensors--QCMs and molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Dickert, F L; Forth, P; Lieberzeit, P A; Voigt, G

    2000-04-01

    Molecularly imprinted polyurethanes were used as sensor materials for monitoring the degradation of automotive engine oils. Imprinting with characteristic oils permits the analysis of these complex mixtures without accurately knowing their composition. Mass-sensitive quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) coated with such layers exhibit mass effects in addition to frequency shifts caused by viscosity, which can be compensated by an uncoated quartz or a non-imprint layer. Incorporation of degradation products into the imprinted coatings is a bulk phenomenon, which is proven by variation of the sensor layer height. Therefore, the resulting sensor effects are determined by the degradation products in the oil. PMID:11227411

  5. Quality control of automotive engine oils with mass-sensitive chemical sensors--QCMs and molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Dickert, F L; Forth, P; Lieberzeit, P A; Voigt, G

    2000-04-01

    Molecularly imprinted polyurethanes were used as sensor materials for monitoring the degradation of automotive engine oils. Imprinting with characteristic oils permits the analysis of these complex mixtures without accurately knowing their composition. Mass-sensitive quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) coated with such layers exhibit mass effects in addition to frequency shifts caused by viscosity, which can be compensated by an uncoated quartz or a non-imprint layer. Incorporation of degradation products into the imprinted coatings is a bulk phenomenon, which is proven by variation of the sensor layer height. Therefore, the resulting sensor effects are determined by the degradation products in the oil.

  6. Electrooptic polymer voltage sensor and method of manufacture thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottsche, Allan (Inventor); Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An optical voltage sensor utilizing an electrooptic polymer is disclosed for application to electric power distribution systems. The sensor, which can be manufactured at low cost in accordance with a disclosed method, measures voltages across a greater range than prior art sensors. The electrooptic polymer, which replaces the optical crystal used in prior art sensors, is sandwiched directly between two high voltage electrodes. Voltage is measured by fiber optical means, and no voltage division is required. The sample of electrooptic polymer is fabricated in a special mold and later mounted in a sensor housing. Alternatively, mold and sensor housing may be identical. The sensor housing is made out of a machinable polymeric material and is equipped with two opposing optical windows. The optical windows are mounted in the bottom of machined holes in the wall of the mold. These holes provide for mounting of the polarizing optical components and for mounting of the fiber optic connectors. One connecting fiber is equipped with a light emitting diode as a light source. Another connecting fiber is equipped with a photodiode as a detector.

  7. Diagnostics of abnormal combustion in a SI automotive engine using in-cylinder optical combustion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piernikarski, Dariusz; Hunicz, Jacek

    2004-08-01

    The paper presents development of a research project oriented towards application of optical sensors and optical wave-guides for the investigation and diagnostics of the combustion process in the internal-combustion automotive engine. Applied measurement method assumes usage of photometric techniques, and in particular spectrophotometry of the flames existing in the combustion chamber. Emission signal during combustion is picked up by an optical sensor with direct access to the combustion chamber, then transmitted using two parallel fiber-optic bundles. The signal can be filtered with set of interference filters and finally it is converted using grating monochromator or photodetector. The main goal of the project is to develop a laboratory diagnostic system enabling on-line identification of the abnormal combustion phenomena like knocking or misfires (lack of combustion). Extracted synthetic quality indexes will be used in the improvement of combustion process and as a feedback signals in the engine control algorithms. The paper is illustrated with some results obtained during previous experiments.

  8. A high resolution capacitive imaging sensor for manufacturing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, J.L.; Wiczer, J.J.

    1990-09-06

    A high resolution capacitive image sensing technique for measuring edge and surface profiles during manufacturing processes has been invented. A prototype device utilizing this technique consists of two 0.020 in. (500 {mu}m) diameter electrodes fabricated on a printed circuit board with a 0.010 in. (250 {mu}m) gap between them. As the device is mechanically scanned over the workpiece, the spatial variations in the edge or surface to be measured interfere with an electric field imposed between the electrodes, altering the mutual capacitance. The sensor functions as a near field proximity sensor producing range images of surface imperfections. This sensor has been used in applications requiring a preview image of burrs on the edge of a machined part and other processes requiring an inspection image after automated deburring operations. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Sensor tip for a robotic gripper and method of manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, Robert D. (Inventor); Jackson, Gregory T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A sensor tip (10) for use in a robotic hand has a three-dimensional compliant elastomeric body (12) with an outer boundary (22) having a circular base (24) and a convex surface (26) extending therefrom. Four strain transducers (14, 16, 18, and 20) produce electrical signals indicative of the strain at various positions near the boundary of the elastomeric body (12) resulting from forces exerted upon the sensor tip (10) by an object which the robotic hand is manipulating. The transducers (14, 16, 18, and 20) are positioned about the convex surface (26) so as to produce signals that may be decoupled to determine the normal and tangential forces and the applied torque. A buffer amplifier circuit (34), one for each of the transducers (14, 16, 18, and 20), receives the signals and provides quasi-steady state force information. The circuit (34) connects the respective transducer (40) in a feedback loop around an amplifier (36) and has desirable attributes for static charge buffering. The sensor tip (10) is calibrated to determine proportionality constants for the decoupling algorithm for use of a force delivering system (60), which uses voice coils (74) to apply a force that is linearly related to the current introduced to each of the coils (74). A method of manufacture of the sensor tip (10) results in improved bonding between the transducers (14, 16, 18, and 20) and the elastomeric body (12) for better performance and longer life of the sensor tip (10).

  10. Sensor tip for a robotic gripper and method of manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, Robert D. (Inventor); Jackson, Gregory T. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A sensor tip (10) for use in a robotic hand has a three-dimensional compliant elastomeric body (12) with an outer boundary (22) having a circular base (24) and a convex surface (26) extending therefrom. Four strain transducers (14, 16, 18, and 20) produce electrical signals indicative of the strain at various positions near the boundary of the elastomeric body (12) resulting from forces exerted upon the sensor tip (10) by an object which the robotic hand is manipulating. The transducers (14, 16, 18, and 20) are positioned about the convex surface (26) so as to produce signals that may be decoupled to determine the normal and tangential forces and the applied torque. A buffer amplifier circuit (34), one for each of the transducers (14, 16, 18, and 20), receives the signals and provides quasi-steady state force information. The circuit (34) connects the respective transducer (40) in a feedback loop around an amplifier (36) and has desirable attributes for static charge buffering. The sensor tip (10) is calibrated to determine proportionality constants for the decoupling algorithm for use of a force delivering system (60), which uses voice coils (74) to apply a force that is linearly related to the current introduced to each of the coils (74). A method of manufacture of the sensor tip (10) results in improved bonding between the transducers (14, 16, 18, and 20) and the elastomeric body (12) for better performance and longer life of the sensor tip (10).

  11. Dispersion of Heat Flux Sensors Manufactured in Silicon Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ziouche, Katir; Lejeune, Pascale; Bougrioua, Zahia; Leclercq, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the dispersion performances related to the manufacturing process of heat flux sensors realized in CMOS (Complementary metal oxide semi-conductor) compatible 3-in technology. In particular, we have studied the performance dispersion of our sensors and linked these to the physical characteristics of dispersion of the materials used. This information is mandatory to ensure low-cost manufacturing and especially to reduce production rejects during the fabrication process. The results obtained show that the measured sensitivity of the sensors is in the range 3.15 to 6.56 μV/(W/m2), associated with measured resistances ranging from 485 to 675 kΩ. The dispersions correspond to a Gaussian-type distribution with more than 90% determined around average sensitivity Se¯ = 4.5 µV/(W/m2) and electrical resistance R¯ = 573.5 kΩ within the interval between the average and, more or less, twice the relative standard deviation. PMID:27294929

  12. Dispersion of Heat Flux Sensors Manufactured in Silicon Technology.

    PubMed

    Ziouche, Katir; Lejeune, Pascale; Bougrioua, Zahia; Leclercq, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the dispersion performances related to the manufacturing process of heat flux sensors realized in CMOS (Complementary metal oxide semi-conductor) compatible 3-in technology. In particular, we have studied the performance dispersion of our sensors and linked these to the physical characteristics of dispersion of the materials used. This information is mandatory to ensure low-cost manufacturing and especially to reduce production rejects during the fabrication process. The results obtained show that the measured sensitivity of the sensors is in the range 3.15 to 6.56 μV/(W/m²), associated with measured resistances ranging from 485 to 675 kΩ. The dispersions correspond to a Gaussian-type distribution with more than 90% determined around average sensitivity S e ¯ = 4.5 µV/(W/m²) and electrical resistance R ¯ = 573.5 kΩ within the interval between the average and, more or less, twice the relative standard deviation. PMID:27294929

  13. Advanced computational simulation for design and manufacturing of lightweight material components for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Simunovic, S.; Aramayo, G.A.; Zacharia, T.; Toridis, T.G.; Bandak, F.; Ragland, C.L.

    1997-04-01

    Computational vehicle models for the analysis of lightweight material performance in automobiles have been developed through collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, and George Washington University. The vehicle models have been verified against experimental data obtained from vehicle collisions. The crashed vehicles were analyzed, and the main impact energy dissipation mechanisms were identified and characterized. Important structural parts were extracted and digitized and directly compared with simulation results. High-performance computing played a key role in the model development because it allowed for rapid computational simulations and model modifications. The deformation of the computational model shows a very good agreement with the experiments. This report documents the modifications made to the computational model and relates them to the observations and findings on the test vehicle. Procedural guidelines are also provided that the authors believe need to be followed to create realistic models of passenger vehicles that could be used to evaluate the performance of lightweight materials in automotive structural components.

  14. Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of automotive lighting equipment and accessories

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, M.; Couch, B.; Handmaker, A.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a Pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacture who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lac the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) we established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures outboard motors for water craft. Three basic subunits received from other manufacturing plants undergo primarily painting and assembly operations in order to produce the final product. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that paint overspray waste and spent clean-up solvent are generated in large quantities and that significant cost savings could be achieved by installing robotic paint application equipment. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  15. Additive manufacturing of stretchable tactile sensors: Processes, materials, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatani, Morteza

    3D printing technology is becoming more ubiquitous every day especially in the area of smart structures. However, fabrication of multi-material, functional, and smart structures is problematic because of the process and material limitations. This thesis sought to develop a Direct Print Photopolymerization (DPP) fabrication technique that appreciably extends the manufacturing space for the 3D smart structures. This method employs a robotically controlled micro-extrusion of a filament equipped with a photopolymerization process. The ability to use polymers and ultimately their nanocomposites in this process is the advantage of the proposed process over the current fabrication methods in the fabrication of 3D structures featuring mechanical, physical, and electrical functionalities. In addition, this study focused to develop a printable, conductive, and stretchable nanocomposite based on a photocurable and stretchable liquid resin filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). This nanocomposite exhibited piezoresistivity, means its resistivity changes as it deforms. This property is a favorable factor in developing resistance based tactile sensors. They were also able to resist high tensile strains while they showed conductivity. Furthermore, this study offered a possible and low-cost method to have a unique and highly stretchable pressure sensitive polymer. This disruptive pressure sensitive polymer composed of an Ionic Liquid (IL) and a stretchable photopolymer embedded between two layers of Carbon Nanotube (CNTs) based stretchable electrodes. The developed IL-polymer showed both field effect property and piezoresistivity that can detect large tensile strains up 30%. In summary, this research study focused to present feasible methods and materials for printing a 3D smart structure especially in the context of flexible tactile sensors. This study provides a foundation for the future efforts in fabrication of skin like tactile sensors in three-dimensional motifs

  16. Monitoring of manufacturing processes in the automotive industry using indoor location system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, LM; Belu, N.; Rachieru, N.; Mazăre, AG; Anghel, D.-C.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a method for locating the operators, equipment and parts using radio communications systems. Specifically there will be radio transceiver arranged in a network of active and passive radio receivers placed on personnel, equipment or parts. Based on a radio triangulation method, it is determined the location of the all resources and parts involved in manufacturing process. The transceivers communicate with each other via “routers” - also components of the network. Such a structure may extend over large distances even in indoor spaces where there are obstacles (walls between rooms). The location is done by determining the power of transmission signal for at least three end points. The receiver position is then transmitted over the network through routers, to a central server where all positions of the resources are centralized. Our solution is a non-invasive and low cost method for determining resource position in the factory. The system can be used for both resource planning production for current process more efficient and for further analysis of the movement of resources during previous processes with possible adjustments to the workspace and re-planning of resources for future processes.

  17. Miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver) system for use in aerospace and automotive health monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Panahi, Allan; Lopatin, Craig

    2007-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGs) have gained rapid acceptance in aerospace and automotive structural health monitoring applications for the measurement of strain, stress, vibration, acoustics, acceleration, pressure, temperature, moisture, and corrosion distributed at multiple locations within the structure using a single fiber element. The most prominent advantages of FBGs are: small size and light weight, multiple FBG transducers on a single fiber, and immunity to radio frequency interference. A major disadvantage of FBG technology is that conventional state-of-the-art fiber Bragg grating interrogation systems are typically bulky and heavy bench top instruments that are assembled from off-the-shelf fiber optic and optical components integrated with a signal electronics board into an instrument console. Based on the need for a compact FBG interrogation system, this paper describes recent progress towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver TM) system based on multi-channel integrated optic sensor (InOSense) microchip technology. The hybrid InOSense microchip technology enables the integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogators systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm small form factor (SFF) package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation. The sponsor of this program is NAVAIR under a DOD SBIR contract.

  18. Applications of time-frequency analysis to signals from manufacturing and machine monitoring sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Atlas, L.E.; Narayanan, S.B.; Bernard, G.D.

    1996-09-01

    Manufacturing industries are now demanding substantial increases in flexibility, productivity and reliability from their process machines as well as increased quality and value of their products. One important strategy to support this goal is sensor-based, on-line, real-time evaluation of key characteristics of both machines and products, throughout the manufacturing process. Recent advances in time-frequency (TF) analysis are particularly well suited to extracting key vibrational characteristics from monitoring sensors. Thus this paper presents applications of TF analysis to several important manufacturing and machine monitoring tasks, to show the value of these forms of digital signal processing applied to manufacturing.

  19. Dynamic Strain Measurements on Automotive and Aeronautic Composite Components by Means of Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, Alfredo; Chiesura, Gabriele; Luyckx, Geert; Degrieck, Joris; Kaufmann, Markus; Vanlanduit, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of the internal deformations occurring in real-life composite components is a very challenging task, especially for those components that are rather difficult to access. Optical fiber sensors can overcome such a problem, since they can be embedded in the composite materials and serve as in situ sensors. In this article, embedded optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are used to analyze the vibration characteristics of two real-life composite components. The first component is a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer automotive control arm; the second is a glass fiber-reinforced polymer aeronautic hinge arm. The modal parameters of both components were estimated by processing the FBG signals with two interrogation techniques: the maximum detection and fast phase correlation algorithms were employed for the demodulation of the FBG signals; the Peak-Picking and PolyMax techniques were instead used for the parameter estimation. To validate the FBG outcomes, reference measurements were performed by means of a laser Doppler vibrometer. The analysis of the results showed that the FBG sensing capabilities were enhanced when the recently-introduced fast phase correlation algorithm was combined with the state-of-the-art PolyMax estimator curve fitting method. In this case, the FBGs provided the most accurate results, i.e., it was possible to fully characterize the vibration behavior of both composite components. When using more traditional interrogation algorithms (maximum detection) and modal parameter estimation techniques (Peak-Picking), some of the modes were not successfully identified. PMID:26516854

  20. Noninvasive sensors for in-situ process monitoring and control in advanced microelectronics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslehi, Mehrdad M.

    1991-04-01

    The combination of noninvasive in-situ monitoring sensors single-wafer processing modules vacuum-integrated cluster tools and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) can provide a suitable fabrication environment for flexible and high-yield advanced semiconductor device manufacturing. The use of in-situ sensors for monitoring of equipment process and wafer parameters results in increased equipment/process up-time reduced process and device parameter spread improved cluster tool reliability and functionality and reduced overall device manufacturing cycle time. This paper will present an overview of the main features and impact of noninvasive in-situ monitoring sensors for semiconductor device manufacturing applications. Specific examples will be presented for the use of critical sensors in conjunction with cluster tools for advanced CMOS device processing. A noninvasive temperature sensor will be presented which can monitor true wafer temperature via infrared (5. 35 jtm) pyrometery and laser-assisted real-time spectral wafer emissivity measurements. This sensor design eliminates any. temperature measurement errors caused by the heating lamp radiation and wafer emissivity variations. 1. SENSORS: MOTIVATIONS AND IMPACT Semiconductor chip manufacturing factories usually employ well-established statistical process control (SPC) techniques to minimize the process parameter deviations and to increase the device fabrication yield. The conventional fabrication environments rely on controlling a limited set of critical equipment and process parameters (e. g. process pressure gas flow rates substrate temperature RF power etc. ) however most of the significant wafer process and equipment parameters of interest are not monitored in real

  1. Dynamic Strain Measurements on Automotive and Aeronautic Composite Components by Means of Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Alfredo; Chiesura, Gabriele; Luyckx, Geert; Degrieck, Joris; Kaufmann, Markus; Vanlanduit, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of the internal deformations occurring in real-life composite components is a very challenging task, especially for those components that are rather difficult to access. Optical fiber sensors can overcome such a problem, since they can be embedded in the composite materials and serve as in situ sensors. In this article, embedded optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are used to analyze the vibration characteristics of two real-life composite components. The first component is a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer automotive control arm; the second is a glass fiber-reinforced polymer aeronautic hinge arm. The modal parameters of both components were estimated by processing the FBG signals with two interrogation techniques: the maximum detection and fast phase correlation algorithms were employed for the demodulation of the FBG signals; the Peak-Picking and PolyMax techniques were instead used for the parameter estimation. To validate the FBG outcomes, reference measurements were performed by means of a laser Doppler vibrometer. Sensors 2015, 15 27175 The analysis of the results showed that the FBG sensing capabilities were enhanced when the recently-introduced fast phase correlation algorithm was combined with the state-of-the-art PolyMax estimator curve fitting method. In this case, the FBGs provided the most accurate results, i.e. it was possible to fully characterize the vibration behavior of both composite components. When using more traditional interrogation algorithms (maximum detection) and modal parameter estimation techniques (Peak-Picking), some of the modes were not successfully identified. PMID:26516854

  2. Dynamic Strain Measurements on Automotive and Aeronautic Composite Components by Means of Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Alfredo; Chiesura, Gabriele; Luyckx, Geert; Degrieck, Joris; Kaufmann, Markus; Vanlanduit, Steve

    2015-10-26

    The measurement of the internal deformations occurring in real-life composite components is a very challenging task, especially for those components that are rather difficult to access. Optical fiber sensors can overcome such a problem, since they can be embedded in the composite materials and serve as in situ sensors. In this article, embedded optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are used to analyze the vibration characteristics of two real-life composite components. The first component is a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer automotive control arm; the second is a glass fiber-reinforced polymer aeronautic hinge arm. The modal parameters of both components were estimated by processing the FBG signals with two interrogation techniques: the maximum detection and fast phase correlation algorithms were employed for the demodulation of the FBG signals; the Peak-Picking and PolyMax techniques were instead used for the parameter estimation. To validate the FBG outcomes, reference measurements were performed by means of a laser Doppler vibrometer. Sensors 2015, 15 27175 The analysis of the results showed that the FBG sensing capabilities were enhanced when the recently-introduced fast phase correlation algorithm was combined with the state-of-the-art PolyMax estimator curve fitting method. In this case, the FBGs provided the most accurate results, i.e. it was possible to fully characterize the vibration behavior of both composite components. When using more traditional interrogation algorithms (maximum detection) and modal parameter estimation techniques (Peak-Picking), some of the modes were not successfully identified.

  3. Multi-material additive manufacturing of robot components with integrated sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Matt; Cox, Bryan; Galla, Matt; Krueger, Paul S.; Richer, Edmond; Cohen, Adam L.

    2015-06-01

    Fabricating a robotic component comprising 100s of distributed, connected sensors can be very difficult with current approaches. To address these challenges, we are developing a novel additive manufacturing technology to enable the integrated fabrication of robotic structural elements with distributed, interconnected sensors and actuators. The focus is on resistive and capacitive sensors and electromagnetic actuators, though others are anticipated. Anticipated applications beyond robotics include advanced prosthetics, wearable electronics, and defense electronics. This paper presents preliminary results for printing polymers and conductive material simultaneously to form small sensor arrays. Approaches to optimizing sensor performance are discussed.

  4. SixDOF position sensor: enabling manufacturing flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.

    1998-03-24

    A small, non-contact optical sensor invented by the author attaches to a robot (or other machines), enabling the robot to detect objects, adjust its alignment in all six degrees of freedom (SixDOF), and read a task from a code on the part. Thus, the SixDOF sensor provides robots more intelligence to operate autonomously and adapt to changes without human intervention. A description of the sensor is provided. Also, an operating arrangement of a robot using the SixDOF sensor is presented with performance results described.

  5. Research on sensor design for internet of things and laser manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Yao, Jianquan; Guo, Ling; Zhang, Yanchun

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we will introduce the research on sensor design for IOT (Internet of Things) and laser manufacturing, and supporting the establishment of local area IOT. The main contents include studying on the structure designing of silicon micro tilt sensor, data acquisition and processing, addressing implanted and building Local Area IOT with wireless sensor network technology. At last, it is discussed the status and trends of the Internet of Things from the promoters, watchers, pessimists and doers.

  6. A rapid method for identifying and characterizing structural impacts using distributed sensors: An application for automotive pedestrian protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Andrew C.

    This research is motivated by recent activity to improve automotive safety, especially for pedestrians. In many parts of the world today, injuries and fatalities from road accidents are a significant problem. Safety features such as seat restraints and air bags provide considerable levels of protection for car occupants; however, no such protective measures currently exist for pedestrians. Drawing upon the success and effectiveness of occupant air bag systems, current research aims to develop similar devices for pedestrians. These active pedestrian protection systems deploy a safety feature such as an external air bag when a pedestrian is hit by a vehicle. Contact with the front bumper induces a body rotation that may result in a violent head collision. The deployable safety device provides a cushioning surface for the vulnerable pedestrian during impact. The challenge of such a system is an effective sensory unit that can rapidly and correctly discriminate pedestrian impacts from non-pedestrian ones. The fast kinematics of the automobile-pedestrian impact leaves a minimal amount of time for signal processing and computation. This research study focuses on a discrimination scheme that satisfies both the time and accuracy requirements for a proposed sensory system for pedestrian protection. A unique methodology was developed to identify structural impacts using dominant frequency features extracted from sensory data. Contact sensors mounted on the front bumper of an automobile measure the strain response from an impact event. The dominant frequencies obtained from these sensor signals are greatly influenced by the impact object's properties and can be used to discriminate between different objects. Extensive tests were conducted to gather sensor data and validate the proposed methodology and impact discrimination algorithm. Results of the impact tests indicate that the approach is sound, and the sensory system effectively identifies "pedestrian" impacts within a

  7. Process for manufacture of thick film hydrogen sensors

    DOEpatents

    Perdieu, Louisa H.

    2000-09-09

    A thick film process for producing hydrogen sensors capable of sensing down to a one percent concentration of hydrogen in carrier gasses such as argon, nitrogen, and air. The sensor is also suitable to detect hydrogen gas while immersed in transformer oil. The sensor includes a palladium resistance network thick film printed on a substrate, a portion of which network is coated with a protective hydrogen barrier. The process utilizes a sequence of printing of the requisite materials on a non-conductive substrate with firing temperatures at each step which are less than or equal to the temperature at the previous step.

  8. Process for manufacturing shell membrane force and deflection sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yong-Lae (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Black, Richard James (Inventor); Cutkosky, Mark R. (Inventor); Chau, Kelvin K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A sensor for force is formed from an elastomeric cylinder having a region with apertures. The apertures have passageways formed between them, and an optical fiber is introduced into these passageways, where the optical fiber has a grating for measurement of tension positioned in the passageways between apertures. Optionally, a temperature measurement sensor is placed in or around the elastomer for temperature correction, and if required, a copper film may be deposited in the elastomer for reduced sensitivity to spot temperature variations in the elastomer near the sensors.

  9. An ion-drag air mass-flow sensor for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Malaczynski, G.W.; Schroeder, T. )

    1992-04-01

    An air-flow meter, developed primarily for the measurement of intake air flow into an internal combustion engine, is described. The well-known process of corona ion deflection in a gas flow together with proper electrode geometry and a detection scheme provides the conceptual basis for a humidity-insensitive ionic air-flow sensor. Output characteristics of the sensor, such as response time and range of operation, are discussed and compared with those of a production hot-wore meter for the type that is currently used with electronic fuel injection systems.

  10. Thermocouples--The Most Widely Used Temperature Sensor in Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers predict that future developments in nanotechnology will bring incredible, almost inconceivable, change to the manufacturing industry. For now, though, one of technology's most trusted tools remains very relevant: In the field of thermometry, thermocouples are a tried and true technology. As a consequence, material on thermocouples…

  11. Additive manufacturing of a monolithic optical force sensor based on polarization modulation.

    PubMed

    Nierenberger, Mathieu; Lecler, Sylvain; Pfeiffer, Pierre; Geiskopf, François; Guilhem, Mathieu; Renaud, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    One of the specific interests of optical sensors is their compatibility with harsh environments. The polarization modulated force sensor we propose offers this advantage, in addition to low cost and ease of manufacturing thanks to its acrylate 3D printed monolithic design. All the polarization control is indeed achieved using the geometry of a single component making unnecessary future alignments. The complex geometry of the transducer is obtained thanks to the 3D printing process. This process and the resulting material optical properties are described. The sensor concept and the fabrication method are experimentally investigated. A monolithic force sensor in the required range of 20 N is exhibited for application in the field of MR-compatible robotics. The potentiality of 3D printing for optical application in the design of the force sensor is illustrated.

  12. Pyrolyzed-parylene based sensors and method of manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method (and resulting structure) for fabricating a sensing device. The method includes providing a substrate comprising a surface region and forming an insulating material overlying the surface region. The method also includes forming a film of carbon based material overlying the insulating material and treating to the film of carbon based material to pyrolyzed the carbon based material to cause formation of a film of substantially carbon based material having a resistivity ranging within a predetermined range. The method also provides at least a portion of the pyrolyzed carbon based material in a sensor application and uses the portion of the pyrolyzed carbon based material in the sensing application. In a specific embodiment, the sensing application is selected from chemical, humidity, piezoelectric, radiation, mechanical strain or temperature.

  13. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.70 Applicability; description of the automotive...

  14. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.70 Applicability; description of the automotive...

  15. Multifunctional fiber optic sensor for manufacturing of thermoset matrix composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Russell G.; Shinpaugh, Kevin A.; Duncan, Paul G.; Loos, Alfred C.; Claus, Richard O.

    1997-05-01

    Despite the attractive mechanical properties of polymer matrix composites, which include high specific stiffness and strength, their use has been limited in many cost-sensitive applications due to high manufacturing costs. Since the processing of these materials is a major component of the cost of the finished product, the development of adaptive systems using feedback sensors for control of the composite cure process will accelerate the adoption of composites technology for diverse commercial and industrial applications. We present an embeddable fiber optic sensor for monitoring of the cure of thermoset resins by measuring the rheology of the polymer. By coupling a fiber optic strain sensor to an actuator, it is possible to realize a miniature dynamic mechanical analysis system. If the sensor is immersed in a curing thermoset resin, and a time-varying excitation is applied to the actuator, the sensor can be made to vibrate harmonically. By comparing the phase of the excitation to the phase of the resulting strain as detected by the strain sensor, it is possible to derive the loss tangent of the resin, which can be related to the degree of cure of the resin. After the resin hardens, the embedded sensor may be used as a conventional fiber optic strain gage to measure in-service strains.

  16. Electrostatic sensors for SPIDER experiment: design, manufacture of prototypes, and first tests.

    PubMed

    Brombin, M; Spolaore, M; Serianni, G; Barzon, A; Franchin, L; Pasqualotto, R; Pomaro, N; Schiesko, L; Taliercio, C; Trevisan, L

    2014-02-01

    A system of electrostatic sensors has been designed for the SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) experiment, prototype RF source of the ITER NBI (neutral beam injection). A prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested at the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) facility, where the plasma environment is similar to that of SPIDER. Different aspects concerning the mechanical manufacturing and the signal conditioning are presented, among them the RF compensation adopted to reduce the RF effects which could lead to overestimated values of the electron temperature. The first commissioning tests provided ion saturation current values in the range assumed for the design, so the deduced plasma density estimate is consistent with the expected values. PMID:24593449

  17. Electrostatic sensors for SPIDER experiment: Design, manufacture of prototypes, and first tests

    SciTech Connect

    Brombin, M. Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Barzon, A.; Franchin, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Trevisan, L.; Schiesko, L.

    2014-02-15

    A system of electrostatic sensors has been designed for the SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) experiment, prototype RF source of the ITER NBI (neutral beam injection). A prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested at the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) facility, where the plasma environment is similar to that of SPIDER. Different aspects concerning the mechanical manufacturing and the signal conditioning are presented, among them the RF compensation adopted to reduce the RF effects which could lead to overestimated values of the electron temperature. The first commissioning tests provided ion saturation current values in the range assumed for the design, so the deduced plasma density estimate is consistent with the expected values.

  18. Electrostatic sensors for SPIDER experiment: Design, manufacture of prototypes, and first tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brombin, M.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Barzon, A.; Franchin, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.; Schiesko, L.; Taliercio, C.; Trevisan, L.

    2014-02-01

    A system of electrostatic sensors has been designed for the SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) experiment, prototype RF source of the ITER NBI (neutral beam injection). A prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested at the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) facility, where the plasma environment is similar to that of SPIDER. Different aspects concerning the mechanical manufacturing and the signal conditioning are presented, among them the RF compensation adopted to reduce the RF effects which could lead to overestimated values of the electron temperature. The first commissioning tests provided ion saturation current values in the range assumed for the design, so the deduced plasma density estimate is consistent with the expected values.

  19. Feasibility study of custom manufacturing methods of ionic polymer-metal composite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Shelby E.

    The ability to create an ion exchange membrane with any shape or thickness through custom manufacturing techniques is highly desirable in ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) research. This is caused by the poor selection and limited availability of certain thicknesses of commercial ion exchange membranes. The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of manufacturing custom ion exchange membranes for IPMC sensors. The manufacturing methods used in this study are extrusion, injection molding, and hot pressing. A commercial membrane from Golden Energy Fuel Cells (GEFC) is used as a comparison. After the membranes are fabricated, certain properties of the membranes are tested throughout each processing stage to determine if they are suitable to be developed into IPMCs. The three processing stages are pre-activation, activation (hydrated and dehydrated), and IPMC. It was observed that the stiffness of the membranes increased from pre-activation to activation and decreased from activation to IPMC. A more flexible membrane in an IPMC allows for larger cation displacement within the membrane. The extruded and injection molded membranes showed the most potential with having the lowest stiffness of all the samples; however, they were not able to be made into IPMCs due to repeated membrane failures in the primary plating process. Gas accumulated between the layers that formed in the membranes due to the extrusion and injection molding cooling process during manufacturing. The hot pressed membrane was the only custom manufactured membrane to be fully processed into an IPMC. The hot pressed and GEFC IPMC sensors were operated at 1 Hz, 5 Hz, and 10 Hz frequencies with the GEFC IPMC producing the strongest output voltage signal. While the extruded and injection molded membranes showed potential to become IPMCs with their high water uptake percentage, high ion exchange capacity, and low stiffness, more development is needed within the manufacturing process to make

  20. Automotive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Guigard, Selma E; Shariaty, Pooya; Niknaddaf, Saeid; Lashaki, Masoud Jahandar; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature from 2014 related to automotive wastes is presented. Topics include solid wastes from autobodies and tires as well as vehicle emissions to soil and air as a result of the use of conventional and alternative fuels. Potential toxicological and health risks related to automotive wastes are also discussed.

  1. Characterization of embedded fiber optic strain sensors into metallic structures via ultrasonic additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, John J.; Hehr, Adam J.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2016-04-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors measure deviation in a reflected wavelength of light to detect in-situ strain. These sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference, and the inclusion of multiple FBGs on the same fiber allows for a seamlessly integrated sensing network. FBGs are attractive for embedded sensing in aerospace applications due to their small noninvasive size and prospect of constant, real-time nondestructive evaluation. In this study, FBG sensors are embedded in aluminum 6061 via ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM), a rapid prototyping process that uses high power ultrasonic vibrations to weld similar and dissimilar metal foils together. UAM was chosen due to the desire to embed FBG sensors at low temperatures, a requirement that excludes other additive processes such as selective laser sintering or fusion deposition modeling. In this paper, the embedded FBGs are characterized in terms of birefringence losses, post embedding strain shifts, consolidation quality, and strain sensing performance. Sensors embedded into an ASTM test piece are compared against an exterior surface mounted foil strain gage at both room and elevated temperatures using cyclic tensile tests.

  2. Development of Low Cost Sensors for Hydrogen Safety Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Holmes, W., Jr.; Lauf, R.J.; Maxey, L.C.; Salter, C.; Walker, D.

    1999-04-07

    We are developing rugged and reliable hydrogen safety sensors that can be easily manufactured. Potential applications also require an inexpensive sensor that can be easily deployed. Automotive applications demand low cost, while personnel safety applications emphasize light-weight, battery-operated, and wearable sensors. Our current efforts involve developing and optimizing sensor materials for stability and compatibility with typical thick-film manufacturing processes. We are also tailoring the sensor design and size along with various packaging and communication schemes for optimal acceptance by end users.

  3. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  4. Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  5. Challenges in the development of sensors for monitoring automobile emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.S.; Pham, A.Q.

    1997-02-20

    A new generation of on-board automotive sensors are needed for diagnosis and control of engines and catalytic converters. With regard to catalytic converters, the intent of these regulations is to ensure that the vehicle operator is informed when emission control system are no longer performing adequately. In order to be commercialized, sensors for emission control must meet certain criteria, including low cost, reliability, and manufacturability. We have been developing solid state electrochemical sensors for emission control. Most recently, our work has focused on the development of hydrocarbon sensors for monitoring catalytic converter performance. Previous work was concerned with the development of an oxygen sensor having appropriate sensitivity for lean-burn engines. Operational limits for oxygen sensors have been defined and new materials have been developed for hydrocarbon sensors. Technical results are presented here as well as challenges to be met in the development of materials and designs for new chemical sensors for monitoring automotive emissions.

  6. Simulation studies for the design and manufacturing of optical sensors and white light emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Nguyen The

    In this study, three dimensional ray tracing simulations are used as a tool for the design and manufacturing of optical sensors and white LED devices. Key experimental results and independent experimental results are used to verify the simulation results and a satisfactory agreement is obtained. In the optical sensor technology, it is required to understand the pattern of propagation of light and the relationship between the collected signal and the detected objects. The Monte Carlo simulation results show for the first time that the response of the optical sensor for detecting particles in suspension depends not only on the concentration but also on the particle size, optical path length, and the optical properties of a particle. Sensor performance limit greatly depends on particle size and optical path length. Simulation results show that the sensor response is more sensitive to the concentration of smaller particle sizes than particle sizes. Single expression for the sensor response to the change of particle concentration of different sizes is presented. The simulation results are compared with individual experimental results to verify the accuracy of the simulations and a satisfactory agreement is obtained. Light propagation in an LED package experiences similar phenomena as in an optical sensor for sediment-concentration measurement: reflection, scattering, and absorption. In the LED packaging, the LED device should have high external quantum efficiency and should provide different patterns of the output light so that it can serve for different applications. The efficiency of an LED device depends on many factors: LED chip structures (size, shapes, and surface types), types of the reflector cup (specular or diffuse), cup geometries, lens geometries and dimension, and optical properties of encapsulant such as refractive indices and transmittance. The simulation results show that the high negative deformed angle chip (HNDA-chip) has a higher light output than

  7. Ultrasonic Dynamic Vector Stress Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Froggatt, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Stress inferred from measurements in specimens rather than in bonded gauges. Ultrasonic dynamic vector stress sensor (UDVSS) measures changes in dynamic directional stress occurring in material or structure at location touched by device when material or structure put under cyclic load. Includes phase-locked loop, synchronous amplifier, and contact probe. Useful among manufacturers of aerospace and automotive structures for stress testing and evaluation of designs.

  8. Automotive Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Ralph C.; And Others

    This curriculum guide, which was validated by vocational teachers and mechanics in the field, describes the competencies needed by entry-level automotive mechanics. This guide lists 15 competencies; for each competency, various tasks with their performance objective, student learning experiences, suggested instructional techniques, instructional…

  9. Automotive Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Desmond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in automotive mechanics at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  10. Sensor fusion with on-line gas emission multisensor arrays and standard process measuring devices in baker's yeast manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Mandenius, C F; Eklöv, T; Lundström, I

    1997-07-20

    The use of a multisensor array for measuring the emission from a production-scale baker's yeast manufacturing process is reported. The sensor array, containing 14 different gas-sensitive semiconductor devices and an infrared gas sensor, was used to monitor the gas emission from a yeast culture bioreactor during fed-batch operation. The signal pattern from the sensors was evaluated in relation to two key process variables, the cell mass and the ethanol concentrations. Fusion with the on-line sensor signals for reactor weight and aeration rate made it possible to estimate cell mass and ethanol concentration using computation with backpropagating artificial neural nets. Identification of process states with the same fusion of sensor signals was realized using principal component analysis. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55: 427-438, 1997.

  11. Sensor-based atomic layer deposition for rapid process learning and enhanced manufacturability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wei

    In the search for sensor based atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to accelerate process learning and enhance manufacturability, we have explored new reactor designs and applied in-situ process sensing to W and HfO 2 ALD processes. A novel wafer scale ALD reactor, which features fast gas switching, good process sensing compatibility and significant similarity to the real manufacturing environment, is constructed. The reactor has a unique movable reactor cap design that allows two possible operation modes: (1) steady-state flow with alternating gas species; or (2) fill-and-pump-out cycling of each gas, accelerating the pump-out by lifting the cap to employ the large chamber volume as ballast. Downstream quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) sampling is applied for in-situ process sensing of tungsten ALD process. The QMS reveals essential surface reaction dynamics through real-time signals associated with byproduct generation as well as precursor introduction and depletion for each ALD half cycle, which are then used for process learning and optimization. More subtle interactions such as imperfect surface saturation and reactant dose interaction are also directly observed by QMS, indicating that ALD process is more complicated than the suggested layer-by-layer growth. By integrating in real-time the byproduct QMS signals over each exposure and plotting it against process cycle number, the deposition kinetics on the wafer is directly measured. For continuous ALD runs, the total integrated byproduct QMS signal in each ALD run is also linear to ALD film thickness, and therefore can be used for ALD film thickness metrology. The in-situ process sensing is also applied to HfO2 ALD process that is carried out in a furnace type ALD reactor. Precursor dose end-point control is applied to precisely control the precursor dose in each half cycle. Multiple process sensors, including quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and QMS are used to provide real time process information. The

  12. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO₂ and NH₃ Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems.

    PubMed

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO₂ and NH₃ gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO₂ and 15 ppm-NH₃ is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time. PMID:26907298

  13. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO₂ and NH₃ Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems.

    PubMed

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-02-23

    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO₂ and NH₃ gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO₂ and 15 ppm-NH₃ is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time.

  14. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.70 Applicability; description of the...

  15. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.70 Applicability; description of the...

  16. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.70 Applicability; description of the...

  17. Durability of composites in automotive structural applications

    SciTech Connect

    Corum, J.M.; Battiste, R.L.; McCoy, H.E.; Ruggles, M.B.; Simpson, W.A.; Weitsman, Y.J.

    1996-10-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop experimentally-based, durability-driven design guidelines for automotive composite structures and to demonstrate their applicability to lightweight, manufacturable structures under representative field loading histories and environments. Key technical issues are the potentially degrading effects that (1) both cyclic and long-term sustained loadings, (2) various automotive environments, and (3) low-energy impacts can have on the dimensional stability, strength, and stiffness of automotive composite structures. The purpose of this paper is to present the findings and observations developed to date and to outline future directions.

  18. Manufacturing technology of integrated textile-based sensor networks for in situ monitoring applications of composite wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haentzsche, Eric; Mueller, Ralf; Huebner, Matthias; Ruder, Tristan; Unger, Reimar; Nocke, Andreas; Cherif, Chokri

    2016-10-01

    Based on in situ strain sensors consisting of piezo-resistive carbon filament yarns (CFYs), which have been successfully integrated into textile reinforcement structures during their textile-technological manufacturing process, a continuous load of fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) components has been realised. These sensors are also suitable for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The two-dimensional sensor layout is made feasible by the usage of a modular warp yarn path manipulation unit. Using a functional model of a small wind turbine blade in thermoset composite design, the sensor function for basic SHM applications (e.g. static load monitoring) are demonstrated. Any mechanical loads along the pressure or suction side of the wind turbine blade can be measured and calculated via a correlative change in resistance of the CFYs within the textile reinforcement plies. Performing quasi-static load tests on both tensile specimen and full-scale wind turbine blade, elementary results have been obtained concerning electro-mechanical behaviour and spatial resolution of global and even local static stresses according to the CFY sensor integration length. This paper demonstrates the great potential of textile-based and textile-technological integrated sensors in reinforcement structures for future SHM applications of FRPs.

  19. Superconducting transition edge sensors and methods for design and manufacture thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadleir, John E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for forming sensors using transition edge sensors (TES) and sensors therefrom are described. The method includes forming a plurality of sensor arrays includes at least one TES device. The TES device includes a TES device body, a first superconducting lead contacting a first portion of the TES device body, and a second superconducting lead contacting of a second portion of the TES device body, where the first and second superconducting leads separated on the TES device body by a lead spacing. The lead spacing can be selected to be different for at least two of the plurality of sensor arrays. The method also includes determining a transition temperature for each of the plurality of sensor arrays and generating a signal responsive to detecting a change in the electrical characteristics of one of the plurality of sensor arrays meeting a transition temperature criterion.

  20. Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Hanspeter; Lüönd, Felix; Schlatter, Jürg; Auderset, Kevin; Jordan-Gerkens, Anke; Nowak, Andreas; Ebert, Volker; Buhr, Egbert; Klein, Tobias; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mamakos, Athanasios; Riccobono, Francesco; Discher, Kai; Högström, Richard; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Quincey, Paul

    2014-08-01

    The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today's opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

  1. Optical wafer metrology sensors for process-robust CD and overlay control in semiconductor device manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Boef, Arie J.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents three optical wafer metrology sensors that are used in lithography for robustly measuring the shape and position of wafers and device patterns on these wafers. The first two sensors are a level sensor and an alignment sensor that measure, respectively, a wafer height map and a wafer position before a new pattern is printed on the wafer. The third sensor is an optical scatterometer that measures critical dimension-variations and overlay after the resist has been exposed and developed. These sensors have different optical concepts but they share the same challenge that sub-nm precision is required at high throughput on a large variety of processed wafers and in the presence of unknown wafer processing variations. It is the purpose of this paper to explain these challenges in more detail and give an overview of the various solutions that have been introduced over the years to come to process-robust optical wafer metrology.

  2. Cryogenic fiber optic temperature sensor and method of manufacturing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kochergin, Vladimir (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention teaches the fiber optic sensors temperature sensors for cryogenic temperature range with improved sensitivity and resolution, and method of making said sensors. In more detail, the present invention is related to enhancement of temperature sensitivity of fiber optic temperature sensors at cryogenic temperatures by utilizing nanomaterials with a thermal expansion coefficient that is smaller than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber but larger in absolute value than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber at least over a range of temperatures.

  3. Electrohydraulic Forming of Near Net Shape Automotive Panels

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the electrohydraulic forming (EHF) process as a near net shape automotive panel manufacturing technology that simultaneously reduces the energy embedded in vehicles and the energy consumed while producing automotive structures.

  4. Brazing applications: An automotive perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Winterbottom, W.L.

    1994-12-31

    Currently the US auto industry consumes 20% of the nation`s steel production, 50% of lead and cast iron, one-third of its zinc and 10% of its aluminum. Overall, more than 23 million tons of materials are used by the industry each year. But stricter environmental and CAFE laws could change those numbers markedly. Experts predict that without downsizing, weight reductions of 1000 pounds-per-vehicle may be needed to achieve proposed improvements in CAFE. If there is to be wide scale application of advanced materials such as metal matrix composites and ceramics in harsh automotive environments, alternate joining methods to the standard welding process will certainly be required. Quality and cost competitiveness in the automotive market place are forcing the manufacturing operations to focus on improving process robustness and efficiency. The extent to which braze methodology is capable of contributing to satisfying these needs will determine its utility in the automotive industry. The features of the braze process that determine its versatility and reliability in meeting the material and processing needs of the automotive industry will be used in presenting the current status and projections of future developments in brazing applications.

  5. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive...

  6. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive glass...

  7. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive glass...

  8. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive...

  9. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive...

  10. Optical Manufacturing and Testing Requirements Identified by the NASA Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Barney, Rich; Bauman, Jill; Feinberg, Lee; Mcleese, Dan; Singh, Upendra

    2011-01-01

    In August 2010, the NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) commissioned an assessment of 15 different technology areas of importance to the future of NASA. Technology assessment #8 (TA8) was Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems (SIOSS). SIOSS assess the needs for optical technology ranging from detectors to lasers, x-ray mirrors to microwave antenna, in-situ spectrographs for on-surface planetary sample characterization to large space telescopes. The needs assessment looked across the entirety of NASA and not just the Science Mission Directorate. This paper reviews the optical manufacturing and testing technologies identified by SIOSS which require development in order to enable future NASA high priority missions.

  11. Design and manufacturing of an array of micro IPMC hair-like sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akle, Barbar J.; Tawk, Charbel; Challita, Elio

    2016-04-01

    Ionic Polymer Metal Composites (IPMCs) are known to be compliant, reliable and able to produce a large current when deformed under a wide range of frequencies. In a previous study, our group demonstrated that cylindrical IPMC hair-like transducers can be used as mechano-electrical sensors. In this paper we characterize the sensing performance of the IPMC hair-like sensor and present methodologies on how to increase its sensitivity while reducing its size. Furthermore an array of 4 hair-cell sensors is built and characterized for tactile sensing texture detection.

  12. Force and deflection sensor with shell membrane and optical gratings and method of manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yong-Lae (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Black, Richard James (Inventor); Cutkosky, Mark R. (Inventor); Chau, Kelvin K (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A sensor for force is formed from an elastomeric cylinder having a region with apertures. The apertures have passageways formed between them, and an optical fiber is introduced into these passageways, where the optical fiber has a grating for measurement of tension positioned in the passageways between apertures. Optionally, a temperature measurement sensor is placed in or around the elastomer for temperature correction, and if required, a copper film may be deposited in the elastomer for reduced sensitivity to spot temperature variations in the elastomer near the sensors.

  13. Springback Compensation Process for High Strength Steel Automotive Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onhon, M. Fatih

    2016-08-01

    This paper is about an advanced stamping simulation methodology used in automotive industry to shorten total die manufacturing times in a new vehicle project by means of benefiting leading edge virtual try-out technology.

  14. Development of the femtosecond energy diffusion sensor for use in the manufacture of amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeskey, James Thomas, Jr.

    Before photovoltaics can compete with traditional sources of grid-connected power, the cost per Watt must come down. Toward this end, the Femtosecond Energy Diffusion (FED) sensor has been developed to improve the manufacturing process for thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. This may lead to both lower fabrication costs and increased cell efficiencies. The FED sensor is a non-contact, non-destructive device based on the pump-probe technique that can measure many important properties of amorphous silicon. It is used in conjunction with two newly developed computer models to measure the properties of the individual layers of an a-Si:H solar cell. These properties include the bandgap, the doping level, the alloying level, optical absorption, and a simplified density of states. In developing the sensor, a number of novel transient transmission experiments have been conducted. These experiments are among the first reported where the photon energies of both the pump and probe lasers fall within the bandtail energy region of a-Si:H. In addition to intrinsic a-Si:H, pump-probe experiments have been conducted on samples alloyed with germanium and carbon as well as samples doped with phosphorus and boron. Tests have been performed on samples with differing levels of hydrogenation created in two ways. Experiments performed on three samples comprising the build up of an a-Si:H p-i-n diode solar cell demonstrate the ability of the sensor to determine the properties of each new layer as it is deposited. This makes the FED sensor a potentially powerful tool for use in the manufacturing of a-Si:H solar cells. Two new models have been developed in order to explain the experimental results. The absorption model calculates absorptivity by combining thermally-induced bandgap reduction due to carrier thermalization and recombination with carrier trapping in order to fit the data obtained by the FED sensor. A second model, the multi-layer model, combines

  15. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Chiu, W.; Darooka, D.; Mullings, D. M.; Johnson, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual design study for a Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine (CASE) is performed. Year 1990 structural ceramic technology is assumed. Structural and performance analyses of the conceptual design are performed as well as a manufacturing and cost analysis. The general conclusions from this study are that such an engine would be 10-26% more efficient over its performance map than the current metal Automotive Stirling Reference Engine (ASRE). Cost of such a ceramic engine is likely to be somewhat higher than that of the ASRE but engine cost is very sensitive to the ultimate cost of the high purity, ceramic powder raw materials required to fabricate high performance parts. When the design study is projected to the year 2000 technology, substantinal net efficiency improvements, on the order of 25 to 46% over the ASRE, are computed.

  16. Association between use of synthetic metalworking fluid and risk of developing rhinitis-related symptoms in an automotive ring manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Uk; Jin, Ku-Won; Koh, Dong-Hee; Kim, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Sang; Park, Doo-Yong

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the association between synthetic metalworking fluid (MWF) and rhinitis-related symptoms. At a plant manufacturing piston rings for automobiles, we interviewed grinders (19) and manufacturing workers (142) in operations where synthetic or semisynthetic MWF is handled, and administrative office workers (44) regarding the principal symptoms of rhinitis (nasal stuffiness, runny nose, anosmia, nasal itchiness, rhinorrhea, headache, epistaxis, and post-nasal drip). In addition, we assessed the current exposure of workers handling MWF to MWF aerosols, fungi, and endotoxins. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between MWF surrogates indicative of MWF exposure and each rhinitis-related nasal symptom. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for sex, age, smoking habit, and duration of employment. Among grinders handling synthetic MWF, the frequency of complaints of the dominant symptoms was 66.7% for nasal stuffiness, 77.8% for anosmia, 77.8% for runny nose, and 50.0% for headache. These rates are quite high even allowing for the common occurrence of rhinitis in the general population. Twenty eight of 34 grinding and manufacturing workers (82.4%) sampled were exposed to MWF mist above the threshold limit of 0.2 mg/m(3) listed as a notice of intended change by the American Conference for Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). The percentage of workers exposed to MWF mist >0.5 mg/m(3) was 17.6%. Most workers were exposed to fungi levels >103 CFU/m(3). All exposures to endotoxins were <50 EU/m(3). Logistic regression analysis found that use of synthetic MWF was significantly associated with excess risk of nasal stuffiness (OR 3.5), nasal itchiness (OR 2.0), and runny nose (OR 2.1). The use of semi-synthetic MWF had little or no impact on the risk of developing rhinitis-related nasal symptoms. Grinding workers handling synthetic MWF had an increased risk of nasal stuffiness

  17. Cost-effective manufacturing of compact TDLAS sensors for hazardous area applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frish, Michael B.; Laderer, Mathew C.; Smith, Clinton J.; Ehid, Ryan; Dallas, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is finding ever increasing utility for industrial process measurement and control. The technique's sensitivity and selectivity benefit continuous concentration measurements of specific gas components in complex gas mixtures which are often laden with liquids or solid particulates. Tradeoff options among optical path length, absorption linestrength, linewidth, cross-interferences, and sampling methodology enable sensor designers to optimize detection for specific applications. Emerging applications are demanding increasing numbers of distributed miniaturized sensors at diminishing costs. In these applications, the TDLAS specificity is a key attribute, and its high sensitivity enables novel sampling package designs with short optical path lengths. This paper describes a miniature hermetically-sealed backscatter TDLAS transceiver package designed for high-volume production at acceptable cost. Occupying a volume less than 1in3 and weighing less than 0.06 lb, the transceiver is a key component of TDLAS sensors intended for in-situ measurements of potentially explosive gas mixtures.

  18. Low-cost visible-near infrared sensor for on-line monitoring of fat and fatty acids content during the manufacturing process of the milk.

    PubMed

    Villar, Alberto; Gorritxategi, Eneko; Aranzabe, Estibaliz; Fernández, Santiago; Otaduy, Deitze; Fernández, Luis A

    2012-12-15

    This paper describes the calibration, validation and testing process of a low-cost on-line visible-near infrared (400-1100 nm) sensor for the monitoring of fat and fatty acids content in milk during the manufacturing process of milk. The optical, mechanical and electronic designs of the sensor have been developed in Tekniker IK4 research centre just as its manufacturing process. The measurement range of the sensor is 400-1100 nm thus it covers the visible range (400-780 nm) and the short-wave near infrared (780-1100 nm). Chemometric techniques were applied with the purpose of obtaining a predictive model for each parameter correlating the spectra obtained by the sensor with the parameters analysed in the laboratory. The models were developed by Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) obtaining one model for each parameter. The raw milk samples used in this work were provided by CAPSA (Asturias, Spain).

  19. Automotive Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement between Boeing North America and BSR Products, Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials are now used to insulate race cars. BSR has created special TPS blanket insulation kits for use on autos that take part in NASCAR events, and other race cars through its nationwide catalog distribution system. Temperatures inside a race car's cockpit can soar to a sweltering 140 to 160 degrees, with the extreme heat coming through the engine firewall, transmission tunnel, and floor. It is common for NASCAR drivers to endure blisters and burns due to the excessive heat. Tests on a car insulated with the TPS material showed a temperature drop of some 50 degrees in the driver's cockpit. BSR-TPS Products, Inc. now manufactures insulation kits for distribution to race car teams around the world.

  20. Chemicals for the automotive industry

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.A.G.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of advanced materials, surface treatments, and clean fuels/lubricants now used to manufacture, propel, and maintain motor vehicles. The book examines recent advancements and current research, illustrating the progress to date, future trends, new applications, and the effects of these of automotive chemicals on the environment (including pollution, recyclability, and efficiency). Environmental considerations and their effect on the industry are covered in discussions about such topics as biodegradable lubricants, oxygenated diesel and ignition engine fuels, oils, and recyclable, lightweight plastic components.

  1. SMART composite high pressure vessels with integrated optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazejewski, Wojciech; Czulak, Andrzej; Gasior, Pawel; Kaleta, Jerzy; Mech, Rafal

    2010-04-01

    In this paper application of integrated Optical Fiber Sensors for strain state monitoring of composite high pressure vessels is presented. The composite tanks find broad application in areas such as: automotive industry, aeronautics, rescue services, etc. In automotive application they are mainly used for gaseous fuels storage (like CNG or compressed Hydrogen). In comparison with standard steel vessels, composite ones have many advantages (i.e. high mechanical strength, significant weight reduction, etc). In the present work a novel technique of vessel manufacturing, according to this construction, was applied. It is called braiding technique, and can be used as an alternative to the winding method. During braiding process, between GFRC layers, two types of optical fiber sensors were installed: point sensors in the form of FBGs as well as interferometric sensors with long measuring arms (SOFO®). Integrated optical fiber sensors create the nervous system of the pressure vessel and are used for its structural health monitoring. OFS register deformation areas and detect construction damages in their early stage (ensure a high safety level for users). Applied sensor system also ensured a possibility of strain state monitoring even during the vessel manufacturing process. However the main application of OFS based monitoring system is to detect defects in the composite structure. An idea of such a SMART vessel with integrated sensor system as well as an algorithm of defect detection was presented.

  2. Techno-economic requirements for automotive composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Scot

    1993-01-01

    New technology generally serves two main goals of the automotive industry: one is to enable vehicles to comply with various governmental regulations and the other is to provide a competitive edge in the market. The latter goal can either be served through improved manufacturing and design capabilities, such as computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing, or through improved product performance, such as anti-lock braking (ABS). Although safety features are sometimes customer driven, such as the increasing use of airbags and ABS, most are determined by regulations as outlined by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). Other standards, set by the Environmental Protection Agency, determine acceptable levels of emissions and fuel consumption. State governments, such as in California, are also setting precedent standards, such as requiring manufacturers to offer zero-emission vehicles as a certain fraction of their sales in the state. The drive to apply new materials in the automobile stems from the need to reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency. Topics discussed include: new lightweight materials; types of automotive materials; automotive composite applications; the role for composite materials in automotive applications; advantages and disadvantages of composite materials; material substitution economics; economic perspective; production economics; and composite materials production economics.

  3. Intelligent imaging systems for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Chris; Huang, Yingping; Fu, Shan

    2004-03-01

    In common with many other application areas, visual signals are becoming an increasingly important information source for many automotive applications. For several years CCD cameras have been used as research tools for a range of automotive applications. Infrared cameras, RADAR and LIDAR are other types of imaging sensors that have also been widely investigated for use in cars. This paper will describe work in this field performed in C2VIP over the last decade - starting with Night Vision Systems and looking at various other Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. Emerging from this experience, we make the following observations which are crucial for "intelligent" imaging systems: 1. Careful arrangement of sensor array. 2. Dynamic-Self-Calibration. 3. Networking and processing. 4. Fusion with other imaging sensors, both at the image level and the feature level, provides much more flexibility and reliability in complex situations. We will discuss how these problems can be addressed and what are the outstanding issues.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensors and Method of Manufacturing and Using Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W. (Inventor); Xu, Jennifer C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A gas sensor comprises a substrate layer; a pair of interdigitated metal electrodes, said electrodes include upper surfaces, the electrodes selected from the group consisting of Pt, Pd, Au, Ir, Ag, Ru, Rh, In, Os, and their alloys. A first layer of solid electrolyte staying in between electrode fingers and partially on said upper surfaces of said electrodes, said first layer selected from NASICON, LISICON, KSICON and.beta.''-Alumina. A second layer of metal carbonate(s) as an auxiliary electrolyte engaging said upper surfaces of the electrodes and the first solid electrolyte. The metal carbonates selected from the group consisting of the following ions Na.sup.+, K.sup.+, Li.sup.+, Ag.sup.+, H.sup.+, Pb.sup.2+, Sr.sup.2+, Ba.sup.2+, and any combination thereof. An extra layer of metal oxide selected from the group consisting of SnO.sub.2, In.sub.2O.sub.3, TiO.sub.2, WO.sub.3, ZnO, Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, ITO, CdO, U.sub.3O.sub.8, Ta.sub.2O.sub.5, BaO, MoO.sub.2, MoO.sub.3, V.sub.2O.sub.5, Nb.sub.2O.sub.5, CuO, Cr.sub.2O.sub.3, La.sub.2O.sub.3, RuO.sub.3, RuO.sub.2, ReO.sub.2, ReO.sub.3, Ag.sub.2O, CoO, Cu.sub.2O, SnO, NiO, Pr.sub.2O.sub.3, BaO, PdO.sub.2, HfO.sub.3, HfO.sub.3 or other metal oxide and their mixtures residing above and in engagement with the second electrolyte to improve sensor performance and/or to reduce sensor heating power consumption.

  5. Supercharging system for automotive engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, T.; Yabuhara, H.; Takimoto, F.

    1988-03-15

    A supercharging system for an automotive engine is described comprising: a turbocharger driven by exhaust-gas of the engine; a supercharger; an intake passage connecting the turbocharger and the supercharger in series, for supplying air to the engine; driving means for driving the supercharger by the engine; clutch means provided in the driving means; a first bypass provided around the supercharger; a control valve provided in the first bypass; a second bypass provided around the turbine of the turbocharger; a waste gate valve provided in the second bypass; a first actuator for operating the control valve; a second actuator for operating the waste gate valve; first means for operating the second actuator to open the waste gate valve when supercharging pressure exceeds a predetermined value; an engine speed sensor for detecting speed of the engine; an engine load sensor for detecting load on the engine; and a control unit.

  6. Ultra-miniature all-glass Fabry-Pérot pressure sensor manufactured at the tip of a multimode optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinet, Éric; Cibula, Edvard; Đonlagić, Denis

    2007-09-01

    The design and fabrication of an ultra-miniature all-glass pressure sensor with a diameter of 125 μm are presented. The sensor consists of a thin flexible silica membrane fused on a capillary tube section, which is assembled at the tip of a standard multimode fiber, thus forming a Fabry-Pérot air cavity whose length depends on applied pressure. Controlled polishing steps including on-line tuning of the diaphragm thickness during the manufacturing process achieve good repeatability and high sensitivity of the pressure sensor. The prototypes obtained with the described manufacturing method could easily have a sensitivity of ~2 nm/kPa (~0.3 nm/mmHg) with a record, so far, of ~5 nm/kPa (~0.7 nm/mmHg). The relatively simple fabrication technique using common and inexpensive equipments and materials combined with the fact that such sensitive sensors with multimode fiber could be interrogated with low-cost commercial interrogators (such as those using white-light interferometry) make this option very attractive for many applications involving pressure measurement. The sensor significant size reduction is valuable especially for the medical field, for applications such as minimally invasive patient health monitoring and diagnostics or small animals testing. Disposable sensors with ultra-miniature size will certainly open the way for new medical diagnostics and therapies.

  7. Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

    This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive…

  8. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  9. Evaluation of Manufacturability of Embedded Sensors and Controls with Canned Rotor Pump System

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Fugate, David L; Melin, Alexander M; Holcomb, David Eugene; Wilson, Dane F; Silva, Pamela C; Cruz Molina, Carola

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the current status of fabrication and assembly planning for the magnetic bearing, canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating I&C into nuclear power plant components. The report identifies material choices and fabrication sequences for all of the required parts and the issues that need to be either resolved or accommodated during the manufacturing process. Down selection between material options has not yet been performed. Potential suppliers for all of the necessary materials have also been identified. The assembly evaluation begins by logically subdividing the pump into modules, which are themselves decomposed into individual parts. Potential materials and fabrication processes for each part in turn are then evaluated. The evaluation process includes assessment of the environmental compatibility requirements and the tolerances available for the selected fabrication processes. A description of the pump power/control electronics is also provided. The report also includes exploded views of the modules that show the integration of the various parts into modules that are then assembled to form the pump. Emphasis has been placed on thermal environment compatibility and the part dimensional changes during heat-up. No insurmountable fabrication or assembly challenges have been identified.

  10. A Highly Efficient Sensor Platform Using Simply Manufactured Nanodot Patterned Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Rasappa, Sozaraj; Ghoshal, Tandra; Borah, Dipu; Senthamaraikannan, Ramsankar; Holmes, Justin D.; Morris, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly is a low-cost means to nanopattern surfaces. Here, we use these nanopatterns to directly print arrays of nanodots onto a conducting substrate (Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated glass) for application as an electrochemical sensor for ethanol (EtOH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection. The work demonstrates that BCP systems can be used as a highly efficient, flexible methodology for creating functional surfaces of materials. Highly dense iron oxide nanodots arrays that mimicked the original BCP pattern were prepared by an ‘insitu’ BCP inclusion methodology using poly(styrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO). The electrochemical behaviour of these densely packed arrays of iron oxide nanodots fabricated by two different molecular weight PS-b-PEO systems was studied. The dual detection of EtOH and H2O2 was clearly observed. The as-prepared nanodots have good long term thermal and chemical stability at the substrate and demonstrate promising electrocatalytic performance. PMID:26290188

  11. Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensors and Method of Manufacturing and Using Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W. (Inventor); Xu, Jennifer C. (Inventor); Liu, Chung Chiun (Inventor); Ward, Benjamin J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gas sensor includes a substrate and a pair of interdigitated metal electrodes selected from the group consisting of Pt, Pd, Au, Ir, Ag, Ru, Rh, In, and Os. The electrodes each include an upper surface. A first solid electrolyte resides between the interdigitated electrodes and partially engages the upper surfaces of the electrodes. The first solid electrolyte is selected from the group consisting of NASICON, LISICON, KSICON, and .beta.''-Alumina (beta prime-prime alumina in which when prepared as an electrolyte is complexed with a mobile ion selected from the group consisting of Na.sup.+, K.sup.+, Li.sup.+, Ag.sup.+, H.sup.+, Pb.sup.2+, Sr.sup.2+ or Ba.sup.2+). A second electrolyte partially engages the upper surfaces of the electrodes and engages the first solid electrolyte in at least one point. The second electrolyte is selected from the group of compounds consisting of Na.sup.+, K.sup.+, Li.sup.+, Ag.sup.+, H.sup.+, Pb.sup.2+, Sr.sup.2+ or Ba.sup.2+ ions or combinations thereof.

  12. Electronic manufacturing process improvement (EMPI) for automatic winding of quadrupole fiber optic gyro sensor coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, Gregory S.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this EMPI program was to design an Automatic Coil Winding Station (ACWS) for winding Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) sensor coils through the use of TQM, QFD, etc., followed by use of Taguchi an other statistical techniques to optimize the coil winding process. Four phases were involved: Process Definition, Critical Factor Identification, Variability Reduction, and SPC Implementation. Winding FOG coils is both difficult and fragile in that it is a quadrupole wind - as apposed to the conventional thread wind - compounded by the requirement for low tension precision, high-fiber packing density, and always risk of damage to the delicate fiber itself. The critical factor identification in the quadrupole winding process was reduced to fiber crossover - a significant detrimental influence on gyro performance - which, in turn, was closely identified with fiber gap control. The station was completed and deployed to the field where production coils are currently being wound. The ACWS not only lowered the required labor skill but succeeded in reducing the winding cycle time to 1 hour (from 24 hours) and touch labor time to 0.3 hours (from 24 hours) while improving the yield and performance through improved process control.

  13. Automotive Manufacturing and Repair Technician Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlinden, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    It's been more than three years since the U.S. automobile industry nearly collapsed. A controversial federal bailout, an increase in consumer demand, and a growing interest in environmentally friendly fuel-efficient vehicles and related technologies have combined to help create a remarkable recovery. Total U.S. sales of light vehicles in 2012 are…

  14. Contour scanning of textile preforms using a light-section sensor for the automated manufacturing of fibre-reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R.; Niggemann, C.; Mersmann, C.

    2008-04-01

    Fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP) are particularly suitable for components where light-weight structures with advanced mechanical properties are required, e.g. for aerospace parts. Nevertheless, many manufacturing processes for FRP include manual production steps without an integrated quality control. A vital step in the process chain is the lay-up of the textile preform, as it greatly affects the geometry and the mechanical performance of the final part. In order to automate the FRP production, an inline machine vision system is needed for a closed-loop control of the preform lay-up. This work describes the development of a novel laser light-section sensor for optical inspection of textile preforms and its integration and validation in a machine vision prototype. The proposed method aims at the determination of the contour position of each textile layer through edge scanning. The scanning route is automatically derived by using texture analysis algorithms in a preliminary step. As sensor output a distinct stage profile is computed from the acquired greyscale image. The contour position is determined with sub-pixel accuracy using a novel algorithm based on a non-linear least-square fitting to a sigmoid function. The whole contour position is generated through data fusion of the measured edge points. The proposed method provides robust process automation for the FRP production improving the process quality and reducing the scrap quota. Hence, the range of economically feasible FRP products can be increased and new market segments with cost sensitive products can be addressed.

  15. Application of hand-held mobility spectrometers as sensors in manufacturing industries

    PubMed Central

    Allinson, Graeme

    1998-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) are small, lightweight, extremely robust devices with low power requirements, no moving parts, no absolute requirement for gases or vacuums, that can be operated at ambient temperatures and pressures, and yet are capable of measuring vapour phase concentrations of organic chemicals at very low levels (sub-μg/l). IMS are capable of analysing complex mixtures and producing a simple spectral output. Volatile components produce measurable negative and positive product ions in the spectrometer through chemical ionization. The spectra produced are essentially the vapour phase fingerprints of the target molecules/mixture. Quantitative data can be obtained provided instrument response is within the linear dynamic range of these instruments, but most practical applications of IMS have used the technology in a qualitative manner in situations which require just an above/below threshold or positive/ negative response. In the manufacturing industry there are many examples where the aroma/odour of raw materials has safety or product quality implications. IMS was not developed to replace traditional methods of analysis, e.g. GC/MS or sensory panels, but rather to provide a rapid, qualitative response complementary to more established methods. This paper reports on the use of a hand-held ion mobility spectrometer to characterize the vapours produced by volatile organic compounds,fresh herbs and retail spice mixtures at ambient temperature and pressure. The results show that by monitoring in both ion acquisition modes, ion mobility spectrometers are capable of discriminating between a wide range of products. PMID:18924815

  16. Rapid manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore sensors by trans-chip illumination lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Xander J. A.; Jonsson, Magnus P.; Plesa, Calin; Soni, Gautam V.; Dekker, Cees; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, the concept of nanopore sensing has matured from a proof-of-principle method to a widespread, versatile technique for the study of biomolecular properties and interactions. While traditional nanopore devices based on a nanopore in a single layer membrane supported on a silicon chip can be rapidly fabricated using standard microfabrication methods, chips with additional insulating layers beyond the membrane region can provide significantly lower noise levels, but at the expense of requiring more costly and time-consuming fabrication steps. Here we present a novel fabrication protocol that overcomes this issue by enabling rapid and reproducible manufacturing of low-noise membranes for nanopore experiments. The fabrication protocol, termed trans-chip illumination lithography, is based on illuminating a membrane-containing wafer from its backside such that a photoresist (applied on the wafer’s top side) is exposed exclusively in the membrane regions. Trans-chip illumination lithography permits the local modification of membrane regions and hence the fabrication of nanopore chips containing locally patterned insulating layers. This is achieved while maintaining a well-defined area containing a single thin membrane for nanopore drilling. The trans-chip illumination lithography method achieves this without relying on separate masks, thereby eliminating time-consuming alignment steps as well as the need for a mask aligner. Using the presented approach, we demonstrate rapid and reproducible fabrication of nanopore chips that contain small (12 μm × 12 μm) free-standing silicon nitride membranes surrounded by insulating layers. The electrical noise characteristics of these nanopore chips are shown to be superior to those of simpler designs without insulating layers and comparable in quality to more complex designs that are more challenging to fabricate.

  17. Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites for future automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, K.

    2016-05-01

    After a brief introduction to polymer composite properties and markets, the state of the art activities in the field of manufacturing of advanced composites for automotive applications are elucidated. These include (a) long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFT) for secondary automotive components, and (b) continuous carbon fiber reinforced thermosetting composites for car body applications. It is followed by future possibilities of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites for e.g. (i) crash elements, (ii) racing car seats, and (iii) production and recycling of automotive fenders.

  18. Quantification of Line Tracking Solutions for Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jane; Rourke, Rick F.; Groll, Dave; Tavora, Peter W.

    Unlike line tracking in automotive painting applications, line tracking for automotive general assembly applications requires position tracking in order to perform assembly operations to a required assembly tolerance. Line tracking quantification experiments have been designed and conducted for a total of 16 test cases for two line tracking scenarios with three types of line tracking solutions: encoder based tracking, encoder plus static vision based tracking, and the analog sensor-based tracking for general assembly robotic automation. This chapter presents the quantification results, identifies key performance drivers, and illustrates their implications for automotive assembly applications.

  19. Program Evaluation - Automotive Lightweighting Materials Program Research and Development Projects Assessment of Benefits - Case Studies No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.

    2003-01-23

    This report is the second of a series of studies to evaluate research and development (R&D) projects funded by the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) Program of the Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The objectives of the program evaluation are to assess short-run outputs and long-run outcomes that may be attributable to the ALM R&D projects. The ALM program focuses on the development and validation of advanced technologies that significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. Funded projects range from fundamental materials science research to applied research in production environments. Collaborators on these projects include national laboratories, universities, and private sector firms, such as leading automobile manufacturers and their suppliers. Three ALM R&D projects were chosen for this evaluation: Design and Product Optimization for Cast Light Metals, Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures, and Rapid Tooling for Functional Prototyping of Metal Mold Processes. These projects were chosen because they have already been completed. The first project resulted in development of a comprehensive cast light metal property database, an automotive application design guide, computerized predictive models, process monitoring sensors, and quality assurance methods. The second project, the durability of lightweight composite structures, produced durability-based design criteria documents, predictive models for creep deformation, and minimum test requirements and suggested test methods for establishing durability properties and characteristics of random glass-fiber composites for automotive structural composites. The durability project supported Focal Project II, a validation activity that demonstrates ALM program goals and reduces the lead time for bringing new technology into the marketplace. Focal

  20. Are we being driven to two sensors?: clinical benefits of sensor cross-checking.

    PubMed

    Cowell, R; Morris-Thurgood, J; Paul, V; Ilsley, C; Camm, A J

    1993-07-01

    Sensor cross-checking within dual sensor rate responsive pacemakers is designed to reduce the incidence of inappropriate rate response. We describe a patient in whom sensor cross-checking prevented the occurrence of angina during automotive transport. PMID:7689213

  1. Low-cost far infrared bolometer camera for automotive use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieider, Christian; Wissmar, Stanley; Ericsson, Per; Halldin, Urban; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Göran; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Pettersson, Håkan; Eriksson, Dick; Jakobsen, Henrik; Kvisterøy, Terje; Franks, John; VanNylen, Jan; Vercammen, Hans; VanHulsel, Annick

    2007-04-01

    A new low-cost long-wavelength infrared bolometer camera system is under development. It is designed for use with an automatic vision algorithm system as a sensor to detect vulnerable road users in traffic. Looking 15 m in front of the vehicle it can in case of an unavoidable impact activate a brake assist system or other deployable protection system. To achieve our cost target below €100 for the sensor system we evaluate the required performance and can reduce the sensitivity to 150 mK and pixel resolution to 80 x 30. We address all the main cost drivers as sensor size and production yield along with vacuum packaging, optical components and large volume manufacturing technologies. The detector array is based on a new type of high performance thermistor material. Very thin Si/SiGe single crystal multi-layers are grown epitaxially. Due to the resulting valence barriers a high temperature coefficient of resistance is achieved (3.3%/K). Simultaneously, the high quality crystalline material provides very low 1/f-noise characteristics and uniform material properties. The thermistor material is transferred from the original substrate wafer to the read-out circuit using adhesive wafer bonding and subsequent thinning. Bolometer arrays can then be fabricated using industry standard MEMS process and materials. The inherently good detector performance allows us to reduce the vacuum requirement and we can implement wafer level vacuum packaging technology used in established automotive sensor fabrication. The optical design is reduced to a single lens camera. We develop a low cost molding process using a novel chalcogenide glass (GASIR®3) and integrate anti-reflective and anti-erosion properties using diamond like carbon coating.

  2. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO2 and NH3 Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L.; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO2 and NH3 gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO2 and 15 ppm-NH3 is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time. PMID:26907298

  3. 78 FR 70278 - Automotive Trade Mission to New Delhi, Pune and Chennai, India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... manufacturing industry the sixth largest in the world. India's growth is driven by a young population and an... world in terms of vehicles per capita. Therefore, opportunities in automotive industries will continue... National Capital region contributes around 32% of the country's automotive growth. The Society of...

  4. Design concepts for a composite door frame system for general automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Conceptual design, manufacturing process, and costs are explored to determine the feasibility of replacing present steel parts in automotive door structures with various composite materials. The problems of conforming to present anti-intrusion specifications with advanced materials are examined and discussed. Modest weight reductions, at competitive costs, were identified for the utilization of specific composite materials in automotive door structures.

  5. Superplastic forming of stainless steel automotive components

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, B.; Elmer, J.; Carol, L.

    1997-02-06

    Exhaust emission standards are governmentally controlled standards, which are increasingly stringent, forcing alternate strategies to meet these standards. One approach to improve the efficiency of the exhaust emission equipment is to decrease the time required to get the catalytic converter to optimum operating temperature. To accomplish this, automotive manufacturers are using double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds to reduce heat loss of the exhaust gases to the converter. The current method to manufacture double wall stainless steel exhaust components is to use a low-cost alloy with good forming properties and extensively form, cut, assemble, and weld the pieces. Superplastic forming (SPF) technology along with alloy improvements has potential at making this process more cost effective. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and USCAR Low Emission Partnership (LEP) worked under a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) to evaluate material properties, SPF behavior, and welding behavior of duplex stainless steel alloy for automotive component manufacturing. Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has a separate CRADA with the LEP to use SPF technology to manufacture a double wall stainless steel exhaust component. As a team these CRADAs developed and demonstrated a technical plan to accomplish making double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds.

  6. Manufacture of a Polyaniline Nanofiber Ammonia Sensor Integrated with a Readout Circuit Using the CMOS-MEMS Technique

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mao-Chen; Dai, Ching-Liang; Chan, Chih-Hua; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the fabrication of a polyaniline nanofiber ammonia sensor integrated with a readout circuit on a chip using the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and a post-process. The micro ammonia sensor consists of a sensing resistor and an ammonia sensing film. Polyaniline prepared by a chemical polymerization method was adopted as the ammonia sensing film. The fabrication of the ammonia sensor needs a post-process to etch the sacrificial layers and to expose the sensing resistor, and then the ammonia sensing film is coated on the sensing resistor. The ammonia sensor, which is of resistive type, changes its resistance when the sensing film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas. A readout circuit is employed to convert the resistance of the ammonia sensor into the voltage output. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the ammonia sensor is about 0.88 mV/ppm at room temperature. PMID:22399944

  7. Magnesium for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    VanFleteren, R.

    1996-05-01

    Die cast magnesium parts are rapidly replacing steel and aluminum structural components in automotive applications, as design engineers seek to reduce assembly costs, raise fuel efficiency, and improve safety. Dozens of automotive components are now die cast from magnesium alloys, including seat stanchions, valve covers, steering wheels, and a variety of steering column components. Because of their excellent castability, complex magnesium die castings can sometimes consolidate several components and eliminate assembly steps. Highly ductile magnesium alloys such as AM60B (6% aluminum) and AM50A (5% aluminum) are important in helping to meet automotive industry crash-energy requirements for car seating and steering components. AZ91D (9% aluminum, 1% zinc) alloys are making removable rear seats in new minivans much easier to handle.

  8. LEDs in automotive lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Karsten

    2006-02-01

    Light emitting diodes (LED) are becoming more and more significant in interior and exterior automotive lighting. The long service life, energy and space savings, shock and vibration resistance and new styling potential are the main advantages of using LEDs in automotive applications. Today, most central high mounted stop lamps use LEDs. In rear combination lamps the number of LEDs in amber and red is increasing rapidly. This year, a first rear combination lamp using LEDs for all functionalities including the back-up lamp function was realized. In addition, first signal functions in headlamps using white High Power LEDs were launched onto the market. The long service life characteristic makes LEDs especially predestined for the DRL function combined with the position/parking light. Exterior automotive applications, including requirements and performance will be discussed and an outlook will be given on future scenarios.

  9. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE. PROGRAM OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    INFORMATIONAL TOPICS COVERED IN THE TEXT MATERIALS AND SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILMS FOR A 2-YEAR, 55 MODULE PROGRAM IN AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE ARE GIVEN. THE 30 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1" ARE AVAILABLE AS VT 005 655 - VT 005 684, AND THE 25 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2" ARE AVAILABLE…

  10. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive mechanics I and II. The six units in automotive mechanics I are as follows: orientation and safety; tools, equipment, and manuals; measurement; automotive engines; basic electrical systems; and fuel systems. Automotive…

  11. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-15

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  12. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-01

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  13. Resistive flex sensors: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saggio, Giovanni; Riillo, Francesco; Sbernini, Laura; Quitadamo, Lucia Rita

    2016-01-01

    Resistive flex sensors can be used to measure bending or flexing with relatively little effort and a relatively low budget. Their lightness, compactness, robustness, measurement effectiveness and low power consumption make these sensors useful for manifold applications in diverse fields. Here, we provide a comprehensive survey of resistive flex sensors, taking into account their working principles, manufacturing aspects, electrical characteristics and equivalent models, useful front-end conditioning circuitry, and physic-bio-chemical aspects. Particular effort is devoted to reporting on and analyzing several applications of resistive flex sensors, related to the measurement of body position and motion, and to the implementation of artificial devices. In relation to the human body, we consider the utilization of resistive flex sensors for the measurement of physical activity and for the development of interaction/interface devices driven by human gestures. Concerning artificial devices, we deal with applications related to the automotive field, robots, orthosis and prosthesis, musical instruments and measuring tools. The presented literature is collected from different sources, including bibliographic databases, company press releases, patents, master’s theses and PhD theses.

  14. Sensor based real-time process monitoring for ultra-precision manufacturing processes with non-linearity and non-stationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyca, Omer Faruk

    This research investigates methodologies for real-time process monitoring in ultra-precision manufacturing processes, specifically, chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) and ultra-precision machining (UPM), are investigated in this dissertation. The three main components of this research are as follows: (1) developing a predictive modeling approaches for early detection of process anomalies/change points, (2) devising approaches that can capture the non-Gaussian and non-stationary characteristics of CMP and UPM processes, and (3) integrating multiple sensor data to make more reliable process related decisions in real-time. In the first part, we establish a quantitative relationship between CMP process performance, such as material removal rate (MRR) and data acquired from wireless vibration sensors. Subsequently, a non-linear sequential Bayesian analysis is integrated with decision theoretic concepts for detection of CMP process end-point for blanket copper wafers. Using this approach, CMP polishing end-point was detected within a 5% error rate. Next, a non-parametric Bayesian analytical approach is utilized to capture the inherently complex, non-Gaussian, and non-stationary sensor signal patterns observed in CMP process. An evolutionary clustering analysis, called Recurrent Nested Dirichlet Process (RNDP) approach is developed for monitoring CMP process changes using MEMS vibration signals. Using this novel signal analysis approach, process drifts are detected within 20 milliseconds and is assessed to be 3-7 times faster than traditional SPC charts. This is very beneficial to the industry from an application standpoint, because, wafer yield losses will be mitigated to a great extent, if the onset of CMP process drifts can be detected timely and accurately. Lastly, a non-parametric Bayesian modeling approach, termed Dirichlet Process (DP) is combined with a multi-level hierarchical information fusion technique for monitoring of surface finish in UPM process

  15. Success Story of Radar Technology in Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinecke, Marc-Michael; Jerhot, Jiři

    2012-05-01

    The radar technology has a long history of over more than one century. In contrast to this its application in the automotive domain is a quite young activity. The enablers of this relatively new research field are presented in this article from a car manufacturers perspective covering aspects of signal processing algorithms, hardware and driver assistance applications.

  16. Automotive Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, David B.

    Intended for a 1- or 2-month curriculum in auto mechanics, this student manual on automotive pollution control was developed by a subject matter specialist at an area vocational school and tested in a vocational auto shop. Intended either for use in an integrated curriculum or for use in teaching pollution control as a separate course, these 12…

  17. Automotive Technology Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Idaho state curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction in automotive technology. The document begins with a list of all tasks covered by the curriculum, a short course outline, and a curriculum framework that explains major content, laboratory activities, and intended outcomes.…

  18. Automotive Brake Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, orginally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the basic operations of automotive brake systems on military vehicles. The course contains four study units covering hydraulic brakes, air brakes, power brakes, and auxiliary brake systems. A troubleshooting guide for…

  19. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; And Others

    This publication contains instructional materials for both teachers and students for a course in automotive emission control. Instructional materials in this publication are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes 16 units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the basic components of a…

  20. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; Ragazzi, Ronald

    This guide designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in the area of automotive emission control curriculum includes four areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  1. Automotive power steering system

    SciTech Connect

    VanGorder, D.H.; Wilson, K.R.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes improvement in an automotive power steering system including a pump, a servo-valve, a steering assist fluid motor, a reservoir having a reservoir chamber therein, fluid ducts; a volume of hydraulic oil; a fluid level. The improvement comprises: means defining a fill port; a cover; means connect a gas accumulator.

  2. Automotive Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

  3. Engineering plastics for the automotive industry

    SciTech Connect

    Egelman, N.

    1996-05-01

    Engineering thermoplastics are versatile polymeric materials that are known for their design flexibility, thermal and mechanical properties, aesthetic value, and potential for recyclability. The vast majority of automotive engineering thermoplastics are injection molded, although they are also extruded, thermoformed, and compression- or blow-molded. Compared with commodity plastics, engineering thermoplastics (ETPs) generally offer a better balance of physical and mechanical properties, broader thermal performance, and higher strength and impact resistance--the latter allowing for thin-wall part design and other manufacturing economies. Compared with thermosets, ETPs offer lower scrap and reject rates, reduction or elimination of many secondary finishing operations, and the advantage of melt reprocessibility.

  4. Current Automotive Holometry Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.

    1990-04-01

    Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

  5. GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-31

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the UAB GATE Center of Excellence in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications. The first Phase of the UAB DOE GATE center spanned the period 2005-2011. The UAB GATE goals coordinated with the overall goals of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicles Technologies initiative and DOE GATE program. The FCVT goals are: (1) Development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost; (2) To provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills in advanced automotive technologies. The UAB GATE focused on both the FCVT and GATE goals in the following manner: (1) Train and produce graduates in lightweight automotive materials technologies; (2) Structure the engineering curricula to produce specialists in the automotive area; (3) Leverage automotive related industry in the State of Alabama; (4) Expose minority students to advanced technologies early in their career; (5) Develop innovative virtual classroom capabilities tied to real manufacturing operations; and (6) Integrate synergistic, multi-departmental activities to produce new product and manufacturing technologies for more damage tolerant, cost-effective, and lighter automotive structures.

  6. Modeling and Manufacturing of a Micromachined Magnetic Sensor Using the CMOS Process without Any Post-Process

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Jian-Zhi; Wu, Chyan-Chyi; Dai, Ching-Liang

    2014-01-01

    The modeling and fabrication of a magnetic microsensor based on a magneto-transistor were presented. The magnetic sensor is fabricated by the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process without any post-process. The finite element method (FEM) software Sentaurus TCAD is utilized to analyze the electrical properties and carriers motion path of the magneto-transistor. A readout circuit is used to amplify the voltage difference of the bases into the output voltage. Experiments show that the sensitivity of the magnetic sensor is 354 mV/T at the supply current of 4 mA. PMID:24732100

  7. Get Your Automotive Program Nationally Certified!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Automotive programs that nationally certified enhance student recruitment and give students better employment opportunities. Technicians who earn the Automotive Service Excellence credential have joined the ranks of professionals in the automotive service industry. (Author/JOW)

  8. International forensic automotive paint database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishea, Gregory A.; Buckle, Joe L.; Ryland, Scott G.

    1999-02-01

    The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current, validated, searchable, automotive paint database that is used to identify make(s), model(s), and year(s) of questioned paint samples in hit-and-run fatalities and other associated investigations involving automotive paint.

  9. Methods of suppressing automotive interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taggart, H. E.

    1981-11-01

    Automotive manufacturers utilize several techniques to reduce EMI emanating from the vehicle. The techniques include resistor spark plugs, resistor spark plug cables, use of silicone lubricant in the distributor, use of capacitors as filters, placement of grounding straps at key locations, conductive fan belt discharge, and tire static-charge reduction. If even further reduction is needed to obtain the maximum capability of a specific mobile communication system, additional suppression techniques are discussed which are effective at frequencies from approximately 30 to 1000 MHz. Measurement results show that the EMI from a new production-line automobile, measured in accordance with SAE Standard J551g, can be reduced as much as 10 to 15 dB by employing these suppression techniques. The amount of degradation to a mobile narrow-band FM receiver, such as the type used by law enforcement agencies, can be measured using the measurement technique described. This same technique can then be used as a tool to further reduce EMI from the vehicle components.

  10. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, William D.; Shaltens, Richard K.

    1997-01-01

    The development and verification of automotive Stirling engine (ASE) component and system technology is described as it evolved through two experimental engine designs: the Mod 1 and the Mod 2. Engine operation and performance and endurance test results for the Mod 1 are summarized. Mod 2 engine and component development progress is traced from the original design through hardware development, laboratory test, and vehicle installation. More than 21,000 hr of testing were accomplished, including 4800 hr with vehicles that were driven more dm 59,000 miles. Mod 2 engine dynamometer tests demonstrated that the engine system configuration had accomplished its performance goals for power (60 kW) and efficiency (38.5%) to within a few percent. Tests with the Mod 2 engine installed in a delivery van demonstrated combined metro-highway fuel economy improvements consistent with engine performance goals and the potential for low emission levels. A modified version of the Mod 2 has been identified as a manufacturable design for an ASE. As part of the ASE project, the Industry Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP), NASA Technology Utilization (TU) project, and the industry-funded Stirling Natural Gas Engine program were undertaken to transfer ASE technology to end users. The results of these technology transfer efforts are also summarized.

  11. Selected examples of intelligent (micro) sensor systems: state-of-the-art and tendencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, Peter R.

    2006-03-01

    The capability of intelligent sensors to have more intelligence built into them continues to drive their application in areas including automotive, aerospace and defense, industrial, intelligent house and wear, medical and homeland security. In principle it is difficult to overestimate the importance of intelligent (micro) sensors or sensor systems within advanced societies but one characteristic feature is the global market for sensors, which is now about 20 billion annually. Therefore sensors or sensor systems play a dominant role in many fields from the macro sensor in manufacturing industry down to the miniaturized sensor for medical applications. The diversity of sensors precludes a complete description of the state-of-the-art; selected examples will illustrate the current situation. MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) devices are of special interest in the context of micro sensor systems. In past the main requirements of a sensor were in terms of metrological performance. The electrical (or optical) signal produced by the sensor needed to match the measure relatively accurately. Such basic functionality is no longer sufficient. Data processing near the sensor, the extraction of more information than just the direct sensor information by signal analysis, system aspects and multi-sensor information are the new demands. A shifting can be observed away from aiming to design perfect single-function transducers and towards the utilization of system-based sensors as system components. In the ideal case such systems contain sensors, actuators and electronics. They can be realized in monolithic, hybrid or discrete form—which kind is used depends on the application. In this article the state-of-the-art of intelligent sensors or sensor systems is reviewed using selected examples. Future trends are deduced.

  12. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles.

  13. Molded GASIR ® infrared optics for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimond, Y.; Bellec, Y.

    2006-05-01

    Umicore IR Glass has developed an industrial process to manufacture low cost chalcogenide glasses. These materials called GASIR® are transparent in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm atmospheric windows which allows to use them in all the sensing and thermal imaging applications where Germanium and ZnSe usually stands. During the past 5 years, Umicore has developed and produced with and for its customers various GASIR ® optics in low and medium volume for military and civilian applications. But from the beginning of last year, the company is also very active in the automotive market. For that reason, a huge work of development on optics quality has been done to comply with automotive requests. Umicore's GASIR ® optics are used for instance in the night vision system that BMW launched in September 2005 on its 7-series. This system which will be described in this paper was developed by Umicore's customer, automotive TIER1 producer Autoliv.

  14. Automotive Electricity: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The third of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive electricity at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  15. Introduction to Automotive Service. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document provides instruction for high-priority competencies on task lists developed by the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence. Contained in this teacher's guide are the materials necessary to teach 11 competency-based instructional units related to the automotive service industry. The following instructional units are…

  16. Automotive Engines; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive engines course studies and demonstrates the theory and principles of operation of the automotive four stroke cycle engine. The student will develop an understanding of the systems necessary to make the engine perform as designed, such as cooling, fuel, ignition and lubrication. This is a one or two quinmester credit course of 45…

  17. Automotive Chassis; Automotive Mechanics-Basic: 9043.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive chassis course is designed to familiarize the beginning student of the history and development of the automobile with basic concepts common to the automobile industry, and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. It is one quinmester in a series of quinmester outlines…

  18. Greening up Auto Part Manufacturing: A Collaboration between Academia and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneas, Kristi A.; Armstrong, Drew L.; Brank, Alice R.; Johnson, Amanda L.; Kissinger, Chelsea A.; Mabe, Adam R.; Sezer, Ozge; Fontinell, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Historically, manufacture of automotive electronic components and screen-printing of automotive instrument clusters at DENSO Manufacturing Tennessee, Inc. required washing of equipment such as screens, stencils, and jigs with sizable quantities of volatile organic compounds and hazardous air pollutants. Collaborative efforts between the Maryville…

  19. Usefulness of a large field of view sensor for physicochemical, textural, and yield predictions under industrial goat cheese (Murcia al Vino) manufacturing conditions.

    PubMed

    Rovira, S; García, V; Ferrandini, E; Carrión, J; Castillo, M; López, M B

    2012-11-01

    The applicability of a light backscatter sensor with a large field of view was tested for on-line monitoring of coagulation and syneresis in a goat cheese (Murcia al Vino) manufactured under industrial conditions. Cheesemaking was carried out concurrently in a 12-L pilot vat and a 10,000-L industrial vat following the normal cheesemaking protocol. Cheese moisture, whey fat content, hardness, springiness, and adhesiveness were measured during syneresis. The results obtained show that cutting time is best predicted by considering the coagulation ratio at the inflection point and the percentage increase in the ratio during coagulation, with no need for the first derivative. The large field of view reflectance ratio provided good results for the prediction of moisture content, yield, hardness, springiness, and adhesiveness of the final cheese.

  20. Automotive Mg Research and Development in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Joseph A.; Jackman, Jennifer; Li, Naiyi; Osborne, Richard J.; Powell, Bob R.; Sklad, Philip S

    2006-01-01

    Expanding world economic prosperity and probable peaking of conventional petroleum production in the coming decades require efforts to increase the efficiency of, and the development of alternatives to, petroleum-based fuels used in automotive transportation. North America has been aggressively pursuing both approaches for over ten years. Mainly as a result of lower prices due to global sourcing, magnesium has recently emerged as a serious candidate for lightweighting, and thus increasing the fuel efficiency of, automotive transportation. Automotive vehicles produced in North America currently use more Mg than vehicles produced elsewhere in the world, but the amounts per vehicle are very small in comparison to other materials such as steel, aluminum and plastics. The reasons, besides price, are primarily a less-developed state of technology for Mg in automotive transportation applications and lack of familiarity by the vehicle manufacturers with the material. This paper reviews some publicly-known, recent, present and future North American research and development activities in Mg for automotive applications.

  1. Overview of Automotive Core Tools: Applications and Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Jigar A.; Desai, Darshak

    2016-06-01

    Continuous improvement of product and process quality is always challenging and creative task in today's era of globalization. Various quality tools are available and used for the same. Some of them are successful and few of them are not. Considering the complexity in the continuous quality improvement (CQI) process various new techniques are being introduced by the industries, as well as proposed by researchers and academia. Lean Manufacturing, Six Sigma, Lean Six Sigma is some of the techniques. In recent years, there are new tools being opted by the industry, especially automotive, called as Automotive Core Tools (ACT). The intention of this paper is to review the applications and benefits along with existing research on Automotive Core Tools with special emphasis on continuous quality improvement. The methodology uses an extensive review of literature through reputed publications—journals, conference proceedings, research thesis, etc. This paper provides an overview of ACT, its enablers, and exertions, how it evolved into sophisticated methodologies and benefits used in organisations. It should be of value to practitioners of Automotive Core Tools and to academics who are interested in how CQI can be achieved using ACT. It needs to be stressed here that this paper is not intended to scorn Automotive Core Tools, rather, its purpose is limited only to provide a balance on the prevailing positive views toward ACT.

  2. Automotive Engine Maintenance and Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide students with an understanding of automotive engine maintenance and repair. The course contains six study units covering automotive engine maintenance and repair; design classification; engine malfunction, diagnosis, and repair; engine disassembly; engine…

  3. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  4. Automotive Technology. Career Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.

    The curriculum guide is designed to provide students with realistic training in automotive technology theory and practice within the secondary educational framework and to prepare them for entry into an occupation or continuing postsecondary education. The learning modules are grouped into three areas: small engines, automotive technology, and…

  5. Using of SnO{sub 2} deposition by spray pyrolysis method for thin film gas sensors (TFGS) manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, S.V.; Korotchenkov, G.S.; Brynzari, V.I.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents results of investigations aimed to TFGS technology elaboration. As follows from the results of electronic model of TFGS and technological possibilities optimal parameters of gas sensitive films are: the concentration of charge carriers in the film - 10<17> - 10<19> cm<-3> and film thickness d - 30-100 rim. At that for getting high reproducibility of TFGS parameters these parameters of the films must have high degree of surface uniformity. Other aspects of the problem of gas sensitive films deposition are bounded with the fact that gas sensitive films have to deposit on the already formed by collective methods {open_quotes}chip{close_quotes} of TFGS, and that gas sensors have high temperature active zones. So, for minimization of degradation effects in {open_quotes}chip{close_quotes}, the chosen method must provide: high deposition rate, low deposition temperature, high gas sensitivity, and high demanded stoichiometry of tin oxide films. The gas detection performance of these sensors was evaluated for methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and propane.

  6. NOx Sensor Development

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2010-11-01

    NO{sub x} compounds, specifically NO and NO{sub 2}, are pollutants and potent greenhouse gases. Compact and inexpensive NO{sub x} sensors are necessary in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles to meet government emission requirements and enable the more rapid introduction of more efficient, higher fuel economy CIDI vehicles. Because the need for a NO{sub x} sensor is recent and the performance requirements are extremely challenging, most are still in the development phase. Currently, there is only one type of NO{sub x} sensor that is sold commercially, and it seems unlikely to meet more stringent future emission requirements. Automotive exhaust sensor development has focused on solid-state electrochemical technology, which has proven to be robust for in-situ operation in harsh, high-temperature environments (e.g., the oxygen stoichiometric sensor). Solid-state sensors typically rely on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the oxygen-ion conducting electrolyte and then target different types of metal or metal-oxide electrodes to optimize the response. Electrochemical sensors can be operated in different modes, including amperometric (a current is measured) and potentiometric (a voltage is measured), both of which employ direct current (dc) measurements. Amperometric operation is costly due to the electronics necessary to measure the small sensor signal (nanoampere current at ppm NO{sub x} levels), and cannot be easily improved to meet the future technical performance requirements. Potentiometric operation has not demonstrated enough promise in meeting long-term stability requirements, where the voltage signal drift is thought to be due to aging effects associated with electrically driven changes, both morphological and compositional, in the sensor. Our approach involves impedancemetric operation, which uses alternating current (ac) measurements at a specified frequency. The approach is described in detail in previous reports and several publications

  7. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program. RESD Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    This is the final report compiling a summary of the information presented and discussed at the May 1983 Automotive Stirling Engine (AES) Reference Engine System Design (RESD) review held at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The design of the engine and its auxiliaries and controls is described. Manufacturing costs in production quantity are also presented. Engine system performance predictions are discussed and vehicle integration is developed, along with projected fuel economy levels.

  8. High-Temperature Alloys for Automotive Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Titran, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Stirling engine is external-combustion engine that offers fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations. One of most critical areas in engine development concerns material selection for component parts. Alloys CG-27 and XF-818 identified capable of withstanding rigorous requirements of automotive Stirling engine. Alloys chosen for availability, performance, and manufacturability. Advanced iron-base alloys have potential for variety of applications, including stationary solar-power systems.

  9. Automotive batteries. (Bibliography from the Global Mobility database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, manufacture, and marketing of automotive batteries. Included are nickel-cadmium, nickel metal hydride, sodium sulfur, zinc-air, lead-acid, and polymer batteries. Testing includes life-cycling, performance and peak-power characteristics, and vehicle testing of near-term batteries. Also mentioned are measurement equipment, European batteries, and electric vehicle battery development. (Contains a minimum of 76 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Automotive batteries. (Bibliography from the Global Mobility database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, manufacture, and marketing of automotive batteries. Included are nickel-cadmium, nickel metal hydride, sodium sulfur, zinc-air, lead-acid, and polymer batteries. Testing includes life-cycling, performance and peak-power characteristics, and vehicle testing of near-term batteries. Also mentioned are measurement equipment, European batteries, and electric vehicle battery development. (Contains a minimum of 71 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Automotive batteries. (Bibliography from the Global Mobility database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, manufacture, and marketing of automotive batteries. Included are nickel-cadmium, nickel metal hydride, sodium sulfur, zinc-air, lead-acid, and polymer batteries. Testing includes life-cycling, performance and peak-power characteristics, and vehicle testing of near-term batteries. Also mentioned are measurement equipment, European batteries, and electric vehicle battery development.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Automotive Exteriors, LLC, working out of Troy, Michigan. The workers provided office, engineering and sales... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Troy, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for...

  13. Automotive Emissions Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, George

    2002-03-01

    Serious efforts to control emissions from automobiles commenced more than thirty-five years ago, focusing initially on aspects of engine design and the combustion process. For the past quarter century, however, the major emphasis has been on treating the engine exhaust gas before it leaves the vehicle, in order to limit the release of toxic and other pollutants. The system that was eventually devised and is now used on most gasoline-burning automobiles combines sensing, electronic engine control, and catalysis to decrease the emission of certain pollutants by more than ninety percent. This presentation will describe how the system works and briefly touch upon some of the consequences of automotive emissions control.

  14. History and evolution of warning labels for automotive friction products.

    PubMed

    Kopelovich, Luda M; Thuett, Kerry A; Chapman, Pamela S; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2014-04-01

    There have been claims over the years that asbestos-containing product manufacturers did not sufficiently warn end users early enough regarding the potential health hazards associated with their products (1930s-1990s). To address this issue, we compared the content of the warnings associated with asbestos-containing friction products (brakes, clutches, and gaskets) manufactured by the US automotive industries to what was expected by regulatory agencies during the time period in which an understanding of asbestos health hazards was being developed. We ended our evaluation around 1990, since asbestos-containing manufacturer supplied automotive products were functionally removed from commerce by 1985 in the United States. We assessed the warnings issued in users' manuals, technical service bulletins, product packaging materials, and labels placed on products themselves. Based on our evaluation, regulatory agencies had no guidelines regarding specific warning language for finished friction products, particularly when a product contained encapsulated asbestos fibers (i.e., modified by a bonding agent). Even today, federal regulations do not require labeling on encapsulated products when, based on professional judgment or sampling, user exposure is not expected to exceed the OSHA PEL. We concluded that, despite limited regulatory guidance, the US automotive industry provided adequate warnings with regards to its friction products. PMID:24518387

  15. History and evolution of warning labels for automotive friction products.

    PubMed

    Kopelovich, Luda M; Thuett, Kerry A; Chapman, Pamela S; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2014-04-01

    There have been claims over the years that asbestos-containing product manufacturers did not sufficiently warn end users early enough regarding the potential health hazards associated with their products (1930s-1990s). To address this issue, we compared the content of the warnings associated with asbestos-containing friction products (brakes, clutches, and gaskets) manufactured by the US automotive industries to what was expected by regulatory agencies during the time period in which an understanding of asbestos health hazards was being developed. We ended our evaluation around 1990, since asbestos-containing manufacturer supplied automotive products were functionally removed from commerce by 1985 in the United States. We assessed the warnings issued in users' manuals, technical service bulletins, product packaging materials, and labels placed on products themselves. Based on our evaluation, regulatory agencies had no guidelines regarding specific warning language for finished friction products, particularly when a product contained encapsulated asbestos fibers (i.e., modified by a bonding agent). Even today, federal regulations do not require labeling on encapsulated products when, based on professional judgment or sampling, user exposure is not expected to exceed the OSHA PEL. We concluded that, despite limited regulatory guidance, the US automotive industry provided adequate warnings with regards to its friction products.

  16. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership

    2011-01-31

    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly developed

  17. Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Gregory

    2011-03-01

    Essential to the long term success of advanced thermoelectric (TE) technology for practical waste heat recovery is fundamental physics and materials research aimed at discovering and understanding new high performance TE materials. Applications of such new materials require their development into efficient and robust TE modules for incorporation into real devices such as a TE generator (TEG) for automotive exhaust gas waste heat recovery. Our work at GM Global R&D includes a continuing investigation of Skutterudite-based material systems and new classes of compounds that have potential for TE applications. To assess and demonstrate the viability of a TEG using state-of-the-art materials and modules, we have designed, fabricated, installed, and integrated a working prototype TEG to recover exhaust gas waste heat from a production test vehicle. Preliminary results provide important data for the operation and validation of the mechanical, thermal, and electrical systems of the TEG in combination with the various vehicle systems (e.g., exhaust bypass valve and controls, thermocouples, gas and coolant flow and pressure sensors, TE voltage and output power). Recent results from our materials research work and our functioning automotive TEG will be presented. This work is supported by US DOE Grant # DE-FC26-04NT 42278.

  18. Jump start: The new automotive revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.

    1993-08-01

    For half a century, automotive technology has been subservient to the demands of performance and style. Now,the first generation of environmentally responsible cars is on the way. Experimental low-emission cars that run on methane, hydrogen, or electricity and have exceptional fuel economy are being build by more than a dozen companies. Growing numbers of automobiles in recent year have offset cars made cleaner by air pollution laws, and small modifications have not met the needs to have a major technology change. The plan to reduce air pollution in the Los Angeles basin has engineering minds beginning to take up the challenge. This article discusses new automobile technology as it is evolving: solar cars; light-electric vehicles; manufacturing of electric vehicles; light weight composites for vehicle bodies; hybrid gasoline-electric cars; other transportation modes. The critical role of governments and financial incentives in encouraging the development of new auto technologies is also discussed.

  19. Distributed Sensing and Control Architecture for Automotive Factory Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ningxu; Brennan, Robert W.

    In this paper we propose an architecture for distributed intelligent sensing and control (DISC) for automotive factory automation. The architecture is based on a platform-based design approach that breaks the sensing and control problem into increasingly higher levels of abstraction from physical hardware to intelligent sensing and control. The focus of this paper is on the middleware layer that serves as an interface between an upper, agent-based control level and the wireless sensor network. This layer takes advantage the IEC 61499 model for distributed process measurement and control, and in particular, exploits its distributed, modular structure and its close match to wireless sensor systems.

  20. Active gated imaging for automotive safety applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Yoav; Sonn, Ezri

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the Active Gated Imaging System (AGIS), in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast gated-camera equipped with a unique Gated-CMOS sensor, and a pulsed Illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest which are then processed by computer vision real-time algorithms. In recent years we have learned the system parameters which are most beneficial to night-time driving in terms of; field of view, illumination profile, resolution and processing power. AGIS provides also day-time imaging with additional capabilities, which enhances computer vision safety applications. AGIS provides an excellent candidate for camera-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the path for autonomous driving, in the future, based on its outstanding low/high light-level, harsh weather conditions capabilities and 3D potential growth capabilities.

  1. Dow Corning photonics: the silicon advantage in automotive photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Terry V.; Paquet, Rene; Norris, Ann; Pettersen, Babette

    2005-02-01

    The Automotive Market offers several opportunities for Dow Corning to leverage the power of silicon-based materials. Dow Corning Photonics Solutions has a number of developments that may be attractive for the emergent photonics needs in automobiles, building on 40 years of experience as a leading Automotive supplier with a strong foundation of expertise and an extensive product offering- from encapsulents and highly reliable resins, adhesives, insulating materials and other products, ensuring that the advantage of silicones are already well-embedded in Automotive systems, modules and components. The recent development of LED encapsulants of exceptional clarity and stability has extended the potential for Dow Corning"s strength in Photonics to be deployed "in-car". Demonstration of board-level and back-plane solutions utilising siloxane waveguide technology offers new opportunities for systems designers to integrate optical components at low cost on diverse substrates. Coupled with work on simple waveguide technology for sensors and data communications applications this suite of materials and technology offerings is very potent in this sector. The harsh environment under hood and the very extreme thermal range that materials must sustain in vehicles due to both their engine and the climate is an applications specification that defines the siloxane advantage. For these passive optics applications the siloxanes very high clarity at the data-communications wavelengths coupled with extraordinary stability offers significant design advantage. The future development of Head-Up-Displays for instrumentation and data display will offer yet more opportunities to the siloxanes in Automotive Photonics.

  2. n-Hexane-related peripheral neuropathy among automotive technicians--California, 1999-2000.

    PubMed

    2001-11-16

    Solvents, glues, spray paints, coatings, silicones, and other products contain normal (n-) hexane, a petroleum distillate and simple aliphatic hydrocarbon. n-Hexane is an isomer of hexane and was identified as a peripheral neurotoxin in 1964. Since then, many cases of n-hexane-related neurotoxicity have occurred in printing plants, sandal shops, and furniture factories in Asia, Europe, and the United States. This report describes an investigation of n-hexane-associated peripheral neuropathy in an automotive technician, an occupation in which this condition has not been reported, and summarizes the results of two other case investigations in the automotive repair industry. The findings suggest that solvent manufacturers should avoid using hexane when producing automotive degreasing products, and automotive technicians should avoid regular contact with hexane-based cleaning solvents. PMID:11724159

  3. Flush Mounting Of Thin-Film Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Technique developed for mounting thin-film sensors flush with surfaces like aerodynamic surfaces of aircraft, which often have compound curvatures. Sensor mounted in recess by use of vacuum pad and materials selected for specific application. Technique involves use of materials tailored to thermal properties of substrate in which sensor mounted. Together with customized materials, enables flush mounting of thin-film sensors in most situations in which recesses for sensors provided. Useful in both aircraft and automotive industries.

  4. An automotive transmission for automotive gas turbine power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A joint government-industry program was initiated to investigate the two-shaft gas turbine concept as an alternative to present-day automotive powerplants. Both were examined, compared and evaluated on the basis of the federal automotive driving cycle in terms of specific fuel/power/speed characteristics of the engine and the efficiency and performance of the transmission. The results showed that an optimum match of vehicle, gas turbine engine, and conventional automatic transmission is capable of a significant improvement in fuel economy. This system offers many advantages that should lead to its wide acceptance in future vehicles.

  5. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  6. Action Handbook for Automotive Service Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the U.S., Inc., Detroit, MI.

    The document is a handbook for a vocational automotive service education program which was formulated as a result of a four-day series of intensive workshops called the National Automotive Service Vocational Education Conference. The handbook discusses the major components of an automotive service vocational education program and aspects of their…

  7. Impact of novel thermoelectric materials on automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brignone, Mauro; Ziggiotti, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Despite the fact that thermoelectric (TE) devices are compact, quiet, rugged, stable and very reliable, thermoelectrics have found only niche applications because they are also inefficient (less that 5% conversion efficiency is typical) and costly. The key to more widespread acceptance of thermoelectric is the development of materials that are capable of higher conversion efficiency, but other fundamental materials parameters play a role not less important to open to large applications and markets. In particular the automotive sector requires low materials density, materials made from widely-available pure elements with very large supply chains, non-toxicity of elements and potential compliance with REACH and RoHS obligations and low raw material cost combined with low manufacturing costs. The impact of novel TE materials on automotive application will be described focusing on promising nano magnesium silicide and skutterudites.

  8. Strategies of performance self-monitoring in automotive production.

    PubMed

    Faye, Hélène; Falzon, Pierre

    2009-09-01

    Production in the automotive industry, based on assembly line work, is now characterized by lean manufacturing and customization. This results in greater flexibility and increased quality demands, including worker performance self-monitoring. The objectives of this study are to refine the concept of performance self-monitoring and to characterize the strategies developed by operators to achieve it. Data were collected based on the method of individual auto-confrontation, consisting of two steps: eleven assembly-line operators of a French automotive company were individually observed and video-taped while they were working; an interview then allowed each operator to discuss his/her activity based on the video-tape. This study expands the concept of performance self-monitoring by highlighting three types of strategies directly oriented toward quality: prevention, feedback control and control action strategies. PMID:19230859

  9. Strategies of performance self-monitoring in automotive production.

    PubMed

    Faye, Hélène; Falzon, Pierre

    2009-09-01

    Production in the automotive industry, based on assembly line work, is now characterized by lean manufacturing and customization. This results in greater flexibility and increased quality demands, including worker performance self-monitoring. The objectives of this study are to refine the concept of performance self-monitoring and to characterize the strategies developed by operators to achieve it. Data were collected based on the method of individual auto-confrontation, consisting of two steps: eleven assembly-line operators of a French automotive company were individually observed and video-taped while they were working; an interview then allowed each operator to discuss his/her activity based on the video-tape. This study expands the concept of performance self-monitoring by highlighting three types of strategies directly oriented toward quality: prevention, feedback control and control action strategies.

  10. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University

    SciTech Connect

    Nigle N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

  11. 77 FR 29751 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Automotive Fuel Economy Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ...: Automotive Fuel Economy Reports AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... average fuel economy standard for the model year for which the report is made, the actions a manufacturer... CONTACT: Kenneth R. Katz, Fuel Economy Division, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and...

  12. Cost Estimating Collision Damage; Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 3: 9037.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course planned to help the student to become employable and to provide them with the skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values necessary for performing the service expected of the automotive body repairman and to perform basic collision damage estimates. Emphasis is on utilization of manufacturer's…

  13. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that manufacturing output in America…

  14. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  15. Automotive Technology. Technical Committee Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Technical Committee Report prepared by industry representatives in Idaho lists the skills currently necessary for an employee in that state to obtain a job in automotive technology, retain a job once hired, and advance in that occupational field. (Task lists are grouped according to duty areas generally used in industry settings, and are used…

  16. Automotive Technologies. State Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    This document, which lists the technical automotive technologies competencies identified by representatives from business, industry, and labor as well as technical educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary…

  17. Automotive Mechanics. Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 33 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 33 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in automotive mechanics. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-9 enabling objectives. For each enabliing objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps…

  18. Readings in the Automotive Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGise, Joe

    Designed for reluctant readers in vocational high school, this selection of readings emphasizes general information about the automotive trade. Articles have been selected from a variety of auto magazines and trade journals. Each article is followed by an assortment of exercises designed to enable the student to further develop vocabulary and…

  19. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following: the Stirling reference engine system design; components and subsystems; F-40 baseline Stirling engine installation and test; the first automotive engine to be built on the program; computer development activities; and technical assistance to the Government. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are given.

  20. Automotive Technician Educational Cooperative Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbeck, Bill

    1998-01-01

    The Automotive Technician Educational Cooperative (ATEC), the premier applied-technology program at Truckee Meadows Community College (Sparks, Nevada), exemplifies what can be accomplished through leadership, cooperation, and dedication of a qualified faculty committed to designing and implementing a program based on standards. (JOW)

  1. Innovative Technology in Automotive Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John

    2007-01-01

    Automotive Technology combines hands-on training along with a fully integrated, interactive, computerized multistationed facility. Our program is a competency based, true open-entry/open-exit program that utilizes flexible self-paced course outlines. It is designed around an industry partnership that promotes community and economic development,…

  2. Automotive Electronics. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackert, Howard C.; Heiserman, Russell L.

    This learning module addresses computers and their applications in contemporary automobiles. The text provides students with information on automotive microcomputers and hands-on activities that will help them see how semiconductors and digital logic devices fit into the modern repair facility. The module contains nine instructional units that…

  3. Automotive gas turbine fuel control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A fuel control system is reported for automotive-type gas turbines and particulary advanced gas turbines utilizing variable geometry components to improve mileage and reduce pollution emission. The fuel control system compensates for fuel density variations, inlet temperature variations, turbine vane actuation, acceleration, and turbine braking. These parameters are utilized to control various orifices, spool valves and pistons.

  4. Fault self-diagnosis designing method of the automotive electronic control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yangyan; Yang, Zhigang; Fu, Xiaolin

    2005-12-01

    The fault self-diagnosis system is an important component of an the automotive electronic control system. Designers of automotive electronic control systems urgently require or need a complete understanding of the self-diagnosis designing method of the control system in order to apply it in practice. Aiming at this exigent need, self-diagnosis methods of designing sensors, electronic control unit (ECU), and actuators, which are the three main parts of automotive electronic control systems, are discussed in this paper. According to the fault types and characteristics of commonly used sensors, self-diagnosis designing methods of the sensors are discussed. Then fault diagnosis techniques of sensors utilizing signal detection and analytical redundancy are analysed and summarized respectively, from the viewpoint of the self-diagnosis designing method. Also, problems about failure self-diagnosis of ECU are analyzed here. For different fault types of an ECU, setting up a circuit monitoring method and a self-detection method of the hardware circuit are adopted respectively. Using these two methods mentioned above, a real-time and on-line technique of failure self-diagnosis is presented. Furthermore, the failure self-diagnosis design method of ECU are summarized. Finally, common faults of actuators are analyzed and the general design method of the failure self-diagnosis system is presented. It is suggested that self-diagnosis design methods relative to the failure of automotive electronic control systems can offer a useful approach to designers of control systems.

  5. Fracture testing and analysis of adhesively bonded joints for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Boeman, R.G.; Warren, C.D.

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began a cooperative effort with the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to conduct research and development that would overcome technological hurdles to the adhesive bonding of current and future automotive materials. This effort is part of a larger Department of Energy (DOE) program to promote the use of lighter weight materials in automotive structures for the purpose of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing environmental pollutant emissions. In accomplishing this mission, the bonding of similar and dissimilar materials was identified as being of primary importance to the automotive industry since this enabling technology would give designers the freedom to choose from an expanded menu of low mass materials for component weight reduction. This paper concentrates on the details of developing accurate fracture test methods for adhesively bonded joints in the automotive industry. The test methods being developed are highly standardized and automated so that industry suppliers will be able to pass on reliable data to automotive designers in a timely manner. Mode I fracture tests have been developed that are user friendly and automated for easy data acquisition, data analysis, test control and test repeatability. The development of this test is discussed. In addition, materials and manufacturing issues are addressed which are of particular importance when designing adhesive and composite material systems.

  6. Sheet Forming Simulation For AHSS Components In The Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgari, Alireza; Pereira, Michael; Clark, Ben; Dingle, Matthew; Hodgson, Peter

    2004-06-01

    The trend in the automotive industry towards new advanced high strength steels (AHSS), combined with the ongoing reduction in program lead times have increased the need to get tool designs right, first time. Despite the fact that the technology used by sheet metal stamping companies to design and manufacture tooling is advancing steadily, finding optimal process parameters and tool geometries remains a challenge. Consequently, there has been a transition from designs based largely on trial and error techniques and the experience of the stamping engineer, to the increased use of virtual manufacturing and finite element (FE) simulation predictions as an indispensable tool in the design process. This work investigates the accuracy of FE techniques in predicting the forming behavior of AHSS grades, such as TRIP and dual phase, as compared to more commonly used conventional steel grades. Three different methods of simulation, one-step, implicit and explicit techniques, were used to model the forming process for an automotive part. Results were correlated with experimental strain and thickness measurements of manufactured components from the production line.

  7. Fibre Optic Sensors - Will They Be Fact Or Fiction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGeehin, P.

    1984-08-01

    The widespread belief that developments in fibre optics derived from applications in the telecommunications industry, if applied to instrumentation and control, might give cost/performance advantages, has resulted in the formation of the United Kingdom Optical Sensors Collaborative Association (OSCA). The objectives of OSCA are to encourage the early exploitation and application of existing information through information exchange and sponsorship on sensors and systems. Optical and opto-electronic techniques for measuring primary variables - temperature, pressure, flow, etc - in industrial measurement and control fall centrally within OSCA's remit. The current membership of OSCA was given in the presentation. Full membership of OSCA is open to all instrumentation manufacturers with manufacturing and R and D facilities in the EEC, and to contractors and users of such equipment. Affiliate members are chosen because of the contribution they can make to the knowledge which is developed and shared amongst the full members. Full members have preferential exploitation rights to OSCA's intellectual property arising from sponsored work. As will be seen from the membership list, many different spheres of industrial activity are represented - instrument manufacturers, process plant users, utilities, aerospace and automotive companies.

  8. Roll forming technology for manufacturing axisymmetric automotive components

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C.K.; Lesuer, D.R.; Bieh, T.G.; Yang, H.s.; Brown, K.R.; Kaibyshev, R.O.; Petrov, E.N.

    1997-10-28

    A unique roll forming technology that permits complex axisymmetric components, such as automobile wheels and turbine disks, to be formed in a single forming operation, has been developed by two Russian Institute, the Institute of Technical Physics of the Russian Federal Nuclear Center and the Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems. This process was used to fabricate automobile wheels from a Russian AVT alloy, a 6010 aluminum alloy equivalent. The process included steps of isothermal roll forming of preforms into wheels shapes, all at 430C for the AVT alloy. The microstructure and mechanical properties were evaluated at various locations in the finished wheels by optical metallography and tensile testing at elevated temperatures. Tensile properties were obtained by stain-rate change tests and tensile tests to failure at high strain rates. Microstructure and mechanical propertied of the preforms and blanks were also evaluated. The results indicate that dynamically recovered microstructures were developed during the processing, which showed relatively high strain rate sensitivity and rendered sufficiently plasticity at the elevated temperature for wheel fabrication process.

  9. A survey of mortality at two automotive engine manufacturing plants.

    PubMed

    Park, R M; Mirer, F E

    1996-12-01

    Mortality at two engine plants was analyzed using proportional mortality and logistic regression models of mortality odds ratios to expand previous observations of increased cancers of the stomach, pancreas, and bladder, and cirrhosis of the liver among workers exposed to machining fluids. Causes of death and work histories were available for 1,870 decendents. There was a significant excess of deaths coded as diabetes for white men in both plants (PMR = 25/16.7 = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.20), and a deficit of respiratory diseases. Black men had fewer than expected diabetes deaths and more emphysema deaths. Elevated PMRs for cancers of the stomach, pancreas, prostate, bladder, and kidney were not statistically significant in plantwide populations. However, stomach cancer mortality increased with duration in camshaft and crankshaft production at Plant 1 (OR = 5.1, 95% CI = 1.6, 17; at mean duration of exposed cases), and among tool room workers (OR = 6.3, 95% CI = 1.3, 31), but these results were based on five cases. Nitrosamines were probably present in camshaft and crankshaft grinding at Plant 1. Pancreas cancer risk increased among workers at both plants ever employed in inspection (OR = 2.5, 16), in machining with straight oil (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.04, 12), or in skilled trades (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.1, 7.5). Lung cancer increased in cylinder head machining (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.4, 11), millwright work (OR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.6, 9.0), and in Plant 2 generally (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 0.97, 2.2). Potential lung carcinogens included heat treatment emissions, chlorinated oils, and coal tar fumes (millwrights). Bladder cancer increased with duration among workers grinding in straight oil MF (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.15, 7.8) and in machining/heat-treat operations (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.14, 7.2).

  10. Magnetoresistive sensors for angle, position, and electrical current measurement in demanding environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doms, Marco; Slatter, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, magnetoresistive (MR) sensors are used in a wide range of applications. In general, the MR-effect describes the change of the electrical resistance in an external magnetic field. MR sensors are not only used for measuring magnetic fields and rotational or linear motion, but also for non-contact switching applications and furthermore for highly dynamic current measurement. This is largely the result of increasingly complex demands on the sensors for e.g. high performance electrical drives. The sensors must not only be accurate and dynamic, but must also be robust under difficult operating conditions and exhibit very high reliability. Due to their physical working principle and their small size, MR sensors are especially suited to work in harsh environments like high or low temperature, radiation, pressure or mechanical shock. This paper describes the principle of operation, manufacturing process and benefits of MR sensors. This will be followed by a description of practical application examples from the automotive, oil and gas, renewable energy and space fields, where MR sensors are successfully applied in very small envelopes at very low /very high temperatures, under high pressure, high mechanical loading and under strong radiation.

  11. Zeolite-based Impedimetric Gas Sensor Device in Low-cost Technology for Hydrocarbon Gas Detection

    PubMed Central

    Reiß, Sebastian; Hagen, Gunter; Moos, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Due to increasing environmental concerns the need for inexpensive selective gas sensors is increasing. This work deals with transferring a novel zeolite-based impedimetric hydrocarbon gas sensor principle, which has been originally manufactured in a costly combination of photolithography, thin-film processes, and thick-film processes to a low-cost technology comprising only thick-film processes and one electroplating step. The sensing effect is based on a thin chromium oxide layer between the interdigital electrodes and a Pt-loaded ZSM-5 zeolite film. When hydrocarbons are present in the sensor ambient, the electrical sensor impedance increases strongly and selectively. In the present work, the chromium oxide film is electroplated on Au screen-printed interdigital electrodes and then oxidized to Cr2O3. The electrode area is covered with the screen-printed zeolite. The sensor device is self-heated utilizing a planar platinum heater on the backside. The best sensor performance is obtained at a frequency of 3 Hz at around 350 °C. The good selectivity of the original sensor setup could be confirmed, but a strong cross-sensitivity to ammonia occurs, which might prohibit its original intention for use in automotive exhausts.

  12. Part Transportation Improvement in Warehouse of an Automotive Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choojan, Tiwapom; Chutima, Parames

    2016-05-01

    This research is focus on the problems cause the assembly line stop in a Japanese automotive manufacturer in Thailand. The problem arose from not being able to supply parts to the assembly line in time and supplying wrong parts to the assembly line. Methods to resolve these problems involved the followings: 1) design new tag labels, 2) improve operations method and 3) redesign the parts storage layout and supply routes. The result showed that the time for transferring parts from the warehouse to the preparing area and the overlapped routes were reduced. Moreover, the supply accuracy from the preparation area to the assembly line was improved.

  13. 76 FR 1599 - Foreign-Trade Zone 203-Moses Lake, Washington; Application for Manufacturing Authority, SGL...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 203--Moses Lake, Washington; Application for Manufacturing Authority, SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing), Moses Lake, WA An application... Corporation, grantee of FTZ 203, requesting export-only manufacturing authority on behalf of SGL...

  14. Fuel Cells for Non-automotive Uses: Status and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Upreti, Girish; Greene, David L; Duleep, K. G.; Sawhney, Rupinder S

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cells are in varying stages ofcommercialization for both automotive and non-automotive applications. The fuel cell industry has made substantial progress but still needs to reduce costs and improve performance to compete successfully with established technologies. In just 5 years, costs have been reduced by a factor of two while improving efficiency and durability. Based on interviews with fuel cell manufacturers in the U.S., Japan and the EU and information from published sources, a model of non-automotive fuel cell markets is constructed and used to estimate the impacts of government policies and to project the potential evolution of the industry to 2025. The model includes the effects of learning-by-doing, scale economies and exogenous technological progress on component and system costs, estimates customer choices between fuel cell and competing established technologies, and attempts to measure the impacts of government policies. With continued policy support it appears likely that the industry can become self-sustaining within the next decade.

  15. Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

    2013-12-01

    Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

  16. Challenges of Embedded Computer Vision in Automotive Safety Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Dhua, Arnab S.; Kiselewich, Stephen J.; Bauson, William A.

    Vision-based automotive safety systems have received considerable attention over the past decade. Such systems have advantages compared to those based on other types of sensors such as radar, because of the availability of lowcost and high-resolution cameras and abundant information contained in video images. However, various technical challenges exist in such systems. One of the most prominent challenges lies in running sophisticated computer vision algorithms on low-cost embedded systems at frame rate. This chapter discusses these challenges through vehicle detection and classification in a collision warning system.

  17. Influences of weather phenomena on automotive laser radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasshofer, R. H.; Spies, M.; Spies, H.

    2011-07-01

    Laser radar (lidar) sensors provide outstanding angular resolution along with highly accurate range measurements and thus they were proposed as a part of a high performance perception system for advanced driver assistant functions. Based on optical signal transmission and reception, laser radar systems are influenced by weather phenomena. This work provides an overview on the different physical principles responsible for laser radar signal disturbance and theoretical investigations for estimation of their influence. Finally, the transmission models are applied for signal generation in a newly developed laser radar target simulator providing - to our knowledge - worldwide first HIL test capability for automotive laser radar systems.

  18. Advanced Line Die Forming Simulation Technology and Its Impact on Stamping Automotive Body Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jimmy; Wang, Chuantao; Xu, Siguang; Joshi, Ramesh; Goan, Norman

    2005-08-01

    Line die forming simulation and validation create tremendous business values for automotive die developments and production stamping while they pose a great technological challenge to stamping CAE community. GM Manufacturing Engineering Die Center has developed an integrated line die analysis technology to validate die lines as a productionized business process. In this process, a finished stamping body panel can be streamline analyzed with required time, accuracy, and quality. This paper presents critical issues in line die analysis, discusses technical challenges in production applications and software development, and finally demonstrates the impact of line die forming simulation and validations on automotive body styling and tooling developments.

  19. The analysis of experimental data obtained from automotives tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, R. M.; Radulescu, V. J.; Neagu, D.; Trocan, C.; Copae, I.

    2016-08-01

    The paper highlights the three important and inseparably aspects of the systemic approach of automotives dynamics: taking into account the human-vehicle-field interaction, dealing movement with algorithms specific to system theory and analysis of experimental data with algorithms specific to signals theory.Within the paper, the systemic approach regarding vehicles dynamics is based on experimental data obtained from tests, whereby it is analyzed the movement and there are obtained movement mathematical models through algorithms of systems identification.Likewise, there are shown main analysis methods for experimental data, which uses probability theory, information theory, correlation analysis and variance analysis;in addition, there are highlighted possibilities given by time analysis, frequency analysis and data time-frequency analysis. Identification algorithms and highlighted analysis procedures assure the study of automotives dynamics and fuel saving,by directly using experimental data, or by using mathematical models and applying concepts and algorithms specific to systems theory. Experimental data were obtained by testing automotives with electronic control devices and by using acquisition and storage equipmentsfor data given by the on-board computer and taken from embedded sensors.

  20. 78 FR 58518 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Benteler Automotive Corporation (Automotive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... (Automotive Suspension and Body Components); Duncan, South Carolina Benteler Automotive Corporation (Benteler... current request would add bumper assemblies, body reinforcement assemblies, suspension parts (e.g., links... customs entry procedures that applies to bumper assemblies, body reinforcement assemblies,...

  1. Recycling used automotive oil filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peaslee, Kent D.

    1994-02-01

    Over 400 million used automotive oil filters are discarded in the United States each year, most of which are disposed of in landfills wasting valuable resources and risking contamination of ground- and surface-water supplies. This article summarizes U.S. bureau of Mines research evaluating scrap prepared from used automotive oil filters. Experimental results show that crushed and drained oil filters have a bulk density that is higher than many typical scrap grades, a chemical analysis low in residual elements (except tin due to use of tin plate in filters), and an overall yield, oil-filter scrap to cast steel, of 76% to 85%, depending on the method used to prepare the scrap.

  2. Automotive Stirling engine systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) program is to develop a Stirling engine for automotive use that provides a 30 percent improvement in fuel economy relative to a comparable internal-combustion engine while meeting emissions goals. This paper traces the engine systems' development efforts focusing on: (1) a summary of engine system performance for all Mod I engines; (2) the development, program conducted for the upgraded Mod I; and (3) vehicle systems work conducted to enhance vehicle fuel economy. Problems encountered during the upgraded Mod I test program are discussed. The importance of the EPA driving cycle cold-start penalty and the measures taken to minimize that penalty with the Mod II are also addressed.

  3. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  4. Synchrotron FTIR characterisation of automotive primer surfacer paint coatings for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Maric, Mark; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm; Lewis, Simon W; Pitts, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy was used to characterise and assess the chemical diversity of electrocoat primer, primer surfacer and basecoats of automotive paint samples from 75 vehicles representing a range of international car manufacturers. Significant diversity was found in the synchrotron FTIR data from the primer surfacer coats. Classification using principal component analysis revealed 14 discrete groups, which could be associated with the country of manufacture, the specific manufacturer and manufacturing plant, the year of manufacture of the vehicle and in some instances the number of layers in the paint system. The model generated from the primer surfacer was significantly more discriminating than a previous model generated from FTIR analysis of clear coats of the same vehicles. Analysis of the primer surfacer also avoids issues of possible environmental degradation and component migration seen with FTIR analysis of automotive clear coats. Providing such information concerning vehicle origin would aid in the development of investigative leads from the analysis of questioned automotive paint samples located at the scene of a crime or on the body/clothing of a hit and run victim.

  5. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING WOOD EAVE AND STUCCO RAKEBOARD ON GABLE END, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  6. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  7. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END OF MAIN WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  8. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  9. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  10. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  11. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  12. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING WOOD EAVE AND STUCCO RAKEBOARD ON GABLE END. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  13. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  14. Carbon footprint of automotive ignition coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Huey-Ling; Chen, Chih-Ming; Sun, Chin-Huang; Lin, Hung-Di

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, environmental issues, such as climate change and global warming due to the excessive development of industry, have attracted increasing attention of citizens worldwide. It is known that CO2 accounts for the largest proportion of greenhouse gases. Therefore, how to reduce CO2 emissions during the life cycle of a product to lessen its impact on environment is an important topic in the industrial society. Furthermore, it is also of great significance to cut down the required energy so as to lower its production costs during the manufacturing process nowadays. This study presents the carbon footprint of an automotive ignition coil and its partial materials are defined to explore their carbon emissions and environmental impact. The model IPCC GWP100a calculates potential global greenhouse effect by converting them into CO2 equivalents. In this way, the overall carbon footprint of an ignition coil can be explored. By using IPCC GWP100a, the results display that the shell has the most carbon emissions. The results can help the industry reduce the carbon emissions of an ignition coil product.

  15. Lean Manufacturing Auto Cluster at Chennai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2012-10-01

    Due the presence of lot of automotive Industry, Chennai is known as Detroit of India, that producing over 40 % of the Indian vehicle and components. Lean manufacturing concepts have been widely recognized as an important tool in improving the competitiveness of industries. This is a continuous process involving everyone, starting from management to the shop floor. Automotive Component Industries (ACIs) in Ambattur Industrial Estate, Chennai has formed special purpose vehicle (SPV) society namely Ambattur Industrial Estate Manufacturers Association (AIEMA) Technology Centre (ATC) lean manufacturing cluster (ATC-LMC) during July 2010 under lean manufacturing competitiveness scheme, that comes under National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme of Government of India. The Tripartite Agreement is taken place between National Productivity Council, consultants and cluster (ATC-LMC). The objective is to conduct diagnostic study, study on training and application of various lean manufacturing techniques and auditing in ten ACIs. The methodology adopted is collection of primary data/details from ten ACIs. In the first phase, diagnostic study is done and the areas for improvement in each of the cluster member companies are identified. In the second phase, training programs and implementation is done on 5S and other areas. In the third phase auditing is done and found that the lean manufacturing techniques implementation in ATC-LMC is sustainable and successful in every cluster companies, which will not only enhance competitiveness but also decrease cost, time and increase productivity. The technical efficiency of LMC companies also increases significantly.

  16. Vibration reduction on automotive shafts using piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Holger; Riedel, Mathias; Schmidt, Knut; Bianchini, Emanuele

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on active vibration reduction for automotive shafts with the use of piezoelectric material. The work focuses on an axle of an Audi A2. The demand in the automobile sector for higher comfort in the vehicle is of a great importance alongside the requirements of lighter weight and low fuel consumption. These requirements are typically in conflict with each other. One solution is the use of intelligent materials instead of viscoelastic materials and proof mass absorbers. These solutions are quite heavy especially at low frequencies. Active vibration control and piezoelectric devices are advantageous in this application due to their low mass to performance ratio. Our research study explores the use of such piezoelectric devices for an axle. In conjunction with electronics it will reduce vibrations in the first natural bending mode of the axle. Laboratory tests simulated the condition present in the road. At first a stationary set up was used, then a simulated disturbance was input at the attachment points of the shaft. Finally, a test with rotating shaft was performed. Piezoelectric devices (custom QuickPacks from ACX, a Division of Cymer) were used as sensors and as actuators to properly control the axle during the different operating conditions. The power consumption of each actuator pair was less than 20W. The work described here details the test setup, the control strategy, the hardware implementation as well as the test results obtained.

  17. High-power fiber optic cable with integrated active sensors for live process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomster, Ola; Blomqvist, Mats; Bergstrand, Hans; Pålsson, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    In industrial applications using high-brilliance lasers at power levels up to and exceeding 20 kW and similarly direct diode lasers of 10 kW, there is an increasing demand to continuously monitor component status even in passive components such as fiber-optic cables. With fiber-optic cables designed according to the European Automotive Industry fiber standard interface there is room for integrating active sensors inside the connectors. In this paper we present the integrated active sensors in the new Optoskand QD fiber-optic cable designed to handle extreme levels of power losses, and how these sensors can be employed in industrial manufacturing. The sensors include photo diodes for detection of scattered light inside the fiber connector, absolute temperature of the fiber connector, difference in temperature of incoming and outgoing cooling water, and humidity measurement inside the fiber connector. All these sensors are connected to the fiber interlock system, where interlock break enable functions can be activated when measured signals are higher than threshold levels. It is a very fast interlock break system as the control of the signals is integrated in the electronics inside the fiber connector. Also, since all signals can be logged it is possible to evaluate what happened inside the connector before the interlock break instance. The communication to the fiber-optic connectors is via a CAN interface. Thus it is straightforward to develop the existing laser host control to also control the CAN-messages from the QD sensors.

  18. Image Sensors Enhance Camera Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, a Jet Propulsion Laboratory team led by Eric Fossum researched ways of improving complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors in order to miniaturize cameras on spacecraft while maintaining scientific image quality. Fossum s team founded a company to commercialize the resulting CMOS active pixel sensor. Now called the Aptina Imaging Corporation, based in San Jose, California, the company has shipped over 1 billion sensors for use in applications such as digital cameras, camera phones, Web cameras, and automotive cameras. Today, one of every three cell phone cameras on the planet feature Aptina s sensor technology.

  19. Sensors, Volume 8, Micro- and Nanosensor Technology - Trends in Sensor Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert; Meixner, Hans

    1996-12-01

    Sensors is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This final volume of the series uncovers trends in sensor technology and gives a comprehensive overview of the sensor market. The use of sensors in microsystems and in vacuum microelectronic as well as in acoustic wave devices is discussed. Present and emerging applications of sensors in aerospace, environmental, automotive, and medical industries, among others, are described. This volume is an indispensable reference work for both specialists and newcomers, researchers and developers

  20. Using Technology to Enhance an Automotive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Denis Ashton uses technology in his automotive technology program at East Valley Institute of Technology (EVIT) to positively impact student outcomes. Ashton, the department chair for the automotive programs at EVIT, in Mesa, Arizona, says that using an interactive PowerPoint curriculum makes learning fun for students and provides immediate…

  1. Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a course on becoming an automotive brakes specialist, based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The course consists of three instructional units: service brake hydraulic system and wheel bearings, service drum brakes, and service disc brakes. Depending on the…

  2. Petroleum Marketing. Selling Automotive Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luter, Robert R.

    This textbook contains material for the individualized instruction of students training for careers in service stations; automotive, tire, battery, and accessory retail stores; oil jobbers and petroleum product wholesalers, or any wholesale or retail establishment that sells automotive products and services. Included among the topics addressed in…

  3. 78 FR 36633 - National Automotive Sampling System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... improving data collection methods and quality control procedures, among other activities. This project is... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Automotive Sampling System AGENCY: National Highway... Automotive Sampling System (NASS) or Data Modernization (DataMod). NHTSA announces that it will hold a...

  4. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Body Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive body repair I and II. The nine units in automotive body repair I are as follows: introduction; related information; basic tool usage and safety; body and frame construction; basic sheet metal repair; preparing for…

  5. Automotive Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2015-03-01

    Considerable fuel energy, as much as 70%, is not converted to useful work by internal combustion engines but is instead rejected as waste heat, and more than half of the waste heat, nearly 40% of fuel energy, is contained in vehicle exhaust gas. This provides an opportunity to recover some of the wasted fuel energy and convert it from heat into useful work, subject to the laws of thermodynamics, and thereby improve vehicle energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) materials have been extensively researched and TE devices are now being developed for operation at high temperatures corresponding to automotive exhaust gases for direct solid-state conversion of heat into electricity. This has stimulated substantial progress in the development of practical TE generator (TEG) systems for large-scale commercialization. A significant enabler of this progress has been the US Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program through funding for low cost solutions for automotive TE waste heat recovery to improve fuel economy. Our current project at General Motors has culminated in the identification of the potential supply chain for all components and assembly of an automotive TEG. A significant focus has been to develop integrated and iterative modeling tools for a fully optimized TEG design that includes all components and subsystems (TE modules, heat exchangers, thermal interfaces, electrical interconnects, power conditioning, and vehicle integration for maximal use of TEG power). We have built and tested a new, low-cost Initial TEG prototype based on state-of-the-art production-scale skutterudite TE modules, novel heat exchanger designs, and practical solutions to the many technical challenges for optimum TEG performance. We will use the results for our Initial TEG prototype to refine our modeling and design tools for a Final automotive TEG system prototype. Our recent results will be presented. Thanks to: J.R. Salvador, E.R. Gundlach, D. Thompson, N.K. Bucknor, M

  6. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  7. Electrorheology for smart automotive suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Z.; Winkler, C. B.; Ervin, R. D.; Filisko, F. E.; Venhovens, P. J.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of the work reported was to demonstrate the suitability of electrorheological (ER) technology for adaptive control of suspension forces on tracked and wheeled vehicles. The mechanical shear strength properties of ER fluids change in response to the application of an electric field. The change is very rapid and fully reversible. This property was used to create an automotive suspension damper whose resistive force is readily controlled by an external electrical signal. The device was applied in a semiactive suspension system for the Army's high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV). The work reported covers a range of development tasks including definition of the semiactive control algorithm, ER fluid formulation, design and fabrication of an ER damper, design of an electrical control circuit, creation of a quarter-HMMWV test stand for the simulation of ride vibrations, laboratory measurement of the ER-damped performance characteristics over a range of physically simulated operating conditions, and computer simulation of the quarter-HMMWV system. The research demonstrated that an ER damper and appropriate control circuits could out-perform the conventional hydraulic shock absorber, but that various complexities tend to impede broad application of electrorheology in automotive devices.

  8. Space Software for Automotive Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    John Thousand of Wolverine Western Corp. put his aerospace group to work on an unfamiliar job, designing a brake drum using computer design techniques. Computer design involves creation of a mathematical model of a product and analyzing its effectiveness in simulated operation. Technique enables study of performance and structural behavior of a number of different designs before settling on a final configuration. Wolverine employees attacked a traditional brake drum problem, the sudden buildup of heat during fast and repeated braking. Part of brake drum not confined tends to change its shape under combination of heat, physical pressure and rotational forces, a condition known as bellmouthing. Since bellmouthing is a major factor in braking effectiveness, a solution of problem would be a major advance in automotive engineering. A former NASA employee, now a Wolverine employee, knew of a series of NASA computer programs ideally suited to confronting bellmouthing. Originally developed as aids to rocket engine nozzle design, it's capable of analyzing problems generated in a rocket engine or automotive brake drum by heat, expansion, pressure and rotational forces. Use of these computer programs led to new brake drum concept featuring a more durable axle, and heat transfer ribs, or fins, on hub of drum.

  9. Averaging Sampled Sensor Outputs To Detect Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panossian, Hagop V.

    1990-01-01

    Fluctuating signals smoothed by taking consecutive averages. Sampling-and-averaging technique processes noisy or otherwise erratic signals from number of sensors to obtain indications of failures in complicated system containing sensors. Used under both transient and steady-state conditions. Useful in monitoring automotive engines, chemical-processing plants, powerplants, and other systems in which outputs of sensors contain noise or other fluctuations in measured quantities.

  10. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, W.; Piller, S.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Activities performed on Mod I engine testing and test results, progress in manufacturing, assembling and testing of a Mod I engine in the United States, P40 Stirling engine dynamometer and multifuels testing, analog/digital controls system testing, Stirling reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies, components and subsystems, and computer code development are summarized.

  11. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Activities performed on Mod I engine testing and test results; the manufacture, assembly, and test of a Mod I engine in the United States; design initiation of the Mod I-A engine system; transient performance testing; Stirling reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies; components and subsystems; and the study and test of low cost alloys are summarized.

  12. Mass Production Cost Estimation For Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systesm for Automotive Applications. 2010 Update

    SciTech Connect

    James, Brian D.; Kalinoski, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Kevin N.

    2010-09-30

    This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct-hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light-duty automobiles.

  13. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications. 2009 Update

    SciTech Connect

    James, Brian D.; Kalinoski, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Kevin N.

    2010-01-01

    This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light duty automobiles.

  14. Reliability of lead-calcium automotive batteries in practical operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burghoff, H.-G.; Richter, G.

    In order to reach a statistically sound conclusion on the suitability of maintenance-free, lead-calcium automotive batteries for practical operations, the failure behaviour of such batteries has been observed in a large-scale experiment carried out by Mercedes Benz AG and Robert Bosch GmbH in different climatic zones of North America. The results show that the average failure behaviour is not significantly different to that of batteries from other manufacturers using other grid alloy systems and operated under otherwise identical conditions; the cumulative failure probability after 30 months is 17%. The principal causes of failure are: (i) early failure: transport damage, filling errors, and short-circuits due to the outer plates being pushed up during plate-block assembly (manufacturing defect); (ii) statistical failure: short-circuits due to growth of positive plates caused by a reduction in the mechanical strength of the cast positive grid as a result of corrosion; (iii) late failure due to an increased occurrence of short-circuits, especially frequent in outer cell facing the engine of the vehicle (subjected to high temperature), and to defects caused by capacity decay. As expected, the batteries exhibit extremely low water loss in each cell. The poor cyclical performance of stationary batteries, caused by acid stratification and well-known from laboratory tests, has no detrimental effect on the batteries in use. After a thorough analysis of the corrosion process, the battery manufacturer changed the grid alloy and the method of its production, and thus limited the corrosion problem with cast lead-calcium grids and with it the possibility of plate growth. The mathematical methods used in this study, and in particular the characteristic factors derived from them, have proven useful for assessing the suitability of automotive batteries.

  15. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  16. The Relationship between Organizational Commitment and Organizational Climate in Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Adela J.; Scott, D. R.; Pace, R. Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational climate. Subjects were chosen from three large Australian automotive component manufacturing companies. A questionnaire was administered to 1,413 employees from forty-two countries of origin. A 97.8 percent response rate yielded 1,382…

  17. Electrohydraulic Forming of Near-Net Shape Automotive Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Golovaschenko, Sergey F.

    2013-09-26

    The objective of this project was to develop the electrohydraulic forming (EHF) process as a near-net shape automotive panel manufacturing technology that simultaneously reduces the energy embedded in vehicles and the energy consumed while producing automotive structures. Pulsed pressure is created via a shockwave generated by the discharge of high voltage capacitors through a pair of electrodes in a liquid-filled chamber. The shockwave in the liquid initiated by the expansion of the plasma channel formed between two electrodes propagates towards the blank and causes the blank to be deformed into a one-sided die cavity. The numerical model of the EHF process was validated experimentally and was successfully applied to the design of the electrode system and to a multi-electrode EHF chamber for full scale validation of the process. The numerical model was able to predict stresses in the dies during pulsed forming and was validated by the experimental study of the die insert failure mode for corner filling operations. The electrohydraulic forming process and its major subsystems, including durable electrodes, an EHF chamber, a water/air management system, a pulse generator and integrated process controls, were validated to be capable to operate in a fully automated, computer controlled mode for forming of a portion of a full-scale sheet metal component in laboratory conditions. Additionally, the novel processes of electrohydraulic trimming and electrohydraulic calibration were demonstrated at a reduced-scale component level. Furthermore, a hybrid process combining conventional stamping with EHF was demonstrated as a laboratory process for a full-scale automotive panel formed out of AHSS material. The economic feasibility of the developed EHF processes was defined by developing a cost model of the EHF process in comparison to the conventional stamping process.

  18. Compensating springback in the automotive practice using MASHAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnimus, S.; Petzoldt, M.; Rietman, B.; Weiher, J.

    2005-08-01

    New materials are used in the automotive industry to reduce weight and to improve crash performance. These materials feature a higher ratio of yield stress to elastic modulus leading to increased springback after tool release. The resulting shape deviations and their efficient reduction is of major interest for the automotive industry nowadays. The usual strategies for springback reduction can diminish springback to a certain amount only. In order to reduce the remaining shape deviation a mathematical compensation algorithm is presented. The objective is to obtain the tool geometry such that the part springs back into the right shape after releasing the tools. In practice the process of compensation involves different tasks beginning with CAD construction of the part, planning the drawing method and tool construction, FE-simulation, deep drawing at try-out stage and measurement of the manufactured part. Thus the compensation can not be treated as an isolated task but as a process with various restrictions and requirements of today's automotive practice. For this reason a software prototype for compensation methods MASHAL — meaning program to maintain accuracy (MASsHALtigkeit) — was developed. The basic idea of compensation with MASHAL is the transfer and application of shape deviations between two different geometries on a third one. The developed algorithm allows for an effective processing of these data, an approximation of springback and shape deviations and for a smooth extrapolation onto the tool geometry. Following topics are addressed: positioning of parts, global compensation and restriction of compensation to local areas, damping of the compensation function in the blank holder domain, simulation and validation of springback and compensation of CAD-data. The complete compensation procedure is illustrated on an industrial part.

  19. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Smith, G.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Meacher, J.

    1986-01-01

    This is the ninth Semiannual Technical Progress Report prepared under the Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program. It covers the twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth quarters of activity after award of the contract. Quarterly Technical Progress Reports related program activities from the first through the thirteenth quarters; thereafter, reporting was changed to a Semiannual format. This report summarizes the study of higher-power kinematic Stirling engines for transportation use, development testing of Mod I Stirling engines, and component development activities. Component development testing included successful conical fuel nozzle testing and functional checkout of Mod II controls and auxiliaries on Mod I engine test beds. Overall program philosophy is outlined and data and test results are presented.

  20. Improving Compressed Air Energy Efficiency in Automotive Plants - Practical Examples and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Kissock, Professor Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The automotive industry is the largest industry in the United States in terms of the dollar value of production [1]. U.S. automakers face tremendous pressure from foreign competitors, which have an increasing manufacturing presence in this country. The Big Three North American Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler are reacting to declining sales figures and economic strain by working more efficiently and seeking out opportunities to reduce production costs without negatively affecting the production volume or the quality of the product. Successful, cost-effective investment and implementation of the energy efficiency technologies and practices meet the challenge of maintaining the output of high quality product with reduced production costs. Automotive stamping and assembly plants are typically large users of compressed air with annual compressed air utility bills in the range of $2M per year per plant. This paper focuses on practical methods that the authors have researched, analyzed and implemented to improve compressed air system efficiency in automobile manufacturing facilities. It describes typical compressed air systems in automotive stamping and assembly plants, and compares these systems to best practices. The paper then presents a series of examples, organized using the method of inside-out approach, which strategically identifies the energy savings in the compressed air system by first minimizing end-use demand, then minimizing distribution losses, and finally making improvements to primary energy conversion equipment, the air compressor plant.

  1. Studies in process modeling, design, monitoring, and control, with applications to polymer composites manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasagupta, Deepak

    2002-01-01

    High material and manufacturing costs have hindered the introduction of advanced polymer composite materials into mainstream civilian applications such as automotive. Even though high-fidelity models for several polymer composite manufacturing processes have become available over the past several years and offer significant benefits in manufacturing cost reduction, concerns about their inflexibility and maintenance has adversely affected their widespread usage. This research seeks to advance process modeling and design in polymer composites manufacturing to address these concerns. Other more general issues in measurement validation and distributed control are also addressed. Using a rigorous 3-D model of the injected pultrusion (IP) process validated recently, an algorithm was developed for process and equipment design with integrated economic, operability and environmental considerations. The optimum design promised enhanced throughput as well as reduction in the time and expenses of the current purely experimental approaches. Scale-up issues in IP were analyzed, and refinements to overcome some drawbacks in the model were suggested. The process model was then extended to simulate the co-injection resin transfer molding (CIRTM) process used for manufacture of foam-core sandwich composites. A 1-D isothermal model for real-time control was also developed. Process optimization using these models and experimental parametric studies increased the debond fracture toughness of sandwiches by 78% over current technology. To ensure the availability of validated measurements from process instrumentation, a novel in-situ sensor modeling approach to sensor validation was proposed. Both active and passive, time and frequency domain techniques were developed, and experimentally verified using temperature and flow sensors. A model-based dynamic estimator to predict the true measurement online was also validated. The effect of network communication delay on stability and control

  2. MEMS device for mass market gas and chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkade, Brian R.; Daly, James T.; Johnson, Edward A.

    2000-08-01

    Gas and chemical sensors are used in many applications. Industrial health and safety monitors allow companies to meet OSHA requirements by detecting harmful levels of toxic or combustible gases. Vehicle emissions are tested during annual inspections. Blood alcohol breathalizers are used by law enforcement. Refrigerant leak detection ensures that the Earth's ozone layer is not being compromised. Industrial combustion emissions are also monitored to minimize pollution. Heating and ventilation systems watch for high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) to trigger an increase in fresh air exchange. Carbon monoxide detectors are used in homes to prevent poisoning from poor combustion ventilation. Anesthesia gases are monitored during a patients operation. The current economic reality is that two groups of gas sensor technologies are competing in two distinct existing market segments - affordable (less reliable) chemical reaction sensors for consumer markets and reliable (expensive) infrared (IR) spectroscopic sensors for industrial, laboratory, and medical instrumentation markets. Presently high volume mass-market applications are limited to CO detectros and on-board automotive emissions sensors. Due to reliability problems with electrochemical sensor-based CO detectors there is a hesitancy to apply these sensors in other high volume applications. Applications such as: natural gas leak detection, non-invasive blood glucose monitoring, home indoor air quality, personal/portable air quality monitors, home fire/burnt cooking detector, and home food spoilage detectors need a sensor that is a small, efficient, accurate, sensitive, reliable, and inexpensive. Connecting an array of these next generation gas sensors to wireless networks that are starting to proliferate today creates many other applications. Asthmatics could preview the air quality of their destinations as they venture out into the day. HVAC systems could determine if fresh air intake was actually better than the air

  3. Integration of smart materials into high-volume manufacturing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Emanuele

    2006-03-01

    The integration of smart materials such as piezoelectric devices and shape memory alloys into structures has been typically limited to a bonding process that occurs as a secondary operation. Such an operation is not only costly for high volume applications but also has the potential of degrading the performance of the actuator or sensor due to the bonding agent selected. The work presented here explores the integration of piezoelectric materials using a high volume injection molding process. The process used is typical for large automotive components such as bumpers, instrument panels and other body panels. Different materials were evaluated, including plastics and both bare and packaged smart materials. Temperature and flow rate were also changed to investigate the effects on the durability of the materials. Both electrical and mechanical properties were tested with the key parameters including, void content, shifting from initial position, strain transfer and peal strength. It was found that good integration of piezoelectric materials could be achieved and electro-mechanical properties were improved as compared to a secondary bonding operation. Integration of screen-printed electrical circuits for electrical connectivity for piezoelectric materials will be evaluated in future research. In conclusion, a step forward was made in developing a multifunctional material based upon smart materials and conventional high volume manufacturing processes.

  4. Manufacturing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  5. Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, James L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in manufacturing technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to manufacturing, materials processing, personnel management, production management,…

  6. 26 CFR 48.4063-1 - Tax-free sales of bodies to chassis manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax-free sales of bodies to chassis..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4063-1 Tax-free sales of bodies to... not apply to bodies sold by the manufacturer thereof to a manufacturer (but not an importer)...

  7. The End of Car Manufacturing in Australia: What Is the Role of Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanwick, John; Circelli, Michelle; Lu, Tham

    2015-01-01

    The loss of jobs in the automotive manufacturing industry, together with a more general decline of the manufacturing industry in Australia, has implications for the types of skills needed in the labour market. Both of these scenarios affect particular groups of people, such as displaced car workers, but within that category other groups such as…

  8. Automotive Radar and Lidar Systems for Next Generation Driver Assistance Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasshofer, R. H.; Gresser, K.

    2005-05-01

    Automotive radar and lidar sensors represent key components for next generation driver assistance functions (Jones, 2001). Today, their use is limited to comfort applications in premium segment vehicles although an evolution process towards more safety-oriented functions is taking place. Radar sensors available on the market today suffer from low angular resolution and poor target detection in medium ranges (30 to 60m) over azimuth angles larger than ±30°. In contrast, Lidar sensors show large sensitivity towards environmental influences (e.g. snow, fog, dirt). Both sensor technologies today have a rather high cost level, forbidding their wide-spread usage on mass markets. A common approach to overcome individual sensor drawbacks is the employment of data fusion techniques (Bar-Shalom, 2001). Raw data fusion requires a common, standardized data interface to easily integrate a variety of asynchronous sensor data into a fusion network. Moreover, next generation sensors should be able to dynamically adopt to new situations and should have the ability to work in cooperative sensor environments. As vehicular function development today is being shifted more and more towards virtual prototyping, mathematical sensor models should be available. These models should take into account the sensor's functional principle as well as all typical measurement errors generated by the sensor.

  9. Sliding mode observers for automotive alternator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, De-Shiou

    Estimator development for synchronous rectification of the automotive alternator is a desirable approach for estimating alternator's back electromotive forces (EMFs) without a direct mechanical sensor of the rotor position. Recent theoretical studies show that estimation of the back EMF may be observed based on system's phase current model by sensing electrical variables (AC phase currents and DC bus voltage) of the synchronous rectifier. Observer design of the back EMF estimation has been developed for constant engine speed. In this work, we are interested in nonlinear observer design of the back EMF estimation for the real case of variable engine speed. Initial back EMF estimate can be obtained from a first-order sliding mode observer (SMO) based on the phase current model. A fourth-order nonlinear asymptotic observer (NAO), complemented by the dynamics of the back EMF with time-varying frequency and amplitude, is then incorporated into the observer design for chattering reduction. Since the cost of required phase current sensors may be prohibitive, the most applicable approach in real implementation by measuring DC current of the synchronous rectifier is carried out in the dissertation. It is shown that the DC link current consists of sequential "windows" with partial information of the phase currents, hence, the cascaded NAO is responsible not only for the purpose of chattering reduction but also for necessarily accomplishing the process of estimation. Stability analyses of the proposed estimators are considered for most linear and time-varying cases. The stability of the NAO without speed information is substantiated by both numerical and experimental results. Prospective estimation algorithms for the case of battery current measurements are investigated. Theoretical study indicates that the convergence of the proposed LAO may be provided by high gain inputs. Since the order of the LAO/NAO for the battery current case is one order higher than that of the link

  10. Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications.

    PubMed

    Kuş, Abdil

    2009-01-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters. PMID:22573995

  11. Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kuş, Abdil

    2009-01-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters. PMID:22573995

  12. Implementation of 3D Optical Scanning Technology for Automotive Applications.

    PubMed

    Kuş, Abdil

    2009-01-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) is a powerful tool for generating a CAD model from the 3D scan data of a physical part that lacks documentation or has changed from the original CAD design of the part. The process of digitizing a part and creating a CAD model from 3D scan data is less time consuming and provides greater accuracy than manually measuring the part and designing the part from scratch in CAD. 3D optical scanning technology is one of the measurement methods which have evolved over the last few years and it is used in a wide range of areas from industrial applications to art and cultural heritage. It is also used extensively in the automotive industry for applications such as part inspections, scanning of tools without CAD definition, scanning the casting for definition of the stock (i.e. the amount of material to be removed from the surface of the castings) model for CAM programs and reverse engineering. In this study two scanning experiments of automotive applications are illustrated. The first one examines the processes from scanning to re-manufacturing the damaged sheet metal cutting die, using a 3D scanning technique and the second study compares the scanned point clouds data to 3D CAD data for inspection purposes. Furthermore, the deviations of the part holes are determined by using different lenses and scanning parameters.

  13. Concepts for particle foam based ultralight automotive interior parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trassl, C.; Altstädt, V.; Schreier, P.

    2014-05-01

    The described concepts for modern automotive interior parts are based on polypropylene (PP). These interior parts have a core of expanded polypropylene particle foam (EPP) and a decorative layer of a thermoplastic polyolefin elastomer (TPO) film. Compared with conventional solutions in the field of automotive interior parts, they are characterised mainly due to the avoidance of material mixtures so that they have better recycling properties and are significantly lighter in spite of comparable crash behaviour. Because of the optimized combination of positive component properties (specifically, the rigidity of the carrier, lower density combined with the better crash behaviour of the EPP foam core and good haptic and optical properties of the film), the multi-material system compensates the disadvantages of the individual components. In addition, the integration of all process steps into a new single-step manufacturing process combined with the elimination of an additional surface treatment means that the new ultra-light concept should lead to a significant reduction in the costs and cycle time.

  14. Automotive applications for advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of nonaerospace applications for advanced composite materials with special emphasis on the automotive applications. The automotive industry has to satisfy exacting requirements to reduce the average fuel consumption of cars. A feasible approach to accomplish this involves the development of composites cars with a total weight of 2400 pounds and a fuel consumption of 33 miles per gallon. In connection with this possibility, the automotive companies have started to look seriously at composite materials. The aerospace industry has over the past decade accumulated a considerable data base on composite materials and this is being made available to the nonaerospace sector. However, the automotive companies will place prime emphasis on low cost resins which lend themselves to rapid fabrication techniques.

  15. An Organizational Knowledge Ontology for Automotive Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellingrath, Bernd; Witthaut, Markus; Böhle, Carsten; Brügger, Stephan

    The currently completed ILIPT (Intelligent Logistics for Innovative Product Technologies) project was concerned with the concept of the “5 day car” (a customized car that is delivered within five days after its ordering) and encompassed extensive research on the required production and logistics network structures and processes. As car manufacturers in the automotive industry (commonly referred to as OEMs) rely heavily on their suppliers, the major challenge lies in the organization of inter-enterprise cooperation supported by information systems (IS) in an efficient manner. A common understanding of supply chain concepts is indispensable for this. Ontologies as formal representations of concepts can be used as a semantic basis for cooperation. Relevant results from ILIPT are presented followed by a concept as well as a prototype of how to transfer the theoretical findings to a practical implementation, in this case a multi-agent system.

  16. Multifuctional integrated sensors (MFISES).

    SciTech Connect

    Homeijer, Brian D.; Roozeboom, Clifton

    2015-10-01

    Many emerging IoT applications require sensing of multiple physical and environmental parameters for: completeness of information, measurement validation, unexpected demands, improved performance. For example, a typical outdoor weather station measures temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, light intensity, rainfall, wind speed and direction. Existing sensor technologies do not directly address the demand for cost, size, and power reduction in multi-paramater sensing applications. Industry sensor manufacturers have developed integrated sensor systems for inertial measurements that combine accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers, but do not address environmental sensing functionality. In existing research literature, a technology gap exists between the functionality of MEMS sensors and the real world applications of the sensors systems.

  17. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

  18. Automotive Refinishing II; Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 2: 9035.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Part of the Dade County Public School (Florida)Quinmester Program, the automotive refinishing course outline is a continuation of automotive refinishing 1 and emphasizes the practical application of color coating and sheet metal refinishing. Overall refinishing with enamels, lacquers, and acrylics are included as well as spot repair painting and…

  19. Automotive Body Sheet Metal Maintenance I; Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 1: 9033.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive body sheet metal maintenance course is an exploratory course in the use of all sheet metal working and equipment common to this trade area. Included are techniques of diagnosis of damage and repair. Emphasized is the proper use of tools and fabrication methods used in automotive body maintenance and repair. This nine week course…

  20. Secondary-Postsecondary Curriculum Development in Automotive Mechanics. Automotive Electrical Competencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepner, Ronald

    Developed as part of a competency-based curriculum in automotive mechanics which is usable by students at both the secondary and postsecondary levels, this learning package focuses on automotive electrical systems. It is the first unit to be published in a series of eight which will cover the eight subject areas on the national certification…

  1. Automotive Electrical and Electronic Systems I; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive electrical and electronic system I course is designed as one of a group of quinmester courses offered in the field of automotive mechanics. General information will be given along with technical knowledge, basic skills, attitudes and values that are required for job entry level. The nine week (135 clock hour) course overcomes some…

  2. Automotive History and Development of the Automobile; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive history and development of the automobile course is designed to familiarize the beginning student with basic concepts common to the automobile history and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. A course outline is provided and seven pages of post-tests are included in the…

  3. Monitoring automotive oil degradation: analytical tools and onboard sensing technologies.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L

    2012-09-01

    Engine oil experiences a number of thermal and oxidative phases that yield acidic products in the matrix consequently leading to degradation of the base oil. Generally, oil oxidation is a complex process and difficult to elucidate; however, the degradation pathways can be defined for almost every type of oil because they mainly depend on the mechanical status and operating conditions. The exact time of oil change is nonetheless difficult to predict, but it is of great interest from an economic and ecological point of view. In order to make a quick and accurate decision about oil changes, onboard assessment of oil quality is highly desirable. For this purpose, a variety of physical and chemical sensors have been proposed along with spectroscopic strategies. We present a critical review of all these approaches and of recent developments to analyze the exact lifetime of automotive engine oil. Apart from their potential for degradation monitoring, their limitations and future perspectives have also been investigated. PMID:22752447

  4. Monitoring automotive oil degradation: analytical tools and onboard sensing technologies.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L

    2012-09-01

    Engine oil experiences a number of thermal and oxidative phases that yield acidic products in the matrix consequently leading to degradation of the base oil. Generally, oil oxidation is a complex process and difficult to elucidate; however, the degradation pathways can be defined for almost every type of oil because they mainly depend on the mechanical status and operating conditions. The exact time of oil change is nonetheless difficult to predict, but it is of great interest from an economic and ecological point of view. In order to make a quick and accurate decision about oil changes, onboard assessment of oil quality is highly desirable. For this purpose, a variety of physical and chemical sensors have been proposed along with spectroscopic strategies. We present a critical review of all these approaches and of recent developments to analyze the exact lifetime of automotive engine oil. Apart from their potential for degradation monitoring, their limitations and future perspectives have also been investigated.

  5. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the development of a gas turbine engine to improve fuel economy, reduce gaseous emissions and particulate levels, and compatible with a variety of alternate fuels is reported. The powertrain is designated AGT101 and consists of a regenerated single shaft gas turbine engine, a split differential gearbox and a Ford Automatic Overdrive production transmission. The powertrain is controlled by an electronic digital microprocessor and associated actuators, instrumentation, and sensors. Standard automotive accessories are driven by engine power provided by an accessory pad on the gearbox. Component/subsystem development progress is reported in the following areas: compressor, turbine, combustion system, regenerator, gearbox/transmission, structures, ceramic components, foil gas bearing, bearings and seals, rotor dynamics, and controls and accessories.

  6. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing. PMID:25898070

  7. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  8. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-01-01

    Contractor's work for Lewis Research Center on "thermal barrier" coatings designed to improve aircraft engine efficiency resulted in two related but separate spinoffs. The Materials and Manufacturing Technology Center of TRW, Inc. invented a robotic system for applying the coating, and in the course of that research found it necessary to develop a new, extremely accurate type of optical gage that offers multiple improvements in controlling the quality of certain manufactured parts.

  9. Management status of end-of-life vehicles and development strategies of used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjun; Chen, Ming

    2012-11-01

    Recycling companies play a leading role in the system of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in China. Automotive manufacturers in China are rarely involved in recycling ELVs, and they seldom provide dismantling information for recycling companies. In addition, no professional shredding plant is available. The used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China has yet to take shape because of the lack of supporting technology and profitable models. Given the rapid growth of the vehicle population and electronic control units in automotives in China, the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry requires immediate development. This paper analyses the current recycling system of ELVs in China and introduces the automotive product recycling technology roadmap as well as the recycling industry development goals. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of the current used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China are analysed comprehensively based on the 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' (SWOT) method. The results of the analysis indicate that this recycling industry responds well to all the factors and has good opportunities for development. Based on the analysis, new development strategies for the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in accordance with the actual conditions of China are presented.

  10. The use of local magnetic saturation for position sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, B.; Génot, B.; Voyant, J. Y.; Yonnet, J. P.

    2002-04-01

    More and more automotive applications require exact position sensing. Magnetic position sensors are very low-cost products, and operate without mechanical contact in order to obtain very long-life systems with a high reliability. The principle of measurement of our sensor is the local saturation of the inductance core by a permanent magnet.

  11. User discrimination in automotive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

  12. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The third quarter (April-June, 1978) effort of the Ford/DOE Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program is reported, specifically Task 1 of that effort, which is Fuel Economy Assessment. At the end of this quarter the total fourth generation fuel economy projection was 26.12 MPG (gasoline) with a confidence level of 44%. This represents an improvement of 66.4% over the baseline M-H fuel economy of 15.7 MPG. The confidence level for the original 20.6 MPG goal has been increased from 53% to 57%. Engine 3X17 has accumulated a total of 213 hours of variable speed running. A summary of the individual sub-tasks of Task 1 are given. The sub-tasks are grouped into two categories: Category 1 consists of those sub-tasks which are directly related to fuel economy and Category 2 consists of those sub-tasks which are not directly related to fuel economy but are an integral part of the Task 1 effort.

  13. Advanced automotive diesel assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekar, R.; Tozzi, L.

    1983-01-01

    Cummins Engine Company completed an analytical study to identify an advanced automotive (light duty) diesel (AAD) power plant for a 3,000-pound passenger car. The study resulted in the definition of a revolutionary diesel engine with several novel features. A 3,000-pound car with this engine is predicted to give 96.3, 72.2, and 78.8 MPG in highway, city, and combined highway-city driving, respectively. This compares with current diesel powered cars yielding 41.7, 35.0, and 37.7 MPG. The time for 0-60 MPH acceleration is 13.9 sec. compared to the baseline of 15.2 sec. Four technology areas were identified as crucial in bringing this concept to fruition. They are: (1) part-load preheating, (2) positive displacement compounding, (3) spark assisted diesel combustion system, and (4) piston development for adiabatic, oilless diesel engine. Marketing and planning studies indicate that an aggressive program with significant commitment could result in a production car in 10 years from the date of commencement.

  14. Millimeter-wave silicon-based ultra-wideband automotive radar transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vipul

    Since the invention of the integrated circuit, the semiconductor industry has revolutionized the world in ways no one had ever anticipated. With the advent of silicon technologies, consumer electronics became light-weight and affordable and paved the way for an Information-Communication-Entertainment age. While silicon almost completely replaced compound semiconductors from these markets, it has been unable to compete in areas with more stringent requirements due to technology limitations. One of these areas is automotive radar sensors, which will enable next-generation collision-warning systems in automobiles. A low-cost implementation is absolutely essential for widespread use of these systems, which leads us to the subject of this dissertation---silicon-based solutions for automotive radars. This dissertation presents architectures and design techniques for mm-wave automotive radar transceivers. Several fully-integrated transceivers and receivers operating at 22-29 GHz and 77-81 GHz are demonstrated in both CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS technologies. Excellent performance is achieved indicating the suitability of silicon technologies for automotive radar sensors. The first CMOS 22-29-GHz pulse-radar receiver front-end for ultra-wideband radars is presented. The chip includes a low noise amplifier, I/Q mixers, quadrature voltage-controlled oscillators, pulse formers and variable-gain amplifiers. Fabricated in 0.18-mum CMOS, the receiver achieves a conversion gain of 35-38.1 dB and a noise figure of 5.5-7.4 dB. Integration of multi-mode multi-band transceivers on a single chip will enable next-generation low-cost automotive radar sensors. Two highly-integrated silicon ICs are designed in a 0.18-mum BiCMOS technology. These designs are also the first reported demonstrations of mm-wave circuits with high-speed digital circuits on the same chip. The first mm-wave dual-band frequency synthesizer and transceiver, operating in the 24-GHz and 77-GHz bands, are demonstrated. All

  15. 79 GHz UWB automotive short range radar - Spectrum allocation and technology trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloecher, H.-L.; Sailer, A.; Rollmann, G.; Dickmann, J.

    2009-05-01

    Automotive UWB (Ultra-Wideband) short range radar (SSR) is on the market as a key technology for novel comfort and safety systems. SiGe based 79 GHz UWB SRR will be a definite candidate for the long term substitution of the 24 GHz UWB SRR. This paper will give an overview of the finished BMBF joint project KOKON and the recently started successing project RoCC, which concentrate on the development of this technology and sensor demonstrators. In both projects, the responsibilities of Daimler AG deal with application based sensor specification, test and evaluation of realized sensor demonstrators. Recent UWB SRR frequency regulation approaches and activitites will be introduced. Furthermore, some first results of Daimler activities within RoCC will be presented, dealing with the packaging and operation of these sensors within the complex car environment.

  16. Low-cost thermo-electric infrared FPAs and their automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Masaki; Ohta, Yoshimi; Fukuyama, Yasuhiro

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes three low-cost infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) having a 1,536, 2,304, and 10,800 elements and experimental vehicle systems. They have a low-cost potential because each element consists of p-n polysilicon thermocouples, which allows the use of low-cost ultra-fine microfabrication technology commonly employed in the conventional semiconductor manufacturing processes. To increase the responsivity of FPA, we have developed a precisely patterned Au-black absorber that has high infrared absorptivity of more than 90%. The FPA having a 2,304 elements achieved high resposivity of 4,300 V/W. In order to reduce package cost, we developed a vacuum-sealed package integrated with a molded ZnS lens. The camera aiming the temperature measurement of a passenger cabin is compact and light weight devices that measures 45 x 45 x 30 mm and weighs 190 g. The camera achieves a noise equivalent temperature deviation (NETD) of less than 0.7°C from 0 to 40°C. In this paper, we also present a several experimental systems that use infrared cameras. One experimental system is a blind spot pedestrian warning system that employs four infrared cameras. It can detect the infrared radiation emitted from a human body and alerts the driver when a pedestrian is in a blind spot. The system can also prevent the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian. Another system uses a visible-light camera and infrared sensors to detect the presence of a pedestrian in a rear blind spot and alerts the driver. The third system is a new type of human-machine interface system that enables the driver to control the car's audio system without letting go of the steering wheel. Uncooled infrared cameras are still costly, which limits their automotive use to high-end luxury cars at present. To promote widespread use of IR imaging sensors on vehicles, we need to reduce their cost further.

  17. View of automotive repair and gas station, facing southwest from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of automotive repair and gas station, facing southwest from across Pope Street. Garage built for storage of employee automobiles in left background - Automotive Repair & Gas Station, Southwest corner of Pope Street & Olympic Avenue, Port Gamble, Kitsap County, WA

  18. Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehousefield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehouse-field Equipment Repair Shop Building's wall to the right, looking from the south - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  19. View of south elevation of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south elevation of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with the Warehouse Fabrication Shop and Stack in the background, looking from the southwest - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  20. Microgravity Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Manufacturing capability in outer space remains one of the critical milestones to surpass to allow humans to conduct long-duration manned space exploration. The high cost-to-orbit for leaving the Earth's gravitational field continues to be the limiting factor in carrying sufficient hardware to maintain extended life support in microgravity or on other planets. Additive manufacturing techniques, or 'chipless' fabrication, like RP are being considered as the most promising technologies for achieving in situ or remote processing of hardware components, as well as for the repair of existing hardware. At least three RP technologies are currently being explored for use in microgravity and extraterrestrial fabrication.

  1. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Mod I engine testing and test results, the test of a Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analysis, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, Mod I-A engine performance are discussed. Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low-cost casting alloys are also covered. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

  2. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Rohdenburg, C.; Vatsky, A.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Activities performed on Mod I engine testing and test results, testing of the Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analyses, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, upgraded Mod I performance and testing, Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studied, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low cost casting alloys are summarized. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

  3. Best Practices in School-to-Careers: The Automotive Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Employer Leadership Council, Washington, DC.

    This document highlights the school-to-careers (STC) partnerships connecting workplace experiences to classroom learning to prepare students for successful employment in the automotive industry. First, the current state of the automotive industry is reviewed and the role of STC in addressing automotive service needs is explained. Next, the…

  4. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  5. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  6. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  7. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  8. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.101 - Automotive care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automotive care products. 3201.101 Section 3201.101... Designated Items § 3201.101 Automotive care products. (a) Definition. Products such as waxes, buffing..., and fragrances that are formulated for cleaning and protecting automotive surfaces. (b)...

  10. Electrical Systems Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide is one of a series of automotive service specialty publications that continues students' training in the automotive service trade by providing instruction in the electrical systems speciality. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence tasks lists. It contains nine units. Each unit includes some or…

  11. Can Distance Learning Be Used to Teach Automotive Management Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noto, Teresa L.

    2011-01-01

    Today's automotive college students will shape the future of the automobile industry. The success of college-level automotive programs has long been dependent on the students' ability to participate in hands-on classroom based interactions. In this article, distance learning and how it can be used to teach automotive management skills, as well as…

  12. Engine Performance Specialist. Instructor's Manual. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide is one of a series automotive service specialty publications that continues students' training in the automotive service trade by providing instruction in the engine performance specialty. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. Each of the 16 units includes some or all of the basic…

  13. Using Failure Mode and Effects Analysis to design a comfortable automotive driver seat.

    PubMed

    Kolich, Mike

    2014-07-01

    Given enough time and use, all designs will fail. There are no fail-free designs. This is especially true when it comes to automotive seating comfort where the characteristics and preferences of individual customers are many and varied. To address this problem, individuals charged with automotive seating comfort development have, traditionally, relied on iterative and, as a result, expensive build-test cycles. Cost pressures being placed on today's vehicle manufacturers have necessitated the search for more efficient alternatives. This contribution aims to fill this need by proposing the application of an analytical technique common to engineering circles (but new to seating comfort development), namely Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA). An example is offered to describe how development teams can use this systematic and disciplined approach to highlight potential seating comfort failure modes, reduce their risk, and bring capable designs to life.

  14. Fiber optic sensor design for chemical process and environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahendran, R. S.; Harris, D.; Wang, L.; Machavaram, V. R.; Chen, R.; Kukureka, St. N.; Fernando, G. F.

    2007-07-01

    Cure monitoring is a term that is used to describe the cross-linking reactions in a thermosetting resin system. Advanced fiber reinforced composites are being used increasingly in a number of industrial sectors including aerospace, marine, sport, automotive and civil engineering. There is a general realization that the processing conditions that are used to manufacture the composites can have a major influence on its hot-wet mechanical properties. This paper is concerned with the design and demonstration of a number of sensor designs for in-situ cure monitoring of a model thermosetting resin system. Simple fixtures were constructed to enable a pair of cleaved optical fibers with a defined gap between the end-faces to be held in position. The resin system was introduced into this gap and the cure kinetics were followed by transmission infrared spectroscopy. A semi-empirical model was used to describe the cure process using the data obtained at different cure temperatures. The same sensor system was used to detect the ingress of moisture in the cured resin system.

  15. Mod I automotive Stirling engine mechanical development

    SciTech Connect

    Simetkosky, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Mod I Stirling engine was the first automotive Stirling engine designed specifically for automotive application. Testing of these engines has revealed several deficiencies in engine mechanical integrity which have been corrected by redesign or upgrade. The main deficiencies uncovered during the Mod I program lie in the combustion, auxiliary, main seal, and heater head areas. This paper will address each of the major area deficiencies in detail, and describe the corrective actions taken as they apply to the Mod I and the next Stirling-engine design, the Upgraded Mod I (a redesign to incorporate new materials for cost/weight reduction and improved performance).

  16. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands.

  17. Status and Trend of Automotive Power Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Zhenxian

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive requirements in aspects of cost, reliability, efficiency, form factor, weight, and volume for power electronics modules in modern electric drive vehicles have driven the development of automotive power packaging technology intensively. Innovation in materials, interconnections, and processing techniques is leading to enormous improvements in power modules. In this paper, the technical development of and trends in power module packaging are evaluated by examining technical details with examples of industrial products. The issues and development directions for future automotive power module packaging are also discussed.

  18. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands. PMID:25360613

  19. An investigation of low ergonomics risk awareness, among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Fazilah Abdul; Razali, Noraini; Najmiyah Jaafar, Nur

    2016-02-01

    Currently there are many automotive companies still unable to effectively prevent consequences of poor ergonomics in their manufacturing processes. This study purpose is to determine the surrounding factors that influence low ergonomics risk awareness among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industry. In this study there are four variables, low ergonomic risk awareness, inappropriate method and tools, tight development schedule and lack of management support. The survey data were gathered from 245 respondents of local automotive companies in Malaysia. The data was analysed through multiple regression and moderated regression using the IBM SPSS software. Study results revealed that low ergonomic risk awareness has influenced by inappropriate method and tool, and tight development schedule. There were positive linear relationships between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools, and tight development schedule. The more inappropriate method and tools applied; the lower their ergonomic risk awareness. The more tight development schedule is the lower ergonomic risk awareness. The relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools depends on staff's age, and education level. Furthermore the relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and tight development schedule depends on staff's working experience and number of project involvement. The main contribution of this paper was identified the number of factors of low ergonomics risk awareness and offers better understanding on ergonomics among researchers and automotive manufacturer's employees during product development process.

  20. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Devices Using Additive-Subtractive Manufacturing Techniques: Application to Waste-Heat Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    optimizing cutting speed and power while maintaining surface quality and interface properties. Key parameters are obtained from these experiments and used to develop a process that can be used to fabricate a working TEG directly onto the waste-heat component surface. A TEG module has been fabricated for the first time entirely by using thermal spray technology and laser micromachining. The target applications include automotive exhaust systems and other high-volume industrial waste heat sources. The application of TEGs for thermoelectrically powered sensors for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) is presented. In conclusion, more ways to improve the fabrication process of TEGs are suggested.

  1. Microfabricated Formaldehyde Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Flueckiger, Jonas; Ko, Frank K.; Cheung, Karen C.

    2009-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde have been developed to meet the need for portable, low-power gas detection. This paper reviews recent work including silicon microhotplates for metal oxide-based detection, enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, and nanowire-based sensors. This paper also investigates the promise of polymer-based sensors for low-temperature, low-power operation. PMID:22291561

  2. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, N.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Ernst, W.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Meacher, J.

    1985-01-01

    Development test activities on Mod I engines directed toward evaluating technologies for potential inclusion in the Mod II engine are summarized. Activities covered include: test of a 12-tube combustion gas recirculation combustor; manufacture and flow-distribution test of a two-manifold annular heater head; piston rod/piston base joint; single-solid piston rings; and a digital air/fuel concept. Also summarized are results of a formal assessment of candidate technologies for the Mod II engine, and preliminary design work for the Mod II. The overall program philosophy weight is outlined, and data and test results are presented.

  3. Sensor fusion for intelligent process control.

    SciTech Connect

    Connors, John J.; Hill, Kevin; Hanekamp, David; Haley, William F.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Gowin, Craig; Farrar, Arthur R.; Sheaffer, Donald A.; DeYoung, Mark A.; Bertram, Lee A.; Dodge, Craig; Binion, Bruce; Walsh, Peter M.; Houf, William G.; Desam, Padmabhushana R.; Tiwary, Rajiv; Stokes, Michael R.; Miller, Alan J.; Michael, Richard W.; Mayer, Raymond M.; Jiao, Yu; Smith, Philip J.; Arbab, Mehran; Hillaire, Robert G.

    2004-08-01

    An integrated system for the fusion of product and process sensors and controls for production of flat glass was envisioned, having as its objective the maximization of throughput and product quality subject to emission limits, furnace refractory wear, and other constraints. Although the project was prematurely terminated, stopping the work short of its goal, the tasks that were completed show the value of the approach and objectives. Though the demonstration was to have been done on a flat glass production line, the approach is applicable to control of production in the other sectors of the glass industry. Furthermore, the system architecture is also applicable in other industries utilizing processes in which product uniformity is determined by ability to control feed composition, mixing, heating and cooling, chemical reactions, and physical processes such as distillation, crystallization, drying, etc. The first phase of the project, with Visteon Automotive Systems as industrial partner, was focused on simulation and control of the glass annealing lehr. That work produced the analysis and computer code that provide the foundation for model-based control of annealing lehrs during steady state operation and through color and thickness changes. In the second phase of the work, with PPG Industries as the industrial partner, the emphasis was on control of temperature and combustion stoichiometry in the melting furnace, to provide a wider operating window, improve product yield, and increase energy efficiency. A program of experiments with the furnace, CFD modeling and simulation, flow measurements, and sensor fusion was undertaken to provide the experimental and theoretical basis for an integrated, model-based control system utilizing the new infrastructure installed at the demonstration site for the purpose. In spite of the fact that the project was terminated during the first year of the second phase of the work, the results of these first steps toward implementation

  4. Gas sensing using porous materials for automotive applications.

    PubMed

    Wales, Dominic J; Grand, Julien; Ting, Valeska P; Burke, Richard D; Edler, Karen J; Bowen, Chris R; Mintova, Svetlana; Burrows, Andrew D

    2015-07-01

    Improvements in the efficiency of combustion within a vehicle can lead to reductions in the emission of harmful pollutants and increased fuel efficiency. Gas sensors have a role to play in this process, since they can provide real time feedback to vehicular fuel and emissions management systems as well as reducing the discrepancy between emissions observed in factory tests and 'real world' scenarios. In this review we survey the current state-of-the-art in using porous materials for sensing the gases relevant to automotive emissions. Two broad classes of porous material - zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) - are introduced, and their potential for gas sensing is discussed. The adsorptive, spectroscopic and electronic techniques for sensing gases using porous materials are summarised. Examples of the use of zeolites and MOFs in the sensing of water vapour, oxygen, NOx, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen are then detailed. Both types of porous material (zeolites and MOFs) reveal great promise for the fabrication of sensors for exhaust gases and vapours due to high selectivity and sensitivity. The size and shape selectivity of the zeolite and MOF materials are controlled by variation of pore dimensions, chemical composition (hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity), crystal size and orientation, thus enabling detection and differentiation between different gases and vapours. PMID:25982991

  5. Gas sensing using porous materials for automotive applications.

    PubMed

    Wales, Dominic J; Grand, Julien; Ting, Valeska P; Burke, Richard D; Edler, Karen J; Bowen, Chris R; Mintova, Svetlana; Burrows, Andrew D

    2015-07-01

    Improvements in the efficiency of combustion within a vehicle can lead to reductions in the emission of harmful pollutants and increased fuel efficiency. Gas sensors have a role to play in this process, since they can provide real time feedback to vehicular fuel and emissions management systems as well as reducing the discrepancy between emissions observed in factory tests and 'real world' scenarios. In this review we survey the current state-of-the-art in using porous materials for sensing the gases relevant to automotive emissions. Two broad classes of porous material - zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) - are introduced, and their potential for gas sensing is discussed. The adsorptive, spectroscopic and electronic techniques for sensing gases using porous materials are summarised. Examples of the use of zeolites and MOFs in the sensing of water vapour, oxygen, NOx, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen are then detailed. Both types of porous material (zeolites and MOFs) reveal great promise for the fabrication of sensors for exhaust gases and vapours due to high selectivity and sensitivity. The size and shape selectivity of the zeolite and MOF materials are controlled by variation of pore dimensions, chemical composition (hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity), crystal size and orientation, thus enabling detection and differentiation between different gases and vapours.

  6. Apparel Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center teamed with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) in 1989 on a program involving development of advanced simulation software. Concurrently, the State of Alabama chartered UAH to conduct a technology advancement program in support of the state's apparel manufacturers. In 1992, under contract to Marshall, UAH developed an apparel-specific software package that allows manufacturers to design and analyze modules without making an actual investment -- it functions on ordinary PC equipment. By 1995, Marshall had responded to requests for the package from more than 400 companies in 36 states; some of which reported savings up to $2 million. The National Garment Company of Missouri, for example, uses the system to design and balance a modular line before committing to expensive hardware; for setting up sewing lines; and for determining the composition of a new team.

  7. Metrics for Automotive Merchandising, Petroleum Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students in automotive merchandising and petroleum marketing classes, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know…

  8. Primary magnesium production costs for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sujit

    2008-11-01

    Focusing on primary magnesium production cost estimates, this paper provides a forecast of the long-term competitiveness of magnesium in automotive applications. Competing magnesium production technologies are considered, with particular emphasis on the long-term viability of cheap supplies using Chinese production technology. Also considered are two yet-to-be commercialized production processes.

  9. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Automotive Technician Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the automotive technician cluster. The document begins with overviews of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  10. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  11. Automotive Stirling engine development program: A success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, W. K.

    1987-01-01

    The original 5-yr Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been extended to 10 years due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

  12. Automotive Stirling engine development program - A success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, William K.

    1987-01-01

    The original 5-year Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been extended to 10 years due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

  13. Automotive emission control and computer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, D.

    1989-01-01

    This book provides information on automotive computer technology emission control. Special emphasis is placed on the service and diagnosis of on-board computers, making this work useful for service technicians. Many easy-to-follow diagnostic charts are provided to simplify procedures.

  14. Energy Cost Reduction for Automotive Service Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    This handbook on energy cost reduction for automotive service facilities consists of four sections. The importance and economic benefits of energy conservation are discussed in the first section. In the second section six energy cost reduction measures are discussed: relamping interior areas; relamping and reducing interior lighting; setting back…

  15. Plastic optical fibers for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Heiroku; Matsunaga, Tadayo

    1991-12-01

    High heat resistant optical fibers (POFs) have been developed for various automotive applications. Plastic chips with POF light guide have been used in place of a clearance monitor lamp. POF cords and cables have been used in the car-audio system, car-navigation system, and other data communication systems. This paper describes the structures, properties, and reliabilities of POFs for these applications.

  16. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…

  17. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 15 terminal objectives for a basic automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hours daily) course for organized classroom and shop experiences designed to enable the student to develop…

  18. Automotive Mechanics Occupational Performance Survey. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borcher, Sidney D.; Leiter, Paul B.

    The purpose of this federally-funded interim report is to present the results of a task inventory analysis survey of automotive mechanics completed by project staff within the Instructional Systems Design Program at the Center for Vocational and Technical Education. Intended for use in curriculum development for vocational education programs in…

  19. Basic Automotive Responsibilities. Life Skills. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This teacher's guide is designed for use in presenting a four-unit course in basic automotive responsibilities that is part of a life skills series intended to help students become more self-sufficient in their personal and professional lives. The course's four instructional units cover these topics: purchasing a motor vehicle, maintaining a motor…

  20. Basic Automotive Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a basic automotive mechanics program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational…

  1. Orientation: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The first six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the basic theory and practice of a beginning course at the secondary and post-secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction…

  2. Computer Automated Holometry For Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gordon M.

    1988-06-01

    Current methods and equipment developed for computer automated holometry are described. Several applications including holo-photoelasticity of planar models, holographic interferometry of crankshaft bearing cap distortion due to bolt torquing and cylinder bore distortion due to head bolt torquing are discussed. Comments are made on future automotive applications.

  3. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  4. Laser metrology — a diagnostic tool in automotive development processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeck, Manfred-Andreas; Hentschel, Werner

    2000-08-01

    Laser measurement techniques are widely used in automotive development processes. Applications at Volkswagen are presented where laser metrology works as a diagnostic tool for analysing and optimising complex coupled processes inside and between automotive components and structures such as the reduction of a vehicle's interior or outer acoustic noise, including brake noise, and the combustion analysis for diesel and gasoline engines to further reduce fuel consumption and pollution. Pulsed electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) and holographic interferometry are used for analysing the knocking behaviour of modern engines and for correct positioning of knocking sensors. Holographic interferometry shows up the vibrational behaviour of brake components and their interaction during braking, and allows optimisation for noise-free brake systems. Scanning laser vibrometry analyses structure-born noise of a whole car body for the optimisation of its interior acoustical behaviour.Modern engine combustion concepts such as in direct-injection (DI) gasoline and diesel engines benefit from laser diagnostic tools which permit deeper insight into the in-cylinder processes such as flow generation, fuel injection and spray formation, atomisation and mixing, ignition and combustion, and formation and reduction of pollutants. The necessary optical access inside a cylinder is realised by so-called 'transparent engines' allowing measurements nearly during the whole engine cycle. Measurement techniques and results on double-pulse particle image velocimetry (PIV) with a frequency-doubled YAG laser for in-cylinder flow analysis are presented, as well as Mie-scattering on droplets using a copper vapour laser combined with high-speed filming, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) with an excimer laser for spray and fuel vapour analysis.

  5. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  6. Discrimination of 1990s original automotive paint systems: a collaborative study of black nonmetallic base coat/clear coat finishes using infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ryland, S; Bishea, G; Brun-Conti, L; Eyring, M; Flanagan, B; Jergovich, T; MacDougall, D; Suzuki, E

    2001-01-01

    The 1990s saw the introduction of significantly new types of paint binder chemistries into the automotive finish coat market. Considering the pronounced changes in the binders that can now be found in automotive paints and their potential use in a wide variety of finishes worldwide, the Paint Subgroup of the Scientific Working Group for Materials (SWGMAT) initiated a validation study to investigate the ability of commonly accepted methods of forensic paint examination to differentiate between these newer types of paints. Nine automotive paint systems typical of original equipment applications were acquired from General Motors Corporation in 1992. They consisted of steel panels coated with typical electrocoat primers and/or primer surfacers followed by a black nonmetallic base coat and clear coat. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the discrimination power of common forensic techniques when applied to the newer generation original automotive finishes. The second purpose was to evaluate interlaboratory reproducibility of automotive paint spectra collected on a variety of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers and accessories normally used for forensic paint examinations. The results demonstrate that infrared spectroscopy is an effective tool for discriminating between the major automotive paint manufacturers' formulation types which are currently used in original finishes. Furthermore, and equally important, the results illustrate that the mid-infrared spectra of these finishes are generally quite reproducible even when comparing data from different laboratories, commercial FT-IR instruments, and accessories in a "real world," mostly uncontrolled, environment.

  7. Emerging technologies in arthroplasty: additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samik; Kulesha, Gene; Kester, Mark; Mont, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Additive manufacturing is an industrial technology whereby three-dimensional visual computer models are fabricated into physical components by selectively curing, depositing, or consolidating various materials in consecutive layers. Although initially developed for production of simulated models, the technology has undergone vast improvements and is currently increasingly being used for the production of end-use components in various aerospace, automotive, and biomedical specialties. The ability of this technology to be used for the manufacture of solid-mesh-foam monolithic and coated components of complex geometries previously considered unmanufacturable has attracted the attention of implant manufacturers, bioengineers, and orthopedic surgeons. Currently, there is a paucity of reports describing this fabrication method in the orthopedic literature. Therefore, we aimed to briefly describe this technology, some of the applications in other orthopedic subspecialties, its present use in hip and knee arthroplasty, and concerns with the present form of the technology. As there are few reports of clinical trials presently available, the true benefits of this technology can only be realized when studies evaluating the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cementless implants manufactured with additive manufacturing report durable fixation, less stress shielding, and better implant survivorship. Nevertheless, the authors believe that this technology holds great promise and may potentially change the conventional methods of casting, machining, and tooling for implant manufacturing in the future. PMID:24764230

  8. Emerging technologies in arthroplasty: additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samik; Kulesha, Gene; Kester, Mark; Mont, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Additive manufacturing is an industrial technology whereby three-dimensional visual computer models are fabricated into physical components by selectively curing, depositing, or consolidating various materials in consecutive layers. Although initially developed for production of simulated models, the technology has undergone vast improvements and is currently increasingly being used for the production of end-use components in various aerospace, automotive, and biomedical specialties. The ability of this technology to be used for the manufacture of solid-mesh-foam monolithic and coated components of complex geometries previously considered unmanufacturable has attracted the attention of implant manufacturers, bioengineers, and orthopedic surgeons. Currently, there is a paucity of reports describing this fabrication method in the orthopedic literature. Therefore, we aimed to briefly describe this technology, some of the applications in other orthopedic subspecialties, its present use in hip and knee arthroplasty, and concerns with the present form of the technology. As there are few reports of clinical trials presently available, the true benefits of this technology can only be realized when studies evaluating the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cementless implants manufactured with additive manufacturing report durable fixation, less stress shielding, and better implant survivorship. Nevertheless, the authors believe that this technology holds great promise and may potentially change the conventional methods of casting, machining, and tooling for implant manufacturing in the future.

  9. Technical note: spine loading in automotive seating.

    PubMed

    Zenk, R; Franz, M; Bubb, H; Vink, P

    2012-03-01

    For car manufacturers, seat comfort is becoming more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. Therefore, many studies on participative seat comfort are carried out. In this paper, an objective assessment approach is reported which evaluates the concept of "optimal load distribution", based on the identification of a close relationship between the pressure on the seat and the discomfort felt by the person sitting. An in vivo measurement of the pressure in the spinal disc, which is an indicator of the load in the spine, was performed. For this research, a pressure sensor was implanted with a canula in the middle of the disc intervertebralis of a participant. The local pressure on the disc was established for the participant in an automobile seat set in various seat positions. The results indicate that in the seat position with the pressure distribution corresponding to the most comfortable posture the pressure in the intervertebral disc is lowest. The pressure in this position is 0.5 bar, while in the upright seated position the pressure is 1.6 bar.

  10. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Smith, G.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Meacher, J.

    1986-01-01

    The major accomplishments were the completion of the Basic Stirling Engine (BSE) and the Stirling Engine System (SES) designs on schedule, the approval and acceptance of those designs by NASA, and the initiation of manufacture of BSE components. The performance predictions indicate the Mod II engine design will meet or exceed the original program goals of 30% improvement in fuel economy over a conventional Internal Combustion (IC) powered vehicle, while providing acceptable emissions. This was accomplished while simultaneously reducing Mod II engine weight to a level comparable with IC engine power density, and packaging the Mod II in a 1985 Celebrity with no external sheet metal changes. The projected mileage of the Mod II Celebrity for the combined urban and highway CVS cycle is 40.9 mpg which is a 32% improvement over the IC Celebrity. If additional potential improvements are verified and incorporated in the Mod II, the mileage could increase to 42.7 mpg.

  11. Ergonomics and Kaizen as strategies for competitiveness: a theoretical and practical in an automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Leandro; Balbinotti, Giles; Varasquin, Adriano; Gontijo, Leila

    2012-01-01

    With increased international competitiveness in the automotive industry, came the concern of the companies save costs and lower production costs. For this purpose many ways are designed to reduce costs and waste of raw materials and reduce activities that do not aggregate value to manufacturing processes. In the early XVII appears the manufacturing system, which processes were hard with little concern for the health and safety of employees and conditions of the workplace. After the advent of the production system called lean manufacturing, a new paradigm in terms of production system capable of providing high levels of productivity and quality. It is based on waste elimination that occur during the production process. After began a new way of thinking, creating a culture of continuous improvement and lean process with no waste and reducing costs, without neglecting the welfare worker and improving the conditions of their work environment. This paper presents a reflection on the application of ergonomics in a lean production system of an automotive industry, using methodology based on the Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) to gain performance and improving the conditions of the workplace, also will be presented with positive and negative points in using this methodology in relation to ergonomics. The research will be conducted by collecting data 'in loco' and interviews with workers. Some studies show that in companies that are lean system and using the methodology of Kaizen, the results of product quality, levels of absenteeism and accidents are better than those obtained in companies that do not apply the same concept.

  12. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at LLNL, to conduct their future business. The specific goals were (1) to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) to construct general purpose process models that have wide applicability; (3) to document their findings and models in journals; (4) to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) to develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance their collective understanding of fabrication processes. In support of this mission, two projects were reported here, each of which explores a way to bring higher precision to the manufacturing challenges that we face over the next few years. The first, ''A Spatial-Frequency-Domain Approach to Designing a Precision Machine Tools,'' is an overall view of how they design machine tools and instruments to make or measure workpieces that are specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of the residual errors of the workpiece surface. This represents an improvement of an ''error budget,'' a design tool that saw significant development in the early 1980's, and has been in active use since then. The second project, ''Micro-Drilling of ICF Capsules,'' is an attempt to define the current state in commercial industry for drilling small holes, particularly laser-drilling. The report concludes that 1-{micro}m diameter holes cannot currently be drilled to high aspect ratios, and then defines the engineering challenges that will have to be overcome to machine holes small enough for NIF capsules.

  13. Acoustic response variability in automotive vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, E.; Mace, B. R.; Ferguson, N. S.

    2009-03-01

    A statistical analysis of a series of measurements of the audio-frequency response of a large set of automotive vehicles is presented: a small hatchback model with both a three-door (411 vehicles) and five-door (403 vehicles) derivative and a mid-sized family five-door car (316 vehicles). The sets included vehicles of various specifications, engines, gearboxes, interior trim, wheels and tyres. The tests were performed in a hemianechoic chamber with the temperature and humidity recorded. Two tests were performed on each vehicle and the interior cabin noise measured. In the first, the excitation was acoustically induced by sets of external loudspeakers. In the second test, predominantly structure-borne noise was induced by running the vehicle at a steady speed on a rough roller. For both types of excitation, it is seen that the effects of temperature are small, indicating that manufacturing variability is larger than that due to temperature for the tests conducted. It is also observed that there are no significant outlying vehicles, i.e. there are at most only a few vehicles that consistently have the lowest or highest noise levels over the whole spectrum. For the acoustically excited tests, measured 1/3-octave noise reduction levels typically have a spread of 5 dB or so and the normalised standard deviation of the linear data is typically 0.1 or higher. Regarding the statistical distribution of the linear data, a lognormal distribution is a somewhat better fit than a Gaussian distribution for lower 1/3-octave bands, while the reverse is true at higher frequencies. For the distribution of the overall linear levels, a Gaussian distribution is generally the most representative. As a simple description of the response variability, it is sufficient for this series of measurements to assume that the acoustically induced airborne cabin noise is best described by a Gaussian distribution with a normalised standard deviation between 0.09 and 0.145. There is generally

  14. Technical Assessment of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Thanh; Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Peng, J. -K; Kromer, Matt; Lasher, Stephen; McKenney, Kurtis; Law, Karen; Sinha, Jayanti

    2010-09-01

    This technical report describes DOE's assessment of the performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications. The on-board performance (by Argonne National Lab) and high-volume manufacturing cost (by TIAX LLC) were estimated for compressed hydrogen storage tanks. The results were compared to DOE's 2010, 2015, and ultimate full fleet hydrogen storage targets. The Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency as well as the off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen were also documented in the report.

  15. Failure mechanisms of lead/acid automotive batteries in service in the U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, John H.; Boden, David P.

    Discarded lead/acid batteries were selected at random without regard to brand or condition and these were inspected and tested to determine the causes of failure. Samples were limited to 12-V automotive passenger-car batteries. Their age was determined from the manufacturing code and shipping date. In addition to the cause of failure, information on battery components and construction was also noted. Data are presented showing the principal modes of failure, the effect of geographical location, and the influence of grid alloy on life. In particular, the differences observed between those batteries utilizing calcium alloy for the positive grids and those using antimony alloy are discussed.

  16. Experimental investigation on the flow around a simplified geometry of automotive engine compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, Marion; Gilliéron, Patrick; Devinant, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    In the current sustainable development context, car manufacturers have to keep doing efforts to reduce the aerodynamic drag of automotive vehicle in order to decrease their CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions. The cooling airflow, through the engine compartment of vehicles, contributes from 5 to 10% to the total aerodynamic drag. By means of simplified car geometry, equipped with an engine compartment, the configurations that favor a low contribution to total drag are identified. PIV (particle image velocimetry) velocity measurements in the wake of the geometry allow explaining these drag reductions. Besides, the cooling flow rate is also assessed and gives indications on the configurations that favor the engine cooling.

  17. Integrated optical system for investigation and diagnostics of abnormal combustion in an automotive engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piernikarski, Dariusz

    2004-09-01

    The paper presents a research project oriented towards development of existing measurement methods which use optical sensors for the research and diagnostics of the combustion process in the internal-combustion automotive enigne. Experiments assume usage of photometric techniques and in particular spectrophotometry of the flames existing in the combustion chamber. Gathered results will enable expanding knowledge about processes taking place during combustion of air-fuel mixture and accompanying phenomena (i.e. knock, misfires). The work is also aimed at designing a diagnostic system which will enable an on-line identification of unfavorable phenomena like knocking combustion or misfires (lack of combustion). Extracted synthetic quality indexes will be used in the improvement of combustion process and as a feedback signals in the engine control algorithms. Research is made on the typical automotive engine equipped with an optical sensor located in the engine head and having direct access into the combustion chamber. The sensor enables on-line transmission of the optical signal during the combustion through the bundle of optical waveguides and two parallel filtering paths. Then optical signal was filtered with set of interference filters. The paper is illustrated with some results obtained during preliminary experiments.

  18. Advanced Triangulation Displacement Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poteet, Wade M.; Cauthen, Harold K.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced optoelectronic triangulation displacement sensors undergoing development. Highly miniaturized, more stable, more accurate, and relatively easy to use. Incorporate wideband electronic circuits suitable for real-time monitoring and control of displacements. Measurements expected to be accurate to within nanometers. In principle, sensors mass-produced at relatively low unit cost. Potential applications numerous. Possible industrial application in measuring runout of rotating shaft or other moving part during fabrication in "zero-defect" manufacturing system, in which measured runout automatically corrected.

  19. Evaluation of the Benefits Attributable to Automotive Lighweight Materials Program Research and Development Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.

    2002-01-11

    The purpose of this project is to identify and test methods appropriate for estimating the benefits attributable to research and development (R and D) projects funded by the Automotive Lightweight Materials (ALM) Program of the Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program focuses on the development and validation of advanced lightweight materials technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The work supports the goals of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Up to thirty percent of the improvement required to meet the PNGV goal of tripling vehicle fuel economy and much of its cost, safety, and recyclability goal depend on the lightweight materials. Funded projects range from basic materials science research to applied research in production environments. Collaborators on these projects include national laboratories, universities, and private sector firms, such as leading automobile manufacturers and their suppliers.

  20. Tribopolymerization: An advanced lubrication concept for automotive engines and systems of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Furey, M.J.; Kajdas, C.; Kaltenbach, K.W.

    1997-12-31

    Advanced lubrication technologies based on the concept of tribopolymerization as a mechanism of boundary lubrication are described. Advantages of this approach as well as potential applications which could have an impact on the design, manufacture, and performance of existing and future automotive engines are presented and discussed. Tribopolymerization, a novel concept of molecular design developed by Furey and Kajdas, involves the continuous formation of thin polymeric films on rubbing surfaces; the protective films formed are self-replenishing. The antiwear compounds developed from this technology are effective with metals as well as ceramics and in the liquid as well as vapor phases. Furthermore, they are ashless and contain no harmful phosphorus or sulfur; and many are biodegradable. Thus, potential applications of this technology are diverse and include a variety of cost/performance/energy/environmental advantages. Examples include the following: (a) machining and cutting applications using thin films to reduce friction and ceramic tool wear; (b) the lubrication of ceramic engines (e.g., low heat rejection diesel engines) or ceramic components; (c) the development of ashless lubricants for existing and future automotive engines to reduce exhaust catalyst poisoning and environmental emissions; (d) ashless antiwear or ``lubricity`` additives for fuels, including gasoline, diesel and jet fuel; (e) vapor phase applications of this technology to high temperature gaseous systems or to fuel injector wear problems associated with the use of natural gas engines; and (f) the use of the concept of tribopolymerization as an enabling technology in the development of new engines and new automotive propulsion systems.

  1. Realistic opto-mechanical simulation and tolerancing of an automotive optical transmitter coupling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervaeke, Michael; Moens, Els; Meuret, Youri; Ottevaere, Heidi; Van Buggenhout, Carl; De Pauw, Piet; Thienpont, Hugo

    2010-05-01

    The advent of Plastic Optical Fibre (POF) opened perspectives for numerous applications in the field of datacommunications. POF is increasingly popular in the automotive industry as a robust, lightweight, electromagnetic interference free, easy and cheap to install alternative to electrical wiring for high-speed entertainment, navigation and data acquisition systems in cars. The main challenge for the introduction of datacommunication systems based on POF is imposed by the working conditions of automotive applications: systems should remain fully functional in a temperature range from -40 °C to +115 °C . Furthermore, standardisation and mechanical design considerations put a number of other boundary conditions. We designed a misalignment-tolerant optical coupling system according to the Media Oriented Systems Transport standard (MOST) to convey the divergent beam from a Resonant Cavity Light Emitting Diode (RCLED) into a Step-Index (SI) multimode POF mounted in a detachable ferrule. In this contribution we describe the methodology to synthesize the dimensions and tolerances on the optical components in the coupling system. A Monte Carlo optimisation algorithm on the full three-dimensional (3D) description of the complete RCLED package and detachable POF ferrule was used to allow a realistic modelling of all misalignments that could occur in the production chain. We select the best suited system according to manufacturing and assembly capabilities as well as its suitability for automotive applications.

  2. Advanced high temperature materials for the energy efficient automotive Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, R. H.; Stephens, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The Stirling Engine is under investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternative to the internal combustion engine for automotive applications. The Stirling Engine is an external combustion engine that offers the advantage of high fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations compared to current internal combustion automotive engines. The most critical component from a materials viewpoint is the heater head consisting of the cylinders, heating tubes, and regenerator housing. Materials requirements for the heater head include compatibility with hydrogen, resistance to hydrogen permeation, high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance and high temperature creep-rupture and fatigue properties. A continuing supporting materials research and technology program has identified the wrought alloys CG-27 and 12RN72 and the cast alloys XF-818 and NASAUT 4G-A1 as candidate replacements for the cobalt containing alloys used in current prototype engines. Based on the materials research program in support of the automotive Stirling engine it is concluded that manufacture of the engine is feasible from low cost iron-base alloys rather than the cobalt alloys rather than the cobalt alloys used in prototype engines. This paper will present results of research that led to this conclusion.

  3. Self-correcting electronically scanned pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A multiple channel high data rate pressure sensing device is disclosed for use in wind tunnels, spacecraft, airborne, process control, automotive, etc., pressure measurements. Data rates in excess of 100,000 measurements per second are offered with inaccuracies from temperature shifts less than 0.25% (nominal) of full scale over a temperature span of 55 C. The device consists of thirty-two solid state sensors, signal multiplexing electronics to electronically address each sensor, and digital electronic circuitry to automatically correct the inherent thermal shift errors of the pressure sensors and their associated electronics.

  4. State, Parameter, and Unknown Input Estimation Problems in Active Automotive Safety Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanomchoeng, Gridsada

    A variety of driver assistance systems such as traction control, electronic stability control (ESC), rollover prevention and lane departure avoidance systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers to reduce driver burden, partially automate normal driving operations, and reduce accidents. The effectiveness of these driver assistance systems can be significant enhanced if the real-time values of several vehicle parameters and state variables, namely tire-road friction coefficient, slip angle, roll angle, and rollover index, can be known. Since there are no inexpensive sensors available to measure these variables, it is necessary to estimate them. However, due to the significant nonlinear dynamics in a vehicle, due to unknown and changing plant parameters, and due to the presence of unknown input disturbances, the design of estimation algorithms for this application is challenging. This dissertation develops a new approach to observer design for nonlinear systems in which the nonlinearity has a globally (or locally) bounded Jacobian. The developed approach utilizes a modified version of the mean value theorem to express the nonlinearity in the estimation error dynamics as a convex combination of known matrices with time varying coefficients. The observer gains are then obtained by solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A number of illustrative examples are presented to show that the developed approach is less conservative and more useful than the standard Lipschitz assumption based nonlinear observer. The developed nonlinear observer is utilized for estimation of slip angle, longitudinal vehicle velocity, and vehicle roll angle. In order to predict and prevent vehicle rollovers in tripped situations, it is necessary to estimate the vertical tire forces in the presence of unknown road disturbance inputs. An approach to estimate unknown disturbance inputs in nonlinear systems using dynamic model inversion and a modified version of the mean value theorem is

  5. Additive Manufacturing a Liquid Hydrogen Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Carl P.; Robertson, Elizabeth H.; Koelbl, Mary Beth; Singer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Space Propulsion is a 5 day event being held from 2nd May to the 6th May 2016 at the Rome Marriott Park Hotel in Rome, Italy. This event showcases products like Propulsion sub-systems and components, Production and manufacturing issues, Liquid, Solid, Hybrid and Air-breathing Propulsion Systems for Launcher and Upper Stages, Overview of current programmes, AIV issues and tools, Flight testing and experience, Technology building blocks for Future Space Transportation Propulsion Systems : Launchers, Exploration platforms & Space Tourism, Green Propulsion for Space Transportation, New propellants, Rocket propulsion & global environment, Cost related aspects of Space Transportation propulsion, Modelling, Pressure-Thrust oscillations issues, Impact of new requirements and regulations on design etc. in the Automotive, Manufacturing, Fabrication, Repair & Maintenance industries.

  6. The intelligent automotive battery, "CYBOX ®"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Keizo; Yamada, Yoshifumi; Otsu, Koji; Machiyama, Yoshiaki; Emori, Akihiko; Okoshi, Teturo

    An intelligent battery to monitor battery states for an automotive use was newly developed. A main parameter to monitor battery states are based on the measurement of voltage variations that are to fluctuate immediately after an engine ignition. The developed monitoring unit is embedded into the lead-acid battery "CYBOX ®" which does not have a current monitoring unit. The monitoring unit that has an alarm system which is compact and highly reliable essentially diagnoses the state of charge and the state of health of battery states in order to inform automotive user of the adequate timing of replace, recharge, and the hazardous state of overcharge of batteries. The battery-monitoring unit has an optical data transfer system to extract internal data from external device. The battery-monitoring unit also has a data acquisition instrument which receives more detailed monitored historical data from the optical data transfer system of the monitoring unit.

  7. Automotive Stirling engine: Mod 2 design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, Noel P.

    1986-01-01

    The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod 2, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, demonstrating poor performance. Installed in a General Motors Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has a predicted combined fuel economy on unleaded gasoline of 17.5 km/l (41 mpg)- a value 50% above the current vehicle fleet average. The Mod 2 Stirling engine is a four-cylinder V-drive design with a single crankshaft. The engine is also equipped with all the controls and auxiliaries necessary for automotive operation.

  8. Ultrahigh carbon steel for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.

    1995-12-04

    Ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs), which contain 1--2.1% carbon, have remarkable structural properties for automotive application when processed to achieve fine ferrite grains with fine spheroidized carbides. When processed for high room temperature ductility, UHCS can have good tensile ductility but significantly higher strength than current automotive high strength steels. The material can also be made superplastic at intermediate temperatures and exhibits excellent die fill capability. Furthermore, they can be made hard with high compression ductility. In wire form it is projected that UHCS can exhibit extremely high strengths (5,000 MPa) for tire cord applications. Examples of structural components that have been formed from fine-grained spheroidized UHCSs are illustrated.

  9. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Stocker, Michael; Stanfield, Eric

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  10. General Motors automotive fuel cell program

    SciTech Connect

    Fronk, M.H.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of the second phase of the GM/DOE fuel cell program is to develop and test a 30 kW fuel cell powerplant. This powerplant will be based on a methanol fuel processor and a proton exchange membrane PM fuel cell stack. In addition, the 10 kW system developed during phase I will be used as a {open_quotes}mule{close_quotes} to test automotive components and other ancillaries, needed for transient operation.

  11. Friction of Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2013-01-01

    This brief overview of friction-related issues in materials for automobiles is invited for a special issue on automotive materials in the ASM journal AM&P. It describes a range of areas in a ground vehicle in which friction must be controlled or minimized. Applications range from piston rings to tires, and from brakes to fuel injector components. A perspective on new materials and lubricants, and the need for validation testing is presented.

  12. Directions for computational mechanics in automotive crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, James A.; Khalil, T. B.

    1993-01-01

    The automotive industry has used computational methods for crashworthiness since the early 1970's. These methods have ranged from simple lumped parameter models to full finite element models. The emergence of the full finite element models in the mid 1980's has significantly altered the research direction. However, there remains a need for both simple, rapid modeling methods and complex detailed methods. Some directions for continuing research are discussed.

  13. Long-Time Stability of Ni-Ti-Shape Memory Alloys for Automotive Safety Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strittmatter, Joachim; Gümpel, Paul

    2011-07-01

    In automotive a lot of electromagnetically, pyrotechnically or mechanically driven actuators are integrated to run comfort systems and to control safety systems in modern passenger cars. Using shape memory alloys (SMA) the existing systems could be simplified, performing the same function through new mechanisms with reduced size, weight, and costs. A drawback for the use of SMA in safety systems is the lack of materials knowledge concerning the durability of the switching function (long-time stability of the shape memory effect). Pedestrian safety systems play a significant role to reduce injuries and fatal casualties caused by accidents. One automotive safety system for pedestrian protection is the bonnet lifting system. Based on such an application, this article gives an introduction to existing bonnet lifting systems for pedestrian protection, describes the use of quick changing shape memory actuators and the results of the study concerning the long-time stability of the tested NiTi-wires. These wires were trained, exposed up to 4 years at elevated temperatures (up to 140 °C) and tested regarding their phase change temperatures, times, and strokes. For example, it was found that A P-temperature is shifted toward higher temperatures with longer exposing periods and higher temperatures. However, in the functional testing plant a delay in the switching time could not be detected. This article gives some answers concerning the long-time stability of NiTi-wires that were missing till now. With this knowledge, the number of future automotive applications using SMA can be increased. It can be concluded, that the use of quick changing shape memory actuators in safety systems could simplify the mechanism, reduce maintenance and manufacturing costs and should be insertable also for other automotive applications.

  14. Aerodynamic Flow Field Measurements for Automotive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepner, Timothy E.

    1999-01-01

    The design of a modern automotive air handling system is a complex task. The system is required to bring the interior of the vehicle to a comfortable level in as short a time as possible. A goal of the automotive industry is to predict the interior climate of an automobile using advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods. The development of these advanced prediction tools will enable better selection of engine and accessory components. The goal of this investigation was to predict methods used by the automotive industry. To accomplish this task three separate experiments were performed. The first was a laboratory setup where laser velocimeter (LV) flow field measurements were made in the heating and air conditioning unit of a Ford Windstar. The second involved flow field measurements in the engine compartment of a Ford Explorer, with the engine running idle. The third mapped the flow field exiting the center dashboard panel vent inside the Explorer, while the circulating fan operated at 14 volts. All three experiments utilized full-coincidence three-component LV systems. This enabled the mean and fluctuating velocities to be measured along with the Reynolds stress terms.

  15. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L.; LaBarge, W.

    1997-04-01

    The CRADA between Delphi Automotive Systems (Delphi; formerly General Motors - AC Delco, Systems) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research (LMER) on automotive catalysts was completed at the end of FY96, after a ten month, no-cost extension. The CRADA was aimed at improved performance and lifetime of noble metal based three-way-catalysts (TWC), which are the primary catalytic system for automotive emission control systems. While these TWC can meet the currently required emission standards, higher than optimum noble metal loadings are often required to meet lifetime requirements. In addition, more stringent emission standards will be imposed in the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts. Initially in a fresh catalyst, the active material is often distributed on a very fine scale, approaching single atoms or small atomic clusters. As such, a wide range of analytical techniques have been employed to provide high spatial resolution characterization of the evolving state of the catalytic material.

  16. Solid-State Additive Manufacturing for Heat Exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norfolk, Mark; Johnson, Hilary

    2015-03-01

    Energy densities in devices are increasing across many industries including power generation, high power electronics, manufacturing, and automotive. Increasingly, there is a need for very high efficiency thermal management devices that can pull heat out of a small area at higher and higher rates. Metal additive manufacturing (AM) technologies have the promise of creating parts with complex internal geometries required for integral thermal management. However, this goal has not been met due to constraints in fusion-based metal 3D printers. This work presents a new strategy for metal AM of heat exchangers using an ultrasonic sheet lamination approach.

  17. 75 FR 11938 - Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, MI; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, MI; Notice of Termination... Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, Michigan (Meridian Automotive). The petitioning group of...

  18. 76 FR 72442 - Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... COMMISSION Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... automotive GPS navigation systems, components thereof, and products containing same by reason of infringement... after importation of certain automotive GPS navigation systems, components thereof, and...

  19. Sensor Development for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Magee; Richard Gehman

    2005-07-12

    This document reports on the work done by Honeywell Sensing and Control to investigate the feasibility of modifying low cost Commercial Sensors for use inside a PEM Fuel Cell environment. Both stationary and automotive systems were considered. The target environment is hotter (100 C) than the typical commercial sensor maximum of 70 C. It is also far more humid (100% RH condensing) than the more typical 95% RH non-condensing at 40 C (4% RH maximum at 100 C). The work focused on four types of sensors, Temperature, Pressure, Air Flow and Relative Humidity. Initial design goals were established using a market research technique called Market Driven Product Definition (MDPD). A series of interviews were conducted with various users and system designers in their facilities. The interviewing team was trained in data taking and analysis per the MDPD process. The final result was a prioritized and weighted list of both requirements and desires for each sensor. Work proceeded on concept development for the 4 types of sensors. At the same time, users were developing the actual fuel cell systems and gaining knowledge and experience in the use of sensors and controls systems. This resulted in changes to requirements and desires that were not anticipated during the MDPD process. The concepts developed met all the predicted requirements. At the completion of concept development for the Pressure Sensor, it was determined that the Fuel Cell developers were happy with off-the-shelf automotive pressure sensors. Thus, there was no incentive to bring a new Fuel Cell Specific Pressure Sensor into production. Work was therefore suspended. After the experience with the Pressure Sensor, the requirements for a Temperature Sensor were reviewed and a similar situation applied. Commercially available temperature sensors were adequate and cost effective and so the program was not continued from the Concept into the Design Phase.

  20. Final report: U.S. competitive position in automotive technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Michael B.; Cheney, Margaret; Thomas, Patrick; Kroll, Peter

    2002-09-30

    Patent data are presented and analyzed to assess the U.S. competitive position in eleven advanced automotive technology categories, including automotive fuel cells, hydrogen storage, advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles and others. Inventive activity in most of the technologies is found to be growing at a rapid pace, particularly in advanced batteries, automotive fuel cells and ultracapacitors. The U.S. is the clear leader in automotive fuel cells, on-board hydrogen storage and light weight materials. Japan leads in advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles, ultracapacitors, and appears to be close to overtaking the U.S. in other areas of power electronics.

  1. [Identification of automotive lubricants and other heavy oils by isotachophoresis].

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, F; Misawa, S

    1989-06-01

    Automotive lubricants were analysed by isotachophoresis for the purpose of identification of lubricants and suspected stains adhered to victims in traffic accidents. As the results, it was found that each lubricant showed a characteristic isotachophreogram even if they were manufactured by the same maker, and that the isotachopherogram of the lubricant changed in proportion to the running distance of an automobile. Each lubricant had its own changing rate. Moreover, A, B, C heavy oils, asphalt, soy sauce and sauce, which apparently resembled lubricants when they adhered to victims, were analysed with this method. They were found to be clearly different from lubricants in isotachopherogram and they could be discriminated from lubricants. Therefore, it was found that lubricants could be easily identified or discriminated from other lubricants such as engine oils, gear oils and other oils by comparing their isotachopherograms obtained with this method in a short time. It was, however, difficult to suggest the maker of a lubricant from isotachopherogram. We conclude from these observations that isotachophoresis method is useful for the analysis of lubricants in case of traffic accidents.

  2. Optical design of automotive headlight system incorporating digital micromirror device.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chuan-Cheng; Fang, Yi-Chin; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Hsueh, Bo-Ren; Wang, Shuan-Fu; Wu, Bo-Wen; Lai, Wei-Chi; Chen, Yi-Liang

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, the popular adaptive front-lighting automobile headlight system has become a main emphasis of research that manufacturers will continue to focus great efforts on in the future. In this research we propose a new integral optical design for an automotive headlight system with an advanced light-emitting diode and digital micromirror device (DMD). Traditionally, automobile headlights have all been designed as a low beam light module, whereas the high beam light module still requires using accessory lamps. In anticipation of this new concept of integral optical design, we have researched and designed a single optical system with high and low beam capabilities. To switch on and off the beams, a DMD is typically used. Because DMDs have the capability of redirecting incident light into a specific angle, they also determine the shape of the high or low light beam in order to match the standard of headlight illumination. With collocation of the multicurvature reflection lens design, a DMD can control the light energy distribution and thereby reinforce the resolution of the light beam.

  3. Evaluation of an attributive measurement system in the automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simion, C.

    2016-08-01

    Measurement System Analysis (MSA) is a critical component for any quality improvement process. MSA is defined as an experimental and mathematical method of determining how much the variation within the measurement process contributes to overall process variability and it falls into two categories: attribute and variable. Most problematic measurement system issues come from measuring attribute data, which are usually the result of human judgment (visual inspection). Because attributive measurement systems are often used in some manufacturing processes, their assessment is important to obtain the confidence in the inspection process, to see where are the problems in order to eliminate them and to guide the process improvement. It was the aim of this paper to address such a issue presenting a case study made in a local company from the Sibiu region supplying products for the automotive industry, specifically the bag (a technical textile component, i.e. the fabric) for the airbag module. Because defects are inherent in every manufacturing process and in the field of airbag systems a minor defect can influence their performance and lives depend on the safety feature, there is a stringent visual inspection required on the defects of the bag material. The purpose of this attribute MSA was: to determine if all inspectors use the same criteria to determine “pass” from “fail” product (i.e. the fabric); to assess company inspection standards against customer's requirements; to determine how well inspectors are conforming to themselves; to identify how inspectors are conforming to a “known master,” which includes: how often operators ship defective product, how often operators dispose of acceptable product; to discover areas where training is required, procedures must be developed and standards are not available. The results were analyzed using MINITAB software with its module called Attribute Agreement Analysis. The conclusion was that the inspection process must

  4. Pressure Measurement Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    FFPI Industries Inc. is the manufacturer of fiber-optic sensors that furnish accurate pressure measurements in internal combustion chambers. Such an assessment can help reduce pollution emitted by these engines. A chief component in the sensor owes its seven year- long development to Lewis Research Center funding to embed optical fibers and sensors in metal parts. NASA support to Texas A&M University played a critical role in developing this fiber optic technology and led to the formation of FFPI Industries and the production of fiber sensor products. The simple, rugged design of the sensor offers the potential for mass production at low cost. Widespread application of the new technology is forseen, from natural gas transmission, oil refining and electrical power generation to rail transport and the petrochemical paper product industry.

  5. Infrared focal plane array modeling for aerospace and automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Alain; de Borniol, Eric; Guerineau, Nicolas; Cathala, Thierry; Yon, Jean-Jacques; Ouvrier-Buffet, Jean-Louis; Castelein, Pierre; Tronel, Robert; Bisotto, Sylvette; Destefanis, Gerard L.; Chamonal, Jean-Paul

    2004-08-01

    To simulate an Enhanced Vision System (EVS), CEA/LETI Infrared Laboratory has developed two behavioural models of infrared focal plane arrays : one in the Short Wave IR and the other in the Long Wave IR band. These Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPAs) models will be implemented on simulation platform aimed at evaluating the impact and use of infrared sensors in automotive and aeronautic applications. To be realistic, model parameters are extracted from electro-optical characterization of real components. The SWIR detector is calibrated with a 320x256 HgCdTe cooled FPA component from SOFRADIR, and the LWIR one with an uncooled micro-bolometer array from ULIS (a_Si technology from LETI). The flexibility of the models allows to simulate cameras based on these components and to forecast future ones based on different read-out circuit or detector technologies. In this paper we present the IRFPAs models, the main electro-optical characterization results and we compare some experimental measurements with simulations.

  6. Evaluating knowledge benefits of automotive lightweighting materials R&D projects.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Jean H; Das, Sujit; Tonn, Bruce E

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a set of metrics used to evaluate short-run knowledge benefits that accrued from research and development (R&D) projects funded in fiscal years 2000-2004 by automotive lightweighting materials (ALM) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Although DOE presents to Congress energy, environmental, and security benefits and costs of its R&D efforts under the Government Performance and Results Act, DOE has yet to include knowledge benefits in that report [U.S. Department of Energy. (2007). Projected benefits of federal energy efficiency and renewable energy programs: FY2008 budget request. NREL/TP-640-41347 (March). Washington, DC: National Renewable Energy Laboratory for DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Retrieved February 12, 2007 from http://www1.eere.energy.gov/ba/pba/2008_benefits.html]. ALM focuses on development and validation of advanced technologies that significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost [U.S. Department of Energy. (2005a). Automotive lightweighting materials 2004 annual progress report. Washington, DC: DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Retrieved March 30, 2005 from http://www.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/resources/fcvt_alm_fy04.shtml]. The ultimate goal of ALM to have lightweighter materials in vehicles hinges on many issues, including the (1) collaborative nature of ALMs R&D with the automobile industry and (2) manufacturing knowledge gained through the R&D effort. The ALM projects evaluated in this paper yielded numerous knowledge benefits in the short run. While these knowledge benefits are impressive, there remains uncertainty about whether the research will lead to incorporation of lightweight materials by the Big Three automakers into their manufacturing process and introduction of lightweight vehicles into the marketplace. The uncertainty illustrates a difference between (1) knowledge

  7. Evaluating knowledge benefits of automotive lightweighting materials R&D projects.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Jean H; Das, Sujit; Tonn, Bruce E

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a set of metrics used to evaluate short-run knowledge benefits that accrued from research and development (R&D) projects funded in fiscal years 2000-2004 by automotive lightweighting materials (ALM) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Although DOE presents to Congress energy, environmental, and security benefits and costs of its R&D efforts under the Government Performance and Results Act, DOE has yet to include knowledge benefits in that report [U.S. Department of Energy. (2007). Projected benefits of federal energy efficiency and renewable energy programs: FY2008 budget request. NREL/TP-640-41347 (March). Washington, DC: National Renewable Energy Laboratory for DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Retrieved February 12, 2007 from http://www1.eere.energy.gov/ba/pba/2008_benefits.html]. ALM focuses on development and validation of advanced technologies that significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost [U.S. Department of Energy. (2005a). Automotive lightweighting materials 2004 annual progress report. Washington, DC: DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Retrieved March 30, 2005 from http://www.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/resources/fcvt_alm_fy04.shtml]. The ultimate goal of ALM to have lightweighter materials in vehicles hinges on many issues, including the (1) collaborative nature of ALMs R&D with the automobile industry and (2) manufacturing knowledge gained through the R&D effort. The ALM projects evaluated in this paper yielded numerous knowledge benefits in the short run. While these knowledge benefits are impressive, there remains uncertainty about whether the research will lead to incorporation of lightweight materials by the Big Three automakers into their manufacturing process and introduction of lightweight vehicles into the marketplace. The uncertainty illustrates a difference between (1) knowledge

  8. Point flow sensor study for electronic gas energy metering. Phase 1. Thermophysical and fluid-dynamic data. Final report, March 15, 1994-July 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bonne, U.; Vesovic, V.; Wakeham, W.A.

    1996-07-15

    The set published properties of gases constituting natural gas, at pressures up to 300 basr (4500 psi) ad for -40 less than or equal to T less than or equal to 250 deg C, is not accurate or consistent enough for members of hte gas industry, research groups, NGV-automotive engineers, and meter manufacturers to nondestructively calibrate existing, affordable, combustionless, on-line and in situ microsensors for their applications. Therefore, this study was set up to (1) establish a consistent set of thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, and isobaric heat capacity) of pure and mixed gas constituents of natural gases and (2) prove the validity and limitations of using one or more point sensors in suitable flow channels for the determination of total fluid flow.

  9. Smart Sensors Gather Information for Machine Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Stennis Space Center was interested in using smart sensors to monitor components on test stands and avert equipment failures. Partnering with St. Paul, Minnesota-based Lion Precision through a Cooperative Agreement, the team developed a smart sensor and the associated communication protocols. The same sensor is now commercially available for manufacturing.

  10. Hot Cutting of Real-Time Cast-Forged GS Ductile Iron for Automotive Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouilland, Laurence; Mansori, Mohamed El

    2011-01-01

    In the global economy context, automotive industry suppliers have to keep a constant advance on products design and manufacturing process. Concerning automotive rods, the substitution of forged steel by spherical graphite iron (SG iron) with high mechanical properties constitutes a valid economic alternative. Such rods are produced using a complex coupled process: casting and forging followed by an austempered heat treatment. The forging operation is capable to shape the cast rod which introduces hot deformation to increase mechanical properties of net-shape SG iron rod. However, the intermediate re-heating between casting and forging must be avoided to keep competitive manufacturing costs. A major concern of this new process development is the cracks produced in rod's surface which are consecutive to hot spruing involved after casting operations. This issue is addressed in this paper which discusses the physical mechanisms involved in the hot ductile damage of SG iron. Hot cutting tests were performed to simulate the spruing operation which shows the close interactions between microstructure, machining parameters and resulting damages. The damage mechanisms in terms of crack initiation and its growth have been studied with respect to the constituent phases (austenite+graphite nodules), the cut surface morphology and the hot cutting performance.

  11. Future Automotive Aftertreatment Solutions: The 150°C Challenge Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zammit, Michael; DiMaggio, Craig L.; Kim, Chang H.; Lambert, Christine; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Parks, James E.; Howden, Ken

    2013-10-15

    With future fuel economy standards enacted, the U.S. automotive manufacturers (OEMs) are committed to pursuing a variety of high risk/highly efficient stoichiometric and lean combustion strategies to achieve superior performance. In recognition of this need, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has partnered with domestic automotive manufacturers through U.S. DRIVE to develop these advanced technologies. However, before these advancements can be introduced into the U.S. market, they must also be able to meet increasingly stringent emissions requirements. A significant roadblock to this implementation is the inability of current catalyst and aftertreatment technologies to provide the required activity at the much lower exhaust temperatures that will accompany highly efficient combustion processes and powertrain strategies. Therefore, the goal of this workshop and report is to create a U.S. DRIVE emission control roadmap that will identify new materials and aftertreatment approaches that offer the potential for 90% conversion of emissions at low temperature (150°C) and are consistent with highly efficient combustion technologies currently under investigation within U.S. DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) programs.

  12. Cloud manufacturing: a new manufacturing paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Luo, Yongliang; Tao, Fei; Li, Bo Hu; Ren, Lei; Zhang, Xuesong; Guo, Hua; Cheng, Ying; Hu, Anrui; Liu, Yongkui

    2014-03-01

    Combining with the emerged technologies such as cloud computing, the Internet of things, service-oriented technologies and high performance computing, a new manufacturing paradigm - cloud manufacturing (CMfg) - for solving the bottlenecks in the informatisation development and manufacturing applications is introduced. The concept of CMfg, including its architecture, typical characteristics and the key technologies for implementing a CMfg service platform, is discussed. Three core components for constructing a CMfg system, i.e. CMfg resources, manufacturing cloud service and manufacturing cloud are studied, and the constructing method for manufacturing cloud is investigated. Finally, a prototype of CMfg and the existing related works conducted by the authors' group on CMfg are briefly presented.

  13. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE — Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuantao (C. T.)

    2005-08-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness), (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines), (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping.

  14. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE -- Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chuantao

    2005-08-05

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness) (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines) (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping.

  15. Numerical simulation of a new generation of high-temperature micropower gas and odor sensors based on SOI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Julian W.; Udrea, Florin; Milne, William I.

    1999-07-01

    Gas sensors fabricated using conventional silicon microtechnology can suffer from a number of significant disadvantages when compared with commercially available thick-film, screen-printed devices. For example, platinum gate MOSFET devices normally operate only at a temperature of up to 180 degree(s)C and this limits the catalyst activity, and hence their sensitivity and response time. In addition, the fabrication of an integrated, resistive heater poses interesting problems; thus whilst polysilicon heaters are CMOS compatible, they tend to suffer from non-linearity, poor reproducibility and stability; whereas platinum resistive heaters are incompatible with a CMOS process and thus difficult and expensive to manufacture. Here we propose the use of SOI technology leading to a new generation of high-temperature, silicon smart gas sensors (patent pending). Numerical simulations of an n-channel MOSFET structure on a thin SOI membrane have been performed in non- isothermal conditions using a MEDICI simulator. Our results demonstrate that SOI-based devices can operate at temperatures of up to 350 degree(s)C without causing a problem for neighboring CMOS I.C. circuitry. The power consumption of our SOI-based designs may be as low as ca. 10 mW at 300 degree(s)C and so compares favorably with previously reported values for non-SOI based silicon micromachined gas sensors. In conclusion, SOI technology may be used to fabricate novel high-temperature, micropower resistive and catalytic-gate MOSFET gas/odor sensors. These devices can be fabricated in a standard SOI CMOS process at low unit cost and should offer an excellent degree of reproducibility. Applications envisaged are in air quality sensors for the automotive industry and odor sensors for electronic noses.

  16. Automotive Service Occupations. A Suggested Outline of Services and Levels for the Automotive Industries Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Designed to help teachers of automotive services select the body of knowledge and experiences leading to the development of salable skills which might be necessary at various levels of complexity, this guide suggests an alignment of content, with teaching suggestions, for use in developing a vocational program to prepare youth and adults for…

  17. Automotive Air Conditioning and Heating; Automotive Mechanics (Advanced): 9047.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to provide the student with all the foundations necessary to become employable in the automotive air conditioning and heating trade. The course of study includes an orientation to the world of work, the elementary physics of air conditioning and heating, and laboratory experiments…

  18. Automotive Body Trim and Glass; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help students become employable with skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values necessary for performing the required service of the automotive trim and glass mechanic. The course of study includes an orientation to the course, service tools and bench skills development, and a study…

  19. Improving the response of accelerometers for automotive applications by using LMS adaptive filters.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Wilmar; de Vicente, Jesús; Sergiyenko, Oleg; Fernández, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm was used to eliminate noise corrupting the important information coming from a piezoresisitive accelerometer for automotive applications. This kind of accelerometer is designed to be easily mounted in hard to reach places on vehicles under test, and they usually feature ranges from 50 to 2,000 g (where is the gravitational acceleration, 9.81 m/s(2)) and frequency responses to 3,000 Hz or higher, with DC response, durable cables, reliable performance and relatively low cost. However, here we show that the response of the sensor under test had a lot of noise and we carried out the signal processing stage by using both conventional and optimal adaptive filtering. Usually, designers have to build their specific analog and digital signal processing circuits, and this fact increases considerably the cost of the entire sensor system and the results are not always satisfactory, because the relevant signal is sometimes buried in a broad-band noise background where the unwanted information and the relevant signal sometimes share a very similar frequency band. Thus, in order to deal with this problem, here we used the LMS adaptive filtering algorithm and compare it with others based on the kind of filters that are typically used for automotive applications. The experimental results are satisfactory. PMID:22315542

  20. Improving the response of accelerometers for automotive applications by using LMS adaptive filters.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Wilmar; de Vicente, Jesús; Sergiyenko, Oleg; Fernández, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm was used to eliminate noise corrupting the important information coming from a piezoresisitive accelerometer for automotive applications. This kind of accelerometer is designed to be easily mounted in hard to reach places on vehicles under test, and they usually feature ranges from 50 to 2,000 g (where is the gravitational acceleration, 9.81 m/s(2)) and frequency responses to 3,000 Hz or higher, with DC response, durable cables, reliable performance and relatively low cost. However, here we show that the response of the sensor under test had a lot of noise and we carried out the signal processing stage by using both conventional and optimal adaptive filtering. Usually, designers have to build their specific analog and digital signal processing circuits, and this fact increases considerably the cost of the entire sensor system and the results are not always satisfactory, because the relevant signal is sometimes buried in a broad-band noise background where the unwanted information and the relevant signal sometimes share a very similar frequency band. Thus, in order to deal with this problem, here we used the LMS adaptive filtering algorithm and compare it with others based on the kind of filters that are typically used for automotive applications. The experimental results are satisfactory.

  1. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  2. An Evaluation of 3D Woven Orthogonal Composites' Potential in the Automotive Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Dalia

    The automotive supply chain and its management can be a very complex process and comprises a long dynamic and complex network that consists of four primary segments: original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), first tier suppliers, sub tiers suppliers, and infrastructure suppliers. During the analysis of the current automotive industry it was identified that textile industry importance is considerable increasing as a part of the global automotive supply chain, because textile products are used for interior, exterior and even suspension parts and components. Automotive industry has an increasing demand for higher quality exterior panels with better functional properties and reduced weight. One of the main potentials for this demand is based on the three-dimensional woven composites technology innovations which can replace an existing technology. The new role of the textile industry could make important changes in the automotive supply chain industry, such as: changes in the size of the supply chain, the time to the market and the position of textile industry in the automotive supply chain structure. 3D composite materials from high performance fibers, such as glass and carbon, have been used for automotive applications in a limited way due to the low production rate and the lack of research and development. This research will contribute to the understanding of textile composites in transportation and the textile parameters that affect the performance characteristics of these materials. The research examines the performance characteristics of lighter and stronger 3D woven fabric composites made from fiberglass with the aim to improve fuel efficiency by reducing the total vehicle weight while maintaining safety standards. The performance characteristics of the 3D woven fabric composite can be designed by changing different construction parameters, such as picks density, pick roving linear density, arrangements of warp and z-yarns, and the number of warp and picks layers

  3. Comparison of absolute and relative air humidity sensors fabricated with inkjet printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selma, R.; Tarapata, G.; Marzecki, M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes design, manufacturing and testing of novelty humidity sensors manufactured in inkjet printing technology. Two types of sensors were produced - sensor for dew point hygrometer, along with heater and thermistor, and a relative humidity sensor. Both were tested and proven to be functional, with both advantages and disadvantages described further in the article.

  4. Studies relevant to the design of reliable automotive electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hua

    This dissertation describes three independent studies related to the design of reliable automotive electronics. The topics covered are: the estimation of the radiated emissions from power bus structures, EM propagation of tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS), and examinations of corrosion-induced faults in a connector. The first chapter describes a method for estimating the maximum possible radiated emissions from a printed circuit board power bus. An analysis based on a lossy cavity model is performed to determine the maximum possible radiated field corresponding to a given power bus noise voltage. A closed-form expression relating the maximum power bus noise voltage to the radiation peaks is then derived. This expression is solved in reverse to determine the minimum power bus voltage necessary to generate a radiated field and can be applied to measured values of power bus noise voltage to determine whether radiation directly from the power bus is potentially the emissions source. The second chapter identifies transmission parameters from a rotating tire and the vehicle body's effect on tire sensor transmission and propagation; relates these effects to receiver antenna packaging requirements; and then, based on these results, proposes the antenna design of employing car body as a part. In the new proposed TPMS design, a 20mm x 5mm loop antenna with a 40mm x 10mm slot beneath it is added to capture the surface currents of the car body and block the current path to increase the current density around the loop antenna. The simulation results show that this design exhibits a propagation factor 150 times larger than the traditional design. The third chapter investigates the effects of different contaminants (salt, oil, grease) on the shunt resistance between pins of a cable connector. The test results show that salt-induced corrosion and moisture may cause intermittent shunting resistances capable of affecting the normal operation of automotive systems. One

  5. Robotics in space-age manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Chip

    1991-01-01

    Robotics technologies are developed to improve manufacturing of space hardware. The following applications of robotics are covered: (1) welding for the space shuttle and space station Freedom programs; (2) manipulation of high-pressure water for shuttle solid rocket booster refurbishment; (3) automating the application of insulation materials; (4) precision application of sealants; and (5) automation of inspection procedures. Commercial robots are used for these development programs, but they are teamed with advanced sensors, process controls, and computer simulation to form highly productive manufacturing systems. Many of the technologies are also being actively pursued in private sector manufacturing operations.

  6. Overview: DOE/NASA automotive gas turbine and stirling projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    An overview on the progress of the automotive gas turbine and automotive Stirling engine technology projects is presented. The following items are reported: (1) formulation and execution of projects in accordance with the Auto Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978; (2) substantive technology accomplishments; and (3) future path options of the programs.

  7. 76 FR 40591 - Coordinating Policies on Automotive Communities and Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Policies on Automotive Communities and Workers By the authority vested in me as President by the.... Over the last decade, the United States has experienced a decline in employment in the automotive industry and among part suppliers. This decline accelerated dramatically from 2008 to 2009, with more...

  8. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers theory and construction, inspection diagnoses, and service and overhaul of automotive engines. The course is comprised of five units: (1) Fundamentals of Four-Cycle Engines, (2) Engine Construction, (3) Valve Train, (4) Lubricating Systems, and (5)…

  9. Manual Drivetrain and Axles Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains materials for teaching the manual drive trains and axle specialist component of a competency-based instructional program for students preparing for employment in the automotive service trade. It is based on National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. Six instructional units contain materials…

  10. DISTANT VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. HOSE WINDING SHED ADJACENT TO SHED-ROOFED ADDITION ON THE UTILITY BUILDING, BLM SEED SHED AND TACK SHED VISIBLE IN FAR DISTANCE. VIEW TO EAST/ - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  11. DISTANCE VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANCE VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. HOSE WINDING SHED ADJACENT TO SHED-ROOFED ADDITION ON THE UTILITY BUILDING, BLM SEED SHED AND TACK SHED VISIBLE IN FAR DISTANCE. VIEW TO EAST, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  12. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Electrical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, diagnosis, repair, and adjustment of automotive electrical systems. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Fundamentals of Electrical Systems, (2) Battery Servicing, (3) Starting Systems, (4) Charging Systems, (5) Ignition Systems,…

  13. An Overview of NASA Automotive Component Reliability Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The results of NASAs studies into the appropriateness of using US Automotive electronic parts in NASA spaceflight systems will be presented. The first part of the presentation provides an overview of the United States Automotive Electronics Councils AECQ standardization program, the second part provides a summary of the results of NASAs procurement and testing experiences and other lessons learned along with preliminary test results.

  14. An Overview Of NASA Automotive Component Reliability Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The results of NASAs studies into the appropriateness of using US Automotive electronic parts in NASA spaceflight systems will be presented. The first part of the presentation provides an overview of the United States Automotive Electronics Councils AECQ standardization program, the second part provides a summary of the results of NASAs procurement and testing experiences and other lessons learned along with preliminary test results.

  15. AUTOMOTIVE SERVICE SPECIALIST, A SUGGESTED GUIDE FOR A TRAINING COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OETTMEIER, ARTHUR J.; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS TEACHING GUIDE IS TO SERVE AS A REFERENCE AND COURSE OUTLINE FOR THE INSTRUCTOR. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A COLLEGE AUTOMOTIVE DEPARTMENT HEAD AND REPRESENTATIVES OF AUTOMOTIVE SERVICE INDUSTRIES, PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES, AND GARAGES. THIS COURSE IS ADAPTABLE TO PREPARATORY, UPGRADING, OR RETRAINING PURPOSES. UNITS ARE SERVICE…

  16. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Emission Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, testing, and servicing of automotive emission control systems. The course is comprised of one unit, Fundamentals of Emission Systems. The unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives directions for unit completion. The…

  17. Fuel System: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The fourth of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive fuel systems at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  18. Cooling System: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The last of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the automotive cooling system at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  19. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance. Volume 1. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Fourteen units on minor automotive maintenance are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: introduction to minor automotive maintenance, shop safety, engine principles, fuel system operation and repair, electrical system, ignition system, lubrication system, engine cooling system, exhaust system, wheel bearings and tires,…

  20. Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide for automatic brakes service is one in a series of automotive service speciality publications that is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The curriculum is composed of four units. Each unit of instruction may contain some or all of the following components: objective sheet, suggested…

  1. Nanofluids with CNTs for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, V.; Moorthy, Ch. V. K. N. S. N.; Dedeepya, V.; Manikanta, P. V.; Satish, V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper summarizes a recent work on anti-corrosive and enhanced heat transfer properties of carboxylated water based nanofluids. DI water mixed with Sebacic acid (C10H18O4) as carboxylate additive is dispersed with multi walled carbon nanotubes and tested for corrosion and heat transfer characteristics. Corrosion studies made as per ASTM D 1384 show that carboxylate water dispersed with MWCNTs is resistant to corrosion and hence suitable for automotive environment. In addition to MWCNTs, carboxylated water dispersed with nano sized silver, copper and Aluminium oxide are also tested for corrosion performance but found to be giving considerable corrosion in automotive environment. The stability of MWCNT based nanofluids in terms of zeta potential is found to be good with carboxylated water compared to DI water. Significant improvement is observed in the thermal conductivity of nanofluids dispersed with MWCNTs. There is a slight increase in viscosity and marginal decrease in the specific heat of nanofluids with addition of carboxylate as well as MWCNTs. The carboxylated water is dispersed with very low mass concentration of multi walled carbon nano tubes at 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 % and tested for heat transfer performance. The heat transfer studies are made in Reynolds number range of 2500-6000 in the developing flow regime. The heat transfer performance of nanofluids is carried out on an air cooled heat exchanger similar to an automotive radiator with incoming air velocities across radiator maintained at 5, 10 and 15 m/s. The coolant side overall heat transfer coefficient and overall heat transfer coefficient have improved markedly. It is also found that the velocity of air and flow rate of coolant plays an important role in enhancement of overall heat transfer coefficient. Stanton number correlation for the entire data has been developed. It is found that the wall temperature gradients play an important role in the enhancement of heat transfer when nanofluids are

  2. Platform for a hydrocarbon exhaust gas sensor utilizing a pumping cell and a conductometric sensor.

    PubMed

    Biskupski, Diana; Geupel, Andrea; Wiesner, Kerstin; Fleischer, Maximilian; Moos, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Very often, high-temperature operated gas sensors are cross-sensitive to oxygen and/or they cannot be operated in oxygen-deficient (rich) atmospheres. For instance, some metal oxides like Ga(2)O(3) or doped SrTiO(3) are excellent materials for conductometric hydrocarbon detection in the rough atmosphere of automotive exhausts, but have to be operated preferably at a constant oxygen concentration. We propose a modular sensor platform that combines a conductometric two-sensor-setup with an electrochemical pumping cell made of YSZ to establish a constant oxygen concentration in the ambient of the conductometric sensor film. In this paper, the platform is introduced, the two-sensor-setup is integrated into this new design, and sensing performance is characterized. Such a platform can be used for other sensor principles as well. PMID:22423212

  3. Platform for a Hydrocarbon Exhaust Gas Sensor Utilizing a Pumping Cell and a Conductometric Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Biskupski, Diana; Geupel, Andrea; Wiesner, Kerstin; Fleischer, Maximilian; Moos, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Very often, high-temperature operated gas sensors are cross-sensitive to oxygen and/or they cannot be operated in oxygen-deficient (rich) atmospheres. For instance, some metal oxides like Ga2O3 or doped SrTiO3 are excellent materials for conductometric hydrocarbon detection in the rough atmosphere of automotive exhausts, but have to be operated preferably at a constant oxygen concentration. We propose a modular sensor platform that combines a conductometric two-sensor-setup with an electrochemical pumping cell made of YSZ to establish a constant oxygen concentration in the ambient of the conductometric sensor film. In this paper, the platform is introduced, the two-sensor-setup is integrated into this new design, and sensing performance is characterized. Such a platform can be used for other sensor principles as well. PMID:22423212

  4. Choosing An Alloy For Automotive Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Joseph R.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes study of chemical compositions and microstructures of alloys for automotive Stirling engines. Engines offer advantages of high efficiency, low pollution, low noise, and ability to use variety of fuels. Twenty alloys evaluated for resistance to corrosion permeation by hydrogen, and high temperature. Iron-based alloys considered primary candidates because of low cost. Nickel-based alloys second choice in case suitable iron-based alloy could not be found. Cobalt-based alloy included for comparison but not candidate, because it is expensive strategic material.

  5. Advanced sheet steels for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, James R.; Strugala, Donald C.; Yao, Zhicong

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum degassing has recently been used by sheet steel producers to improve their products' ductility and strength. Carbon contents can be reduced by an order of magnitude to less than 0.0030 wt.%. Through careful alloying and processing, a range of new steel products has been developed for the automotive industry. These products include interstitial-free, deep-drawing-quality steels; formable, high-strength, interstitial-free steels; and bake-hardenable steels. This article summarizes the chemistry and processing needed to produce these products.

  6. Some recent and future automotive electronic developments.

    PubMed

    Jones, T O

    1977-03-18

    The automotive industry continues to examine new electronic technologies for their applicability to the automobile. Today, 16 electronic systems can be found on the automobile, and future engine and emission control systems will soon be added. Truck systems of interest include wheel-lock control, vehicle weighing systems, and tire pressure warning devices. Digital electronic displays and multiplex wiring systems are expected to be near-term developments and, on a longer-range basis, it is expected that automatic radar brakes and intoxicated-driver interlocks will receive considerable attention.

  7. Directions in automotive engine research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1980-01-01

    The advent of high fuel costs and automotive fuel economy and emission regulations has cast doubt on the economic superiority and even the technical feasibility of conventional spark ignition and diesel engines, and has opened the field to other concepts. The emission regulations and their effect on the design and efficiency of conventional engines are reviewed, the research and development effort to improve the performance of conventional engines and to develop advanced engines is discussed, and the current status of these engines is presented.

  8. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L.; LaBarge, W.

    1995-05-01

    This has been the second year of a CRADA between General Motors - AC Delco Systems (GM-ACDS) and Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES) aimed at improved performance/lifetime of platinum-rhodium based three-way-catalysts (TWC) for automotive emission control systems. While current formulations meet existing emission standards, higher than optimum Pt-Rh loadings are often required. In additionk, more stringent emission standards have been imposed for the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts.

  9. Baseline automotive gas turbine engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. E. (Editor); Pampreen, R. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Tests results on a baseline engine are presented to document the automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art at the start of the program. The performance characteristics of the engine and of a vehicle powered by this engine are defined. Component improvement concepts in the baseline engine were evaluated on engine dynamometer tests in the complete vehicle on a chassis dynamometer and on road tests. The concepts included advanced combustors, ceramic regenerators, an integrated control system, low cost turbine material, a continuously variable transmission, power-turbine-driven accessories, power augmentation, and linerless insulation in the engine housing.

  10. Structural diagnostics using optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surace, Giuseppe; Chiaradia, Agostino

    1997-11-01

    After establishing the basis for assessing the structural implications of introducing a widespread sensor architecture in laminated composite materials in order to precisely identify and locate damage, the paper addresses the problem of structural diagnostics with a discussion of the development of several optical sensors. The research project will first investigate a passive optical fiber impact sensor to be implemented in the matrix of a composite material used in aeronautic and automotive applications. The senor's operating principle is based on the changes in propagation conditions occurring in a fiber subjected to transverse compression: under these circumstances, structural microdistortions produce local energy losses and hence a reduction in the optical power which propagates in the fiber and can be measured at its opposite end. As optical power losses also take place as a result of micro-bending of the optical fiber's longitudinal axis, a preliminary feasibility study will measure power attenuation versus fiber curve radius as the first step in the development of an optical fiber delamination sensor which locates separations between the layers of a composite material, i.e. debonding of sandwich panel core faces. Finally, an active impact sensor will be developed which uses optical fiber's sensitivity to pressure changes to detect the pressure gradient caused by an approaching vehicle or obstacle. The automotive industry will be able to make strategic use of these sensors, for example by installing them on vehicle sides to active the side airbag in the event of impact or collision.

  11. Cradle-to-Gate Impact Assessment of a High-Pressure Die-Casting Safety-Relevant Automotive Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchel, Silvia; Cornacchia, Giovanna; Panvini, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    The mass of automotive components has a direct influence on several aspects of vehicle performance, including both fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions, but the real environmental benefit has to be evaluated considering the entire life of the products with a proper life cycle assessment. In this context, the present paper analyzes the environmental burden connected to the production of a safety-relevant aluminum high-pressure die-casting component for commercial vehicles (a suspension cross-beam) considering all the phases connected to its manufacture. The focus on aluminum high-pressure die casting reflects the current trend of the industry and its high energy consumption. This work shows a new method that deeply analyzes every single step of the component's production through the implementation of a wide database of primary data collected thanks to collaborations of some automotive supplier companies. This energy analysis shows significant environmental benefits of aluminum recycling.

  12. Cradle-to-Gate Impact Assessment of a High-Pressure Die-Casting Safety-Relevant Automotive Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchel, Silvia; Cornacchia, Giovanna; Panvini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The mass of automotive components has a direct influence on several aspects of vehicle performance, including both fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions, but the real environmental benefit has to be evaluated considering the entire life of the products with a proper life cycle assessment. In this context, the present paper analyzes the environmental burden connected to the production of a safety-relevant aluminum high-pressure die-casting component for commercial vehicles (a suspension cross-beam) considering all the phases connected to its manufacture. The focus on aluminum high-pressure die casting reflects the current trend of the industry and its high energy consumption. This work shows a new method that deeply analyzes every single step of the component's production through the implementation of a wide database of primary data collected thanks to collaborations of some automotive supplier companies. This energy analysis shows significant environmental benefits of aluminum recycling.

  13. Polymer Optical Fiber Sensor and the Prediction of Sensor Response Utilizing Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haroglu, Derya

    The global market researches showed that there is a growing trend in the field of polymer optical fiber (POF) and POF sensors. Telecommunications, medicine, defense, aerospace, and automotive are the application areas of fiber optic sensors, where the automotive industry is the most promising application area for innovations in the field of POF sensors. The POF sensors in automobiles are particularly for detection of seat occupancy, and intelligent pedestrian protection systems. This dissertation investigates graded index perfluorinated polymer optical fiber as an intensity modulated intrinsic sensor for application in automotive seat occupancy sensing. Since a fiber optic sensor has a high bandwidth, is small in size, is lightweight, and is immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI) it offers higher performance than that of its electrical based counterparts such as strain gauge, elastomeric bladder, and resistive sensor systems. This makes the fiber optic sensor a potential suitable material for seat occupancy sensing. A textile-based fiber optic sensor was designed to be located in the area beneath the typical seated human's thighs. The pressure interval under which the proposed POF sensor design could perform well was found to be between 0.18 and 0.21 N/cm2, where perfluorinated (PF) graded index (GI) POF (62.5/750 mum) was used as the POF material. In addition, the effect of the automotive seat covering including face material (fabric) and foam backing to the sensor's performance was analyzed. The face fabric structure and the thickness of foam backing were not found to be significant factors to change the sensor results. A research study, survey, was conducted of which purpose was to better understand market demands in terms of sensor performance characteristics for automotive seat weight sensors, as a part of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) House of Quality analysis. The companies joined the survey agreed on the first 5 most important sensor

  14. Process and control systems for composites manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsiang, T. H.; Wanamaker, John L.

    1992-01-01

    A precise control of composite material processing would not only improve part quality, but it would also directly reduce the overall manufacturing cost. The development and incorporation of sensors will help to generate real-time information for material processing relationships and equipment characteristics. In the present work, the thermocouple, pressure transducer, and dielectrometer technologies were investigated. The monitoring sensors were integrated with the computerized control system in three non-autoclave fabrication techniques: hot-press, self contained tool (self heating and pressurizing), and pressure vessel). The sensors were implemented in the parts and tools.

  15. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  16. New Generation Sensor Web Enablement

    PubMed Central

    Bröring, Arne; Echterhoff, Johannes; Jirka, Simon; Simonis, Ingo; Everding, Thomas; Stasch, Christoph; Liang, Steve; Lemmens, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Many sensor networks have been deployed to monitor Earth’s environment, and more will follow in the future. Environmental sensors have improved continuously by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent. Due to the large number of sensor manufacturers and differing accompanying protocols, integrating diverse sensors into observation systems is not straightforward. A coherent infrastructure is needed to treat sensors in an interoperable, platform-independent and uniform way. The concept of the Sensor Web reflects such a kind of infrastructure for sharing, finding, and accessing sensors and their data across different applications. It hides the heterogeneous sensor hardware and communication protocols from the applications built on top of it. The Sensor Web Enablement initiative of the Open Geospatial Consortium standardizes web service interfaces and data encodings which can be used as building blocks for a Sensor Web. This article illustrates and analyzes the recent developments of the new generation of the Sensor Web Enablement specification framework. Further, we relate the Sensor Web to other emerging concepts such as the Web of Things and point out challenges and resulting future work topics for research on Sensor Web Enablement. PMID:22163760

  17. A review on paint sludge from automotive industries: Generation, characteristics and management.

    PubMed

    Salihoglu, Guray; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil

    2016-03-15

    The automotive manufacturing process results in the consumption of several natural sources and the generation of various types of wastes. The primary source of hazardous wastes at an automotive manufacturing plant is the painting process, and the major waste fraction is paint sludge, which is classified with EU waste code of 080113* implying hazardous characteristics. The amount of the paint sludge generated increases every year with the worldwide increase in the car production. The characteristics of the paint sludge, which mainly designate the management route, are mainly determined by the type of the paint used, application technique employed, and the chemicals applied such as flocculants, detackifiers, pH boosters, antifoam agents, and biocides as well as the dewatering techniques preferred. Major routes for the disposal of the paint sludges are incineration as hazardous waste or combustion at cement kilns. Because of high dissolved organic carbon content of the paint, the paint sludge cannot be accepted by landfills according to European Union Legislations. More investigations are needed in the field of paint sludge recycling such as recycling it as a new paint or as other formulations, or making use of the sludge for the production of construction materials. Research on the applicability of the paint sludge in composting and biogasification can also be useful. Ongoing research is currently being conducted on new application techniques to increase the effectiveness of paint transfer, which helps to prevent the generation of paint sludge. Advancements in paint and coating chemistry such as the reduction in the coating layers with its thickness also help to decrease the level of paint sludge generation. Investigations on the effects of the chemicals on the recycling potential of paint sludges and consideration of these effects by the chemical manufacturer companies would be extremely important. This review presents the formation of paint sludge, the factors

  18. A review on paint sludge from automotive industries: Generation, characteristics and management.

    PubMed

    Salihoglu, Guray; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil

    2016-03-15

    The automotive manufacturing process results in the consumption of several natural sources and the generation of various types of wastes. The primary source of hazardous wastes at an automotive manufacturing plant is the painting process, and the major waste fraction is paint sludge, which is classified with EU waste code of 080113* implying hazardous characteristics. The amount of the paint sludge generated increases every year with the worldwide increase in the car production. The characteristics of the paint sludge, which mainly designate the management route, are mainly determined by the type of the paint used, application technique employed, and the chemicals applied such as flocculants, detackifiers, pH boosters, antifoam agents, and biocides as well as the dewatering techniques preferred. Major routes for the disposal of the paint sludges are incineration as hazardous waste or combustion at cement kilns. Because of high dissolved organic carbon content of the paint, the paint sludge cannot be accepted by landfills according to European Union Legislations. More investigations are needed in the field of paint sludge recycling such as recycling it as a new paint or as other formulations, or making use of the sludge for the production of construction materials. Research on the applicability of the paint sludge in composting and biogasification can also be useful. Ongoing research is currently being conducted on new application techniques to increase the effectiveness of paint transfer, which helps to prevent the generation of paint sludge. Advancements in paint and coating chemistry such as the reduction in the coating layers with its thickness also help to decrease the level of paint sludge generation. Investigations on the effects of the chemicals on the recycling potential of paint sludges and consideration of these effects by the chemical manufacturer companies would be extremely important. This review presents the formation of paint sludge, the factors

  19. Fiber-optic sensor design for chemical process and environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahendran, R. S.; Wang, L.; Machavaram, V. R.; Pandita, S. D.; Chen, R.; Kukureka, S. N.; Fernando, G. F.

    2009-10-01

    "Curing" is a term that is used to describe the cross-linking reactions in a thermosetting resin system. Advanced fiber-reinforced composites are being used increasingly in a number of industrial sectors including aerospace, marine, sport, automotive and civil engineering. There is a general realization that the processing conditions that are used to manufacture the composite can have a major influence on its hot-wet mechanical properties. This paper is concerned with the design and demonstration of a number of sensor designs for in situ monitoring of the cross-linking reactions of a commercially available thermosetting resin system. Simple fixtures were constructed to enable a pair of cleaved optical fibers with a defined gap between the end-faces to be held in position. The resin system was introduced into this gap and the cure kinetics were followed by transmission infrared spectroscopy. A semi-empirical model was used to describe the cure process using the data obtained at different cure temperatures. The same sensor system was used to detect the ingress of moisture into the cured resin system.

  20. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Hodgson; David Irick

    2005-09-30

    The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville has completed its sixth year of operation. During this period the Center has involved thirteen GATE Fellows and ten GATE Research Assistants in preparing them to contribute to advanced automotive technologies in the center's focus area: hybrid drive trains and control systems. Eighteen GATE students have graduated, and three have completed their course work requirements. Nine faculty members from three departments in the College of Engineering have been involved in the GATE Center. In addition to the impact that the Center has had on the students and faculty involved, the presence of the center has led to the acquisition of resources that probably would not have been obtained if the GATE Center had not existed. Significant industry interaction such as internships, equipment donations, and support for GATE students has been realized. The value of the total resources brought to the university (including related research contracts) exceeds $4,000,000. Problem areas are discussed in the hope that future activities may benefit from the operation of the current program.

  1. Performance evaluation of an automotive thermoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubitsky, Andrei O.

    Around 40% of the total fuel energy in typical internal combustion engines (ICEs) is rejected to the environment in the form of exhaust gas waste heat. Efficient recovery of this waste heat in automobiles can promise a fuel economy improvement of 5%. The thermal energy can be harvested through thermoelectric generators (TEGs) utilizing the Seebeck effect. In the present work, a versatile test bench has been designed and built in order to simulate conditions found on test vehicles. This allows experimental performance evaluation and model validation of automotive thermoelectric generators. An electrically heated exhaust gas circuit and a circulator based coolant loop enable integrated system testing of hot and cold side heat exchangers, thermoelectric modules (TEMs), and thermal interface materials at various scales. A transient thermal model of the coolant loop was created in order to design a system which can maintain constant coolant temperature under variable heat input. Additionally, as electrical heaters cannot match the transient response of an ICE, modelling was completed in order to design a relaxed exhaust flow and temperature history utilizing the system thermal lag. This profile reduced required heating power and gas flow rates by over 50%. The test bench was used to evaluate a DOE/GM initial prototype automotive TEG and validate analytical performance models. The maximum electrical power generation was found to be 54 W with a thermal conversion efficiency of 1.8%. It has been found that thermal interface management is critical for achieving maximum system performance, with novel designs being considered for further improvement.

  2. Crashworthiness simulation of composite automotive structures

    SciTech Connect

    Botkin, M E; Johnson, N L; Simunovic, S; Zywicz, E

    1998-06-01

    In 1990 the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) began the investigation of crash worthiness simulation methods for composite materials. A contract was given to Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSTC) to implement a new damage model in LS-DYNA3DTM specifically for composite structures. This model is in LS-DYNA3DTM and is in use by the ACC partners. In 1994 USCAR, a partnership of American auto companies, entered into a partnership called SCAAP (Super Computing Automotive Applications Partnership) for the express purpose of working with the National Labs on computational oriented research. A CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) was signed with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory to work in three distinctly different technical areas, one of which was composites material modeling for crash worthiness. Each Laboratory was assigned a specific modeling task. The ACC was responsible for the technical direction of the composites project and provided all test data for code verification. All new models were to be implemented in DYNA3D and periodically distributed to all partners for testing. Several new models have been developed and implemented. Excellent agreement has been shown between tube crush simulation and experiments.

  3. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  4. Potential automotive uses of wrought magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Wu, S.; Stodolsky, F. |

    1996-06-01

    Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available to improve automotive fuel efficiency. High-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to reduce weight significantly, but substantial additional reductions could be achieved by greater use of low-density magnesium (Mg) and its alloys. Mg alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts, generally limited to die castings (e.g., housings). Argonne National Laboratory`s Center for Transportation Research has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel/aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. Mg sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. This study identifies high cost as the major barrier to greatly increased Mg use in autos. Two technical R and D areas, novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, could enable major cost reductions.

  5. Pediatric automotive restraints, pediatricians, and the academy.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, H M; Emmet, W L; Coulson, A H

    1976-09-01

    Over 70% of the 192 Southern California Academy pediatricians responding to a survey teach parents about pediatric automotive safety devices but less than 3% do so on every visit. To test two methods of increasing the frequency of teaching, these pediatricians were randomly assigned to either a mailing from the Academy's local chapter (mail group) or a brief presentation by a local pharmaceutical representative at his regular visit (interview group); a follow-up was conducted one month later by mail. Sixty-one percent of the mail group and 49% of the interview group claimed that their teaching on this subject had increased since the original contact. While this difference did not reach statistical significance, it was in the same direction as the preferences for sources of pediatric information expressed by both groups of pediatricians. A special letter from the Academy was ranked most effective and a visit from the pharmaceutical representative was judged least effective. Because of the magnitude of the problem, availability of a solution, proof that pediatricians can influence health behavior related to children and acknowledgment of the Academy's role in pediatric education, an appeal is made for an all-out campaign by the Academy and its members to promote use of appropriate pediatric automotive safety devices.

  6. Manufacturing of Smart Structures Using Fiber Placement Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Matthew M.; Glowasky, Robert A.; McIlroy, Bruce E.; Story, Todd A.

    1996-01-01

    Smart structures research and development, with the ultimate aim of rapid commercial and military production of these structures, are at the forefront of the Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost-Effective Structures (SPICES) program. As part of this ARPA-sponsored program, MDA-E is using fiber placement processes to manufacture integrated smart structure systems. These systems comprise advanced composite structures with embedded fiber optic sensors, shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators, and miniature accelerometers. Cost-effective approaches and solutions to smart material synthesis in the fiber-placement process, based upon integrated product development, are discussed herein.

  7. When your contract manufacturer becomes your competitor.

    PubMed

    Arruñda, Benito; Vázquez, Xosé H

    2006-09-01

    PC maker Lenovo started out as a distributor of equipment made by IBM and other companies; now it has formed a joint venture with IBM and will eventually affix its own logo to its computers. Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC) started out manufacturing vehicles for Volkswagen and GM; now it's preparing to sell its own cars in China, Europe, and North America. Lenovo and SAIC represent a host of formerly anonymous makers of brand-name products that are breaking out of their defined roles and pushing the brands themselves aside. In this article, the authors explore the double-edged relationships original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) forge with their contract manufacturers (CMs). On the one hand, an OEM can reduce its labor costs, free up capital, and improve worker productivity by outsourcing all the manufacturing of a product. The company can then concentrate on value-adding activities--research and development, product design, and marketing, for instance. On the other hand, an OEM that retains a contract manufacturer may find itself immersed in a melodrama replete with promiscuity (the ambitious CM pursues liaisons with other OEMs), infidelity (the OEM's retailers and distributors shift their business to the upstart CM), and betrayal (the brazen CM transmits the OEM's intellectual property to the OEM's rivals or keeps it for itself when the contract is up). OEMs cannot simply terminate their outsourcing arrangements--they need contract manufacturers in order to keep specializing, adding value, and staying competitive. But OEMs can manage these relationships so that they don't become weak or the CMs too strong. Doing so requires modesty about revealing trade secrets; caution about whom one consorts with; and a judicious degree of intimacy, loyalty, and generosity toward partners and customers. PMID:16967627

  8. When your contract manufacturer becomes your competitor.

    PubMed

    Arruñda, Benito; Vázquez, Xosé H

    2006-09-01

    PC maker Lenovo started out as a distributor of equipment made by IBM and other companies; now it has formed a joint venture with IBM and will eventually affix its own logo to its computers. Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC) started out manufacturing vehicles for Volkswagen and GM; now it's preparing to sell its own cars in China, Europe, and North America. Lenovo and SAIC represent a host of formerly anonymous makers of brand-name products that are breaking out of their defined roles and pushing the brands themselves aside. In this article, the authors explore the double-edged relationships original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) forge with their contract manufacturers (CMs). On the one hand, an OEM can reduce its labor costs, free up capital, and improve worker productivity by outsourcing all the manufacturing of a product. The company can then concentrate on value-adding activities--research and development, product design, and marketing, for instance. On the other hand, an OEM that retains a contract manufacturer may find itself immersed in a melodrama replete with promiscuity (the ambitious CM pursues liaisons with other OEMs), infidelity (the OEM's retailers and distributors shift their business to the upstart CM), and betrayal (the brazen CM transmits the OEM's intellectual property to the OEM's rivals or keeps it for itself when the contract is up). OEMs cannot simply terminate their outsourcing arrangements--they need contract manufacturers in order to keep specializing, adding value, and staying competitive. But OEMs can manage these relationships so that they don't become weak or the CMs too strong. Doing so requires modesty about revealing trade secrets; caution about whom one consorts with; and a judicious degree of intimacy, loyalty, and generosity toward partners and customers.

  9. Hyperion 5113/GP Infrasound Sensor Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Bion J.

    2015-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated an infrasound sensor, the 5113/GP manufactured by Hyperion. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by the University of Mississippi. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, dynamic range, and seismic sensitivity. These sensors are being evaluated prior to deployment by the U.S. Air Force.

  10. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum Outline for Secondary Schools. Vocational Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum outline for secondary automotive mechanics is structured around Louisiana's Vocational-Technical Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. The curriculum is composed of 16 units of instruction, covering the following topics: benchwork, fundamentals of automotive engines, preventive maintenance, automotive brakes, steering and front…

  11. Agile manufacturing prototyping system (AMPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, P.

    1998-05-09

    The Agile Manufacturing Prototyping System (AMPS) is being integrated at Sandia National Laboratories. AMPS consists of state of the industry flexible manufacturing hardware and software enhanced with Sandia advancements in sensor and model based control; automated programming, assembly and task planning; flexible fixturing; and automated reconfiguration technology. AMPS is focused on the agile production of complex electromechanical parts. It currently includes 7 robots (4 Adept One, 2 Adept 505, 1 Staubli RX90), conveyance equipment, and a collection of process equipment to form a flexible production line capable of assembling a wide range of electromechanical products. This system became operational in September 1995. Additional smart manufacturing processes will be integrated in the future. An automated spray cleaning workcell capable of handling alcohol and similar solvents was added in 1996 as well as parts cleaning and encapsulation equipment, automated deburring, and automated vision inspection stations. Plans for 1997 and out years include adding manufacturing processes for the rapid prototyping of electronic components such as soldering, paste dispensing and pick-and-place hardware.

  12. Ergonomics and Kaizen as strategies for competitiveness: a theoretical and practical in an automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Leandro; Balbinotti, Giles; Varasquin, Adriano; Gontijo, Leila

    2012-01-01

    With increased international competitiveness in the automotive industry, came the concern of the companies save costs and lower production costs. For this purpose many ways are designed to reduce costs and waste of raw materials and reduce activities that do not aggregate value to manufacturing processes. In the early XVII appears the manufacturing system, which processes were hard with little concern for the health and safety of employees and conditions of the workplace. After the advent of the production system called lean manufacturing, a new paradigm in terms of production system capable of providing high levels of productivity and quality. It is based on waste elimination that occur during the production process. After began a new way of thinking, creating a culture of continuous improvement and lean process with no waste and reducing costs, without neglecting the welfare worker and improving the conditions of their work environment. This paper presents a reflection on the application of ergonomics in a lean production system of an automotive industry, using methodology based on the Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) to gain performance and improving the conditions of the workplace, also will be presented with positive and negative points in using this methodology in relation to ergonomics. The research will be conducted by collecting data 'in loco' and interviews with workers. Some studies show that in companies that are lean system and using the methodology of Kaizen, the results of product quality, levels of absenteeism and accidents are better than those obtained in companies that do not apply the same concept. PMID:22316967

  13. MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) for Automotive and Consumer Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Jiri; Gómez, Udo-Martin

    MEMS sensors gained over the last two decades an impressive width of applications: (a) ESP: A car is skidding and stabilizes itself without driver intervention (b) Free-fall detection: A laptop falls to the floor and protects the hard drive by parking the read/write drive head automatically before impact. (c) Airbag: An airbag fires before the driver/occupant involved in an impending automotive crash impacts the steering wheel, thereby significantly reducing physical injury risk. MEMS sensors are sensing the environmental conditions and are giving input to electronic control systems. These crucial MEMS sensors are making system reactions to human needs more intelligent, precise, and at much faster reaction rates than humanly possible. Important prerequisites for the success of sensors are their size, functionality, power consumption, and costs. This technical progress in sensor development is realized by micro-machining. The development of these processes was the breakthrough to industrial mass-production for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Besides leading-edge micromechanical processes, innovative and robust ASIC designs, thorough simulations of the electrical and mechanical behaviour, a deep understanding of the interactions (mainly over temperature and lifetime) of the package and the mechanical structures are needed. This was achieved over the last 20 years by intense and successful development activities combined with the experience of volume production of billions of sensors. This chapter gives an overview of current MEMS technology, its applications and the market share. The MEMS processes are described, and the challenges of MEMS, compared to standard IC fabrication, are discussed. The evolution of MEMS requirements is presented, and a short survey of MEMS applications is shown. Concepts of newest inertial sensors for ESP-systems are given with an emphasis on the design concepts of the sensing element and the evaluation circuit for achieving

  14. Great prospects for fiber optics sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, T. E.

    1983-10-01

    Fiber optic sensors provide noise immunity and galvanic insulation at the measurement point. Interest in such sensors is increasing for these reasons. In the United States sales are expected to increase from 12 million dollars in 1981 to 180 million in 1991. Interferometric sensors based on single modus fibers deliver extremely high sensitivity, while sensors based on multi-modus fibers are more easily manufactured. The fiber optic sensors which are available today are based on point measurements. Development of fiber optic sensors in Norway is being carried out at the Central institute and has resulted in the development of medical manometers which are now undergoing clinical testing.

  15. Great prospects for fiber optics sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors provide noise immunity and galvanic insulation at the measurement point. Interest in such sensors is increasing for these reasons. In the United States sales are expected to increase from 12 million dollars in 1981 to 180 million in 1991. Interferometric sensors based on single modus fibers deliver extremely high sensitivity, while sensors based on multi-modus fibers are more easily manufactured. The fiber optic sensors which are available today are based on point measurements. Development of fiber optic sensors in Norway is being carried out at the Central institute and has resulted in the development of medical manometers which are now undergoing clinical testing.

  16. Design, Analysis, and Characterization of Metamaterial Quasi-Optical Components for Millimeter-Wave Automotive Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Vinh Ngoc

    Since their introduction by Mercedes Benz in the late 1990s, W-band radars operating at 76-77 GHz have found their way into more and more passenger cars. These automotive radars are typically used in adaptive cruise control, pre-collision sensing, and other driver assistance systems. While these systems are usually only about the size of two stacked cigarette packs, system size, and weight remains a concern for many automotive manufacturers. In this dissertation, I discuss how artificially structured metamaterials can be used to improve lens-based automotive radar systems. Metamaterials allow the fabrication of smaller and lighter systems, while still meeting the frequency, high gain, and cost requirements of this application. In particular, I focus on the development of planar artificial dielectric lenses suitable for use in place of the injection-molded lenses now used in many automotive radar systems. I begin by using analytic and numerical ray-tracing to compare the performance of planar metamaterial GRIN lenses to equivalent aspheric refractive lenses. I do this to determine whether metamaterials are best employed in GRIN or refractive automotive radar lenses. Through this study I find that planar GRIN lenses with the large refractive index ranges enabled by metamaterials have approximately optically equivalent performance to equivalent refractive lenses for fields of view approaching +/-20°. I also find that the uniaxial nature of most planar metamaterials does not negatively impact planar GRIN lens performance. I then turn my attention to implementing these planar GRIN lenses at W-band automotive radar frequencies. I begin by designing uniform sheets of W-band electrically-coupled LC resonator-based metamaterials. These metamaterial samples were fabricated by the Jokerst research group on glass and liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates and tested at Toyota Research Institute- North America (TRI-NA). When characterized at W-band frequencies, these

  17. Advances in LEDs for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Jy; Peddada, Rao; Spinger, Benno

    2016-03-01

    High power LEDs were introduced in automotive headlights in 2006-2007, for example as full LED headlights in the Audi R8 or low beam in Lexus. Since then, LED headlighting has become established in premium and volume automotive segments and beginning to enable new compact form factors such as distributed low beam and new functions such as adaptive driving beam. New generations of highly versatile high power LEDs are emerging to meet these application needs. In this paper, we will detail ongoing advances in LED technology that enable revolutionary styling, performance and adaptive control in automotive headlights. As the standards which govern the necessary lumens on the road are well established, increasing luminance enables not only more design freedom but also headlight cost reduction with space and weight saving through more compact optics. Adaptive headlighting is based on LED pixelation and requires high contrast, high luminance, smaller LEDs with high-packing density for pixelated Matrix Lighting sources. Matrix applications require an extremely tight tolerance on not only the X, Y placement accuracy, but also on the Z height of the LEDs given the precision optics used to image the LEDs onto the road. A new generation of chip scale packaged (CSP) LEDs based on Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) have been developed to meet these needs, offering a form factor less than 20% increase over the LED emitter surface footprint. These miniature LEDs are surface mount devices compatible with automated tools for L2 board direct attach (without the need for an interposer or L1 substrate), meeting the high position accuracy as well as the optical and thermal performance. To illustrate the versatility of the CSP LEDs, we will show the results of, firstly, a reflector-based distributed low beam using multiple individual cavities each with only 20mm height and secondly 3x4 to 3x28 Matrix arrays for adaptive full beam. Also a few key trends in rear lighting and impact on LED light

  18. Automotive Technology Evolved by Electrical and Electronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teratani, Tatsuo; Okuma, Shigeru

    Automotive electrical and electronic systems, e.g. EHV, FCV, future X-By-Wire, have recently been introduced or planned in place of mechanical systems. Drivers are demanding environmental performance (fuel consumption and weight reduction), safety and comfort. For general use of the new technologies, evolution of the automotive technology is required, including energy conversion efficiency improvement, size and weight reduction of components, cost reduction and high reliability. This paper discusses and summarizes the next generation power systems, the future vehicle image, power source combinations, and problems to be solved for development of automotive electronics.

  19. Small, Inexpensive Combined NOx Sensor and O2 Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    W. N. Lawless; C. F. Clark, Jr.

    2008-09-08

    electronic control units were designed and built. One control unit provides independent constant voltages to the NOx and oxygen sensors and reads the current from them (that is, detects the amount of test gas present). The second controller holds the fully-assembled sensor at the desired operating temperature and controllably pumps excess oxygen from the test chamber. While the development of the sensor body was a complete success, the development of the packaging was only partially successful. All of the basic principles were demonstrated, but the packaging was too complex to optimize the operation within the resources of the program. Thus, no fully-assembled sensors were sent to outside labs for testing of cross-sensitivities, response times, etc. Near the end of the program, Sensata Technologies of Attleboro, MA tested the sensor bodies and confirmed the CeramPhysics measurements as indicated in the following attached letter. Sensata was in the process of designing their own packaging for the sensor and performing cross-sensitivity tests when they stopped all sensor development work due to the automotive industry downturn. Recently Ceramatec Inc. of Salt Lake City has expressed an interest in testing the sensor, and other licensing opportunities are being pursued.

  20. Nonlinear oscillations of automotive turbocharger turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, Bernhard; Sievert, Mario

    2009-04-01

    Turbines, especially turbines supported in hydrodynamic bearings, often exhibit interesting oscillation effects, which result from the bearing nonlinearities. In the present work, an automotive turbocharger rotor is investigated. The rotor of the turbocharger examined here is supported in full-floating ring bearings, which give rise to complex system vibrations. Frequency spectra of run-up measurements, carried out on a hot-gas turbocharger test rig, are presented. The occurring nonlinear effects—self-excited vibrations, oil whirl/whip phenomena, subharmonics, superharmonics, combination frequencies and jump phenomena—are explained in detail with the help of a gyroscopic eigenvalue analysis and by run-up simulations with a multibody model of the rotor/bearing system. The influence of different operating conditions—oil supply pressure, oil supply temperature and rotor imbalance—on the rotor oscillations and the system bifurcations is studied.