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Sample records for automotive sulfate emission

  1. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; And Others

    This publication contains instructional materials for both teachers and students for a course in automotive emission control. Instructional materials in this publication are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes 16 units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the basic components of a…

  2. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; Ragazzi, Ronald

    This guide designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in the area of automotive emission control curriculum includes four areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  3. Automotive Emissions Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, George

    2002-03-01

    Serious efforts to control emissions from automobiles commenced more than thirty-five years ago, focusing initially on aspects of engine design and the combustion process. For the past quarter century, however, the major emphasis has been on treating the engine exhaust gas before it leaves the vehicle, in order to limit the release of toxic and other pollutants. The system that was eventually devised and is now used on most gasoline-burning automobiles combines sensing, electronic engine control, and catalysis to decrease the emission of certain pollutants by more than ninety percent. This presentation will describe how the system works and briefly touch upon some of the consequences of automotive emissions control.

  4. Automotive emission control and computer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, D.

    1989-01-01

    This book provides information on automotive computer technology emission control. Special emphasis is placed on the service and diagnosis of on-board computers, making this work useful for service technicians. Many easy-to-follow diagnostic charts are provided to simplify procedures.

  5. Characterization of nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Sato, Kei; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    We carried out time-resolved experiments using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer and a chassis dynamometer to characterize nitromethane emission from automotive exhaust. We performed experiments under both cold-start and hot-start conditions, and determined the dependence of nitromethane emission on vehicle velocity and acceleration/deceleration as well as the effect of various types of exhaust-gas treatment system. We found that nitromethane emission was much lower from a gasoline car than from diesel trucks, probably due to the reduction function of the three-way catalyst of the gasoline car. Diesel trucks without a NOx reduction catalyst using hydrocarbons produced high emissions of nitromethane, with emission factors generally increasing with increasing acceleration at low vehicle velocities.

  6. Patterns of automotive emissions in Muscat atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    El-Zawahry, A.E.M.; Saeed, M.N.; Al-Futaisi, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper investigates the dispersion of automotive emissions in Muscat atmosphere. The rates of emitted pollutants were calculated on the basis of traffic data. A three-dimensional, time-dependent computer model was developed and used for predicting the patterns of emitted pollutants and their effects on residential areas. The influence zone developed by the simulated cases indicates that residential areas within 200 m from the roundabouts suffer an emission concentration of 30% relative to the source concentration. Locations as far as 5 km from the roundabouts receive concentrations in the order of 0.5%. The predicted concentrations of CO and NOX constitute a warning of possible hazardous situations in the coming few years, unless emission-control regulations are enforced.

  7. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Emission Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, testing, and servicing of automotive emission control systems. The course is comprised of one unit, Fundamentals of Emission Systems. The unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives directions for unit completion. The…

  8. Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Hanspeter; Lüönd, Felix; Schlatter, Jürg; Auderset, Kevin; Jordan-Gerkens, Anke; Nowak, Andreas; Ebert, Volker; Buhr, Egbert; Klein, Tobias; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mamakos, Athanasios; Riccobono, Francesco; Discher, Kai; Högström, Richard; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Quincey, Paul

    2014-08-01

    The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today's opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

  9. Automotive fuel economy and emissions program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Baisley, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental data were generated to support an assessment of the relationship between automobile fuel economy and emissions control systems. Tests were made at both the engine and vehicle levels. Detailed investigations were made on cold-start emissions devices, exhaust gas recirculation systems, and air injection reactor systems. Based on the results of engine tests, an alternative emission control system and modified control strategy were implemented and tested in the vehicle. With the same fuel economy and NOx emissions as the stock vehicle, the modified vehicle reduced HC and CO emissions by about 20 percent. By removing the NOx emissions constraint, the modified vehicle demonstrated about 12 percent better fuel economy than the stock vehicle.

  10. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles.

  11. Comparison of steady-state and transient CVS cycle emission of an automotive Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R. A.; Bolton, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program is to demonstrate a number of goals for a Stirling-powered vehicle. These goals are related to an achievement of specified maximum emission rates, a combined cycle fuel economy 30 percent better than a comparable internal-combustion engine-powered automobile, multifuel capability, competitive cost and reliability, and a meeting of Federal standards concerning noise and safety. The present investigation is concerned with efforts related to meeting the stringent emission goals. Attention is given to the initial development of a procedure for predicting transient CVS urban cycle gaseous emissions from steady-state engine data, taking into account the employment of the test data from the first-generation automotive Stirling engine. A large amount of steady-state data from three Mod I automotive Stirling engines were used to predict urban CVS cycle emissions for the Mod I Lerma vehicle.

  12. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting, testing, and servicing an emission control system. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 221-222. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  13. Automotive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Guigard, Selma E; Shariaty, Pooya; Niknaddaf, Saeid; Lashaki, Masoud Jahandar; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature from 2014 related to automotive wastes is presented. Topics include solid wastes from autobodies and tires as well as vehicle emissions to soil and air as a result of the use of conventional and alternative fuels. Potential toxicological and health risks related to automotive wastes are also discussed.

  14. Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Martyn V

    2005-04-15

    Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept stoichiometric and hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were simultaneously converted over a single 'three-way catalyst'. Today, advanced three-way catalyst systems emissions are exceptionally low. NOx control from lean-burn engines demands an additional approach because NO cannot be dissociated under lean conditions. Current lean-burn gasoline engine NOx control involves forming a nitrate phase and periodically enriching the exhaust to reduce it to nitrogen, and this is being modified for use on diesel engines. Selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is an alternative that can be very efficient, but it requires ammonia or a compound from which it can be obtained. Diesel engines produce particulate matter, and, because of health concerns, filtration processes are being introduced to control these emissions. On heavy duty diesel engines the exhaust gas temperature is high enough for NO in the exhaust to be oxidised over a catalyst to NO2 that smoothly oxidises particulate material (PM) in the filter. Passenger cars operate at lower temperatures, and it is necessary to periodically burn the PM in air at high temperatures.

  15. The role of rare-earth dopants in nanophase zirconia catalysts for automotive emission control.

    SciTech Connect

    Loong, C.-K.; Ozawa, M.

    1999-07-16

    Rare earth (RE) modification of automotive catalysts (e.g., ZrO{sub 2}) for exhaust gas treatment results in outstanding improvement of the structural stability, catalytic functions and resistance to sintering at high temperatures. Owing to the low redox potential of nonstoichiometric CeO{sub 2}, oxygen release and intake associated with the conversion between the 3+ and 4+ oxidation states of the Ce ions in Ce-doped ZrO{sub 2} provide the oxygen storage capacity that is essentially to effective catalytic functions under dynamic air-to-fuel ratio cycling. Doping tripositive RE ions such as La and Nd in ZrO{sub 2}, on the other hand, introduces oxygen vacancies that affect the electronic and ionic conductivity. These effects, in conjunction with the nanostructure and surface reactivity of the fine powders, present a challenging problem in the development of better ZrO{sub 2}-containing three-way catalysts. We have carried out in-situ small-to-wide angle neutron diffraction at high temperatures and under controlled atmospheres to study the structural phase transitions, sintering behavior, and Ce{sup 3+} {leftrightarrow} Ce{sup 4+} redox process. We found substantial effects due to RE doping on the nature of aggregation of nanoparticles, defect formation, crystal phase transformation, and metal-support interaction in ZrO{sub 2} catalysts for automotive emission control.

  16. [Emission characteristics and safety evaluation of volatile organic compounds in manufacturing processes of automotive coatings].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Pei-Yuan; Li, Jian-Jun; Liao, Dong-Qi; Tu, Xiang; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in an automotive coating manufacturing enterprise. Air samples were taken from eight different manufacturing areas in three workshops, and the species of VOCs and their concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Safety evaluation was also conducted by comparing the concentration of VOCs with the permissible concentration-short term exposure limit (PC-STEL) regulated by the Ministry of Health. The results showed that fifteen VOCs were detected in the indoor air of the automotive coatings workshop, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, trimethylbenzene and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, Their concentrations widely ranged from 0.51 to 593.14 mg x m(-3). The concentrations of TVOCs were significantly different among different manufacturing processes. Even in the same manufacturing process, the concentrations of each component measured at different times were also greatly different. The predominant VOCs of indoor air in the workshop were identified to be ethylbenzene and butyl acetate. The concentrations of most VOCs exceeded the occupational exposure limits, so the corresponding control measures should be taken to protect the health of the workers.

  17. [Emission characteristics and safety evaluation of volatile organic compounds in manufacturing processes of automotive coatings].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Pei-Yuan; Li, Jian-Jun; Liao, Dong-Qi; Tu, Xiang; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in an automotive coating manufacturing enterprise. Air samples were taken from eight different manufacturing areas in three workshops, and the species of VOCs and their concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Safety evaluation was also conducted by comparing the concentration of VOCs with the permissible concentration-short term exposure limit (PC-STEL) regulated by the Ministry of Health. The results showed that fifteen VOCs were detected in the indoor air of the automotive coatings workshop, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, trimethylbenzene and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, Their concentrations widely ranged from 0.51 to 593.14 mg x m(-3). The concentrations of TVOCs were significantly different among different manufacturing processes. Even in the same manufacturing process, the concentrations of each component measured at different times were also greatly different. The predominant VOCs of indoor air in the workshop were identified to be ethylbenzene and butyl acetate. The concentrations of most VOCs exceeded the occupational exposure limits, so the corresponding control measures should be taken to protect the health of the workers. PMID:24640895

  18. Treatment of automotive wastewater by coagulation-flocculation using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Abdul Fattah Abu; Halim, Azhar Abdul

    2013-11-01

    A physicochemical treatment (coagulation-flocculation) was applied for automotive wastewater using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum) aided by anionic polyacrylamide as flocculant to determine the effectiveness of coagulation method for removal of COD, TSS and heavy metals (Fe, Ni and Zn). The results obtained proved that PAC was comparatively more efficient to FeCl3 and alum. At defined optimum experiment condition (coagulant dose: 70 mg/L, coagulant aid dose: 2 mg/L and pH 7), PAC showed 70% removal for (chemical oxygen demand) COD and 98% of (total suspended solid) TSS. For FeCl3 and alum, the maximum removal for COD were 64% and 54%, meanwhile TSS removal were 91% and 94%. Heavy metals removal using PAC also showed better results in which produced 98% of iron removal, 83% of zinc removal and 63% of nickel removal under optimum condition. The comparison revealed that the use of PAC aided by anionic polyacrylamide produced higher removal for COD, TSS and heavy metals compared to FeCl3 and alum for automotive wastewater treatment.

  19. Sulfate, chloride and fluoride retention in Andosols exposed to volcanic acid emissions.

    PubMed

    Delmelle, Pierre; Delfosse, Thomas; Delvaux, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    The continuous emissions of SO(2), HCl and HF by Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, represent a substantial source of atmospheric S-, Cl- and F-containing acid inputs for local ecosystems. We report on the effects of such acid depositions on the sulfate, chloride and fluoride contents in soils (0-40 cm) from two distinct transects located downwind from the volcano. The first transect corresponds to relatively undifferentiated Vitric Andosols, and the second transect to more weathered Eutric Andosols. These soils are exposed to various rates of volcanogenic acid addition, with the Vitric sites being generally more affected. Prolonged acid inputs have led to a general pH decrease and reduced exchangeable base cation concentrations in the Andosols. The concentrations of 0.5 M NH(4)F- and 0.016 M KH(2)PO(4)-extractable sulfate (NH(4)F-S and KH(2)PO(4)-S, respectively) indicate that volcanic S addition has increased the inorganic sulfate content of the Vitric and Eutric soils at all depths. In this process, the rate of sulfate accumulation is also dependent on soil allophane contents. For all soils, NH(4)F extracted systematically more (up to 40 times) sulfate than KH(2)PO(4). This difference suggests sulfate incorporation into an aluminum hydroxy sulfate phase, whose contribution to total inorganic sulfate in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols is estimated from approximately 34 to 95% and approximately 65 to 98%, respectively. The distribution of KH(2)PO(4)-extractable chloride in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols exposed to volcanic Cl inputs reveals that added chloride readily migrates through the soil profiles. In contrast, reaction of fluoride with Al and Fe oxyhydroxides and allophanes is an important sink mechanism in the Masaya Andosols exposed to airborne volcanic F. Fluoride dominates the anion distribution in all soil horizons, although F is the least concentrated element in the volcanic emissions and depositions. The soil anion distribution reflects preferential retention

  20. Emission of burning emulsified diesel oil with sodium sulfate in salty atmospheric air.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cherng-Yuan; Pan, Jenq-Yih

    2003-01-01

    The effects of sodium sulfate in fuel oil and salty atmospheric air on the emission characteristics of furnaces or boilers burned with emulsified diesel oils are considered in this study. An industrial cylindrical furnace made of stainless steel associated with an automatic oil-fired burner was used for the emission measurements. Both neat diesel oil and emulsified diesel oil with distilled water were used as the tested oils. A homogenizing and emulsifying machine was employed to stir the diesel oil and sodium sulfate powder into a homogeneous oil mixture, and to prepare emulsions of micro-droplets of water dispersed in diesel oil. The experimental results showed that the existence of sodium chloride in atmospheric air enhanced SO2 formation. The use of emulsified diesel oil with 300-ppm sodium sulfate as fuel reduced the burning gas temperature and NOx emission while increased O2 emission. Moreover, the presence of sodium chloride in atmospheric air hindered the completeness of the combustion process and thus resulted in lower burning efficiency and larger excess oxygen emission. PMID:14672327

  1. A study of carbonates, sulfates, and phosphates using thermal emission spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenrich, M. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal emission spectroscopy is useful for identifying mineralogies including carbonates, sulfates, and phosphates. Each of these groups of minerals has a distinct emissivity profile that allows for general identification (e.g., carbonate). Laboratory data are being collected that suggest the potential for determining specific composition of these minerals (e.g., calcite, magnesite). Previous studies of Mars suggest that the above groups of minerals should be present. On Mars fine-grained mineralogies are likely to be intimately mixed due to aeolian activity. Mixtures of calcite with palagonite will be studied to determine the volume percent requirement for salt identification and to understand the complexities of fine-grained mixtures observed by thermal emission. Further work with mixtures will include sulfate and phosphate mineralogies.

  2. Self-regeneration of a Pd-perovskite catalyst for automotive emissions control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihata, Y.; Mizuki, J.; Akao, T.; Tanaka, H.; Uenishi, M.; Kimura, M.; Okamoto, T.; Hamada, N.

    2002-07-01

    Catalytic converters are widely used to reduce the amounts of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons in automotive emissions. The catalysts are finely divided precious-metal particles dispersed on a solid support. During vehicle use, the converter is exposed to heat, which causes the metal particles to agglomerate and grow, and their overall surface area to decrease. As a result, catalyst activity deteriorates. The problem has been exacerbated in recent years by the trend to install catalytic converters closer to the engine, which ensures immediate activation of the catalyst on engine start-up, but also places demanding requirements on the catalyst's heat resistance. Conventional catalyst systems thus incorporate a sufficient excess of precious metal to guarantee continuous catalytic activity for vehicle use over 50,000miles (80,000km). Here we use X-ray diffraction and absorption to show that LaFe0.57Co0.38Pd0.05O3, one of the perovskite-based catalysts investigated for catalytic converter applications since the early 1970s, retains its high metal dispersion owing to structural responses to the fluctuations in exhaust-gas composition that occur in state-of-the-art petrol engines. We find that as the catalyst is cycled between oxidative and reductive atmospheres typically encountered in exhaust gas, palladium (Pd) reversibly moves into and out of the perovskite lattice. This movement appears to suppress the growth of metallic Pd particles, and hence explains the retention of high catalyst activity during long-term use and ageing.

  3. Suppression of rice methane production and emission by low dose sulfate application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauci, V.; Dise, N. B.; Howell, G.

    2006-12-01

    Large individual applications of SO42- (102-103 kg SO42--S/ha) are known to suppress methane emissions from rice paddies by up to ~70%. The application of large quantities of SO42- amendments to rice paddies has therefore been proposed as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy. In a similar system, natural peatlands, research has established that very low rates of SO4^{2- } deposition (~25 kg SO42--S/ha/yr as small weekly pulses), similar to those of regions experiencing acid rain pollution, suppress methane emissions by as much as 30-40%. It is thought that this is due to stimulation of sulfate-reducing microbial populations that out-compete methane producers for substrates. Given that acid rain S pollution is forecast to increase in Asia, the major rice growing region, we sought to establish the potential for acid rain to suppress CH4 emission from rice agro-ecosystems by experimentally simulating acid rain inputs of S deposition to rice mesocosms in the laboratory. We used soils from Portuguese rice growing regions as they experience low ambient S deposition, and investigated the effect of simulated sulfate deposition (small regular pulses) on CH4 emissions, pore- water concentrations of CH4 and alternate electron acceptors. We also applied an annual dose of S deposition as a single pulse of sulfate to one set of replicate rice mesocosms. After a lag time of 7 weeks, CH4 emission from the mesocosms subjected to the small weekly applications of `acid rain' sulfate as Na2SO4 at a rate of 100 kg SO42- -S/ha/yr (amounting to a total deposition of ~20 kg SO42- -S/ha throughout the 10 week experiment) were reduced below the control by an average of 22%, and as much as 35% on a single date. CH4 emissions from the `single pulse' experiment were significantly suppressed by the applied sulfate as were pore-water CH4 concentrations.

  4. Climate Impacts of Ozone and Sulfate Air Pollution from Specific Emissions Sectors and Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, N.; Koch, D. M.; Shindell, D. T.; Streets, D. G.

    2006-12-01

    The secondary air pollutants ozone (O3) and sulfate aerosol are generated by human activities and affect the Earth's climate system. The global mean radiative forcings of these short-lived species depend on the location of the precursor gas emissions, which has so far prevented their incorporation into climate-motivated policy agreements. O3 and sulfate aerosol are strongly coupled through tropospheric photochemistry and yet air quality control efforts consider each species separately. Previous modeling work to assess climate impacts of O3 has focused on individual precursors, such as nitrogen oxides, even though policy action would target a particular sector. We use the G-PUCCINI atmospheric composition-climate model to isolate the O3 and sulfate direct radiative forcing impacts of 6 specific emissions sectors (industry, transport, power, domestic biofuel, domestic fossil fuel and biomass burning) from 7 geographic regions (North America, Europe, South Asia, East Asia, North Africa and the Middle East, Central and South Africa and South America) for the near future 2030 atmosphere. The goal of the study is to identify specific source sectors and regions that present the most effective opportunities to mitigate global warming. At 2030, the industry and power sectors dominate the sulfate forcing across all regions, with East Asia, South Asia and North Africa and Middle East contributing the largest sulfate forcings (-100 to 120 mWm-2). The transport sector represents an important O3 forcing from all regions ranging from 5 mWm-2 (Europe) to 12 mWm-2 (East Asia). Domestic biofuel O3 forcing is important for the East Asia (13 mWm-2), South Asia (7 mWm-2) and Central and South Africa (10 mWm-2) regions. Biomass burning contributes large O3 forcings for the Central and South Africa (15 mWm-2) and South America (11 mWm-2) regions. In addition, the power sector O3 forcings from East Asia (14 mWm-2) and South Asia (8 mWm-2) are also substantial. Considering the sum of the O

  5. Automotive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  6. Certification of Pd and Pt single spikes and application to the quantification of Pt and Pd in automotive exhaust emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Jochen; Meyer, Christian; Noordmann, Janine; Rienitz, Olaf; Geilert, Sonja

    2014-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies show the effect of increased ambient pollution. Therefore measurement networks for air quality have been installed worldwide and legislation requires the monitoring of air pollution. Besides monitoring it is also important to be able to identify, to quantify and finally to regulate the emission of distinct sources in order to improve the quality of life. Automotive vehicles are a major source of environmental pollution especially through contaminants such as CO, NOX, SOX and hydrocarbons which derive from petrol combustion, while for example Platinum Group Elements (PGE) can be present from catalytic converters. The release of PGE into the environment, however, may be damaging in terms of public health, ecological and economic interests. In order to reliably assess the risks from PGEs, traceable and thus comparable data on the release rates of PGE from automotive catalysers are needed. As no Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are available for such samples the development of analytical procedures enabling SI-traceable results will be challenging. Therefore reference procedures for Pd and Pt in automotive exhaust emissions based on isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) have been developed and applied to specifically sampled automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the commonly known advantages, IDMS often is applied for quantification PGEs, as is the case within this work. The main reasons here are the required accuracy and the low PGE mass fractions in the sample. In order to perform IDMS analysis the analyte element must be available in an isotopically enriched form as so-called spike material or solution thereof, which is mixed with the sample. Unfortunately, no certified PGE spike solutions are available yet. To fill this gap two single PGE spikes, one 106Pd and one 194Pt spike, have been produced and characterized. The selection of the isotopes, the production of the solutions and the ampoulation will be described in this

  7. Source apportionment of sulfate and nitrate particulate matter in the Eastern United States and effectiveness of emission control programs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongliang; Hu, Jianlin; Kleeman, Michael; Ying, Qi

    2014-08-15

    Reducing population exposure to PM2.5 in the eastern US will require control of secondary sulfate and nitrate. A source-oriented Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is used to determine contributions of major emission sources to nitrate and sulfate concentrations in the seven eastern US cities (New York City, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, Chicago, Detroit, St. Paul, and Winston-Salem) in January and August of 2000 and 2006. Identified major nitrate sources include on-road gasoline-powered vehicles, diesel engines, natural gas and coal combustion. From 2000 to 2006, January nitrate concentrations decreased by 25-68% for all the seven cities. On average, ~53% of this change was caused by emissions controls while 47% was caused by meteorology variations. August nitrate concentrations decreased by a maximum of 68% in New York City but Detroit experienced increasing August nitrate concentrations by up to 33%. On average, ~33% of the reduction in nitrate is offset by increases associated with meteorological conditions that favor nitrate formation. Coal combustion and natural gas are the dominant sources for sulfate in both seasons. January sulfate decrease from 2000 to 2006 in all cities by 4-58% except New York City, which increases by 13%. On average, ~93% of the reduction in sulfate was attributed to emission controls with 7% associated with changes in meteorology. August sulfate concentrations decrease by 11-44% in all cities. On average, emission controls alone between 2000 and 2006 would have caused 6% more reduction but the effectiveness of the controls was mitigated by meteorology conditions more favorable to sulfate production in 2006 vs. 2000. The results of this study suggest that regional emissions controls between 2000 and 2006 have been effective at reducing population exposure to PM2.5 in the eastern US, but yearly variations in meteorology must be carefully considered when assessing the exact magnitude of the control benefits.

  8. Impact of recycling on cradle-to-gate energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of automotive lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Jennifer B; Gaines, Linda; Sullivan, John; Wang, Michael Q

    2012-11-20

    This paper addresses the environmental burdens (energy consumption and air emissions, including greenhouse gases, GHGs) of the material production, assembly, and recycling of automotive lithium-ion batteries in hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and battery electric vehicles (BEV) that use LiMn(2)O(4) cathode material. In this analysis, we calculated the energy consumed and air emissions generated when recovering LiMn(2)O(4), aluminum, and copper in three recycling processes (hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical recycling) and examined the effect(s) of closed-loop recycling on environmental impacts of battery production. We aimed to develop a U.S.-specific analysis of lithium-ion battery production and in particular sought to resolve literature discrepancies concerning energy consumed during battery assembly. Our analysis takes a process-level (versus a top-down) approach. For a battery used in a BEV, we estimated cradle-to-gate energy and GHG emissions of 75 MJ/kg battery and 5.1 kg CO(2)e/kg battery, respectively. Battery assembly consumes only 6% of this total energy. These results are significantly less than reported in studies that take a top-down approach. We further estimate that direct physical recycling of LiMn(2)O(4), aluminum, and copper in a closed-loop scenario can reduce energy consumption during material production by up to 48%.

  9. Impact of recycling on cradle-to-gate energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of automotive lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Jennifer B; Gaines, Linda; Sullivan, John; Wang, Michael Q

    2012-11-20

    This paper addresses the environmental burdens (energy consumption and air emissions, including greenhouse gases, GHGs) of the material production, assembly, and recycling of automotive lithium-ion batteries in hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and battery electric vehicles (BEV) that use LiMn(2)O(4) cathode material. In this analysis, we calculated the energy consumed and air emissions generated when recovering LiMn(2)O(4), aluminum, and copper in three recycling processes (hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical recycling) and examined the effect(s) of closed-loop recycling on environmental impacts of battery production. We aimed to develop a U.S.-specific analysis of lithium-ion battery production and in particular sought to resolve literature discrepancies concerning energy consumed during battery assembly. Our analysis takes a process-level (versus a top-down) approach. For a battery used in a BEV, we estimated cradle-to-gate energy and GHG emissions of 75 MJ/kg battery and 5.1 kg CO(2)e/kg battery, respectively. Battery assembly consumes only 6% of this total energy. These results are significantly less than reported in studies that take a top-down approach. We further estimate that direct physical recycling of LiMn(2)O(4), aluminum, and copper in a closed-loop scenario can reduce energy consumption during material production by up to 48%. PMID:23075406

  10. Role of O-Acetylserine in Hydrogen Sulfide Emission from Pumpkin Leaves in Response to Sulfate 1

    PubMed Central

    Rennenberg, Heinz

    1983-01-01

    In the presence of excess sulfate, cysteine synthesis in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) leaves is not limited by sulfate reduction, but by the availability of O-acetylserine. Feeding of O-acetylserine or its metabolic precursors S-acetyl-coenzyme-A and coenzyme A to leaf discs enhanced the incorportion of [35S]sulfate into reduced sulfur compounds, mainly into cysteine, at the cost of lowered H2S emission; the uptake and reduction of sulfate is not affected by these treatments. β-Fluoropyruvate, an inhibitor of the generation of S-acetyl-coenzyme A via pyruvate dehydrogenase, stimulated H2S emission in response to sulfate. This stimulation is overcompensated by addition of O-acetylserine, S-acetyl-coenzyme A, or coenzyme A. These results indicate that, in the presence of high amounts of sulfate, excess sulfur is reduced and emitted as H2S into the atmosphere. The H2S emitted seems to be produced by liberation from a precursor of cysteine rather than by cysteine desulfhydration. PMID:16663258

  11. Satellite-based global volcanic SO2 emissions and sulfate direct radiative forcing during 2005-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Cui; Wang, Jun; Carn, Simon; Yang, Kai; Ginoux, Paul; Krotkov, Nickolay

    2016-04-01

    An 8 year volcanic SO2 emission inventory for 2005-2012 is obtained based on satellite measurements of SO2 from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and ancillary information from the Global Volcanism Program. It includes contributions from global volcanic eruptions and from eight persistently degassing volcanoes in the tropics. It shows significant differences in the estimate of SO2 amount and injection height for medium to large volcanic eruptions as compared to the counterparts in the existing volcanic SO2 database. Emissions from Nyamuragira (DR Congo) in November 2006 and Grímsvötn (Iceland) in May 2011 that were not included in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 5 (IPCC) inventory are included here. Using the updated emissions, the volcanic sulfate (SO42-) distribution is simulated with the global transport model Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS)-Chem. The simulated time series of sulfate aerosol optical depth (AOD) above 10 km captures every eruptive volcanic sulfate perturbation with a similar magnitude to that measured by Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO). The 8 year average contribution of eruptive SO42- to total SO42- loading above 10 km is ~10% over most areas of the Northern Hemisphere, with a maxima of 30% in the tropics where the anthropogenic emissions are relatively smaller. The persistently degassing volcanic SO42- in the tropics barely reaches above 10 km, but in the lower atmosphere it is regionally dominant (60%+ in terms of mass) over Hawaii and other oceanic areas northeast of Australia. Although the 7 year average (2005-2011) of eruptive volcanic sulfate forcing of -0.10 W m-2 in this study is comparable to that in the 2013 IPCC report (-0.09 W m-2), significant discrepancies exist for each year. Our simulations also imply that the radiative forcing per unit AOD for volcanic eruptions can vary from -40 to -80 W m-2, much higher than the -25 W m-2 implied in the IPCC calculations. In

  12. TIR Emissivity Spectra of Thermally Processed Sulfates, Carbonates and Phyllosilicates as Analog Materials for Asteroid Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; D'Amore, M.; Ferrari, S.

    2013-12-01

    At the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Berlin we are building a database of spectral measurements of several meteorites and other analogs for asteroid surfaces. Bi-directional reflectance of samples in the 1 to 100 μm spectral range, are measured by using an evacuated (10-4 bar) Bruker Vertex 80V FTIR spectrometer and a Bruker A513 reflection unit, allowing phase angles between 26° and 170°. Emissivity in the 1 to 100 μm spectral range is measured with the same instrument coupled with an external emissivity chamber, for sample temperatures ranging from low (50° C) to very high (above 800° C). We present here new measurements on sulfates, carbonates, and phyllosilicates in various grain size ranges. The setup was configured to simulate the thermal history of surface minerals on the asteroid 2008 EV5 during its revolution around the Sun. This asteroid is the scientific target of the ESA Marco Polo-R mission. The samples in vacuum (< 0.8 mbar) are measured at surface temperature around 70° C, then the same samples are heated to 220° C, and maintained at this temperature for one hour. Slowly the sample temperature is reduced back again to 70° C and a second measurement is taken. Emissivity spectra before and after thermal processing of the samples are complemented with reflectance measurements on samples fresh and after thermal processing. This comparison show us that for some minerals no spectral/structural changes appear, while others show signs of dehydration and among them some species show structural changes. We conclude that a proper spectral library of emissivity spectra for asteroid analogue materials must include thermally processed samples, reproducing the thermal evolution for the asteroid that is target of the actual investigation.

  13. Inventory and mitigation opportunities for HFC-134a emissions from nonprofessional automotive service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Tao; Potts, Winston; Collins, John F.; Austin, Jeff

    2014-12-01

    Many vehicle owners in the United States recharge their vehicles' air conditioning systems with small containers of hydrofluorocarbon-134a (HFC-134a, CH2FCF3), at a frequency estimated to be once every year on average. Such nonprofessional service produces immediate emissions of this potent greenhouse gas during service and from the residual heel in partially used containers. The nonprofessional operations are also associated with increased delayed refrigerant emissions that occur because owners are less likely to repair leaks than professional technicians. In California, an estimated 1.3 million nonprofessional service operations performed each year generate 0.27 ± 0.07 million metric ton CO2 equivalent (MMTCO2e) of immediate emissions and 0.54 ± 0.08 MMTCO2e of delayed emissions, using a Global Warming Potential of 1300 for HFC-134a. The immediate emissions can be largely mitigated by a regulation that requires self-sealing valves and improved labeling instructions on the containers, a deposit-return-recycling program for the containers, and a consumer education program. If 95% of the used containers were to be returned by consumers for recycling of the container heel, the annual immediate emissions would be reduced by 0.26 ± 0.07 MMTCO2e. In the United States, an estimated 24 million nonprofessional service operations are performed each year, generating 5.1 ± 1.4 MMTCO2e of immediate emissions and 10.4 ± 1.5 MMTCO2e of delayed emissions. Mitigation measures equivalent to the California regulation would reduce nationwide immediate emissions by 4.9 ± 1.4 MMTCO2e, if 95% of the used cans were returned for recycling. These business-as-usual emissions and mitigation potentials are projected to stay approximately constant until around 2022, and remain at significant levels into the 2030s.

  14. Comparative study of automotive, aircraft and biogenic emissions of aldehydes and aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, C S; Custodio, D; de Oliveira, R C S; Varandas, L S; Arbilla, G

    2010-02-01

    Air samples were collected in three well characterized locations in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: downtown, the idle and taxi way areas of the national airport and an urban forest, where the main emissions are from vehicular, aircraft and biogenic sources, respectively. Aldehydes and BTEX concentrations show a characteristic profile which may be attributed to the emission sources. Formaldehyde/acetaldehyde ratios, in the early morning, were 1.39, 0.62 and 2.22 in downtown, airport and forest, respectively. Toluene/benzene ratios, for downtown, airport and forest areas, were 1.11, 1.82 and 1.06, respectively. The results show that the impact of the urban emissions on the forest is negligible as well as the impact of aircraft emissions over the urban area.

  15. Recent advances in automotive catalysis for NOx emission control by small-pore microporous materials.

    PubMed

    Beale, A M; Gao, F; Lezcano-Gonzalez, I; Peden, C H F; Szanyi, J

    2015-10-21

    The ever increasing demand to develop highly fuel efficient engines coincides with the need to minimize air pollution originating from the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines. Dramatically improved fuel efficiency can be achieved at air-to-fuel ratios much higher than stoichiometric. In the presence of oxygen in large excess, however, traditional three-way catalysts are unable to reduce NOx. Among the number of lean-NOx reduction technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3 over Cu- and Fe-ion exchanged zeolite catalysts has been extensively studied over the past 30+ years. Despite the significant advances in developing a viable practical zeolite-based catalyst for lean NOx reduction, the insufficient hydrothermal stabilities of the zeolite structures considered cast doubts about their real-world applicability. During the past decade renewed interest in zeolite-based lean NOx reduction was spurred by the discovery of the very high activity of Cu-SSZ-13 (and the isostructural Cu-SAPO-34) in the NH3-SCR of NOx. These new, small-pore zeolite-based catalysts not only exhibited very high NOx conversion and N2 selectivity, but also exhibited exceptionally high hydrothermal stability at high temperatures. In this review we summarize the key discoveries of the past ∼5 years that led to the introduction of these catalysts into practical applications. This review first briefly discusses the structure and preparation of the CHA structure-based zeolite catalysts, and then summarizes the key learnings of the rather extensive (but not complete) characterisation work. Then we summarize the key findings of reaction kinetic studies, and provide some mechanistic details emerging from these investigations. At the end of the review we highlight some of the issues that still need to be addressed in automotive exhaust control catalysis.

  16. Recent advances in automotive catalysis for NOx emission control by small-pore microporous materials.

    PubMed

    Beale, A M; Gao, F; Lezcano-Gonzalez, I; Peden, C H F; Szanyi, J

    2015-10-21

    The ever increasing demand to develop highly fuel efficient engines coincides with the need to minimize air pollution originating from the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines. Dramatically improved fuel efficiency can be achieved at air-to-fuel ratios much higher than stoichiometric. In the presence of oxygen in large excess, however, traditional three-way catalysts are unable to reduce NOx. Among the number of lean-NOx reduction technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3 over Cu- and Fe-ion exchanged zeolite catalysts has been extensively studied over the past 30+ years. Despite the significant advances in developing a viable practical zeolite-based catalyst for lean NOx reduction, the insufficient hydrothermal stabilities of the zeolite structures considered cast doubts about their real-world applicability. During the past decade renewed interest in zeolite-based lean NOx reduction was spurred by the discovery of the very high activity of Cu-SSZ-13 (and the isostructural Cu-SAPO-34) in the NH3-SCR of NOx. These new, small-pore zeolite-based catalysts not only exhibited very high NOx conversion and N2 selectivity, but also exhibited exceptionally high hydrothermal stability at high temperatures. In this review we summarize the key discoveries of the past ∼5 years that led to the introduction of these catalysts into practical applications. This review first briefly discusses the structure and preparation of the CHA structure-based zeolite catalysts, and then summarizes the key learnings of the rather extensive (but not complete) characterisation work. Then we summarize the key findings of reaction kinetic studies, and provide some mechanistic details emerging from these investigations. At the end of the review we highlight some of the issues that still need to be addressed in automotive exhaust control catalysis. PMID:25913215

  17. The effect of fuel processes on heavy duty automotive diesel engine emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, E.G.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of fuel quality on exhaust emissions from 2 heavy duty diesel engines has been measured over the ECE R49 test cycle. The engines were selected to represent technologies used to meet Euro 1 and 2 emission standards (1992/93 and 1995/96); engines 1 and 2 respectively. The test fuels were prepared by a combination of processing, blending and additive treatment. When comparing the emissions from engines 1 and 2, using base line data generated on the CEC reference fuel RF73-T-90, engine technology had the major effect on emission levels. Engine 2 reduced both particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide levels by approximately 50%, with total hydrocarbon (THC) being approximately 75% lower. Oxides of nitrogen levels were similar for both engines. The variations in test fuel quality had marginal effects on emissions, with the two engines giving directionally opposite responses in some cases. For instance, there was an effect on CO and NOx but where one engine showed a reduction the other gave an increase. There were no significant changes in THC emissions from either engine when operating on any of the test fuels. When the reference fuel was hydrotreated, engine 1 showed a trend towards reduced particulate and NOx but with CO increasing. Engine 2 also showed a trend for reduced particulate levels, with an increase in NOx and no change in CO. Processing to reduce the final boiling point of the reference fuel showed a trend towards reduced particulate emissions with CO increasing on engine 1 but decreasing on engine 2.

  18. Recent advances in automotive catalysis for NOx emission control by small-pore microporous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, Andrew M.; Gao, Feng; Lezcano-Gonzalez, Ines; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

    2015-10-05

    The ever increasing demand to develop highly fuel efficient engines coincides with the need to minimize air pollution originating from the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines. Dramatically improved fuel efficiency can be achieved at air-to-fuel ratios much higher than stoichiometric. In the presence of oxygen in large excess, however, traditional three-way catalysts are unable to reduce NOx. Among the number of lean-NOx reduction technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3 over Cu- and Fe-ion exchanged zeolite catalysts has been extensively studied over the past 30+ years. Despite the significant advances in developing a viable practical zeolite-based catalyst for lean NOx reduction, the insufficient hydrothermal stabilities of the zeolite structures considered cast doubts about their real-world applicability. During the past decade a renewed interest in zeolite-based lean NOx reduction was spurred by the discovery of the very high activity of Cu-SSZ-13 (and the isostructural Cu-SAPO-34) in the NH3 SCR of NOx. These new, small-pore zeolite-based catalysts not only exhibited very high NOx conversion and N2 selectivity, but also exhibited exceptional high hydrothermal stability at high temperatures. In this review we summarize the key discoveries of the past ~5 years that lead to the introduction of these catalysts into practical application. The review first briefly discusses the structure and preparation of the CHA structure-based zeolite catalysts, and then summarizes the key learnings of the rather extensive (but not complete) characterisation work. Then we summarize the key findings of reaction kinetics studies, and provide some mechanistic details emerging from these investigations. At the end of the review we highlight some of the issues that are still need to be addressed in automotive exhaust control catalysis. Funding A.M.B. and I.L.G. would like to thank EPSRC for funding. F.G., C.H.F.P. and J.Sz. gratefully acknowledge

  19. Special Automotive Repair Service Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Vehicle Emission Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins Associates, Hadlyme, CT.

    This curriculum is intended to serve as a guide for high school instructors teaching a basic course on emission control systems on General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler products. The material may also be incorporated on an engine system basis and inserted into an overall tune-up curriculum. Other uses of the curriculum include specialized training…

  20. Elemental composition of current automotive braking materials and derived air emission factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulskotte, J. H. J.; Roskam, G. D.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Wear-related PM emissions are an important constituent of total PM emissions from road transport. Due to ongoing (further) exhaust emission reduction wear emissions may become the dominant PM source from road transport in the near future. The chemical composition of the wear emissions is crucial information to assess the potential health relevance of these PM emissions. Here we provide an elemental composition profile of brake wear emissions as used in the Netherlands in 2012. In total, 65 spent brake pads and 15 brake discs were collected in car maintenance shops from in-use personal cars vehicles and analyzed with XRF for their metal composition (Fe, Cu, Zn, Sn, Al, Si, Zr, Ti, Sb, Cr, Mo, Mn, V, Ni, Bi, W, P, Pb and Co). Since car, engine and safety regulations are not nationally determined but controlled by European legislation the resulting profiles will be representative for the European personal car fleet. The brake pads contained Fe and Cu as the dominant metals but their ratio varied considerably, other relatively important metals were Sn, Zn and Sb. Overall a rather robust picture emerged with Fe, Cu, Zn and Sn together making up about 80-90% of the metals present in brake pads. Because the XRF did not give information on the contents of other material such as carbon, oxygen and sulphur, a representative selection of 9 brake pads was further analyzed by ICP-MS and a carbon and sulphur analyzer. The brake pads contained about 50% of non-metal material (26% C, 3% S and the remainder mostly oxygen and some magnesium). Based on our measurements, the average brake pad profile contained 20% Fe, 10% Cu, 4% Zn and 3% Sn as the dominant metals. The brake discs consisted almost entirely of metal with iron being the dominant metal (>95%) and only traces of other metals (<1% for individual metals). Non-metal components in the discs were 2-3% Silicon and, according to literature, ∼3% carbon. The robust ratio between Fe and Cu as found on kerbsides has been used to

  1. Determining rate of refrigerant emissions from nonprofessional automotive service through a southern California field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Tao; Clodic, Denis; Palandre, Lionel; Trémoulet, Arnaud; Riachi, Youssef

    2013-11-01

    Vehicle owners in the United States can recharge their vehicles' air conditioning systems with small containers of hydrofluorocarbon-134a (HFC-134a, CH2FCF3). This refrigerant, with a Global Warming Potential of 1430, may be emitted to the atmosphere during the recharging operation and from the residual heel in partially used containers, contributing to climate change. A field study was conducted in southern California to quantify the rate of refrigerant emissions from nonprofessional recharging practices and identify emission mitigation opportunities. Based on the results of the study, an average of 489 g of HFC-134a is used when recharging the sample vehicles with an average nominal charge of 858 g. An average 67% of the container content is effectively charged into the systems, 11% of the refrigerant is released during service, and the remaining 22% is left in the containers after operations are completed. A comparison with two other independent studies indicates that the findings of the current study may be applicable not only to southern California, but also to the entire U.S.

  2. The impact of anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric sulfate production pathways, oxidants, and ice core Δ17O(SO42-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Alexander, B.; Kunasek, S. A.

    2011-04-01

    We use a global three-dimensional chemical transport model to quantify the influence of anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric sulfate production mechanisms and oxidant concentrations constrained by observations of the oxygen isotopic composition (Δ17O = &delta17O-0.52 × &delta18O) of sulfate in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores and aerosols. The oxygen isotopic composition of non-sea salt sulfate (Δ17O(SO42-)) is a function of the relative importance of each oxidant (e.g. O3, OH, H2O2, and O2) during sulfate formation, and can be used to quantify sulfate production pathways. Due to its dependence on oxidant concentrations, Δ17O(SO42-) has been suggested as a proxy for paleo-oxidant levels. However, the oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate from both Greenland and Antarctic ice cores shows a trend opposite to that expected from the known increase in the concentration of tropospheric O3 since the preindustrial period. The model simulates a significant increase in the fraction of sulfate formed via oxidation by O2 catalyzed by transition metals in the present-day Northern Hemisphere troposphere (from 11% to 22%), offset by decreases in the fractions of sulfate formed by O3 and H2O2. There is little change, globally, in the fraction of tropospheric sulfate produced by gas-phase oxidation (from 23% to 27%). The model-calculated change in Δ17O(SO42-) since preindustrial times (1850 CE) is consistent with Arctic and Antarctic observations. The model simulates a 42% increase in the concentration of global mean tropospheric O3, a 10% decrease in OH, and a 58% increase in H2O2 between the preindustrial period and present. Model results indicate that the observed decrease in the Arctic Δ17O(SO42-) - in spite of increasing tropospheric O3 concentrations - can be explained by the combined effects of increased sulfate formation by O2 catalyzed by anthropogenic transition metals and increased cloud water acidity, rendering Δ17O(SO42-) insensitive to changing oxidant

  3. Thermal emission spectra of Mars (5.4-10.5 microns) - Evidence for sulfates, carbonates, and hydrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Roush, Ted; Witteborn, Fred; Bregman, Jesse; Wooden, Diane; Stoker, Carol; Toon, Owen B.

    1990-01-01

    Spectra of the Martian thermal emission in the 5.4-10.5 micron region are reported. Emission features at 7.8 and 9.7 microns are attributed to surface silicates, and an emission feature at 6.1 micron is attributed to a molecular water component of the surface material. An absorption band at 8.7 micron and a possible one at 9.8 microns is attributed to sulfate or bisulfate anions probably located at a distorted crystalline site, and an absorption band at 6.7 microns is attributed to carbonate or bicarbonate anions located in a distorted crystalline site. Spectral simulations indicate that the sulfate- and carbonate-bearing minerals are contained in the same particles of airborne dust as the dominant silicate minerals, that the dust optical depth is about 0.6 at a reference wavelength of 0.3 micron over the area of the observed spots, and that sulfates and carbonates constitute 10-15 percent and 1-3 percent by volume of the airborne dust, respectively.

  4. Characterizing the influence of anthropogenic emissions and transport variability on sulfate aerosol concentrations at Mauna Loa Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Lauren E.

    Sulfate aerosol in the atmosphere has substantial impacts on human health and environmental quality. Most notably, atmospheric sulfate has the potential to modify the earth's climate system through both direct and indirect radiative forcing mechanisms (Meehl et al., 2007). Emissions of sulfur dioxide, the primary precursor of sulfate aerosol, are now globally dominated by anthropogenic sources as a result of widespread fossil fuel combustion. Economic development in Asian countries since 1990 has contributed considerably to atmospheric sulfur loading, particularly China, which currently emits approximately 1/3 of global anthropogenic SO2 (Klimont et al., 2013). Observational and modeling studies have confirmed that anthropogenic pollutants from Asian sources can be transported long distances with important implications for future air quality and global climate change. Located in the remote Pacific Ocean (19.54°N, 155.58°W) at an elevation of 3.4 kilometers above sea level, Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) is an ideal measurement site for ground-based, free tropospheric observations and is well situated to experience influence from springtime Asian outflow. This study makes use of a 14-year data set of aerosol ionic composition, obtained at MLO by the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Daily filter samples of total aerosol concentrations were made during nighttime downslope (free-tropospheric) transport conditions, from 1995 to 2008, and were analyzed for aerosol-phase concentrations of the following species: nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-), methanesulfonate (MSA), chloride (Cl-), oxalate, sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH 4+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg 2+), and calcium (Ca2+). An understanding of the factors controlling seasonal and interannual variations in aerosol speciation and concentrations at this site is complicated by the relatively short lifetimes of aerosols, compared with greenhouse gases which have also been sampled over long time periods at MLO. Aerosol filter

  5. Low Emission AMTEC Automotive Power System. Final report for Department of Energy Contract DE-FG02-94ER81696

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Thomas K.

    2001-04-17

    This program investigated the potential for Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) technology to be useful in automotive power system applications. AMTEC, a thermally regenerative electrochemical energy conversion system, converts heat into electricity from a heat source at 750 C to 850 C and a radiator at 200 C to 350 C. AMTEC uses external combustion with correspondingly low emission of NO{sub x} and hydrocarbons, and can tolerate essentially any hydrocarbon fuel. Efficiencies of 20% to 30% are projected to be feasible for systems of 25 kWe to 40 kWe peak output. The research program has shown that there are significant advantages to be achieved if AMTEC systems can be made cost effective for vehicle applications. Among these are (1) higher efficiency at part load than IC engines can yield, (2) omnifuel capability, and (3) low noise and low emission of pollutants. Demonstrated lifetimes already above 12,000 hours should be adequate for most vehicle applications. In major production, AMTEC costs are projected to reach $1/Watt, a value still too high for widespread automotive main power application. AMTEC's unique capabilities for low emissions, all-fuel operation, and insensitivity to ambient temperature, however, do make it a potential option for specialized vehicle applications needing these properties.

  6. Contribution of dissolved sulfates and sulfites in hydrogen sulfide emission from stagnant water bodies in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, K I A; Dissanayake, D P; Mahanama, K R R

    2003-08-01

    Accumulation of sulfur-containing compounds and their bacterial mediated reductions have led to the emission of pungent odors from stagnant water bodies. This study is focused on the contribution of inorganic sulfur compounds in the emission of hydrogen sulfide. The measured dissolved oxygen levels have demonstrated good negative correlations with the dissolved sulfide levels implying the oxygen deficiency is the key for the reduction of sulfate ion and sulfite ion to sulfide ion. Particularly, the dissolved molar fractions of sulfide from the total dissolved sulfur compounds (sulfates, sulfites and sulfides) have a very good correlation with the dissolved oxygen for the stagnant water bodies except the artificially aerated prawn farms. For the stagnant water bodies with significant correlations, linear regressions are reported for them to be utilized in estimating one component of the regression from the measurement of the other. The measured data were further utilized to estimate the levels of hydrogen sulfide gas. The pH of the water bodies has confined much of the dissolved sulfides in the form of bisulfide ion and they can be easily escaped to the atmosphere upon acidification due to industrial discharges and/or acidic precipitations. The estimated levels of hydrogen sulfide just above the water surface were plotted for the most polluted stagnant water body in Sri Lanka for the pH range of 5-10 and temperature range of 25-35 degrees C.

  7. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/CeO{sub 2} Washcoats for three-way automotive emission catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L.; LaBarge, W.; Beckmeyer, R.

    1995-06-01

    Pt-Rh based three-way catalysts are the primary catalytic system for control of hydrocarbon, CO, and NO{sub x} automotive emissions. Mixed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/CeO{sub 2} oxides are often dispersed on a cordierite honeycomb monolith as a washcoat and act as a high-surface-area carrier for the heavy metal catalyst clusters. Conversion efficiency and lifetime of a converter is determined by the microstructure of the washcoat/monolith and its evolution during high-temperature exposure to the exhaust gas. SEM, electron microprobe analysis, and analytical electron microscopy were used to study these catalysts before and after engine dynamometer tests, with max monolith temperatures of 1000 and 1150 C.

  8. Automotive Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Ralph C.; And Others

    This curriculum guide, which was validated by vocational teachers and mechanics in the field, describes the competencies needed by entry-level automotive mechanics. This guide lists 15 competencies; for each competency, various tasks with their performance objective, student learning experiences, suggested instructional techniques, instructional…

  9. Automotive Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Desmond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in automotive mechanics at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  10. Response of sulfate concentration and isotope composition in Icelandic rivers to the decline in global atmospheric SO{sub 2} emissions into the North Atlantic region

    SciTech Connect

    Sigurdur Reynir Gislason; Peter Torssander

    2006-02-01

    This study presents the changes in dissolved sulfate concentration and isotope composition of Icelandic river waters between the peak of SO{sub 2} emissions in the United States and Europe and the present. Chloride concentration in Icelandic rivers has not changed much since 1972. The overall average change from 1972-1973 to 1996-2004 was -3%, indicating insignificant sea-salt contribution changes. More than 99% of the river-dissolved sulfur was in the form of sulfate. There are three main sources for dissolved sulfate in the rivers: rocks, sea-salts, and anthropogenic. Total dissolved sulfate, {sub td}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and non-sea-salt sulfate, {sub nss}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, decreased in all of the rivers from the early 1970s to 1996-2004. The percentage decrease varies from 13% to 65%. The decrease is smallest in rivers were there is considerable rock-derived dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The overall average decrease was 39% for {sub td}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and 46% for {sub nss}SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The anthropogenic sulfate fraction has declined making most of the river waters {delta}{sup 34}S values of sulfate higher through time. The overall decline in river sulfate and increase in {delta}{sup 34}S, while SO{sub 2} emissions from Iceland has been increasing, demonstrates the response of river chemistry in the remote North Atlantic to the decline in man-made emissions of SO{sub 2} in North America and Europe. 43 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Effect of liming on sulfate transformation and sulfur gas emissions in degraded vegetable soil treated by reductive soil disinfestation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Tianzhu; Zhu, Tongbin; Zhang, Jinbo; Cai, Zucong

    2015-10-01

    Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD), namely amending organic materials and mulching or flooding to create strong reductive status, has been widely applied to improve degraded soils. However, there is little information available about sulfate (SO4(2-)) transformation and sulfur (S) gas emissions during RSD treatment to degraded vegetable soils, in which S is generally accumulated. To investigate the effects of liming on SO4(2-) transformation and S gas emissions, two SO4(2-)-accumulated vegetable soils (denoted as S1 and S2) were treated by RSD, and RSD plus lime, denoted as RSD0 and RSD1, respectively. The results showed that RSD0 treatment reduced soil SO4(2-) by 51% and 61% in S1 and S2, respectively. The disappeared SO4(2-) was mainly transformed into the undissolved form. During RSD treatment, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were detected, but the total S gas emission accounted for <0.006% of total S in both soils. Compared to RSD0, lime addition stimulated the conversion of SO4(2-) into undissolved form, reduced soil SO4(2-) by 81% in S1 and 84% in S2 and reduced total S gas emissions by 32% in S1 and 57% in S2, respectively. In addition to H2S, COS and DMS, the emissions of carbon disulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl disulfide were also detected in RSD1 treatment. The results indicated that RSD was an effective method to remove SO4(2-), liming stimulates the conversion of dissolved SO4(2-) into undissolved form, probably due to the precipitation with calcium.

  12. Acoustic Emission Health Monitoring of Fill Purge COPV's Used in Aerospace and Automotive Applications and Designed for Long Cycle Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess

    2013-01-01

    Cumulative composite damage in composite pressure vessels (CPVs) currently is not monitored on-orbit. Consequently, hazards due to catastrophic burst before leak (BBL) or compromised CPV reliability cannot be ascertained or mitigated, posing a risk to crew and mission assurance. The energy associated with CPV rupture can be significant, especially with high pressure gases are under containment, and the energy releases can be severe enough to cause injury, death, loss of assets or mission. Dual-Use Rationale: CPVs similar to those used by NASA on ISS, for example, are finding increasing use in automotive and transportation industry applications. These CPVs generally have a nonload sharing liner and are repeatedly filled over their service lifetime, typically with hydrogen or compressed natural gas (CNG). The same structural health monitoring equipment and software developed by NASA WSTF for evaluating, in real-time, the health of NASA CPVs on ISS will be used to evaluate the health of automotive CPVs, the only differences being the type and design of the CPV, and the in-service lifetime pressure histories. HSF Need(s)/Performance Characteristic(s) Supported: 1) Enable on-board vehicle systems management for mission critical functions at destinations with > 3 second time delay 2) Enable autonomous nominal operations and FDIR for crewed and un-crewed systems 3) Reduce on-board crew time to sustain and manage vehicle by factor of 2x at destinations with > 6 second time delay (see Crew Autonomy sheet) 4) Reduce earth-based mission ops "back room engineering" requirements for distant mission support delay (see Mission Autonomy sheet)

  13. Effects of borax treatment on hydrogen sulfide emissions and sulfate reducing bacteria in stored swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malodorous compounds and emissions produced from stored swine manure can pose both environmental and health issues. These nuisance odors largely result from compounds such as sulfides, volatile fatty acids, and phenols, which are produced as a result of anaerobic digestion of materials present in t...

  14. Automotive gas turbine fuel control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A fuel control system is reported for automotive-type gas turbines and particulary advanced gas turbines utilizing variable geometry components to improve mileage and reduce pollution emission. The fuel control system compensates for fuel density variations, inlet temperature variations, turbine vane actuation, acceleration, and turbine braking. These parameters are utilized to control various orifices, spool valves and pistons.

  15. Atmospheric concentrations of particulate sulfate and nitrate in Hong Kong during 1995-2008: impact of emission changes in mainland China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, W.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wei, X.; Liu, Q.

    2011-12-01

    The release of large amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the burning of fossil fuel leads to regional air pollution phenomena such as haze and acidic deposition. Despite longstanding recognition of the severity of these problems and the numerous studies conducted in China, little is known of long-term trends in particulate sulfate and nitrate and their association with changes in precursor emissions. In this study, we analyze records covering a 14-year period (1995-2008) of coarse particulate (PM10) composition in the subtropical city of Hong Kong, situated in the rapidly developing Pearl River Delta region of southern China. A linear regression method and a Regional Kendall test are employed for trend calculations. In contrast to the decreased levels of SO2 and NOx emissions in Hong Kong, there are increasing overall trends in ambient concentrations of sulfate and nitrate, with the most obvious rise seen during 2001-2005 and relatively steady values recorded thereafter. These increased sulfate and nitrate concentrations have both negated the effect of emission-reduction efforts for coarse particles and increased the acidity of wet deposition in Hong Kong. Backward trajectories are computed to help identify the origin of large-scale air masses arriving in Hong Kong. In air masses dominated by Hong Kong urban sources and ship emissions, no statistically significant trend is apparent in either sulfate or nitrate, results that can be attributed to falling local urban emissions and increasing ship emissions; however, the sharp increases seen in particulate sulfate and nitrate concentrations were observed in air masses originating from eastern China and are generally consistent with changes in emissions of their precursors in eastern China. Examination of PM10 mass data recorded at a pair of upwind-urban sites also indicates that long-range transport makes a large contribution (> 80%) to coarse particulate loadings in Hong Kong. Together with

  16. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... is usually manufactured from animal sources, such as shark and cow cartilage. Chondroitin sulfate is used for ... contain chondroitin sulfate, in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. Some people also inject chondroitin ...

  17. Survey of volatile organic compounds associated with automotive emissions in the urban airshed of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón, Maribel; Pleil, Joachim D.; Hartlage, Thomas A.; Lucia Guardani, M.; Helena Martins, M.

    The Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world (population 17 million, approx.) and relies heavily on alcohol-based fuels for automobiles. It is estimated that about 40% of the total volume of fuel is ethanol with some vehicles using pure ethanol and others a gasoline/ethanol blend. As such, São Paulo is an excellent example of an oxygenates-dominated airshed of mobile sources and is most likely indicative of the future in heavily populated areas in the US such as Los Angeles where "oxy-fuels" are becoming an important replacement for the conventional pure petroleum-based fuels. In this work, we surveyed the ambient air to identify and quantify the organic compounds associated with the evaporative and exhaust emissions of these fuels and to begin to understand the potential for human exposure. Because this was an initial test without detailed prior knowledge of the airshed of the area, we applied two different air sampling methods for various time periods to assess the ambient concentrations of a variety of polar and nonpolar volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For quality assurance (QA), we collected all the samples in duplicate (whole-air samples in Summa canisters and adsorbent-based samples on Perkin-Elmer Air Toxics tubes) at various flow rates to test performance. All samples were collected over identical time frames, typically for 1-, 2-, and 4-h periods per day at six different locations over a period of 1 week. Overall São Paulo results demonstrate that mean concentrations of single-ring aromatics are 2-3 times higher, volatile aldehydes are 5-10 times higher, and simple alcohols 10-100 times higher as compared to results of a recent study performed by EPA in the Los Angeles basin. C 4-C 11n-alkanes were only slightly elevated in São Paulo.

  18. Atmospheric concentrations of particulate sulfate and nitrate in Hong Kong during 1995-2008: Impact of local emission and super-regional transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing; Wei, Xiaolin; Liu, Qian

    2013-09-01

    The release of large amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the burning of fossil fuel leads to regional air pollution phenomena such as haze and acidic deposition. Despite longstanding recognition of the severity of these problems and the numerous studies conducted in China, little is known of long-term trends in particulate sulfate and nitrate and their association with changes in precursor emissions. In this study, we analyze records covering a 14-year period (1995-2008) of PM10 composition in the subtropical city of Hong Kong, situated in the rapidly developing Pearl River Delta region of southern China. A linear regression method and a Regional Kendall test are employed for trend calculations. In contrast to the decreased levels of SO2 and NOx emissions in Hong Kong, there are increasing overall trends in ambient concentrations of PM10 sulfate and PM10 nitrate, with the most obvious rise seen during 2001-2005. The percentages of sulfate and nitrate in the PM10 mass and rainwater acidity also increased. Backward trajectories are computed to help identify the origin of large-scale air masses arriving in Hong Kong. In air masses dominated by Hong Kong urban sources and ship emissions, there was no statistically significant trend for PM10 sulfate and a small increase for PM10 nitrate; however, the evident increases in PM10 sulfate and PM10 nitrate concentrations were observed in air masses originating from eastern China and are generally consistent with changes in emissions of their precursors in eastern China. Examination of PM10 mass data recorded at a pair of upwind-urban sites also indicates that long-range transport makes a large contribution (>80%) to PM10 loadings in Hong Kong. Together with our previous study on the ozone trend, these results demonstrate the important impact exerted by long-distance sources and suggest a need to consider the impact of super-regional transport when formulating air-quality management strategy in Hong

  19. Automotive vehicle sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  20. NONLINEARITIES IN THE SULFATE SECONDARY FINE PARTICULATE RESPONSE TO NOX EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS AS MODELED BY THE REGIONAL ACID DEPOSITION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attention is increasingly being devoted to the health effects of fine particulates. In regions that have a large production of sulfate, sulfuric acid and nitric acid compete for the available ammonia to form aerosols. In addition, the available nitric acid is the result of ur...

  1. Automotive Stirling engine systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) program is to develop a Stirling engine for automotive use that provides a 30 percent improvement in fuel economy relative to a comparable internal-combustion engine while meeting emissions goals. This paper traces the engine systems' development efforts focusing on: (1) a summary of engine system performance for all Mod I engines; (2) the development, program conducted for the upgraded Mod I; and (3) vehicle systems work conducted to enhance vehicle fuel economy. Problems encountered during the upgraded Mod I test program are discussed. The importance of the EPA driving cycle cold-start penalty and the measures taken to minimize that penalty with the Mod II are also addressed.

  2. Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

    This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive…

  3. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  4. Sodium tetraborate decahydrate treatment reduces hydrogen sulfide emissions and the sulfate reducing bacteria population of swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emission of odorous and toxic gases from stored livestock manure is well documented, and poses a serious health risk to farmers and livestock. Hydrogen sulfide emissions have been sharply rising with more intensive livestock production and are of particular concern due to its acute toxicity. Num...

  5. Borax and octabor treatment of stored swine manure to reduce sulfate reducing bacteria and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odorous gas emissions from stored swine manure are becoming serious environmental and health issues as the livestock industry becomes more specialized, concentrated, and industrialized. These nuisance gasses include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia, and methane, which are produced as a result of ana...

  6. Techno-economic requirements for automotive composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Scot

    1993-01-01

    New technology generally serves two main goals of the automotive industry: one is to enable vehicles to comply with various governmental regulations and the other is to provide a competitive edge in the market. The latter goal can either be served through improved manufacturing and design capabilities, such as computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing, or through improved product performance, such as anti-lock braking (ABS). Although safety features are sometimes customer driven, such as the increasing use of airbags and ABS, most are determined by regulations as outlined by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). Other standards, set by the Environmental Protection Agency, determine acceptable levels of emissions and fuel consumption. State governments, such as in California, are also setting precedent standards, such as requiring manufacturers to offer zero-emission vehicles as a certain fraction of their sales in the state. The drive to apply new materials in the automobile stems from the need to reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency. Topics discussed include: new lightweight materials; types of automotive materials; automotive composite applications; the role for composite materials in automotive applications; advantages and disadvantages of composite materials; material substitution economics; economic perspective; production economics; and composite materials production economics.

  7. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L.; LaBarge, W.

    1995-05-01

    This has been the second year of a CRADA between General Motors - AC Delco Systems (GM-ACDS) and Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES) aimed at improved performance/lifetime of platinum-rhodium based three-way-catalysts (TWC) for automotive emission control systems. While current formulations meet existing emission standards, higher than optimum Pt-Rh loadings are often required. In additionk, more stringent emission standards have been imposed for the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts.

  8. Dimethyl Sulfide Emissions from Dairies and Agriculture as a Potential Contributor to Sulfate Aerosols in the California Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebel, E.; Marrero, J. E.; Bertram, T. H.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Whole air samples have been collected throughout Southern California during the previous five years of the NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). During a flight over the Salton Sea in 2014, higher concentrations of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a known marine emitted gas, were observed over neighboring agricultural land than over the sea itself. A comparison of DMS to methyl iodide, another known marine emitted gas, showed minimal correlation, revealing that DMS was being emitted from local sources. Ground samples at the Salton Sea verified that the DMS was not transported from the Pacific Ocean. Previous SARP studies have shown that DMS is emitted from dairies. The enhancements in ethanol (another dairy tracer) and DMS in several airborne samples collected south of the Salton Sea suggest dairy emissions of the observed DMS. DMS is a compound of interest because its oxidation can form cloud condensation nuclei. Based on data from all six SARP flights between 2009-2014, we propose that dairy and farming emissions of DMS in the San Joaquin Valley may be impacting aerosol loading in this region. A simple model that takes into account the particulate matter mass loadings was used to calculate the percent contribution of DMS to aerosol formation for the San Joaquin Valley.

  9. Magnesium for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    VanFleteren, R.

    1996-05-01

    Die cast magnesium parts are rapidly replacing steel and aluminum structural components in automotive applications, as design engineers seek to reduce assembly costs, raise fuel efficiency, and improve safety. Dozens of automotive components are now die cast from magnesium alloys, including seat stanchions, valve covers, steering wheels, and a variety of steering column components. Because of their excellent castability, complex magnesium die castings can sometimes consolidate several components and eliminate assembly steps. Highly ductile magnesium alloys such as AM60B (6% aluminum) and AM50A (5% aluminum) are important in helping to meet automotive industry crash-energy requirements for car seating and steering components. AZ91D (9% aluminum, 1% zinc) alloys are making removable rear seats in new minivans much easier to handle.

  10. LEDs in automotive lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Karsten

    2006-02-01

    Light emitting diodes (LED) are becoming more and more significant in interior and exterior automotive lighting. The long service life, energy and space savings, shock and vibration resistance and new styling potential are the main advantages of using LEDs in automotive applications. Today, most central high mounted stop lamps use LEDs. In rear combination lamps the number of LEDs in amber and red is increasing rapidly. This year, a first rear combination lamp using LEDs for all functionalities including the back-up lamp function was realized. In addition, first signal functions in headlamps using white High Power LEDs were launched onto the market. The long service life characteristic makes LEDs especially predestined for the DRL function combined with the position/parking light. Exterior automotive applications, including requirements and performance will be discussed and an outlook will be given on future scenarios.

  11. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE. PROGRAM OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    INFORMATIONAL TOPICS COVERED IN THE TEXT MATERIALS AND SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILMS FOR A 2-YEAR, 55 MODULE PROGRAM IN AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE ARE GIVEN. THE 30 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1" ARE AVAILABLE AS VT 005 655 - VT 005 684, AND THE 25 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2" ARE AVAILABLE…

  12. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive mechanics I and II. The six units in automotive mechanics I are as follows: orientation and safety; tools, equipment, and manuals; measurement; automotive engines; basic electrical systems; and fuel systems. Automotive…

  13. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L.; LaBarge, W.

    1997-04-01

    The CRADA between Delphi Automotive Systems (Delphi; formerly General Motors - AC Delco, Systems) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research (LMER) on automotive catalysts was completed at the end of FY96, after a ten month, no-cost extension. The CRADA was aimed at improved performance and lifetime of noble metal based three-way-catalysts (TWC), which are the primary catalytic system for automotive emission control systems. While these TWC can meet the currently required emission standards, higher than optimum noble metal loadings are often required to meet lifetime requirements. In addition, more stringent emission standards will be imposed in the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts. Initially in a fresh catalyst, the active material is often distributed on a very fine scale, approaching single atoms or small atomic clusters. As such, a wide range of analytical techniques have been employed to provide high spatial resolution characterization of the evolving state of the catalytic material.

  14. Diethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diethyl sulfate ; CASRN 64 - 67 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  15. Dimethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl sulfate ; CASRN 77 - 78 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  16. Automotive Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, David B.

    Intended for a 1- or 2-month curriculum in auto mechanics, this student manual on automotive pollution control was developed by a subject matter specialist at an area vocational school and tested in a vocational auto shop. Intended either for use in an integrated curriculum or for use in teaching pollution control as a separate course, these 12…

  17. Automotive Technology Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Idaho state curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction in automotive technology. The document begins with a list of all tasks covered by the curriculum, a short course outline, and a curriculum framework that explains major content, laboratory activities, and intended outcomes.…

  18. Automotive Brake Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, orginally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the basic operations of automotive brake systems on military vehicles. The course contains four study units covering hydraulic brakes, air brakes, power brakes, and auxiliary brake systems. A troubleshooting guide for…

  19. Automotive power steering system

    SciTech Connect

    VanGorder, D.H.; Wilson, K.R.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes improvement in an automotive power steering system including a pump, a servo-valve, a steering assist fluid motor, a reservoir having a reservoir chamber therein, fluid ducts; a volume of hydraulic oil; a fluid level. The improvement comprises: means defining a fill port; a cover; means connect a gas accumulator.

  20. Automotive Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

  1. Adhesive Bonding of Polymeric Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D., Boeman, R.G., Paulauskas, F.L.

    1994-11-18

    In 1992, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began a cooperative research program with the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to develop technologies that would overcome obstacles to the adhesive bonding of current and future automotive materials. This effort is part of a larger Department of Energy (DOE) program to promote the use of lighter weight materials in automotive structures. By reducing the weight of current automobiles, greater fuel economy and reduced emissions can be achieved. The bonding of similar and dissimilar materials was identified as being of primary importance since this enabling technology gives designers the freedom to choose from an expanded menu of low-mass materials for structural component weight reduction. Early in the project`s conception, five key areas were identified as being of primary importance to the automotive industry.

  2. Directions in automotive engine research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1980-01-01

    The advent of high fuel costs and automotive fuel economy and emission regulations has cast doubt on the economic superiority and even the technical feasibility of conventional spark ignition and diesel engines, and has opened the field to other concepts. The emission regulations and their effect on the design and efficiency of conventional engines are reviewed, the research and development effort to improve the performance of conventional engines and to develop advanced engines is discussed, and the current status of these engines is presented.

  3. Current Automotive Holometry Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.

    1990-04-01

    Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

  4. Infrared in automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predmesky, Ronald L.; Zaluzec, Matthew J.

    1997-04-01

    As the automotive industry continues to develop advanced materials and manufacturing processes, infrared imaging has the potential to become a major tool in process monitoring and closed loop process control. This paper reviews five novel applications of infrared imaging in applications such as product testing, component manufacture, and vehicle assembly. Infrared was found to be effective as a diagnostics tool for characterizing disc brake systems and electronic engine control sensors. The effectiveness of infrared to qualify fuel nozzle backspray was used to optimize hardware design for fuel systems. Finally, infrared was found to be useful in vehicle assembly operations in the installation of windshield glass and instrument panel hardware where visual inspection was impractical. The speed of image capture and the availability of image processing software for real time image processing and closed loop process control will no doubt find more applications as infrared imaging finds its niche in the automotive industry.

  5. Get Your Automotive Program Nationally Certified!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Automotive programs that nationally certified enhance student recruitment and give students better employment opportunities. Technicians who earn the Automotive Service Excellence credential have joined the ranks of professionals in the automotive service industry. (Author/JOW)

  6. International forensic automotive paint database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishea, Gregory A.; Buckle, Joe L.; Ryland, Scott G.

    1999-02-01

    The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current, validated, searchable, automotive paint database that is used to identify make(s), model(s), and year(s) of questioned paint samples in hit-and-run fatalities and other associated investigations involving automotive paint.

  7. Real-world automotive particulate matter and PAH emission factors and profile concentrations: Results from an urban tunnel experiment in Naples, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, A.; Chianese, E.; Monaco, D.; Costagliola, M. A.; Perretta, G.; Prati, M. V.; Agrillo, G.; Esposito, A.; Gasbarra, D.; Shindler, L.; Brusasca, G.; Nanni, A.; Pozzi, C.; Magliulo, V.

    2016-09-01

    On-road particulate matter (PM) mass was measured during a sampling campaign in March of 2015 in the '4 giornate' tunnel in Naples, Italy. Two sets of samples were collected at both sides of the tunnel, each set representing the daily cycle at a 1 h time resolution. Distance-based - mass per kilometer - and fuel-based - mass per burned fuel - emission factors (EFs) were calculated using mass concentrations, traffic flow rates and wind speed as a function of fleet composition. Also, chemical analyses were performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Due to the high traffic volume, particle mass concentration at the tunnel exit was always significantly elevated relative to entrance concentration; depending on the hour of the day, PM10 concentration ranged between 300 μg/m3, during the early afternoon, and 600 μg/m3 during rush hours at the tunnel exit. Correspondingly, PAHs achieved concentrations as high as 1450 ng/m3, and benzo(a)pyrene, a surely carcinogenic compound, achieved concentrations as high as 69 ng/m3, raising serious concerns in relation to population exposure close to this urban tunnel. Distance-based and fuel-based emission factors for CO2, PM10 and PAHs were estimated, but while the EF for CO2 was within the range of expected values, the present study found much higher EFs for particulate matter and PAHs. According to the national official statistics from ISPRA (the Italian Institute for the Protection and Research on Environment), derived from the COPERT database, we expected an EF for particulate matter of about 55 mg/km, but the EF estimated from measurements taken at both sides of the tunnel was about four times higher than that expected; also, benzo(a)pyrene achieved an average EF of 2.7 μg/km, about three times higher than that expected from the ISPRA database.

  8. Automotive Electricity: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The third of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive electricity at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  9. Introduction to Automotive Service. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document provides instruction for high-priority competencies on task lists developed by the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence. Contained in this teacher's guide are the materials necessary to teach 11 competency-based instructional units related to the automotive service industry. The following instructional units are…

  10. Automotive Engines; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive engines course studies and demonstrates the theory and principles of operation of the automotive four stroke cycle engine. The student will develop an understanding of the systems necessary to make the engine perform as designed, such as cooling, fuel, ignition and lubrication. This is a one or two quinmester credit course of 45…

  11. Automotive Chassis; Automotive Mechanics-Basic: 9043.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive chassis course is designed to familiarize the beginning student of the history and development of the automobile with basic concepts common to the automobile industry, and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. It is one quinmester in a series of quinmester outlines…

  12. Influence of Ohio River Valley Emissions on Fine Particle Sulfate Measured from Aircraft over Large Regions of the Eastern United States and Canada during INTEX-NA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, Christopher J.; Sandholm, Scott; Kim, Saewung; Stickel, Robert E.; Huey, L. Gregory; Weber, Rodney J.

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft measurements of fine inorganic aerosol composition were made with a particle-into-liquid sampler coupled to dual ion chromatographs (PILS-IC) as part of the NASA INTEX-NA study. The sampling campaign, which lasted from 1 July to 14 August 2004, centered over the eastern United States and Canada and showed that sulfate was the dominant inorganic species measured. The highest sulfate concentrations were observed at altitudes below 2 km, and back trajectory analyses showed a distinct difference between air masses that had or had not intercepted the Ohio River valley (ORV) region. Air masses encountered below 2 km with a history over the ORV had sulfate concentrations that were higher by a factor of 3.2 and total sulfur (S) concentrations higher by 2.5. The study's highest sulfate concentrations were found in these air masses. The sulfur of the ORV air masses was also more processed with a mean sulfate to total sulfur molar ratio of 0.5 compared to 0.3 in non-ORV measurements. Results from a second, independent trajectory model agreed well with those from the primary analysis. These ORV-influenced air masses were encountered on multiple days and were widely spread across the eastern United States and western Atlantic region.

  13. Automotive Engine Maintenance and Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide students with an understanding of automotive engine maintenance and repair. The course contains six study units covering automotive engine maintenance and repair; design classification; engine malfunction, diagnosis, and repair; engine disassembly; engine…

  14. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  15. Automotive Technology. Career Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.

    The curriculum guide is designed to provide students with realistic training in automotive technology theory and practice within the secondary educational framework and to prepare them for entry into an occupation or continuing postsecondary education. The learning modules are grouped into three areas: small engines, automotive technology, and…

  16. Some recent and future automotive electronic developments.

    PubMed

    Jones, T O

    1977-03-18

    The automotive industry continues to examine new electronic technologies for their applicability to the automobile. Today, 16 electronic systems can be found on the automobile, and future engine and emission control systems will soon be added. Truck systems of interest include wheel-lock control, vehicle weighing systems, and tire pressure warning devices. Digital electronic displays and multiplex wiring systems are expected to be near-term developments and, on a longer-range basis, it is expected that automatic radar brakes and intoxicated-driver interlocks will receive considerable attention.

  17. Superplastic forming of stainless steel automotive components

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, B.; Elmer, J.; Carol, L.

    1997-02-06

    Exhaust emission standards are governmentally controlled standards, which are increasingly stringent, forcing alternate strategies to meet these standards. One approach to improve the efficiency of the exhaust emission equipment is to decrease the time required to get the catalytic converter to optimum operating temperature. To accomplish this, automotive manufacturers are using double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds to reduce heat loss of the exhaust gases to the converter. The current method to manufacture double wall stainless steel exhaust components is to use a low-cost alloy with good forming properties and extensively form, cut, assemble, and weld the pieces. Superplastic forming (SPF) technology along with alloy improvements has potential at making this process more cost effective. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and USCAR Low Emission Partnership (LEP) worked under a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) to evaluate material properties, SPF behavior, and welding behavior of duplex stainless steel alloy for automotive component manufacturing. Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has a separate CRADA with the LEP to use SPF technology to manufacture a double wall stainless steel exhaust component. As a team these CRADAs developed and demonstrated a technical plan to accomplish making double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds.

  18. Emissions from combustion engines and their control

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, D.J.; Henein, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    This standard text for the automotive industry explains in detail the fundamentals of emission formation and control for gasoline and diesel engines. These concepts can be applied to other combustion systems, such as gas turbines and stationary power plants. Topics of discussion include: combustion in homogeneous mixtures; effect of design and operating variables on gasoline engine exhaust emissions; hydrocarbon evaporation emissions; diesel engine combustion emissions and controls; emission instrumentation; and automotive exhaust emission testing. 200 references, 197 figures.

  19. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, William D.; Shaltens, Richard K.

    1997-01-01

    The development and verification of automotive Stirling engine (ASE) component and system technology is described as it evolved through two experimental engine designs: the Mod 1 and the Mod 2. Engine operation and performance and endurance test results for the Mod 1 are summarized. Mod 2 engine and component development progress is traced from the original design through hardware development, laboratory test, and vehicle installation. More than 21,000 hr of testing were accomplished, including 4800 hr with vehicles that were driven more dm 59,000 miles. Mod 2 engine dynamometer tests demonstrated that the engine system configuration had accomplished its performance goals for power (60 kW) and efficiency (38.5%) to within a few percent. Tests with the Mod 2 engine installed in a delivery van demonstrated combined metro-highway fuel economy improvements consistent with engine performance goals and the potential for low emission levels. A modified version of the Mod 2 has been identified as a manufacturable design for an ASE. As part of the ASE project, the Industry Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP), NASA Technology Utilization (TU) project, and the industry-funded Stirling Natural Gas Engine program were undertaken to transfer ASE technology to end users. The results of these technology transfer efforts are also summarized.

  20. Cut off from supplies - sulfate exhaustion and implications for methane emissions in a brackish rewetted peatland after separation from the coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koebsch, Franziska; Liu, Bo; Schmiedinger, Iris; Spitzy, Alejandro; Köhler, Stefan; Koch, Marian; Jurasinski, Gerald; Gehre, Matthias; Sachs, Torsten; Böttcher, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Coastal ecosystems are at the interface between marine and freshwater and exhibit a special geochemistry. We investigate the S and C geochemistry of a coastal, degraded fen peatland. The site has been cut off from the Baltic Sea since 1995 and was rewetted with freshwater from the surrounding catchment in 2010. Despite of locally high pore water sulfate (SO42-) concentrations, the fen turned into a strong source for methane (CH4) with annual budgets up to 0.26±0.06 kg m-2 (Hahn et al. 2015). To reconcile this apparent contradiction we use concentration patterns and stable isotope signatures of water, SO42-, pyrite, dissolved carbon, and CH4 (δ2H, δ13C, δ18O, δ34S) along a transect with increasing distance to the Baltic coastline (300-1500 m). The current peatland geochemistry is characterized by a combination of relict signals reflecting former brackish water intrusion events and indicators of recent human activities such as internal eutrophication and increasing freshwater contribution. The shallow peat layer (depth mostly ≤ 55 cm) exhibited a pronounced vertical gradient with a freshwater-front lying on top of the brackish water layer. S geochemistry was decoupled from present brackish water distribution as marine SO42- was almost completely biotically reduced and converted to pyrite. The remaining pore water SO42- pool was remarkably 34S-enriched in relation to Baltic Sea SO42- (up to +86.4 and +21‰, respectively) and also δ34S-values of pyrite were comparatively high (+4.8‰), thereby demonstrating a distinct reservoir effect under closed-system conditions. However, one of the profiles situated 1150 m from the Baltic Sea coast line exhibited a contrasting S pattern with pronounced excess of isotopically lighter SO42- at depth (up to 32.8 mM and +22.7‰). We hypothesize, that local groundwater seeps might provide electron acceptors such as NO3- for the contemporary oxidation of pyrite. δ13C in DIC exhibited a pronounced vertical shift from -23.9

  1. Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

    2013-12-01

    Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

  2. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Automotive Exteriors, LLC, working out of Troy, Michigan. The workers provided office, engineering and sales... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Troy, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for...

  3. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  4. Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine Program evaluated the application of advanced ceramic materials to an automotive Stirling engine. The objective of the program was to evaluate the technical feasibility of utilizing advanced ceramics to increase peak engine operating temperature, and to evaluate the performance benefits of such an increase. Manufacturing cost estimates were also developed for various ceramic engine components and compared with conventional metallic engine component costs.

  5. Sulfate adsorption on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1999-10-15

    Recent spectroscopic work has suggested that only one surface species of sulfate is dominant on hematite. Sulfate is therefore a very suitable anion to test and develop adsorption models for variable charge minerals. The authors have studied sulfate adsorption on goethite covering a large range of sulfate concentrations, surface coverages, pH values, and electrolyte concentrations. Four different techniques were used to cover the entire range of conditions. For characterization at low sulfate concentrations, below the detection limit of sulfate with ICP-AES, the authors used proton-sulfate titrations at constant pH. Adsorption isotherms were studied for the intermediate sulfate concentration range. Acid-base titrations in sodium sulfate and electromobility were used for high sulfate concentrations. All the data can be modeled with one adsorbed species if it is assumed that the charge of adsorbed sulfate is spatially distributed in the interface. The charge distribution of sulfate follows directly from modeling the proton-sulfate adsorption stoichoimemtry sine this stoichiometry is independent of the intrinsic affinity constant of sulfate. The charge distribution can be related to the structure of the surface complex by use of the Pauling bond valence concept and is in accordance with the microscopic structure found by spectroscopy. The intrinsic affinity constant follows from the other measurements. Modeling of the proton-ion stoichoimetry with the commonly used 2-pK models, where adsorbed ions are treated as point charges, is possible only if at least two surface species for sulfate are used.

  6. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed. PMID:26050092

  7. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed.

  8. An automotive transmission for automotive gas turbine power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A joint government-industry program was initiated to investigate the two-shaft gas turbine concept as an alternative to present-day automotive powerplants. Both were examined, compared and evaluated on the basis of the federal automotive driving cycle in terms of specific fuel/power/speed characteristics of the engine and the efficiency and performance of the transmission. The results showed that an optimum match of vehicle, gas turbine engine, and conventional automatic transmission is capable of a significant improvement in fuel economy. This system offers many advantages that should lead to its wide acceptance in future vehicles.

  9. High-Temperature Alloys for Automotive Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Titran, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Stirling engine is external-combustion engine that offers fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations. One of most critical areas in engine development concerns material selection for component parts. Alloys CG-27 and XF-818 identified capable of withstanding rigorous requirements of automotive Stirling engine. Alloys chosen for availability, performance, and manufacturability. Advanced iron-base alloys have potential for variety of applications, including stationary solar-power systems.

  10. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Combustion of Automotive Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Silke, E J

    2006-11-10

    The objectives of this report are to: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of fuels, including olefins and cycloalkanes used in diesel, spark-ignition and HCCI engines; (2) Develop surrogate mixtures of hydrocarbon components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models; and (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on production of emissions from practical automotive engines.

  11. Environmental transport and transformation of automotive-emitted lead.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1977-01-01

    The use of a mass balance equation assists in clarifying the contribution of automotive-emitted lead to the regional and global problems of the distribution of this element, by taking into account the physicochemical transformation processes operating on the lead during its transport along the various environmental pathways. The technical factors which govern the emission of such lead from automobile engines and which affect its subsequent dispersion through the environment are described. PMID:71234

  12. Automotive Control Systems: For Engine, Driveline, and Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiencke, Uwe; Nielsen, Lars

    Advances in automotive control systems continue to enhance safety and comfort and to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Reflecting the trend to optimization through integrative approaches for engine, driveline, and vehicle control, this valuable book enables control engineers to understand engine and vehicle models necessary for controller design, and also introduces mechanical engineers to vehicle-specific signal processing and automatic control. The emphasis on measurement, comparisons between performance and modeling, and realistic examples derive from the authors' unique industrial experience

  13. Carbon footprint of automotive ignition coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Huey-Ling; Chen, Chih-Ming; Sun, Chin-Huang; Lin, Hung-Di

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, environmental issues, such as climate change and global warming due to the excessive development of industry, have attracted increasing attention of citizens worldwide. It is known that CO2 accounts for the largest proportion of greenhouse gases. Therefore, how to reduce CO2 emissions during the life cycle of a product to lessen its impact on environment is an important topic in the industrial society. Furthermore, it is also of great significance to cut down the required energy so as to lower its production costs during the manufacturing process nowadays. This study presents the carbon footprint of an automotive ignition coil and its partial materials are defined to explore their carbon emissions and environmental impact. The model IPCC GWP100a calculates potential global greenhouse effect by converting them into CO2 equivalents. In this way, the overall carbon footprint of an ignition coil can be explored. By using IPCC GWP100a, the results display that the shell has the most carbon emissions. The results can help the industry reduce the carbon emissions of an ignition coil product.

  14. Action Handbook for Automotive Service Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the U.S., Inc., Detroit, MI.

    The document is a handbook for a vocational automotive service education program which was formulated as a result of a four-day series of intensive workshops called the National Automotive Service Vocational Education Conference. The handbook discusses the major components of an automotive service vocational education program and aspects of their…

  15. Automotive fuels and internal combustion engines: a chemical perspective.

    PubMed

    Wallington, T J; Kaiser, E W; Farrell, J T

    2006-04-01

    Commercial transportation fuels are complex mixtures containing hundreds or thousands of chemical components, whose composition has evolved considerably during the past 100 years. In conjunction with concurrent engine advancements, automotive fuel composition has been fine-tuned to balance efficiency and power demands while minimizing emissions. Pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines (ICE), which arise from non-ideal combustion, have been dramatically reduced in the past four decades. Emissions depend both on the engine operating parameters (e.g. engine temperature, speed, load, A/F ratio, and spark timing) and the fuel. These emissions result from complex processes involving interactions between the fuel and engine parameters. Vehicle emissions are comprised of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particulate matter (PM). VOCs and NO(x) form photochemical smog in urban atmospheres, and CO and PM may have adverse health impacts. Engine hardware and operating conditions, after-treatment catalysts, and fuel composition all affect the amount and composition of emissions leaving the vehicle tailpipe. While engine and after-treatment effects are generally larger than fuel effects, engine and after-treatment hardware can require specific fuel properties. Consequently, the best prospects for achieving the highest efficiency and lowest emissions lie with optimizing the entire fuel-engine-after-treatment system. This review provides a chemical perspective on the production, combustion, and environmental aspects of automotive fuels. We hope this review will be of interest to workers in the fields of chemical kinetics, fluid dynamics of reacting flows, atmospheric chemistry, automotive catalysts, fuel science, and governmental regulations. PMID:16565750

  16. Automotive fuels and internal combustion engines: a chemical perspective.

    PubMed

    Wallington, T J; Kaiser, E W; Farrell, J T

    2006-04-01

    Commercial transportation fuels are complex mixtures containing hundreds or thousands of chemical components, whose composition has evolved considerably during the past 100 years. In conjunction with concurrent engine advancements, automotive fuel composition has been fine-tuned to balance efficiency and power demands while minimizing emissions. Pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines (ICE), which arise from non-ideal combustion, have been dramatically reduced in the past four decades. Emissions depend both on the engine operating parameters (e.g. engine temperature, speed, load, A/F ratio, and spark timing) and the fuel. These emissions result from complex processes involving interactions between the fuel and engine parameters. Vehicle emissions are comprised of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particulate matter (PM). VOCs and NO(x) form photochemical smog in urban atmospheres, and CO and PM may have adverse health impacts. Engine hardware and operating conditions, after-treatment catalysts, and fuel composition all affect the amount and composition of emissions leaving the vehicle tailpipe. While engine and after-treatment effects are generally larger than fuel effects, engine and after-treatment hardware can require specific fuel properties. Consequently, the best prospects for achieving the highest efficiency and lowest emissions lie with optimizing the entire fuel-engine-after-treatment system. This review provides a chemical perspective on the production, combustion, and environmental aspects of automotive fuels. We hope this review will be of interest to workers in the fields of chemical kinetics, fluid dynamics of reacting flows, atmospheric chemistry, automotive catalysts, fuel science, and governmental regulations.

  17. Jump start: The new automotive revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.

    1993-08-01

    For half a century, automotive technology has been subservient to the demands of performance and style. Now,the first generation of environmentally responsible cars is on the way. Experimental low-emission cars that run on methane, hydrogen, or electricity and have exceptional fuel economy are being build by more than a dozen companies. Growing numbers of automobiles in recent year have offset cars made cleaner by air pollution laws, and small modifications have not met the needs to have a major technology change. The plan to reduce air pollution in the Los Angeles basin has engineering minds beginning to take up the challenge. This article discusses new automobile technology as it is evolving: solar cars; light-electric vehicles; manufacturing of electric vehicles; light weight composites for vehicle bodies; hybrid gasoline-electric cars; other transportation modes. The critical role of governments and financial incentives in encouraging the development of new auto technologies is also discussed.

  18. Automotive Technology. Technical Committee Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Technical Committee Report prepared by industry representatives in Idaho lists the skills currently necessary for an employee in that state to obtain a job in automotive technology, retain a job once hired, and advance in that occupational field. (Task lists are grouped according to duty areas generally used in industry settings, and are used…

  19. Automotive Technologies. State Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    This document, which lists the technical automotive technologies competencies identified by representatives from business, industry, and labor as well as technical educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary…

  20. Automotive Mechanics. Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 33 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 33 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in automotive mechanics. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-9 enabling objectives. For each enabliing objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps…

  1. Readings in the Automotive Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGise, Joe

    Designed for reluctant readers in vocational high school, this selection of readings emphasizes general information about the automotive trade. Articles have been selected from a variety of auto magazines and trade journals. Each article is followed by an assortment of exercises designed to enable the student to further develop vocabulary and…

  2. Brazing applications: An automotive perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Winterbottom, W.L.

    1994-12-31

    Currently the US auto industry consumes 20% of the nation`s steel production, 50% of lead and cast iron, one-third of its zinc and 10% of its aluminum. Overall, more than 23 million tons of materials are used by the industry each year. But stricter environmental and CAFE laws could change those numbers markedly. Experts predict that without downsizing, weight reductions of 1000 pounds-per-vehicle may be needed to achieve proposed improvements in CAFE. If there is to be wide scale application of advanced materials such as metal matrix composites and ceramics in harsh automotive environments, alternate joining methods to the standard welding process will certainly be required. Quality and cost competitiveness in the automotive market place are forcing the manufacturing operations to focus on improving process robustness and efficiency. The extent to which braze methodology is capable of contributing to satisfying these needs will determine its utility in the automotive industry. The features of the braze process that determine its versatility and reliability in meeting the material and processing needs of the automotive industry will be used in presenting the current status and projections of future developments in brazing applications.

  3. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following: the Stirling reference engine system design; components and subsystems; F-40 baseline Stirling engine installation and test; the first automotive engine to be built on the program; computer development activities; and technical assistance to the Government. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are given.

  4. Automotive Technician Educational Cooperative Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbeck, Bill

    1998-01-01

    The Automotive Technician Educational Cooperative (ATEC), the premier applied-technology program at Truckee Meadows Community College (Sparks, Nevada), exemplifies what can be accomplished through leadership, cooperation, and dedication of a qualified faculty committed to designing and implementing a program based on standards. (JOW)

  5. Innovative Technology in Automotive Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John

    2007-01-01

    Automotive Technology combines hands-on training along with a fully integrated, interactive, computerized multistationed facility. Our program is a competency based, true open-entry/open-exit program that utilizes flexible self-paced course outlines. It is designed around an industry partnership that promotes community and economic development,…

  6. Automotive Electronics. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackert, Howard C.; Heiserman, Russell L.

    This learning module addresses computers and their applications in contemporary automobiles. The text provides students with information on automotive microcomputers and hands-on activities that will help them see how semiconductors and digital logic devices fit into the modern repair facility. The module contains nine instructional units that…

  7. Formulation of Automotive Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D.; Brown, A. J.; Jilbert, D.; Lamb, G.

    The formulation of lubricants for current light- and heavy-duty vehicles (passenger cars and trucks) and also motorcycles/small engines is described in terms of engine types and meeting European, US and Japanese emission control requirements. Trends in the formulation of lubricants are discussed and the importance of high and low 'SAPS' for future developments emphasised. Specification and evaluation of lubricant performance for light-vehicle gasoline and diesel, and also heavy-duty diesel engines are described. Emphasis is given to diesel engine cleanliness by soot and deposit control and the effect of emission controls on lubricant formulation. The lubricant requirements for motorcycle and small engines, primarily two-stroke cycle, and their specifications are described.

  8. Sulfate in fetal development.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    Sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) is an important nutrient for human growth and development, and is obtained from the diet and the intra-cellular metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine. During pregnancy, fetal tissues have a limited capacity to produce sulfate, and rely on sulfate obtained from the maternal circulation. Sulfate enters and exits placental and fetal cells via transporters on the plasma membrane, which maintain a sufficient intracellular supply of sulfate and its universal sulfonate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) reactions to function effectively. Sulfotransferases mediate sulfonation of numerous endogenous compounds, including proteins and steroids, which biotransforms their biological activities. In addition, sulfonation of proteoglycans is important for maintaining normal structure and development of tissues, as shown for reduced sulfonation of cartilage proteoglycans that leads to developmental dwarfism disorders and four different osteochondrodysplasias (diastrophic dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type II, achondrogenesis type IB and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia). The removal of sulfate via sulfatases is an important step in proteoglycan degradation, and defects in several sulfatases are linked to perturbed fetal bone development, including mesomelia-synostoses syndrome and chondrodysplasia punctata 1. In recent years, interest in sulfate and its role in developmental biology has expanded following the characterisation of sulfate transporters, sulfotransferases and sulfatases and their involvement in fetal growth. This review will focus on the physiological roles of sulfate in fetal development, with links to human and animal pathophysiologies.

  9. Sulfate in fetal development.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    Sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) is an important nutrient for human growth and development, and is obtained from the diet and the intra-cellular metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine. During pregnancy, fetal tissues have a limited capacity to produce sulfate, and rely on sulfate obtained from the maternal circulation. Sulfate enters and exits placental and fetal cells via transporters on the plasma membrane, which maintain a sufficient intracellular supply of sulfate and its universal sulfonate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) reactions to function effectively. Sulfotransferases mediate sulfonation of numerous endogenous compounds, including proteins and steroids, which biotransforms their biological activities. In addition, sulfonation of proteoglycans is important for maintaining normal structure and development of tissues, as shown for reduced sulfonation of cartilage proteoglycans that leads to developmental dwarfism disorders and four different osteochondrodysplasias (diastrophic dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type II, achondrogenesis type IB and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia). The removal of sulfate via sulfatases is an important step in proteoglycan degradation, and defects in several sulfatases are linked to perturbed fetal bone development, including mesomelia-synostoses syndrome and chondrodysplasia punctata 1. In recent years, interest in sulfate and its role in developmental biology has expanded following the characterisation of sulfate transporters, sulfotransferases and sulfatases and their involvement in fetal growth. This review will focus on the physiological roles of sulfate in fetal development, with links to human and animal pathophysiologies. PMID:21419855

  10. Making aerospace technology work for the automotive industry, introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    NASA derived technology already in use in the automotive industry include: (1) developments in electronics design, computer systems, and quality control methods for line testing of cars and trucks; (2) a combustion analysis computer program for automotive engine research and development; (3) an infrared scanner and television display for analyzing tire design and performance, and for studying the effects of heat on the service life of V-belts, shock mounts, brakes, and rubber bearings; (4) exhaust gas analyzers for trouble shooting and emissions certification; (5) a device for reducing noise from trucks; and (6) a low cost test vehicle for measuring highway skid resistance. Services offered by NASA to facilitate access to its technology are described.

  11. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. PMID:21690215

  12. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University

    SciTech Connect

    Nigle N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

  13. Present and Future Automotive Composite Materials Research Efforts at DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-07-03

    Automobiles of the future will be forced to travel fi.uther on a tank of fuel while discharging lower levels of pollutants. Currently, the United States uses in excess of 16.4 million barrels of petroleum per day. Sixty-six percent of that petroleum is used in the transportation of people and goods. Automobiles currently account for just under two-thirds of the nation's gasoline consumptio~ and about one-third of the total United States energy usage. [1] By improving transportation related fiel efficiency, the United States can lessen the impact that emissions have on our environment and provide a cleaner environment for fiture generations. In 1992, The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Transportation Materials completed a comprehensive program plan entitled, The Lightweight MateriaIs (LWko Multi-Year Program Plan, for the development of technologies aimed at reducing vehicle mass [2]. This plan was followed in 1997 by the more comprehensive Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan titled, Energy Eficient Vehicles for a Cleaner Environment [3] which outlines the department's plans for developing more efficient vehicles during the next ~een years. Both plans identi~ potential applications, technology needs, and R&D priorities. The goal of the Lightweight Materials Program is to develop materials and primary processing methods for the fabrication of lighter weight components which can be incorporated into automotive systems. These technologies are intended to reduce vehicle weight, increase fuel efficiency and decrease emissions. The Lightweight Materials program is jointly managed by the Department of Energy(DOE) and the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). Composite materiak program work is coordinated by cooperative research efforts between the DOE and the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC).

  14. 78 FR 58518 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Benteler Automotive Corporation (Automotive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... (Automotive Suspension and Body Components); Duncan, South Carolina Benteler Automotive Corporation (Benteler... current request would add bumper assemblies, body reinforcement assemblies, suspension parts (e.g., links... customs entry procedures that applies to bumper assemblies, body reinforcement assemblies,...

  15. Recycling used automotive oil filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peaslee, Kent D.

    1994-02-01

    Over 400 million used automotive oil filters are discarded in the United States each year, most of which are disposed of in landfills wasting valuable resources and risking contamination of ground- and surface-water supplies. This article summarizes U.S. bureau of Mines research evaluating scrap prepared from used automotive oil filters. Experimental results show that crushed and drained oil filters have a bulk density that is higher than many typical scrap grades, a chemical analysis low in residual elements (except tin due to use of tin plate in filters), and an overall yield, oil-filter scrap to cast steel, of 76% to 85%, depending on the method used to prepare the scrap.

  16. Ceramic automotive Stirling engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Chiu, W.; Darooka, D.; Mullings, D. M.; Johnson, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual design study for a Ceramic Automotive Stirling Engine (CASE) is performed. Year 1990 structural ceramic technology is assumed. Structural and performance analyses of the conceptual design are performed as well as a manufacturing and cost analysis. The general conclusions from this study are that such an engine would be 10-26% more efficient over its performance map than the current metal Automotive Stirling Reference Engine (ASRE). Cost of such a ceramic engine is likely to be somewhat higher than that of the ASRE but engine cost is very sensitive to the ultimate cost of the high purity, ceramic powder raw materials required to fabricate high performance parts. When the design study is projected to the year 2000 technology, substantinal net efficiency improvements, on the order of 25 to 46% over the ASRE, are computed.

  17. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  18. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING WOOD EAVE AND STUCCO RAKEBOARD ON GABLE END, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  19. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  20. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END OF MAIN WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  1. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  2. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  3. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  4. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  5. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING WOOD EAVE AND STUCCO RAKEBOARD ON GABLE END. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  6. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  7. Fracture testing and analysis of adhesively bonded joints for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Boeman, R.G.; Warren, C.D.

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began a cooperative effort with the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to conduct research and development that would overcome technological hurdles to the adhesive bonding of current and future automotive materials. This effort is part of a larger Department of Energy (DOE) program to promote the use of lighter weight materials in automotive structures for the purpose of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing environmental pollutant emissions. In accomplishing this mission, the bonding of similar and dissimilar materials was identified as being of primary importance to the automotive industry since this enabling technology would give designers the freedom to choose from an expanded menu of low mass materials for component weight reduction. This paper concentrates on the details of developing accurate fracture test methods for adhesively bonded joints in the automotive industry. The test methods being developed are highly standardized and automated so that industry suppliers will be able to pass on reliable data to automotive designers in a timely manner. Mode I fracture tests have been developed that are user friendly and automated for easy data acquisition, data analysis, test control and test repeatability. The development of this test is discussed. In addition, materials and manufacturing issues are addressed which are of particular importance when designing adhesive and composite material systems.

  8. Sulfate metabolism in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Schelle, Michael W; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2006-10-01

    Pathogenic bacteria have developed numerous mechanisms to survive inside a hostile host environment. The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is thought to control the human immune response with diverse biomolecules, including a variety of exotic lipids. One prevalent M. tb-specific sulfated metabolite, termed sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), has been correlated with virulence though its specific biological function is not known. Recent advances in our understanding of SL-1 biosynthesis will help elucidate the role of this curious metabolite in M. tb infection. Furthermore, the study of SL-1 has led to questions regarding the significance of sulfation in mycobacteria. Examples of sulfated metabolites as mediators of interactions between bacteria and plants suggest that sulfation is a key modulator of extracellular signaling between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The discovery of novel sulfated metabolites in M. tb and related mycobacteria strengthens this hypothesis. Finally, mechanistic and structural data from sulfate-assimilation enzymes have revealed how M. tb controls the flux of sulfate in the cell. Mutants with defects in sulfate assimilation indicate that the fate of sulfur in M. tb is a critical survival determinant for the bacteria during infection and suggest novel targets for tuberculosis drug therapy.

  9. Parametric assessment of climate change impacts of automotive material substitution.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Roland

    2008-09-15

    Quantifying the net climate change impact of automotive material substitution is not a trivial task. It requires the assessment of the mass reduction potential of automotive materials, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from their production and recycling, and their impact on GHG emissions from vehicle use. The model presented in this paper is based on life cycle assessment (LCA) and completely parameterized, i.e., its computational structure is separated from the required input data, which is not traditionally done in LCAs. The parameterization increases scientific rigor and transparency of the assessment methodology, facilitates sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the results, and also makes it possible to compare different studies and explain their disparities. The state of the art of the modeling methodology is reviewed and advanced. Assessment of the GHG emission impacts of material recycling through consequential system expansion shows that our understanding of this issue is still incomplete. This is a critical knowledge gap since a case study shows thatfor materials such as aluminum, the GHG emission impacts of material production and recycling are both of the same size as the use phase savings from vehicle mass reduction.

  10. Parametric assessment of climate change impacts of automotive material substitution.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Roland

    2008-09-15

    Quantifying the net climate change impact of automotive material substitution is not a trivial task. It requires the assessment of the mass reduction potential of automotive materials, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from their production and recycling, and their impact on GHG emissions from vehicle use. The model presented in this paper is based on life cycle assessment (LCA) and completely parameterized, i.e., its computational structure is separated from the required input data, which is not traditionally done in LCAs. The parameterization increases scientific rigor and transparency of the assessment methodology, facilitates sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the results, and also makes it possible to compare different studies and explain their disparities. The state of the art of the modeling methodology is reviewed and advanced. Assessment of the GHG emission impacts of material recycling through consequential system expansion shows that our understanding of this issue is still incomplete. This is a critical knowledge gap since a case study shows thatfor materials such as aluminum, the GHG emission impacts of material production and recycling are both of the same size as the use phase savings from vehicle mass reduction. PMID:18853818

  11. Nano-crystalline P/M aluminium for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummert, K.; Schattevoy, R.; Broda, M.; Knappe, M.; Beiss, P.; Klubberg, F.; Schubert, T. H.; Leuschner, R.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction of total vehicle weight and lowering of moving masses within the engine are key elements to overcome future emission challenges of the automotive industry. Within a German BMBF funded project the melt spinning technology will be driven to a series production status. The very fast cooling condition of the melt leads to a nano-structure of the aluminium material. This results in new material properties of known alloys. The strength increases dramatically without lowered forming behaviour. With this process the freedom of designing complex alloys is very flexible. Different alloys have been investigated for several applications, where high strength at room and elevated temperatures and/or high wear resistance is required. This paper presents some results regarding the processing, microstructure and mechanical properties of a developed Al-Ni-Fe alloy. This joined research project with partners from the automotive industry as well as automotive suppliers and universities is funded by the German BMBF "NanoMobile" Program under Project number 03X3008.

  12. Promoted decomposition of NOx in automotive diesel-like exhausts by electro-catalytic honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ta-Jen; Chiang, De-Yi; Shih, Chi; Lee, Cheng-Chin; Mao, Chih-Wei; Wang, Bo-Chung

    2015-03-17

    NO and NO2 (collectively called NOx) are major air pollutants in automotive emissions. More effective and easier treatments of NOx than those achieved by the present methods can offer better protection of human health and higher fuel efficiency that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, currently commercialized technologies for automotive NOx emission control cannot effectively treat diesel-like exhausts with high NOx concentrations. Thus, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been used extensively, which reduces fuel efficiency and increases particulate emission considerably. Our results show that the electro-catalytic honeycomb (ECH) promotes the decomposition of NOx to nitrogen and oxygen, without consuming reagents or other resources. NOx can be converted to nitrogen and oxygen almost completely. The ECHs are shown to effectively remove NOx from gasoline-fueled diesel-like exhausts. A very high NO concentration is preferred in the engine exhaust, especially during engine cold-start. Promoted NOx decomposition (PND) technology for real-world automotive applications is established in this study by using the ECH. With PND, EGR is no longer needed. Diesel-like engines can therefore achieve superior fuel efficiency, and all major automotive pollutants can be easily treated due to high concentration of oxygen in the diesel-like exhausts, leading to zero pollution. PMID:25719390

  13. Promoted decomposition of NOx in automotive diesel-like exhausts by electro-catalytic honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ta-Jen; Chiang, De-Yi; Shih, Chi; Lee, Cheng-Chin; Mao, Chih-Wei; Wang, Bo-Chung

    2015-03-17

    NO and NO2 (collectively called NOx) are major air pollutants in automotive emissions. More effective and easier treatments of NOx than those achieved by the present methods can offer better protection of human health and higher fuel efficiency that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, currently commercialized technologies for automotive NOx emission control cannot effectively treat diesel-like exhausts with high NOx concentrations. Thus, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been used extensively, which reduces fuel efficiency and increases particulate emission considerably. Our results show that the electro-catalytic honeycomb (ECH) promotes the decomposition of NOx to nitrogen and oxygen, without consuming reagents or other resources. NOx can be converted to nitrogen and oxygen almost completely. The ECHs are shown to effectively remove NOx from gasoline-fueled diesel-like exhausts. A very high NO concentration is preferred in the engine exhaust, especially during engine cold-start. Promoted NOx decomposition (PND) technology for real-world automotive applications is established in this study by using the ECH. With PND, EGR is no longer needed. Diesel-like engines can therefore achieve superior fuel efficiency, and all major automotive pollutants can be easily treated due to high concentration of oxygen in the diesel-like exhausts, leading to zero pollution.

  14. Using Technology to Enhance an Automotive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Denis Ashton uses technology in his automotive technology program at East Valley Institute of Technology (EVIT) to positively impact student outcomes. Ashton, the department chair for the automotive programs at EVIT, in Mesa, Arizona, says that using an interactive PowerPoint curriculum makes learning fun for students and provides immediate…

  15. Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a course on becoming an automotive brakes specialist, based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The course consists of three instructional units: service brake hydraulic system and wheel bearings, service drum brakes, and service disc brakes. Depending on the…

  16. Petroleum Marketing. Selling Automotive Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luter, Robert R.

    This textbook contains material for the individualized instruction of students training for careers in service stations; automotive, tire, battery, and accessory retail stores; oil jobbers and petroleum product wholesalers, or any wholesale or retail establishment that sells automotive products and services. Included among the topics addressed in…

  17. 78 FR 36633 - National Automotive Sampling System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... improving data collection methods and quality control procedures, among other activities. This project is... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Automotive Sampling System AGENCY: National Highway... Automotive Sampling System (NASS) or Data Modernization (DataMod). NHTSA announces that it will hold a...

  18. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Body Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive body repair I and II. The nine units in automotive body repair I are as follows: introduction; related information; basic tool usage and safety; body and frame construction; basic sheet metal repair; preparing for…

  19. Automotive Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2015-03-01

    Considerable fuel energy, as much as 70%, is not converted to useful work by internal combustion engines but is instead rejected as waste heat, and more than half of the waste heat, nearly 40% of fuel energy, is contained in vehicle exhaust gas. This provides an opportunity to recover some of the wasted fuel energy and convert it from heat into useful work, subject to the laws of thermodynamics, and thereby improve vehicle energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) materials have been extensively researched and TE devices are now being developed for operation at high temperatures corresponding to automotive exhaust gases for direct solid-state conversion of heat into electricity. This has stimulated substantial progress in the development of practical TE generator (TEG) systems for large-scale commercialization. A significant enabler of this progress has been the US Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program through funding for low cost solutions for automotive TE waste heat recovery to improve fuel economy. Our current project at General Motors has culminated in the identification of the potential supply chain for all components and assembly of an automotive TEG. A significant focus has been to develop integrated and iterative modeling tools for a fully optimized TEG design that includes all components and subsystems (TE modules, heat exchangers, thermal interfaces, electrical interconnects, power conditioning, and vehicle integration for maximal use of TEG power). We have built and tested a new, low-cost Initial TEG prototype based on state-of-the-art production-scale skutterudite TE modules, novel heat exchanger designs, and practical solutions to the many technical challenges for optimum TEG performance. We will use the results for our Initial TEG prototype to refine our modeling and design tools for a Final automotive TEG system prototype. Our recent results will be presented. Thanks to: J.R. Salvador, E.R. Gundlach, D. Thompson, N.K. Bucknor, M

  20. Chemicals for the automotive industry

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.A.G.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of advanced materials, surface treatments, and clean fuels/lubricants now used to manufacture, propel, and maintain motor vehicles. The book examines recent advancements and current research, illustrating the progress to date, future trends, new applications, and the effects of these of automotive chemicals on the environment (including pollution, recyclability, and efficiency). Environmental considerations and their effect on the industry are covered in discussions about such topics as biodegradable lubricants, oxygenated diesel and ignition engine fuels, oils, and recyclable, lightweight plastic components.

  1. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A gas turbine powertrain for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact is investigated. The automotive gas turbine, when installed in an automobile (3000 pounds inertia weight), provides a CFDC fuel economy of 42.8 miles per gallon based on EPA test procedures and diesel No. 2 fuel. The AGT powered vehicle substantially gives the same overall vehicle driveability and performance as a comparable production vehicle powered by a conventional spark ignition powertrain system. The emissions are less than federal standards, and a variety of fuels can be used.

  2. Global sustainability and key needs in future automotive design.

    PubMed

    McAuley, John W

    2003-12-01

    The number of light vehicle registrations is forecast to increase worldwide by a factor of 3-5 over the next 50 years. This will dramatically increase environmental impacts worldwide of automobiles and light trucks. If light vehicles are to be environmentally sustainable globally, the automotive industry must implement fundamental changes in future automotive design. Important factors in assessing automobile design needs include fuel economy and reduced emissions. Many design parameters can impact vehicle air emissions and energy consumption including alternative fuel or engine technologies, rolling resistance, aerodynamics, drive train design, friction, and vehicle weight. Of these, vehicle weight is key and will translate into reduced energy demand across all energy distribution elements. A new class of vehicles is needed that combines ultra-light design with a likely hybrid or fuel cell engine technology. This could increase efficiency by a factor of 3-5 and reduce air emissions as well. Advanced lightweight materials, such as plastics or composites, will need to overtake the present metal-based infrastructure. Incorporating design features to facilitate end-of-life recycling and recovery is also important. The trend will be towards fewer materials and parts in vehicle design, combined with ease of disassembly. Mono-material construction can create vehicle design with improved recyclability as well as reduced numbers of parts and weight.

  3. Catalytic combustion for the automotive gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.; Mroz, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel injectors to provide a premixed prevaporized fuel-air mixture are studied. An evaluation of commercial catalysts was performed as part of a program leading to the demonstration of a low emissions combustor for an automotive gas turbine engine. At an inlet temperature of 800 K, a pressure of 500,000 Pa and a velocity of 20 m/s a multiple-jet injector produced less than + or - 10 percent variation in Jet-A fuel-air ratio and 100 percent varporization with less than 0.5 percent pressure drop. Fifteen catalytic reactors were tested with propane fuel at an inlet temperature of 800 K, a pressure of 300,000 Pa and inlet velocities of 10 to 25 m/s. Seven of the reactors had less than 2 percent pressure drop while meeting emissions goals of 13.6 gCO/kg fuel and 1.64 gHC/kg fuel at the velocities and exit temperatures required for operation in an automotive gas turbine engine. NO sub x emissions at all conditions were less than 0.5 ppm. All tests were performed with steady state conditions.

  4. Global sustainability and key needs in future automotive design.

    PubMed

    McAuley, John W

    2003-12-01

    The number of light vehicle registrations is forecast to increase worldwide by a factor of 3-5 over the next 50 years. This will dramatically increase environmental impacts worldwide of automobiles and light trucks. If light vehicles are to be environmentally sustainable globally, the automotive industry must implement fundamental changes in future automotive design. Important factors in assessing automobile design needs include fuel economy and reduced emissions. Many design parameters can impact vehicle air emissions and energy consumption including alternative fuel or engine technologies, rolling resistance, aerodynamics, drive train design, friction, and vehicle weight. Of these, vehicle weight is key and will translate into reduced energy demand across all energy distribution elements. A new class of vehicles is needed that combines ultra-light design with a likely hybrid or fuel cell engine technology. This could increase efficiency by a factor of 3-5 and reduce air emissions as well. Advanced lightweight materials, such as plastics or composites, will need to overtake the present metal-based infrastructure. Incorporating design features to facilitate end-of-life recycling and recovery is also important. The trend will be towards fewer materials and parts in vehicle design, combined with ease of disassembly. Mono-material construction can create vehicle design with improved recyclability as well as reduced numbers of parts and weight. PMID:14700327

  5. Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Pomin, Vitor H.

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein. PMID:24413804

  6. Holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein.

  7. Future automotive materials: Evolution or revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardmore, P.

    1990-01-01

    An exciting era is evolving in the application of new materials technologies to automotive applications. The desire on the part of the automobile industry to completely satisfy the customers while concurrently meeting increasing demands and regulations for stringent emission control and fuel efficiency is opening a plethora of opportunities for new materials. In many cases, materials solutions are the only mechanisms for resolving some of the upcoming issues. The materials scientist and engineer will therefore have a primary role to play and will assume a position of significance hithertofore unseen in the automobile industry. The nature of the industry dictates that changes are primarily evolutionary with respect to chronology but nevertheless some of the future material changes will be revolutionary in nature. This presentation will treat three primary systems of the vehicle separately, based on the different materials approaches which will be adopted. These areas are: (1) skin panels, (2) structures, and (3) powertrains. The competition between a variety of new materials in these 3 systems will be discussed in detail with the various tradeoffs being outlined. Amongst the more prominent of the new breed of materials will be new steel technologies, structural plastics (FRP), aluminum alloys (conventional and rapidly solidified), titanium alloys, metal matrix composites and smart materials (electrorheological fluids, etc.). The pace of development and application is accelerating rapidly and the impetus is likely to increase.

  8. Electrorheology for smart automotive suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Z.; Winkler, C. B.; Ervin, R. D.; Filisko, F. E.; Venhovens, P. J.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of the work reported was to demonstrate the suitability of electrorheological (ER) technology for adaptive control of suspension forces on tracked and wheeled vehicles. The mechanical shear strength properties of ER fluids change in response to the application of an electric field. The change is very rapid and fully reversible. This property was used to create an automotive suspension damper whose resistive force is readily controlled by an external electrical signal. The device was applied in a semiactive suspension system for the Army's high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV). The work reported covers a range of development tasks including definition of the semiactive control algorithm, ER fluid formulation, design and fabrication of an ER damper, design of an electrical control circuit, creation of a quarter-HMMWV test stand for the simulation of ride vibrations, laboratory measurement of the ER-damped performance characteristics over a range of physically simulated operating conditions, and computer simulation of the quarter-HMMWV system. The research demonstrated that an ER damper and appropriate control circuits could out-perform the conventional hydraulic shock absorber, but that various complexities tend to impede broad application of electrorheology in automotive devices.

  9. Space Software for Automotive Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    John Thousand of Wolverine Western Corp. put his aerospace group to work on an unfamiliar job, designing a brake drum using computer design techniques. Computer design involves creation of a mathematical model of a product and analyzing its effectiveness in simulated operation. Technique enables study of performance and structural behavior of a number of different designs before settling on a final configuration. Wolverine employees attacked a traditional brake drum problem, the sudden buildup of heat during fast and repeated braking. Part of brake drum not confined tends to change its shape under combination of heat, physical pressure and rotational forces, a condition known as bellmouthing. Since bellmouthing is a major factor in braking effectiveness, a solution of problem would be a major advance in automotive engineering. A former NASA employee, now a Wolverine employee, knew of a series of NASA computer programs ideally suited to confronting bellmouthing. Originally developed as aids to rocket engine nozzle design, it's capable of analyzing problems generated in a rocket engine or automotive brake drum by heat, expansion, pressure and rotational forces. Use of these computer programs led to new brake drum concept featuring a more durable axle, and heat transfer ribs, or fins, on hub of drum.

  10. The formation of dimethyl sulfate in power plant plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.D.; Eatough, D.J. ); Cheney, J.L. ); Eatough, N.L. )

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a study which was designed to determine if dimethyl sulfate is a primary emission of power plants or is instead formed in the plume after mixing with the ambient atmosphere. The authors previously reported the presence of dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl sulfuric acid in particulate matter collected from the flue lines and plumes of coal-fired power plants. The mole ratios of methylated sulfate in particles to total emitted sulfur were found to be one and two orders of magnitude higher in the plume than in the flue line of a coal- and an oil-fired plant, respectively. In addition, while only monomethyl sulfate was found in the particles collected at 150{sup 0}C in the flue line, the principal species found in the plume aerosol was dimethyl sulfate. Dimethyl sulfate has been found in particulate matter collected from the flue line of another coal-fired power plant where the sample was collected at 110{sup 0}C, however. These previously reported results can either be interpreted to indicate that primary emissions from power plants contain gas phase alkyl sulfate compounds which subsequently condense onto aerosols, or the data can be interpreted to show formation of dimethyl sulfate in the atmosphere. The data presented in this paper show the latter to be the case.

  11. Radioiodination of Aryl-Alkyl Cyclic Sulfates

    PubMed Central

    Mushti, Chandra; Papisov, Mikhail I.

    2015-01-01

    Among the currently available positron emitters suitable for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), 124I has the longest physical half-life (4.2 days). The long half-life and well-investigated behavior of iodine in vivo makes 124I very attractive for pharmacological studies. In this communication, we describe a simple yet effective method for the synthesis of novel 124I labeled compounds intended for PET imaging of arylsulfatase activity in vivo. Arylsulfatases have important biological functions, and genetic deficiencies of such functions require pharmacological replacement, the efficacy of which must be properly and non-invasively evaluated. These enzymes, even though their natural substrates are mostly of aliphatic nature, hydrolyze phenolic sulfates to phenol and sulfuric acid. The availability of [124I]iodinated substrates is expected to provide a PET-based method for measuring their activity in vivo. The currently available methods of synthesis of iodinated arylsulfates usually require either introducing of a protected sulfate ester early in the synthesis or introduction of sulfate group at the end of synthesis in a separate step. The described method gives the desired product in one step from an aryl-alkyl cyclic sulfate. When treated with iodide, the source cyclic sulfate opens with substitution of iodide at the alkyl center and gives the desired arylsulfate monoester. PMID:23135631

  12. Durability of composites in automotive structural applications

    SciTech Connect

    Corum, J.M.; Battiste, R.L.; McCoy, H.E.; Ruggles, M.B.; Simpson, W.A.; Weitsman, Y.J.

    1996-10-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop experimentally-based, durability-driven design guidelines for automotive composite structures and to demonstrate their applicability to lightweight, manufacturable structures under representative field loading histories and environments. Key technical issues are the potentially degrading effects that (1) both cyclic and long-term sustained loadings, (2) various automotive environments, and (3) low-energy impacts can have on the dimensional stability, strength, and stiffness of automotive composite structures. The purpose of this paper is to present the findings and observations developed to date and to outline future directions.

  13. LOW-COST COMPOSITES IN VEHICLE MANUFACTURE - Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Holbery, Jim; Houston, Dan

    2006-11-01

    In the last decade, natural fiber composites have experienced rapid growth in the European automotive market, and this trend appears to be global in scale, provided the cost and performance is justified against competing technologies. However, mass reduction, recyclability, and performance requirements can be met today by competing systems such as injection-molded unreinforced thermoplastics; natural fiber composites will continue to expand their role in automotive applications only if such technical challenges as moisture stability, fiber-polymer interface compatibility, and consistent, repeatable fiber sources are available to supply automotive manufacturers. Efforts underway by Tier I and II automotive suppliers to explore hybrid glass-natural fiber systems, as well as applications that exploit such capabilities as natural fiber sound dampening characteristics, could very well have far-reaching effects. In addition, the current development underway of bio-based resins such as Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biodegradable polyesters and bio-based polyols could provide fully bio-based composite options to future automotive designers. In short, the development of the natural fiber composite market would make a positive impact on farmers and small business owners on a global scale, reduce US reliance on foreign oil, improve environmental quality through the development of a sustainable resource supply chain, and achieve a better CO2 balance over the vehicle?s lifetime with near-zero net greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Electrification of the transportation sector: Is there a need for restructuring the automotive parts suppliers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaslan, A. Ebru

    The future of the transportation sector has significant implications for the mitigation of climate change through reduced GHG emissions as well as achieving energy efficiency and energy independence. Battery-powered, plug-in, and hybrid electric vehicles are widely seen as the greatest source of a solution. This thesis analyzes the historical development and growth of the automotive industry as well as the restructuring toward the next generation technologies in comparison with the U.S. and China to shed light on the question of how a developing country can structure its strategies to be able to upgrade and be competitive over time. Conventional business models can become obsolete. Companies will find it difficult to maintain their market position unless they gain new perspectives on the outlook of the industry as a whole, and take into account the successful business models of tomorrow. The potential for further growth of the Turkish automotive supplier base particularly in the next generation of automotive technologies is therefore highly dependent on policies and strategies at the national level as much as its dependence on the global strategies of the automotive industry's major players. In this sense, the key questions that motivate this study are whether there are foreseeable technological changes and product-segmentation strategies that could significantly enhance the competitiveness of local Turkish suppliers of automotive components. The thesis builds on the theory of innovative enterprise and evolutionary agglomeration to examine the competitive potential of the Konya Auto Part Suppliers' Cluster in Turkey.

  15. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Smith, G.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Meacher, J.

    1986-01-01

    This is the ninth Semiannual Technical Progress Report prepared under the Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program. It covers the twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth quarters of activity after award of the contract. Quarterly Technical Progress Reports related program activities from the first through the thirteenth quarters; thereafter, reporting was changed to a Semiannual format. This report summarizes the study of higher-power kinematic Stirling engines for transportation use, development testing of Mod I Stirling engines, and component development activities. Component development testing included successful conical fuel nozzle testing and functional checkout of Mod II controls and auxiliaries on Mod I engine test beds. Overall program philosophy is outlined and data and test results are presented.

  16. Supercharging system for automotive engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, T.; Yabuhara, H.; Takimoto, F.

    1988-03-15

    A supercharging system for an automotive engine is described comprising: a turbocharger driven by exhaust-gas of the engine; a supercharger; an intake passage connecting the turbocharger and the supercharger in series, for supplying air to the engine; driving means for driving the supercharger by the engine; clutch means provided in the driving means; a first bypass provided around the supercharger; a control valve provided in the first bypass; a second bypass provided around the turbine of the turbocharger; a waste gate valve provided in the second bypass; a first actuator for operating the control valve; a second actuator for operating the waste gate valve; first means for operating the second actuator to open the waste gate valve when supercharging pressure exceeds a predetermined value; an engine speed sensor for detecting speed of the engine; an engine load sensor for detecting load on the engine; and a control unit.

  17. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Müllauer, Wolfram Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  18. Sulfate reducers can outcompete methanogens at freshwater sulfate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Lovley, D.R.; Klug, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Acetate and hydrogen metabolism by sulfate reducers and methanogens in the profundal sediments of an oligotrophic lake were examined. Inhibition of sulfate reduction with molybdate stimulated methane production from both hydrogen and acetate. Molybdate did not stimulate methane production in sediments that were preincubated to deplete the sulfate pool. Sulfate reduction accounted for 30 to 81% of the total of terminal metabolism proceeding through sulfate reduction and methane production in Eckman grab samples of surface sediments. The ability of sulfate reducers to effectively compete with methanogens for acetate was related to the sulfate reducers lower half-saturation constant for acetate metabolism at in situ sulfate concentrations. Processes other than sulfate reduction and methanogenesis consumed hydrogen at elevated hydrogen partial pressures and prevented a kinetic analysis of hydrogen uptake by sulfate reducers and methanogens. The demonstration that sulfate reducers can successfully compete with methanogens for hydrogen and acetate in sediments at in situ sulfate concentrations of 60 to 105 mM extends the known range of sediment habitats in which sulfate reduction can be a dominant terminal process.

  19. Mono- and Polyhydrated Sulfates in Tithonium Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of sulfate-containing deposits in Tithonium Chasma was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1538 UTC (11:38 a.m. EDT) on August 31, 2007 near 5.22 degrees south latitude, 270.48 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Tithonium Chasma lies at the western end of the Valles Marineris canyon system. It extends approximately east-west for roughly 810 kilometers (503 miles), varies in width from approximately 10 to 110 kilometers (6 to 68 miles), and cuts into the Martian surface to a maximum depth of roughly 6 kilometers (4 miles).

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area centered on a ridge of erosion-resistant rock.

    The center left image, an infrared false color image, reveals banded, light-colored material draped on the ridge. The center right image unveils the mineralogical composition of the area, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral) and purple polyhydrated sulfates (sulfates with multiple waters per mineral molecule).

    The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 7 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the sulfate deposits both cover and flank the ridge. Brighter, monohydrated sulfate (yellow) deposits revealed in the lower right image lies along the ridge's northwest side and fall off into a small valley or depression, while darker polyhydrated sulfates (purple) lie along the ridge's northeast flank. A deposit of both mono- and polyhydrated sulfates spanning the ridge

  20. Automotive applications for advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of nonaerospace applications for advanced composite materials with special emphasis on the automotive applications. The automotive industry has to satisfy exacting requirements to reduce the average fuel consumption of cars. A feasible approach to accomplish this involves the development of composites cars with a total weight of 2400 pounds and a fuel consumption of 33 miles per gallon. In connection with this possibility, the automotive companies have started to look seriously at composite materials. The aerospace industry has over the past decade accumulated a considerable data base on composite materials and this is being made available to the nonaerospace sector. However, the automotive companies will place prime emphasis on low cost resins which lend themselves to rapid fabrication techniques.

  1. Smarter–lighter–greener: research innovations for the automotive sector

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the changing nature of research underpinning the revolution in the automotive sector. Legislation controlling vehicle emissions has brought urgency to research, so we are now noticing a more rapid development of new technologies than at any time in the past century. The light-weighting of structures, the refinement of advanced propulsion systems, the advent of new smart materials, and greater in-vehicle intelligence and connectivity with transport infrastructure all require a fundamental rethink of established technologies used for many decades—defining a range of new multi-disciplinary research challenges. While meeting escalating emission penalties, cars must also fulfil the human desire for speed, reliability, beauty, refinement and elegance, qualities that mark out the truly great automobile. PMID:26345309

  2. 40 CFR 63.4490 - What emission limits must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products.... (2) For each new automotive lamp coating affected source, limit organic HAP emissions to no more than... (lb) coating solids used during each 12-month compliance period. (2) For each existing automotive...

  3. 40 CFR 63.4490 - What emission limits must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products.... (2) For each new automotive lamp coating affected source, limit organic HAP emissions to no more than... (lb) coating solids used during each 12-month compliance period. (2) For each existing automotive...

  4. 40 CFR 63.4490 - What emission limits must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products Emission... automotive lamp coating affected source, limit organic HAP emissions to no more than 0.26 kg (0.26 lb... 12-month compliance period. (2) For each existing automotive lamp coating affected source,...

  5. 40 CFR 63.4490 - What emission limits must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products.... (2) For each new automotive lamp coating affected source, limit organic HAP emissions to no more than... (lb) coating solids used during each 12-month compliance period. (2) For each existing automotive...

  6. Hydrazine/Hydrazine sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrazine / Hydrazine sulfate ; CASRN 302 - 01 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  7. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  8. Automotive Refinishing II; Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 2: 9035.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Part of the Dade County Public School (Florida)Quinmester Program, the automotive refinishing course outline is a continuation of automotive refinishing 1 and emphasizes the practical application of color coating and sheet metal refinishing. Overall refinishing with enamels, lacquers, and acrylics are included as well as spot repair painting and…

  9. Automotive Body Sheet Metal Maintenance I; Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 1: 9033.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive body sheet metal maintenance course is an exploratory course in the use of all sheet metal working and equipment common to this trade area. Included are techniques of diagnosis of damage and repair. Emphasized is the proper use of tools and fabrication methods used in automotive body maintenance and repair. This nine week course…

  10. Secondary-Postsecondary Curriculum Development in Automotive Mechanics. Automotive Electrical Competencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepner, Ronald

    Developed as part of a competency-based curriculum in automotive mechanics which is usable by students at both the secondary and postsecondary levels, this learning package focuses on automotive electrical systems. It is the first unit to be published in a series of eight which will cover the eight subject areas on the national certification…

  11. Automotive Electrical and Electronic Systems I; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive electrical and electronic system I course is designed as one of a group of quinmester courses offered in the field of automotive mechanics. General information will be given along with technical knowledge, basic skills, attitudes and values that are required for job entry level. The nine week (135 clock hour) course overcomes some…

  12. Automotive History and Development of the Automobile; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive history and development of the automobile course is designed to familiarize the beginning student with basic concepts common to the automobile history and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. A course outline is provided and seven pages of post-tests are included in the…

  13. Anthropogenic Sulfate, Clouds, and Climate Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghan, Steven J.

    1997-01-01

    This research work is a joint effort between research groups at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Virginia Tech University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Texas A&M University. It has been jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In this research, a detailed tropospheric aerosol-chemistry model that predicts oxidant concentrations as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosols has been coupled to a general circulation model that distinguishes between cloud water mass and cloud droplet number. The coupled model system has been first validated and then used to estimate the radiative impact of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. Both the direct radiative impact of the aerosols and their indirect impact through their influence on cloud droplet number are represented by distinguishing between sulfuric acid vapor and fresh and aged sulfate aerosols, and by parameterizing cloud droplet nucleation in terms of vertical velocity and the number concentration of aged sulfur aerosols. Natural sulfate aerosols, dust, and carbonaceous and nitrate aerosols and their influence on the radiative impact of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, through competition as cloud condensation nuclei, will also be simulated. Parallel simulations with and without anthropogenic sulfur emissions are performed for a global domain. The objectives of the research are: To couple a state-of-the-art tropospheric aerosol-chemistry model with a global climate model. To use field and satellite measurements to evaluate the treatment of tropospheric chemistry and aerosol physics in the coupled model. To use the coupled model to simulate the radiative (and ultimately climatic) impacts of anthropogenic sulfur emissions.

  14. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-03-23

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H/sub 2//sup 35/SO/sub 4/) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants.

    PubMed

    Dallam, R D

    1987-03-23

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H2 35SO4) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide...

  17. User discrimination in automotive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

  18. Methods of suppressing automotive interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taggart, H. E.

    1981-11-01

    Automotive manufacturers utilize several techniques to reduce EMI emanating from the vehicle. The techniques include resistor spark plugs, resistor spark plug cables, use of silicone lubricant in the distributor, use of capacitors as filters, placement of grounding straps at key locations, conductive fan belt discharge, and tire static-charge reduction. If even further reduction is needed to obtain the maximum capability of a specific mobile communication system, additional suppression techniques are discussed which are effective at frequencies from approximately 30 to 1000 MHz. Measurement results show that the EMI from a new production-line automobile, measured in accordance with SAE Standard J551g, can be reduced as much as 10 to 15 dB by employing these suppression techniques. The amount of degradation to a mobile narrow-band FM receiver, such as the type used by law enforcement agencies, can be measured using the measurement technique described. This same technique can then be used as a tool to further reduce EMI from the vehicle components.

  19. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The third quarter (April-June, 1978) effort of the Ford/DOE Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program is reported, specifically Task 1 of that effort, which is Fuel Economy Assessment. At the end of this quarter the total fourth generation fuel economy projection was 26.12 MPG (gasoline) with a confidence level of 44%. This represents an improvement of 66.4% over the baseline M-H fuel economy of 15.7 MPG. The confidence level for the original 20.6 MPG goal has been increased from 53% to 57%. Engine 3X17 has accumulated a total of 213 hours of variable speed running. A summary of the individual sub-tasks of Task 1 are given. The sub-tasks are grouped into two categories: Category 1 consists of those sub-tasks which are directly related to fuel economy and Category 2 consists of those sub-tasks which are not directly related to fuel economy but are an integral part of the Task 1 effort.

  20. Advanced automotive diesel assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekar, R.; Tozzi, L.

    1983-01-01

    Cummins Engine Company completed an analytical study to identify an advanced automotive (light duty) diesel (AAD) power plant for a 3,000-pound passenger car. The study resulted in the definition of a revolutionary diesel engine with several novel features. A 3,000-pound car with this engine is predicted to give 96.3, 72.2, and 78.8 MPG in highway, city, and combined highway-city driving, respectively. This compares with current diesel powered cars yielding 41.7, 35.0, and 37.7 MPG. The time for 0-60 MPH acceleration is 13.9 sec. compared to the baseline of 15.2 sec. Four technology areas were identified as crucial in bringing this concept to fruition. They are: (1) part-load preheating, (2) positive displacement compounding, (3) spark assisted diesel combustion system, and (4) piston development for adiabatic, oilless diesel engine. Marketing and planning studies indicate that an aggressive program with significant commitment could result in a production car in 10 years from the date of commencement.

  1. Scintillation properties of lead sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E. ); Shlichta, P.J. )

    1991-11-01

    We report on the scintillation properties of lead sulfate (PbSO{sub 4}), a scintillator that show promise as a high energy photon detector. It physical properties are well suited for gamma detection, as its has a density of 6.4 gm/cm{sup 3}, a 1/e attenuation length for 511 keV photons of 1.2 cm, is not affected by air or moisture, and is cut and polished easily. In 99.998% pure PbSO{sub 4} crystals at room temperature excited by 511 keV annihilation photons, the fluorescence decay lifetime contains significant fast components having 1.8 ns (5%) and 19 ns (36%) decay times, but with longer components having 95 ns (36%) and 425 ns (23%) decays times. The peak emission wavelength is 335 nm, which is transmitted by borosilicate glass windowed photomultiplier tubes. The total scintillation light output increases with decreasing temperature fro 3,200 photons/MeV at +45{degrees}C to 4, 900 photons/MeV at room temperature (+25{degrees}C) and 68,500 photons/MeV at {minus}145{degrees}C. In an imperfect, 3 mm cube of a naturally occurring mineral form of PbSO{sub 4} (anglesite) at room temperature, a 511 keV photopeak is seen with a total light output of 60% that BGO. There are significant sample to sample variations of the light output among anglesite samples, so the light output of lead sulfate may improve when large synthetic crystals become available. 10 refs.

  2. Using sulfate oxygen isotopes to quantify sulfate formation pathways in the atmosphere: Lessons learned and open questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, B.

    2012-12-01

    The abundance of sulfate aerosol in the troposphere has implications for climate, air pollution, acid rain, and pH-dependent chemical reactions. The chemical formation mechanism of sulfate aerosol influences its abundance and its number and size distribution, with implications for both its direct and indirect climate impacts. Sulfate is mainly produced within the atmosphere by oxidation of its precursor, SO2. The oxygen isotopic composition (Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 x δ18O) of sulfate (Δ17O(SO42-)) reflects the relative importance of different oxidants in the production of sulfate because the oxidants transfer unique oxygen isotope signatures to the oxidation product. Unlike δ18O, processes such as emissions, transport, and deposition do not directly impact the Δ17O value of sulfate. Comparison of observed and modeled Δ17O(SO42-) thus provides a unique means to assess a model's representation of the chemistry of sulfate formation. Large-scale models tend to produce reasonable agreement with observations of sulfate concentrations, but tend to overestimate observations of SO2. These models include gas-phase oxidation of SO2 by the hydroxyl radical, and in-cloud oxidation by hydrogen peroxide and ozone, while neglecting other, potentially important oxidation pathways. Comparison of modeled and observed Δ17O(SO42-) in the Arctic have shown that metal-catalyzed oxidation of SO2 in clouds is the dominant sulfate formation pathway in the northern mid- to high-latitudes during winter. Additional comparisons of modeled and observed Δ17O(SO42-) in the marine boundary layer (MBL) have enabled quantification of the role of sea salt aerosol for sulfate formation rates. These processes tend to increase sulfate formation rates while decreasing modeled concentrations of SO2, and tend to decrease the importance of sulfate formation in the gas-phase which is a prerequisite for new particle formation in the atmosphere. Halogen-containing oxidants such as HOBr have also been

  3. Electrochemical NO{sub x} Sensors for Automotive Diesel Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L P; Pham, A Q; Glass, R S

    2002-11-25

    New emissions regulations will increase the need for compact, inexpensive sensors for monitoring and control of automotive exhaust gas pollutants. Species of interest include hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}). The current work is directed towards the development of fast, high sensitivity electrochemical NO{sub x} sensors for automotive diesel applications. We have investigated potentiometric NO sensors with good sensitivity and fast response when operated in 10% O{sub 2}. The sensors consist of yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates attached with NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} sensing electrodes and Pt reference electrodes. A composite NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Rh sensing electrode is shown to give significantly faster response than NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} alone. The exact role of the Rh in enhancing the response speed is not clear at present. However, the Rh appears to accumulate at the contacts between the NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles and may enhance the inter-particle electronic conduction. Ongoing testing of these sensors is being performed to elucidate the sensing mechanisms and to quantify cross sensitivity to, for example, NO{sub 2}.

  4. View of automotive repair and gas station, facing southwest from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of automotive repair and gas station, facing southwest from across Pope Street. Garage built for storage of employee automobiles in left background - Automotive Repair & Gas Station, Southwest corner of Pope Street & Olympic Avenue, Port Gamble, Kitsap County, WA

  5. Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehousefield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehouse-field Equipment Repair Shop Building's wall to the right, looking from the south - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  6. View of south elevation of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south elevation of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with the Warehouse Fabrication Shop and Stack in the background, looking from the southwest - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  7. Experimental hydrogen-fueled automotive engine design data-base project. Volume 1. Executive summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, M.R.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

    1983-05-01

    A preliminary hydrogen-fueled automotive piston engine design data-base now exists as a result of a research project at the University of Miami. The effort, which is overviewed here, encompassed the testing of 19 different configurations of an appropriately-modified, 1.6-liter displacement, light-duty automotive piston engine. The design data base includes engine performance and exhaust emissions over the entire load range, generally at a fixed speed (1800 rpm) and best efficiency spark timing. This range was sometimes limited by intake manifold backfiring and lean-limit restrictions; however, effective measures were demonstrated for obviating these problems. High efficiency, competitive specific power, and low emissions were conclusively demonstrated.

  8. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-04-05

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-(14C)glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo(14C)chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo(14C) chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo(14C)chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent.

  9. Off limits: sulfate below the sulfate-methane transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Benjamin; Arnold, Gail; Røy, Hans; Müller, Inigo; Jørgensen, Bo

    2016-07-01

    One of the most intriguing recent discoveries in biogeochemistry is the ubiquity of cryptic sulfur cycling. From subglacial lakes to marine oxygen minimum zones, and in marine sediments, cryptic sulfur cycling - the simultaneous sulfate consumption and production - has been observed. Though this process does not leave an imprint in the sulfur budget of the ambient environment - thus the term cryptic - it may have a massive impact on other element cycles and fundamentally change our understanding of biogeochemical processes in the subsurface. Classically, the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) in marine sediments is considered to be the boundary that delimits sulfate reduction from methanogenesis as the predominant terminal pathway of organic matter mineralization. Two sediment cores from Aarhus Bay, Denmark reveal the constant presence of sulfate (generally 0.1 to 0.2 mM) below the SMT. The sulfur and oxygen isotope signature of this deep sulfate (34S = 18.9‰, 18O = 7.7‰) was close to the isotope signature of bottom-seawater collected from the sampling site (34S = 19.8‰, 18O = 7.3‰). In one of the cores, oxygen isotope values of sulfate at the transition from the base of the SMT to the deep sulfate pool (18O = 4.5‰ to 6.8‰) were distinctly lighter than the deep sulfate pool. Our findings are consistent with a scenario where sulfate enriched in 34S and 18O is removed at the base of the SMT and replaced with isotopically light sulfate below. Here, we explore scenarios that explain this observation, ranging from sampling artifacts, such as contamination with seawater or auto-oxidation of sulfide - to the potential of sulfate generation in a section of the sediment column where sulfate is expected to be absent which enables reductive sulfur cycling, creating the conditions under which sulfate respiration can persist in the methanic zone.

  10. Gas sensing using porous materials for automotive applications.

    PubMed

    Wales, Dominic J; Grand, Julien; Ting, Valeska P; Burke, Richard D; Edler, Karen J; Bowen, Chris R; Mintova, Svetlana; Burrows, Andrew D

    2015-07-01

    Improvements in the efficiency of combustion within a vehicle can lead to reductions in the emission of harmful pollutants and increased fuel efficiency. Gas sensors have a role to play in this process, since they can provide real time feedback to vehicular fuel and emissions management systems as well as reducing the discrepancy between emissions observed in factory tests and 'real world' scenarios. In this review we survey the current state-of-the-art in using porous materials for sensing the gases relevant to automotive emissions. Two broad classes of porous material - zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) - are introduced, and their potential for gas sensing is discussed. The adsorptive, spectroscopic and electronic techniques for sensing gases using porous materials are summarised. Examples of the use of zeolites and MOFs in the sensing of water vapour, oxygen, NOx, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen are then detailed. Both types of porous material (zeolites and MOFs) reveal great promise for the fabrication of sensors for exhaust gases and vapours due to high selectivity and sensitivity. The size and shape selectivity of the zeolite and MOF materials are controlled by variation of pore dimensions, chemical composition (hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity), crystal size and orientation, thus enabling detection and differentiation between different gases and vapours. PMID:25982991

  11. Gas sensing using porous materials for automotive applications.

    PubMed

    Wales, Dominic J; Grand, Julien; Ting, Valeska P; Burke, Richard D; Edler, Karen J; Bowen, Chris R; Mintova, Svetlana; Burrows, Andrew D

    2015-07-01

    Improvements in the efficiency of combustion within a vehicle can lead to reductions in the emission of harmful pollutants and increased fuel efficiency. Gas sensors have a role to play in this process, since they can provide real time feedback to vehicular fuel and emissions management systems as well as reducing the discrepancy between emissions observed in factory tests and 'real world' scenarios. In this review we survey the current state-of-the-art in using porous materials for sensing the gases relevant to automotive emissions. Two broad classes of porous material - zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) - are introduced, and their potential for gas sensing is discussed. The adsorptive, spectroscopic and electronic techniques for sensing gases using porous materials are summarised. Examples of the use of zeolites and MOFs in the sensing of water vapour, oxygen, NOx, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen are then detailed. Both types of porous material (zeolites and MOFs) reveal great promise for the fabrication of sensors for exhaust gases and vapours due to high selectivity and sensitivity. The size and shape selectivity of the zeolite and MOF materials are controlled by variation of pore dimensions, chemical composition (hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity), crystal size and orientation, thus enabling detection and differentiation between different gases and vapours.

  12. Best Practices in School-to-Careers: The Automotive Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Employer Leadership Council, Washington, DC.

    This document highlights the school-to-careers (STC) partnerships connecting workplace experiences to classroom learning to prepare students for successful employment in the automotive industry. First, the current state of the automotive industry is reviewed and the role of STC in addressing automotive service needs is explained. Next, the…

  13. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  14. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  15. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  16. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  17. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  18. 7 CFR 3201.101 - Automotive care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automotive care products. 3201.101 Section 3201.101... Designated Items § 3201.101 Automotive care products. (a) Definition. Products such as waxes, buffing..., and fragrances that are formulated for cleaning and protecting automotive surfaces. (b)...

  19. Electrical Systems Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide is one of a series of automotive service specialty publications that continues students' training in the automotive service trade by providing instruction in the electrical systems speciality. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence tasks lists. It contains nine units. Each unit includes some or…

  20. Can Distance Learning Be Used to Teach Automotive Management Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noto, Teresa L.

    2011-01-01

    Today's automotive college students will shape the future of the automobile industry. The success of college-level automotive programs has long been dependent on the students' ability to participate in hands-on classroom based interactions. In this article, distance learning and how it can be used to teach automotive management skills, as well as…

  1. Engine Performance Specialist. Instructor's Manual. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide is one of a series automotive service specialty publications that continues students' training in the automotive service trade by providing instruction in the engine performance specialty. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. Each of the 16 units includes some or all of the basic…

  2. Mod I automotive Stirling engine mechanical development

    SciTech Connect

    Simetkosky, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Mod I Stirling engine was the first automotive Stirling engine designed specifically for automotive application. Testing of these engines has revealed several deficiencies in engine mechanical integrity which have been corrected by redesign or upgrade. The main deficiencies uncovered during the Mod I program lie in the combustion, auxiliary, main seal, and heater head areas. This paper will address each of the major area deficiencies in detail, and describe the corrective actions taken as they apply to the Mod I and the next Stirling-engine design, the Upgraded Mod I (a redesign to incorporate new materials for cost/weight reduction and improved performance).

  3. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands.

  4. Status and Trend of Automotive Power Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Zhenxian

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive requirements in aspects of cost, reliability, efficiency, form factor, weight, and volume for power electronics modules in modern electric drive vehicles have driven the development of automotive power packaging technology intensively. Innovation in materials, interconnections, and processing techniques is leading to enormous improvements in power modules. In this paper, the technical development of and trends in power module packaging are evaluated by examining technical details with examples of industrial products. The issues and development directions for future automotive power module packaging are also discussed.

  5. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands. PMID:25360613

  6. Investigations on electroluminescent tapes and foils in relation to their applications in automotive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotog, Ioan

    2015-02-01

    The electroluminescent (EL) tapes or foils having barrier films for an additional level of protection against the toughest environments conditions, offer a large area of applications. The EL lights, due to their characteristics, began to be used not only in the entertainment industry, but also for automotive and aerospace applications. In the paper, the investigations regarding EL foils technical performances in relation to their applications as light sources in automotive ambient light were presented. The experiments were designed based on the results of EL foils electrical properties previous investigations done in laboratory conditions, taking into account the range of automotive ambient temperatures for sinusoidal alternative supply voltage. The measurements for different temperatures were done by keeping the EL foils into electronic controlled oven that ensures the dark enclosure offering conditions to use a lux-meter in order to measure and maintain under control light emission intensity. The experiments results define the EL foils characteristics as load in automotive ambient temperatures condition, assuring so the data for optimal design of a dedicated inverter.

  7. Chemical indicators of sulfate sensitivity to nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Ariel F.; Lamb, Dennis

    2002-10-01

    The formation of aerosol sulfate (SO42-) in eastern North America is chemically linked to the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) through oxidation of the gaseous precursor, sulfur dioxide (SO2). The response of sulfate production to controls in NOx and VOC emissions depends, in part, on the resulting changes in oxidant levels and the competition that naturally exists between the gas- and aqueous-phase pathways for SO2 oxidation. We propose the use of a combination of concentrations of nitric acid, particulate nitrate, hydrogen peroxide, and ambient sulfate as a nondimensional indicator of the effectiveness of VOC or NOx controls in decreasing SO42- abundance. The concentrations of these indicator species were calculated from a series of photochemical model simulations with varying rates of NOx and VOC emissions using a three-dimensional Eulerian model (MODELS-3) that covers the northeastern United States. This study shows that ambient sulfate concentrations are likely to decrease more effectively as VOC emissions are reduced, when the nondimensional indicator is less than a certain threshold. However, a higher value of the indicator identifies a regime in which NOx emissions reductions are more effective for reducing sulfate than are VOC emissions. In addition, a description of the sulfate-formation pathways, along with a theoretical analysis of the transition between NOx- and VOC-sensitive regimes, provides a strong rationale for the use of the sulfate sensitivity indicator.

  8. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the development of a gas turbine engine to improve fuel economy, reduce gaseous emissions and particulate levels, and compatible with a variety of alternate fuels is reported. The powertrain is designated AGT101 and consists of a regenerated single shaft gas turbine engine, a split differential gearbox and a Ford Automatic Overdrive production transmission. The powertrain is controlled by an electronic digital microprocessor and associated actuators, instrumentation, and sensors. Standard automotive accessories are driven by engine power provided by an accessory pad on the gearbox. Component/subsystem development progress is reported in the following areas: compressor, turbine, combustion system, regenerator, gearbox/transmission, structures, ceramic components, foil gas bearing, bearings and seals, rotor dynamics, and controls and accessories.

  9. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An automotive gas turbine powertrain system which, when installed in a 1985 production vehicle (3000 pounds inertia weight), is being developed with a CFDC fuel economy of 42.8 miles per gallon based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test procedures and diesel No. 2 fuel. The AGT-powered vehicle shall give substantially the same overall vehicle driveability and performance as a comparable 1985 production vehicle powered by a conventional spark ignition powertrain system (baseline system). Gaseous emissions and particulate levels less than: NOx = 0.4 gm/mile, HC = 0.41 gm/mile, and CO = 3.4 gm/mile, and a total particulate of 0.2 gm/mile, using the same fuel as used for fuel economy measurements is expected, along with the ability to use a variety of alternate fuels.

  10. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. 10.84 Section 10.84 Customs Duties U.S... CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Automotive Products § 10.84...

  11. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. 10.84 Section 10.84 Customs Duties U.S... CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Automotive Products § 10.84...

  12. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. 10.84 Section 10.84 Customs Duties U.S... CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Automotive Products § 10.84...

  13. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. 10.84 Section 10.84 Customs Duties U.S... CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Automotive Products § 10.84...

  14. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. 10.84 Section 10.84 Customs Duties U.S... CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Automotive Products § 10.84...

  15. Sulfate scale dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

  16. Ferric sulfates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the possible existence of ferric sulfato complexes and hydroxo ferric sulfate minerals in the permafrost of Mars. A sequential combination of ten unique conditions during the cooling history of Mars is suggested which is believed to have generated an environment within Martian permafrost that has stabilized Fe(3+)-SO4(2-)-bearing species. It is argued that minerals belonging to the jarosite and copiapite groups could be present in Martian regolith analyzed in the Viking XRF measurements at Chryse and Utopia, and that maghemite suspected to be coating the Viking magnet arrays is a hydrolysate of dissolved ferric sulfato complexes from exposed Martian permafrost.

  17. Metrics for Automotive Merchandising, Petroleum Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students in automotive merchandising and petroleum marketing classes, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know…

  18. Primary magnesium production costs for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sujit

    2008-11-01

    Focusing on primary magnesium production cost estimates, this paper provides a forecast of the long-term competitiveness of magnesium in automotive applications. Competing magnesium production technologies are considered, with particular emphasis on the long-term viability of cheap supplies using Chinese production technology. Also considered are two yet-to-be commercialized production processes.

  19. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Automotive Technician Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the automotive technician cluster. The document begins with overviews of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  20. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  1. Automotive Stirling engine development program: A success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, W. K.

    1987-01-01

    The original 5-yr Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been extended to 10 years due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

  2. Automotive Stirling engine development program - A success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, William K.

    1987-01-01

    The original 5-year Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been extended to 10 years due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

  3. Energy Cost Reduction for Automotive Service Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    This handbook on energy cost reduction for automotive service facilities consists of four sections. The importance and economic benefits of energy conservation are discussed in the first section. In the second section six energy cost reduction measures are discussed: relamping interior areas; relamping and reducing interior lighting; setting back…

  4. Plastic optical fibers for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Heiroku; Matsunaga, Tadayo

    1991-12-01

    High heat resistant optical fibers (POFs) have been developed for various automotive applications. Plastic chips with POF light guide have been used in place of a clearance monitor lamp. POF cords and cables have been used in the car-audio system, car-navigation system, and other data communication systems. This paper describes the structures, properties, and reliabilities of POFs for these applications.

  5. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…

  6. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 15 terminal objectives for a basic automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hours daily) course for organized classroom and shop experiences designed to enable the student to develop…

  7. Automotive Mechanics Occupational Performance Survey. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borcher, Sidney D.; Leiter, Paul B.

    The purpose of this federally-funded interim report is to present the results of a task inventory analysis survey of automotive mechanics completed by project staff within the Instructional Systems Design Program at the Center for Vocational and Technical Education. Intended for use in curriculum development for vocational education programs in…

  8. Basic Automotive Responsibilities. Life Skills. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This teacher's guide is designed for use in presenting a four-unit course in basic automotive responsibilities that is part of a life skills series intended to help students become more self-sufficient in their personal and professional lives. The course's four instructional units cover these topics: purchasing a motor vehicle, maintaining a motor…

  9. Basic Automotive Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a basic automotive mechanics program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational…

  10. Orientation: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The first six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the basic theory and practice of a beginning course at the secondary and post-secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction…

  11. Computer Automated Holometry For Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gordon M.

    1988-06-01

    Current methods and equipment developed for computer automated holometry are described. Several applications including holo-photoelasticity of planar models, holographic interferometry of crankshaft bearing cap distortion due to bolt torquing and cylinder bore distortion due to head bolt torquing are discussed. Comments are made on future automotive applications.

  12. Adeninium cytosinium sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Cherouana, Aouatef; Bousboua, Raja; Bendjeddou, Lamia; Dahaoui, Slimane; Lecomte, Claude

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C5H6N5 +·C4H6N3O+·SO4 2−, the adeninium (AdH+) and cytosinium (CytH+) cations and sulfate dianion are involved in a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network with four different modes, viz. AdH+⋯AdH+, AdH+⋯CytH+, AdH+⋯SO4 2− and CytH+⋯SO4 2−. The adeninium cations form N—H⋯N dimers through the Hoogsteen faces, generating a characteristic R 2 2(10) motif. This AdH+⋯AdH+ hydrogen bond in combination with AdH+⋯CytH+ H-bonds leads to two-dimensional cationic ribbons parallel to the a axis. The sulfate anions inter­link the ribbons into a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network and thus reinforce the crystal structure. PMID:21577678

  13. Thermodynamics of reformulated automotive fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Zudkevitch, D.; Murthy, A.K.S.; Gmehling, J.

    1995-06-01

    Two methods for predicting Reid vapor pressure (Rvp) and initial vapor emissions of reformulated gasoline blends that contain one or more oxygenated compounds show excellent agreement with experimental data. In the first method, method A, D-86 distillation data for gasoline blends are used for predicting Rvp from a simulation of the mini dry vapor pressure equivalent (Dvpe) experiment. The other method, method B, relies on analytical information (PIANO analyses) of the base gasoline and uses classical thermodynamics for simulating the same Rvp equivalent (Rvpe) mini experiment. Method B also predicts composition and other properties for the fuel`s initial vapor emission. Method B, although complex, is more useful in that is can predict properties of blends without a D-86 distillation. An important aspect of method B is its capability to predict composition of initial vapor emissions from gasoline blends. Thus, it offers a powerful tool to planners of gasoline blending. Method B uses theoretically sound formulas, rigorous thermodynamic routines and uses data and correlations of physical properties that are in the public domain. Results indicate that predictions made with both methods agree very well with experimental values of Dvpe. Computer simulation methods were programmed and tested.

  14. STATISTICAL VALIDATION OF SULFATE QUANTIFICATION METHODS USED FOR ANALYSIS OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Turbidimetric method (TM), ion chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) with and without acid digestion have been compared and validated for the determination of sulfate in mining wastewater. Analytical methods were chosen to compa...

  15. Chemical Indicators of Sulfate Sensitivity to Nitrogen Oxides and Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, A. F.; Lamb, D.

    2001-05-01

    The formation of aerosol sulfate (SO42-) in eastern North America is chemically linked to the abundance of oxidants in the lower troposphere and therefore also to the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) within the region. The sensitivity of sulfate production to NOx and VOC controls depends in part on the resulting changes in oxidant levels and the competition that naturally exists between clear-air and in-cloud oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2). We propose the use of a combination of model-simulated afternoon concentrations of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and ambient sufate as indicator species of the SO42--VOC-NOx sensitivity. Towards that end, ambient SO42- concentrations are simulated with a lagrangian model (OZIPR) as well as with a three-dimensional Eulerian model (MODELS-3) that covers the Northeastern United States. The concentrations of these indicator species are calculated from a series of photochemical model simulations with varying rates of NOx and VOC emissions. This study intends to show that ambient sulfate is likely to be VOC-sensitive when a non-dimensional combination of indicator species is less than a certain threshold. A higher value of this non-dimensional indicator identifies a NOx-sensitive sulfate regime. The transition between NOx- and VOC-sensitive regimes and the sulfate-formation pathways are also analyzed theoretically.

  16. Investigating antennas as ignition aid for automotive HID lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergner, A.; Engelhardt, M.; Bienholz, S.; Ruhrmann, C.; Hoebing, T.; Groeger, S.; Mentel, J.; Awakowicz, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the ignition of mercury-free high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps for car headlights. Due to safety reasons, these lamps need to have a fast run-up phase which is ensured, amongst other things, by a high Xe pressure of roughly 15 bar (cold) in the discharge vessel. The high Xe pressure causes an increased ignition voltage compared with former mercury-containing automotive HID lamps or low-pressure lamps used for general-lighting applications. The increase in ignition voltage can be limited if the electric field in front of the electrodes is raised by an uplifting of the electrical conductivity along the outer wall of the inner bulb either by a conductive layer on its surface or by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) within the outer bulb. This paper considers on the one hand conventional antennas deposited by physical vapour deposition (PVD) and on the other hand a combination of these antennas with a DBD within the outer-bulb operated in 100 mbar Ar as ignition aids. In both cases the antenna potential and antenna width are varied. Additionally, the effects of antenna thickness and antenna material are investigated. The ignition voltage, ignition current and light emission during ignition are measured on a nanosecond timescale. Furthermore, for the very first time, the ignition process is recorded in four consecutive intensified charge-coupled device images using a high-speed camera system with a time resolution in the range of nanoseconds. It was found that antennas strongly reduce the ignition voltage of automotive HID lamps. Active antennas reduce the ignition voltage significantly more than passive antennas, proportional to the conductance of the antenna. Combining conventional antennas with an outer-bulb discharge reduces the ignition voltage from 19 kV without any ignition aid to the intrinsic ignition voltage of the lamp below 10 kV, in the best case.

  17. Automotive Stirling engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Farrell, R.; Riecke, G.; Smith, G.; Howarth, R.; Cronin, M.; Simetkosky, M.; Meacher, J.

    1986-01-01

    The major accomplishments were the completion of the Basic Stirling Engine (BSE) and the Stirling Engine System (SES) designs on schedule, the approval and acceptance of those designs by NASA, and the initiation of manufacture of BSE components. The performance predictions indicate the Mod II engine design will meet or exceed the original program goals of 30% improvement in fuel economy over a conventional Internal Combustion (IC) powered vehicle, while providing acceptable emissions. This was accomplished while simultaneously reducing Mod II engine weight to a level comparable with IC engine power density, and packaging the Mod II in a 1985 Celebrity with no external sheet metal changes. The projected mileage of the Mod II Celebrity for the combined urban and highway CVS cycle is 40.9 mpg which is a 32% improvement over the IC Celebrity. If additional potential improvements are verified and incorporated in the Mod II, the mileage could increase to 42.7 mpg.

  18. Studies relevant to the design of reliable automotive electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hua

    This dissertation describes three independent studies related to the design of reliable automotive electronics. The topics covered are: the estimation of the radiated emissions from power bus structures, EM propagation of tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS), and examinations of corrosion-induced faults in a connector. The first chapter describes a method for estimating the maximum possible radiated emissions from a printed circuit board power bus. An analysis based on a lossy cavity model is performed to determine the maximum possible radiated field corresponding to a given power bus noise voltage. A closed-form expression relating the maximum power bus noise voltage to the radiation peaks is then derived. This expression is solved in reverse to determine the minimum power bus voltage necessary to generate a radiated field and can be applied to measured values of power bus noise voltage to determine whether radiation directly from the power bus is potentially the emissions source. The second chapter identifies transmission parameters from a rotating tire and the vehicle body's effect on tire sensor transmission and propagation; relates these effects to receiver antenna packaging requirements; and then, based on these results, proposes the antenna design of employing car body as a part. In the new proposed TPMS design, a 20mm x 5mm loop antenna with a 40mm x 10mm slot beneath it is added to capture the surface currents of the car body and block the current path to increase the current density around the loop antenna. The simulation results show that this design exhibits a propagation factor 150 times larger than the traditional design. The third chapter investigates the effects of different contaminants (salt, oil, grease) on the shunt resistance between pins of a cable connector. The test results show that salt-induced corrosion and moisture may cause intermittent shunting resistances capable of affecting the normal operation of automotive systems. One

  19. Intelligent imaging systems for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Chris; Huang, Yingping; Fu, Shan

    2004-03-01

    In common with many other application areas, visual signals are becoming an increasingly important information source for many automotive applications. For several years CCD cameras have been used as research tools for a range of automotive applications. Infrared cameras, RADAR and LIDAR are other types of imaging sensors that have also been widely investigated for use in cars. This paper will describe work in this field performed in C2VIP over the last decade - starting with Night Vision Systems and looking at various other Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. Emerging from this experience, we make the following observations which are crucial for "intelligent" imaging systems: 1. Careful arrangement of sensor array. 2. Dynamic-Self-Calibration. 3. Networking and processing. 4. Fusion with other imaging sensors, both at the image level and the feature level, provides much more flexibility and reliability in complex situations. We will discuss how these problems can be addressed and what are the outstanding issues.

  20. The intelligent automotive battery, "CYBOX ®"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Keizo; Yamada, Yoshifumi; Otsu, Koji; Machiyama, Yoshiaki; Emori, Akihiko; Okoshi, Teturo

    An intelligent battery to monitor battery states for an automotive use was newly developed. A main parameter to monitor battery states are based on the measurement of voltage variations that are to fluctuate immediately after an engine ignition. The developed monitoring unit is embedded into the lead-acid battery "CYBOX ®" which does not have a current monitoring unit. The monitoring unit that has an alarm system which is compact and highly reliable essentially diagnoses the state of charge and the state of health of battery states in order to inform automotive user of the adequate timing of replace, recharge, and the hazardous state of overcharge of batteries. The battery-monitoring unit has an optical data transfer system to extract internal data from external device. The battery-monitoring unit also has a data acquisition instrument which receives more detailed monitored historical data from the optical data transfer system of the monitoring unit.

  1. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-15

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  2. Automotive Stirling engine: Mod 2 design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, Noel P.

    1986-01-01

    The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod 2, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, demonstrating poor performance. Installed in a General Motors Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has a predicted combined fuel economy on unleaded gasoline of 17.5 km/l (41 mpg)- a value 50% above the current vehicle fleet average. The Mod 2 Stirling engine is a four-cylinder V-drive design with a single crankshaft. The engine is also equipped with all the controls and auxiliaries necessary for automotive operation.

  3. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-01

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  4. Ultrahigh carbon steel for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.

    1995-12-04

    Ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs), which contain 1--2.1% carbon, have remarkable structural properties for automotive application when processed to achieve fine ferrite grains with fine spheroidized carbides. When processed for high room temperature ductility, UHCS can have good tensile ductility but significantly higher strength than current automotive high strength steels. The material can also be made superplastic at intermediate temperatures and exhibits excellent die fill capability. Furthermore, they can be made hard with high compression ductility. In wire form it is projected that UHCS can exhibit extremely high strengths (5,000 MPa) for tire cord applications. Examples of structural components that have been formed from fine-grained spheroidized UHCSs are illustrated.

  5. Glycosaminoglycan sulfation in murine splenocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, C.C.; Hart, G.W.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have studied the incorporation of /sup 35/sulfate into glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in splenocytes incubated in medium RPMI 1640 containing 3..mu..M sulfate. Addition of Concanavalin A (Con A) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused within 24 hr a 10- to 20-fold increase in incorporation into secreted GAG and a 2- to 4-fold increase in cell-retained GAG. PMA added alone caused only 2- to 4-fold increases in both fractions. Between 0 and 3 h however, PMA either alone or with Con A caused a substantial decrease in the incorporation of sulfate into the cellular GAG fraction, suggesting that an immediate effect of these agents is to cause the clearance of nascent GAG chains from the Golgi. The composition of newly sulfated lymphocyte GAG has been found to be approximately 75% chondroitin sulfate and 25% heparan sulfates in both secreted and non-secreted GAG irrespective of the presence of Con A and PMA. Amino column HPLC analysis of disaccharides released by chondroitinase ABC digestion indicates that both ..delta.. Di-4S and ..delta.. Di-6S are produced with the proportion of the latter increasing gradually from initially low levels such that at 24 h, equal proportions of the two are found. Possible mechanisms for this change in the position of sulfation will be discussed.

  6. General Motors automotive fuel cell program

    SciTech Connect

    Fronk, M.H.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of the second phase of the GM/DOE fuel cell program is to develop and test a 30 kW fuel cell powerplant. This powerplant will be based on a methanol fuel processor and a proton exchange membrane PM fuel cell stack. In addition, the 10 kW system developed during phase I will be used as a {open_quotes}mule{close_quotes} to test automotive components and other ancillaries, needed for transient operation.

  7. Friction of Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2013-01-01

    This brief overview of friction-related issues in materials for automobiles is invited for a special issue on automotive materials in the ASM journal AM&P. It describes a range of areas in a ground vehicle in which friction must be controlled or minimized. Applications range from piston rings to tires, and from brakes to fuel injector components. A perspective on new materials and lubricants, and the need for validation testing is presented.

  8. Directions for computational mechanics in automotive crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, James A.; Khalil, T. B.

    1993-01-01

    The automotive industry has used computational methods for crashworthiness since the early 1970's. These methods have ranged from simple lumped parameter models to full finite element models. The emergence of the full finite element models in the mid 1980's has significantly altered the research direction. However, there remains a need for both simple, rapid modeling methods and complex detailed methods. Some directions for continuing research are discussed.

  9. Fumigation of Alcohol in a Light Duty Automotive Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broukhiyan, E. M. H.; Lestz, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    A light-duty automotive Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 35% and 50% of the total fuel energy respectively in order to determine the effect of alcohol fumigation on engine performance at various operating conditons. Engine fuel efficiency, emissions, smoke, and the occurrence of severe knock were the parameters used to evaluate performance. Raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract were screened for biological activity using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Results are given for a test matrix made up of twelve steady-state operating conditions. For all conditions except the 1/4 rack (light load) condition, modest thermal efficiency gains were noted upon ethanol fumigation. Methanol showed the same increase at 3/4 and full rack (high load) conditions. However, engine roughness or the occurrence of severe knock limited the maximum amount of alcohol that could be fumigated. Brake specific nitrogen oxide concentrations were found to decrease for all ethanol conditions tested. Oxides of nitrogen emissions, on a volume basis, decreased for all alcohol conditions tested. Based on the limited particulate data analyzed, it appears that ethanol fumigation, like methanol fumigation, while lowering the mass of particulated emitted, does enhance the biological activity of that particulate.

  10. Ultrafine and respirable particles in an automotive grey iron foundry.

    PubMed

    Evans, Douglas E; Heitbrink, William A; Slavin, Thomas J; Peters, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    Ultrafine particle number and respirable particle mass concentrations were measured throughout an automotive grey iron foundry during winter, spring and summer using a particle concentration mapping procedure. Substantial temporal and spatial variability was observed in all seasons and attributed, in part, to the batch nature of operations, process emission variability and frequent work interruptions. The need for fine mapping grids was demonstrated, where elevations in particle concentrations were highly localized. Ultrafine particle concentrations were generally greatest during winter when incoming make-up air was heated with direct fire, natural gas burners. Make-up air drawn from roof level had elevated respirable mass and ultrafine number concentrations above ambient outdoor levels, suggesting inadvertent recirculation of foundry process emissions. Elevated respirable mass concentrations were highly localized on occasions (e.g. abrasive blasting and grinding), depended on the area within the facility where measurements were obtained, but were largely unaffected by season. Particle sources were further characterized by measuring their respective number and mass concentrations by particle size. Sources that contributed to ultrafine particles included process-specific sources (e.g. melting and pouring operations), and non-process sources (e.g. direct fire natural gas heating units, a liquid propane-fuelled sweeper and cigarette smoking) were additionally identified. PMID:18056626

  11. Aerodynamic Flow Field Measurements for Automotive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepner, Timothy E.

    1999-01-01

    The design of a modern automotive air handling system is a complex task. The system is required to bring the interior of the vehicle to a comfortable level in as short a time as possible. A goal of the automotive industry is to predict the interior climate of an automobile using advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods. The development of these advanced prediction tools will enable better selection of engine and accessory components. The goal of this investigation was to predict methods used by the automotive industry. To accomplish this task three separate experiments were performed. The first was a laboratory setup where laser velocimeter (LV) flow field measurements were made in the heating and air conditioning unit of a Ford Windstar. The second involved flow field measurements in the engine compartment of a Ford Explorer, with the engine running idle. The third mapped the flow field exiting the center dashboard panel vent inside the Explorer, while the circulating fan operated at 14 volts. All three experiments utilized full-coincidence three-component LV systems. This enabled the mean and fluctuating velocities to be measured along with the Reynolds stress terms.

  12. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.70 Applicability; description of the automotive...

  13. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.70 Applicability; description of the automotive...

  14. 75 FR 11938 - Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, MI; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, MI; Notice of Termination... Meridian Automotive Systems, Grand Rapids, Michigan (Meridian Automotive). The petitioning group of...

  15. 76 FR 72442 - Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... COMMISSION Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... automotive GPS navigation systems, components thereof, and products containing same by reason of infringement... after importation of certain automotive GPS navigation systems, components thereof, and...

  16. Final report: U.S. competitive position in automotive technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Michael B.; Cheney, Margaret; Thomas, Patrick; Kroll, Peter

    2002-09-30

    Patent data are presented and analyzed to assess the U.S. competitive position in eleven advanced automotive technology categories, including automotive fuel cells, hydrogen storage, advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles and others. Inventive activity in most of the technologies is found to be growing at a rapid pace, particularly in advanced batteries, automotive fuel cells and ultracapacitors. The U.S. is the clear leader in automotive fuel cells, on-board hydrogen storage and light weight materials. Japan leads in advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles, ultracapacitors, and appears to be close to overtaking the U.S. in other areas of power electronics.

  17. Future Automotive Aftertreatment Solutions: The 150°C Challenge Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zammit, Michael; DiMaggio, Craig L.; Kim, Chang H.; Lambert, Christine; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Parks, James E.; Howden, Ken

    2013-10-15

    With future fuel economy standards enacted, the U.S. automotive manufacturers (OEMs) are committed to pursuing a variety of high risk/highly efficient stoichiometric and lean combustion strategies to achieve superior performance. In recognition of this need, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has partnered with domestic automotive manufacturers through U.S. DRIVE to develop these advanced technologies. However, before these advancements can be introduced into the U.S. market, they must also be able to meet increasingly stringent emissions requirements. A significant roadblock to this implementation is the inability of current catalyst and aftertreatment technologies to provide the required activity at the much lower exhaust temperatures that will accompany highly efficient combustion processes and powertrain strategies. Therefore, the goal of this workshop and report is to create a U.S. DRIVE emission control roadmap that will identify new materials and aftertreatment approaches that offer the potential for 90% conversion of emissions at low temperature (150°C) and are consistent with highly efficient combustion technologies currently under investigation within U.S. DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) programs.

  18. AGT-102 automotive gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Development of a gas turbine powertrain with a 30% fuel economy improvement over a comparable S1 reciprocating engine, operation within 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, and 0.40 NOx grams per mile emissions levels, and ability to use a variety of alternate fuels is summarized. The powertrain concept consists of a single-shaft engine with a ceramic inner shell for containment of hot gasses and support of twin regenerators. It uses a fixed-geometry, lean, premixed, prevaporized combustor, and a ceramic radial turbine rotor supported by an air-lubricated journal bearing. The engine is coupled to the vehicle through a widerange continuously variable transmission, which utilizes gearing and a variable-ratio metal compression belt. A response assist flywheel is used to achieve acceptable levels of engine response. The package offers a 100 lb weight advantage in a Chrysler K Car front-wheel-drive installation. Initial layout studies, preliminary transient thermal analysis, ceramic inner housing structural analysis, and detailed performance analysis were carried out for the basic engine.

  19. Simultaneous quantification of cholesterol sulfate, androgen sulfates, and progestagen sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS[S

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Oji, Vinzenz; Hartmann, Michaela F.; Traupe, Heiko; Wudy, Stefan A.

    2015-01-01

    Steroids are primarily present in human fluids in their sulfated forms. Profiling of these compounds is important from both diagnostic and physiological points of view. Here, we present a novel method for the quantification of 11 intact steroid sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS. The compounds analyzed in our method, some of which are quantified for the first time in blood, include cholesterol sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone sulfate, 16-α-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenediol sulfate, androsterone sulfate, epiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone sulfate, epitestosterone sulfate, and dihydrotestosterone sulfate. The assay was conceived to quantify sulfated steroids in a broad range of concentrations, requiring only 300 μl of serum. The method has been validated and its performance was studied at three quality controls, selected for each compound according to its physiological concentration. The assay showed good linearity (R2 > 0.99) and recovery for all the compounds, with limits of quantification ranging between 1 and 80 ng/ml. Averaged intra-day and between-day precisions (coefficient of variation) and accuracies (relative errors) were below 10%. The method has been successfully applied to study the sulfated steroidome in diseases such as steroid sulfatase deficiency, proving its diagnostic value. This is, to our best knowledge, the most comprehensive method available for the quantification of sulfated steroids in human blood. PMID:26239050

  20. Copper sulfates as cathode materials for Li batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieger, Jonathan N.; Kraytsberg, Alexander; Ein-Eli, Yair

    As lithium battery technology sets out to bridge the gap between portable electronics and the electrical automotive industry, cathode materials still stand as the bottleneck regarding performances. In the realm of highly attractive polyanion-type structures as high-voltage cathode materials, the sulfate group (SO 4) 2- possesses an acknowledged superiority over other contenders in terms of open circuit voltage arising from the inductive effect of strong covalent S-O bonds. In parallel, novel lithium insertion mechanisms are providing alternatives to traditional intercalation, enabling reversible multi-electron processes securing high capacities. Combining both of these advantageous features, we report here the successful electrochemical reactivity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO 4·5H 2O) with respect to lithium insertion via a two-electron displacement reaction entailing the extrusion of metallic copper at a dual voltage of 3.2 V and 2.7 V followed by its reversible insertion at 3.5 V and 3.8 V. At this stage, cyclability was still shown to be limited due to the irreversible degradation to a monohydrate structure owing to constitutional water loss.

  1. Hybrid Automotive Engine Using Ethanol-Burning Miller Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    A proposed hybrid (internal-combustion/ electric) automotive engine system would include as its internal-combustion subsystem, a modified Miller-cycle engine with regenerative air preheating and with autoignition like that of a Diesel engine. The fuel would be ethanol and would be burned lean to ensure complete combustion. Although the proposed engine would have a relatively low power-to-weight ratio compared to most present engines, this would not be the problem encountered if this engine were used in a non-hybrid system since hybrid systems require significantly lower power and thus smaller engines than purely internal-combustion-engine-driven vehicles. The disadvantage would be offset by the advantages of high fuel efficiency, low emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate pollutants, and the fact that ethanol is a renewable fuel. The original Miller-cycle engine, named after its inventor, was patented in the 1940s and is the basis of engines used in some modern automobiles, but is not widely known. In somewhat oversimplified terms, the main difference between a Miller-cycle engine and a common (Otto-cycle) automobile engine is that the Miller-cycle engine has a longer expansion stroke while retaining the shorter compression stroke. This is accomplished by leaving the intake valve open for part of the compression stroke, whereas in the Otto cycle engine, the intake valve is kept closed during the entire compression stroke. This greater expansion ratio makes it possible to extract more energy from the combustion process without expending more energy for compression. The net result is greater efficiency. In the proposed engine, the regenerative preheating would be effected by running the intake air through a heat exchanger connected to the engine block. The regenerative preheating would offer two advantages: It would ensure reliable autoignition during operation at low ambient temperature and would help to cool the engine, thereby reducing the remainder of the

  2. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  6. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate. 558.364 Section 558.364 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.364 Neomycin sulfate. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated article: 325 grams per.... (c) (d) Conditions of use. Neomycin sulfate is used as follows: Neomycin Sulfate...

  7. Tribopolymerization: An advanced lubrication concept for automotive engines and systems of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Furey, M.J.; Kajdas, C.; Kaltenbach, K.W.

    1997-12-31

    Advanced lubrication technologies based on the concept of tribopolymerization as a mechanism of boundary lubrication are described. Advantages of this approach as well as potential applications which could have an impact on the design, manufacture, and performance of existing and future automotive engines are presented and discussed. Tribopolymerization, a novel concept of molecular design developed by Furey and Kajdas, involves the continuous formation of thin polymeric films on rubbing surfaces; the protective films formed are self-replenishing. The antiwear compounds developed from this technology are effective with metals as well as ceramics and in the liquid as well as vapor phases. Furthermore, they are ashless and contain no harmful phosphorus or sulfur; and many are biodegradable. Thus, potential applications of this technology are diverse and include a variety of cost/performance/energy/environmental advantages. Examples include the following: (a) machining and cutting applications using thin films to reduce friction and ceramic tool wear; (b) the lubrication of ceramic engines (e.g., low heat rejection diesel engines) or ceramic components; (c) the development of ashless lubricants for existing and future automotive engines to reduce exhaust catalyst poisoning and environmental emissions; (d) ashless antiwear or ``lubricity`` additives for fuels, including gasoline, diesel and jet fuel; (e) vapor phase applications of this technology to high temperature gaseous systems or to fuel injector wear problems associated with the use of natural gas engines; and (f) the use of the concept of tribopolymerization as an enabling technology in the development of new engines and new automotive propulsion systems.

  8. Advanced high temperature materials for the energy efficient automotive Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, R. H.; Stephens, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The Stirling Engine is under investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternative to the internal combustion engine for automotive applications. The Stirling Engine is an external combustion engine that offers the advantage of high fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations compared to current internal combustion automotive engines. The most critical component from a materials viewpoint is the heater head consisting of the cylinders, heating tubes, and regenerator housing. Materials requirements for the heater head include compatibility with hydrogen, resistance to hydrogen permeation, high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance and high temperature creep-rupture and fatigue properties. A continuing supporting materials research and technology program has identified the wrought alloys CG-27 and 12RN72 and the cast alloys XF-818 and NASAUT 4G-A1 as candidate replacements for the cobalt containing alloys used in current prototype engines. Based on the materials research program in support of the automotive Stirling engine it is concluded that manufacture of the engine is feasible from low cost iron-base alloys rather than the cobalt alloys rather than the cobalt alloys used in prototype engines. This paper will present results of research that led to this conclusion.

  9. Ambient aerosols remain highly acidic despite dramatic sulfate reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead

    2016-04-01

    The pH of fine particles has many vital environmental impacts. By affecting aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity, particle pH is linked to regional air quality and climate, and adverse effects on human health. Sulfate is often the main acid component that drives pH of fine particles (i.e., PM2.5) and is neutralized to varying degrees by gas phase ammonia. Sulfate levels have decreased by approximately 70% over the Southeastern United States in the last fifteen years, but measured ammonia levels have been fairly steady implying the aerosol may becoming more neutral. Using a chemically comprehensive data set, combined with a thermodynamic analysis, we show that PM2.5 in the Southeastern U.S. is highly acidic (pH between 0 and 2), and that pH has remained relatively unchanged throughout the past decade and a half of decreasing sulfate. Even with further sulfate reductions, pH buffering by gas-particle partitioning of ammonia is expected to continue until sulfate drops to near background levels, indicating that fine particle pH will remain near current levels into the future. These results are non-intuitive and reshape expectations of how sulfur emission reductions impact air quality in the Southeastern U.S. and possibly other regions across the globe.

  10. Automotive Service Occupations. A Suggested Outline of Services and Levels for the Automotive Industries Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Designed to help teachers of automotive services select the body of knowledge and experiences leading to the development of salable skills which might be necessary at various levels of complexity, this guide suggests an alignment of content, with teaching suggestions, for use in developing a vocational program to prepare youth and adults for…

  11. Automotive Air Conditioning and Heating; Automotive Mechanics (Advanced): 9047.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to provide the student with all the foundations necessary to become employable in the automotive air conditioning and heating trade. The course of study includes an orientation to the world of work, the elementary physics of air conditioning and heating, and laboratory experiments…

  12. Automotive Body Trim and Glass; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help students become employable with skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values necessary for performing the required service of the automotive trim and glass mechanic. The course of study includes an orientation to the course, service tools and bench skills development, and a study…

  13. Sulfate in acid rain data - do the patterns make sense?

    SciTech Connect

    Stensland, G.J.

    1997-12-31

    A high quality national record of precipitation chemistry is being collected through the operation of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). This network began in 1978 with less than 20 sites and by the mid 1980`s had grown to about 200 sites which is about the number of sites currently in operation. Lynch et al. have been reporting time trend results for this data, with their most recent analysis showing that sulfate in NADP/NTN decreased dramatically in 1995 which agrees with the substantial decrease in sulfur dioxide emissions. The various network data available before NADP/NTN have been reported to have a variety of problems, especially related to the effect on pH of the elevated levels of base cations. The sulfate and nitrate data may be more useable. This paper reassesses the sulfate data available from the Junge network to see if these data can be used to extend the comparison of sulfate in precipitation and sulfur dioxide emissions back to the mid 1950`s.

  14. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational Curricula. Automotive Mechanics. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Larry; Shin, Masako

    This document, one of eight in a multi-cultural competency-based vocational/technical curricula series, is on automotive mechanics. This program is designed to run 36 weeks and cover 10 instructional areas: the engine; drive trains--rear ends/drive shafts/manual transmission; carburetor; emission; ignition/tune-up; charging and starting;…

  15. Overview: DOE/NASA automotive gas turbine and stirling projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beremand, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    An overview on the progress of the automotive gas turbine and automotive Stirling engine technology projects is presented. The following items are reported: (1) formulation and execution of projects in accordance with the Auto Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978; (2) substantive technology accomplishments; and (3) future path options of the programs.

  16. 76 FR 40591 - Coordinating Policies on Automotive Communities and Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Policies on Automotive Communities and Workers By the authority vested in me as President by the.... Over the last decade, the United States has experienced a decline in employment in the automotive industry and among part suppliers. This decline accelerated dramatically from 2008 to 2009, with more...

  17. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers theory and construction, inspection diagnoses, and service and overhaul of automotive engines. The course is comprised of five units: (1) Fundamentals of Four-Cycle Engines, (2) Engine Construction, (3) Valve Train, (4) Lubricating Systems, and (5)…

  18. Manual Drivetrain and Axles Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains materials for teaching the manual drive trains and axle specialist component of a competency-based instructional program for students preparing for employment in the automotive service trade. It is based on National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. Six instructional units contain materials…

  19. DISTANT VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. HOSE WINDING SHED ADJACENT TO SHED-ROOFED ADDITION ON THE UTILITY BUILDING, BLM SEED SHED AND TACK SHED VISIBLE IN FAR DISTANCE. VIEW TO EAST/ - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  20. DISTANCE VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANCE VIEW, AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP ON LEFT AND UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. HOSE WINDING SHED ADJACENT TO SHED-ROOFED ADDITION ON THE UTILITY BUILDING, BLM SEED SHED AND TACK SHED VISIBLE IN FAR DISTANCE. VIEW TO EAST, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  1. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Electrical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, diagnosis, repair, and adjustment of automotive electrical systems. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Fundamentals of Electrical Systems, (2) Battery Servicing, (3) Starting Systems, (4) Charging Systems, (5) Ignition Systems,…

  2. An Overview of NASA Automotive Component Reliability Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The results of NASAs studies into the appropriateness of using US Automotive electronic parts in NASA spaceflight systems will be presented. The first part of the presentation provides an overview of the United States Automotive Electronics Councils AECQ standardization program, the second part provides a summary of the results of NASAs procurement and testing experiences and other lessons learned along with preliminary test results.

  3. An Overview Of NASA Automotive Component Reliability Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The results of NASAs studies into the appropriateness of using US Automotive electronic parts in NASA spaceflight systems will be presented. The first part of the presentation provides an overview of the United States Automotive Electronics Councils AECQ standardization program, the second part provides a summary of the results of NASAs procurement and testing experiences and other lessons learned along with preliminary test results.

  4. Electrohydraulic Forming of Near Net Shape Automotive Panels

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the electrohydraulic forming (EHF) process as a near net shape automotive panel manufacturing technology that simultaneously reduces the energy embedded in vehicles and the energy consumed while producing automotive structures.

  5. AUTOMOTIVE SERVICE SPECIALIST, A SUGGESTED GUIDE FOR A TRAINING COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OETTMEIER, ARTHUR J.; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS TEACHING GUIDE IS TO SERVE AS A REFERENCE AND COURSE OUTLINE FOR THE INSTRUCTOR. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A COLLEGE AUTOMOTIVE DEPARTMENT HEAD AND REPRESENTATIVES OF AUTOMOTIVE SERVICE INDUSTRIES, PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES, AND GARAGES. THIS COURSE IS ADAPTABLE TO PREPARATORY, UPGRADING, OR RETRAINING PURPOSES. UNITS ARE SERVICE…

  6. Fuel System: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The fourth of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive fuel systems at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  7. Cooling System: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The last of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the automotive cooling system at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  8. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance. Volume 1. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Fourteen units on minor automotive maintenance are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: introduction to minor automotive maintenance, shop safety, engine principles, fuel system operation and repair, electrical system, ignition system, lubrication system, engine cooling system, exhaust system, wheel bearings and tires,…

  9. Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide for automatic brakes service is one in a series of automotive service speciality publications that is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The curriculum is composed of four units. Each unit of instruction may contain some or all of the following components: objective sheet, suggested…

  10. Nanofluids with CNTs for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, V.; Moorthy, Ch. V. K. N. S. N.; Dedeepya, V.; Manikanta, P. V.; Satish, V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper summarizes a recent work on anti-corrosive and enhanced heat transfer properties of carboxylated water based nanofluids. DI water mixed with Sebacic acid (C10H18O4) as carboxylate additive is dispersed with multi walled carbon nanotubes and tested for corrosion and heat transfer characteristics. Corrosion studies made as per ASTM D 1384 show that carboxylate water dispersed with MWCNTs is resistant to corrosion and hence suitable for automotive environment. In addition to MWCNTs, carboxylated water dispersed with nano sized silver, copper and Aluminium oxide are also tested for corrosion performance but found to be giving considerable corrosion in automotive environment. The stability of MWCNT based nanofluids in terms of zeta potential is found to be good with carboxylated water compared to DI water. Significant improvement is observed in the thermal conductivity of nanofluids dispersed with MWCNTs. There is a slight increase in viscosity and marginal decrease in the specific heat of nanofluids with addition of carboxylate as well as MWCNTs. The carboxylated water is dispersed with very low mass concentration of multi walled carbon nano tubes at 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 % and tested for heat transfer performance. The heat transfer studies are made in Reynolds number range of 2500-6000 in the developing flow regime. The heat transfer performance of nanofluids is carried out on an air cooled heat exchanger similar to an automotive radiator with incoming air velocities across radiator maintained at 5, 10 and 15 m/s. The coolant side overall heat transfer coefficient and overall heat transfer coefficient have improved markedly. It is also found that the velocity of air and flow rate of coolant plays an important role in enhancement of overall heat transfer coefficient. Stanton number correlation for the entire data has been developed. It is found that the wall temperature gradients play an important role in the enhancement of heat transfer when nanofluids are

  11. Natural or anthropogenic? On the origin of atmospheric sulfate deposition in the Andes of southeastern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski Giannoni, S.; Rollenbeck, R.; Trachte, K.; Bendix, J.

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric sulfur deposition above certain limits can represent a threat to tropical forests, causing nutrient imbalances and mobilizing toxic elements that impact biodiversity and forest productivity. Atmospheric sources of sulfur deposited by precipitation have been roughly identified in only a few lowland tropical forests. Even scarcer are studies of this type in tropical mountain forests, many of them mega-diversity hotspots and especially vulnerable to acidic deposition. In these places, the topographic complexity and related streamflow conditions affect the origin, type, and intensity of deposition. Furthermore, in regions with a variety of natural and anthropogenic sulfur sources, like active volcanoes and biomass burning, no source emission data has been used for determining the contribution of each source to the deposition. The main goal of the current study is to evaluate sulfate (SO4- deposition by rain and occult precipitation at two topographic locations in a tropical mountain forest of southern Ecuador, and to trace back the deposition to possible emission sources applying back-trajectory modeling. To link upwind natural (volcanic) and anthropogenic (urban/industrial and biomass-burning) sulfur emissions and observed sulfate deposition, we employed state-of-the-art inventory and satellite data, including volcanic passive degassing as well. We conclude that biomass-burning sources generally dominate sulfate deposition at the evaluated sites. Minor sulfate transport occurs during the shifting of the predominant winds to the north and west. Occult precipitation sulfate deposition and likely rain sulfate deposition are mainly linked to biomass-burning emissions from the Amazon lowlands. Volcanic and anthropogenic emissions from the north and west contribute to occult precipitation sulfate deposition at the mountain crest Cerro del Consuelo meteorological station and to rain-deposited sulfate at the upriver mountain pass El Tiro meteorological station.

  12. Natural or anthropogenic? On the origin of atmospheric sulfate deposition in the Andes of southeastern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski Giannoni, S.; Rollenbeck, R.; Trachte, K.; Bendix, J.

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric sulfur deposition above certain limits can represent a threat to tropical forests, causing nutrient imbalances and mobilizing toxic elements that impact biodiversity and forest productivity. Atmospheric sources of sulfur deposited by precipitation have being roughly identified in only a few lowland tropical forests. Even scarcer are these type of studies in tropical mountain forests, many of them megadiversity hotspots and especially vulnerable to acidic deposition. Here, the topographic complexity and related streamflow condition the origin, type, and intensity of deposition. Furthermore, in regions with a variety of natural and anthropogenic sulfur sources, like active volcanoes and biomass-burning, no source-emission data has been used for determining the contribution of each of them to the deposition. The main goal of the current study is to evaluate sulfate (SO4-) deposition by rain and occult precipitation at two topographic locations in a tropical mountain forest of southern Ecuador, and to trace back the deposition to possible emission sources applying back trajectory modeling. To link upwind natural (volcanic) and anthropogenic (urban/industrial and biomass-burning) sulfur emissions and observed sulfate deposition, we employed state of the art inventory and satellite data, including volcanic passive degassing as well. We conclude that biomass-burning sources generally dominate sulfate deposition at the evaluated sites. Minor sulfate transport occurs during the shifting of the predominant winds to the north and west. Occult precipitation sulfate deposition and likely rain sulfate deposition are mainly linked to biomass-burning emissions from the Amazon lowlands. Volcanic and anthropogenic emissions from the north and west contribute to occult precipitation sulfate deposition at the mountain crest Cerro del Consuelo meteorological station and to rain-deposited sulfate at the upriver mountain-pass El Tiro meteorological station.

  13. Choosing An Alloy For Automotive Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Joseph R.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes study of chemical compositions and microstructures of alloys for automotive Stirling engines. Engines offer advantages of high efficiency, low pollution, low noise, and ability to use variety of fuels. Twenty alloys evaluated for resistance to corrosion permeation by hydrogen, and high temperature. Iron-based alloys considered primary candidates because of low cost. Nickel-based alloys second choice in case suitable iron-based alloy could not be found. Cobalt-based alloy included for comparison but not candidate, because it is expensive strategic material.

  14. Advanced sheet steels for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, James R.; Strugala, Donald C.; Yao, Zhicong

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum degassing has recently been used by sheet steel producers to improve their products' ductility and strength. Carbon contents can be reduced by an order of magnitude to less than 0.0030 wt.%. Through careful alloying and processing, a range of new steel products has been developed for the automotive industry. These products include interstitial-free, deep-drawing-quality steels; formable, high-strength, interstitial-free steels; and bake-hardenable steels. This article summarizes the chemistry and processing needed to produce these products.

  15. Safeguarding teleoperation using automotive radar sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesbrecht, Jared; Fairbrother, Blaine

    2011-05-01

    The Multi-Agent Tactical Sentry Unmanned Ground Vehicle, developed at Defence R&D Canada - Suffield, has been in service with the Canadian Forces for six years. This tele-operated wheeled vehicle provides a capability for point detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear agents. During the service life of this system, it has become apparent that a means of automatically detecting obstacles in tele-operated and semi-autonomous modes would greatly increase the safety and reliability of the vehicle in cluttered or human occupied operating environments. This paper documents the design of such a system based on a 24 GHz automotive radar.

  16. Engineering plastics for the automotive industry

    SciTech Connect

    Egelman, N.

    1996-05-01

    Engineering thermoplastics are versatile polymeric materials that are known for their design flexibility, thermal and mechanical properties, aesthetic value, and potential for recyclability. The vast majority of automotive engineering thermoplastics are injection molded, although they are also extruded, thermoformed, and compression- or blow-molded. Compared with commodity plastics, engineering thermoplastics (ETPs) generally offer a better balance of physical and mechanical properties, broader thermal performance, and higher strength and impact resistance--the latter allowing for thin-wall part design and other manufacturing economies. Compared with thermosets, ETPs offer lower scrap and reject rates, reduction or elimination of many secondary finishing operations, and the advantage of melt reprocessibility.

  17. Baseline automotive gas turbine engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. E. (Editor); Pampreen, R. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Tests results on a baseline engine are presented to document the automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art at the start of the program. The performance characteristics of the engine and of a vehicle powered by this engine are defined. Component improvement concepts in the baseline engine were evaluated on engine dynamometer tests in the complete vehicle on a chassis dynamometer and on road tests. The concepts included advanced combustors, ceramic regenerators, an integrated control system, low cost turbine material, a continuously variable transmission, power-turbine-driven accessories, power augmentation, and linerless insulation in the engine housing.

  18. Forward-looking automotive radar sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganci, Paul; Potts, Steven; Okurowski, Frank

    1995-12-01

    For intelligent cruise control (ICC) and forward looking collision warning systems to be successful products they must provide robust performance in a complex roadway environment. Inconveniences caused by dropped tracks and nuisance alarms will not be tolerated by consumers, and would likely result in rejection of these new technologies in the marketplace. The authors report on a low-cost automotive millimeter wave (MMW) radar design which addresses shortcomings associated with previously reported ICC system implementations. The importance of the sensor's ability to identify and separately track all obstacles in the field of view is discussed. The applicability of the MMW's FM-CW sensor implementation to collision warning systems is also discussed.

  19. Quantifying the amount of primary ship sulfate in a polluted maritime environment using triple-oxygen isotopic measurements of sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, G.; Jackson, T.; Brothers, L.; Barnett, B.; Nguyen, B.; Thiemens, M.

    2008-12-01

    Maritime vessels burning sulfur-rich fuel are major sources of SOx, NOx, and primary sulfate (p- SO4) in the environment. This is expected to be true in areas surrounding major ports, contributing to respiratory and cardiovascular health problems and even premature death. These areas are also associated with major emissions of sulfate from diesel truck traffic, making it difficult to apportion source contributions using concentration measurements alone. Using triple-oxygen isotopic (δ17O, δ18O) measurements of sulfate in size-segregated aerosols collected at a coastal location and samples of primary sulfate from the exhaust of a maritime diesel engine, we show that the contribution of p- SO4 from ships can be identified and quantified in the atmosphere. We find that while p-SO4 constitutes only 2-7% of all S emissions from ships, it can constitute as much as 46% of all nss-SO4 (Diameter<1.5 μm) found in coastal San Diego. Using quantitative analysis of HYSPLIT back-trajectory outputs, we show that ships docked in the Ports of San Diego and Los Angeles are the likely sources of the p-SO4(ships) we measure. This link is established quantitatively using the HYSPLIT backtrajectory method and is used to project exposure levels at other geographic locations in Southern California. We discuss the implications of our findings for public health, air quality, and atmospheric chemistry in general.

  20. The ARPA-E Innovation Model: A Glimpse into the Future of Automotive Battery Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Gur, Ilan (Program Director and Senior Advisor, ARPA-E)

    2016-07-12

    The Department of Energy's Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) focuses on funding game-changing R&D aimed at reducing U.S. foreign energy dependence and emissions. ARPA-E has made a strong commitment to support breakthrough energy storage technologies that can accelerate the mass adoption of electrified vehicles. This presentation will highlight the range of ARPA-E's efforts in this area, offering a glimpse into the ARPA-E innovation model and the future of automotive battery technology.

  1. The ARPA-E Innovation Model: A Glimpse into the Future of Automotive Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, Ilan

    2014-03-07

    The Department of Energy's Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) focuses on funding game-changing R&D aimed at reducing U.S. foreign energy dependence and emissions. ARPA-E has made a strong commitment to support breakthrough energy storage technologies that can accelerate the mass adoption of electrified vehicles. This presentation will highlight the range of ARPA-E's efforts in this area, offering a glimpse into the ARPA-E innovation model and the future of automotive battery technology.

  2. Experimental investigation on the flow around a simplified geometry of automotive engine compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, Marion; Gilliéron, Patrick; Devinant, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    In the current sustainable development context, car manufacturers have to keep doing efforts to reduce the aerodynamic drag of automotive vehicle in order to decrease their CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions. The cooling airflow, through the engine compartment of vehicles, contributes from 5 to 10% to the total aerodynamic drag. By means of simplified car geometry, equipped with an engine compartment, the configurations that favor a low contribution to total drag are identified. PIV (particle image velocimetry) velocity measurements in the wake of the geometry allow explaining these drag reductions. Besides, the cooling flow rate is also assessed and gives indications on the configurations that favor the engine cooling.

  3. Evaluation of dissociated and steam-reformed methanol as automotive engine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalk, T. R.; Mccall, D. M.; Mccanlies, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Dissociated and steam reformed methanol were evaluated as automotive engine fuels. Advantages and disadvantages in using methanol in the reformed rather than liquid state were discussed. Engine dynamometer tests were conducted with a four cylinder, 2.3 liter, spark ignition automotive engine to determine performance and emission characteristics operating on simulated dissociated and steam reformed methanol (2H2 + CO and 3H2 + CO2 respectively), and liquid methanol. Results are presented for engine performance and emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, at various throttle settings and engine speeds. Operation on dissociated and steam reformed methanol was characterized by flashback (violent propagation of a flame into the intake manifold) which limited operation to lower power output than was obtainable using liquid methanol. It was concluded that: an automobile could not be operated solely on dissociated or steam reformed methanol over the entire required power range - a supplementary fuel system or power source would be necessary to attain higher powers; the use of reformed mechanol, compared to liquid methanol, may result in a small improvement in thermal efficiency in the low power range; dissociated methanol is a better fuel than steam reformed methanol for use in a spark ignition engine; and use of dissociated or steam reformed methanol may result in lower exhaust emissions compared to liquid methanol.

  4. Sulfate-rich Archean Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, J. L.; Choney, A. P.; Ohmoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    There is a widely held belief that prior to 2.4 Ga, the Archean oceans and atmosphere were reducing, and therefore sulfate poor (concentrations <0.1 mmol). However, there is mounting evidence from diverse rock types of Archean ages that sulfate concentrations were likely similar to those in the modern ocean (~28 mmol). In this study we demonstrate that in different lithologies, representing a wide range of marine environments, there is ubiquitous evidence for abundant seawater sulfate. One of the more apparent lines of evidence for sulfate rich Archean waters are bedded barite (BaSO4) deposits, such as those in the ~3.4 Ga Fig Tree Group, South Africa and ~3.5 Ga Dresser Formation, Western Australia (WA). These deposits are thick (>100 m), widely distributed (> km2), and contain only minor amounts of sulfides. These barite beds may have developed from reactions between Ba-rich hydrothermal fluids and evaporate bodies. Simple mass balance calculations suggest that the sulfate contents of the pre-evaporitic seawater must have been greater than ~1 mM. Some researchers have suggested that the SO4 for these beds was derived from the hydrolysis of SO2-rich magmatic fluids. However, this was unlikely as the reaction, 4SO2 + 4H2O → 3H2SO4 + H2S would have produced large amounts of sulfide, as well as sulfate minerals. Many Archean-aged volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, much like those of the younger ages, record evidence for abundant seawater sulfate. As VMS deposits are most likely formed by submarine hydrothermal fluids that developed from seawater circulating through the seafloor rock, much of the seawater sulfate is reduced to from sulfides at depths. However, some residual sulfate in the hydrothermal fluids, with or without the addition of sulfate from the local seawater, can form sulfate minerals such as barite at near the seafloor. The d34S relationships between barites and pyrites in the Archean VMS deposits are similar to those of the younger VMS

  5. Growth of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Sulfate Brines and the Astrobiological Implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marnocha, C. L.; Chevrier, V. F.; Ivey, D. M.

    2011-03-01

    We suggest sulfate-reducing bacteria as a model for life on Mars, as sulfate brines have been shown to be stable in martian conditions. We have performed experiments to determine the survivability of these bacteria in high sulfate concentrations.

  6. Methods of producing sulfate salts of cations from heteroatomic compounds and dialkyl sulfates and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan

    2015-09-29

    Methods of preparing sulfate salts of heteroatomic compounds using dialkyl sulfates as a primary reactant are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of making ionic liquids from the sulfate salts of the heteroatomic compound, and electrochemical cells comprising the ionic liquids.

  7. Direct and Collisional Excitation of Automotive Fuel Components)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Allen R.; Wilson, Kyle; Sakai, Stephen; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2010-06-01

    Adding energy directly into the vibrational modes of automotive fuel may reduce the threshold energy required for combustion, without raising the combustion charge temperature. This energy can be supplied either directly via incident laser radiation or indirectly through collision with directly excited molecules. The most common chemical in commercial gasoline, isooctane, does not absorb infrared radiation sufficiently at any wavelength for which an infrared laser is readily available. However, CO2 lasers are relatively cheap, and are available at wavelengths which are absorbed by isopropanol as well as ethanol, which is also a component of commercial gasoline. In this study, the infrared absorption of isopropanol and ethanol in balance isooctane were measured at three wavelengths (10.6 m, 10.2 m, and 9.3 m) of incident CO2 laser radiation. Additional time-resolved emission measurements were performed for these mixtures. The data support the existence of the proposed collisional pathway for energy transfer from ethanol and isopropanol to isooctane.

  8. Investigation of breakdown processes in automotive HID lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergner, Andre; Hoebing, Thomas; Ruhrmann, Cornelia; Mentel, Juergen; Awakowicz, Peter

    2011-10-01

    HID lamps are used for applications where high lumen output levels are required. Car headlights are a special field of HID lamp application. For security reasons and lawful regulations these lamps have to have a fast run-up phase and the possibility of hot re-strike. Therefore the background gas pressure amounts to 1.5 MPa xenon. But this high background gas pressure has the disadvantage that the ignition voltage becomes quite high due to Paschen's law. For that reason this paper deals with the investigation of the breakdown process of HID lamps for automotive application. The ignition is investigated by electrical as well as optical methods. Ignition voltage and current are measured on a nanosecond time scale and correlated with simultaneous phase resolved high speed photography done by an ICCD camera. So the ignition process can be observed from the first light emission until to the formation of whole discharge channel. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support by BMBF within the European project 'SEEL - Solutions for Energy Efficient Lighting' (FKZ: 13N11265). Furthermore the author would like to thank Philips Lighting (Aachen) for valuable discussions.

  9. Sulfate deposition to surface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, A.; Brakke, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Critical loads are the highest deposition of strong acid anions in surface waters that will not cause harmful biological effects on populations, such as declines in or extinctions of fish. Our analysis focuses on sulfate deposition because in glaciated regions sulfate is conservative in soils, whereas nitrate in biologically cycled. Sulfate also is the dominant anion in acidic deposition and in most acidic lakes. This analysis, represents the first evaluation of certain data available from Norway and the eastern United States, with an emphasis on the data from Scandinavia. The concept of dose-response is widely used in connection with water pollution. Any lake system subjected to an external dose of pollutants will have an internal resistance (or buffer capacity) to the change. The response of the lake system will depend on the relative magnitudes of the dose and the resistance parameters.

  10. A procoagulant chemically sulfated mannan.

    PubMed

    Gracher, Ana Helena P; Santana, Aline G; Cipriani, Thales R; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-01-20

    Disorders of hemostasis can produce innumerous problems. Polysaccharides have been studied both as anticoagulant and as procoagulant agents. A mannan with a main chain of α-(1 → 6)-linked-Manp units, branched at O-2 mainly by side-chains of 2-O-linked-α-Manp units was chemically sulfated, structurally characterized by NMR and GC-MS (methylation, desulfation and methylation with trideuterated iodomethane), and tested in vitro and in vivo on blood coagulation models. Chemical analyses indicate a high degree of substitution on the sulfated polysaccharide. This polymer acted as a procoagulant agent, increasing blood coagulation in normal and hemophilic plasma, activated platelet aggregation and also decreased ex vivo aPTT. Polymers such as the sulfated mannan could be a helpful source of hemostatic agents to prevent hemorrhagic states. PMID:26572344

  11. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Hodgson; David Irick

    2005-09-30

    The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville has completed its sixth year of operation. During this period the Center has involved thirteen GATE Fellows and ten GATE Research Assistants in preparing them to contribute to advanced automotive technologies in the center's focus area: hybrid drive trains and control systems. Eighteen GATE students have graduated, and three have completed their course work requirements. Nine faculty members from three departments in the College of Engineering have been involved in the GATE Center. In addition to the impact that the Center has had on the students and faculty involved, the presence of the center has led to the acquisition of resources that probably would not have been obtained if the GATE Center had not existed. Significant industry interaction such as internships, equipment donations, and support for GATE students has been realized. The value of the total resources brought to the university (including related research contracts) exceeds $4,000,000. Problem areas are discussed in the hope that future activities may benefit from the operation of the current program.

  12. Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Gregory

    2011-03-01

    Essential to the long term success of advanced thermoelectric (TE) technology for practical waste heat recovery is fundamental physics and materials research aimed at discovering and understanding new high performance TE materials. Applications of such new materials require their development into efficient and robust TE modules for incorporation into real devices such as a TE generator (TEG) for automotive exhaust gas waste heat recovery. Our work at GM Global R&D includes a continuing investigation of Skutterudite-based material systems and new classes of compounds that have potential for TE applications. To assess and demonstrate the viability of a TEG using state-of-the-art materials and modules, we have designed, fabricated, installed, and integrated a working prototype TEG to recover exhaust gas waste heat from a production test vehicle. Preliminary results provide important data for the operation and validation of the mechanical, thermal, and electrical systems of the TEG in combination with the various vehicle systems (e.g., exhaust bypass valve and controls, thermocouples, gas and coolant flow and pressure sensors, TE voltage and output power). Recent results from our materials research work and our functioning automotive TEG will be presented. This work is supported by US DOE Grant # DE-FC26-04NT 42278.

  13. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, A.; Fitzek, F.; Rasshofer, R. H.

    2012-09-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insights into the object classification process. The impact of raw radar data properties can be directly observed in every layer of the classification system by avoiding machine learning and tracking. This gives information on the limiting factors of raw radar data in terms of classification decision making. To accomplish the very challenging distinction between pedestrians and static objects, five significant and stable object features from the spatial distribution and Doppler information are found. Experimental results with data from a 77 GHz automotive radar sensor show that over 95% of pedestrians can be classified correctly under optimal conditions, which is compareable to modern machine learning systems. The impact of the pedestrian's direction of movement, occlusion, antenna beam elevation angle, linear vehicle movement, and other factors are investigated and discussed. The results show that under real life conditions, radar only based pedestrian recognition is limited due to insufficient Doppler frequency and spatial resolution as well as antenna side lobe effects.

  14. Performance evaluation of an automotive thermoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubitsky, Andrei O.

    Around 40% of the total fuel energy in typical internal combustion engines (ICEs) is rejected to the environment in the form of exhaust gas waste heat. Efficient recovery of this waste heat in automobiles can promise a fuel economy improvement of 5%. The thermal energy can be harvested through thermoelectric generators (TEGs) utilizing the Seebeck effect. In the present work, a versatile test bench has been designed and built in order to simulate conditions found on test vehicles. This allows experimental performance evaluation and model validation of automotive thermoelectric generators. An electrically heated exhaust gas circuit and a circulator based coolant loop enable integrated system testing of hot and cold side heat exchangers, thermoelectric modules (TEMs), and thermal interface materials at various scales. A transient thermal model of the coolant loop was created in order to design a system which can maintain constant coolant temperature under variable heat input. Additionally, as electrical heaters cannot match the transient response of an ICE, modelling was completed in order to design a relaxed exhaust flow and temperature history utilizing the system thermal lag. This profile reduced required heating power and gas flow rates by over 50%. The test bench was used to evaluate a DOE/GM initial prototype automotive TEG and validate analytical performance models. The maximum electrical power generation was found to be 54 W with a thermal conversion efficiency of 1.8%. It has been found that thermal interface management is critical for achieving maximum system performance, with novel designs being considered for further improvement.

  15. Crashworthiness simulation of composite automotive structures

    SciTech Connect

    Botkin, M E; Johnson, N L; Simunovic, S; Zywicz, E

    1998-06-01

    In 1990 the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) began the investigation of crash worthiness simulation methods for composite materials. A contract was given to Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSTC) to implement a new damage model in LS-DYNA3DTM specifically for composite structures. This model is in LS-DYNA3DTM and is in use by the ACC partners. In 1994 USCAR, a partnership of American auto companies, entered into a partnership called SCAAP (Super Computing Automotive Applications Partnership) for the express purpose of working with the National Labs on computational oriented research. A CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) was signed with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory to work in three distinctly different technical areas, one of which was composites material modeling for crash worthiness. Each Laboratory was assigned a specific modeling task. The ACC was responsible for the technical direction of the composites project and provided all test data for code verification. All new models were to be implemented in DYNA3D and periodically distributed to all partners for testing. Several new models have been developed and implemented. Excellent agreement has been shown between tube crush simulation and experiments.

  16. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  17. Potential automotive uses of wrought magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Wu, S.; Stodolsky, F. |

    1996-06-01

    Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available to improve automotive fuel efficiency. High-strength steels, aluminum (Al), and polymers are already being used to reduce weight significantly, but substantial additional reductions could be achieved by greater use of low-density magnesium (Mg) and its alloys. Mg alloys are currently used in relatively small quantities for auto parts, generally limited to die castings (e.g., housings). Argonne National Laboratory`s Center for Transportation Research has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within DOE`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought Mg and its alloys to replace steel/aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. Mg sheet could be used in body nonstructural and semi-structural applications, while extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. This study identifies high cost as the major barrier to greatly increased Mg use in autos. Two technical R and D areas, novel reduction technology and better hot-forming technology, could enable major cost reductions.

  18. Pediatric automotive restraints, pediatricians, and the academy.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, H M; Emmet, W L; Coulson, A H

    1976-09-01

    Over 70% of the 192 Southern California Academy pediatricians responding to a survey teach parents about pediatric automotive safety devices but less than 3% do so on every visit. To test two methods of increasing the frequency of teaching, these pediatricians were randomly assigned to either a mailing from the Academy's local chapter (mail group) or a brief presentation by a local pharmaceutical representative at his regular visit (interview group); a follow-up was conducted one month later by mail. Sixty-one percent of the mail group and 49% of the interview group claimed that their teaching on this subject had increased since the original contact. While this difference did not reach statistical significance, it was in the same direction as the preferences for sources of pediatric information expressed by both groups of pediatricians. A special letter from the Academy was ranked most effective and a visit from the pharmaceutical representative was judged least effective. Because of the magnitude of the problem, availability of a solution, proof that pediatricians can influence health behavior related to children and acknowledgment of the Academy's role in pediatric education, an appeal is made for an all-out campaign by the Academy and its members to promote use of appropriate pediatric automotive safety devices.

  19. O-MIF signature in sulfate aerosols from Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwann, Legendre; Erwan, Martin; Slimane, Bekki; Armando, Retama; Pierre, Cartigny; Becky, Alexander; Aurora, Armienta Maria; Claus, Siebe

    2016-04-01

    Since the discovery of mass independent fractionation of sulfur and oxygen isotopes (S- and O-MIF) on Earth, the study of sulfate isotopic composition opened a new and wide field of investigation on the evolution of the atmospheric composition and its consequences for the climate. Sulfate aerosols that have a negative forcing on the climate can therefore be studied via their isotopic composition and leads to better constraints on their formation, fate and sinks, which is essential for our understanding of the sulfur cycle on Earth. In this study we focus on the interaction between anthropogenic and volcanic emissions that is necessary to figure out the climatic impact of volcanoes in large urban area. For the first time the O- composition of sulfate aerosols was monitored over the past 25 years in one of the world's largest megacities: Mexico City (MC). Sulfate aerosols from the megalopolis were sampled from 1989 to 2013 in different stations by high volume pumps and collected on glass filters. Additionally, fresh volcanic ash samples were collected during recent eruptions (from 1997 to 2013) of the Popocatepetl, which is only 70km from MC. After extraction and purification of sulfate from filters and volcanic ash, the isotopic composition is measured. The sulfate aerosols from MC show O-MIF composition with Δ17O of about 0.7‰ during the wet season and around 1.2‰ during the dry season and δ18O from -0.4‰ to 17.5‰. However, the volcanic sulfate aerosols from the Popocatepetl do not show O-MIF and δ18O vary from 7.0‰ to 12.2‰. The dataset allows us to discuss the seasonal variations in the SO2 oxidation pathways that lead to sulfate aerosol formation in the troposphere above MC during the last 25 years. Furthermore, since 1997 we are able to trace and quantify the influence of volcanic sulfate aerosols on the megalopolis, which is important for the sulfur budget in the region.

  20. Early Triassic seawater sulfate drawdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huyue; Tong, Jinnan; Algeo, Thomas J.; Song, Haijun; Qiu, Haiou; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Tian, Li; Bates, Steven; Lyons, Timothy W.; Luo, Genming; Kump, Lee R.

    2014-03-01

    The marine sulfur cycle is intimately linked to global carbon fluxes, atmospheric composition, and climate, yet relatively little is known about how it responded to the end-Permian biocrisis, the largest mass extinction of the Phanerozoic. Here, we analyze carbonate-associated-sulfate (CAS) from three Permo-Triassic sections in South China in order to document the behavior of the C-S cycle and its relationship to marine environmental changes during the mass extinction and its aftermath. We find that δ34SCAS varied from +9‰ to +44‰ at rates up to 100‰ Myr-1 during the Griesbachian-Smithian substages of the Early Triassic. We model the marine sulfur cycle to demonstrate that such rapid variation required drawdown of seawater sulfate concentrations to ⩽4 mM and a reduction in its residence time to ⩽200 kyr. This shorter residence time resulted in positive covariation with δ13Ccarb due to strong coupling of the organic carbon and pyrite burial fluxes. Carbon and sulfur isotopic shifts were associated with contemporaneous changes in climate, marine productivity, and microbial sulfate reduction rates, with negative shifts in δ13Ccarb and δ34SCAS linked to warming, decreased productivity, and reduced sulfate reduction. Sustained cooling during the Spathian re-invigorated oceanic overturning circulation, reduced marine anoxia, and limited pyrite burial. As seawater sulfate built to higher concentrations during the Spathian, the coupling of the marine C and S cycles came to an end and a general amelioration of marine environmental conditions set the stage for a recovery of invertebrate faunas. Variation in seawater sulfate during the Early Triassic was probably controlled by climate change, possibly linked to major eruptive phases of the Siberian Traps.

  1. Suitability of fluorescence measurements to quantify sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Barton, Larry L; Carpenter, Claire M

    2013-06-01

    Fluorescence activity has been used to identify Desulfovibrio and has been termed the 'desulfoviridin test'. This fluorescence is attributed to the prosthetic group of bisulfite reductase, a key enzyme in dissimilatory sulfate reduction. We have pursued the use of fluorescence measurements to quantify sulfate-reducing bacteria. Cells of D. desulfuricans and D. gigas were treated with NaOH and produced two fluorescence spectra: one with maximum fluorescence with an excitation at 395 nm and an emission at 605 nm and another with an excitation at 320 nm and emission at 360 nm. Using the fluorescence with excitation at 395 nm and emission at 605 nm, we explored a series of parameters to measure Desulfovibrio in pure cultures and environmental samples. Fluorescence measurements are reliable provided the cells are treated with 1.75 N NaOH and the chromophore released from the cells is not exposed to strong light intensity, and is not exposed to temperatures greater than 20 °C, and measurements are done within a few minutes of extraction. Bleaching of fluorescence was attributed to metal ions in solution which was not observed until metal concentrations reached 1.5mM. We propose that D. desulfuricans is appropriate as the reference organism for measurement of sulfate-reducing bacteria by fluorescence and by using fluorescence intensity, 10(5) cells/ml can be readily detected in environmental samples. PMID:23566827

  2. Suitability of fluorescence measurements to quantify sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Barton, Larry L; Carpenter, Claire M

    2013-06-01

    Fluorescence activity has been used to identify Desulfovibrio and has been termed the 'desulfoviridin test'. This fluorescence is attributed to the prosthetic group of bisulfite reductase, a key enzyme in dissimilatory sulfate reduction. We have pursued the use of fluorescence measurements to quantify sulfate-reducing bacteria. Cells of D. desulfuricans and D. gigas were treated with NaOH and produced two fluorescence spectra: one with maximum fluorescence with an excitation at 395 nm and an emission at 605 nm and another with an excitation at 320 nm and emission at 360 nm. Using the fluorescence with excitation at 395 nm and emission at 605 nm, we explored a series of parameters to measure Desulfovibrio in pure cultures and environmental samples. Fluorescence measurements are reliable provided the cells are treated with 1.75 N NaOH and the chromophore released from the cells is not exposed to strong light intensity, and is not exposed to temperatures greater than 20 °C, and measurements are done within a few minutes of extraction. Bleaching of fluorescence was attributed to metal ions in solution which was not observed until metal concentrations reached 1.5mM. We propose that D. desulfuricans is appropriate as the reference organism for measurement of sulfate-reducing bacteria by fluorescence and by using fluorescence intensity, 10(5) cells/ml can be readily detected in environmental samples.

  3. Biogenic, anthropogenic and sea salt sulfate size-segregated aerosols in the Arctic summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghahremaninezhad, Roghayeh; Norman, Ann-Lise; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Levasseur, Maurice; Thomas, Jennie L.

    2016-04-01

    Size-segregated aerosol sulfate concentrations were measured on board the Canadian Coast Guard Ship (CCGS) Amundsen in the Arctic during July 2014. The objective of this study was to utilize the isotopic composition of sulfate to address the contribution of anthropogenic and biogenic sources of aerosols to the growth of the different aerosol size fractions in the Arctic atmosphere. Non-sea-salt sulfate is divided into biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate using stable isotope apportionment techniques. A considerable amount of the average sulfate concentration in the fine aerosols with a diameter < 0.49 µm was from biogenic sources (> 63 %), which is higher than in previous Arctic studies measuring above the ocean during fall (< 15 %) (Rempillo et al., 2011) and total aerosol sulfate at higher latitudes at Alert in summer (> 30 %) (Norman et al., 1999). The anthropogenic sulfate concentration was less than that of biogenic sulfate, with potential sources being long-range transport and, more locally, the Amundsen's emissions. Despite attempts to minimize the influence of ship stack emissions, evidence from larger-sized particles demonstrates a contribution from local pollution. A comparison of δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols was used to show that gas-to-particle conversion likely occurred during most sampling periods. δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols were similar, suggesting the same source for SO2 and aerosol sulfate, except for two samples with a relatively high anthropogenic fraction in particles < 0.49 µm in diameter (15-17 and 17-19 July). The high biogenic fraction of sulfate fine aerosol and similar isotope ratio values of these particles and SO2 emphasize the role of marine organisms (e.g., phytoplankton, algae, bacteria) in the formation of fine particles above the Arctic Ocean during the productive summer months.

  4. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  5. Protein sulfation analysis--A primer.

    PubMed

    Monigatti, Flavio; Hekking, Brian; Steen, Hanno

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this review is to present an overview of protein sulfation in the context of 'modificomics', i.e. post-translational modification-specific proteome research. In addition to a short introduction to the biology of protein sulfation (part 1), we will provide detailed discussion regarding (i) methods and tools for prediction of protein tyrosine sulfation sites (part 2), (ii) biochemical techniques used for protein sulfation analysis (part 3.1), and (iii) mass spectrometric strategies and methods applied to protein sulfation analysis (part 3.2). We will highlight strengths and limitations of different strategies and approaches (including references), providing a primer for newcomers to protein sulfation analysis.

  6. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum Outline for Secondary Schools. Vocational Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum outline for secondary automotive mechanics is structured around Louisiana's Vocational-Technical Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. The curriculum is composed of 16 units of instruction, covering the following topics: benchwork, fundamentals of automotive engines, preventive maintenance, automotive brakes, steering and front…

  7. An Evaluation of 3D Woven Orthogonal Composites' Potential in the Automotive Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Dalia

    . The purpose of this research was to evaluate and predict composite panels' performance attributes based on these structural parameters. The tested properties include: tensile and flexural properties, impact performance, and fiber volume fraction. The testing results were compared with required performance characteristics for metal auto body parts. The properties of composite materials designed and developed in this research are comparable to the properties of materials currently used for auto body parts, e.g. BH 240 steels and 6000 series aluminum. It is evident that there is an opportunity to substitute some metal parts with lighter composite materials and to decrease automobile weight. Safety during an automotive crash can be influenced by the impact strength of the newly designed and produced material, so impact properties evaluation is the critical purpose of this study. Reducing the weight of the vehicle is not only popular because of its positive impact on fuel consumption, but also may provide additional benefits, such as CO2 emissions reductions, significantly reduced noise and vibration, increased performance, corrosion resistance, and handling characteristics of the vehicle.

  8. Sulfate Aerosol Formation and Oxidation Pathways on Haze Event over East Asia Region Focusing on Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D.; Koo, Y. S.

    2014-12-01

    The aerosol transports from China largely contribute to high PM (Particulate Matter) concentration in Korea. Especially, secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) such as nitrate, sulfate and ammonium are largely transported from China to Korea during haze event. The measured PM2.5 (Particle Matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5㎛) concentrations at the supersite monitoring stations in Korea are normally over 100 ug/m3 and SIAs are major chemical species with more than 70% of PM2.5 during the event. According to our air quality forecast model, sulfate concentrations are largely under-predicted in winter and slightly over-predicted in summer. Those discrepancies between model predicted and observed sulfate concentrations are mainly due to uncertainties of precursor emissions of NOx, SO2, and VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) and chemical mechanism of the sulfate formation in the chemical forecast model of CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality Model). Formation of sulfate is chemically linked to primary emissions of sulfur dioxide and to be abundancy of atmospheric oxidants such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, methyl hydroperoxide, and peroxyacetic acid. All of these oxidant species are formed via photochemical reactions with NOx and VOCs. The aim of this work is to investigate the dependency of sulfate formation on oxidant levels in winter and summer during episode event using CMAQ and its sulfate tracking probing tool. The sensitivity of the precursor emissions of SO2, NOx, VOCs and NH3 was also tested to understand the pathways of the sulfate formation. The results show that long range transport from China is a major factor to determine sulfate level in Korea during haze events and dominant mechanisms in the sulfate formation are the gas-phase OH and aqueous phase H2O2 reactions. NOx-SO2-VOCs chemical regimes for the sulfate formation is the VOCs limited regimes in Korea. The further details of the sensitivity run of the precursor emissions and

  9. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership

    2011-01-31

    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly developed

  10. A sulfate conundrum: Dissolved sulfates of deep-saline brines and carbonate-associated sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.

    2016-10-01

    Sulfates in deeply circulating brines and carbonate-associated sulfates (CAS) within sedimentary units of the Cambrian strata in the Illinois Basin record a complex history. Dissolved sulfate within the Mt. Simon Sandstone brines exhibits average δ34SSO4 values of 35.4‰ and δ18OSO4 values of 14.6‰ and appears to be related to Cambrian seawater sulfate, either original seawater or sourced from evaporite deposits such as those in the Michigan Basin. Theoretical and empirical relationships based on stable oxygen isotope fractionation suggest that sulfate within the lower depths of the Mt. Simon brines has experienced a long period of isolation, possibly several tens of millions of years. Comparison with brines from other stratigraphic units shows the Mt. Simon brines are geochemically unique. Dissolved sulfate from brines within the Ironton-Galesville Sandstone averages 22.7‰ for δ34SSO4 values and 13.0‰ for δ18OSO4 values. The Ironton-Galesville brine has mixed with younger groundwater, possibly of Ordovician to Devonian age and younger. The Eau Claire Formation lies between the Mt. Simon and Ironton-Galesville Sandstones. The carbonate units of the Eau Claire and stratigraphically equivalent Bonneterre Formation contain CAS that appears isotopically related to the Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian Mississippi Valley-type ore pulses that deposited large sulfide minerals in the Viburnum Trend/Old Lead Belt ore districts. The δ34SCAS values range from 21.3‰ to 9.3‰, and δ18OCAS values range from +1.4‰ to -2.6‰ and show a strong covariance (R2 = 0.94). The largely wholesale replacement of Cambrian seawater sulfate signatures in these dolomites does not appear to have affected the sulfate signatures in the Mt. Simon brines even though these sulfide deposits are found in the stratigraphically equivalent Lamotte Sandstone to the southwest. On the basis of this and previous studies, greater fluid densities of the Mt. Simon brines may have prevented the

  11. Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

  12. Advances in LEDs for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Jy; Peddada, Rao; Spinger, Benno

    2016-03-01

    High power LEDs were introduced in automotive headlights in 2006-2007, for example as full LED headlights in the Audi R8 or low beam in Lexus. Since then, LED headlighting has become established in premium and volume automotive segments and beginning to enable new compact form factors such as distributed low beam and new functions such as adaptive driving beam. New generations of highly versatile high power LEDs are emerging to meet these application needs. In this paper, we will detail ongoing advances in LED technology that enable revolutionary styling, performance and adaptive control in automotive headlights. As the standards which govern the necessary lumens on the road are well established, increasing luminance enables not only more design freedom but also headlight cost reduction with space and weight saving through more compact optics. Adaptive headlighting is based on LED pixelation and requires high contrast, high luminance, smaller LEDs with high-packing density for pixelated Matrix Lighting sources. Matrix applications require an extremely tight tolerance on not only the X, Y placement accuracy, but also on the Z height of the LEDs given the precision optics used to image the LEDs onto the road. A new generation of chip scale packaged (CSP) LEDs based on Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) have been developed to meet these needs, offering a form factor less than 20% increase over the LED emitter surface footprint. These miniature LEDs are surface mount devices compatible with automated tools for L2 board direct attach (without the need for an interposer or L1 substrate), meeting the high position accuracy as well as the optical and thermal performance. To illustrate the versatility of the CSP LEDs, we will show the results of, firstly, a reflector-based distributed low beam using multiple individual cavities each with only 20mm height and secondly 3x4 to 3x28 Matrix arrays for adaptive full beam. Also a few key trends in rear lighting and impact on LED light

  13. Quantification of Line Tracking Solutions for Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jane; Rourke, Rick F.; Groll, Dave; Tavora, Peter W.

    Unlike line tracking in automotive painting applications, line tracking for automotive general assembly applications requires position tracking in order to perform assembly operations to a required assembly tolerance. Line tracking quantification experiments have been designed and conducted for a total of 16 test cases for two line tracking scenarios with three types of line tracking solutions: encoder based tracking, encoder plus static vision based tracking, and the analog sensor-based tracking for general assembly robotic automation. This chapter presents the quantification results, identifies key performance drivers, and illustrates their implications for automotive assembly applications.

  14. Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites for future automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, K.

    2016-05-01

    After a brief introduction to polymer composite properties and markets, the state of the art activities in the field of manufacturing of advanced composites for automotive applications are elucidated. These include (a) long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFT) for secondary automotive components, and (b) continuous carbon fiber reinforced thermosetting composites for car body applications. It is followed by future possibilities of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites for e.g. (i) crash elements, (ii) racing car seats, and (iii) production and recycling of automotive fenders.

  15. Automotive Technology Evolved by Electrical and Electronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teratani, Tatsuo; Okuma, Shigeru

    Automotive electrical and electronic systems, e.g. EHV, FCV, future X-By-Wire, have recently been introduced or planned in place of mechanical systems. Drivers are demanding environmental performance (fuel consumption and weight reduction), safety and comfort. For general use of the new technologies, evolution of the automotive technology is required, including energy conversion efficiency improvement, size and weight reduction of components, cost reduction and high reliability. This paper discusses and summarizes the next generation power systems, the future vehicle image, power source combinations, and problems to be solved for development of automotive electronics.

  16. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice....

  17. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice....

  18. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oremland, R. S.; Taylor, B. F.

    1978-01-01

    Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction were followed in laboratory incubations of sediments taken from tropical seagrass beds. Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction occurred simultaneously in sediments incubated under N2, thereby indicating that the two processes are not mutually exclusive. Sediments incubated under an atmosphere of H2 developed negative pressures due to the oxidation of H2 by sulfate-respiring bacteria. H2 also stimulated methanogenesis, but methanogenic bacteria could not compete for H2 with the sulfate-respiring bacteria.

  19. Nonlinear oscillations of automotive turbocharger turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, Bernhard; Sievert, Mario

    2009-04-01

    Turbines, especially turbines supported in hydrodynamic bearings, often exhibit interesting oscillation effects, which result from the bearing nonlinearities. In the present work, an automotive turbocharger rotor is investigated. The rotor of the turbocharger examined here is supported in full-floating ring bearings, which give rise to complex system vibrations. Frequency spectra of run-up measurements, carried out on a hot-gas turbocharger test rig, are presented. The occurring nonlinear effects—self-excited vibrations, oil whirl/whip phenomena, subharmonics, superharmonics, combination frequencies and jump phenomena—are explained in detail with the help of a gyroscopic eigenvalue analysis and by run-up simulations with a multibody model of the rotor/bearing system. The influence of different operating conditions—oil supply pressure, oil supply temperature and rotor imbalance—on the rotor oscillations and the system bifurcations is studied.

  20. Advanced automotive diesel engine system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual study of an advanced automotive diesel engine is discussed. The engine concept selected for vehicle installation was a supercharged 1.4 liter, 4 cylinder spark assisted diesel of 14:1 compression ratio. A compounding unit consisting of a Lysholm compressor and expander is connected to the engine crankshaft by a belt drive. The inlet air charge is heated by the expander exhaust gas via a heat exchanger. Four levels of technology achievement on the selected engine concept were evaluated, from state-of-the-art to the ideal case. This resulted in the fuel economy increasing from 53.2 mpg to 81.7 mpg, and the 0-60 mph time decreasing from 17.6 seconds to 10.9 seconds.

  1. Electromagnetic interference filter for automotive electrical systems

    DOEpatents

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Carlson, Douglas S; Tang, David; Korich, Mark D

    2013-07-02

    A filter for an automotive electrical system includes a substrate having first and second conductive members. First and second input terminals are mounted to the substrate. The first input terminal is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second input terminal is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A plurality of capacitors are mounted to the substrate. Each of the capacitors is electrically connected to at least one of the first and second conductive members. First and second power connectors are mounted to the substrate. The first power connector is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second power connector is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A common mode choke is coupled to the substrate and arranged such that the common mode choke extends around at least a portion of the substrate and the first and second conductive members.

  2. Improvement of Automotive Part Supplier Performance Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongmunee, Chalermkwan; Chutima, Parames

    2016-05-01

    This research investigates the problem of the part supplier performance evaluation in a major Japanese automotive plant in Thailand. Its current evaluation scheme is based on experiences and self-opinion of the evaluators. As a result, many poor performance suppliers are still considered as good suppliers and allow to supply parts to the plant without further improvement obligation. To alleviate this problem, the brainstorming session among stakeholders and evaluators are formally conducted. The result of which is the appropriate evaluation criteria and sub-criteria. The analytical hierarchy process is also used to find suitable weights for each criteria and sub-criteria. The results show that a newly developed evaluation method is significantly better than the previous one in segregating between good and poor suppliers.

  3. Visual comparison testing of automotive paint simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Gary; Fan, Hua-Tzu; Seubert, Christopher; Evey, Curtis; Meseth, Jan; Schnackenberg, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether typical industrial automotive color paint comparisons made using real physical samples could also be carried out using a digital simulation displayed on a calibrated color television monitor. A special light booth, designed to facilitate evaluation of the car paint color with reflectance angle, was employed in both the real and virtual color comparisons. Paint samples were measured using a multi-angle spectrophotometer and were simulated using a commercially available software package. Subjects performed the test quicker using the computer graphic simulation, and results indicate that there is only a small difference between the decisions made using the light booth and the computer monitor. This outcome demonstrates the potential of employing simulations to replace some of the time consuming work with real physical samples that still characterizes material appearance work in industry.

  4. Active gated imaging for automotive safety applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Yoav; Sonn, Ezri

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the Active Gated Imaging System (AGIS), in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast gated-camera equipped with a unique Gated-CMOS sensor, and a pulsed Illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest which are then processed by computer vision real-time algorithms. In recent years we have learned the system parameters which are most beneficial to night-time driving in terms of; field of view, illumination profile, resolution and processing power. AGIS provides also day-time imaging with additional capabilities, which enhances computer vision safety applications. AGIS provides an excellent candidate for camera-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the path for autonomous driving, in the future, based on its outstanding low/high light-level, harsh weather conditions capabilities and 3D potential growth capabilities.

  5. Downsizing assessment of automotive Stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, R. H.; Tew, R. C., Jr.; Klann, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A 67 kW (90 hp) Stirling engine design, sized for use in a 1984 1440 kg (3170 lb) automobile was the focal point for developing automotive Stirling engine technology. Since recent trends are towards lighter vehicles, an assessment was made of the applicability of the Stirling technology being developed for smaller, lower power engines. Using both the Philips scaling laws and a Lewis Research Center (Lewis) Stirling engine performance code, dimensional and performance characteristics were determined for a 26 kW (35 hp) and a 37 kW (50 hp) engine for use in a nominal 907 kg (2000 lb) vehicle. Key engine elements were sized and stressed and mechanical layouts were made to ensure mechanical fit and integrity of the engines. Fuel economy estimates indicated that the Stirling engine would maintain a 30 to 45 percent fuel economy advantage comparable spark ignition and diesel powered vehicles in the 1984 period.

  6. Methane Production by Microbial Mats Under Low Sulfate Concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad M.; Hoehler, Tori M.; Thamdrup, Bo; Albert, Dan; Carpenter, Steven P.; Hogan, Mary; Turk, Kendra; DesMarais, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Cyanobacterial mats collected in hypersaline salterns were incubated in a greenhouse under low sulfate concentrations ([SO4]) and examined for their primary productivity and emissions of methane and other major carbon species. Atmospheric greenhouse warming by gases such as carbon dioxide and methane must have been greater during the Archean than today in order to account for a record of moderate to warm paleoclemates, despite a less luminous early sun. It has been suggested that decreased levels of oxygen and sulfate in Archean oceans could have significantly stimulated microbial methanogenesis relative to present marine rates, with a resultant increase in the relative importance of methane in maintaining the early greenhouse. We maintained modern microbial mats, models of ancient coastal marine communities, in artificial brine mixtures containing both modern [SO4=] (ca. 70 mM) and "Archean" [SO4] (less than 0.2 mM). At low [SO4], primary production in the mats was essentially unaffected, while rates of sulfate reduction decreased by a factor of three, and methane fluxes increased by up to ten-fold. However, remineralization by methanogenesis still amounted to less than 0.4 % of the total carbon released by the mats. The relatively low efficiency of conversion of photosynthate to methane is suggested to reflect the particular geometry and chemical microenvironment of hypersaline cyanobacterial mats. Therefore, such mats w-ere probably relatively weak net sources of methane throughout their 3.5 Ga history, even during periods of low- environmental levels oxygen and sulfate.

  7. Advancing Material Models for Automotive Forming Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vegter, H.; An, Y.; ten Horn, C. H. L. J.; Atzema, E. H.; Roelofsen, M. E.

    2005-08-01

    Simulations in automotive industry need more advanced material models to achieve highly reliable forming and springback predictions. Conventional material models implemented in the FEM-simulation models are not capable to describe the plastic material behaviour during monotonic strain paths with sufficient accuracy. Recently, ESI and Corus co-operate on the implementation of an advanced material model in the FEM-code PAMSTAMP 2G. This applies to the strain hardening model, the influence of strain rate, and the description of the yield locus in these models. A subsequent challenge is the description of the material after a change of strain path. The use of advanced high strength steels in the automotive industry requires a description of plastic material behaviour of multiphase steels. The simplest variant is dual phase steel consisting of a ferritic and a martensitic phase. Multiphase materials also contain a bainitic phase in addition to the ferritic and martensitic phase. More physical descriptions of strain hardening than simple fitted Ludwik/Nadai curves are necessary. Methods to predict plastic behaviour of single-phase materials use a simple dislocation interaction model based on the formed cells structures only. At Corus, a new method is proposed to predict plastic behaviour of multiphase materials have to take hard phases into account, which deform less easily. The resulting deformation gradients create geometrically necessary dislocations. Additional micro-structural information such as morphology and size of hard phase particles or grains is necessary to derive the strain hardening models for this type of materials. Measurements available from the Numisheet benchmarks allow these models to be validated. At Corus, additional measured values are available from cross-die tests. This laboratory test can attain critical deformations by large variations in blank size and processing conditions. The tests are a powerful tool in optimising forming simulations

  8. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  13. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  14. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs.... It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-18-9...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg....

  1. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg....

  2. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg....

  3. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  6. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  7. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  8. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  9. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  10. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution....

  17. INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

  18. TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZING AND CLEANUP OF AUTOMOTIVE RECYCLING BROWNFIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the private sector to address issues related to the redevelopment of Brownfields sites, specifically automotive recycling sites. The document helps users to understand...

  19. Springback Compensation Process for High Strength Steel Automotive Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onhon, M. Fatih

    2016-08-01

    This paper is about an advanced stamping simulation methodology used in automotive industry to shorten total die manufacturing times in a new vehicle project by means of benefiting leading edge virtual try-out technology.

  20. Robust optical sensors for safety critical automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Locht, Cliff; De Knibber, Sven; Maddalena, Sam

    2008-02-01

    Optical sensors for the automotive industry need to be robust, high performing and low cost. This paper focuses on the impact of automotive requirements on optical sensor design and packaging. Main strategies to lower optical sensor entry barriers in the automotive market include: Perform sensor calibration and tuning by the sensor manufacturer, sensor test modes on chip to guarantee functional integrity at operation, and package technology is key. As a conclusion, optical sensor applications are growing in automotive. Optical sensor robustness matured to the level of safety critical applications like Electrical Power Assisted Steering (EPAS) and Drive-by-Wire by optical linear arrays based systems and Automated Cruise Control (ACC), Lane Change Assist and Driver Classification/Smart Airbag Deployment by camera imagers based systems.

  1. COMPOSITION CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

  2. Cradle-to-Gate Impact Assessment of a High-Pressure Die-Casting Safety-Relevant Automotive Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchel, Silvia; Cornacchia, Giovanna; Panvini, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    The mass of automotive components has a direct influence on several aspects of vehicle performance, including both fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions, but the real environmental benefit has to be evaluated considering the entire life of the products with a proper life cycle assessment. In this context, the present paper analyzes the environmental burden connected to the production of a safety-relevant aluminum high-pressure die-casting component for commercial vehicles (a suspension cross-beam) considering all the phases connected to its manufacture. The focus on aluminum high-pressure die casting reflects the current trend of the industry and its high energy consumption. This work shows a new method that deeply analyzes every single step of the component's production through the implementation of a wide database of primary data collected thanks to collaborations of some automotive supplier companies. This energy analysis shows significant environmental benefits of aluminum recycling.

  3. Cradle-to-Gate Impact Assessment of a High-Pressure Die-Casting Safety-Relevant Automotive Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchel, Silvia; Cornacchia, Giovanna; Panvini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The mass of automotive components has a direct influence on several aspects of vehicle performance, including both fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions, but the real environmental benefit has to be evaluated considering the entire life of the products with a proper life cycle assessment. In this context, the present paper analyzes the environmental burden connected to the production of a safety-relevant aluminum high-pressure die-casting component for commercial vehicles (a suspension cross-beam) considering all the phases connected to its manufacture. The focus on aluminum high-pressure die casting reflects the current trend of the industry and its high energy consumption. This work shows a new method that deeply analyzes every single step of the component's production through the implementation of a wide database of primary data collected thanks to collaborations of some automotive supplier companies. This energy analysis shows significant environmental benefits of aluminum recycling.

  4. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    DOEpatents

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  5. Sulfate ingress in Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Lothenbach, Barbara; Bary, Benoit; Le Bescop, Patrick; Leterrier, Nikos

    2010-08-15

    The interaction of mortar with sulfate solutions leads to a reaction front within the porous material and to expansion. Thermodynamic modelling coupled with transport codes was used to predict sulfate ingress. Alternatively, 'pure' thermodynamic models - without consideration of transport - were used as a fast alternative to coupled models: they are more flexible and allow easy parameter variations but the results relate neither to distance nor to time. Both transport and pure thermodynamic modelling gave comparable results and were able to reproduce the changes observed in experiments. The calculated total volume of the solids did not exceed the initial volume of the paste indicating that not the overall volume restriction leads to the observed expansion but rather the formation of ettringite within the matrix and the development of crystallisation pressure in small pores. The calculations indicate that periodic changing of the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution results in more intense degradation.

  6. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  7. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1987-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  8. Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

  9. A 'rare biosphere' microorganism contributes to sulfate reduction in a peatland.

    PubMed

    Pester, Michael; Bittner, Norbert; Deevong, Pinsurang; Wagner, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    Methane emission from peatlands contributes substantially to global warming but is significantly reduced by sulfate reduction, which is fuelled by globally increasing aerial sulfur pollution. However, the biology behind sulfate reduction in terrestrial ecosystems is not well understood and the key players for this process as well as their abundance remained unidentified. Comparative 16S rRNA gene stable isotope probing (SIP) in the presence and absence of sulfate indicated that a Desulfosporosinus species, which constitutes only 0.006% of the total microbial community 16S rRNA genes, is an important sulfate reducer in a long-term experimental peatland field site. Parallel SIP using dsrAB (encoding subunit A and B of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase) identified no additional sulfate reducers under the conditions tested. For the identified Desulfosporosinus species a high cell-specific sulfate reduction rate of up to 341 fmol SO₄²⁻ cell⁻¹ day⁻¹ was estimated. Thus, the small Desulfosporosinus population has the potential to reduce sulfate in situ at a rate of 4.0-36.8 nmol (g soil w. wt.)⁻¹ day⁻¹, sufficient to account for a considerable part of sulfate reduction in the peat soil. Modeling of sulfate diffusion to such highly active cells identified no limitation in sulfate supply even at bulk concentrations as low as 10 μM. Collectively, these data show that the identified Desulfosporosinus species, despite being a member of the 'rare biosphere', contributes to an important biogeochemical process that diverts the carbon flow in peatlands from methane to CO₂ and, thus, alters their contribution to global warming.

  10. Reduced sulfation of chondroitin sulfate but not heparan sulfate in kidneys of diabetic db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Reine, Trine M; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian; Kolset, Svein O

    2013-08-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were reduced from 11% to 6%, with a corresponding increase in unsulfated disaccharides. In contrast, no structural differences were observed in heparan sulfate. Furthermore, no difference was found in the molar amount of glycosaminoglycans, or in the ratio of hyaluronan/heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate. Immunohistochemical staining for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was similar in both types of material but reduced staining of 4-O-sulfated chondroitin and dermatan was observed in kidney sections from diabetic mice. In support of this, using qRT-PCR, a 53.5% decrease in the expression level of Chst-11 (chondroitin 4-O sulfotransferase) was demonstrated in diabetic kidney. These results suggest that changes in the sulfation of chondroitin need to be addressed in future studies on proteoglycans and kidney function in diabetes.

  11. Heparin cofactor II is degraded by heparan sulfate and dextran sulfate.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akio

    2015-02-20

    Heparan sulfate normally binds to heparin cofactor II and modulates the coagulation pathway by inhibiting thrombin. However, when human heparin cofactor II was incubated with heparan sulfate, heparin cofactor II became degraded. Other glycosaminoglycans were tested, including hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfates, dermatan sulfate, and heparin, but only dextran sulfate also degraded heparin cofactor II. Pretreatment of heparan sulfate with heparinase reduced its heparin cofactor II-degrading activity. Heparan sulfate and dextran sulfate diminished the thrombin inhibitory activity of heparin cofactor II. Other serpins, including antithrombin III and pigment epithelium-derived factor, were also degraded by heparan sulfate. This is the first evidence of acidic polysaccharides exhibiting protein-degrading activity without the aid of other proteins.

  12. Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfation: A rare modification in search of a function

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Bryan E.; Xu, Ding; Lawrence, Roger; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Many protein ligands bind to heparan sulfate, which results in their presentation, protection, oligomerization or conformational activation. Binding depends on the pattern of sulfation and arrangement of uronic acid epimers along the chains. Sulfation at the C3 position of glucosamine is a relatively rare, yet biologically significant modification, initially described as a key determinant for binding and activation of antithrombin and later for infection by Type I Herpes Simplex virus. In mammals, a family of seven heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferases installs sulfate groups at this position and constitutes the largest group of sulfotransferases involved in heparan sulfate formation. However, to date very few proteins or biological systems have been described that are influenced by 3-O-sulfation. This review describes our current understanding of the prevalence and structure of 3-O-sulfation sites, expression and substrate specificity of the 3-O-sulfotransferase family and the emerging roles of 3-O-sulfation in biology. PMID:24361527

  13. Model intra-comparison of transboundary sulfate loadings over springtime east Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, D.; Ohara, T.; Nakajima, T.; Takemura, T.; Kajino, M.; Dai, T.; Matsui, H.; Takami, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Aoki, K.; Sugimoto, N.; Shimizu, A.

    2013-12-01

    Over east Asia, a spatial gradient of sulfate aerosols from source to outflow regions has not fully evaluated by simulations. In the present study, we executed a global aerosol-transport model (SPRINTARS) during April 2006 to investigate the spatial gradient of sulfate aerosols using multiple measurements including surface mass concentration, aerosol optical thickness, and vertical profiles of extinction coefficients for spherical particles. We also performed sensitivity experiments to estimate possible uncertainties of sulfate mass loadings caused by macrophysical processes; emission inventory, dynamic core, and spatial resolution. Among the experiments, although a difference in the surface sulfate mass concentrations over east Asia was large, none of the simulations in the present study as well as regional models reproduced the spatial gradient of the surface sulfate from the source over China to the outflow regions in Japan. The sensitivity of different macrophysical factors to the surface sulfate differs from that to sulfate loadings in the column especially in the marine boundary layers (MBL). Therefore, to properly simulate the transboundary air pollution over east Asia is required to use multiple measurements in both the source and outflow regions especially in the MBL during the polluted days.

  14. Sulfite-sulfide-sulfate-carbonate equilibria with applications to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, G. M.; Kargel, J. S.; Crowley, J. K.; Catling, D. C.

    2013-07-01

    Mars volcanic SO2 and H2S gas emissions are likely the dominant source of martian sulfate, and the source of sulfuric acid. Until this work, the FREZCHEM model lacked SO2 and H2S gases and associated sulfite and sulfide minerals. The specific objectives of this paper were to add these components and associated sulfite and sulfide minerals and phases into FREZCHEM, and to explore some possible roles of these chemistries on Mars. New solid phases added included the sulfites: Na2SO3·7H2O, K2SO3, (NH4)2SO3·H2O, MgSO3·6H2O, CaSO3·0.5H2O, and FeSO3·1.5H2O, and the sulfide: FeS2. The lowest eutectic of these minerals was K2SO3 (= 6.57 m) at 228 K. Because sulfurous acid is stronger than carbonic acid, this causes a much larger fraction of S(IV) to exist as sulfite (SO32-) at acidic to mildly alkaline pH, whereas almost none of the C is present as carbonate anion. Model calculations show that small quantities of SO2 in an early CO2-rich martian atmosphere suppressed formation of carbonates because SO2 is much more water soluble than CO2 and a stronger acid, which may be a major reason why sulfates are much more common than carbonates on Mars. Also, perhaps equally important are low temperatures that favor sulfite mineral precipitation, the oxidation of which leads to sulfate minerals. Another potentially important factor that favors sulfite/sulfide mineral formation is low pH values that cannot allow carbonate minerals, but can allow sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2). The presence of pyrite, highly insoluble, would lead to sulfate minerals when oxygen becomes available in acidic environments. Major cations for both sulfites (or sulfates) and carbonates (Ca and Mg) can limit carbonates. Sulfite-sulfide volcanism on a cold, lower pH, Mars are the primary causes of high sulfate minerals (e.g., Ca and Mg sulfates), compared to volcanism on a warm, higher pH, Earth that led to more abundant carbonate minerals (e.g., Ca and Mg carbonates).

  15. Reverse shift mechanism for automotive manual transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, M.; Ogawa, S.

    1987-03-03

    A reverse shift mechanism is described for an automotive manual transmission of a type having a reverse idler gear which is movable to selectively complete a reverse gear train, the reverse shift mechanism comprising: a reverse shift arm having a portion disposed adjacent the reverse idler gear and pivotally carried with respect to a transmission casing so that the portion rocks along a direction of axis of the reverse idler gear in response to shifting operation. The portion of the reverse shift arm is provided with a blind hole which is open at a first end toward the reverse idler gear and is closed at a second end away from the reverse idler gear; and a shift arm shoe carried by the portion of the reverse shift arm adjacent the reverse idler gear for pushing the reverse idler gear. The shift arm shoe has an end adapted to engage with a circumferential groove formed in the reverse idler gear and an opposing end shaped to fit in the blind hole of the reverse shift arm; whereby the shift arm shoe is prevented from coming off during assembly by virtue of a vacuum effect created by air confined in the blind hole by fitting engagement between the opposing end and the blind hole, and is held in place after assembly by being clamped between the groove of the reverse idler gear and the blind hole of the reverse shift arm.

  16. Vibration reduction on automotive shafts using piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Holger; Riedel, Mathias; Schmidt, Knut; Bianchini, Emanuele

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on active vibration reduction for automotive shafts with the use of piezoelectric material. The work focuses on an axle of an Audi A2. The demand in the automobile sector for higher comfort in the vehicle is of a great importance alongside the requirements of lighter weight and low fuel consumption. These requirements are typically in conflict with each other. One solution is the use of intelligent materials instead of viscoelastic materials and proof mass absorbers. These solutions are quite heavy especially at low frequencies. Active vibration control and piezoelectric devices are advantageous in this application due to their low mass to performance ratio. Our research study explores the use of such piezoelectric devices for an axle. In conjunction with electronics it will reduce vibrations in the first natural bending mode of the axle. Laboratory tests simulated the condition present in the road. At first a stationary set up was used, then a simulated disturbance was input at the attachment points of the shaft. Finally, a test with rotating shaft was performed. Piezoelectric devices (custom QuickPacks from ACX, a Division of Cymer) were used as sensors and as actuators to properly control the axle during the different operating conditions. The power consumption of each actuator pair was less than 20W. The work described here details the test setup, the control strategy, the hardware implementation as well as the test results obtained.

  17. Active control of automotive fan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Anthony; Berry, Alain; Masson, Patrice

    2002-11-01

    Active control for globally reducing the noise radiated by automotive axial engine cooling fans is investigated. First, an aeroacoutic model of the fan is combined with acoustic directivity measurements to derive a distribution of equivalent dipole sources on the fan surface. The results reveal that the fan behaves like a distributed dipole at blade passage tones when the upstream flow through the fan is spatially nonuniform. Numerical simulations of active noise control in the free field have been carried out using the previous aeroacoustic model of the fan and a dipole secondary source in front of the fan. The numerical results show that a single dipole control source is effective in globally controlling the sound radiation of the fan at the blade passage frequency and its first harmonic. Last, an experimental investigation of active control is presented. It consists of a SISO feedforward configuration with either a LMS algorithm (for FIR filters) or a back-retropopagation algorithm (for neural networks) using the Simulink/Dspace environment for real-time implementation.

  18. Speech recognition system for an automotive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Noso, K.; Futami, T.

    1987-01-13

    A speech recognition system is described for an automotive vehicle for activating vehicle actuators in response to predetermined spoken instructions supplied to the system via a microphone, which comprises: (a) a manually controlled record switch for deriving a record signal when activated; (b) a manually controlled recognition switch for deriving a recognition signal when activated; (c) a speech recognizer for sequentially recording reference spoken instructions whenever one reference spoken instruction is supplied to the system through the microphone while the record switch is activated, a memory having a storage area for each spoken instruction, and means for shifting access to each storage area for each spoken instruction has been recorded in the storage area provided therefore. A means is included for activating vehicle actuators sequentially whenever one recognition spoken instruction is supplied to the system via the microphone while the recognition switch is activated and when the spoken instruction to be recognized is similar to the reference spoken instruction; and (d) means for deriving skip instruction signal and for coupling the skip instruction signal to the speech recognizer to shift access from a currently accessed storage area for recording a current reference spoken instruction to a succeeding storage area for recording a succeeding reference spoken instruction even when the current reference spoken instruction is not supplied to the system through the microphone.

  19. Automotive shredder residue (ASR) management: An overview.

    PubMed

    Cossu, R; Lai, T

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of statistical data, approximately 6.5 million tons of ELVs were produced in Europe in 2011. ELVs are processed according to a treatment scheme comprising three main phases: depollution, dismantling and shredding. The ferrous fraction represents about 70-75% of the total shredded output, while nonferrous metals represent about 5%. The remaining 20-25% is referred to as automotive shredder residue (ASR). ASR is largely landfilled due to its heterogeneous and complex matrix. With a start date of January 1st 2015, the European Directive 2000/53/EC establishes the reuse and recovery of a minimum of 95% ELV total weight. To reach these targets various post-shredder technologies have been developed with the aim of improving recovery of materials and energy from ASR. In order to evaluate the environmental impacts of different management options of ELVs, the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology has been applied taking into account the potential implication of sustainable design of vehicles and treatment of residues after shredding of ELVs. Findings obtained reveal that a combination of recycling and energy recovery is required to achieve European targets, with landfilling being viewed as the least preferred option. The aim of this work is to provide a general overview of the recent development of management of ELVs and treatment of ASR with a view to minimizing the amount of residues disposed of in landfill.

  20. Automotive shredder residue (ASR) management: An overview.

    PubMed

    Cossu, R; Lai, T

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of statistical data, approximately 6.5 million tons of ELVs were produced in Europe in 2011. ELVs are processed according to a treatment scheme comprising three main phases: depollution, dismantling and shredding. The ferrous fraction represents about 70-75% of the total shredded output, while nonferrous metals represent about 5%. The remaining 20-25% is referred to as automotive shredder residue (ASR). ASR is largely landfilled due to its heterogeneous and complex matrix. With a start date of January 1st 2015, the European Directive 2000/53/EC establishes the reuse and recovery of a minimum of 95% ELV total weight. To reach these targets various post-shredder technologies have been developed with the aim of improving recovery of materials and energy from ASR. In order to evaluate the environmental impacts of different management options of ELVs, the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology has been applied taking into account the potential implication of sustainable design of vehicles and treatment of residues after shredding of ELVs. Findings obtained reveal that a combination of recycling and energy recovery is required to achieve European targets, with landfilling being viewed as the least preferred option. The aim of this work is to provide a general overview of the recent development of management of ELVs and treatment of ASR with a view to minimizing the amount of residues disposed of in landfill. PMID:26294011

  1. Light source modeling for automotive lighting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerhau-Dreihoefer, Harald; Haack, Uwe; Weber, Thomas; Wendt, Dierk

    2002-08-01

    Automotive lighting devices generally have to meet high standards. For example to avoid discomfort glare for the oncoming traffic, luminous intensities of a low beam headlight must decrease by more than one order of magnitude within a fraction of a degree along the horizontal cutoff-line. At the same time, a comfortable homogeneous illumination of the road requires slowly varying luminous intensities below the cutoff line. All this has to be realized taking into account both, the legal requirements and the customer's stylistic specifications. In order to be able to simulate and optimize devices with a good optical performance different light source models are required. In the early stage of e.g. reflector development simple unstructured models allow a very fast development of the reflectors shape. On the other hand the final simulation of a complex headlamp or signal light requires a sophisticated model of the spectral luminance. In addition to theoretical models based on the light source's geometry, measured luminance data can also be used in the simulation and optimization process.

  2. Advanced Automotive Diesel Assessment Program, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of this analytical study were: to select one advanced automotive diesel engine (AAD) concept which would increase the tank mileage of a 3,000 pound passenger car from the present 35 mpg to at least 52 mpg; to identify long term component research and development work required to bring the selected concept to fruition; and to prepare a development strategy that will bring the selected concept to a prototype testing phase. Cummins Engine Company has completed this study. The selected concept is a 4 stroke cycle, direct injection, spark assisted, advanced adiabatic diesel engine with positive displacement compounding plus expander and part load air preheating. The engine does not use a liquid coolant nor liquid lubricants. It is a 4 cylinder, in-line, 77 mm bore x 77 mm stroke, 1.434 liters displacement engine weighing 300 lb, and rated at 70 BHP at 3000 rpm. Installation dimensions are 621 mm length x 589 mm width x 479 mm height (24.4 inch x 22 inch x 18.9 inch).

  3. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. ); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. )

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

  4. Deployment of ERP Systems at Automotive Industries, Security Inspection (Case Study: IRAN KHODRO Automotive Company)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hatamirad; Hasan, Mehrjerdi

    Automotive industry and car production process is one of the most complex and large-scale production processes. Today, information technology (IT) and ERP systems incorporates a large portion of production processes. Without any integrated systems such as ERP, the production and supply chain processes will be tangled. The ERP systems, that are last generation of MRP systems, make produce and sale processes of these industries easier and this is the major factor of development of these industries anyhow. Today many of large-scale companies are developing and deploying the ERP systems. The ERP systems facilitate many of organization processes and make organization to increase efficiency. The security is a very important part of the ERP strategy at the organization, Security at the ERP systems, because of integrity and extensive, is more important of local and legacy systems. Disregarding of this point can play a giant role at success or failure of this kind of systems. The IRANKHODRO is the biggest automotive factory in the Middle East with an annual production over 600.000 cars. This paper presents ERP security deployment experience at the "IRANKHODRO Company". Recently, by launching ERP systems, it moved a big step toward more developments.

  5. Endothelial Heparan Sulfate in Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fuster, Mark M.; Wang, Lianchun

    2013-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of 50–200 glucosamine and uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) disaccharide repeats with epimerization and various sulfation modifications. HS is covalently attached to core proteins to form HS-proteoglycans. Most of the functions of HS-proteoglycans are mediated by their HS moieties. The biosynthesis of HS is initiated by chain polymerization and is followed by stepwise modification reactions, including sulfation and epimerization. These modifications generate ligand-binding sites that modulate cell functions and activities of proteinases and/or proteinase inhibitors. HS is abundantly expressed in developing and mature vasculature, and understanding its roles in vascular biology and related human diseases is an area of intense investigation. In this chapter, we summarize the significant recent advances in our understanding of the roles of HS in developmental and pathological angiogenesis with a major focus on studies using transgenic as well as gene knockout/knockdown models in mice and zebrafish. These studies have revealed that HS critically regulates angiogenesis by playing a proangiogenic role, and this regulatory function critically depends on HS fine structure. The latter is responsible for facilitating cell-surface binding of various proangiogenic growth factors that in turn mediate endothelial growth signaling. In cancer, mouse studies have revealed important roles for endothelial cell-surface HS as well as matrix-associated HS, wherein signaling by multiple growth factors as well as matrix storage of growth factors may be regulated by HS. We also discuss important mediators that may fine-tune such regulation, such as heparanase and sulfatases; and models wherein targeting HS (or core protein) biosynthesis may affect tumor growth and vascularization. Finally, the importance of targeting HS in other human diseases wherein angiogenesis may play pathophysiologic (or even therapeutic) roles

  6. Sulfate reduction in freshwater wetland soils and the effects of sulfate and substrate loading

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; Hsieh, Y.P.

    1998-07-01

    Elevated sulfate and organic C loadings in freshwater wetlands could stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction that oxidizes organic C, produces hydrogen sulfide and alkalinity, and sequesters trace metals. The authors determined the extent of sulfate reduction in two freshwater wetland soils, that is black gum (Nyssa biflona) swamp soils and titi (Cliftonia monophylla) swamp soils, in northern Florida. They also investigated the potential of sulfate reduction in the wetland soils by adding sulfate, organic substrate, and lime. Sulfate reduction was found to be an active process in both swamp soils without any amendment, where the pore water pH was as low as 3.6 and sulfate concentration was as low as 5 mg L{sup {minus}1}. Without amendment, 11 to 14% of organic C was oxidized through sulfate reduction in the swamp soils. Sulfate loading, liming, and substrate addition significantly increased sulfate reduction in the black gum swamp soil, but none of those treatments increase sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil. The limiting factor for sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil were likely texture and soil aggregate related properties. The results suggested that wastewater loading may increase sulfate reduction in some freshwater wetlands such as the black swamps while it has no stimulating effect on other wetlands such as the titi swamps.

  7. [Application of ICP-AES in automotive hydraulic power steering system fault diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Dan

    2013-01-01

    The authors studied the innovative applications of the inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry in automotive hydraulic power steering system fault diagnosis. After having determined Fe, Cu and Al content in the four groups of Buick Regal 2.4 main metal power-steering fluid whose travel course was respectively 2-9 thousand kilometers, 11-18 thousand kilometers, 22-29 thousandkilometers, and 31-40 thousand kilometers, and the database of primary metal content in the Buick Regal 2.4 different mileage power-steering fluid was established. The research discovered that the main metal content increased with increasing mileage and its normal level is between the two trend lines. Determination of the power-steering fluid main metal content and comparison with its database value can not only judge the wear condition of the automotive hydraulic power steering system and maintain timely to avoid the traffic accident, but also help the automobile detection and maintenance personnel to diagnose failure reasons without disintegration. This reduced vehicle maintenance costs, and improved service quality. PMID:23586258

  8. Closing the Loop with Sensors in Commercial Building Systems: Applying Lessons from Automotive Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantese, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    Automotive systems have evolved extensively over the past 50 years, providing a fully integrated system of sub-systems that work in concert for optimal vehicle level closed loop control. In this talk we look at several automotive sub-systems: stability and control, safety and security, emissions and comfort, diagnostics and maintenance, infotainment and communications; with an eye toward understanding their technology drivers and associated value propositions. Conversely, we examine how commercial building systems currently are represented as a collection of sub-systems that often work independently of each other for local optimization, often relying upon open loop control systems developed and installed decades ago. Reasoning primarily by analogy we explore opportunities for energy and efficiency, comfort and environment, and safety/security; asking whether there is sufficient value associated with a new class of building sensors and how those technologies might be brought to bear in improving performance. Finally, we examine the fundamental architecture of detection systems built upon sensing elements, with the aim of understanding trade-offs between: detection, false alarm rate, power, and cost.

  9. Advanced Automotive Technologies annual report to Congress, fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This annual report serves to inform the United States Congress on the progress for fiscal year 1996 of programs under the Department of Energy`s Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT). This document complies with the legislative requirement to report on the implementation of Title III of the Automotive Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978. Also reported are related activities performed under subsequent relevant legislation without specific reporting requirements. Furthermore, this report serves as a vital means of communication from the Department to all public and private sector participants. Specific requirements that are addressed in this report are: Discussion of how each research and development contract, grant, or project funded under the authority of this Act satisfies the requirements of each subsection; Current comprehensive program definition for implementing Title III; Evaluation of the state of automotive propulsion system research and development in the United States; Number and amount of contracts and grants awarded under Title III; Analysis of the progress made in developing advanced automotive propulsion system technology; and Suggestions for improvements in automotive propulsion system research and development, including recommendations for legislation.

  10. Automotive Mg Research and Development in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Joseph A.; Jackman, Jennifer; Li, Naiyi; Osborne, Richard J.; Powell, Bob R.; Sklad, Philip S

    2006-01-01

    Expanding world economic prosperity and probable peaking of conventional petroleum production in the coming decades require efforts to increase the efficiency of, and the development of alternatives to, petroleum-based fuels used in automotive transportation. North America has been aggressively pursuing both approaches for over ten years. Mainly as a result of lower prices due to global sourcing, magnesium has recently emerged as a serious candidate for lightweighting, and thus increasing the fuel efficiency of, automotive transportation. Automotive vehicles produced in North America currently use more Mg than vehicles produced elsewhere in the world, but the amounts per vehicle are very small in comparison to other materials such as steel, aluminum and plastics. The reasons, besides price, are primarily a less-developed state of technology for Mg in automotive transportation applications and lack of familiarity by the vehicle manufacturers with the material. This paper reviews some publicly-known, recent, present and future North American research and development activities in Mg for automotive applications.

  11. Overview of Automotive Core Tools: Applications and Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Jigar A.; Desai, Darshak

    2016-06-01

    Continuous improvement of product and process quality is always challenging and creative task in today's era of globalization. Various quality tools are available and used for the same. Some of them are successful and few of them are not. Considering the complexity in the continuous quality improvement (CQI) process various new techniques are being introduced by the industries, as well as proposed by researchers and academia. Lean Manufacturing, Six Sigma, Lean Six Sigma is some of the techniques. In recent years, there are new tools being opted by the industry, especially automotive, called as Automotive Core Tools (ACT). The intention of this paper is to review the applications and benefits along with existing research on Automotive Core Tools with special emphasis on continuous quality improvement. The methodology uses an extensive review of literature through reputed publications—journals, conference proceedings, research thesis, etc. This paper provides an overview of ACT, its enablers, and exertions, how it evolved into sophisticated methodologies and benefits used in organisations. It should be of value to practitioners of Automotive Core Tools and to academics who are interested in how CQI can be achieved using ACT. It needs to be stressed here that this paper is not intended to scorn Automotive Core Tools, rather, its purpose is limited only to provide a balance on the prevailing positive views toward ACT.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7785-0987-097) is a pale pink, granular, odorless powder. It is obtained by reacting manganese compounds with sulfuric...

  13. Nitrate reduction in sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marietou, Angeliki

    2016-08-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) gain their energy by coupling the oxidation of organic substrate to the reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Several SRBs are able to use alternative terminal electron acceptors to sulfate such as nitrate. Nitrate-reducing SRBs have been isolated from a diverse range of environments. In order to be able to understand the significance of nitrate reduction in SRBs, we need to examine the ecology and physiology of the nitrate-reducing SRB isolates.

  14. Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Hydrous Sulfate Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; OConnor, V.; Cloutis, E.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfate minerals have been identified in Martian meteorites and on Mars using a suite of instruments aboard the MER rovers. These results have confirmed previous groundbased observations and orbital measurements that suggested their presence. The orbiting OMEGA instrument on Mars Express is also finding evidence for sulfate. In order to better interpret remote-sensing data, we present here the results of a coordinated visible/near infrared (VNIR) reflectance, Moussbauer (MB), and thermal emittance study of wellcharacterized hydrous sulfate minerals.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10034-99-8) occurs naturally as the mineral epsomite. It is prepared by neutralization of magnesium oxide, hydroxide,...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-18-9 or CaSO4·2H2O,...

  17. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.70 Applicability; description of the...

  18. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.70 Applicability; description of the...

  19. 40 CFR 426.70 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass laminating subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... automotive glass laminating subcategory. 426.70 Section 426.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.70 Applicability; description of the...

  20. 75 FR 9441 - Lucas-Smith Automotive, Inc.: Potosi, MO; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Lucas-Smith Automotive, Inc.: Potosi, MO; Notice of Negative... requested administrative reconsideration of the Department's negative determination regarding eligibility to... Automotive, Inc., Potosi, Missouri (subject firm). The Notice of negative determination was signed on...

  1. A modified sulfate process to lunar oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    A modified sulfate process which produces oxygen from iron oxide-bearing minerals in lunar soil is under development. Reaction rates of ilmenite in varying strength sulfuric acid have been determined. Quantitative conversion of ilmenite to ferrous sulfate was observed over a range of temperatures and concentrations. Data has also been developed on the calcination of by-product sulfates. System engineering for overall operability and simplicity has begun, suggesting that a process separating the digestion and sulfate dissolution steps may offer an optimum process.

  2. [Regulation of sulfates, hydrogen sulfide and heavy metals in technogenic reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria].

    PubMed

    Hudz', S P; Peretiatko, T B; Moroz, O M; Hnatush, S O; Klym, I R

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Ya-11 in the presence of sulfates and organic compounds in the medium reduce sulfates to hydrogen sulfide (dissimilatory sulfate reduction). Heavy metals in concentration over 2 mM inhibit this process. Pb2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Fe2+ and Cd2+ ions in concentration 1-1.5 mM display insignificant inhibiting effect on sulfate reduction process, and metals precipitate in the form of sulfides. At concentrations of heavy metals 2-3 mM one can observe a decrease of sulfates reduction intensity, and a percent of metals binding does not exceed 72%. Obtained results give reason to confirm, that sulfate-reducing bacteria play an important role in regulation of the level of sulfates, hydrogen sulfide and heavy metals in reservoirs and they may be used for purification of water environment from these compounds.

  3. Chondroitin sulfate and neuronal disorders.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Shinji; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is involved in several aspects of neuronal development, plasticity, and pathophysiology. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), consisting of core proteins with covalently attached chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains, are essential components of the brain ECM. During late postnatal development, CSPGs condense around parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (PV-cells) and form lattice-like ECM structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). Enzymatic or genetic manipulation of PNNs reactivates neuronal plasticity in the adult brain, probably by resetting the excitatory/inhibitory balance in neural networks. Recent studies have indicated that PNNs control PV-cell function by enhancing the accumulation of specific proteins at the cell surface and/or acting as neuroprotective shields against oxidative stress. Since dysfunction of PV-cells and remodeling of CSPGs are commonly observed in several disorders, including schizophrenia, Costello syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and epilepsy, modulation of PV-cell function by CSPGs may provide a novel strategy for these neuronal disorders. Here we review the potential roles of CSPGs as therapeutic targets for neuronal disorders, with particular focus on structural changes of CS chains under pathological conditions.

  4. Discovery and measurement of an isotopically distinct source of sulfate in Earth's atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Gerardo; Jackson, Terri; Brothers, Lauren; Barnett, Burton; Nguyen, Bryan; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate (SO4) and its precursors are significant components of the atmosphere, with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Recently, our triple-isotope (16O, 17O, 18O) measurements of atmospheric sulfate have provided specific insights into the oxidation pathways leading to sulfate, with important implications for models of the sulfur cycle and global climate change. Using similar isotopic measurements of aerosol sulfate in a polluted marine boundary layer (MBL) and primary sulfate (p-SO4) sampled directly from a ship stack, we quantify the amount of p-SO4 found in the atmosphere from ships. We find that ships contribute between 10% and 44% of the non-sea-salt sulfate found in fine [diameter (D) < 1.5 μm) particulate matter in coastal Southern California. These fractions are surprising, given that p-SO4 constitutes ≈2–7% of total sulfur emissions from combustion sources [Seinfed JH, Pandis SN (2006) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Wiley–Interscience, New York)]. Our findings also suggest that the interaction of SO2 from ship emissions with coarse hydrated sea salt particles may lead to the rapid removal of SO2 in the MBL. When combined with the longer residence time of p-SO4 emissions in the MBL, these findings suggest that the importance of p-SO4 emissions in marine environments may be underappreciated in global chemical models. Given the expected increase of international shipping in the years to come, these findings have clear implications for public health, air quality, international maritime law, and atmospheric chemistry. PMID:18753618

  5. Discovery and measurement of an isotopically distinct source of sulfate in Earth's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Gerardo; Jackson, Terri; Brothers, Lauren; Barnett, Burton; Nguyen, Bryan; Thiemens, Mark H

    2008-09-01

    Sulfate (SO(4)) and its precursors are significant components of the atmosphere, with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Recently, our triple-isotope ((16)O, (17)O, (18)O) measurements of atmospheric sulfate have provided specific insights into the oxidation pathways leading to sulfate, with important implications for models of the sulfur cycle and global climate change. Using similar isotopic measurements of aerosol sulfate in a polluted marine boundary layer (MBL) and primary sulfate (p-SO(4)) sampled directly from a ship stack, we quantify the amount of p-SO(4) found in the atmosphere from ships. We find that ships contribute between 10% and 44% of the non-sea-salt sulfate found in fine [diameter (D) < 1.5 microm) particulate matter in coastal Southern California. These fractions are surprising, given that p-SO(4) constitutes approximately 2-7% of total sulfur emissions from combustion sources [Seinfed JH, Pandis SN (2006) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Wiley-Interscience, New York)]. Our findings also suggest that the interaction of SO(2) from ship emissions with coarse hydrated sea salt particles may lead to the rapid removal of SO(2) in the MBL. When combined with the longer residence time of p-SO(4) emissions in the MBL, these findings suggest that the importance of p-SO(4) emissions in marine environments may be underappreciated in global chemical models. Given the expected increase of international shipping in the years to come, these findings have clear implications for public health, air quality, international maritime law, and atmospheric chemistry.

  6. Automotive non-pressure cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, A.A.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes a non-pressure automotive engine cooling system comprising: a radiator containing a liquid coolant, coupling hoses that intercouple the radiator to the engine, pump means associated with the engine for circulating coolant through the engine and radiator. The pump means has a suction side, a radiator cap sealed on the radiator, an expansion tank disposed in the engine compartment, vent means on the tank for venting the tank to atmosphere, a coupling tube disposed between the radiator below the radiator cap and the expansion tank to enable free flow of the coolant under expansion from the radiator to the expansion tank. The radiator cap seals the radiator but provides a substantially non-pressure and unimpeded fluid path from the radiator to the coupling tube, a return line coupled from the expansion tank to the suction side of the pump means. The radiator has a gooseneck with the radiator cap sealably engaged with the gooseneck, an outlet port from the top of the radiator to which the coupling tube is connected. The outlet port is continuously open and unblocked by the radiator cap to provide free fluid flow from the radiator to the expansion tank over the entire operating temperature range, the radiator cap sealing only at the top of the gooseneck, and means for supporting the expansion tank at a position at a height corresponding to the top of the radiator. Under normal temperature operating conditions, the liquid level line is substantially the same in both the radiator and the expansion tank.

  7. Investigation of metallurgical coatings for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jun Feng

    Metallurgical coatings have been widely used in the automotive industry from component machining, engine daily running to body decoration due to their high hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance and low friction coefficient. With high demands in energy saving, weight reduction and limiting environmental impact, the use of new materials such as light Aluminum/magnesium alloys with high strength-weight ratio for engine block and advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) with better performance in crash energy management for die stamping, are increasing. However, challenges are emerging when these new materials are applied such as the wear of the relative soft light alloys and machining tools for hard AHSS. The protective metallurgical coatings are the best option to profit from these new materials' advantages without altering largely in mass production equipments, machinery, tools and human labor. In this dissertation, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating processing on aluminum alloys was introduced in engine cylinder bores to resist wear and corrosion. The tribological behavior of the PEO coatings under boundary and starve lubrication conditions was studied experimentally and numerically for the first time. Experimental results of the PEO coating demonstrated prominent wear resistance and low friction, taking into account the extreme working conditions. The numerical elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and asperity contact based tribological study also showed a promising approach on designing low friction and high wear resistant PEO coatings. Other than the fabrication of the new coatings, a novel coating evaluation methodology, namely, inclined impact sliding tester was presented in the second part of this dissertation. This methodology has been developed and applied in testing and analyzing physical vapor deposition (PVD)/ chemical vapor deposition (CVD)/PEO coatings. Failure mechanisms of these common metallurgical hard coatings were systematically

  8. Lightweighting Automotive Materials for Increased Fuel Efficiency and Delivering Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capabilities to U.S. Manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Steve

    2013-09-11

    Abstract The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), to bring together research and development (R&D) collaborations to develop and accelerate the knowledgebase and infrastructure for lightweighting materials and manufacturing processes for their use in structural and applications in the automotive sector. The purpose/importance of this DOE program: • 2016 CAFÉ standards. • Automotive industry technology that shall adopt the insertion of lightweighting material concepts towards manufacturing of production vehicles. • Development and manufacture of advanced research tools for modeling and simulation (M&S) applications to reduce manufacturing and material costs. • U.S. competitiveness that will help drive the development and manufacture of the next generation of materials. NCMS established a focused portfolio of applied R&D projects utilizing lightweighting materials for manufacture into automotive structures and components. Areas that were targeted in this program: • Functionality of new lightweighting materials to meet present safety requirements. • Manufacturability using new lightweighting materials. • Cost reduction for the development and use of new lightweighting materials. The automotive industry’s future continuously evolves through innovation, and lightweight materials are key in achieving a new era of lighter, more efficient vehicles. Lightweight materials are among the technical advances needed to achieve fuel/energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: • Establish design criteria methodology to identify the best materials for lightweighting. • Employ state-of-the-art design tools for optimum material development for their specific applications. • Match new manufacturing technology to production volume. • Address new process variability with new production-ready processes.

  9. Materials Challenges for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasteiger, Hubert

    2004-03-01

    Over the past few years, significant R efforts aimed at meeting the challenging cost and performance targets required for the use of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in automotive applications. Besides engineering advances in bipolar plate materials and design, the optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was an important enabler in reducing the cost and performance gaps towards commercial viability for the automotive market. On the one hand, platinum loadings were reduced from several mgPt/cm2MEA [1] to values of 0.5-0.6 mgPt/cm2MEA in current applications and loadings as low as 0.25 mgPt/cm2MEA have been demonstrated on the research level [2]. On the other hand, implementation of thin membranes (20-30 micrometer) [3, 4] as well as improvements in diffusion medium materials, essentially doubled the achievable power density of MEAs to ca. 0.9 W/cm2MEA (at 0.65 V) [5], thereby not only reducing the size of a PEMFC fuel cell system, but also reducing its overall materials cost (controlled to a large extent by membrane and Pt-catalyst cost). While this demonstrated a clear path towards automotive applications, a renewed focus of R efforts is now required to develop materials and fundamental materials understanding to assure long-term durability of PEM fuel cells. This presentation therefore will discuss the state-of-the-art knowledge of catalyst, catalyst-support, and membrane degradation mechanisms. In the area of Pt-catalysts, experience with phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) has shown that platinum sintering leads to long-term performance losses [6]. While this is less critical at the lower PEMFC operating temperatures (<100C) compared to PAFCs (>200C), very little is known about the dependence of Pt-sintering on temperature, cell voltage, and catalyst type (i.e., Pt versus Pt-alloys) and will be discussed here. Similarly, carbon-support corrosion can contribute significantly to voltage degradation in PAFCs [7], and even in the PEMFC

  10. Materials Challenges for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasteiger, Hubert

    2004-03-01

    Over the past few years, significant R efforts aimed at meeting the challenging cost and performance targets required for the use of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in automotive applications. Besides engineering advances in bipolar plate materials and design, the optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was an important enabler in reducing the cost and performance gaps towards commercial viability for the automotive market. On the one hand, platinum loadings were reduced from several mgPt/cm2MEA [1] to values of 0.5-0.6 mgPt/cm2MEA in current applications and loadings as low as 0.25 mgPt/cm2MEA have been demonstrated on the research level [2]. On the other hand, implementation of thin membranes (20-30 micrometer) [3, 4] as well as improvements in diffusion medium materials, essentially doubled the achievable power density of MEAs to ca. 0.9 W/cm2MEA (at 0.65 V) [5], thereby not only reducing the size of a PEMFC fuel cell system, but also reducing its overall materials cost (controlled to a large extent by membrane and Pt-catalyst cost). While this demonstrated a clear path towards automotive applications, a renewed focus of R efforts is now required to develop materials and fundamental materials understanding to assure long-term durability of PEM fuel cells. This presentation therefore will discuss the state-of-the-art knowledge of catalyst, catalyst-support, and membrane degradation mechanisms. In the area of Pt-catalysts, experience with phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) has shown that platinum sintering leads to long-term performance losses [6]. While this is less critical at the lower PEMFC operating temperatures (<100C) compared to PAFCs (>200C), very little is known about the dependence of Pt-sintering on temperature, cell voltage, and catalyst type (i.e., Pt versus Pt-alloys) and will be discussed here. Similarly, carbon-support corrosion can contribute significantly to voltage degradation in PAFCs [7], and even in the PEMFC

  11. Correlation of plume opacity with particles and sulfates from boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, J.C.; Lee, M.; Chen, K.S.

    1997-07-01

    The effects of emission concentrations of particulate matters and sulfates on plume opacity are investigated by in situ measurements. The studies are conducted for three processes of two coal-fired plants and one oil-fired that are all equipped with electrostatic precipitators. Flue-gas sampling and analysis include the concentrations of particles and total water soluble sulfates, particle size distribution, and flue-gas composition; while in-stack and out-of-stack opacities are determined by a transmissometer and certified smoke inspectors, respectively. Experimental results show that plume opacity outside the stack linearly correlates well with the in-stack opacity. The mixing of hot flue gas with cold ambient air would result in the condensation of hygroscopic sulfuric acid aerosols and an increase about 1.6% out of typical 15--25% measured opacity. An empirical equation similar to the Beer-Lambert-Bouger form is derived for predicting the plume opacity in terms of the stack diameter and the concentrations of particles and total water soluble sulfates. Good comparisons are achieved between predictions by the empirical equation and other available field data.

  12. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  13. Sulfate retention and release in soils at Panola Mountain, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Inorganic sulfate pools, sulfate sorption characteristics, and Fe and Al fractions were determined on soils at Panola Mountain, a 41-ha forested watershed in the Georgia Piedmont. Sulfate sorption properties of these soils fall along a continuum between two end members. The "low-adsorbing' end member comprises shallow soils (0-10 cm), with high water-soluble sulfate (Sw), low phosphate-extractable sulfate (Sp-w), high organic matter, low sulfate retention ability, and high sulfate adsorption reversibility. The "high-adsorbing' end member comprises deeper soils (>10 cm), with higher total native sulfate (mostly as Sp-w), low organic matter, high sulfate retention ability, and low sulfate adsorption reversibility. Sulfate retention was only weakly related to Fe and Al fractions, possibly because of inhibition of adsorption by organic matter. Sulfate concentrations in surface waters reflect the spatial distribution of soil sulfate retention properties. -from Author

  14. Molded GASIR ® infrared optics for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimond, Y.; Bellec, Y.

    2006-05-01

    Umicore IR Glass has developed an industrial process to manufacture low cost chalcogenide glasses. These materials called GASIR® are transparent in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm atmospheric windows which allows to use them in all the sensing and thermal imaging applications where Germanium and ZnSe usually stands. During the past 5 years, Umicore has developed and produced with and for its customers various GASIR ® optics in low and medium volume for military and civilian applications. But from the beginning of last year, the company is also very active in the automotive market. For that reason, a huge work of development on optics quality has been done to comply with automotive requests. Umicore's GASIR ® optics are used for instance in the night vision system that BMW launched in September 2005 on its 7-series. This system which will be described in this paper was developed by Umicore's customer, automotive TIER1 producer Autoliv.

  15. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive...

  16. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive glass...

  17. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive glass...

  18. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive...

  19. 40 CFR 426.60 - Applicability; description of the automotive glass tempering subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... automotive glass tempering subcategory. 426.60 Section 426.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.60 Applicability; description of the automotive...

  20. 77 FR 34854 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Special Wage Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Schedules for Nonappropriated Fund Automotive Mechanics AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION... fund (NAF) automotive mechanics. These special wage schedules would replace the current commission pay practice covering DOD's NAF automotive mechanics with a flat rate pay system. Implementation of a flat...