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Sample records for autonomous bdfig-wind generator

  1. Next generation autonomous wheelchair control.

    PubMed

    Benson, John; Barrett, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Often times the physically challenged, limited to a wheelchair, also have difficulty with vision. In order to help, something must "see" for them. Therefore there must be some way for a wheelchair to know its environment, sense where it is, and where it must go. It also must be able to avoid any obstacles which are not normally part of the environment. An autonomous wheelchair will serve an important role by allowing users more freedom and independence. This design challenge is broken into four major steps: wheelchair control, environment recognition, route planning, and obstacle avoidance. The first step is to reverse engineer a wheelchair and rebuild the controls, which will be the main topic of discussion for this paper. Two big challenges with this step are high power motor control and joystick control. An H-bridge motor interface, controlled by a microprocessor, was designed for the motors. The joystick control is handled with the same microprocessor. PMID:15850119

  2. Next generation autonomous wheelchair control.

    PubMed

    Benson, John; Barrett, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Often times the physically challenged, limited to a wheelchair, also have difficulty with vision. In order to help, something must "see" for them. Therefore there must be some way for a wheelchair to know its environment, sense where it is, and where it must go. It also must be able to avoid any obstacles which are not normally part of the environment. An autonomous wheelchair will serve an important role by allowing users more freedom and independence. This design challenge is broken into four major steps: wheelchair control, environment recognition, route planning, and obstacle avoidance. The first step is to reverse engineer a wheelchair and rebuild the controls, which will be the main topic of discussion for this paper. Two big challenges with this step are high power motor control and joystick control. An H-bridge motor interface, controlled by a microprocessor, was designed for the motors. The joystick control is handled with the same microprocessor.

  3. Incorporating Manual and Autonomous Code Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David

    1998-01-01

    Code can be generated manually or using code-generated software tools, but how do you interpret the two? This article looks at a design methodology that combines object-oriented design with autonomic code generation for attitude control flight software. Recent improvements in space flight computers are allowing software engineers to spend more time engineering the applications software. The application developed was the attitude control flight software for an astronomical satellite called the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP). The MAP flight system is being designed, developed, and integrated at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The MAP controls engineers are using Integrated Systems Inc.'s MATRIXx for their controls analysis. In addition to providing a graphical analysis for an environment, MATRIXx includes an autonomic code generation facility called AutoCode. This article examines the forces that shaped the final design and describes three highlights of the design process: (1) Defining the manual to autonomic code interface; (2) Applying object-oriented design to the manual flight code; (3) Implementing the object-oriented design in C.

  4. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Thermoelectric Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, J. R.; Knox, A.; Siviter, J.; Montecucco, A.

    2013-07-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are a vital part of the oceanographer's toolbox, allowing long-term measurements across a range of ocean depths of a number of ocean properties such as salinity, fluorescence, and temperature profile. Buoyancy-based gliding, rather than direct propulsion, dramatically reduces AUV power consumption and allows long-duration missions on the order of months rather than hours or days, allowing large distances to be analyzed or many successive analyses of a certain area without the need for retrieval. Recent versions of these gliders have seen the buoyancy variation system change from electrically powered to thermally powered using phase-change materials, however a significant battery pack is still required to power communications and sensors, with power consumption in the region of 250 mW. The authors propose a novel application of a thermoelectric generation system, utilizing the depth-related variation in oceanic temperature. A thermal energy store provides a temperature differential across which a thermoelectric device can generate from repeated dives, with the primary purpose of extending mission range. The system is modeled in Simulink to analyze the effect of variation in design parameters. The system proves capable of generating all required power for a modern AUV.

  5. Trajectory generation for an on-road autonomous vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, John; Barbera, Anthony

    2006-05-01

    We describe an algorithm that generates a smooth trajectory (position, velocity, and acceleration at uniformly sampled instants of time) for a car-like vehicle autonomously navigating within the constraints of lanes in a road. The technique models both vehicle paths and lane segments as straight line segments and circular arcs for mathematical simplicity and elegance, which we contrast with cubic spline approaches. We develop the path in an idealized space, warp the path into real space and compute path length, generate a one-dimensional trajectory along the path length that achieves target speeds and positions, and finally, warp, translate, and rotate the one-dimensional trajectory points onto the path in real space. The algorithm moves a vehicle in lane safely and efficiently within speed and acceleration maximums. The algorithm functions in the context of other autonomous driving functions within a carefully designed vehicle control hierarchy.

  6. Advanced Video Guidance Sensor and Next Generation Autonomous Docking Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granade, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, NASA's interest in spacecraft rendezvous and proximity operations has grown. Additional instrumentation is needed to improve manned docking operations' safety, as well as to enable telerobotic operation of spacecraft or completely autonomous rendezvous and docking. To address this need, Advanced Optical Systems, Inc., Orbital Sciences Corporation, and Marshall Space Flight Center have developed the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) under the auspices of the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) program. Given a cooperative target comprising several retro-reflectors, AVGS provides six-degree-of-freedom information at ranges of up to 300 meters for the DART target. It does so by imaging the target, then performing pattern recognition on the resulting image. Longer range operation is possible through different target geometries. Now that AVGS is being readied for its test flight in 2004, the question is: what next? Modifications can be made to AVGS, including different pattern recognition algorithms and changes to the retro-reflector targets, to make it more robust and accurate. AVGS could be coupled with other space-qualified sensors, such as a laser range-and-bearing finder, that would operate at longer ranges. Different target configurations, including the use of active targets, could result in significant miniaturization over the current AVGS package. We will discuss these and other possibilities for a next-generation docking sensor or sensor suite that involve AVGS.

  7. A hybrid microbial dielectric elastomer generator for autonomous robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Ieropoulos, Ioannis; McKay, Thomas; O'Brien, Benjamin; Melhuish, Chris

    2010-04-01

    We are developing a hybrid Dielectric Elastomer Generator (DEG)-Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) energy harvester . The system is for EcoBot, an Autonomous Robot (AR) that currently uses its MFCs to extract electrical energy from biomass, in the form of flies. MFCs, though reliable are slow to store charge. Thus, EcoBot operations are characterized by active periods followed by dormant periods when energy stores recover. Providing an alternate energy harvester such as a DEG, driven by wind or water, could therefore increase active time and also provide high voltage energy for direct use by on-board systems employing dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs). Energy can be harvested from a DEG when work is done on its elastomer membrane.. However, the DEG requires an initial charge and additional charge to compensate for losses due to leakage. The starting charge can be supplied by the EcoBot MFC capacitor. We have developed a self-primer circuit that uses some of the harvested charge to prime the membrane at each cycle. The low voltage MFC initial priming charge was boosted using a voltage converter that was then electrically disconnected. The DEG membrane was cyclically stretched producing charge that replenished leakage losses and energy that could potentially be stored. A further study demonstrated that the DEG with self-primer circuit can boost voltage from very low values without the need for a voltage converter, thus reducing circuit complexity and improving efficiency.

  8. Automated Generation and Assessment of Autonomous Systems Test Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Horvath, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the issues concerning verification and validation testing of autonomous spacecraft routinely culminates in the exploration of anomalous or faulted mission-like scenarios using the work involved during the Dawn mission's tests as examples. Prioritizing which scenarios to develop usually comes down to focusing on the most vulnerable areas and ensuring the best return on investment of test time. Rules-of-thumb strategies often come into play, such as injecting applicable anomalies prior to, during, and after system state changes; or, creating cases that ensure good safety-net algorithm coverage. Although experience and judgment in test selection can lead to high levels of confidence about the majority of a system's autonomy, it's likely that important test cases are overlooked. One method to fill in potential test coverage gaps is to automatically generate and execute test cases using algorithms that ensure desirable properties about the coverage. For example, generate cases for all possible fault monitors, and across all state change boundaries. Of course, the scope of coverage is determined by the test environment capabilities, where a faster-than-real-time, high-fidelity, software-only simulation would allow the broadest coverage. Even real-time systems that can be replicated and run in parallel, and that have reliable set-up and operations features provide an excellent resource for automated testing. Making detailed predictions for the outcome of such tests can be difficult, and when algorithmic means are employed to produce hundreds or even thousands of cases, generating predicts individually is impractical, and generating predicts with tools requires executable models of the design and environment that themselves require a complete test program. Therefore, evaluating the results of large number of mission scenario tests poses special challenges. A good approach to address this problem is to automatically score the results

  9. An Autonomous Mobile Robot Guided by a Chaotic True Random Bits Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volos, Ch. K.; Kyprianidis, I. M.; Stouboulos, I. N.; Stavrinides, S. G.; Anagnostopoulos, A. N.

    In this work a robot's controller, which ensures chaotic motion to an autonomous mobile robot, is presented. This new strategy, which is very useful in many robotic missions, generates an unpredictable trajectory by using a chaotic path planning generator. The proposed generator produces a trajectory, which is the result of a sequence of planned target locations. In contrary with other similar works, this one is based on a new chaotic true random bits generator, which has as a basic feature the coexistence of two different synchronization phenomena between mutually coupled identical nonlinear circuits. Simulation tests confirm that the whole robot's workplace is covered with unpredictable way in a very satisfactory time.

  10. Autonomic and Apoptotic, Aeronautical and Aerospace Systems, and Controlling Scientific Data Generated Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy (Inventor); Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A self-managing system that uses autonomy and autonomicity is provided with the self-* property of autopoiesis (self-creation). In the event of an agent in the system self-destructing, autopoiesis auto-generates a replacement. A self-esteem reward scheme is also provided and can be used for autonomic agents, based on their performance and trust. Art agent with greater self-esteem may clone at a greater rate compared to the rate of an agent with lower self-esteem. A self-managing system is provided for a high volume of distributed autonomic/self-managing mobile agents, and autonomic adhesion is used to attract similar agents together or to repel dissimilar agents from an event horizon. An apoptotic system is also provided that accords an "expiry date" to data and digital objects, for example, that are available on the internet, which finds usefulness not only in general but also for controlling the loaning and use of space scientific data.

  11. Systems, methods and apparatus for generation and verification of policies in autonomic computing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Truszkowski, Walter F. (Inventor); Rouff, Christopher A. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor); Gracanin, Denis (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Described herein is a method that produces fully (mathematically) tractable development of policies for autonomic systems from requirements through to code generation. This method is illustrated through an example showing how user formulated policies can be translated into a formal mode which can then be converted to code. The requirements-based programming method described provides faster, higher quality development and maintenance of autonomic systems based on user formulation of policies.Further, the systems, methods and apparatus described herein provide a way of analyzing policies for autonomic systems and facilities the generation of provably correct implementations automatically, which in turn provides reduced development time, reduced testing requirements, guarantees of correctness of the implementation with respect to the policies specified at the outset, and provides a higher degree of confidence that the policies are both complete and reasonable. The ability to specify the policy for the management of a system and then automatically generate an equivalent implementation greatly improves the quality of software, the survivability of future missions, in particular when the system will operate untended in very remote environments, and greatly reduces development lead times and costs.

  12. Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy Affects Symptom Generation and Brain-Gut Axis

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Christina; Søfteland, Eirik; Gunterberg, Veronica; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Lelic, Dina; Brock, Birgitte; Dimcevski, Georg; Gregersen, Hans; Simrén, Magnus; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Long-term diabetes leads to severe peripheral, autonomous, and central neuropathy in combination with clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. The brain-gut axis thus expresses a neurophysiological profile, and heart rate variability (HRV) can be correlated with clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fifteen healthy volunteers and 15 diabetic patients (12 with type 1 diabetes) with severe gastrointestinal symptoms and clinical suspicion of autonomic neuropathy were included. Psychophysics and evoked brain potentials were assessed after painful rectosigmoid electrostimulations, and brain activity was modeled by brain electrical source analysis. Self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms (per the Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Disorder Severity Symptom Index) and quality of life (SF-36 Short Form Survey) were collected. RESULTS Diabetic patients had autonomous neuropathy, evidenced by decreased electrocardiographic R-R interval (P = 0.03) and lower HRV (P = 0.008). Patients were less sensitive to painful stimulation (P = 0.007), had prolonged latencies of evoked potentials (P ≤ 0.001), and showed diminished amplitude of the N2–P2 component in evoked potentials (P = 0.01). There was a caudoanterior shift of the insular brain source (P = 0.01) and an anterior shift of the cingulate generator (P = 0.01). Insular source location was associated with HRV assessments (all P < 0.02), and the shift (expressed in mm) correlated negatively with physical health (P < 0.001) and positively with nausea (P = 0.03) and postprandial fullness (P = 0.03). Cingulate source shift was correlated negatively with physical health (P = 0.005) and positively with postprandial fullness (P ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS This study provides evidence for interaction between autonomic neuropathy and peripheral nervous degeneration, as well as changes in dipole sources in diabetic patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. The findings may lead to improved

  13. Autonomous trajectory generation for mobile robots with non-holonomic and steering angle constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.; Vasseur, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the trajectory planning of mobile platforms characterized by non-holonomic constraints and constraints on the steering angle and steering angle rate. The approach is based on geometric reasoning and provides deterministic trajectories for all pairs of initial and final configurations (position x, y, and orientation {theta}) of the robot. Furthermore, the method generates trajectories taking into account the forward and reverse mode of motion of the vehicle, or combination of these when complex maneuvering is involved or when the environment is obstructed with obstacles. The trajectory planning algorithm is described, and examples of trajectories generated for a variety of environmental conditions are presented. The generation of the trajectories only takes a few milliseconds of run time on a micro Vax, making the approach quite attractive for use as a real-time motion planner for teleoperated or sensor-based autonomous vehicles in complex environments. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  14. The Next Generation of Mars-GRAM and Its Role in the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.; Ramey, Holly S.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM 2010 is currently being used to develop the onboard atmospheric density estimator that is part of the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Plan. In previous versions, Mars-GRAM was less than realistic when used for sensitivity studies for Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) MapYear=0 and large optical depth values, such as tau=3. A comparison analysis has been completed between Mars-GRAM, TES and data from the Planetary Data System (PDS) resulting in updated coefficients for the functions relating density, latitude, and longitude of the sun. The adjustment factors are expressed as a function of height (z), Latitude (Lat) and areocentric solar longitude (Ls). The latest release of Mars-GRAM 2010 includes these adjustment factors that alter the in-put data from MGCM and MTGCM for the Mapping Year 0 (user-controlled dust) case. The greatest adjustment occurs at large optical depths such as tau greater than 1. The addition of the adjustment factors has led to better correspondence to TES Limb data from 0-60 km as well as better agreement with MGS, ODY and MRO data at approximately 90-135 km. Improved simulations utilizing Mars-GRAM 2010 are vital to developing the onboard atmospheric density estimator for the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Plan. Mars-GRAM 2010 was not the only planetary GRAM utilized during phase 1 of this plan; Titan-GRAM and Venus-GRAM were used to generate density data sets for Aerobraking Design Reference Missions. These data sets included altitude profiles (both vertical and along a trajectory), GRAM perturbations (tides, gravity waves, etc.) and provided density and scale height values for analysis by other Autonomous Aero-braking team members.

  15. Autonomous Document Cleaning--A Generative Approach to Reconstruct Strongly Corrupted Scanned Texts.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhenwen; Lücke, Jörg

    2014-10-01

    We study the task of cleaning scanned text documents that are strongly corrupted by dirt such as manual line strokes, spilled ink, etc. We aim at autonomously removing such corruptions from a single letter-size page based only on the information the page contains. Our approach first learns character representations from document patches without supervision. For learning, we use a probabilistic generative model parameterizing pattern features, their planar arrangements and their variances. The model's latent variables describe pattern position and class, and feature occurrences. Model parameters are efficiently inferred using a truncated variational EM approach. Based on the learned representation, a clean document can be recovered by identifying, for each patch, pattern class and position while a quality measure allows for discrimination between character and non-character patterns. For a full Latin alphabet we found that a single page does not contain sufficiently many character examples. However, even if heavily corrupted by dirt, we show that a page containing a lower number of character types can efficiently and autonomously be cleaned solely based on the structural regularity of the characters it contains. In different example applications with different alphabets, we demonstrate and discuss the effectiveness, efficiency and generality of the approach. PMID:26352627

  16. Automated generation of discrete event controllers for dynamic reconfiguration of autonomous sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, Sarah; Griffin, Christopher; Phoha, Shashi

    2003-12-01

    Autonomous Sensor Networks have the potential for broad applicability to national security, intelligent transportation, industrial production and environmental and hazardous process control. Distributed sensors may be used for detecting bio-terrorist attacks, for contraband interdiction, border patrol, monitoring building safety and security, battlefield surveillance, or may be embedded in complex dynamic systems for enabling fault tolerant operations. In this paper we present algorithms and automation tools for constructing discrete event controllers for complex networked systems that restrict the dynamic behavior of the system according to given specifications. In our previous work we have modeled dynamic system as a discrete event automation whose open loop behavior is represented as a language L of strings generated with the alphabet 'Elipson' of all possible atomic events that cause state transitions in the network. The controlled behavior is represented by a sublanguage K, contained in L, that restricts the behavior of the system according to the specifications of the controller. We have developed the algebraic structure of controllable sublanguages as perfect right partial ideals that satisfy a precontrollability condition. In this paper we develop an iterative algorithm to take an ad hoc specification described using a natural language, and to formulate a complete specification that results in a controllable sublanguage. A supervisory controller modeled as an automaton that runs synchronously with the open loop system in the sense of Ramadge and Wonham is automatically generated to restrict the behavior of the open loop system to the controllable sublanguage. A battlefield surveillance scenario illustrates the iterative evolution of ad hoc specifications for controlling an autonomous sensor network and the generation of a controller that reconfigures the sensor network to dynamically adapt to environmental perturbations.

  17. Autonomous generation of a thermoacoustic solitary wave in an air-filled tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Dai; Sugimoto, Nobumasa

    2016-10-01

    Experiments are performed to demonstrate the autonomous generation of an acoustic solitary wave in an air-filled, looped tube with an array of Helmholtz resonators. The solitary wave is generated spontaneously due to thermoacoustic instability by a pair of stacks installed in the tube and subject to a temperature gradient axially. No external drivers are used to create initial disturbances. Once the solitary wave is generated, it keeps on propagating to circulate along the loop endlessly. The stacks, which are made of ceramics and of many pores of square cross section, are placed in the tube diametrically on exactly the opposite side of the loop, and they are sandwiched by hot and cold (ambient) heat exchangers. When the temperature gradient along both stacks is appropriate, pulses of smooth profiles are generated and propagated in both directions of the tube. From good agreements of not only the pressure profile measured but also the propagation speed with the theory, the pulse is identified as the acoustic solitary wave, and it can be called thermoacoustic solitary wave or thermoacoustic soliton corresponding to the soliton solution of the K-dV equation in one limit.

  18. Autonomous portable pulsed-periodical generator of high-power radiofrequency-pulses based on gas discharge with hollow cathode.

    PubMed

    Bulychev, Sergey V; Dubinov, Alexander E; L'vov, Igor L; Popolev, Vyacheslav L; Sadovoy, Sergey A; Sadchikov, Eugeny A; Selemir, Victor D; Valiulina, Valeria K; Vyalykh, Dmitry V; Zhdanov, Victor S

    2016-05-01

    Portable autonomous generator of high-power RF-pulses based on the gas discharge with hollow cathode has been designed, fabricated, and tested. Input and output characteristics are the following: discharge current amplitude is 800 A, duration of generated RF-pulses is 350 ns, carrier frequency is ∼90 MHz, power in RF-pulse is 0.5 MW, pulse repetition rate is 0.5 kHz, and device efficiency is ∼25%.

  19. Autonomous portable pulsed-periodical generator of high-power radiofrequency-pulses based on gas discharge with hollow cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulychev, Sergey V.; Dubinov, Alexander E.; L'vov, Igor L.; Popolev, Vyacheslav L.; Sadovoy, Sergey A.; Sadchikov, Eugeny A.; Selemir, Victor D.; Valiulina, Valeria K.; Vyalykh, Dmitry V.; Zhdanov, Victor S.

    2016-05-01

    Portable autonomous generator of high-power RF-pulses based on the gas discharge with hollow cathode has been designed, fabricated, and tested. Input and output characteristics are the following: discharge current amplitude is 800 A, duration of generated RF-pulses is 350 ns, carrier frequency is ˜90 MHz, power in RF-pulse is 0.5 MW, pulse repetition rate is 0.5 kHz, and device efficiency is ˜25%.

  20. A low-cost wireless system for autonomous generation of road safety alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, B.; Harms, T.; Sedigh Sarvestani, S.; Bastianini, F.

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes an autonomous wireless system that generates road safety alerts, in the form of SMS and email messages, and sends them to motorists subscribed to the service. Drivers who regularly traverse a particular route are the main beneficiaries of the proposed system, which is intended for sparsely populated rural areas, where information available to drivers about road safety, especially bridge conditions, is very limited. At the heart of this system is the SmartBrick, a wireless system for remote structural health monitoring that has been presented in our previous work. Sensors on the SmartBrick network regularly collect data on water level, temperature, strain, and other parameters important to safety of a bridge. This information is stored on the device, and reported to a remote server over the GSM cellular infrastructure. The system generates alerts indicating hazardous road conditions when the data exceeds thresholds that can be remotely changed. The remote server and any number of designated authorities can be notified by email, FTP, and SMS. Drivers can view road conditions and subscribe to SMS and/or email alerts through a web page. The subscription-only form of alert generation has been deliberately selected to mitigate privacy concerns. The proposed system can significantly increase the safety of travel through rural areas. Real-time availability of information to transportation authorities and law enforcement officials facilitates early or proactive reaction to road hazards. Direct notification of drivers further increases the utility of the system in increasing the safety of the traveling public.

  1. Automatic generation of modules of object categorization for autonomous mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbenko, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Many robotic tasks require advanced systems of visual sensing. Robotic systems of visual sensing must be able to solve a number of different complex problems of visual data analysis. Object categorization is one of such problems. In this paper, we propose an approach to automatic generation of computationally effective modules of object categorization for autonomous mobile robots. This approach is based on the consideration of the stack cover problem. In particular, it is assumed that the robot is able to perform an initial inspection of the environment. After such inspection, the robot needs to solve the stack cover problem by using a supercomputer. A solution of the stack cover problem allows the robot to obtain a template for computationally effective scheduling of object categorization. Also, we consider an efficient approach to solve the stack cover problem. In particular, we consider an explicit reduction from the decision version of the stack cover problem to the satisfiability problem. For different satisfiability algorithms, the results of computational experiments are presented.

  2. Plan generation and hard real-time execution with application to safe, autonomous flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Ella Marie

    We address the problem of constructing and executing control plans for safe, fully-autonomous operation within a complex real-time domain where the combination of an incomplete knowledge base, limited computational resources, and hard real-time deadlines precludes the success of traditional planning and scheduling algorithms. To meet hard deadlines with limited computational resources, we employ a stochastic world model to prioritize the state-space during planning, then utilize feedback from the scheduler to set a threshold below which the planner removes unlikely states from consideration in order to generate a schedulable plan. Our probabilistic planning algorithm minimizes domain knowledge size and explicitly provides for the construction of real-time control plans. Although approximate instead of optimal, the representational efficiency gained by our approach makes it a viable alternative to the well-established Markov Decision Process for complex real-time problem domains. When resource limits require plan modification, our heuristic algorithms for communicating task resource utilization information from real-time scheduler to planner provide a novel method for directing the expensive planner backtracking process specifically toward a schedulable plan. The tradeoff in ignoring reachable but unlikely states, as well as allowing incomplete domain knowledge, is that we must now provide explicitly for the detection of and reaction to these "unexpected" states our system may encounter while executing a plan. By detecting such unhandled states and caching contingency plans for events which, though unlikely, could lead to catastrophic failure, we can still guarantee system safety in the probabilistic sense. Ultimately, however, we are still constrained by plan-execution resource limits regardless of the tradeoff algorithms employed. We apply the resultant architecture (CIRCA-II) to simulated autonomous aircraft flight and demonstrate its utility for intelligently

  3. Validating a UAV artificial intelligence control system using an autonomous test case generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy; Huber, Justin

    2013-05-01

    The validation of safety-critical applications, such as autonomous UAV operations in an environment which may include human actors, is an ill posed problem. To confidence in the autonomous control technology, numerous scenarios must be considered. This paper expands upon previous work, related to autonomous testing of robotic control algorithms in a two dimensional plane, to evaluate the suitability of similar techniques for validating artificial intelligence control in three dimensions, where a minimum level of airspeed must be maintained. The results of human-conducted testing are compared to this automated testing, in terms of error detection, speed and testing cost.

  4. Autonomic dysreflexia

    MedlinePlus

    Autonomic hyperreflexia; Spinal cord injury - autonomic dysreflexia; SCI - autonomic dysreflexia ... most common cause of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is spinal cord injury. The nervous system of people with AD ...

  5. Application of heat- and steam-generating sheets to the lumbar or abdominal region affects autonomic nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Yoshinao; Oda, Hideshi; Igaki, Michihito; Suzuki, Megumi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Yada, Yukihiro; Tsuchiya, Shuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Ohishi, Sachiko

    2006-06-30

    Effects of applying a heat- and steam-generating (HSG) sheet on peripheral hemodynamics and autonomic nerve activity were examined. An HSG sheet was applied to the lumbar or abdominal region. Measurements included skin temperature at the lumbar and abdominal regions and the fingertip, total hemoglobin, tissue oxygen saturation ratio (StO2), pupillary light reflex, changes in ECG R-R interval blood pressure and percutaneous electrogastrography (EGG). A heat-generating sheet without steam was used as the control. Based on the present findings, application of the HSG sheet to the lumbar or abdominal region may improve peripheral hemodynamics and inhibit sympathetic nerve activity, resulting in parasympathetic nerve activity dominance.

  6. Subsea thermoelectric generators. 1- 10-watt peltier effect prototypes - a step towards autonomous electrical control units at subsea wellheads

    SciTech Connect

    Weid, J.P. von der; Silva, J.A.P. da; Gama, A.L.; Sant'Anna, A.C.

    1994-05-01

    Offshore oil production activities require the operation of underwater hydraulic or electric equipment. The high cost of acquisition and installation of umbilical cables to supply power is leading to the development of independently powered cableless equipment, connected to the surface by the transmission and reception of control signals through the water. As a first step toward these autonomous wellhead control systems, the authors designed and successfully tested in laboratory conditions a thermoelectric generator able to supply at least 10 watts of electric power, extracting it from the temperature difference between the oil and the surrounding water. Hydraulic pumps and pressure accumulators, control electronics, and valve actuators for wellhead control units are all technically solved problems, even for seafloors as deep as 1,000 meters. However, an autonomous underwater wellhead control unit can only be conceived if an energy source is available at the seafloor. The development of a reliable and compact power source is indeed a fundamental step towards autonomous wet Christmas tree valve actuators.

  7. Welding torch trajectory generation for hull joining using autonomous welding mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hascoet, J. Y.; Hamilton, K.; Carabin, G.; Rauch, M.; Alonso, M.; Ares, E.

    2012-04-01

    Shipbuilding processes involve highly dangerous manual welding operations. Welding of ship hulls presents a hazardous environment for workers. This paper describes a new robotic system, developed by the SHIPWELD consortium, that moves autonomously on the hull and automatically executes the required welding processes. Specific focus is placed on the trajectory control of such a system and forms the basis for the discussion in this paper. It includes a description of the robotic hardware design as well as some methodology used to establish the torch trajectory control.

  8. Autonomous vehicle navigation utilizing fuzzy controls concepts for a next generation wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Hansen, J D; Barrett, S F; Wright, C H G; Wilcox, M

    2008-01-01

    Three different positioning techniques were investigated to create an autonomous vehicle that could accurately navigate towards a goal: Global Positioning System (GPS), compass dead reckoning, and Ackerman steering. Each technique utilized a fuzzy logic controller that maneuvered a four-wheel car towards a target. The reliability and the accuracy of the navigation methods were investigated by modeling the algorithms in software and implementing them in hardware. To implement the techniques in hardware, positioning sensors were interfaced to a remote control car and a microprocessor. The microprocessor utilized the sensor measurements to orient the car with respect to the target. Next, a fuzzy logic control algorithm adjusted the front wheel steering angle to minimize the difference between the heading and bearing. After minimizing the heading error, the car maintained a straight steering angle along its path to the final destination. The results of this research can be used to develop applications that require precise navigation. The design techniques can also be implemented on alternate platforms such as a wheelchair to assist with autonomous navigation.

  9. Autonomous vehicle navigation utilizing fuzzy controls concepts for a next generation wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Hansen, J D; Barrett, S F; Wright, C H G; Wilcox, M

    2008-01-01

    Three different positioning techniques were investigated to create an autonomous vehicle that could accurately navigate towards a goal: Global Positioning System (GPS), compass dead reckoning, and Ackerman steering. Each technique utilized a fuzzy logic controller that maneuvered a four-wheel car towards a target. The reliability and the accuracy of the navigation methods were investigated by modeling the algorithms in software and implementing them in hardware. To implement the techniques in hardware, positioning sensors were interfaced to a remote control car and a microprocessor. The microprocessor utilized the sensor measurements to orient the car with respect to the target. Next, a fuzzy logic control algorithm adjusted the front wheel steering angle to minimize the difference between the heading and bearing. After minimizing the heading error, the car maintained a straight steering angle along its path to the final destination. The results of this research can be used to develop applications that require precise navigation. The design techniques can also be implemented on alternate platforms such as a wheelchair to assist with autonomous navigation. PMID:19141895

  10. Intelligent behavior generator for autonomous mobile robots using planning-based AI decision making and supervisory control logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Hitesh K.; Bahl, Vikas; Martin, Jason; Flann, Nicholas S.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2002-07-01

    In earlier research the Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) at Utah State University (USU) have been funded by the US Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program to develop and demonstrate enhanced mobility concepts for unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). One among the several out growths of this work has been the development of a grammar-based approach to intelligent behavior generation for commanding autonomous robotic vehicles. In this paper we describe the use of this grammar for enabling autonomous behaviors. A supervisory task controller (STC) sequences high-level action commands (taken from the grammar) to be executed by the robot. It takes as input a set of goals and a partial (static) map of the environment and produces, from the grammar, a flexible script (or sequence) of the high-level commands that are to be executed by the robot. The sequence is derived by a planning function that uses a graph-based heuristic search (A* -algorithm). Each action command has specific exit conditions that are evaluated by the STC following each task completion or interruption (in the case of disturbances or new operator requests). Depending on the system's state at task completion or interruption (including updated environmental and robot sensor information), the STC invokes a reactive response. This can include sequencing the pending tasks or initiating a re-planning event, if necessary. Though applicable to a wide variety of autonomous robots, an application of this approach is demonstrated via simulations of ODIS, an omni-directional inspection system developed for security applications.

  11. AutoNav Mark3: Engineering the Next Generation of Autonomous Onboard Navigation and Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, Joseph Ed; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Eldred, Dan B.; Gaskell, Robert A.; Grasso, Christopher A.; Kennedy, Brian; Kubitscheck, Daniel; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; Synnott, Stephen. P.; Vaughan, Andrew; Werner, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The success of JPL's AutoNav system at comet Tempel-1 on July 4, 2005, demonstrated the power of autonomous navigation technology for the Deep Impact Mission. This software is being planned for use as the onboard navigation, tracking and rendezvous system for a Mars Sample Return Mission technology demonstration, and several mission proposals are evaluating its use for rendezvous with, and landing on asteroids. Before this however, extensive re-engineering of AutoNav will take place. This paper describes the AutoNav systems-engineering effort in several areas: extending the capabilities, improving operability, utilizing new hardware elements, and demonstrating the new possibilities of AutoNav in simulations.

  12. Autonomously generating operations sequences for a Mars Rover using AI-based planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob; Mishkin, Andrew; Estlin, Tara; Chien, Steve; Backes, Paul; Cooper, Brian; Maxwell, Scott; Rabideau, Gregg

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses a proof-of-concept prototype for ground-based automatic generation of validated rover command sequences from highlevel science and engineering activities. This prototype is based on ASPEN, the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment. This Artificial Intelligence (AI) based planning and scheduling system will automatically generate a command sequence that will execute within resource constraints and satisfy flight rules.

  13. Autonomous and Autonomic Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    A watershed in systems engineering is represented by the advent of swarm-based systems that accomplish missions through cooperative action by a (large) group of autonomous individuals each having simple capabilities and no global knowledge of the group s objective. Such systems, with individuals capable of surviving in hostile environments, pose unprecedented challenges to system developers. Design and testing and verification at much higher levels will be required, together with the corresponding tools, to bring such systems to fruition. Concepts for possible future NASA space exploration missions include autonomous, autonomic swarms. Engineering swarm-based missions begins with understanding autonomy and autonomicity and how to design, test, and verify systems that have those properties and, simultaneously, the capability to accomplish prescribed mission goals. Formal methods-based technologies, both projected and in development, are described in terms of their potential utility to swarm-based system developers.

  14. Behavior generation strategy of artificial behavioral system by self-learning paradigm for autonomous robot tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan

    2008-04-01

    In this study, behavior generation and self-learning paradigms are investigated for the real-time applications of multi-goal mobile robot tasks. The method is capable to generate new behaviors and it combines them in order to achieve multi goal tasks. The proposed method is composed from three layers: Behavior Generating Module, Coordination Level and Emotion -Motivation Level. Last two levels use Hidden Markov models to manage dynamical structure of behaviors. The kinematics and dynamic model of the mobile robot with non-holonomic constraints are considered in the behavior based control architecture. The proposed method is tested on a four-wheel driven and four-wheel steered mobile robot with constraints in simulation environment and results are obtained successfully.

  15. Photo-driven autonomous hydrogen generation system based on hierarchically shelled ZnO nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Heejin; Yong, Kijung

    2013-11-25

    A quantum dot semiconductor sensitized hierarchically shelled one-dimensional ZnO nanostructure has been applied as a quasi-artificial leaf for hydrogen generation. The optimized ZnO nanostructure consists of one dimensional nanowire as a core and two-dimensional nanosheet on the nanowire surface. Furthermore, the quantum dot semiconductors deposited on the ZnO nanostructures provide visible light harvesting properties. To realize the artificial leaf, we applied the ZnO based nanostructure as a photoelectrode with non-wired Z-scheme system. The demonstrated un-assisted photoelectrochemical system showed the hydrogen generation properties under 1 sun condition irradiation. In addition, the quantum dot modified photoelectrode showed 2 mA/cm{sup 2} current density at the un-assisted condition.

  16. Autonomously Generating Operations Sequences for a Mars Rover Using Artificial Intelligence-Based Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, R.; Mutz, D.; Estlin, T.; Chien, S.; Backes, P.; Norris, J.; Tran, D.; Cooper, B.; Rabideau, G.; Mishkin, A.; Maxwell, S.

    2001-07-01

    This article discusses a proof-of-concept prototype for ground-based automatic generation of validated rover command sequences from high-level science and engineering activities. This prototype is based on ASPEN, the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment. This artificial intelligence (AI)-based planning and scheduling system will automatically generate a command sequence that will execute within resource constraints and satisfy flight rules. An automated planning and scheduling system encodes rover design knowledge and uses search and reasoning techniques to automatically generate low-level command sequences while respecting rover operability constraints, science and engineering preferences, environmental predictions, and also adhering to hard temporal constraints. This prototype planning system has been field-tested using the Rocky 7 rover at JPL and will be field-tested on more complex rovers to prove its effectiveness before transferring the technology to flight operations for an upcoming NASA mission. Enabling goal-driven commanding of planetary rovers greatly reduces the requirements for highly skilled rover engineering personnel. This in turn greatly reduces mission operations costs. In addition, goal-driven commanding permits a faster response to changes in rover state (e.g., faults) or science discoveries by removing the time-consuming manual sequence validation process, allowing rapid "what-if" analyses, and thus reducing overall cycle times.

  17. An architecture for the autonomous generation of preference-based trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Jamie

    Numerous techniques exist to optimize aircraft and spacecraft trajectories over cost functions that include terms such as fuel, time, and separation from obstacles. Relative weighting factors can dramatically alter solution characteristics, and engineers often must manually adjust either cost weights or the trajectory itself to obtain desirable solutions. Further, when humans and robots work together, or when humans task robots, they may express their performance expectations in a "fuzzy" natural language fashion, or else as an uncertain range of more or less acceptable values. This work describes a software architecture which accepts both fuzzy linguistic and hard numeric constraints on trajectory performance and, using a trajectory generator provided by the user, automatically constructs trajectories to meet these specifications as closely as possible. The system respects hard constraints imposed by system dynamics or by the user, and will not let the user's preferences interfere with the system and user needs. The architecture's evaluation agent translates these requirements into cost functional weights expected to produce the desired motion characteristics. The quality of the resulting full-state trajectory is then evaluated based on a set of computed trajectory features compared to the specified constraints. If constraints are not met, the cost functional weights are adjusted according to precomputed heuristic equations. Heuristics are not generated in an ad hoc fashion, but are instead the result of a systematic testing of the simulated system under a range of simple conditions. The system is tested in a 2DOF linear and a 6DOF nonlinear domain with a variety of constraints and in the presence of obstacles. Results show that the system consistently meets all hard numeric constraints placed on the trajectory. Desired characteristics are often attainable or else, in those cases where they are discounted in favor of the hard constraints, failed by small margins

  18. An autonomous information generation and distribution system for the next generation of small satellites: examples of the BIRD mission experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halle, Winfried; Briess, Klaus; Kayal, Hakan

    2004-02-01

    The general trend in remote sensing is on one hand to increase the number of spectral bands and the geometric resolution of the imaging sensors which leads to higher data rates and data volumes. On the other hand the user is often only interested in special information of the received sensor data and not in the whole data mass. Concerning these two tendencies a main part of the signal pre-processing can already be done for special users and tasks on-board a satellite. For the BIRD (Bispectral InfraRed Detection) mission a new approach of an on-board data processing is made. The main goal of the BIRD mission is the fire recognition and the detection of hot spots. This paper describes the technical solution and the first results, of an on-board image data processing system based on the sensor system on two new IR-Sensors and the stereo line scanner WAOSS (Wide-Angle-Optoelectronic-Scanner). The aim of this data processing system is to reduce the data stream from the satellite due to generations of thematic maps. This reduction will be made by a multispectral classification. For this classification a special hardware based on the neural network processor NI1000 was designed. This hardware is integrated in the payload data handling system of the satellite.

  19. Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Racosta, Juan Manuel; Kimpinski, Kurt; Morrow, Sarah Anne; Kremenchutzky, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is a prevalent and significant cause of disability among patients with multiple sclerosis. Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis is usually explained by lesions within central nervous system regions responsible for autonomic regulation, but novel evidence suggests that other factors may be involved as well. Additionally, the interactions between the autonomic nervous system and the immune system have generated increased interest about the role of autonomic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In this paper we analyze systematically the most relevant signs and symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in MS, considering separately their potential causes and implications.

  20. Autophosphorylation of CaMKK2 generates autonomous activity that is disrupted by a T85S mutation linked to anxiety and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Scott, John W; Park, Elizabeth; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Oakhill, Jonathan S; Issa, Samah M A; O'Brien, Matthew T; Dite, Toby A; Langendorf, Christopher G; Wetsel, William C; Means, Anthony R; Kemp, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    Mutations that reduce expression or give rise to a Thr85Ser (T85S) mutation of Ca(2+)-CaM-dependent protein kinase kinase-2 (CaMKK2) have been implicated in behavioural disorders such as anxiety, bipolar and schizophrenia in humans. Here we report that Thr85 is an autophosphorylation site that endows CaMKK2 with a molecular memory that enables sustained autonomous activation following an initial, transient Ca(2+) signal. Conversely, autophosphorylation of Ser85 in the T85S mutant fails to generate autonomous activity but instead causes a partial loss of CaMKK2 activity. The loss of autonomous activity in the mutant can be rescued by blocking glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) phosphorylation of CaMKK2 with the anti-mania drug lithium. Furthermore, CaMKK2 null mice representing a loss of function model the human behavioural phenotypes, displaying anxiety and manic-like behavioural disturbances. Our data provide a novel insight into CaMKK2 regulation and its perturbation by a mutation associated with behavioural disorders. PMID:26395653

  1. Autonomic neuropathies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    A limited autonomic neuropathy may underlie some unusual clinical syndromes, including the postural tachycardia syndrome, pseudo-obstruction syndrome, heat intolerance, and perhaps chronic fatigue syndrome. Antibodies to autonomic structures are common in diabetes, but their specificity is unknown. The presence of autonomic failure worsens prognosis in the diabetic state. Some autonomic neuropathies are treatable. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy may respond to liver transplantation. There are anecdotal reports of acute panautonomic neuropathy responding to intravenous gamma globulin. Orthostatic hypotension may respond to erythropoietin or midodrine.

  2. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Clarke, B F; Ewing, D J; Campbell, I W

    1979-10-01

    This review attempts to outline the present understanding of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The clinical features have been increasinly recognised but knowledge of the localization and morphology of the lesions and their pathogenesis remains fragmentary. A metabolic causation as postulated in somatic nerves accords best with clinical observations. Most bodily systems, particularly the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and urogenital, are involved with added disturbances of thermoregulatory function and pupillary reflexes. Possible effects on neuroendocrine and peptidergic secretion and respiratory control await definition. Current interest centres around the development of a new generation of tests of autonomic nerve function that are simple, non-invasive, reproducible and allow precision in diagnosis and accurate quantitation. Most are based on cardiovascular reflexes and abnormality in them is assumed to reflect autonomic damage elsewhere. Probably no single test suffices and a battery of tests reflecting both parasympathetic and sympathetic function is preferable. Little is known of the natural history. The prevalence may be greater than previously suspected and although symptoms are mild in the majority, a few develop florid features. The relation of control and duration of diabetes to the onset and progression of autonomic neuropathy is not clearly established. Once tests of autonomic function become abnormal they usually remain abnormal. Symptomatic autonomic neuropathy carries a greatly increased mortality rate possibly due to indirect mechanisms such as renal failure and direct mechanisms such as cardio-resiratory arrest. Improved treatment of some of the more disabling symptoms has been possible in recent years. PMID:387501

  3. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  4. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  5. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  6. Autonomous Soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Victor P.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the autonomous soaring flight of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). It reviews energy sources for UAVs, and two examples of UAV's that used alternative energy sources, and thermal currents for soaring. Examples of flight tests, plans, and results are given. Ultimately, the concept of a UAV harvesting energy from the atmosphere has been shown to be feasible with existing technology.

  7. Autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, A.L.; Blidberg, D.R.; Michelson, R.C. |

    1996-08-01

    There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

  8. Autonomous control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    KSC has been developing the Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE), which is a tool for performing automated monitoring, diagnosis, and control of electromechanical devices. KATE employs artificial intelligence computing techniques to perform these functions. The KATE system consists of a generic shell and a knowledge base. The KATE shell is the portion of the system which performs the monitoring, diagnosis, and control functions. It is generic in the sense that it is application independent. This means that the monitoring activity, for instance, will be performed with the same algorithms regardless of the particular physical device being used. The knowledge base is the portion of the system which contains specific functional and behavorial information about the physical device KATE is working with. Work is nearing completion on a project at KSC to interface a Texas Instruments Explorer running a LISP version of KATE with a Generic Checkout System (GCS) test-bed to control a physical simulation of a shuttle tanking system (humorously called the Red Wagon because of its color and mobility). The Autonomous Control System (ACS) project supplements and extends the KATE/GCS project by adding three other major activities. The activities include: porting KATE from the Texas Instruments Explorer machine to an Intel 80386-based UNIX workstation in the LISP language; rewriting KATE as necessary to run on the same 80386 workstation but in the Ada language; and investigating software and techniques to translate ANSI Standard Common LISP to Mil Standard Ada. Primary goals of this task are as follows: (1) establish the advantages of using expert systems to provide intelligent autonomous software for Space Station Freedom applications; (2) determine the feasibility of using Ada as the run-time environment for model-based expert systems; (3) provide insight into the advantages and disadvantagesof using LISP or Ada in the run-time environment for expert systems; and (4

  9. INL Autonomous Navigation System

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Autonomous Navigation System provides instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The system permits high-speed autonomous navigation including obstacle avoidance, waypoing navigation and path planning in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  10. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of an autonomic neuropathy in the developed world. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy causes a constellation of symptoms and signs affecting cardiovascular, urogenital, gastrointestinal, pupillomotor, thermoregulatory, and sudomotor systems. Several discrete syndromes associated with diabetes cause autonomic dysfunction. The most prevalent of these are: generalized diabetic autonomic neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy associated with the prediabetic state, treatment-induced painful and autonomic neuropathy, and transient hypoglycemia-associated autonomic neuropathy. These autonomic manifestations of diabetes are responsible for the most troublesome and disabling features of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and result in a significant proportion of the mortality and morbidity associated with the disease.

  11. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  12. Nemesis Autonomous Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

  13. Autonomous Attitude Determination System (AADS). Volume 1: System description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saralkar, K.; Frenkel, Y.; Klitsch, G.; Liu, K. S.; Lefferts, E.; Tasaki, K.; Snow, F.; Garrahan, J.

    1982-01-01

    Information necessary to understand the Autonomous Attitude Determination System (AADS) is presented. Topics include AADS requirements, program structure, algorithms, and system generation and execution.

  14. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  15. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  16. [Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias].

    PubMed

    Maximova, M Yu; Piradov, M A; Suanova, E T; Sineva, N A

    2015-01-01

    Review of literature on the trigeminal autonomic cephalgias are presented. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias are primary headaches with phenotype consisting of trigeminal pain with autonomic sign including lacrimation, rhinorrhea and miosis. Discussed are issues of classification, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of this headache. Special attention is paid to cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT syndrome, hemicrania continua.

  17. The Autonomic Symptom Profile: a new instrument to assess autonomic symptoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, G. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Offord, K. P.; Atkinson, E. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Low, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a new specific instrument called the Autonomic Symptom Profile to measure autonomic symptoms and test its validity. BACKGROUND: Measuring symptoms is important in the evaluation of quality of life outcomes. There is no validated, self-completed questionnaire on the symptoms of patients with autonomic disorders. METHODS: The questionnaire is 169 items concerning different aspects of autonomic symptoms. The Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale (COMPASS) with item-weighting was established; higher scores indicate more or worse symptoms. Autonomic function tests were performed to generate the Composite Autonomic Scoring Scale (CASS) and to quantify autonomic deficits. We compared the results of the COMPASS with the CASS derived from the Autonomic Reflex Screen to evaluate validity. RESULTS: The instrument was tested in 41 healthy controls (mean age 46.6 years), 33 patients with nonautonomic peripheral neuropathies (mean age 59.5 years), and 39 patients with autonomic failure (mean age 61.1 years). COMPASS scores correlated well with the CASS, demonstrating an acceptable level of content and criterion validity. The mean (+/-SD) overall COMPASS score was 9.8 (+/-9) in controls, 25.9 (+/-17.9) in the patients with nonautonomic peripheral neuropathies, and 52.3 (+/-24.2) in the autonomic failure group. Scores of symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and secretomotor dysfunction best predicted the CASS on multiple stepwise regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a questionnaire that measures autonomic symptoms and present evidence for its validity. The instrument shows promise in assessing autonomic symptoms in clinical trials and epidemiologic studies.

  18. Genetic autonomic disorders.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B

    2013-03-01

    Genetic disorders affecting the autonomic nervous system can result in abnormal development of the nervous system or they can be caused by neurotransmitter imbalance, an ion-channel disturbance or by storage of deleterious material. The symptoms indicating autonomic dysfunction, however, will depend upon whether the genetic lesion has disrupted peripheral or central autonomic centers or both. Because the autonomic nervous system is pervasive and affects every organ system in the body, autonomic dysfunction will result in impaired homeostasis and symptoms will vary. The possibility of genetic confirmation by molecular testing for specific diagnosis is increasing but treatments tend to remain only supportive and directed toward particular symptoms. PMID:23465768

  19. The autonomic laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system can now be studied quantitatively, noninvasively, and reproducibly in a clinical autonomic laboratory. The approach at the Mayo Clinic is to study the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers of peripheral nerve (using the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]), the parasympathetic nerves to the heart (cardiovagal tests), and the regulation of blood pressure by the baroreflexes (adrenergic tests). Patient preparation is extremely important, since the state of the patient influences the results of autonomic function tests. The autonomic technologist in this evolving field needs to have a solid core of knowledge of autonomic physiology and autonomic function tests, followed by training in the performance of these tests in a standardized fashion. The range and utilization of tests of autonomic function will likely continue to evolve.

  20. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2014-09-01

    Poincaré oscillator with quasi-periodic forcing. In this way we not only discuss and review each method, but also present properties which help to clearly distinguish the three classes of systems when analysed in an inverse approach-from measured, or numerically generated data. In particular, this review provides a framework to tackle inverse problems in these areas and clearly distinguish non-autonomous dynamics from chaos or stochasticity.

  1. Pediatric autonomic disorders.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Chelimsky, Gisela G; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2006-07-01

    The scope of pediatric autonomic disorders is not well recognized. The goal of this review is to increase awareness of the expanding spectrum of pediatric autonomic disorders by providing an overview of the autonomic nervous system, including the roles of its various components and its pervasive influence, as well as its intimate relationship with sensory function. To illustrate further the breadth and complexities of autonomic dysfunction, some pediatric disorders are described, concentrating on those that present at birth or appear in early childhood. PMID:16818580

  2. Rover: Autonomous concepts for Mars exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiget, A.; Castets, B.; Chochon, H.; Hayard, M.; Lamarre, H.; Lamothe, A.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a mobile, autonomous vehicle that will be launched towards an unknown planet is considered. The rover significant constraints are: Ariane 5 compatibility, Earth/Mars transfer capability, 1000 km autonomous moving in Mars environment, on board localization, and maximum science capability. Two different types of subsystem were considered: classical subsystems (mechanical and mechanisms, thermal, telecommunications, power, onboard data processing) and robotics subsystem, (perception/navigation, autonomous displacement generation, autonomous localization). The needs of each subsystem were studied in terms of energy and data handling capability, in order to choose an on board architecture which best use the available capability, by means of specialized parts. A compromise must always be done between every subsystem in order to obtain the real need with respect to the goal, for example: between perception/navigation and the motion capability. A compromise must also be found between mechanical assembly and calibration need, which is a real problem.

  3. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  4. Analysis of a novel autonomous marine hybrid power generation/energy storage system with a high-voltage direct current link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Lee, Dong-Jing; Lee, Wei-Jen; Chen, Zhe

    This paper presents both time-domain and frequency-domain simulated results of a novel marine hybrid renewable-energy power generation/energy storage system (PG/ESS) feeding isolated loads through an high-voltage direct current (HVDC) link. The studied marine PG subsystems comprise both offshore wind turbines and Wells turbines to respectively capture wind energy and wave energy from marine wind and ocean wave. In addition to wind-turbine generators (WTGs) and wave-energy turbine generators (WETGs) employed in the studied system, diesel-engine generators (DEGs) and an aqua electrolyzer (AE) absorbing a part of generated energy from WTGs and WETGs to generate available hydrogen for fuel cells (FCs) are also included in the PG subsystems. The ES subsystems consist of a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system to balance the required energy in the hybrid PG/ESS. It can be concluded from the simulation results that the proposed hybrid marine PG/ESS feeding isolated loads can stably operate to achieve system power-frequency balance condition.

  5. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance.

  6. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  7. Cell-autonomous role of TGFβ and IL-2 receptors in CD4+ and CD8+ inducible regulatory T-cell generation during GVHD.

    PubMed

    Sawamukai, Norifumi; Satake, Atsushi; Schmidt, Amanda M; Lamborn, Ian T; Ojha, Priti; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Kambayashi, Taku

    2012-06-01

    FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress GVHD while preserving graft-versus-tumor effects, making them an attractive target for GVHD therapy. The donor-derived Treg pool can potentially be derived from the expansion of preexisting natural Tregs (nTregs) or from de novo generation of inducible Tregs (iTregs) from donor Tconvs in the transplantation recipient. Using an MHC-mismatched model of acute GVHD, in the present study we found that the Treg pool was comprised equally of donor-derived nTregs and iTregs. Experiments using various combinations of T cells from wild-type and FoxP3-deficient mice suggested that both preexisting donor nTregs and the generation of iTregs in the recipient mice contribute to protection against GVHD. Surprisingly, CD8(+)FoxP3(+) T cells represented approximately 70% of the iTreg pool. These CD8(+)FoxP3(+) T cells shared phenotypic markers with their CD4(+) counterparts and displayed suppressive activity, suggesting that they were bona fide iTregs. Both CD4(+) and CD8(+) Tregs appeared to be protective against GVHD-induced lethality and required IL-2 and TGFβ receptor expression for their generation. These data illustrate the complex makeup of the donor-derived FoxP3(+) Treg pool in allogeneic recipients and their potential role in protection against GVHD.

  8. Cell-autonomous role of TGFβ and IL-2 receptors in CD4+ and CD8+ inducible regulatory T-cell generation during GVHD

    PubMed Central

    Sawamukai, Norifumi; Satake, Atsushi; Schmidt, Amanda M.; Lamborn, Ian T.; Ojha, Priti; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2012-01-01

    FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress GVHD while preserving graft-versus-tumor effects, making them an attractive target for GVHD therapy. The donor-derived Treg pool can potentially be derived from the expansion of preexisting natural Tregs (nTregs) or from de novo generation of inducible Tregs (iTregs) from donor Tconvs in the transplantation recipient. Using an MHC-mismatched model of acute GVHD, in the present study we found that the Treg pool was comprised equally of donor-derived nTregs and iTregs. Experiments using various combinations of T cells from wild-type and FoxP3-deficient mice suggested that both preexisting donor nTregs and the generation of iTregs in the recipient mice contribute to protection against GVHD. Surprisingly, CD8+FoxP3+ T cells represented approximately 70% of the iTreg pool. These CD8+FoxP3+ T cells shared phenotypic markers with their CD4+ counterparts and displayed suppressive activity, suggesting that they were bona fide iTregs. Both CD4+ and CD8+ Tregs appeared to be protective against GVHD-induced lethality and required IL-2 and TGFβ receptor expression for their generation. These data illustrate the complex makeup of the donor-derived FoxP3+ Treg pool in allogeneic recipients and their potential role in protection against GVHD. PMID:22496155

  9. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

    1998-01-01

    It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

  10. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  11. Towards autonomous fuzzy control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenoi, Sujeet; Ramer, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    The efficient implementation of on-line adaptation in real time is an important research problem in fuzzy control. The goal is to develop autonomous self-organizing controllers employing system-independent control meta-knowledge which enables them to adjust their control policies depending on the systems they control and the environments in which they operate. An autonomous fuzzy controller would continuously observe system behavior while implementing its control actions and would use the outcomes of these actions to refine its control policy. It could be designed to lie dormant when its control actions give rise to adequate performance characteristics but could rapidly and autonomously initiate real-time adaptation whenever its performance degrades. Such an autonomous fuzzy controller would have immense practical value. It could accommodate individual variations in system characteristics and also compensate for degradations in system characteristics caused by wear and tear. It could also potentially deal with black-box systems and control scenarios. On-going research in autonomous fuzzy control is reported. The ultimate research objective is to develop robust and relatively inexpensive autonomous fuzzy control hardware suitable for use in real time environments.

  12. Supervised autonomous robotic soft tissue surgery.

    PubMed

    Shademan, Azad; Decker, Ryan S; Opfermann, Justin D; Leonard, Simon; Krieger, Axel; Kim, Peter C W

    2016-05-01

    The current paradigm of robot-assisted surgeries (RASs) depends entirely on an individual surgeon's manual capability. Autonomous robotic surgery-removing the surgeon's hands-promises enhanced efficacy, safety, and improved access to optimized surgical techniques. Surgeries involving soft tissue have not been performed autonomously because of technological limitations, including lack of vision systems that can distinguish and track the target tissues in dynamic surgical environments and lack of intelligent algorithms that can execute complex surgical tasks. We demonstrate in vivo supervised autonomous soft tissue surgery in an open surgical setting, enabled by a plenoptic three-dimensional and near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging system and an autonomous suturing algorithm. Inspired by the best human surgical practices, a computer program generates a plan to complete complex surgical tasks on deformable soft tissue, such as suturing and intestinal anastomosis. We compared metrics of anastomosis-including the consistency of suturing informed by the average suture spacing, the pressure at which the anastomosis leaked, the number of mistakes that required removing the needle from the tissue, completion time, and lumen reduction in intestinal anastomoses-between our supervised autonomous system, manual laparoscopic surgery, and clinically used RAS approaches. Despite dynamic scene changes and tissue movement during surgery, we demonstrate that the outcome of supervised autonomous procedures is superior to surgery performed by expert surgeons and RAS techniques in ex vivo porcine tissues and in living pigs. These results demonstrate the potential for autonomous robots to improve the efficacy, consistency, functional outcome, and accessibility of surgical techniques. PMID:27147588

  13. Thinking Ahead: Autonomic Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R. )

    2002-08-31

    The time has come for the commercial buildings industries to reconsider the very nature of the systems installed in facilities today and to establish a vision for future buildings that differs from anything in the history of human shelter. Drivers for this examination include reductions in building operation staffs; uncertain costs and reliability of electric power; growing interest in energy-efficient and resource-conserving?green? and?high-performance? commercial buildings; and a dramatic increase in security concerns since the tragic events of September 11. This paper introduces a new paradigm? autonomic buildings? which parallels the concept of autonomic computing, introduced by IBM as a fundamental change in the way computer networks work. Modeled after the human nervous system,?autonomic systems? themselves take responsibility for a large portion of their own operation and even maintenance. For commercial buildings, autonomic systems could provide environments that afford occupants greater opportunity to focus on the things we do in buildings rather than on operation of the building itself, while achieving higher performance levels, increased security, and better use of energy and other natural resources. The author uses the human body and computer networking to introduce and illustrate this new paradigm for high-performance commercial buildings. He provides a vision for the future of commercial buildings based on autonomicity, identifies current research that could contribute to this future, and highlights research and technological gaps. The paper concludes with a set of issues and needs that are key to converting this idealized future into reality.

  14. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  15. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  16. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy often goes unrecognized. We present a case of a 22-year-old man with multiple manifestations of this disease, including weakness, dizziness, fatigue, tachycardia, abnormal QTc, and orthostasis, which occurred 2 years after his type 1 diabetes diagnosis. He exhibited parasympathetic denervation with resting tachycardia and exercise intolerance but also had evidence of orthostatic hypotension, which suggests sympathetic denervation. He did not have complete cardiovascular autonomic reflex testing, which would have been helpful, but improved with aggressive diabetes treatment and the increase of beta-blockade. It is important to identify these patients to understand their signs and symptoms and consider appropriate therapies. PMID:27034552

  17. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Niamh; Silverman, Barry

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy often goes unrecognized. We present a case of a 22-year-old man with multiple manifestations of this disease, including weakness, dizziness, fatigue, tachycardia, abnormal QTc, and orthostasis, which occurred 2 years after his type 1 diabetes diagnosis. He exhibited parasympathetic denervation with resting tachycardia and exercise intolerance but also had evidence of orthostatic hypotension, which suggests sympathetic denervation. He did not have complete cardiovascular autonomic reflex testing, which would have been helpful, but improved with aggressive diabetes treatment and the increase of beta-blockade. It is important to identify these patients to understand their signs and symptoms and consider appropriate therapies. PMID:27034552

  18. Autonomous pathogen detection system 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, R G; Wang, A; Colston, B; Masquelier, D; Jones, L; Venkateswaran, K S; Nasarabadi, S; Brown, S; Ramponi, A; Milanovich, F P

    2001-01-09

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field-demonstrate a fully Autonomous Pathogen Detector (identifier) System (APDS). This will be accomplished by integrating a proven flow cytometer and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detector with sample collection, sample preparation and fluidics to provide a compact, autonomously operating instrument capable of simultaneously detecting multiple pathogens and/or toxins. The APDS will be designed to operate in fixed locations, where it continuously monitors air samples and automatically reports the presence of specific biological agents. The APDS will utilize both multiplex immuno and nucleic acid assays to provide ''quasi-orthogonal'', multiple agent detection approaches to minimize false positives and increase the reliability of identification. Technical advancements across several fronts must first be made in order to realize the full extent of the APDS. Commercialization will be accomplished through three progressive generations of instruments. The APDS is targeted for domestic applications in which (1) the public is at high risk of exposure to covert releases of bioagent such as in major subway systems and other transportation terminals, large office complexes, and convention centers; and (2) as part of a monitoring network of sensors integrated with command and control systems for wide area monitoring of urban areas and major gatherings (e.g., inaugurations, Olympics, etc.). In this latter application there is potential that a fully developed APDS could add value to Defense Department monitoring architectures.

  19. Developing Autonomous Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Defines the concept of autonomous learning. Presents the Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking (SPELT), including its underlying assumptions, instructional model, teacher training procedures, research findings, and anticipated future development. Research results include implications for learning-disabled and gifted students. (KS)

  20. Learning for autonomous navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Autonomous off-road navigation of robotic ground vehicles has important applications on Earth and in space exploration. Progress in this domain has been retarded by the limited lookahead range of 3-D sensors and by the difficulty of preprogramming systems to understand the traversability of the wide variety of terrain they can encounter.

  1. Autonomous staff selection teams.

    PubMed

    Mills, J; Oie, M

    1992-12-01

    Although some other organizations encourage staff input into employee selection, the advanced care department at Bellin Hospital in Green Bay, Wisconsin has taken this concept to a new level by implementing an autonomous interview team. This team is empowered to make hiring decisions for all positions within the department without management influence or interference.

  2. Swarm autonomic agents with self-destruct capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic entity manages a system by generating one or more stay alive signals based on the functioning status and operating state of the system. In some embodiments, an evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy. The evolvable neural interface receives and generates heartbeat monitor signals and pulse monitor signals that are used to generate a stay alive signal that is used to manage the operations of the synthetic neural system. In another embodiment an asynchronous Alice signal (Autonomic license) requiring valid credentials of an anonymous autonomous agent is initiated. An unsatisfactory Alice exchange may lead to self-destruction of the anonymous autonomous agent for self-protection.

  3. Swarm autonomic agents with self-destruct capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic entity manages a system by generating one or more stay alive signals based on the functioning status and operating state of the system. In some embodiments, an evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy. The evolvable neural interface receives and generates heartbeat monitor signals and pulse monitor signals that are used to generate a stay alive signal that is used to manage the operations of the synthetic neural system. In another embodiment an asynchronous Alice signal (Autonomic license) requiring valid credentials of an anonymous autonomous agent is initiated. An unsatisfactory Alice exchange may lead to self-destruction of the anonymous autonomous agent for self-protection.

  4. Systems, methods and apparatus for quiesence of autonomic safety devices with self action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic environmental safety device may be quiesced. In at least one embodiment, a method for managing an autonomic safety device, such as a smoke detector, based on functioning state and operating status of the autonomic safety device includes processing received signals from the autonomic safety device to obtain an analysis of the condition of the autonomic safety device, generating one or more stay-awake signals based on the functioning status and the operating state of the autonomic safety device, transmitting the stay-awake signal, transmitting self health/urgency data, and transmitting environment health/urgency data. A quiesce component of an autonomic safety device can render the autonomic safety device inactive for a specific amount of time or until a challenging situation has passed.

  5. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137

  6. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary points 1. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TACs) are headaches/facial pains classified together based on:a suspected common pathophysiology involving the trigeminovascular system, the trigeminoparasympathetic reflex and centres controlling circadian rhythms;a similar clinical presentation of trigeminal pain, and autonomic activation. 2. There is much overlap in the diagnostic features of individual TACs. 3. In contrast, treatment response is relatively specific and aids in establishing a definitive diagnosis. 4. TACs are often presentations of underlying pathology; all patients should be imaged. 5. The aim of the article is to provide the reader with a broad introduction to, and an overview of, TACs. The reading list is extensive for the interested reader. PMID:26516482

  7. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Jerry L.; Petrik, Edward J.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Truong, Long Van; Quinn, Todd; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) system was designed to monitor and diagnose fault conditions that occur within the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) Testbed. APEX is designed to interface with SSF/EPS testbed power management controllers to provide enhanced autonomous operation and control capability. The APEX architecture consists of three components: (1) a rule-based expert system, (2) a testbed data acquisition interface, and (3) a power scheduler interface. Fault detection, fault isolation, justification of probable causes, recommended actions, and incipient fault analysis are the main functions of the expert system component. The data acquisition component requests and receives pertinent parametric values from the EPS testbed and asserts the values into a knowledge base. Power load profile information is obtained from a remote scheduler through the power scheduler interface component. The current APEX design and development work is discussed. Operation and use of APEX by way of the user interface screens is also covered.

  8. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  9. Microscale autonomous sensor and communications module

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-03-25

    Various technologies pertaining to a microscale autonomous sensor and communications module are described herein. Such a module includes a sensor that generates a sensor signal that is indicative of an environmental parameter. An integrated circuit receives the sensor signal and generates an output signal based at least in part upon the sensor signal. An optical emitter receives the output signal and generates an optical signal as a function of the output signal. An energy storage device is configured to provide power to at least the integrated circuit and the optical emitter, and wherein the module has a relatively small diameter and thickness.

  10. [Central autonomic failures].

    PubMed

    Senard, Jean-Michel; Despas, Fabien; Pathak, Atul

    2012-11-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulates the function of all body organs through both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers. Orthostatic hypotension is frequently observed in the course of central nervous system diseases including cortical (stroke, epilepsy, dementias), neurodegenerative (Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophies) and spinal cord diseases. In some cases, the mechanism of orthostatic hypotension associated with central nervous system diseases involves a dysfunction of peripheral ANS fibers.

  11. Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias.

    PubMed

    Eller, M; Goadsby, P J

    2016-01-01

    The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of primary headache disorders characterised by lateralized symptoms: prominent headache and ipsilateral cranial autonomic features, such as conjunctival injection, lacrimation and rhinorrhea. The TACs are: cluster headache (CH), paroxysmal hemicrania (PH), short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT)/short-lasting neuralgiform headache attacks with cranial autonomic features (SUNA) and hemicrania continua (HC). Their diagnostic criteria are outlined in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition-beta (ICHD-IIIb). These conditions are distinguished by their attack duration and frequency, as well as response to treatment. HC is continuous and by definition responsive to indomethacin. The main differential when considering this headache is chronic migraine. Other TACs are remarkable for their short duration and must be distinguished from other short-lasting painful conditions, such as trigeminal neuralgia and primary stabbing headache. Cluster headache is characterised by exquisitely painful attacks that occur in discrete episodes lasting 15-180 min a few times a day. In comparison, PH occurs more frequently and is of shorter duration, and like HC is responsive to indomethacin. SUNCT/SUNA is the shortest duration and highest frequency TAC; attacks can occur over a hundred times every day.

  12. Autonomous satellite navigation by stellar refraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gounley, R.; White, R.; Gai, E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes an error analysis of an autonomous navigator using refraction measurements of starlight passing through the upper atmosphere. The analysis is based on a discrete linear Kalman filter. The filter generated steady-state values of navigator performance for a variety of test cases. Results of these simulations show that in low-earth orbit position-error standard deviations of less than 0.100 km may be obtained using only 40 star sightings per orbit.

  13. Collaborating with Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous agent must be at a level that the operator needs and the agents can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous agent which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.

  14. Autonomous Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siders, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    The continued assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) is the cornerstone within NASA's overall Strategic P an. As indicated in NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), the International Space Station requires Shuttle to fly through at least the middle of the next decade to complete assembly of the Station, provide crew transport, and to provide heavy lift up and down mass capability. The ISTP reflects a tight coupling among the Station, Shuttle, and OSP programs to support our Nation's space goal . While the Shuttle is a critical component of this ISTP, there is a new emphasis for the need to achieve greater efficiency and safety in transporting crews to and from the Space Station. This need is being addressed through the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program. However, the OSP is being designed to "complement" the Shuttle as the primary means for crew transfer, and will not replace all the Shuttle's capabilities. The unique heavy lift capabilities of the Space Shuttle is essential for both ISS, as well as other potential missions extending beyond low Earth orbit. One concept under discussion to better fulfill this role of a heavy lift carrier, is the transformation of the Shuttle to an "un-piloted" autonomous system. This concept would eliminate the loss of crew risk, while providing a substantial increase in payload to orbit capability. Using the guidelines reflected in the NASA ISTP, the autonomous Shuttle a simplified concept of operations can be described as; "a re-supply of cargo to the ISS through the use of an un-piloted Shuttle vehicle from launch through landing". Although this is the primary mission profile, the other major consideration in developing an autonomous Shuttle is maintaining a crew transportation capability to ISS as an assured human access to space capability.

  15. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  16. Toward autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.

  17. Autonomous interplanetary constellation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Cornelius Channing, II

    According to NASA's integrated space technology roadmaps, space-based infrastructures are envisioned as necessary ingredients to a sustained effort in continuing space exploration. Whether it be for extra-terrestrial habitats, roving/cargo vehicles, or space tourism, autonomous space networks will provide a vital communications lifeline for both future robotic and human missions alike. Projecting that the Moon will be a bustling hub of activity within a few decades, a near-term opportunity for in-situ infrastructure development is within reach. This dissertation addresses the anticipated need for in-space infrastructure by investigating a general design methodology for autonomous interplanetary constellations; to illustrate the theory, this manuscript presents results from an application to the Earth-Moon neighborhood. The constellation design methodology is formulated as an optimization problem, involving a trajectory design step followed by a spacecraft placement sequence. Modeling the dynamics as a restricted 3-body problem, the investigated design space consists of families of periodic orbits which play host to the constellations, punctuated by arrangements of spacecraft autonomously guided by a navigation strategy called LiAISON (Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation). Instead of more traditional exhaustive search methods, a numerical continuation approach is implemented to map the admissible configuration space. In particular, Keller's pseudo-arclength technique is used to follow folding/bifurcating solution manifolds, which are otherwise inaccessible with other parameter continuation schemes. A succinct characterization of the underlying structure of the local, as well as global, extrema is thus achievable with little a priori intuition of the solution space. Furthermore, the proposed design methodology offers benefits in computation speed plus the ability to handle mildly stochastic systems. An application of the constellation design

  18. Autonomous and non-autonomous roles of DNase II during cell death in C. elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsiang; Lai, Huey-Jen; Lin, Tai-Wei; Lo, Szecheng J

    2015-04-27

    Generation of DNA fragments is a hallmark of cell apoptosis and is executed within the dying cells (autonomous) or in the engulfing cells (non-autonomous). The TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling) method is used as an in situ assay of apoptosis by labelling DNA fragments generated by caspase-associated DNase (CAD), but not those by the downstream DNase II. In the present study, we report a method of ToLFP (topoisomerase ligation fluorescence probes) for directly visualizing DNA fragments generated by DNase II in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. ToLFP analysis provided the first demonstration of a cell autonomous mode of DNase II activity in dying cells in ced-1 embryos, which are defective in engulfing apoptotic bodies. Compared with the number of ToLFP signals between ced-1 and wild-type (N2) embryos, a 30% increase in N2 embryos was found, suggesting that the ratio of non-autonomous and autonomous modes of DNase II was ~3-7. Among three DNase II mutant embryos (nuc-1, crn-6 and crn-7), nuc-1 embryos exhibited the least number of ToLFP. The ToLFP results confirmed the previous findings that NUC-1 is the major DNase II for degrading apoptotic DNA. To further elucidate NUC-1's mode of action, nuc-1-rescuing transgenic worms that ectopically express free or membrane-bound forms of NUC-1 fusion proteins were utilized. ToLFP analyses revealed that anteriorly expressed NUC-1 digests apoptotic DNA in posterior blastomeres in a non-autonomous and secretion-dependent manner. Collectively, we demonstrate that the ToLFP method can be used to differentiate the locations of blastomeres where DNase II acts autonomously or non-autonomously in degrading apoptotic DNA.

  19. Autonomous and non-autonomous roles of DNase II during cell death in C. elegans embryos

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hsiang; Lai, Huey-Jen; Lin, Tai-Wei; Lo, Szecheng J.

    2015-01-01

    Generation of DNA fragments is a hallmark of cell apoptosis and is executed within the dying cells (autonomous) or in the engulfing cells (non-autonomous). The TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling) method is used as an in situ assay of apoptosis by labelling DNA fragments generated by caspase-associated DNase (CAD), but not those by the downstream DNase II. In the present study, we report a method of ToLFP (topoisomerase ligation fluorescence probes) for directly visualizing DNA fragments generated by DNase II in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. ToLFP analysis provided the first demonstration of a cell autonomous mode of DNase II activity in dying cells in ced-1 embryos, which are defective in engulfing apoptotic bodies. Compared with the number of ToLFP signals between ced-1 and wild-type (N2) embryos, a 30% increase in N2 embryos was found, suggesting that the ratio of non-autonomous and autonomous modes of DNase II was ~3–7. Among three DNase II mutant embryos (nuc-1, crn-6 and crn-7), nuc-1 embryos exhibited the least number of ToLFP. The ToLFP results confirmed the previous findings that NUC-1 is the major DNase II for degrading apoptotic DNA. To further elucidate NUC-1′s mode of action, nuc-1-rescuing transgenic worms that ectopically express free or membrane-bound forms of NUC-1 fusion proteins were utilized. ToLFP analyses revealed that anteriorly expressed NUC-1 digests apoptotic DNA in posterior blastomeres in a non-autonomous and secretion-dependent manner. Collectively, we demonstrate that the ToLFP method can be used to differentiate the locations of blastomeres where DNase II acts autonomously or non-autonomously in degrading apoptotic DNA. PMID:26182365

  20. Autonomic Responses to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.; Miller, N. E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe how changes in autonomic nervous system responses may be used as an index of individual differences in adaptational capacity to space flight. During two separate Spacelab missions, six crewmembers wore an ambulatory monitoring system which enabled continuous recording of their physiological responses for up to twelve hours a day for 3 to 5 mission days. The responses recorded were electrocardiography, respiration wave form, skin conductance level, hand temperature, blood flow to the hands and triaxial accelerations of the head and upper body. Three of these subjects had been given training, before the mission, in voluntary control of these autonomic responses as a means of facilitating adaptation to space. Three of these subjects served as Controls, i.e., did not receive this training but took anti-motion sickness medication. Nearly 300 hours of flight data are summarized. These data were examined using time-series analyses, spectral analyses of heart rate variability, and analyses of variance. Information was obtained on responses to space motion sickness, inflight medications, circadian rhythm, workload and fatigue. Preliminary assessment was made on the effectiveness of self-regulation training as a means of facilitating adaptation, with recommendations for future flights.

  1. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  2. Autonomous wildfire surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Jan S.

    1993-11-01

    Until recently, problems resulting from fires in forests and natural areas were solved on a national rather than international level. This resulted in duplicating research efforts. The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) tries to enhance the cooperation between European countries to stimulate research on the causes and the technological developments for wildfire prevention, detection, and fighting. One result of these efforts has been the start of an international project on the development of a demonstration system that will be used to aid wild land managers and fire fighters in preventing and fighting wild fires. The system will consist of a decision support system and an autonomous wild fire detection system. The basic information that is used by the decision support system is on the one hand a database system with historical, topographical, logistic, meteorological and geographic information and on the other hand `real-time' data from automated cameras and weather sensors. Also, in other large countries outside Europe, such as Canada, the United States and Australia, technological approaches are being developed to reduce hazards as a result of wild fires. In this paper a summary is given on the various problems and solutions in the area of autonomous wild fire detection and surveillance in the CEC and some other parts of the world.

  3. Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  4. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  5. Autonomous mobile communication relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Everett, Hobart R.; Manouk, Narek; Verma, Ambrish

    2002-07-01

    Maintaining a solid radio communication link between a mobile robot entering a building and an external base station is a well-recognized problem. Modern digital radios, while affording high bandwidth and Internet-protocol-based automatic routing capabilities, tend to operate on line-of-sight links. The communication link degrades quickly as a robot penetrates deeper into the interior of a building. This project investigates the use of mobile autonomous communication relay nodes to extend the effective range of a mobile robot exploring a complex interior environment. Each relay node is a small mobile slave robot equipped with sonar, ladar, and 802.11b radio repeater. For demonstration purposes, four Pioneer 2-DX robots are used as autonomous mobile relays, with SSC-San Diego's ROBART III acting as the lead robot. The relay robots follow the lead robot into a building and are automatically deployed at various locations to maintain a networked communication link back to the remote operator. With their on-board external sensors, they also act as rearguards to secure areas already explored by the lead robot. As the lead robot advances and RF shortcuts are detected, relay nodes that become unnecessary will be reclaimed and reused, all transparent to the operator. This project takes advantage of recent research results from several DARPA-funded tasks at various institutions in the areas of robotic simulation, ad hoc wireless networking, route planning, and navigation. This paper describes the progress of the first six months of the project.

  6. Advanced Autonomous Systems for Space Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Muscettola, N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Clancy, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    New missions of exploration and space operations will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Inherently high levels of complexity, cost, and communication distances will preclude the degree of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of not only meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, but simultaneously dramatically reducing the design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health management capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of advanced space operations, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints will limit the current practice of monitoring and controlling missions by a standing army of ground-based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such on-board systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communication` distances as are not

  7. Development of autonomous grasping and navigating robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudoh, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Keisuke; Nakayama, Yasuichi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to find and grasp target items in an unknown environment is important for working robots. We developed an autonomous navigating and grasping robot. The operations are locating a requested item, moving to where the item is placed, finding the item on a shelf or table, and picking the item up from the shelf or the table. To achieve these operations, we designed the robot with three functions: an autonomous navigating function that generates a map and a route in an unknown environment, an item position recognizing function, and a grasping function. We tested this robot in an unknown environment. It achieved a series of operations: moving to a destination, recognizing the positions of items on a shelf, picking up an item, placing it on a cart with its hand, and returning to the starting location. The results of this experiment show the applicability of reducing the workforce with robots.

  8. Awareness and Responsibility in Autonomous Weapons Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuta, Nehal; Rotolo, Antonino; Sartor, Giovanni

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Why Computational Awareness is Important in Autonomous Weapons * Flying Drones and Other Autonomous Weapons * The Impact of Autonomous Weapons Systems * From Autonomy to Awareness: A Perspective from Science Fiction * Summary and Conclusions

  9. Asteroid Exploration with Autonomic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Christopher; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. The prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission comprises autonomous agents including worker agents (small spacecra3) designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration under the overall authoriq of at least one ruler agent (a larger spacecraft) whose goal is to cause science data to be returned to Earth. The ANTS team (ruler plus workers and messenger agents), but not necessarily any individual on the team, will exhibit behaviors that qualify it as an autonomic system, where an autonomic system is defined as a system that self-reconfigures, self-optimizes, self-heals, and self-protects. Autonomic system concepts lead naturally to realistic, scalable architectures rich in capabilities and behaviors. In-depth consideration of a major mission like ANTS in terms of autonomic systems brings new insights into alternative definitions of autonomic behavior. This paper gives an overview of the ANTS mission and discusses the autonomic properties of the mission.

  10. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  11. [Autonomic features in Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshimasa; Tamura, Naotoshi

    2012-04-01

    Nonmotor symptoms such as autonomic and neuropsychiatric dysfunctions, are commonly seen in Parkinson disease (PD). Recent studies have shown that PD is accompanied by cardiac sympathetic denervation and constipation even in the early stage. Neuropathological studies confirmed changes in the cardiac sympathetic nerves and the gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggest that PD neuropathology may occur first in the peripheral autonomic pathways and extend to the central autonomic pathways, in agreement with the "Braak theory". This article will reviews the symptoms and pathophysiology of gastrointestinal dysfunction, urinary disturbance, sexual dysfunction, sweating dysfunction, pupillary autonomic dysfunction, and orthostatic and postprandial hypotension in PD patients, and discuss to organ selectiveness in autonomic dysfunction in PD. PMID:22481512

  12. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  13. Autonomous Martian flying rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A remotely programmable, autonomous flying rover is proposed to extensively survey the Martian surface environment. A Mach .3, solar powered, modified flying wing could cover roughly a 2000 mile range during Martian daylight hours. Multiple craft launched from an orbiting mother ship could provide near-global coverage. Each craft is envisioned to fly at about 1 km above the surface and measure atmospheric composition, pressure and temperature, map surface topography, and remotely penetrate the near subsurface looking for water (ice) and perhaps evidence of life. Data collected are relayed to Earth via the orbiting mother ship. Near surface guidance and control capability is an adaptation of current cruise missile technology. A solar powered aircraft designed to fly in the low temperature, low density, carbon dioxide Martian atmosphere near the surface appears feasible.

  14. Autonomous attitude determination systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrie, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    A summary of autonomous attitude determination systems is presented by separating it into four areas: types of attitude determination systems which can be automated, a description of the attitude determination problem and its solution, specific types of sensors, and the processor requirements of two automated systems. The sensors used in attitude determination have been characteristically carried on-board the spacecraft in the past, so the major development requirement of automated systems is in the area of on-board processors. It is concluded that standardization of computers is not as beneficial as the standardization of computer architecture and the basic components which go into making them. It is also concluded that charge-coupled devices (CCD) or other solid state star tracking devices offer considerable advantages over the image-dissector type of star tracker.

  15. Do cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous effects drive the structure of tumor ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Tissot, Tazzio; Ujvari, Beata; Solary, Eric; Lassus, Patrice; Roche, Benjamin; Thomas, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    By definition, a driver mutation confers a growth advantage to the cancer cell in which it occurs, while a passenger mutation does not: the former is usually considered as the engine of cancer progression, while the latter is not. Actually, the effects of a given mutation depend on the genetic background of the cell in which it appears, thus can differ in the subclones that form a tumor. In addition to cell-autonomous effects generated by the mutations, non-cell-autonomous effects shape the phenotype of a cancer cell. Here, we review the evidence that a network of biological interactions between subclones drives cancer cell adaptation and amplifies intra-tumor heterogeneity. Integrating the role of mutations in tumor ecosystems generates innovative strategies targeting the tumor ecosystem's weaknesses to improve cancer treatment. PMID:26845682

  16. Autonomic and Coevolutionary Sensor Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonma, Pruet; Suzuki, Junichi

    (WSNs) applications are often required to balance the tradeoffs among conflicting operational objectives (e.g., latency and power consumption) and operate at an optimal tradeoff. This chapter proposes and evaluates a architecture, called BiSNET/e, which allows WSN applications to overcome this issue. BiSNET/e is designed to support three major types of WSN applications: , and hybrid applications. Each application is implemented as a decentralized group of, which is analogous to a bee colony (application) consisting of bees (agents). Agents collect sensor data or detect an event (a significant change in sensor reading) on individual nodes, and carry sensor data to base stations. They perform these data collection and event detection functionalities by sensing their surrounding network conditions and adaptively invoking behaviors such as pheromone emission, reproduction, migration, swarming and death. Each agent has its own behavior policy, as a set of genes, which defines how to invoke its behaviors. BiSNET/e allows agents to evolve their behavior policies (genes) across generations and autonomously adapt their performance to given objectives. Simulation results demonstrate that, in all three types of applications, agents evolve to find optimal tradeoffs among conflicting objectives and adapt to dynamic network conditions such as traffic fluctuations and node failures/additions. Simulation results also illustrate that, in hybrid applications, data collection agents and event detection agents coevolve to augment their adaptability and performance.

  17. Mechanical Autonomous Stochastic Heat Engine.

    PubMed

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, André; Molerón, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-07-01

    Stochastic heat engines are devices that generate work from random thermal motion using a small number of highly fluctuating degrees of freedom. Proposals for such devices have existed for more than a century and include the Maxwell demon and the Feynman ratchet. Only recently have they been demonstrated experimentally, using, e.g., thermal cycles implemented in optical traps. However, recent experimental demonstrations of classical stochastic heat engines are nonautonomous, since they require an external control system that prescribes a heating and cooling cycle and consume more energy than they produce. We present a heat engine consisting of three coupled mechanical resonators (two ribbons and a cantilever) subject to a stochastic drive. The engine uses geometric nonlinearities in the resonating ribbons to autonomously convert a random excitation into a low-entropy, nonpassive oscillation of the cantilever. The engine presents the anomalous heat transport property of negative thermal conductivity, consisting in the ability to passively transfer energy from a cold reservoir to a hot reservoir.

  18. Mechanical Autonomous Stochastic Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, André; Molerón, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-07-01

    Stochastic heat engines are devices that generate work from random thermal motion using a small number of highly fluctuating degrees of freedom. Proposals for such devices have existed for more than a century and include the Maxwell demon and the Feynman ratchet. Only recently have they been demonstrated experimentally, using, e.g., thermal cycles implemented in optical traps. However, recent experimental demonstrations of classical stochastic heat engines are nonautonomous, since they require an external control system that prescribes a heating and cooling cycle and consume more energy than they produce. We present a heat engine consisting of three coupled mechanical resonators (two ribbons and a cantilever) subject to a stochastic drive. The engine uses geometric nonlinearities in the resonating ribbons to autonomously convert a random excitation into a low-entropy, nonpassive oscillation of the cantilever. The engine presents the anomalous heat transport property of negative thermal conductivity, consisting in the ability to passively transfer energy from a cold reservoir to a hot reservoir.

  19. Mechanical Autonomous Stochastic Heat Engine.

    PubMed

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, André; Molerón, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-07-01

    Stochastic heat engines are devices that generate work from random thermal motion using a small number of highly fluctuating degrees of freedom. Proposals for such devices have existed for more than a century and include the Maxwell demon and the Feynman ratchet. Only recently have they been demonstrated experimentally, using, e.g., thermal cycles implemented in optical traps. However, recent experimental demonstrations of classical stochastic heat engines are nonautonomous, since they require an external control system that prescribes a heating and cooling cycle and consume more energy than they produce. We present a heat engine consisting of three coupled mechanical resonators (two ribbons and a cantilever) subject to a stochastic drive. The engine uses geometric nonlinearities in the resonating ribbons to autonomously convert a random excitation into a low-entropy, nonpassive oscillation of the cantilever. The engine presents the anomalous heat transport property of negative thermal conductivity, consisting in the ability to passively transfer energy from a cold reservoir to a hot reservoir. PMID:27419553

  20. Diagnosing faults in autonomous robot plan execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Raymond K.; Doshi, Rajkumar S.; Atkinson, David J.; Lawson, Denise M.

    1989-01-01

    A major requirement for an autonomous robot is the capability to diagnose faults during plan execution in an uncertain environment. Many diagnostic researches concentrate only on hardware failures within an autonomous robot. Taking a different approach, the implementation of a Telerobot Diagnostic System that addresses, in addition to the hardware failures, failures caused by unexpected event changes in the environment or failures due to plan errors, is described. One feature of the system is the utilization of task-plan knowledge and context information to deduce fault symptoms. This forward deduction provides valuable information on past activities and the current expectations of a robotic event, both of which can guide the plan-execution inference process. The inference process adopts a model-based technique to recreate the plan-execution process and to confirm fault-source hypotheses. This technique allows the system to diagnose multiple faults due to either unexpected plan failures or hardware errors. This research initiates a major effort to investigate relationships between hardware faults and plan errors, relationships which were not addressed in the past. The results of this research will provide a clear understanding of how to generate a better task planner for an autonomous robot and how to recover the robot from faults in a critical environment.

  1. A step towards an autonomous planetary rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Backes, Paul; Chalfant, Gene; Tso, Kam

    1999-01-01

    Recently, significant advances have been made in enabling autonomous rovers and robotic vehicles. Current robotic vehicles employ significant elements of autonomy in their low-level operations and control. A further important step is the integration of high-level intelligent systems with autonomous rover control architectures. In this paper, we describe the integration of two software systems: ASPEN (Automated Scheduling and Planning ENvironment) and WITS (Web Interface for TeleScience). WITS provides a high-level graphical interface to Rocky7, an experimental rover developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Using WITS, a user can naturally specify science activities and locations using actual images of the rover's environment. ASPEN accepts the science goals input using WITS, reasons about the low-level activities and resources required to achieve these goals, and generates the executable sequence to enable achievement of the requested goals. Future steps would include a migration of this software to the rover itself, allowing the rover to schedule its own activities, and thus behave more autonomously.

  2. Mission Operations with an Autonomous Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney; Sawyer, Scott R.; Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Benjamin; Bernard, Douglas E.

    1998-01-01

    The Remote Agent (RA) is an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system which automates some of the tasks normally reserved for human mission operators and performs these tasks autonomously on-board the spacecraft. These tasks include activity generation, sequencing, spacecraft analysis, and failure recovery. The RA will be demonstrated as a flight experiment on Deep Space One (DSI), the first deep space mission of the NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). As we moved from prototyping into actual flight code development and teamed with ground operators, we made several major extensions to the RA architecture to address the broader operational context in which PA would be used. These extensions support ground operators and the RA sharing a long-range mission profile with facilities for asynchronous ground updates; support ground operators monitoring and commanding the spacecraft at multiple levels of detail simultaneously; and enable ground operators to provide additional knowledge to the RA, such as parameter updates, model updates, and diagnostic information, without interfering with the activities of the RA or leaving the system in an inconsistent state. The resulting architecture supports incremental autonomy, in which a basic agent can be delivered early and then used in an increasingly autonomous manner over the lifetime of the mission. It also supports variable autonomy, as it enables ground operators to benefit from autonomy when L'@ey want it, but does not inhibit them from obtaining a detailed understanding and exercising tighter control when necessary. These issues are critical to the successful development and operation of autonomous spacecraft.

  3. Diagnosing faults in autonomous robot plan execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Raymond K.; Doshi, Rajkumar S.; Atkinson, David J.; Lawson, Denise M.

    1988-01-01

    A major requirement for an autonomous robot is the capability to diagnose faults during plan execution in an uncertain environment. Many diagnostic researches concentrate only on hardware failures within an autonomous robot. Taking a different approach, the implementation of a Telerobot Diagnostic System that addresses, in addition to the hardware failures, failures caused by unexpected event changes in the environment or failures due to plan errors, is described. One feature of the system is the utilization of task-plan knowledge and context information to deduce fault symptoms. This forward deduction provides valuable information on past activities and the current expectations of a robotic event, both of which can guide the plan-execution inference process. The inference process adopts a model-based technique to recreate the plan-execution process and to confirm fault-source hypotheses. This technique allows the system to diagnose multiple faults due to either unexpected plan failures or hardware errors. This research initiates a major effort to investigate relationships between hardware faults and plan errors, relationships which were not addressed in the past. The results of this research will provide a clear understanding of how to generate a better task planner for an autonomous robot and how to recover the robot from faults in a critical environment.

  4. Autonomous Navigation Using Celestial Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Gramling, Cheryl; Leung, Dominic; Belur, Sheela; Long, Anne

    1999-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Enterprises envision frequent low-cost missions to explore the solar system, observe the universe, and study our planet. Satellite autonomy is a key technology required to reduce satellite operating costs. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center (GNCC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) currently sponsors several initiatives associated with the development of advanced spacecraft systems to provide autonomous navigation and control. Autonomous navigation has the potential both to increase spacecraft navigation system performance and to reduce total mission cost. By eliminating the need for routine ground-based orbit determination and special tracking services, autonomous navigation can streamline spacecraft ground systems. Autonomous navigation products can be included in the science telemetry and forwarded directly to the scientific investigators. In addition, autonomous navigation products are available onboard to enable other autonomous capabilities, such as attitude control, maneuver planning and orbit control, and communications signal acquisition. Autonomous navigation is required to support advanced mission concepts such as satellite formation flying. GNCC has successfully developed high-accuracy autonomous navigation systems for near-Earth spacecraft using NASA's space and ground communications systems and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Recently, GNCC has expanded its autonomous navigation initiative to include satellite orbits that are beyond the regime in which use of GPS is possible. Currently, GNCC is assessing the feasibility of using standard spacecraft attitude sensors and communication components to provide autonomous navigation for missions including: libration point, gravity assist, high-Earth, and interplanetary orbits. The concept being evaluated uses a combination of star, Sun, and Earth sensor measurements along with forward-link Doppler

  5. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  6. Non-autonomous lattice systems with switching effects and delayed recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaoying; Kloeden, Peter E.

    2016-09-01

    The long term behavior of a type of non-autonomous lattice dynamical systems is investigated, where these have a diffusive nearest neighborhood interaction and discontinuous reaction terms with recoverable delays. This problem is of both biological and mathematical interests, due to its application in systems of excitable cells as well as general biological systems involving delayed recovery. The problem is formulated as an evolution inclusion with delays and the existence of weak and strong solutions is established. It is then shown that the solutions generate a set-valued non-autonomous dynamical system and that this non-autonomous dynamical system possesses a non-autonomous global pullback attractor.

  7. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the

  8. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-10-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the

  9. Intelligent control for autonomous aircraft missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidhoefer, James Christian

    The focus of this dissertation is the design and implementation of a full-envelope, nonlinear aircraft controller that includes stability augmentation, tracking control, and autonomous path generation. The control system was demonstrated by using a 6 degree of freedom high performance aircraft model with nonlinear kinematics, full-envelope nonlinear aerodynamics, and first-order thrust and actuator dynamics. Ideas from the emerging field of intelligent control were used in the definition of the controller architecture. More specifically, "Levels of Intelligent Control" were used to provide a systematic structure for the architecture. Several ideas from the field of Artificial Intelligence were also used, including Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms, and Adaptive Critics.

  10. Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future NASA space crafts will be able to safely land on the Moon, Marsand even an asteroid, in potentially hazardous terrain areas, allautonomously. And NASA’s Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidan...

  11. Autonomic closure for turbulence simulations.

    PubMed

    King, Ryan N; Hamlington, Peter E; Dahm, Werner J A

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to turbulence closure is presented that eliminates the need to specify a predefined turbulence model and instead provides for fully adaptive, self-optimizing, autonomic closures. The closure is autonomic in the sense that the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and resolved quantities through the solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. This nonparametric approach allows the autonomic closure to freely adapt to varying nonlinear, nonlocal, nonequilibrium, and other turbulence characteristics in the flow. Even a simple implementation of the autonomic closure for large eddy simulations provides remarkably more accurate results in a priori tests than do dynamic versions of traditional prescribed closures. PMID:27078285

  12. ISS Update: Autonomous Mission Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Jeff Mauldin, Simulation Supervisor for Autonomous Mission Operations at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson a...

  13. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pintér, Alexandra; Cseh, Domonkos; Sárközi, Adrienn; Illigens, Ben M.; Siepmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26213927

  14. Autonomous landing guidance program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, John A.

    1996-05-01

    The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

  15. Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-04-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  16. Simple autonomous Mars walker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

    1989-01-01

    Under a contract with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Martin Marietta has developed several alternative rover concepts for unmanned exploration of the planet Mars. One of those concepts, the 'Walking Beam', is the subject of this paper. This concept was developed with the goal of achieving many of the capabilities of more sophisticated articulated-leg walkers with a much simpler, more robust, less computationally demanding and more power efficient design. It consists of two large-base tripods nested one within the other which alternately translate with respect to each other along a 5-meter beam to propel the vehicle. The semiautonomous navigation system relies on terrain geometry sensors and tacticle feedback from each foot to autonomously select a path which avoids hazards along a route designated from earth. Both mobility and navigation features of this concept are discussed including a top-level description of the vehicle's physical characteristics, deployment strategy, mobility elements, sensor suite, theory of operation, navigation and control processes, and estimated performance.

  17. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Dickey, John

    2015-04-15

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  18. Autonomous mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

  19. Is paramecium swimming autonomic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Toplosky, Norman; Hansen, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We seek to explore if the swimming of paramecium has an underlying autonomic mechanism. Such robotic elements may be useful in capturing the disturbance field in an environment in real time. Experimental evidence is emerging that motion control neurons of other animals may be present in paramecium as well. The limit cycle determined using analog simulation of the coupled nonlinear oscillators of olivo-cerebellar dynamics (ieee joe 33, 563-578, 2008) agrees with the tracks of the cilium of a biological paramecium. A 4-motor apparatus has been built that reproduces the kinematics of the cilium motion. The motion of the biological cilium has been analyzed and compared with the results of the finite element modeling of forces on a cilium. The modeling equates applied torque at the base of the cilium with drag, the cilium stiffness being phase dependent. A low friction pendulum apparatus with a multiplicity of electromagnetic actuators is being built for verifying the maps of the attractor basin computed using the olivo-cerebellar dynamics for different initial conditions. Sponsored by ONR 33.

  20. Autonomous Aerobraking at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, Jill L.; Tolson, Robert; Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Dec, John

    2002-01-01

    Aerobraking has become a proven approach for orbital missions at Mars. A launch of a 1000 kg class spacecraft on a Delta class booster saves 90% of the post-MOI fuel otherwise required to circularize the orbit. In 1997, Mars Global Surveyor demonstrated the feasibility and Mars 2001 Odyssey completed a nearly trouble free aerobraking phase in January 2002. In 2006, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also utilize aerobraking. From the flight operations standpoint, however, aerobraking is labor intensive and high risk due to the large density variability in the Mars thermosphere. The maximum rate of aerobraking is typically limited by the maximum allowable temperature of the solar array which is the primary drag surface. Prior missions have used a surrogate variable, usually maximum free stream heat flux, as a basis for performing periapsis altitude corridor control maneuvers. This paper provides an adaptive sequential method for operationally relating measured temperatures to heat flux profile characteristics and performing maneuvers based directly on measured temperatures and atmospheric properties derived from the heat flux profiles. Simulations of autonomous aerobraking are performed using Odyssey mission data.

  1. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  2. Genetic engineering and autonomous agency.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Linda

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the genetic manipulation of sexual orientation at the embryo stage could have a detrimental effect on the subsequent person's later capacity for autonomous agency. By focussing on an example of sexist oppression I show that the norms and expectations expressed with this type of genetic manipulation can threaten the development of autonomous agency and the kind of social environment that makes its exercise likely. PMID:14989287

  3. Onboard Processing and Autonomous Operations on the IPEX Cubesat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Flatley, Tom; Crum, Gary; Geist, Alessandro; Lin, Michael; Williams, Austin; Bellardo, John; Puig-Suari, Jordi; Stanton, Eric; Yee, Edmond

    2012-01-01

    IPEX is a 1u Cubesat sponsored by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO), the goals or which are: (1) Flight validate high performance flight computing, (2) Flight validate onboard instrument data processing product generation software, (3) flight validate autonomous operations for instrument processing, (4) enhance NASA outreach and university ties.

  4. A power autonomous monopedal robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Benjamin T.; Pratt, Jerry E.

    2006-05-01

    We present the design and initial results of a power-autonomous planar monopedal robot. The robot is a gasoline powered, two degree of freedom robot that runs in a circle, constrained by a boom. The robot uses hydraulic Series Elastic Actuators, force-controllable actuators which provide high force fidelity, moderate bandwidth, and low impedance. The actuators are mounted in the body of the robot, with cable drives transmitting power to the hip and knee joints of the leg. A two-stroke, gasoline engine drives a constant displacement pump which pressurizes an accumulator. Absolute position and spring deflection of each of the Series Elastic Actuators are measured using linear encoders. The spring deflection is translated into force output and compared to desired force in a closed loop force-control algorithm implemented in software. The output signal of each force controller drives high performance servo valves which control flow to each of the pistons of the actuators. In designing the robot, we used a simulation-based iterative design approach. Preliminary estimates of the robot's physical parameters were based on past experience and used to create a physically realistic simulation model of the robot. Next, a control algorithm was implemented in simulation to produce planar hopping. Using the joint power requirements and range of motions from simulation, we worked backward specifying pulley diameter, piston diameter and stroke, hydraulic pressure and flow, servo valve flow and bandwidth, gear pump flow, and engine power requirements. Components that meet or exceed these specifications were chosen and integrated into the robot design. Using CAD software, we calculated the physical parameters of the robot design, replaced the original estimates with the CAD estimates, and produced new joint power requirements. We iterated on this process, resulting in a design which was prototyped and tested. The Monopod currently runs at approximately 1.2 m/s with the weight of all

  5. Autonomous Navigation by a Mobile Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2005-01-01

    ROAMAN is a computer program for autonomous navigation of a mobile robot on a long (as much as hundreds of meters) traversal of terrain. Developed for use aboard a robotic vehicle (rover) exploring the surface of a remote planet, ROAMAN could also be adapted to similar use on terrestrial mobile robots. ROAMAN implements a combination of algorithms for (1) long-range path planning based on images acquired by mast-mounted, wide-baseline stereoscopic cameras, and (2) local path planning based on images acquired by body-mounted, narrow-baseline stereoscopic cameras. The long-range path-planning algorithm autonomously generates a series of waypoints that are passed to the local path-planning algorithm, which plans obstacle-avoiding legs between the waypoints. Both the long- and short-range algorithms use an occupancy-grid representation in computations to detect obstacles and plan paths. Maps that are maintained by the long- and short-range portions of the software are not shared because substantial localization errors can accumulate during any long traverse. ROAMAN is not guaranteed to generate an optimal shortest path, but does maintain the safety of the rover.

  6. Autonomous Control and Diagnostics of Space Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Xu, X.; Perillo, S.R.P.; Na, M.G.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes three key features of the development of an autonomous control strategy for space reactor systems. These include the development of a reactor simulation model for transient analysis, development of model-predictive control as part of the autonomous control strategy, and a fault detection and isolation module. The latter is interfaced with the control supervisor as part of a hierarchical control system. The approach has been applied to the nodal model of the SP-100 reactor with a thermo-electric generator. The results of application demonstrate the effectiveness of the control approach and its ability to reconfigure the control mode under fault conditions. (authors)

  7. Towards an Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) with Reflex Autonomicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Hinchey, Mike; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of providing a fault-tolerant environment and achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications. However, the task of manually managing and configuring a cluster quickly becomes daunting as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing, with its vision to provide self-management, can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management and its evolution to include reflex reactions via pulse monitoring.

  8. Autonomous Dispersed Control System for Independent Micro Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Kensuke; Matsumura, Shigenori; Iwabu, Koichi; Fujimura, Naoto; Iima, Takahito

    In this paper, we show an autonomous dispersed control system for independent micro grid of which performance has been substantiated in China by Shikoku Electric Power Co. and its subsidiary companies under the trust of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization). For the control of grid interconnected generators, the exclusive information line is very important to save fuel cost and maintain high frequency quality on electric power supply, but it is relatively expensive in such small micro grid. We contrived an autonomous dispersed control system without any exclusive information line for dispatching control and adjusting supply control. We have confirmed through the substantiation project in China that this autonomous dispersed control system for independent micro grid has a well satisfactory characteristic from the view point of less fuel consumption and high electric quality.

  9. Autonomous mobile robots: Vehicles with cognitive control

    SciTech Connect

    Meystel, A.

    1987-01-01

    This book explores a new rapidly developing area of robotics. It describes the state-of-the-art intelligence control, applied machine intelligence, and research and initial stages of manufacturing of autonomous mobile robots. A complete account of the theoretical and experimental results obtained during the last two decades together with some generalizations on Autonomous Mobile Systems are included in this book. Contents: Introduction; Requirements and Specifications; State-of-the-art in Autonomous Mobile Robots Area; Structure of Intelligent Mobile Autonomous System; Planner, Navigator; Pilot; Cartographer; Actuation Control; Computer Simulation of Autonomous Operation; Testing the Autonomous Mobile Robot; Conclusions; Bibliography.

  10. Autonomous movement of platinum-loaded stomatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Daniela A.; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; van Hest, Jan C. M.

    2012-04-01

    Polymer stomatocytes are bowl-shaped structures of nanosize dimensions formed by the controlled deformation of polymer vesicles. The stable nanocavity and strict control of the opening are ideal for the physical entrapment of nanoparticles which, when catalytically active, can turn the stomatocyte morphology into a nanoreactor. Herein we report an approach to generate autonomous movement of the polymer stomatocytes by selectively entrapping catalytically active platinum nanoparticles within their nanocavities and subsequently using catalysis as a driving force for movement. Hydrogen peroxide is free to access the inner stomatocyte cavity, where it is decomposed by the active catalyst (the entrapped platinum nanoparticles) into oxygen and water. This generates a rapid discharge, which induces thrust and directional movement. The design of the platinum-loaded stomatocytes resembles a miniature monopropellant rocket engine, in which the controlled opening of the stomatocytes directs the expulsion of the decomposition products away from the reaction chamber (inner stomatocyte cavity).

  11. Development of Methodology for Programming Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erol, Kutluhan; Levy, Renato; Lang, Lun

    2004-01-01

    A brief report discusses the rationale for, and the development of, a methodology for generating computer code for autonomous-agent-based systems. The methodology is characterized as enabling an increase in the reusability of the generated code among and within such systems, thereby making it possible to reduce the time and cost of development of the systems. The methodology is also characterized as enabling reduction of the incidence of those software errors that are attributable to the human failure to anticipate distributed behaviors caused by the software. A major conceptual problem said to be addressed in the development of the methodology was that of how to efficiently describe the interfaces between several layers of agent composition by use of a language that is both familiar to engineers and descriptive enough to describe such interfaces unambivalently

  12. Autonomous UAV persistent surveillance using bio-inspired strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

    2012-06-01

    A team consisting of Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the Army Research Laboratory, the Engineer Research and Development Center, and IBM UK is developing technologies in support of automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous battlefield sensor networks to enhance situational awareness for dismounts and command echelons. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from a sparse network of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous collection routes that are data-driven. Bioinspired techniques for autonomous search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data from heterogeneous sensor networks. The bio-inspired algorithm is based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. Field tests of a bio-inspired system that routed UAVs were conducted in June 2011 at Camp Roberts, CA. The field test results showed that such a system can autonomously detect and locate the source of terrestrial events with very high accuracy and visually verify the event. In June 2011, field tests of the system were completed and include the use of multiple autonomously controlled UAVs, detection and disambiguation of multiple acoustic events occurring in short time frames, optimal sensor placement based on local phenomenology and the use of the International Technology Alliance (ITA) Sensor Network Fabric. The system demonstrated TRL 6 performance in the field at Camp Roberts.

  13. Improving Human/Autonomous System Teaming Through Linguistic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    An area of increasing interest for the next generation of aircraft is autonomy and the integration of increasingly autonomous systems into the national airspace. Such integration requires humans to work closely with autonomous systems, forming human and autonomous agent teams. The intention behind such teaming is that a team composed of both humans and autonomous agents will operate better than homogenous teams. Procedures exist for licensing pilots to operate in the national airspace system and current work is being done to define methods for validating the function of autonomous systems, however there is no method in place for assessing the interaction of these two disparate systems. Moreover, currently these systems are operated primarily by subject matter experts, limiting their use and the benefits of such teams. Providing additional information about the ongoing mission to the operator can lead to increased usability and allow for operation by non-experts. Linguistic analysis of the context of verbal communication provides insight into the intended meaning of commonly heard phrases such as "What's it doing now?" Analyzing the semantic sphere surrounding these common phrases enables the prediction of the operator's intent and allows the interface to supply the operator's desired information.

  14. Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-01-01

    During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

  15. Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

  16. Progress towards autonomous, intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1987-01-01

    An aggressive program has been initiated to develop, integrate, and implement autonomous systems technologies starting with today's expert systems and evolving to autonomous, intelligent systems by the end of the 1990s. This program includes core technology developments and demonstration projects for technology evaluation and validation. This paper discusses key operational frameworks in the content of systems autonomy applications and then identifies major technological challenges, primarily in artificial intelligence areas. Program content and progress made towards critical technologies and demonstrations that have been initiated to achieve the required future capabilities in the year 2000 era are discussed.

  17. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of contingency software for autonomous systems. Autonomous vehicles currently have a limited capacity to diagnose and mitigate failures. There is a need to be able to handle a broader range of contingencies. The goals of the project are: 1. Speed up diagnosis and mitigation of anomalous situations.2.Automatically handle contingencies, not just failures.3.Enable projects to select a degree of autonomy consistent with their needs and to incrementally introduce more autonomy.4.Augment on-board fault protection with verified contingency scripts

  18. Intelligent, autonomous systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, H.; Heer, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station is expected to be equipped with intelligent, autonomous capabilities; to achieve and incorporate these capabilities, the required technologies need to be identitifed, developed and validated within realistic application scenarios. The critical technologies for the development of intelligent, autonomous systems are discussed in the context of a generalized functional architecture. The present state of this technology implies that it be introduced and applied in an evolutionary process which must start during the Space Station design phase. An approach is proposed to accomplish design information acquisition and management for knowledge-base development.

  19. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  20. A Robust Compositional Architecture for Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume; Deney, Ewen; Farrell, Kimberley; Giannakopoulos, Dimitra; Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy; Bobby, Mark; Carpenter, Todd; Estlin, Tara

    2006-01-01

    Space exploration applications can benefit greatly from autonomous systems. Great distances, limited communications and high costs make direct operations impossible while mandating operations reliability and efficiency beyond what traditional commanding can provide. Autonomous systems can improve reliability and enhance spacecraft capability significantly. However, there is reluctance to utilizing autonomous systems. In part this is due to general hesitation about new technologies, but a more tangible concern is that of reliability of predictability of autonomous software. In this paper, we describe ongoing work aimed at increasing robustness and predictability of autonomous software, with the ultimate goal of building trust in such systems. The work combines state-of-the-art technologies and capabilities in autonomous systems with advanced validation and synthesis techniques. The focus of this paper is on the autonomous system architecture that has been defined, and on how it enables the application of validation techniques for resulting autonomous systems.

  1. Intelligent mission planner for autonomous underwater vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, C.; Ganesan, K.

    1994-03-01

    We describe the design of an architecture for an intelligent integrated mission planner for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Mission planning is an integral and important part of the software architecture of an AUV. Among the several functional modules of an AUV such as planner, controller, navigator, and perception, the planner plays the key role in generating, monitoring, and controlling of all mission tasks. In order to perform complex missions, the planner needs a wide range of knowledge and efficient reasoning techniques. Mission planning involves navigational planning, resource planning, safety planning, and mission-specific task planning. These functions require reasoning about the knowledge of the environment, vehicle, on-board resources, and mission tasks. The proposed design employs a mixture of hierarchical and heterarchical architectures. Case-based reasoning is employed for synthesizing mission plans. Among the different planner modules, design details of the navigational planner have been elaborated. The approach integrates advanced artificial intelligence techniques with AUV control architecture to make mission planning and execution simpler and flexible. The design takes into consideration the limited availability of AUV resources, scalability, and portability to other autonomous systems.

  2. Autonomous artificial nanomotor powered by sunlight.

    PubMed

    Balzani, Vincenzo; Clemente-León, Miguel; Credi, Alberto; Ferrer, Belén; Venturi, Margherita; Flood, Amar H; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2006-01-31

    Light excitation powers the reversible shuttling movement of the ring component of a rotaxane between two stations located at a 1.3-nm distance on its dumbbell-shaped component. The photoinduced shuttling movement, which occurs in solution, is based on a "four-stroke" synchronized sequence of electronic and nuclear processes. At room temperature the deactivation time of the high-energy charge-transfer state obtained by light excitation is approximately 10 micros, and the time period required for the ring-displacement process is on the order of 100 micros. The rotaxane behaves as an autonomous linear motor and operates with a quantum efficiency up to approximately 12%. The investigated system is a unique example of an artificial linear nanomotor because it gathers together the following features: (i) it is powered by visible light (e.g., sunlight); (ii) it exhibits autonomous behavior, like motor proteins; (iii) it does not generate waste products; (iv) its operation can rely only on intramolecular processes, allowing in principle operation at the single-molecule level; (v) it can be driven at a frequency of 1 kHz; (vi) it works in mild environmental conditions (i.e., fluid solution at ambient temperature); and (vii) it is stable for at least 10(3) cycles.

  3. Autonomous artificial nanomotor powered by sunlight

    PubMed Central

    Balzani, Vincenzo; Clemente-León, Miguel; Credi, Alberto; Ferrer, Belén; Venturi, Margherita; Flood, Amar H.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2006-01-01

    Light excitation powers the reversible shuttling movement of the ring component of a rotaxane between two stations located at a 1.3-nm distance on its dumbbell-shaped component. The photoinduced shuttling movement, which occurs in solution, is based on a “four-stroke” synchronized sequence of electronic and nuclear processes. At room temperature the deactivation time of the high-energy charge-transfer state obtained by light excitation is ≈10 μs, and the time period required for the ring-displacement process is on the order of 100 μs. The rotaxane behaves as an autonomous linear motor and operates with a quantum efficiency up to ≈12%. The investigated system is a unique example of an artificial linear nanomotor because it gathers together the following features: (i) it is powered by visible light (e.g., sunlight); (ii) it exhibits autonomous behavior, like motor proteins; (iii) it does not generate waste products; (iv) its operation can rely only on intramolecular processes, allowing in principle operation at the single-molecule level; (v) it can be driven at a frequency of 1 kHz; (vi) it works in mild environmental conditions (i.e., fluid solution at ambient temperature); and (vii) it is stable for at least 103 cycles. PMID:16432207

  4. Security-Enhanced Autonomous Network Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring reliable communication in next-generation space networks requires a novel network management system to support greater levels of autonomy and greater awareness of the environment and assets. Intelligent Automation, Inc., has developed a security-enhanced autonomous network management (SEANM) approach for space networks through cross-layer negotiation and network monitoring, analysis, and adaptation. The underlying technology is bundle-based delay/disruption-tolerant networking (DTN). The SEANM scheme allows a system to adaptively reconfigure its network elements based on awareness of network conditions, policies, and mission requirements. Although SEANM is generically applicable to any radio network, for validation purposes it has been prototyped and evaluated on two specific networks: a commercial off-the-shelf hardware test-bed using Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 Wi-Fi devices and a military hardware test-bed using AN/PRC-154 Rifleman Radio platforms. Testing has demonstrated that SEANM provides autonomous network management resulting in reliable communications in delay/disruptive-prone environments.

  5. The autonomic phenotype of rumination.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Cristina; Shapiro, David; Davydov, Dmitry M; Goldstein, Iris B; Mills, Paul J

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that ruminative thoughts may be mediators of the prolonged physiological effects of stress. We hypothesized that autonomic dysregulation plays a role in the relation between rumination and health. Rumination was induced by an anger-recall task in 45 healthy subjects. Heart rate variability (HRV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and baroreflex effectiveness index (BEI) change scores were evaluated to obtain the autonomic phenotype of rumination. Personality traits and endothelial activation were examined for their relation to autonomic responses during rumination. Degree of endothelial activation was assessed by circulating soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Vagal withdrawal during rumination was greater for women than men. Larger decreases in the high frequency component of HRV were associated with higher levels of anger-in, depression, and sICAM-1 levels. BRS reactivity was negatively related to trait anxiety. BEI reactivity was positively related to anger-in, hostility, anxiety, and depression. Lower BEI and BRS recovery were associated with lower social desirability and higher anger-out, anxiety, and depression. Findings suggest that the autonomic dysregulation that characterizes rumination plays a role in the relationships between personality and cardiovascular health. PMID:19272312

  6. Linguistic geometry for autonomous navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Stilman, B.

    1995-09-01

    To discover the inner properties of human expert heuristics, which were successful in a certain class of complex control systems, we develop a formal theory, the Linguistic Geometry. This paper reports two examples of application of Linguistic Geometry to autonomous navigation of aerospace vehicles that demonstrate dramatic search reduction.

  7. Autonomous navigation for artificial satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    An autonomous navigation system is considered that provides a satellite with sufficient numbers and types of sensors, as well as computational hardware and software, to enable it to track itself. Considered are attitude type sensors, meteorological cameras and scanners, one way Doppler, and image correlator.

  8. The Functioning of Autonomous Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, V. Pala Prasada; Rao, Digumarti Bhaskara

    2012-01-01

    The college gets separated from the university, though not completely, when it is an autonomous college, which is practice in India. Academic package will become flexible and the decision-making is internalized, changes and updating could be easily carried out, depending on the need as reflected from the feedback taken from alumni, user sectors,…

  9. Computing architecture for autonomous microgrids

    DOEpatents

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-09-29

    A computing architecture that facilitates autonomously controlling operations of a microgrid is described herein. A microgrid network includes numerous computing devices that execute intelligent agents, each of which is assigned to a particular entity (load, source, storage device, or switch) in the microgrid. The intelligent agents can execute in accordance with predefined protocols to collectively perform computations that facilitate uninterrupted control of the .

  10. Testing the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Roy; Chapleau, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic testing is used to define the role of the autonomic nervous system in diverse clinical and research settings. Because most of the autonomic nervous system is inaccessible to direct physiological testing, in the clinical setting the most widely used techniques entail the assessment of an end-organ response to a physiological provocation. The noninvasive measures of cardiovascular parasympathetic function involve the assessment of heart rate variability while the measures of cardiovascular sympathetic function assess the blood pressure response to physiological stimuli. Tilt-table testing, with or without pharmacological provocation, has become an important tool in the assessment of a predisposition to neurally mediated (vasovagal) syncope, the postural tachycardia syndrome, and orthostatic hypotension. Distal, postganglionic, sympathetic cholinergic (sudomotor) function may be evaluated by provoking axon reflex mediated sweating, e.g., the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex (QSART) or the quantitative direct and indirect axon reflex (QDIRT). The thermoregulatory sweat test provides a nonlocalizing measure of global pre- and postganglionic sudomotor function. Frequency domain analyses of heart rate and blood pressure variability, microneurography, and baroreflex assessment are currently research tools but may find a place in the clinical assessment of autonomic function in the future. PMID:23931777

  11. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The Simulation Software, KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), is used to demonstrate the automatic identification of faults in a system. The ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operation) project uses KATE to monitor and find faults in the loading of the cryogenics int o a vehicle fuel tank. The KATE software interfaces with the IHM (Integrated Health Management) systems bus to communicate with other systems that are part of ACLO. One system that KATE uses the IHM bus to communicate with is AIS (Advanced Inspection System). KATE will send messages to AIS when there is a detected anomaly. These messages include visual inspection of specific valves, pressure gauges and control messages to have AIS open or close manual valves. My goals include implementing the connection to the IHM bus within KATE and for the AIS project. I will also be working on implementing changes to KATE's Ul and implementing the physics objects in KATE that will model portions of the cryogenics loading operation.

  12. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

  13. Autonomous exploration and mapping of unknown environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Jason; Osteen, Phil; Fields, MaryAnne

    2012-06-01

    Autonomous exploration and mapping is a vital capability for future robotic systems expected to function in arbitrary complex environments. In this paper, we describe an end-to-end robotic solution for remotely mapping buildings. For a typical mapping system, an unmanned system is directed to enter an unknown building at a distance, sense the internal structure, and, barring additional tasks, while in situ, create a 2-D map of the building. This map provides a useful and intuitive representation of the environment for the remote operator. We have integrated a robust mapping and exploration system utilizing laser range scanners and RGB-D cameras, and we demonstrate an exploration and metacognition algorithm on a robotic platform. The algorithm allows the robot to safely navigate the building, explore the interior, report significant features to the operator, and generate a consistent map - all while maintaining localization.

  14. Autonomous Boolean modeling of gene regulatory networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socolar, Joshua; Sun, Mengyang; Cheng, Xianrui

    2014-03-01

    In cases where the dynamical properties of gene regulatory networks are important, a faithful model must include three key features: a network topology; a functional response of each element to its inputs; and timing information about the transmission of signals across network links. Autonomous Boolean network (ABN) models are efficient representations of these elements and are amenable to analysis. We present an ABN model of the gene regulatory network governing cell fate specification in the early sea urchin embryo, which must generate three bands of distinct tissue types after several cell divisions, beginning from an initial condition with only two distinct cell types. Analysis of the spatial patterning problem and the dynamics of a network constructed from available experimental results reveals that a simple mechanism is at work in this case. Supported by NSF Grant DMS-10-68602

  15. Soviet women and the autonomous family.

    PubMed

    Imbrogno, S; Imbrogno, N I

    1989-01-01

    "The USSR family is changing in form from that of a social collectivity, a bedrock conception to socialism, to that of an autonomous family. Autonomy discloses a lack of homogeneity, an independence of choices over life-styles and a flexibility toward an interpretation given to the meaning of a socialistic state. Women are exceedingly active in making greater use of their legal rights to divorce and abortion and demanding equal status with men both in the workplace and in the home. Women are initiating major social changes, are readily adapting to changing relations and patterns in a complex society and are serving to spearhead changes in the family unit. These factors have generated major changes in the normative, behavioral and structural dimensions of marriage and family life in the Soviet Union." PMID:12281908

  16. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Heung Yong; Baek, Hong Sun

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed. PMID:26706915

  17. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Heung Yong; Baek, Hong Sun; Park, Tae Sun

    2015-12-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed. PMID:26706915

  18. Modulation of autonomic activity in neurological conditions: Epilepsy and Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript considers the central but neglected role of the autonomic nervous system in the expression and control of seizures in epilepsy (small) and tics in Tourette Syndrome (TS). In epilepsy, consideration of autonomic involvement is typically confined to differential diagnoses (e.g., syncope), or in relation to Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). Investigation is more limited in Tourette Syndrome. The role of the autonomic nervous system in the generation and prevention of epileptic seizures is largely overlooked. Emotional stimuli such as anxiety and stress are potent causes of seizures and tic activity in epilepsy and TS, respectively. This manuscript will describe a possible neural mechanism by which afferent autonomic projections linked to cognition and behavior influence central thalamo-cortical regulation, which appears to be an important means for controlling both seizure and tic activity. It also summarizes the link between the integrity of the default mode network and autonomic regulation in patients with epilepsy as well as the link between impaired motor control and autonomic regulation in patients with TS. Two neurological conditions; epilepsy and TS were chosen, as seizures and tics represent parameters that can be easily measured to investigate influences of autonomic functions. The EDA biofeedback approach is anticipated to gain a strong position within the next generation of treatment for epilepsy, as a non-invasive technique with minimal side effects. This approach also takes advantage of the current practical opportunity to utilize growing digital health technology. PMID:26441491

  19. Modulation of autonomic activity in neurological conditions: Epilepsy and Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript considers the central but neglected role of the autonomic nervous system in the expression and control of seizures in epilepsy (small) and tics in Tourette Syndrome (TS). In epilepsy, consideration of autonomic involvement is typically confined to differential diagnoses (e.g., syncope), or in relation to Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). Investigation is more limited in Tourette Syndrome. The role of the autonomic nervous system in the generation and prevention of epileptic seizures is largely overlooked. Emotional stimuli such as anxiety and stress are potent causes of seizures and tic activity in epilepsy and TS, respectively. This manuscript will describe a possible neural mechanism by which afferent autonomic projections linked to cognition and behavior influence central thalamo-cortical regulation, which appears to be an important means for controlling both seizure and tic activity. It also summarizes the link between the integrity of the default mode network and autonomic regulation in patients with epilepsy as well as the link between impaired motor control and autonomic regulation in patients with TS. Two neurological conditions; epilepsy and TS were chosen, as seizures and tics represent parameters that can be easily measured to investigate influences of autonomic functions. The EDA biofeedback approach is anticipated to gain a strong position within the next generation of treatment for epilepsy, as a non-invasive technique with minimal side effects. This approach also takes advantage of the current practical opportunity to utilize growing digital health technology. PMID:26441491

  20. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    New missions of space exploration will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Both inherent complexity and communication distances will preclude levels of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, along with dramatically reduced design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health monitoring and maintenance capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of space exploration, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints that limit the ability to monitor and control these missions by a standing army of ground- based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communications distance as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost

  1. Chaotic neurodynamics for autonomous agents.

    PubMed

    Harter, Derek; Kozma, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Mesoscopic level neurodynamics study the collective dynamical behavior of neural populations. Such models are becoming increasingly important in understanding large-scale brain processes. Brains exhibit aperiodic oscillations with a much more rich dynamical behavior than fixed-point and limit-cycle approximation allow. Here we present a discretized model inspired by Freeman's K-set mesoscopic level population model. We show that this version is capable of replicating the important principles of aperiodic/chaotic neurodynamics while being fast enough for use in real-time autonomous agent applications. This simplification of the K model provides many advantages not only in terms of efficiency but in simplicity and its ability to be analyzed in terms of its dynamical properties. We study the discrete version using a multilayer, highly recurrent model of the neural architecture of perceptual brain areas. We use this architecture to develop example action selection mechanisms in an autonomous agent. PMID:15940987

  2. Autonomous spacecraft maintenance study group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, M. H.; Low, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    A plan to incorporate autonomous spacecraft maintenance (ASM) capabilities into Air Force spacecraft by 1989 is outlined. It includes the successful operation of the spacecraft without ground operator intervention for extended periods of time. Mechanisms, along with a fault tolerant data processing system (including a nonvolatile backup memory) and an autonomous navigation capability, are needed to replace the routine servicing that is presently performed by the ground system. The state of the art fault handling capabilities of various spacecraft and computers are described, and a set conceptual design requirements needed to achieve ASM is established. Implementations for near term technology development needed for an ASM proof of concept demonstration by 1985, and a research agenda addressing long range academic research for an advanced ASM system for 1990s are established.

  3. An Autonomously Reciprocating Transmembrane Nanoactuator.

    PubMed

    Watson, Matthew A; Cockroft, Scott L

    2016-01-22

    Biological molecular machines operate far from equilibrium by coupling chemical potential to repeated cycles of dissipative nanomechanical motion. This principle has been exploited in supramolecular systems that exhibit true machine behavior in solution and on surfaces. However, designed membrane-spanning assemblies developed to date have been limited to simple switches or stochastic shuttles, and true machine behavior has remained elusive. Herein, we present a transmembrane nanoactuator that turns over chemical fuel to drive autonomous reciprocating (back-and-forth) nanomechanical motion. Ratcheted reciprocating motion of a DNA/PEG copolymer threaded through a single α-hemolysin pore was induced by a combination of DNA strand displacement processes and enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Ion-current recordings revealed saw-tooth patterns, indicating that the assemblies operated in autonomous, asymmetric cycles of conformational change at rates of up to one cycle per minute. PMID:26661295

  4. Integrated System for Autonomous Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Shulman, Seth; Doggett, Thomas; Ip, Felipe; Greeley, Ron; Baker, Victor; Dohn, James; Boyer, Darrell

    2006-01-01

    The New Millennium Program Space Technology 6 Project Autonomous Sciencecraft software implements an integrated system for autonomous planning and execution of scientific, engineering, and spacecraft-coordination actions. A prior version of this software was reported in "The TechSat 21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment" (NPO-30784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 3 (March 2004), page 33. This software is now in continuous use aboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) spacecraft mission and is being adapted for use in the Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. This software enables EO-1 to detect and respond to such events of scientific interest as volcanic activity, flooding, and freezing and thawing of water. It uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect changes, including events of scientific interest. Detection of such events triggers acquisition of follow-up imagery. The mission-planning component of the software develops a response plan that accounts for visibility of targets and operational constraints. The plan is then executed under control by a task-execution component of the software that is capable of responding to anomalies.

  5. Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Verrotti, Alberto; Prezioso, Giovanni; Scattoni, Raffaella; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified, which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention, and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss, and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population. PMID:25520703

  6. Autonomic Computing: Panacea or Poppycock?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Autonomic Computing arose out of a need for a means to cope with rapidly growing complexity of integrating, managing, and operating computer-based systems as well as a need to reduce the total cost of ownership of today's systems. Autonomic Computing (AC) as a discipline was proposed by IBM in 2001, with the vision to develop self-managing systems. As the name implies, the influence for the new paradigm is the human body's autonomic system, which regulates vital bodily functions such as the control of heart rate, the body's temperature and blood flow-all without conscious effort. The vision is to create selfivare through self-* properties. The initial set of properties, in terms of objectives, were self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protecting, along with attributes of self-awareness, self-monitoring and self-adjusting. This self-* list has grown: self-anticipating, self-critical, self-defining, self-destructing, self-diagnosis, self-governing, self-organized, self-reflecting, and self-simulation, for instance.

  7. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  8. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Few, Doug; Versteeg, Roelof; Herman, Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude - from an autonomous robotic perspective - the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  9. Operator Informational Needs for Multiple Autonomous Small Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Fan, Henry; Cross, Charles D.; Hempley, Lucas E.; Cichella, Venanzio; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, Syed Bilal

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated explosion of small unmanned aerial vehicles, it is highly likely that operators will be controlling fleets of autonomous vehicles. To fulfill the promise of autonomy, vehicle operators will not be concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead, they will deal with the overall mission. Furthermore, the one operator to many vehicles is becoming a constant meme with various industries including package delivery, search and rescue, and utility companies. In order for an operator to concurrently control several vehicles, his station must look and behave very differently than the current ground control station instantiations. Furthermore, the vehicle will have to be much more autonomous, especially during non-normal operations, in order to accommodate the knowledge deficit or the information overload of the operator in charge of several vehicles. The expected usage increase of small drones requires presenting the operational information generated by a fleet of heterogeneous autonomous agents to an operator. NASA Langley Research Center's Autonomy Incubator has brought together researchers in various disciplines including controls, trajectory planning, systems engineering, and human factors to develop an integrated system to study autonomy issues. The initial human factors effort is focusing on mission displays that would give an operator the overall status of all autonomous agents involved in the current mission. This paper will discuss the specifics of the mission displays for operators controlling several vehicles.

  10. 3-D laser radar simulation for autonomous spacecraft landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiley, Michael F.; Carmer, Dwayne C.; Pont, W. F.

    1991-01-01

    A sophisticated 3D laser radar sensor simulation, developed and applied to the task of autonomous hazard detection and avoidance, is presented. This simulation includes a backward ray trace to sensor subpixels, incoherent subpixel integration, range dependent noise, sensor point spread function effects, digitization noise, and AM-CW modulation. Specific sensor parameters, spacecraft lander trajectory, and terrain type have been selected to generate simulated sensor data.

  11. Autonomous photovoltaic-diesel power system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calloway, T. M.

    A methodology for designing an autonomous photovoltaic power system in conjunction with a diesel-fueled electric generator and a battery has been developed. Any photovoltaic array energy not utilized immediately by the load is stored in the battery bank. The diesel generator set is operated periodically at 14-day intervals to ensure its availability and occasionally as needed during winter to supplement combined output from the array and battery. It is hypothesized that logistical support is infrequent, so the hybrid photovoltaic-diesel power system is designed to consume only 10% as much fuel as would a diesel-only system. This constraint is used to generate a set of possible combinations of array area and battery energy storage capacity. For each combination, a battery-life model predicts the time interval between battery replacements by deducting the fraction of total life consumed each day. An economic model then produces life-cycle system cost. Repeating this process for different combinations of array area and battery capacity identifies the minimum-cost system design.

  12. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrading, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  13. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  14. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    New missions of space exploration will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Both inherent complexity and communication distances will preclude levels of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, along with dramatically reduced design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health monitoring and maintenance capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of space exploration, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints that limit the ability to monitor and control these missions by a standing army of ground- based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communications distance as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost

  15. Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

  16. [Cystic degeneration of autonomous adenomas (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Galvan, G; Pohl, G B

    1976-01-01

    Follow-up examinations in four patients with autonomous adenomas showed cystic degeneration in the autonomous adenomas 20 to 45 months after the first examination, confirmed by fine needle biopsy. Clinical improvement occurred three times with scintigraphic compensation, decompensation occurred once without clinical deterioration. In particular cases a therapeutic policy of wait and see is justified in patients with autonomous adenomas because they may remain clinically inconspicuous for a long time; on the other hand there is a possibility of a cystic degeneration.

  17. Attainability of Carnot efficiency with autonomous engines.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Naoto

    2015-11-01

    The maximum efficiency of autonomous engines with a finite chemical potential difference is investigated. We show that, without a particular type of singularity, autonomous engines cannot attain the Carnot efficiency. This singularity is realized in two ways: single particle transports and the thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that both of these ways actually lead to the Carnot efficiency in concrete setups. Our results clearly illustrate that the singularity plays a crucial role in the maximum efficiency of autonomous engines.

  18. Attainability of Carnot efficiency with autonomous engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Naoto

    2015-11-01

    The maximum efficiency of autonomous engines with a finite chemical potential difference is investigated. We show that, without a particular type of singularity, autonomous engines cannot attain the Carnot efficiency. This singularity is realized in two ways: single particle transports and the thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that both of these ways actually lead to the Carnot efficiency in concrete setups. Our results clearly illustrate that the singularity plays a crucial role in the maximum efficiency of autonomous engines.

  19. Tele/Autonomous Robot For Nuclear Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.; Tso, Kam S.

    1994-01-01

    Fail-safe tele/autonomous robotic system makes it unnecessary for human technicians to enter nuclear-fuel-reprocessing facilities and other high-radiation or otherwise hazardous industrial environments. Used to carry out experiments as exchanging equipment modules, turning bolts, cleaning surfaces, and grappling turning objects by use of mixture of autonomous actions and teleoperation with either single arm or two cooperating arms. System capable of fully autonomous operation, teleoperation or shared control.

  20. The EO-1 Autonomous Science Agent Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Lee, Rachel; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Hengemihle, Jerry; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Ungar, Stephen; Brakke, Thomas; Boyer, Darrell; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Greeley, Ronald; Doggett, Thomas; Baker, Victor; Dohm, James; Ip, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    An Autonomous Science Agent is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because of the deployment to a remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent constraints of autonomy, reliability, and limited computing resources. We describe these constraints and how they are reflected in our agent architecture.

  1. Autonomic Computing for Spacecraft Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Jones, Lori

    2007-01-01

    Autonomic computing for spacecraft ground systems increases the system reliability and reduces the cost of spacecraft operations and software maintenance. In this paper, we present an autonomic computing solution for spacecraft ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which consists of an open standard for a message oriented architecture referred to as the GMSEC architecture (Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center), and an autonomic computing tool, the Criteria Action Table (CAT). This solution has been used in many upgraded ground systems for NASA 's missions, and provides a framework for developing solutions with higher autonomic maturity.

  2. Information for Successful Interaction with Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Johnson, Kathy A.

    2003-01-01

    Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information agent and information management tool suite for managing information from many sources, including autonomous agents. We present an integrated model of levels of complexity of agent and human behavior, which shows types of information processing and points of potential error in agent activities. We discuss the types of information needed for diagnosing problems and planning interactions with an autonomous system. We discuss types of coordination for which designs are needed for autonomous system functions.

  3. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  4. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George I.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto-Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner- TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  5. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  6. Knowledge acquisition for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge-based capabilities for autonomous aerospace systems, such as the NASA Space Station, must encompass conflict-resolution functions comparable to those of human operators, with all elements of the system working toward system goals in a concurrent, asynchronous-but-coordinated fashion. Knowledge extracted from a design database will support robotic systems by furnishing geometric, structural, and causal descriptions required for repair, disassembly, and assembly. The factual knowledge for these databases will be obtained from a master database through a technical management information system, and it will in many cases have to be augmented by domain-specific heuristic knowledge acquired from domain experts.

  7. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  8. INS integrated motion analysis for autonomous vehicle navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry; Bazakos, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The use of inertial navigation system (INS) measurements to enhance the quality and robustness of motion analysis techniques used for obstacle detection is discussed with particular reference to autonomous vehicle navigation. The approach to obstacle detection used here employs motion analysis of imagery generated by a passive sensor. Motion analysis of imagery obtained during vehicle travel is used to generate range measurements to points within the field of view of the sensor, which can then be used to provide obstacle detection. Results obtained with an INS integrated motion analysis approach are reviewed.

  9. The TechSat 21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Robert; Knight, Russell; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Castano, Rebecca; Stough, Timothy; Davies, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    Software has been developed to perform a number of functions essential to autonomous operation in the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), which is scheduled to be demonstrated aboard a constellation of three spacecraft, denoted TechSat 21, to be launched by the Air Force into orbit around the Earth in January 2006. A prior version of this software was reported in Software for an Autonomous Constellation of Satellites (NPO-30355), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 44. The software includes the following components: Algorithms to analyze image data, generate scientific data products, and detect conditions, features, and events of potential scientific interest; A program that uses component-based computational models of hardware to analyze anomalous situations and to generate novel command sequences, including (when possible) commands to repair components diagnosed as faulty; A robust-execution-management component that uses the Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) software to enable event-driven processing and low-level autonomy; and The Continuous Activity Scheduling, Planning, Execution, and Replanning (CASPER) program for replanning activities, including downlink sessions, on the basis of scientific observations performed during previous orbit cycles.

  10. 3D flyable curves for an autonomous aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestaoui, Yasmina

    2012-11-01

    The process of conducting a mission for an autonomous aircraft includes determining the set of waypoints (flight planning) and the path for the aircraft to fly (path planning). The autonomous aircraft is an under-actuated system, having less control inputs than degrees of freedom and has two nonholonomic (non integrable) kinematic constraints. Consequently, the set of feasible trajectories will be restricted and the problem of trajectory generation becomes more complicated than a simple interpolation. Care must be taken in the selection of the basic primitives to respect the kinematic and dynamic limitations. The topic of this paper is trajectory generation using parametric curves. The problem can be formulated as follows: to lead the autonomous aircraft from an initial configuration qi to a final configuration qf in the absence of obstacles, find a trajectory q(t) for 0 ≤t ≤ T. The trajectory can be broken down into a geometric path q(s), s being the curvilinear abscissa and s=s(t) a temporal function. In 2D the curves fall into two categories: • Curves whose coordinates have a closed form expressions, for example B-splines, quintic polynomials or polar splines. • Curves whose curvature is a function of their arc length for example clothoids, cubic spirals, quintic or intrinsic splines. Some 3D solutions will be presented in this paper and their effectiveness discussed towards the problem in hand.

  11. Multi-agent autonomous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  12. Autonomous star referenced attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Bezooijen, R. W. H.

    1989-01-01

    A general star pattern recognition algorithm has been used to develop JPL's redundant, microcomputer-equipped ASTROS II CCD star tracker into a full-sky autonomous star tracker (FAST), capable of determining its attitude about all three axes without requiring any a priori attitude knowledge. A large field of view allows the number of guide stars in the all-sky data-base of the tracker to be limited to a manageable number, while high accuracy ensures that the pattern formed by the observed guide stars is unique. The recognition algorithm can also be used for automating the acquisition of celestial targets by astronomy telescopes, for autonomously updating the attitude of gyro-based attitude control systems, and for automating ground-based attitude recognition. Using both Monte Carlo simulations and a quasi-analytical method, it is shown that the general recognition algorithm and a less software-intensive special algorithm can be used to reliably automate the acquisition of celestial targets by astronomy telescopes.

  13. Autonomous Robotic Inspection in Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopapadakis, E.; Stentoumis, C.; Doulamis, N.; Doulamis, A.; Loupos, K.; Makantasis, K.; Kopsiaftis, G.; Amditis, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an automatic robotic inspector for tunnel assessment is presented. The proposed platform is able to autonomously navigate within the civil infrastructures, grab stereo images and process/analyse them, in order to identify defect types. At first, there is the crack detection via deep learning approaches. Then, a detailed 3D model of the cracked area is created, utilizing photogrammetric methods. Finally, a laser profiling of the tunnel's lining, for a narrow region close to detected crack is performed; allowing for the deduction of potential deformations. The robotic platform consists of an autonomous mobile vehicle; a crane arm, guided by the computer vision-based crack detector, carrying ultrasound sensors, the stereo cameras and the laser scanner. Visual inspection is based on convolutional neural networks, which support the creation of high-level discriminative features for complex non-linear pattern classification. Then, real-time 3D information is accurately calculated and the crack position and orientation is passed to the robotic platform. The entire system has been evaluated in railway and road tunnels, i.e. in Egnatia Highway and London underground infrastructure.

  14. Autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, J. H.

    1984-12-01

    This invention relates broadly to a power supply apparatus, and in particular to an autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus. The purpose of an uninterruptable power supply (UPS) is to protect critical electrical loads from transient or steady stage outages or disturbances in the primary power source. The basic configuration of a typical, commercially available, uninterruptable power supply is comprised at a minimum of a standby battery and a battery charger and may also include an inverter for AC applications. Systems of this type can be found in most computer installations and laboratory systems which cannot tolerate even momentary disturbances of input power. This document describes an autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus utilizing a digital processor unit as a control and monitor unit to measure and control input and output parameters in the power supply. A battery charger is utilized to maintain the voltage and current levels with the backup battery supply source which powers an inverter unit that converts the DC power to an AC output.

  15. Using Planning, Scheduling and Execution for Autonomous Mars Rover Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara A.; Gaines, Daniel M.; Chouinard, Caroline M.; Fisher, Forest W.; Castano, Rebecca; Judd, Michele J.; Nesnas, Issa A.

    2006-01-01

    With each new rover mission to Mars, rovers are traveling significantly longer distances. This distance increase raises not only the opportunities for science data collection, but also amplifies the amount of environment and rover state uncertainty that must be handled in rover operations. This paper describes how planning, scheduling and execution techniques can be used onboard a rover to autonomously generate and execute rover activities and in particular to handle new science opportunities that have been identified dynamically. We also discuss some of the particular challenges we face in supporting autonomous rover decision-making. These include interaction with rover navigation and path-planning software and handling large amounts of uncertainty in state and resource estimations. Finally, we describe our experiences in testing this work using several Mars rover prototypes in a realistic environment.

  16. Lower cost offshore field development utilizing autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Frisbie, F.R.; Vie, K.J.; Welch, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    The offshore oil and gas industry has the requirement to inspect offshore oil and gas pipelines for scour, corrosion and damage as well as inspect and intervene on satellite production facilities. This task is currently performed with Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) operated from dynamically positioned (DP) offshore supply or diving support boats. Currently, these tasks are expensive due to the high day rates for DP ships and the slow, umbilical impeded, 1 knot inspection rates of the tethered ROVs, Emerging Autonomous Undersea Vehicle (AUV) technologies offer opportunities to perform these same inspection tasks for 50--75% lower cost, with comparable or improved quality. The new generation LAPV (Linked Autonomous Power Vehicles) will operate from fixed facilities such as TLPs or FPFs and cover an operating field 10 kms in diameter.

  17. Autonomous learning in humanoid robotics through mental imagery.

    PubMed

    Di Nuovo, Alessandro G; Marocco, Davide; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we focus on modeling autonomous learning to improve performance of a humanoid robot through a modular artificial neural networks architecture. A model of a neural controller is presented, which allows a humanoid robot iCub to autonomously improve its sensorimotor skills. This is achieved by endowing the neural controller with a secondary neural system that, by exploiting the sensorimotor skills already acquired by the robot, is able to generate additional imaginary examples that can be used by the controller itself to improve the performance through a simulated mental training. Results and analysis presented in the paper provide evidence of the viability of the approach proposed and help to clarify the rational behind the chosen model and its implementation.

  18. Autonomous onboard crew operations: A review and developmental approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the literature generated by an intercenter mission approach and consolidation team and their contractors was performed to obtain background information on the development of autonomous operations concepts for future space shuttle and space platform missions. The Boeing 757/767 flight management system was examined to determine the relevance for transfer of the developmental approach and technology to the performance of the crew operations function. In specific, the engine indications and crew alerting system was studied to determine the relevance of this display for the performance of crew operations onboard the vehicle. It was concluded that the developmental approach and technology utilized in the aeronautics industry would be appropriate for development of an autonomous operations concept for the space platform.

  19. Autonomous and Adaptive Voltage Control using Multiple Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huijuan; Li, Fangxing; Xu, Yan; Rizy, D Tom

    2012-01-01

    Voltage regulation using distributed energy resources (DE) or distributed generators (DG) with power electronics interfaces and logic control has drawn increasing interests. This paper addresses the challenges of controlling multiple DEs to regulate voltages in distribution systems using an autonomous and adaptive control approach. Theoretical analysis shows that there exists a corresponding formulation of the dynamic control parameters with multiple DEs. Hence, the proposed control method is theoretically solid. Simulation results confirm that this method is capable of satisfying the fast response requirement for operational use without causing oscillation or inefficiency. This method is autonomous based on local information and the other DEs input without the instructions from any control center, is widely adaptive to variable power system operational situations, and has a high tolerance to data shortage of systems parameter. Hence, it is suitable for broad utility application

  20. Autonomous rendezvous targeting techniques for national launch system application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomas, James J.; Deaton, A. Wayne

    1991-01-01

    The rendezvous targeting techniques that can be utilized to achieve autonomous guidance for delivering a cargo to Space Station Freedom (SSF) using the National Launch System's (NLS) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) and the on-orbit Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV) are described. This capability is made possible by advancements in autonomous navigation (Global Positioning System - GPS) on-board the CTV and SSF as well as the new generation flight computers. How the HLLV launch window can be decoupled from the CTV phasing window is described. The performance trades that have to be made to determine the length of the launch window and the phasing window between the CTV and SSF are identified and recommendations made that affect mission timelines.

  1. Autonomous mission management for UAVs using soar intelligent agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunetti, Paolo; Thompson, Haydn; Dodd, Tony

    2013-05-01

    State-of-the-art unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are typically able to autonomously execute a pre-planned mission. However, UAVs usually fly in a very dynamic environment which requires dynamic changes to the flight plan; this mission management activity is usually tasked to human supervision. Within this article, a software system that autonomously accomplishes the mission management task for a UAV will be proposed. The system is based on a set of theoretical concepts which allow the description of a flight plan and implemented using a combination of Soar intelligent agents and traditional control techniques. The system is capable of automatically generating and then executing an entire flight plan after being assigned a set of objectives. This article thoroughly describes all system components and then presents the results of tests that were executed using a realistic simulation environment.

  2. Thermoelectric-Driven Autonomous Sensors for a Biomass Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, A.; Astrain, D.; Martínez, A.; Gubía, E.; Sorbet, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    This work presents the design and development of a thermoelectric generator intended to harness waste heat in a biomass power plant, and generate electric power to operate sensors and the required electronics for wireless communication. The first objective of the work is to design the optimum thermoelectric generator to harness heat from a hot surface, and generate electric power to operate a flowmeter and a wireless transmitter. The process is conducted by using a computational model, presented in previous papers, to determine the final design that meets the requirements of electric power consumption and number of transmissions per minute. Finally, the thermoelectric generator is simulated to evaluate its performance. The final device transmits information every 5 s. Moreover, it is completely autonomous and can be easily installed, since no electric wires are required.

  3. Design of a Micro-Autonomous Robot for Use in Astronomical Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, W. A.; Luo, X.; Lim, T.; Taylor, W. D.; Schnetler, H.

    2012-07-01

    A Micro-Autonomous Positioning System (MAPS) has been developed using micro-autonomous robots for the deployment of small mirrors within multi-object astronomical instruments for use on the next generation ground-based telescopes. The micro-autonomous robot is a two-wheel differential drive robot with a footprint of approximately 20 × 20 mm. The robot uses two brushless DC Smoovy motors with 125:1 planetary gearheads for positioning the mirror. This article describes the various elements of the overall system and in more detail the various robot designs. Also described in this article is the build and test of the most promising design, proving that micro-autonomous robot technology can be used in precision controlled applications.

  4. Global asymptotical ω-periodicity of a fractional-order non-autonomous neural networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Boshan; Chen, Jiejie

    2015-08-01

    We study the global asymptotic ω-periodicity for a fractional-order non-autonomous neural networks. Firstly, based on the Caputo fractional-order derivative it is shown that ω-periodic or autonomous fractional-order neural networks cannot generate exactly ω-periodic signals. Next, by using the contraction mapping principle we discuss the existence and uniqueness of S-asymptotically ω-periodic solution for a class of fractional-order non-autonomous neural networks. Then by using a fractional-order differential and integral inequality technique, we study global Mittag-Leffler stability and global asymptotical periodicity of the fractional-order non-autonomous neural networks, which shows that all paths of the networks, starting from arbitrary points and responding to persistent, nonconstant ω-periodic external inputs, asymptotically converge to the same nonconstant ω-periodic function that may be not a solution.

  5. Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) Test Operations in 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, S.; Davies, A. G.; Baker, V.; Castano, R.; Cichy, B.; Doggett, T.; Dohm, J. M.; Greeley, R.; Sherwood, R.; Williams, K.

    2003-03-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment enables (1) spacecraft autonomous command and control; (2) autonomous science analysis; and (3) science-driven spacecraft operations. Two test deployments are scheduled in 2003.

  6. New Small Autonomous Schools District Policy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Unified School District, CA.

    Inspired by the gains in student achievement realized by the small schools movement in New York City, the Oakland Unified School District (California) has proposed creating a network of 10 new, small autonomous (NSA) schools over the next 3 years. School size will range between 250 and 500 students, depending on grade level. "Autonomous" means…

  7. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-11-30

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

  8. Planning Flight Paths of Autonomous Aerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Sharma, Shivanjli

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms for planning flight paths of autonomous aerobots (robotic blimps) to be deployed in scientific exploration of remote planets are undergoing development. These algorithms are also adaptable to terrestrial applications involving robotic submarines as well as aerobots and other autonomous aircraft used to acquire scientific data or to perform surveying or monitoring functions.

  9. Autonomic Physiological Response Patterns Related to Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Cor; van Boxtel, Anton

    2007-01-01

    We examined autonomic physiological responses induced by six different cognitive ability tasks, varying in complexity, that were selected on the basis of on Guilford's Structure of Intellect model. In a group of 52 participants, task performance was measured together with nine different autonomic response measures and respiration rate. Weighted…

  10. A testbed for a unified teleoperated-autonomous dual-arm robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, S.; Lee, T.; Tso, K.; Backes, P.; Lloyd, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a complete robot control facility built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as part of NASA a telerobotics program to develop a state-of-the-art robot control environment for laboratory based space-like experiments. This system, which is now fully operational, has the following features: separation of the computing facilities into local and remote sites, autonomous motion generation in joint or Cartesian coordinates, dual-arm force reflecting teleoperation with voice interaction between the operator and the robots, shared control between the autonomously generated motions and operator controlled teleoperation, and dual-arm coordinated trajectory generation. The system has been used to carry out realistic experiments such as the exchange of an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU), bolt turning, and door opening, using a mixture of autonomous actions and teleoperation, with either a single arm or two cooperating arms.

  11. Autonomous power system intelligent diagnosis and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. Knowledge-based software provides a robust method of control for highly complex space-based power systems that conventional methods do not allow. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis and control, the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space based power system. The operation of the Autonomous Power System as a whole is described and the responsibilities of the three elements - APEX, AIPS, and Brassboard - are characterized. A discussion of the methodologies used in each element is provided. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Power System.

  12. [Surgical therapy of the autonomous thyroid nodule].

    PubMed

    Zanella, E

    1993-12-01

    Indications for the surgical removal of autonomous nodule are mainly based upon the failure of therapeutical options. The histological definition may be advantageous for detecting the rare but possible association between autonomous goiter and carcinoma of the thyroid. In personal experience, based on 176 hyperfunctioning goiter (among which there were 40 cases of autonomous nodules) 6 carcinomas of the gland were observed, 2 of these were associated with autonomous nodules. The extension of thyroidectomy is related to the size of the adenomas considering the incidence of postoperative complications, very low for this type of surgery. Surgical treatment of autonomous nodules of the thyroid is a low risk surgery and is therefore suitable for the treatment of this disease.

  13. Dysréflexie autonome

    PubMed Central

    Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph; McMillan, Colleen; Klassen, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Sensibiliser davantage les médecins de famille à la dysréflexie autonome (DA) chez les patients victimes d’une lésion médullaire (LM) et proposer certaines interventions. Sources de l’information On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE de 1970 à juillet 2011 à l’aide des expressions en anglais autonomic dysreflexia et spinal cord injury, ainsi que family medicine ou primary care. On a aussi passé en revue et utilisé d’autres ressources et guides de pratique pertinents. Message principal Il arrive souvent que les médecins de famille ne se sentent pas confiants de traiter des patients ayant une LM dont les problèmes sont complexes et exigent beaucoup de temps. Les médecins de famille ont l’impression de n’avoir pas la formation nécessaire pour répondre à leurs besoins. Pourtant, ils offrent une composante essentielle des soins à de tels patients et il est important qu’ils comprennent les problèmes médicaux particuliers aux LM. La dysréflexie autonome est un important et fréquent problème potentiellement sérieux que connaissent mal de nombreux médecins de famille. Cet article passe en revue les signes et les symptômes de la DA et présente certaines options de prise en charge aiguë, ainsi que des stratégies de prévention à l’intention des médecins de famille. Conclusion Les médecins de famille devraient savoir quels patients traumatisés médullaires sont susceptibles d’avoir une DA et surveiller ceux qui sont touchés par ce problème. Une explication est donnée dans cet article quant à l’approche à suivre pour la prise en charge aiguë. Les médecins de famille jouent un rôle essentiel dans la prévention de la DA, notamment par l’éducation (du patient et des autres professionnels de la santé) et la consignation dans le dossier médical de stratégies comme les soins appropriés de la vessie, de l’intestin et de la peau, d’avertissements et de plans de prise en charge.

  14. Autonomous Medical Care for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Polk, J. D.; Hines, John W.; Nall, Marsha M.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of Autonomous Medical Care (AMC) is to ensure a healthy, well-performing crew which is a primary need for exploration. The end result of this effort will be the requirements and design for medical systems for the CEV, lunar operations, and Martian operations as well as a ground-based crew health optimization plan. Without such systems, we increase the risk of medical events occurring during a mission and we risk being unable to deal with contingencies of illness and injury, potentially threatening mission success. AMC has two major components: 1) pre-flight crew health optimization and 2) in-flight medical care. The goal of pre-flight crew health optimization is to reduce the risk of illness occurring during a mission by primary prevention and prophylactic measures. In-flight autonomous medical care is the capability to provide medical care during a mission with little or no real-time support from Earth. Crew medical officers or other crew members provide routine medical care as well as medical care to ill or injured crew members using resources available in their location. Ground support becomes telemedical consultation on-board systems/people collect relevant data for ground support to review. The AMC system provides capabilities to incorporate new procedures and training and advice as required. The on-board resources in an autonomous system should be as intelligent and integrated as is feasible, but autonomous does not mean that no human will be involved. The medical field is changing rapidly, and so a challenge is to determine which items to pursue now, which to leverage other efforts (e.g. military), and which to wait for commercial forces to mature. Given that what is used for the CEV or the Moon will likely be updated before going to Mars, a critical piece of the system design will be an architecture that provides for easy incorporation of new technologies into the system. Another challenge is to determine the level of care to provide for each

  15. Wireless autonomous device data transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammel, Jr., David W. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Mi, Minhong (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of communicating information from a wireless autonomous device (WAD) to a base station. The WAD has a data element having a predetermined profile having a total number of sequenced possible data element combinations. The method includes receiving at the WAD an RF profile transmitted by the base station that includes a triggering portion having a number of pulses, wherein the number is at least equal to the total number of possible data element combinations. The method further includes keeping a count of received pulses and wirelessly transmitting a piece of data, preferably one bit, to the base station when the count reaches a value equal to the stored data element's particular number in the sequence. Finally, the method includes receiving the piece of data at the base station and using the receipt thereof to determine which of the possible data element combinations the stored data element is.

  16. Autonomous Biological System (ABS) experiments.

    PubMed

    MacCallum, T K; Anderson, G A; Poynter, J E; Stodieck, L S; Klaus, D M

    1998-12-01

    Three space flight experiments have been conducted to test and demonstrate the use of a passively controlled, materially closed, bioregenerative life support system in space. The Autonomous Biological System (ABS) provides an experimental environment for long term growth and breeding of aquatic plants and animals. The ABS is completely materially closed, isolated from human life support systems and cabin atmosphere contaminants, and requires little need for astronaut intervention. Testing of the ABS marked several firsts: the first aquatic angiosperms to be grown in space; the first higher organisms (aquatic invertebrate animals) to complete their life cycles in space; the first completely bioregenerative life support system in space; and, among the first gravitational ecology experiments. As an introduction this paper describes the ABS, its flight performance, advantages and disadvantages.

  17. APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

    2002-02-14

    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

  18. Autonomic changes during "OM" meditation.

    PubMed

    Telles, S; Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, H R

    1995-10-01

    The autonomic and respiratory variables were studied in seven experienced meditators (with experience ranging from 5 to 20 years). Each subject was studied in two types of sessions--meditation (with a period of mental chanting of "OM") and control (with a period of non-targetted thinking). The meditators showed a statistically significant reduction in heart rate during meditation compared to the control period (paired 't' test). During both types of sessions there was a comparable increase in the cutaneous peripheral vascular resistance. Keeping in mind similar results of other authors, this was interpreted as a sign of increased mental alertness, even while being physiologically relaxed (as shown by the reduced heart rate).

  19. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  20. Autonomous navigation using lunar beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, A. R.; Ellis, J.; French, J.; Null, G.; Yunck, T.; Wu, S.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of using lunar beacon signal transmission for on-board navigation for earth satellites and near-earth spacecraft is described. The system would require powerful transmitters on the earth-side of the moon's surface and black box receivers with antennae and microprocessors placed on board spacecraft for autonomous navigation. Spacecraft navigation requires three position and three velocity elements to establish location coordinates. Two beacons could be soft-landed on the lunar surface at the limits of allowable separation and each would transmit a wide-beam signal with cones reaching GEO heights and be strong enough to be received by small antennae in near-earth orbit. The black box processor would perform on-board computation with one-way Doppler/range data and dynamical models. Alternatively, GEO satellites such as the GPS or TDRSS spacecraft can be used with interferometric techniques to provide decimeter-level accuracy for aircraft navigation.

  1. An Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, James B.; Lanzi, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) being developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center s Wallops Flight Facility and Kennedy Space Center has completed two successful developmental flights and is preparing for a third. AFSS has been demonstrated to be a viable architecture for implementation of a completely vehicle based system capable of protecting life and property in event of an errant vehicle by terminating the flight or initiating other actions. It is capable of replacing current human-in-the-loop systems or acting in parallel with them. AFSS is configured prior to flight in accordance with a specific rule set agreed upon by the range safety authority and the user to protect the public and assure mission success. This paper discusses the motivation for the project, describes the method of development, and presents an overview of the evolving architecture and the current status.

  2. Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordano, A. J.; McSwain, G. G.; Fernandes, S. T.

    The NASA Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Bridging program is reviewed to demonstrate the program plan and GN&C systems for the Space Shuttle. The ascent CN&C system is described in terms of elements such as the general-purpose digital computers, sensors for the navigation subsystem, the guidance-system software, and the flight-control subsystem. Balloon-based and lidar wind soundings are used for operations assessment on the day of launch, and the guidance software is based on dedicated units for atmospheric powered flight, vacuum powered flight, and abort-specific situations. Optimization of the flight trajectories is discussed, and flight-control responses are illustrated for wavelengths of 500-6000 m. Alternate sensors are used for load relief, and adaptive GN&C systems based on alternate gain synthesis are used for systems failures.

  3. Mechanical autonomous stochastic heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, Andre; Moleron, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara; . Team

    Stochastic heat engines extract work from the Brownian motion of a set of particles out of equilibrium. So far, experimental demonstrations of stochastic heat engines have required extreme operating conditions or nonautonomous external control systems. In this talk, we will present a simple, purely classical, autonomous stochastic heat engine that uses the well-known tension induced nonlinearity in a string. Our engine operates between two heat baths out of equilibrium, and transfers energy from the hot bath to a work reservoir. This energy transfer occurs even if the work reservoir is at a higher temperature than the hot reservoir. The talk will cover a theoretical investigation and experimental results on a macroscopic setup subject to external noise excitations. This system presents an opportunity for the study of non equilibrium thermodynamics and is an interesting candidate for innovative energy conversion devices.

  4. Autonomous navigation system and method

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-08

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

  5. Testbed for an autonomous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok K.; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    In previous works we have defined a general architectural model for autonomous systems, which can easily be mapped to describe the functions of any automated system (SDAG-86-01), and we illustrated that model by applying it to the thermal management system of a space station (SDAG-87-01). In this note, we will further develop that application and design the detail of the implementation of such a model. First we present the environment of our application by describing the thermal management problem and an abstraction, which was called TESTBED, that includes a specific function for each module in the architecture, and the nature of the interfaces between each pair of blocks.

  6. Digital autonomous terminal access communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novacki, S.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem for the Bus Monitor Unit is to identify the source of a given transmission. This problem arises from the fact that the label which identifies the source of the transmission as it is put into the bus is intercepted by the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) terminal and removed from the transmission. Thus, a given subsystem will see only data associated with a label and never the identifying label itself. The Bus Monitor must identify the source of the transmission so as to be able to provide some type of error identification/location in the event that some problem with the data transmission occurs. Steps taken to alleviate this problem by modifications to the DATAC terminal are discussed.

  7. Autonomous caregiver following robotic wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, E. Venkata; Sivaramalingam, Sethurajan; Vignesh, A. Sri; Vasanth, Elanthendral; Joans, S. Mary

    2011-12-01

    In the last decade, a variety of robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed to meet the need in aging society. Their main research topics are autonomous functions such as moving toward some goals while avoiding obstacles, or user-friendly interfaces. Although it is desirable for wheelchair users to go out alone, caregivers often accompany them. Therefore we have to consider not only autonomous functions and user interfaces but also how to reduce caregivers' load and support their activities in a communication aspect. From this point of view, we have proposed a robotic wheelchair moving with a caregiver side by side based on the MATLAB process. In this project we discussing about robotic wheel chair to follow a caregiver by using a microcontroller, Ultrasonic sensor, keypad, Motor drivers to operate robot. Using camera interfaced with the DM6437 (Davinci Code Processor) image is captured. The captured image are then processed by using image processing technique, the processed image are then converted into voltage levels through MAX 232 level converter and given it to the microcontroller unit serially and ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle in front of robot. In this robot we have mode selection switch Automatic and Manual control of robot, we use ultrasonic sensor in automatic mode to find obstacle, in Manual mode to use the keypad to operate wheel chair. In the microcontroller unit, c language coding is predefined, according to this coding the robot which connected to it was controlled. Robot which has several motors is activated by using the motor drivers. Motor drivers are nothing but a switch which ON/OFF the motor according to the control given by the microcontroller unit.

  8. An Autonomous Sensor System Architecture for Active Flow and Noise Control Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, William M, Jr.; Culliton, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-channel sensor fusion represents a powerful technique to simply and efficiently extract information from complex phenomena. While the technique has traditionally been used for military target tracking and situational awareness, a study has been successfully completed that demonstrates that sensor fusion can be applied equally well to aerodynamic applications. A prototype autonomous hardware processor was successfully designed and used to detect in real-time the two-dimensional flow reattachment location generated by a simple separated-flow wind tunnel model. The success of this demonstration illustrates the feasibility of using autonomous sensor processing architectures to enhance flow control feedback signal generation.

  9. Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communication (DATAC) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novacki, Stanley M., III

    1987-01-01

    In order to accommodate the increasing number of computerized subsystems aboard today's more fuel efficient aircraft, the Boeing Co. has developed the DATAC (Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Control) bus to minimize the need for point-to-point wiring to interconnect these various systems, thereby reducing total aircraft weight and maintaining an economical flight configuration. The DATAC bus is essentially a local area network providing interconnections for any of the flight management and control systems aboard the aircraft. The task of developing a Bus Monitor Unit was broken down into four subtasks: (1) providing a hardware interface between the DATAC bus and the Z8000-based microcomputer system to be used as the bus monitor; (2) establishing a communication link between the Z8000 system and a CP/M-based computer system; (3) generation of data reduction and display software to output data to the console device; and (4) development of a DATAC Terminal Simulator to facilitate testing of the hardware and software which transfer data between the DATAC's bus and the operator's console in a near real time environment. These tasks are briefly discussed.

  10. Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses, runs the physical experiments using robotic systems, analyses and interprets the resulting data, and repeats the cycle. We describe our two prototype Robot Scientists: Adam and Eve. Adam has recently proven the potential of such systems by identifying twelve genes responsible for catalysing specific reactions in the metabolic pathways of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work has been formally recorded in great detail using logic. We argue that the reporting of science needs to become fully formalised and that Robot Scientists can help achieve this. This will make scientific information more reproducible and reusable, and promote the integration of computers in scientific reasoning. We believe the greater automation of both the physical and intellectual aspects of scientific investigations to be essential to the future of science. Greater automation improves the accuracy and reliability of experiments, increases the pace of discovery and, in common with conventional laboratory automation, removes tedious and repetitive tasks from the human scientist. PMID:20119518

  11. Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, Andrew; Aubrey, Wayne; Byrne, Emma; Clare, Amanda; Khan, Muhammed N; Liakata, Maria; Markham, Magdalena; Rowland, Jem; Soldatova, Larisa N; Whelan, Kenneth E; Young, Michael; King, Ross D

    2010-01-01

    We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses, runs the physical experiments using robotic systems, analyses and interprets the resulting data, and repeats the cycle. We describe our two prototype Robot Scientists: Adam and Eve. Adam has recently proven the potential of such systems by identifying twelve genes responsible for catalysing specific reactions in the metabolic pathways of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work has been formally recorded in great detail using logic. We argue that the reporting of science needs to become fully formalised and that Robot Scientists can help achieve this. This will make scientific information more reproducible and reusable, and promote the integration of computers in scientific reasoning. We believe the greater automation of both the physical and intellectual aspects of scientific investigations to be essential to the future of science. Greater automation improves the accuracy and reliability of experiments, increases the pace of discovery and, in common with conventional laboratory automation, removes tedious and repetitive tasks from the human scientist. PMID:20119518

  12. An autonomous structural health monitoring solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Featherston, Carol A.; Holford, Karen M.; Pullin, Rhys; Lees, Jonathan; Eaton, Mark; Pearson, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    Combining advanced sensor technologies, with optimised data acquisition and diagnostic and prognostic capability, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems provide real-time assessment of the integrity of bridges, buildings, aircraft, wind turbines, oil pipelines and ships, leading to improved safety and reliability and reduced inspection and maintenance costs. The implementation of power harvesting, using energy scavenged from ambient sources such as thermal gradients and sources of vibration in conjunction with wireless transmission enables truly autonomous systems, reducing the need for batteries and associated maintenance in often inaccessible locations, alongside bulky and expensive wiring looms. The design and implementation of such a system however presents numerous challenges. A suitable energy source or multiple sources capable of meeting the power requirements of the system, over the entire monitoring period, in a location close to the sensor must be identified. Efficient power management techniques must be used to condition the power and deliver it, as required, to enable appropriate measurements to be taken. Energy storage may be necessary, to match a continuously changing supply and demand for a range of different monitoring states including sleep, record and transmit. An appropriate monitoring technique, capable of detecting, locating and characterising damage and delivering reliable information, whilst minimising power consumption, must be selected. Finally a wireless protocol capable of transmitting the levels of information generated at the rate needed in the required operating environment must be chosen. This paper considers solutions to some of these challenges, and in particular examines SHM in the context of the aircraft environment.

  13. Scheduling lessons learned from the Autonomous Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA LeRC is designed to demonstrate the applications of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution systems. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for Fault Diagnosis, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR); the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to efficiently assign activities start times and resources; and power hardware (Brassboard) to emulate a space-based power system. The AIPS scheduler was tested within the APS system. This scheduler is able to efficiently assign available power to the requesting activities and share this information with other software agents within the APS system in order to implement the generated schedule. The AIPS scheduler is also able to cooperatively recover from fault situations by rescheduling the affected loads on the Brassboard in conjunction with the APEX FDIR system. AIPS served as a learning tool and an initial scheduling testbed for the integration of FDIR and automated scheduling systems. Many lessons were learned from the AIPS scheduler and are now being integrated into a new scheduler called SCRAP (Scheduler for Continuous Resource Allocation and Planning). This paper will service three purposes: an overview of the AIPS implementation, lessons learned from the AIPS scheduler, and a brief section on how these lessons are being applied to the new SCRAP scheduler.

  14. Machine Visual Guidance For An Autonomous Undersea Submersible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Kaomea, Peter K.; Heckman, Paul J.

    1988-12-01

    Optical imaging is the preferred sensory modality for underwater robotic activities requiring high resolution at close range, such as station keeping, docking, control of manipulator, and object retrieval. Machine vision will play a vital part in the design of next generation autonomous underwater submersibles. This paper describes an effort to demonstrate that real-time vision-based guidance and control of autonomous underwater submersibles is possible with compact, low-power, and vehicle-imbeddable hardware. The Naval Ocean Systems Center's EAVE-WEST (Experimental Autonomous Vehicle-West) submersible is being used as the testbed. The vision hardware consists of a PC-bus video frame grabber and an IBM-PC/AT compatible single-board computer, both residing in the artificial intelligence/vision electronics bottle of the submersible. The specific application chosen involves the tracking of underwater buoy cables. Image recognition is performed in two steps. Feature points are identified in the underwater video images using a technique which detects one-dimensional local brightness minima and maxima. Hough transformation is then used to detect the straight line among these feature points. A hierarchical coarse-to-fine processing method is employed which terminates when enough feature points have been identified to allow a reliable fit. The location of the cable identified is then reported to the vehicle controller computer for automatic steering control. The process currently operates successfully with a throughput of approximately 2 frames per second.

  15. Innovative thermal energy harvesting for future autonomous applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfray, Stephane

    2013-12-01

    As communicating autonomous systems market is booming, the role of energy harvesting will be a key enabler. As example, heat is one of the most abundant energy sources that can be converted into electricity in order to power circuits. Harvesting systems that use wasted heat open new ways to power autonomous sensors when the energy consumption is low, or to create systems of power generators when the conversion efficiency is high. The combination of different technologies (low power μ-processors, μ-batteries, radio, sensors...) with new energy harvesters compatible with large varieties of use-cases with allow to address this booming market. Thanks to the conjunction of ultra-low power electronic development, 3D technologies & Systems in Package approaches, the integration of autonomous sensors and electronics with ambient energy harvesting will be achievable. The applications are very wide, from environment and industrial sensors to medical portable applications, and the Internet of things may also represent in the future a several billions units market.

  16. Autonomous Control Capabilities for Space Reactor Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Richard T.; Neal, John S.; Brittain, C. Ray; Mullens, James A.

    2004-02-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, is investigating a possible Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, which would conduct in-depth studies of three of the moons of Jupiter by using a space reactor power system (SRPS) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power for more than a decade. Terrestrial nuclear power plants rely upon varying degrees of direct human control and interaction for operations and maintenance over a forty to sixty year lifetime. In contrast, an SRPS is intended to provide continuous, remote, unattended operation for up to fifteen years with no maintenance. Uncertainties, rare events, degradation, and communications delays with Earth are challenges that SRPS control must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design. In this paper, we describe an autonomous control concept for generic SRPS designs. The formulation of an autonomous control concept, which includes identification of high-level functional requirements and generation of a research and development plan for enabling technologies, is among the technical activities that are being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Space Reactor Technology Program in support of the NASA's Project Prometheus. The findings from this program are intended to contribute to the successful realization of the JIMO mission.

  17. Autonomous Control Capabilities for Space Reactor Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard T.; Neal, John S.; Brittain, C. Ray; Mullens, James A.

    2004-02-04

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, is investigating a possible Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, which would conduct in-depth studies of three of the moons of Jupiter by using a space reactor power system (SRPS) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power for more than a decade. Terrestrial nuclear power plants rely upon varying degrees of direct human control and interaction for operations and maintenance over a forty to sixty year lifetime. In contrast, an SRPS is intended to provide continuous, remote, unattended operation for up to fifteen years with no maintenance. Uncertainties, rare events, degradation, and communications delays with Earth are challenges that SRPS control must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design. In this paper, we describe an autonomous control concept for generic SRPS designs. The formulation of an autonomous control concept, which includes identification of high-level functional requirements and generation of a research and development plan for enabling technologies, is among the technical activities that are being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Space Reactor Technology Program in support of the NASA's Project Prometheus. The findings from this program are intended to contribute to the successful realization of the JIMO mission.

  18. An autonomous rendezvous and docking system using cruise missile technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ruel Edwin

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990 the Autonomous Rendezvous & Docking (AR&D) system was first demonstrated for members of NASA's Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group. This simulation utilized prototype hardware from the Cruise Missile and Advanced Centaur Avionics systems. The object was to show that all the accuracy, reliability and operational requirements established for a space craft to dock with Space Station Freedom could be met by the proposed system. The rapid prototyping capabilities of the Advanced Avionics Systems Development Laboratory were used to evaluate the proposed system in a real time, hardware in the loop simulation of the rendezvous and docking reference mission. The simulation permits manual, supervised automatic and fully autonomous operations to be evaluated. It is also being upgraded to be able to test an Autonomous Approach and Landing (AA&L) system. The AA&L and AR&D systems are very similar. Both use inertial guidance and control systems supplemented by GPS. Both use an Image Processing System (IPS), for target recognition and tracking. The IPS includes a general purpose multiprocessor computer and a selected suite of sensors that will provide the required relative position and orientation data. Graphic displays can also be generated by the computer, providing the astronaut / operator with real-time guidance and navigation data with enhanced video or sensor imagery.

  19. Motion coordination of multiple autonomous vehicles in a spatiotemporal flowfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Cameron Kai

    The long-term goal of this research is to provide theoretically justified control strategies to operate autonomous vehicles in spatiotemporal flowfields. The specific objective of this dissertation is to use estimation and nonlinear control techniques to generate decentralized control algorithms that enable motion coordination for multiple autonomous vehicles while operating in a time-varying flowfield. A cooperating team of vehicles can benefit from sharing data and tasking responsibilities. Many existing control algorithms promote collaboration of autonomous vehicles. However, these algorithms often fail to account for the degradation of control performance caused by flowfields. This dissertation presents decentralized multivehicle coordination algorithms designed for operation in a spatially or temporally varying flowfield. Each vehicle is represented using a Newtonian particle traveling in a plane at constant speed relative to the flow and subject to a steering control. Initially, we assume the flowfield is known and describe algorithms that stabilize a circular formation in a time-varying spatially nonuniform flow of moderate intensity. These algorithms are extended by relaxing the assumption that the flow is known: the vehicles dynamically estimate the flow and use that estimate in the control. We propose a distributed estimation and control algorithm comprising a consensus filter to share information gleaned from noisy position measurements, and an information filter to reconstruct a spatially varying flowfield. The theoretical results are illustrated with numerical simulations of circular formation control and validated in outdoor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight tests.

  20. Image processing and sensor management for autonomous UAV surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvklo, Morgan H.; Nygards, Jonas; Karlholm, Jorgen M.; Skoglar, Per

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes a framework for image processing and sensor management for an autonomous unmanned airborne surveillance system equipped with infrared and video sensors. Our working hypothesis is that integration of the detection-tracking-classification chain with spatial awareness makes possible intelligent autonomous data acquisition by means of active sensor control. A central part of the framework is a surveillance scene representation, suitable for target tracking, geolocation, and sensor data fusion involving multiple platforms. The representation, based on Simultaneous Localization and Mapping, SLAM, take into account uncertainties associated with sensor data, platform navigation, and prior knowledge. A client/server approach, for on-line adaptable surveillance missions, is introduced. The presented system is designed to simultaneously and autonomously perform the following tasks: provide wide area coverage from multiple viewpoints by means of a step-stare procedure, detect and track multiple stationary and moving ground targets, perform a detailed analysis of detected regions-of-interest, and generate precise target coordinates by means of multi-view geolocation techniques.

  1. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  2. Scalable autonomous operations of unmanned assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sunghun

    Although there have been great theoretical advances in the region of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autonomy, applications of those theories into real world are still hesitated due to unexpected disturbances. Most of UAVs which are currently used are mainly, strictly speaking, Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPA) since most works related with the flight control, sensor data analysis, and decision makings are done by human operators. To increase the degree of autonomy, many researches are focused on developing Unmanned Autonomous Aerial Vehicle (UAAV) which can takeoff, fly to the interested area by avoiding unexpected obstacles, perform various missions with decision makings, come back to the base station, and land on by itself without any human operators. To improve the performance of UAVs, the accuracies of position and orientation sensors are enhanced by integrating a Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) or a solar compass to a UAV; Position sensor accuracy of a GPS sensor on a UAV is improved by referencing the position of a UGV which is calculated by using three GPS sensors and Weighted Centroid Localization (WCL) method; Orientation sensor accuracy is improved as well by using Three Pixel Theorem (TPT) and integrating a solar compass which composed of nine light sensors to a magnetic compass. Also, improved health management of a UAV is fulfilled by developing a wireless autonomous charging station which uses four pairs of transmitter and receiver magnetic loops with four robotic arms. For the software aspect, I also analyze the error propagation of the proposed mission planning hierarchy to achieve the safest size of the buffer zone. In addition, among seven future research areas regarding UAV, this paper mainly focuses on developing algorithms of path planning, trajectory generation, and cooperative tactics for the operations of multiple UAVs using GA based multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (mTSP) which is solved by dividing into m number of Traveling Salesman

  3. Trajectory Generation and Path Planning for Autonomous Aerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Shivanjli; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Elfes, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents global path planning algorithms for the Titan aerobot based on user defined waypoints in 2D and 3D space. The algorithms were implemented using information obtained through a planner user interface. The trajectory planning algorithms were designed to accurately represent the aerobot's characteristics, such as minimum turning radius. Additionally, trajectory planning techniques were implemented to allow for surveying of a planar area based solely on camera fields of view, airship altitude, and the location of the planar area's perimeter. The developed paths allow for planar navigation and three-dimensional path planning. These calculated trajectories are optimized to produce the shortest possible path while still remaining within realistic bounds of airship dynamics.

  4. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hawksley, Jack; Cavanna, Andrea E.; Nagai, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics) and one or more vocal (phonic) tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist) is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus, the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS). Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an implanted device

  5. Autonomous Demand Response for Primary Frequency Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, Matt; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mattix, S.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-02-28

    The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.

  6. Development of Autonomous Aerobraking (Phase 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Powell, Richard W.; Prince, Jill L.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center received a request from Mr. Daniel Murri (NASA Technical Fellow for Flight Mechanics) to develop an autonomous aerobraking capability. An initial evaluation for all phases of this assessment was approved to proceed at the NESC Review Board meeting. The purpose of phase 1 of this study was to provide an assessment of the feasibility of autonomous aerobraking. During this phase, atmospheric, aerodynamic, and thermal models for a representative spacecraft were developed for both the onboard algorithm known as Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software, and a ground-based "truth" simulation developed for testing purposes. The results of the phase 1 assessment are included in this report.

  7. The NASA/Army Autonomous Rotorcraft Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalley, M.; Freed, M.; Takahashi, M.; Christian, D.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Schulein, G.; Harris, R.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Ames Research Center Autonomous Rotorcraft Project (ARP) is presented. The project brings together several technologies to address NASA and US Army autonomous vehicle needs, including a reactive planner for mission planning and execution, control system design incorporating a detailed understanding of the platform dynamics, and health monitoring and diagnostics. A candidate reconnaissance and surveillance mission is described. The autonomous agent architecture and its application to the candidate mission are presented. Details of the vehicle hardware and software development are provided.

  8. Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

    2014-06-01

    This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

  9. Development of Autonomous Aerobraking - Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Phase 1 of the Development of Autonomous Aerobraking (AA) Assessment investigated the technical capability of transferring the processes of aerobraking maneuver (ABM) decision-making (currently performed on the ground by an extensive workforce and communicated to the spacecraft via the deep space network) to an efficient flight software algorithm onboard the spacecraft. This document describes Phase 2 of this study, which was a 12-month effort to improve and rigorously test the AA Development Software developed in Phase 1. Aerobraking maneuver; Autonomous Aerobraking; Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software; Deep Space Network; NASA Engineering and Safety Center

  10. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  11. Growing self-organizing trees for autonomous hierarchical clustering.

    PubMed

    Doan, Nhat-Quang; Azzag, Hanane; Lebbah, Mustapha

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a new unsupervised learning method based on growing processes and autonomous self-assembly rules. This method, called Growing Self-organizing Trees (GSoT), can grow both network size and tree topology to represent the topological and hierarchical dataset organization, allowing a rapid and interactive visualization. Tree construction rules draw inspiration from elusive properties of biological organization to build hierarchical structures. Experiments conducted on real datasets demonstrate good GSoT performance and provide visual results that are generated during the training process. PMID:23041056

  12. Autonomous navigation and control of a Mars rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. P.; Atkinson, D. J.; Wilcox, B. H.; Mishkin, A. H.

    1990-01-01

    A Mars rover will need to be able to navigate autonomously kilometers at a time. This paper outlines the sensing, perception, planning, and execution monitoring systems that are currently being designed for the rover. The sensing is based around stereo vision. The interpretation of the images use a registration of the depth map with a global height map provided by an orbiting spacecraft. Safe, low energy paths are then planned through the map, and expectations of what the rover's articulation sensors should sense are generated. These expectations are then used to ensure that the planned path is correctly being executed.

  13. A system architecture for a highly autonomous Mars rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Donald A.; Johnston, Mark D.

    1992-08-01

    A system to enable highly autonomous robotic exploration has been designed and prototyped. The system uses the concept of a centralized executive to control and coordinate the activities of the various component subsystems. The plan mediation, or coordination, is enabled by a highly efficient constraint-based scheduling system. This scheduler, which is the main component of the centralized executive, generates timelines that accommodate as many of the highest priority goals as possible. As plans are executed or tasks fail, and as new goals are received by the system, the executive continually reworks the schedule to reflect the current complement of plans and resource availability and utilization.

  14. Secure, Autonomous, Intelligent Controller for Integrating Distributed Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the infrastructure and protocols necessary to enable near-real-time commanding, access to space-based assets, and the secure interoperation between sensor webs owned and controlled by various entities. Select terrestrial and aeronautics-base sensor webs will be used to demonstrate time-critical interoperability between integrated, intelligent sensor webs both terrestrial and between terrestrial and space-based assets. For this work, a Secure, Autonomous, Intelligent Controller and knowledge generation unit is implemented using Virtual Mission Operation Center technology.

  15. System Engineering of Autonomous Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Trevino, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system requires fully autonomous systems when travelling more than 5 light minutes from Earth. This autonomy is necessary to manage a large, complex spacecraft with limited crew members and skills available. The communication latency requires the vehicle to deal with events with only limited crew interaction in most cases. The engineering of these systems requires an extensive knowledge of the spacecraft systems, information theory, and autonomous algorithm characteristics. The characteristics of the spacecraft systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm characteristics to reliably monitor and control the system. This presents a large system engineering problem. Recent work on product-focused, elegant system engineering will be applied to this application, looking at the full autonomy stack, the matching of autonomous systems to spacecraft systems, and the integration of different types of algorithms. Each of these areas will be outlined and a general approach defined for system engineering to provide the optimal solution to the given application context.

  16. Autonomic Closure for Large Eddy Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ryan; Hamlington, Peter; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    2015-11-01

    A new autonomic subgrid-scale closure has been developed for large eddy simulation (LES). The approach poses a supervised learning problem that captures nonlinear, nonlocal, and nonequilibrium turbulence effects without specifying a predefined turbulence model. By solving a regularized optimization problem on test filter scale quantities, the autonomic approach identifies a nonparametric function that represents the best local relation between subgrid stresses and resolved state variables. The optimized function is then applied at the grid scale to determine unknown LES subgrid stresses by invoking scale similarity in the inertial range. A priori tests of the autonomic approach on homogeneous isotropic turbulence show that the new approach is amenable to powerful optimization and machine learning methods and is successful for a wide range of filter scales in the inertial range. In these a priori tests, the autonomic closure substantially improves upon the dynamic Smagorinsky model in capturing the instantaneous, statistical, and energy transfer properties of the subgrid stress field.

  17. Local autonomic failure affecting a limb.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R H; Robinson, B J

    1987-01-01

    Three patients are described who presented with autonomic failure affecting predominantly one limb. Physiological studies revealed that there was sweating loss in the limb which appeared to be due to a preganglionic autonomic lesion and not to a sweat gland abnormality. In all three patients there was also evidence of failure of vasomotor control. There was no evidence of more generalised autonomic failure or neurological deficit. In two patients the condition appeared to be static and, according to the patients' accounts was life long. In the third the sweating loss was present for three years prior to pain loss becoming evident from C2/3 to T1 on the same side as the sweating loss. These patients, together with two recent case reports, indicate that isolated local autonomic failure, probably from a discrete cord lesion, can be a cause of presenting symptoms related to sweating loss or to change in temperature in a limb. PMID:3612155

  18. Autonomous Operations System: Development and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toro Medina, Jaime A.; Wilkins, Kim N.; Walker, Mark; Stahl, Gerald M.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous control systems provides the ability of self-governance beyond the conventional control system. As the complexity of mechanical and electrical systems increases, there develops a natural drive for developing robust control systems to manage complicated operations. By closing the bridge between conventional automated systems to knowledge based self-awareness systems, nominal control of operations can evolve into relying on safe critical mitigation processes to support any off-nominal behavior. Current research and development efforts lead by the Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) group at NASA Kennedy Space Center aims to improve cryogenic propellant transfer operations by developing an automated control and health monitoring system. As an integrated systems, the center aims to produce an Autonomous Operations System (AOS) capable of integrating health management operations with automated control to produce a fully autonomous system.

  19. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    PubMed

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-12-02

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  20. Comparative anatomy of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Stefan

    2011-11-16

    This short review aims to point out the general anatomical features of the autonomic nervous systems of non-mammalian vertebrates. In addition it attempts to outline the similarities and also the increased complexity of the autonomic nervous patterns from fish to tetrapods. With the possible exception of the cyclostomes, perhaps the most striking feature of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system is the similarity between the vertebrate classes. An evolution of the complexity of the system can be seen, with the segmental ganglia of elasmobranchs incompletely connected longitudinally, while well developed paired sympathetic chains are present in teleosts and the tetrapods. In some groups the sympathetic chains may be reduced (dipnoans and caecilians), and have yet to be properly described in snakes. Cranial autonomic pathways are present in the oculomotor (III) and vagus (X) nerves of gnathostome fish and the tetrapods, and with the evolution of salivary and lachrymal glands in the tetrapods, also in the facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves.

  1. Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry Todd

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce operations cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing operations cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies.

  2. An introduction to autonomous control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antsaklis, Panos J.; Passino, Kevin M.; Wang, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The functions, characteristics, and benefits of autonomous control are outlined. An autonomous control functional architecture for future space vehicles that incorporates the concepts and characteristics described is presented. The controller is hierarchical, with an execution level (the lowest level), coordination level (middle level), and management and organization level (highest level). The general characteristics of the overall architecture, including those of the three levels, are explained, and an example to illustrate their functions is given. Mathematical models for autonomous systems, including 'logical' discrete event system models, are discussed. An approach to the quantitative, systematic modeling, analysis, and design of autonomous controllers is also discussed. It is a hybrid approach since it uses conventional analysis techniques based on difference and differential equations and new techniques for the analysis of the systems described with a symbolic formalism such as finite automata. Some recent results from the areas of planning and expert systems, machine learning, artificial neural networks, and the area restructurable controls are briefly outlined.

  3. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    PubMed Central

    Coppejans, Hugo H. G.; Myburgh, Herman C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  4. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    PubMed

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  5. Autonomic testing: common techniques and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Weimer, Louis H

    2010-07-01

    Laboratories able to test autonomic function are increasingly available and rely on batteries of well-accepted, noninvasive tests. Tests of parasympathetic cardiovagal, sympathetic vasoconstriction, and sudomotor (sweating) function are most commonly employed. Common examples include heart rate variability to various challenges, Valsalva maneuver, standing and tilt-table studies, and various sudomotor methods. New techniques and technical refinements continue to be described. Most studies rely on perturbations of complex systems and not direct assessment. Testing has helped to improve disease recognition and prompted advances in classification, pathophysiology, and treatment. Major areas impacted include hereditary and immune-mediated autonomic neuropathy, diabetic autonomic neuropathy, distal symmetric polyneuropathy, Parkinson disease and other autonomic failure syndromes, orthostatic intolerance, and unexplained syncope. PMID:20592565

  6. Autonomic contributions to empathy: evidence from patients with primary autonomic failure.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Bina; Mathias, Christopher J; Critchley, Hugo D

    2008-06-01

    Empathy for the emotions of others may require simulatory engagement of corresponding autonomic arousal states. We tested the hypothesis that disruption of autonomic control impairs the ability to empathize emotionally with others. Fifteen patients with primary autonomic failure showed attenuated scores on the Mehrabian Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES), compared to both younger and older controls. This effect was not accounted for by age, gender, mood state or functional disability. These early observations provide preliminary evidence for a direct contribution of autonomic responsivity to the 'higher-order' social cognitive process of empathy, and may inform the dynamics of supportive care.

  7. Software for Autonomous Spacecraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, John; Folta, Dave; Hawkins, Al; Dell, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The AutoCon computer programs facilitate and accelerate the planning and execution of orbital control maneuvers of spacecraft while analyzing and resolving mission constraints. AutoCon-F is executed aboard spacecraft, enabling the spacecraft to plan and execute maneuvers autonomously; AutoCon-G is designed for use on the ground. The AutoCon programs utilize advanced techniques of artificial intelligence, including those of fuzzy logic and natural-language scripting, to resolve multiple conflicting constraints and automatically plan maneuvers. These programs can be used to satisfy requirements for missions that involve orbits around the Earth, the Moon, or any planet, and are especially useful for missions in which there are requirements for frequent maneuvers and for resolution of complex conflicting constraints. During operations, the software targets new trajectories, places and sizes maneuvers, and controls spacecraft burns. AutoCon-G provides a userfriendly graphical interface, and can be used effectively by an analyst with minimal training. AutoCon-F reduces latency and supports multiple-spacecraft and formation-flying missions. The AutoCon architecture supports distributive processing, which can be critical for formation- control missions. AutoCon is completely object-oriented and can easily be enhanced by adding new objects and events. AutoCon-F was flight demonstrated onboard GSFC's EO-1 spacecraft flying in formation with Landsat-7.

  8. Is acting on delusions autonomous?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the question of autonomy in delusional disorders is investigated using a phenomenological approach. I refer to the distinction between freedom of intentional action, and freedom of the will, and develop phenomenological descriptions of lived autonomy, taking into account the distinction between a pre-reflective and a reflective type. Drawing on a case report, I deliver finely-grained phenomenological descriptions of lived autonomy and experienced self-determination when acting on delusions. This analysis seeks to demonstrate that a person with delusions can be described as responsible for her behaviour on a ‘framed’ level (level of freedom of intentional action), even though she is not autonomous on a higher (‘framing’) level (level of freedom of the will), if, and only if, the goods of agency for herself and others are respected. In these cases the person with delusions is very nearly comparable to people in love, who are also not free to choose their convictions, and who could also be rightly held responsible for the behaviour flowing from their convictions. PMID:24125114

  9. Semi-Autonomous Vehicle Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective this summer is "evaluating standards for wireless architecture for the internet of things". The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors and network connectivity which enables these objects to collect and exchange data and make decisions based on said data. This was accomplished by creating a semi-autonomous vehicle that takes advantage of multiple sensors, cameras, and onboard computers and combined them with a mesh network which enabled communication across large distances with little to no interruption. The mesh network took advantage of what is known as DTN - Disruption Tolerant Networking which according to NASA is the new communications protocol that is "the first step towards interplanetary internet." The use of DTN comes from the fact that it will store information if an interruption in communications is detected and even forward that information via other relays within range so that the data is not lost. This translates well into the project because as the car moves further away from whatever is sending it commands (in this case a joystick), the information can still be forwarded to the car with little to no loss of information thanks to the mesh nodes around the driving area.

  10. Autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Marc; Bomer, Thierry T.; Calesse, C.; Dudych, L.; L'Hoist, P.

    1995-01-01

    Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) systems are not only controlling vehicles' speed but acting on the throttle and eventually on the brakes they could automatically maintain the relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. And more than just for comfort it appears that these new systems should improve the safety on highways. By applying a technique issued from the space research carried out by MATRA, a sensor based on a charge coupled device (CCD) was designed to acquire the reflected light on standard-mounted car reflectors of pulsed laser diodes emission. The CCD is working in a unique mode called flash during transfer (FDT) which allows identification of target patterns in severe optical environments. It provides high accuracy for distance and angular position of targets. The absence of moving mechanical parts ensures high reliability for this sensor. The large field of view and the high measurement rate give a global situation assessment and a short reaction time. Then, tracking and filtering algorithms have been developed in order to select the target, on which the equipped vehicle determines its safety distance and speed, taking into account its maneuvering and the behaviors of other vehicles.

  11. Autonomic dysregulation in headache patients.

    PubMed

    Gass, Jason J; Glaros, Alan G

    2013-12-01

    To analyze autonomic nervous system activity in headache subjects, measurements of heart rate variability (HRV), skin temperature, skin conductance, and respiration were compared to a matched control group. HRV data were recorded in time and frequency domains. Subjects also completed self-report questionnaires assessing psychological distress, fatigue, and sleep dysfunction. Twenty-one headache and nineteen control subjects participated. In the time domain, the number of consecutive R-to-R intervals that varied by more than 50 ms and the standard deviation of the normalized R-to-R intervals, both indices of parasympathetic nervous system activity, were significantly lower in the headache group than the control group. Groups did not differ statistically on HRV measures in the frequency domain. Self-report measures showed significantly increased somatization, hostility, anxiety, symptom distress, fatigue, and sleep problems in the headache group. The results suggest headache subjects have increased sympathetic nervous system activity and decreased parasympathetic activity compared to non-headache control subjects. Headaches subjects also showed greater emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep problems. The results indicate an association between headaches and cardiovascular functioning suggestive of sympathetic nervous system activation in this sample of mixed migraine and tension-type headache sufferers. PMID:23912525

  12. Shamanism, psychosis and autonomous imagination.

    PubMed

    Stephen, M; Suryani, L K

    2000-03-01

    This paper focuses on traditional healers (balian) in Bali, Indonesia, to raise new arguments concerning the nature of the initiatory sufferings reportedly experienced by shamans in many cultures. Our evidence suggests that a) contrary to our expectations, an initiatory madness or illness is experienced by a minority rather than the majority of balian, and b) whether or not a balian undergoes initiatory sufferings seems to be linked to gender and to the methods of healing employed - thus women healers who employ trance possession are those most likely to report an initiatory madness or illness. This leads to the central argument of the paper: c) the nature of the initiatory sufferings, where they do occur, can be clearly distinguished on several grounds from the onset of mental illness among Balinese, both emically in terms of cultural understandings, and ethically in terms of objective criteria. Finally we discuss the concept of "autonomous imagination," suggesting that the key to becoming a balian is not overcoming an initiatory madness but gaining control over this special mode of imagery thought. We further suggest that Western ideas concerning the self and self healing, the superficial resemblance of the initiatory sufferings to schizophrenia, and the dramatic nature of the initiatory sufferings when they occur, have combined to give a misleading prominence to the role of an initiatory madness in shamanism.

  13. The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.W.; Hassberger, J.A.; Smith, C.; Carelli, M.; Greenspan, E.; Peddicord, K.L.; Stroh, K.; Wade, D.C.; Hill, R.N.

    1999-05-27

    The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor (STAR) system is a development architecture for implementing a small nuclear power system, specifically aimed at meeting the growing energy needs of much of the developing world. It simultaneously provides very high standards for safety, proliferation resistance, ease and economy of installation, operation, and ultimate disposition. The STAR system accomplishes these objectives through a combination of modular design, factory manufacture, long lifetime without refueling, autonomous control, and high reliability.

  14. Tele-robotic/autonomous control using controlshell

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, K.C.; Hurd, R.L.; Couture, S.

    1996-12-10

    A tele-robotic and autonomous controller architecture for waste handling and sorting has been developed which uses tele-robotics, autonomous grasping and image processing. As a starting point, prior work from LLNL and ORNL was restructured and ported to a special real-time development environment. Significant improvements in collision avoidance, force compliance, and shared control aspects were then developed. Several orders of magnitude improvement were made in some areas to meet the speed and robustness requirements of the application.

  15. Autonomous vehicle control using AI techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Keirsey, D.; Mitchell, J.; Bullock, B.; Nussmeier, T.; Tseng, D.

    1983-11-01

    A review of early work on a project for developing autonomous vehicle control technology is presented. The primary goal of this effort is the development of a generic capability that can be specialized to a wide range of DOD applications. Project emphasis is on development of the fundamental AI-based technology required by autonomous systems and the implementation of a testbed environment to evaluate and demonstrate the system capabilities. 10 references.

  16. Autonomous control systems - Architecture and fundamental issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antsaklis, P. J.; Passino, K. M.; Wang, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    A hierarchical functional autonomous controller architecture is introduced. In particular, the architecture for the control of future space vehicles is described in detail; it is designed to ensure the autonomous operation of the control system and it allows interaction with the pilot and crew/ground station, and the systems on board the autonomous vehicle. The fundamental issues in autonomous control system modeling and analysis are discussed. It is proposed to utilize a hybrid approach to modeling and analysis of autonomous systems. This will incorporate conventional control methods based on differential equations and techniques for the analysis of systems described with a symbolic formalism. In this way, the theory of conventional control can be fully utilized. It is stressed that autonomy is the design requirement and intelligent control methods appear at present, to offer some of the necessary tools to achieve autonomy. A conventional approach may evolve and replace some or all of the `intelligent' functions. It is shown that in addition to conventional controllers, the autonomous control system incorporates planning, learning, and FDI (fault detection and identification).

  17. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  18. Automated knowledge generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myler, Harley R.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.

    1988-01-01

    The general objectives of the NASA/UCF Automated Knowledge Generation Project were the development of an intelligent software system that could access CAD design data bases, interpret them, and generate a diagnostic knowledge base in the form of a system model. The initial area of concentration is in the diagnosis of the process control system using the Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) diagnostic system. A secondary objective was the study of general problems of automated knowledge generation. A prototype was developed, based on object-oriented language (Flavors).

  19. A Double-Blind Atropine Trial for Active Learning of Autonomic Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Jeffrey R.; Burr, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to…

  20. Adults' Autonomic and Subjective Emotional Responses to Infant Vocalizations: The Role of Secure Base Script Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groh, Ashley M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which secure base script knowledge--as reflected in an adult's ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related threats are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved--is associated with adults' autonomic and subjective emotional responses to infant distress and nondistress…

  1. Compact Autonomous Hemispheric Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Walch, Marc J.; Staehle, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Solar System Exploration camera implementations to date have involved either single cameras with wide field-of-view (FOV) and consequently coarser spatial resolution, cameras on a movable mast, or single cameras necessitating rotation of the host vehicle to afford visibility outside a relatively narrow FOV. These cameras require detailed commanding from the ground or separate onboard computers to operate properly, and are incapable of making decisions based on image content that control pointing and downlink strategy. For color, a filter wheel having selectable positions was often added, which added moving parts, size, mass, power, and reduced reliability. A system was developed based on a general-purpose miniature visible-light camera using advanced CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imager technology. The baseline camera has a 92 FOV and six cameras are arranged in an angled-up carousel fashion, with FOV overlaps such that the system has a 360 FOV (azimuth). A seventh camera, also with a FOV of 92 , is installed normal to the plane of the other 6 cameras giving the system a > 90 FOV in elevation and completing the hemispheric vision system. A central unit houses the common electronics box (CEB) controlling the system (power conversion, data processing, memory, and control software). Stereo is achieved by adding a second system on a baseline, and color is achieved by stacking two more systems (for a total of three, each system equipped with its own filter.) Two connectors on the bottom of the CEB provide a connection to a carrier (rover, spacecraft, balloon, etc.) for telemetry, commands, and power. This system has no moving parts. The system's onboard software (SW) supports autonomous operations such as pattern recognition and tracking.

  2. Improved autonomous star identification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Li-Yan; Xu, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Jing-Rong

    2015-06-01

    The log-polar transform (LPT) is introduced into the star identification because of its rotation invariance. An improved autonomous star identification algorithm is proposed in this paper to avoid the circular shift of the feature vector and to reduce the time consumed in the star identification algorithm using LPT. In the proposed algorithm, the star pattern of the same navigation star remains unchanged when the stellar image is rotated, which makes it able to reduce the star identification time. The logarithmic values of the plane distances between the navigation and its neighbor stars are adopted to structure the feature vector of the navigation star, which enhances the robustness of star identification. In addition, some efforts are made to make it able to find the identification result with fewer comparisons, instead of searching the whole feature database. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition rate and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the LPT algorithm and the modified grid algorithm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172138 and 61401340), the Open Research Fund of the Academy of Satellite Application, China (Grant No. 2014_CXJJ-DH_12), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. JB141303 and 201413B), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JQ8040), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120004), and the Xi’an Science and Technology Plan, China (Grant. No CXY1350(4)).

  3. Autonomous planetary rover at Carnegie Mellon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Kanade, Takeo; Mitchell, Tom

    1990-01-01

    This report describes progress in research on an autonomous robot for planetary exploration. In 1989, the year covered by this report, a six-legged walking robot, the Ambler, was configured, designed, and constructed. This configuration was used to overcome shortcomings exhibited by existing wheeled and walking robot mechanisms. The fundamental advantage of the Ambler is that the actuators for body support are independent of those for propulsion; a subset of the planar joints propel the body, and the vertical actuators support and level the body over terrain. Models of the Ambler's dynamics were developed and the leveling control was studied. An integrated system capable of walking with a single leg over rugged terrain was implemented and tested. A prototype of an Ambler leg is suspended below a carriage that slides along rails. To walk, the system uses a laser scanner to find a clear, flat foothold, positions the leg above the foothold, contacts the terrain with the foot, and applies force enough to advance the carriage along the rails. Walking both forward and backward, the system has traversed hundreds of meters of rugged terrain including obstacles too tall to step over, trenches too deep to step in, closely spaced rocks, and sand hills. In addition, preliminary experiments were conducted with concurrent planning and execution, and a leg recovery planner that generates time and power efficient 3D trajectories using 2D search was developed. A Hero robot was used to demonstrate mobile manipulation. Indoor tasks include collecting cups from the lab floor, retrieving printer output, and recharging when its battery gets low. The robot monitors its environment, and handles exceptional conditions in a robust fashion, using vision to track the appearance and disappearance of cups, onboard sonars to detect imminent collisions, and monitors to detect the battery level.

  4. Onboard autonomous mineral detectors for Mars rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, M. S.; Bornstein, B.; Castano, R.; Merrill, M.; Greenwood, J.

    2005-12-01

    Mars rovers and orbiters currently collect far more data than can be downlinked to Earth, which reduces mission science return; this problem will be exacerbated by future rovers of enhanced capabilities and lifetimes. We are developing onboard intelligence sufficient to extract geologically meaningful data from spectrometer measurements of soil and rock samples, and thus to guide the selection, measurement and return of these data from significant targets at Mars. Here we report on techniques to construct mineral detectors capable of running on current and future rover and orbital hardware. We focus on carbonate and sulfate minerals which are of particular geologic importance because they can signal the presence of water and possibly life. Sulfates have also been discovered at the Eagle and Endurance craters in Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity and at other regions on Mars by the OMEGA instrument aboard Mars Express. We have developed highly accurate artificial neural network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based detectors capable of identifying calcite (CaCO3) and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) in the visible/NIR (350-2500 nm) spectra of both laboratory specimens and rocks in Mars analogue field environments. To train the detectors, we used a generative model to create 1000s of linear mixtures of library end-member spectra in geologically realistic percentages. We have also augmented the model to include nonlinear mixing based on Hapke's models of bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy. Both detectors perform well on the spectra of real rocks that contain intimate mixtures of minerals, rocks in natural field environments, calcite covered by Mars analogue dust, and AVIRIS hyperspectral cubes. We will discuss the comparison of ANN and SVM classifiers for this task, technical challenges (weathering rinds, atmospheric compositions, and computational complexity), and plans for integration of these detectors into both the Coupled Layer

  5. Induction of electromotive force by an autonomously moving magnetic bot.

    PubMed

    Sailapu, Sunil Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2014-02-01

    We report the observation of the induction of electromotive force (emf) into a Faraday coil by an autonomously moving composite magnetic particle in aqueous medium. The particle consisted of a micron-sized polymer sphere, which was decorated with catalytic Pd nanoparticles (NPs) and attached to a micron-scale (N-42 grade) rare-earth magnet. The Pd NPs catalytically decomposed H2 O2 to generate O2 , resulting in buoyancy-driven vertical motion of the particle, while the micromagnet induced emf during the flight. Because a small volume of ethanol was layered on top of the liquid, the bubble burst when the particle ascended to the top and thus nearly continuous vertical motion was achieved. Spikes of alternating electrical signal could be observed up to 20 times per minute. The signal was sufficiently strong to illuminate light-emitting diodes following appropriate amplification. This distinctive approach is expected to pave the way to developing synthetic bots which are autonomously propelled, generating their own signal for running complex circuitry. PMID:24492970

  6. Bifurcation and Enhancement of Autonomous-Nonautonomous Retrotransposon Partnership through LTR Swapping in Soybean[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jianchang; Tian, Zhixi; Bowen, Nathan J.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shoemaker, Randy C.; Ma, Jianxin

    2010-01-01

    Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, the most abundant genomic components in flowering plants, are classifiable into autonomous and nonautonomous elements based on their structural completeness and transposition capacity. It has been proposed that selection is the major force for maintaining sequence (e.g., LTR) conservation between nonautonomous elements and their autonomous counterparts. Here, we report the structural, evolutionary, and expression characterization of a giant retrovirus-like soybean (Glycine max) LTR retrotransposon family, SNARE. This family contains two autonomous subfamilies, SAREA and SAREB, that appear to have evolved independently since the soybean genome tetraploidization event ∼13 million years ago, and a nonautonomous subfamily, SNRE, that originated from SAREA. Unexpectedly, a subset of the SNRE elements, which amplified from a single founding SNRE element within the last ∼3 million years, have been dramatically homogenized with either SAREA or SAREB primarily in the LTR regions and bifurcated into distinct subgroups corresponding to the two autonomous subfamilies. We uncovered evidence of region-specific swapping of nonautonomous elements with autonomous elements that primarily generated various nonautonomous recombinants with LTR sequences from autonomous elements of different evolutionary lineages, thus revealing a molecular mechanism for the enhancement of preexisting partnership and the establishment of new partnership between autonomous and nonautonomous elements. PMID:20081112

  7. Redundant manipulator techniques for partially decentralized path planning and control of a platoon of autonomous vehicles.

    PubMed

    Stilwell, Daniel J; Bishop, Bradley E; Sylvester, Caleb A

    2005-08-01

    An approach to real-time trajectory generation for platoons of autonomous vehicles is developed from well-known control techniques for redundant robotic manipulators. The partially decentralized structure of this approach permits each vehicle to independently compute its trajectory in real-time using only locally generated information and low-bandwidth feedback generated by a system exogenous to the platoon. Our work is motivated by applications for which communications bandwidth is severely limited, such for platoons of autonomous underwater vehicles. The communication requirements for our trajectory generation approach are independent of the number of vehicles in the platoon, enabling platoons composed of a large number of vehicles to be coordinated despite limited communication bandwidth.

  8. Cutaneous autonomic denervation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Otano, Judith; Casanova-Mollà, Jordi; Morales, Merche; Valls-Solé, Josep; Tolosa, Eduard

    2015-08-01

    Numerous studies have detailed involvement of the peripheral autonomic nervous system (PANS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We assessed autonomic innervation of dermal annexes through quantitative fluorescence measurement from skin obtained via punch biopsies at distal leg region in PD and control subjects. We defined a ratio between the area corresponding to protein gen product (PGP) immunoreactivity and the area corresponding to blood vessel or sweat gland as a quantitative measure of autonomic innervation. Presence of alpha-synuclein (AS) deposits in dermis and hypodermis was also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Skin biopsies form six PD patients and six healthy controls were studied. Autonomic innervation scores were lower in PD than in controls in both blood vessels and sweat glands. No AS or phosphorylated AS (pAS) immunoreactivity was detected in dermis or hypodermis in any of the studied subjects. The results of this investigation suggest that autonomic innervation of dermal annexes in living patients with PD is reduced compared to controls. AS or pAS deposits were not found in dermis or hypodermis suggesting that distal leg skin study is not useful for in vivo detection of AS in PD.

  9. Cutaneous autonomic denervation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Otano, Judith; Casanova-Mollà, Jordi; Morales, Merche; Valls-Solé, Josep; Tolosa, Eduard

    2015-08-01

    Numerous studies have detailed involvement of the peripheral autonomic nervous system (PANS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We assessed autonomic innervation of dermal annexes through quantitative fluorescence measurement from skin obtained via punch biopsies at distal leg region in PD and control subjects. We defined a ratio between the area corresponding to protein gen product (PGP) immunoreactivity and the area corresponding to blood vessel or sweat gland as a quantitative measure of autonomic innervation. Presence of alpha-synuclein (AS) deposits in dermis and hypodermis was also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Skin biopsies form six PD patients and six healthy controls were studied. Autonomic innervation scores were lower in PD than in controls in both blood vessels and sweat glands. No AS or phosphorylated AS (pAS) immunoreactivity was detected in dermis or hypodermis in any of the studied subjects. The results of this investigation suggest that autonomic innervation of dermal annexes in living patients with PD is reduced compared to controls. AS or pAS deposits were not found in dermis or hypodermis suggesting that distal leg skin study is not useful for in vivo detection of AS in PD. PMID:25536890

  10. Autonomous Environment-Monitoring Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hand, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous environment-monitoring networks (AEMNs) are artificial neural networks that are specialized for recognizing familiarity and, conversely, novelty. Like a biological neural network, an AEMN receives a constant stream of inputs. For purposes of computational implementation, the inputs are vector representations of the information of interest. As long as the most recent input vector is similar to the previous input vectors, no action is taken. Action is taken only when a novel vector is encountered. Whether a given input vector is regarded as novel depends on the previous vectors; hence, the same input vector could be regarded as familiar or novel, depending on the context of previous input vectors. AEMNs have been proposed as means to enable exploratory robots on remote planets to recognize novel features that could merit closer scientific attention. AEMNs could also be useful for processing data from medical instrumentation for automated monitoring or diagnosis. The primary substructure of an AEMN is called a spindle. In its simplest form, a spindle consists of a central vector (C), a scalar (r), and algorithms for changing C and r. The vector C is constructed from all the vectors in a given continuous stream of inputs, such that it is minimally distant from those vectors. The scalar r is the distance between C and the most remote vector in the same set. The construction of a spindle involves four vital parameters: setup size, spindle-population size, and the radii of two novelty boundaries. The setup size is the number of vectors that are taken into account before computing C. The spindle-population size is the total number of input vectors used in constructing the spindle counting both those that arrive before and those that arrive after the computation of C. The novelty-boundary radii are distances from C that partition the neighborhood around C into three concentric regions (see Figure 1). During construction of the spindle, the changing spindle radius

  11. Autonomous and Non-autonomous Defects Underlie Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in BRAF-Mutant hiPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Josowitz, Rebecca; Mulero-Navarro, Sonia; Rodriguez, Nelson A; Falce, Christine; Cohen, Ninette; Ullian, Erik M; Weiss, Lauren A; Rauen, Katherine A; Sobie, Eric A; Gelb, Bruce D

    2016-09-13

    Germline mutations in BRAF cause cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS), whereby 40% of patients develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). As the role of the RAS/MAPK pathway in HCM pathogenesis is unclear, we generated a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) model for CFCS from three patients with activating BRAF mutations. By cell sorting for SIRPα and CD90, we generated a method to examine hiPSC-derived cell type-specific phenotypes and cellular interactions underpinning HCM. BRAF-mutant SIRPα(+)/CD90(-) cardiomyocytes displayed cellular hypertrophy, pro-hypertrophic gene expression, and intrinsic calcium-handling defects. BRAF-mutant SIRPα(-)/CD90(+) cells, which were fibroblast-like, exhibited a pro-fibrotic phenotype and partially modulated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) paracrine signaling. Inhibition of TGFβ or RAS/MAPK signaling rescued the hypertrophic phenotype. Thus, cell autonomous and non-autonomous defects underlie HCM due to BRAF mutations. TGFβ inhibition may be a useful therapeutic option for patients with HCM due to RASopathies or other etiologies. PMID:27569062

  12. Vision guided landing of an an autonomous helicopter in hazardous terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Andrew E.; Montgomery, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Future robotic space missions will employ a precision soft-landing capability that will enable exploration of previously inaccessible sites that have strong scientific significance. To enable this capability, a fully autonomous onboard system that identifies and avoids hazardous features such as steep slopes and large rocks is required. Such a system will also provide greater functionality in unstructured terrain to unmanned aerial vehicles. This paper describes an algorithm for landing hazard avoidance based on images from a single moving camera. The core of the algorithm is an efficient application of structure from motion to generate a dense elevation map of the landing area. Hazards are then detected in this map and a safe landing site is selected. The algorithm has been implemented on an autonomous helicopter testbed and demonstrated four times resulting in the first autonomous landing of an unmanned helicopter in unknown and hazardous terrain.

  13. Autonomic Involvement in Subacute and Chronic Immune-Mediated Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeo, Anna; Stancanelli, Claudia; Vita, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic function can be impaired in many disorders in which sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric arms of the autonomic nervous system are affected. Signs and symptoms of autonomic involvement are related to impairment of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urogenital, thermoregulatory, sudomotor, and pupillomotor autonomic functions. Availability of noninvasive, sensitive, and reproducible tests can help to recognize these disorders and to better understand specific mechanisms of some, potentially treatable, immune-mediated autonomic neuropathies. This paper describes autonomic involvement in immune-mediated neuropathies with a subacute or chronic course. PMID:23853716

  14. System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control mechanisms: diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Mathias, J. M.; Mullen, T. J.; Cohen, R. J.; Freeman, R.

    1999-01-01

    We applied cardiovascular system identification (CSI) to characterize closed-loop cardiovascular regulation in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). The CSI method quantitatively analyzes beat-to-beat fluctuations in noninvasively measured heart rate, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV) to characterize four physiological coupling mechanisms, two of which are autonomically mediated (the heart rate baroreflex and the coupling of respiration, measured in terms of ILV, to heart rate) and two of which are mechanically mediated (the coupling of ventricular contraction to the generation of the ABP wavelet and the coupling of respiration to ABP). We studied 37 control and 60 diabetic subjects who were classified as having minimal, moderate, or severe DAN on the basis of standard autonomic tests. The autonomically mediated couplings progressively decreased with increasing severity of DAN, whereas the mechanically mediated couplings were essentially unchanged. CSI identified differences between the minimal DAN and control groups, which were indistinguishable based on the standard autonomic tests. CSI may provide a powerful tool for assessing DAN.

  15. A Collaborative Knowledge Plane for Autonomic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbaye, Maïssa; Krief, Francine

    Autonomic networking aims to give network components self-managing capabilities. Several autonomic architectures have been proposed. Each of these architectures includes sort of a knowledge plane which is very important to mimic an autonomic behavior. Knowledge plane has a central role for self-functions by providing suitable knowledge to equipment and needs to learn new strategies for more accuracy.However, defining knowledge plane's architecture is still a challenge for researchers. Specially, defining the way cognitive supports interact each other in knowledge plane and implementing them. Decision making process depends on these interactions between reasoning and learning parts of knowledge plane. In this paper we propose a knowledge plane's architecture based on machine learning (inductive logic programming) paradigm and situated view to deal with distributed environment. This architecture is focused on two self-functions that include all other self-functions: self-adaptation and self-organization. Study cases are given and implemented.

  16. Autonomic Functions In Raja-yoga Meditators.

    PubMed

    Bharshankar, Jyotsana R; Mandape, Archana D; Phatak, Mrunal S; Bharshankar, Rajay N

    2015-01-01

    Stress, an inevitable and constant feature throughout the lifetime, induces autonomic dysfunctions, for which meditation is considered to be an antidote. So the case control study was planned including 50 Raja-yoga meditators practicing meditation for 5 years and 50 age matched non-meditators. Autonomic function tests were performed and results were compared using the Student-t test. Mean values of resting HR, SBP and DBP were less in meditators. Galvanic Skin Response in meditators was significantly more (p < 0.001). Mean increase BP response to Hand Grip Test and Cold Pressor Test was significantly less in meditators than non-meditators (p < 0.001). Standing: Lying ratio, Valsalva ratio, Inspiration: Expiration ratio and 30:15 ratios were significantly increased in meditators than non-meditators. From the results, there was shifting of the autonomic balance to parasympathetic side in Raja-yoga meditators, which suggests its utility to combat the ill effects of stress. PMID:27530006

  17. An Expert System for Autonomous Spacecraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Rabideau, Gregg

    2005-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), part of the New Millennium Space Technology 6 Project, is flying onboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) mission. The ASE software enables EO-1 to autonomously detect and respond to science events such as: volcanic activity, flooding, and water freeze/thaw. ASE uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect chang-e and science events. Detection of these events is then used to trigger follow-up imagery. Onboard mission planning software then develops a response plan that accounts for target visibility and operations constraints. This plan is then executed using a task execution system that can deal with run-time anomalies. In this paper we describe the autonomy flight software and how it enables a new paradigm of autonomous science and mission operations. We will also describe the current experiment status and future plans.

  18. Lessons learned from the Autonomous Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at the NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the applications of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control and scheduling techniques to space power distribution systems. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for Fault Diagnosis, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR); the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to efficiently assign activities start times and resources; and power hardware (Brassboard) to emulate a space-based power system. The APS project had been through one design iteration. Each of the three elements of the APS project has been designed, tested, and integrated into a complete working system. After these three portions were completed, an evaluation period was initiated. Each piece of the system was critiqued based on individual performance as well as the ability to interact with the other portions of the APS project. These critiques were then used to determine guidelines for new and improved components of the APS system.

  19. Draper Laboratory small autonomous aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBitetto, Paul A.; Johnson, Eric N.; Bosse, Michael C.; Trott, Christian A.

    1997-06-01

    The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. and students from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston University have cooperated to develop an autonomous aerial vehicle that won the 1996 International Aerial Robotics Competition. This paper describes the approach, system architecture and subsystem designs for the entry. This entry represents a combination of many technology areas: navigation, guidance, control, vision processing, human factors, packaging, power, real-time software, and others. The aerial vehicle, an autonomous helicopter, performs navigation and control functions using multiple sensors: differential GPS, inertial measurement unit, sonar altimeter, and a flux compass. The aerial transmits video imagery to the ground. A ground based vision processor converts the image data into target position and classification estimates. The system was designed, built, and flown in less than one year and has provided many lessons about autonomous vehicle systems, several of which are discussed. In an appendix, our current research in augmenting the navigation system with vision- based estimates is presented.

  20. Autonomous Deep-Space Optical Navigation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This project will advance the Autonomous Deep-space navigation capability applied to Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) system by testing it on hardware, particularly in a flight processor, with a goal of limited testing in the Integrated Power, Avionics and Software (IPAS) with the ARCM (Asteroid Retrieval Crewed Mission) DRO (Distant Retrograde Orbit) Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) scenario. The technology, which will be harnessed, is called 'optical flow', also known as 'visual odometry'. It is being matured in the automotive and SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) applications but has yet to be applied to spacecraft navigation. In light of the tremendous potential of this technique, we believe that NASA needs to design a optical navigation architecture that will use this technique. It is flexible enough to be applicable to navigating around planetary bodies, such as asteroids.

  1. Pupillary signs in diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S E; Smith, S A; Brown, P M; Fox, C; Sönksen, P H

    1978-01-01

    Pupillary function was investigated in 36 insulin-dependent diabetics and 36 controls matched for age and sex. About half of the diabetics had evidence of peripheral somatic or autonomic neuropathy, or both. The diabetic patients had abnormally small pupil diameters in the dark and less fluctuation in pupil size (hippus) during continuous illumination than the controls. They also had reduced reflex responses to light flashes of an intensity adjusted for individual retinal sensitivities. The pupillary findings were compared with results of five tests of cardiovascular function and five tests of peripheral sensory and motor nerve function. Almost all the patients with autonomic neuropathy had pupillary signs, which we therefore conclude are a common manifestation of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. PMID:709128

  2. Technology readiness level six and autonomous mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodt, Barry A.; Camden, Rick S.

    2004-09-01

    During FY03, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory undertook a series of experiments designed to assess the maturity of autonomous mobility technology for the Future Combat Systems Armed Robotic Vehicle concept. The experiments assessed the technology against a level 6 standard in the technology readiness level (TRL) maturation schedule identified by a 1999 Government Accounting Office report. During the course of experimentation, 646 missions were conducted over a total distance of ~560 km and time of ~100 hr. Autonomous operation represented 96% and 88% of total distance and time, respectively. To satisfy the TRL 6 "relevant environment" standard, several experimental factors were varied over the three-site test as part of a formal, statistical, experimental design. This paper reports the specific findings pertaining to relevant-environment questions that were posed for the study and lends additional support to the Lead System Integrator decision that TRL 6 has been attained for the autonomous navigation system.

  3. On-Orbit Autonomous Assembly from Nanosatellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murchison, Luke S.; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The On-Orbit Autonomous Assembly from Nanosatellites (OAAN) project will demonstrate autonomous control algorithms for rendezvous and docking maneuvers; low-power reconfigurable magnetic docking technology; and compact, lightweight and inexpensive precision relative navigation using carrier-phase differential (CD) GPS with a three-degree of freedom ground demonstration. CDGPS is a specific relative position determination method that measures the phase of the GPS carrier wave to yield relative position data accurate to.4 inch (1 centimeter). CDGPS is a technology commonly found in the surveying industry. The development and demonstration of these technologies will fill a current gap in the availability of proven autonomous rendezvous and docking systems for small satellites.

  4. Autonomous Multi-sensor Coordination: The Science Goal Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Jung, John; Geiger, Jenny; Grosvenor, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    Next-generation science and exploration systems will employ new observation strategies that will use multiple sensors in a dynamic environment to provide high quality monitoring, self-consistent analyses and informed decision making. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) is a prototype software tool being developed to explore the nature of automation necessary to enable dynamic observing of earth phenomenon. The tools being developed in SGM improve our ability to autonomously monitor multiple independent sensors and coordinate reactions to better observe the dynamic phenomena. The SGM system enables users to specify events of interest and how to react when an event is detected. The system monitors streams of data to identify occurrences of the key events previously specified by the scientist/user. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the users desired reactions between different sensors. The information can be used to rapidly respond to a variety of fast temporal events. Investigators will no longer have to rely on after-the-fact data analysis to determine what happened. Our paper describes a series of prototype demonstrations that we have developed using SGM and NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite and Earth Observing Systems Aqua/Terra spacecrafts MODIS instrument. Our demonstrations show the promise of coordinating data from different sources, analyzing the data for a relevant event, autonomously updating and rapidly obtaining a follow-on relevant image. SGM is being used to investigate forest fires, floods and volcanic eruptions. We are now identifying new earth science scenarios that will have more complex SGM reasoning. By developing and testing a prototype in an operational environment, we are also establishing and gathering metrics to gauge the success of automating science campaigns.

  5. Lessons Learned from Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Boyer, Darrell; Hayden, Sandra; Sweet, Adam; Christa, Scott

    2005-01-01

    An Autonomous Science Agent has been flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft since 2003. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and responds to science events occurring on the Earth such as volcanoes, flooding, and snow melt. The package includes AI-based software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. This software is in routine use to fly the EO-l mission. In this paper we briefly review the agent architecture and discuss lessons learned from this multi-year flight effort pertinent to deployment of software agents to critical applications.

  6. Autonomic Regulation Therapy in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Una; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic Regulation Therapy (ART) is a rapidly emerging therapy in the management of congestive heart failure secondary to systolic dysfunction. Modulation of the cardiac neuronal hierarchy can be achieved with bioelectronics modulation of the spinal cord, cervical vagus, baroreceptor, or renal nerve ablation. This review will discuss relevant preclinical and clinical research in ART for systolic heart failure. Understanding mechanistically what is being stimulated within the autonomic nervous system by such device-based therapy and how the system reacts to such stimuli is essential for optimizing stimulation parameters and for the future development of effective ART. PMID:26054327

  7. Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Chirold

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work towards technology that will result in an autonomous landing on the lunar surface, that will avoid the hazards of lunar landing. In October 2005, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters assigned the development of new technologies to support the return to the moon. One of these was Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology now known as ALHAT ALHAT is a lunar descent and landing GNC technology development project led by Johnson Space Center (JSC) with team members from Langley Research Center (LaRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Draper Laboratories (CSDL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)

  8. Thermal, Autonomous Replicator Made from Transfer RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krammer, Hubert; Möller, Friederike M.; Braun, Dieter

    2012-06-01

    Evolving systems rely on the storage and replication of genetic information. Here we present an autonomous, purely thermally driven replication mechanism. A pool of hairpin molecules, derived from transfer RNA replicates the succession of a two-letter code. Energy is first stored thermally in metastable hairpins. Thereafter, energy is released by a highly specific and exponential replication with a duplication time of 30 s, which is much faster than the tendency to produce false positives in the absence of template. Our experiments propose a physical rather than a chemical scenario for the autonomous replication of protein encoding information in a disequilibrium setting.

  9. Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

  10. Autonomous scheduling technology for Earth orbital missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a dynamic autonomous system (DYASS) of resources for the mission support of near-Earth NASA spacecraft is discussed and the current NASA space data system is described from a functional perspective. The future (late 80's and early 90's) NASA space data system is discussed. The DYASS concept, the autonomous process control, and the NASA space data system are introduced. Scheduling and related disciplines are surveyed. DYASS as a scheduling problem is also discussed. Artificial intelligence and knowledge representation is considered as well as the NUDGE system and the I-Space system.

  11. Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Carrie L.; Brown, Barbara L.

    1991-01-01

    Mathematical models of system components have long been used to allow simulators to predict system behavior to various stimuli. Recent efforts to monitor, diagnose, and control real-time systems using component models have experienced similar success. NASA Kennedy is continuing the development of a tool for implementing real-time knowledge-based diagnostic and control systems called KATE (Knowledge based Autonomous Test Engineer). KATE is a model-based reasoning shell designed to provide autonomous control, monitoring, fault detection, and diagnostics for complex engineering systems by applying its reasoning techniques to an exchangeable quantitative model describing the structure and function of the various system components and their systemic behavior.

  12. Autonomous system for launch vehicle range safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Haley, Sam

    2001-02-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a launch vehicle subsystem whose ultimate goal is an autonomous capability to assure range safety (people and valuable resources), flight personnel safety, flight assets safety (recovery of valuable vehicles and cargo), and global coverage with a dramatic simplification of range infrastructure. The AFSS is capable of determining current vehicle position and predicting the impact point with respect to flight restriction zones. Additionally, it is able to discern whether or not the launch vehicle is an immediate threat to public safety, and initiate the appropriate range safety response. These features provide for a dramatic cost reduction in range operations and improved reliability of mission success. .

  13. [Mobile autonomous robots-Possibilities and limits].

    PubMed

    Maehle, E; Brockmann, W; Walthelm, A

    2002-02-01

    Besides industrial robots, which today are firmly established in production processes, service robots are becoming more and more important. They shall provide services for humans in different areas of their professional and everyday environment including medicine. Most of these service robots are mobile which requires an intelligent autonomous behaviour. After characterising the different kinds of robots the relevant paradigms of intelligent autonomous behaviour for mobile robots are critically discussed in this paper and illustrated by three concrete examples of robots realized in Lübeck. In addition a short survey of actual kinds of surgical robots as well as an outlook to future developments is given.

  14. Dynamic biomaterials: toward engineering autonomous feedback.

    PubMed

    Morris, Eliza; Chavez, Michael; Tan, Cheemeng

    2016-06-01

    Dynamic biomaterials are biocompatible engineered systems capable of sensing and actively responding to their surrounding environment. They are of growing interest, both as models in basic research to understand complex cellular systems and in medical applications. Here, we review recent advances in nano-scale and micro-scale biomaterials, specifically artificial cells consisting of compartmentalized biochemical reactions and biologically compatible hydrogels. These dynamic biomaterials respond to stimuli through triggered reactions, reaction cascades, logic gates, and autonomous feedback loops. We outline the advances and remaining challenges in implementing such 'smart' biomaterials capable of autonomously responding to environmental stimuli. PMID:26974245

  15. Road boundary detection for autonomous vehicle navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.S.; Kushner, T.R.; LeMoigne, J.J.; Waxman, A.M.

    1986-03-01

    The Computer Vision Laboratory at the University Maryland for the past year has been developing a computer vision system for autonomous ground navigation of roads and road networks for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Strategic Computing Program. The complete system runs on a VAX 11/785, but certain parts of it have been reimplemented on a VICOM image processing sysem for experimentation on an autonomous vehicle built for the Martin Marietta Corp., Aerospace Division, in Denver, Colorado. A brief overview is given of the principal software components of the system and the VICOM implementation in detail.

  16. Design of an autonomous exterior security robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the requirements and preliminary design of robotic vehicle designed for performing autonomous exterior perimeter security patrols around warehouse areas, ammunition supply depots, and industrial parks for the U.S. Department of Defense. The preliminary design allows for the operation of up to eight vehicles in a six kilometer by six kilometer zone with autonomous navigation and obstacle avoidance. In addition to detection of crawling intruders at 100 meters, the system must perform real-time inventory checking and database comparisons using a microwave tags system.

  17. Sensorpedia: Information Sharing Across Autonomous Sensor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Bryan L; Resseguie, David R; Tomkins-Tinch, Christopher H

    2009-01-01

    The concept of adapting social media technologies is introduced as a means of achieving information sharing across autonomous sensor systems. Historical examples of interoperability as an underlying principle in loosely-coupled systems is compared and contrasted with corresponding tightly-coupled, integrated systems. Examples of ad hoc information sharing solutions based on Web 2.0 social networks, mashups, blogs, wikis, and data tags are presented and discussed. The underlying technologies of these solutions are isolated and defined, and Sensorpedia is presented as a formalized application for implementing sensor information sharing across large-scale enterprises with incompatible autonomous sensor systems.

  18. [Management of autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Crespo-Burillo, José A; Alarcia-Alejos, Raquel

    2015-04-16

    Autonomic dysfunction is a common manifestation in patients with in Parkinson's disease, which can sometimes precede motor impairment. It can be expressed as orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, supine hypertension, hypersalivation, constipation, delayed gastric emptying, dyshidrosis, bladder and sexual dysfunction. It impairs the quality of life of patients and complicates the management of motor symptoms. Evidence available to treat complications is low. Our aim is to review the pathophysiology and clinical features of autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease and provide a practical approach to handling the available evidence.

  19. Evolutionary strategy for achieving autonomous navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    1999-01-01

    An approach is presented for the evolutionary development of supervised autonomous navigation capabilities for small 'backpackable' ground robots, in the context of a DARPA- sponsored program to provide robotic support to small units of dismounted warfighters. This development approach relies on the implementation of a baseline visual serving navigation capability, including tools to support operator oversight and override, which is then enhanced with semantically referenced commands and a mission scripting structure. As current and future machine perception techniques are able to automatically designate visual serving goal points, this approach should provide a natural evolutionary pathway to higher levels of autonomous operation and reduced requirements for operator intervention.

  20. Autonomous operations through onboard artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, R. L.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.; Rabideau, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreachable without this technology.

  1. Hard-real-time resource management for autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes tickets, a computational mechanism for hard-real-time autonomous resource management. Autonomous spacecraftcontrol can be considered abstractly as a computational process whose outputs are spacecraft commands.

  2. A Rare Association of Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalgia: Pontine Capillary Telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Erdal; Arslan, Sabina; Unal-Cevik, Isin; Karli Oguz, Kader; Tezer, F Irsel

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a case of pontine capillary telangiectasia in a 43-year-old woman with a clinical diagnosis of trigeminal autonomic cephalgia. The possible association with pontine capillary telangiectasia and trigeminal autonomic cephalgia is discussed. PMID:25963152

  3. Advances in autonomous systems for space exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. D.; Gross, A. R.; Clancy, D. J.; Cannon, H. N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Muscettola, N.; Chien, S.; Johnson, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operation, including distributed autonomous systems, flight test results, and implications and directions for future systems.

  4. Why Computer-Based Systems Should be Autonomic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss why computer-based systems should be autonomic, where autonomicity implies self-managing, often conceptualized in terms of being self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, self-protecting and self-aware. We look at motivations for autonomicity, examine how more and more systems are exhibiting autonomic behavior, and finally look at future directions.

  5. GROVER: An autonomous vehicle for ice sheet research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisca, G. O.; Robertson, M. E.; Marshall, H.; Koenig, L.; Comberiate, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Goddard Remotely Operated Vehicle for Exploration and Research or Greenland Rover (GROVER) is a science enabling autonomous robot specifically designed to carry a low-power, large bandwidth radar for snow accumulation mapping over the Greenland Ice Sheet. This new and evolving technology enables reduced cost and increased safety for polar research. GROVER was field tested at Summit, Greenland in May 2013. The robot traveled over 30 km and was controlled both by line of sight wireless and completely autonomously with commands and telemetry via the Iridium Satellite Network, from Summit as well as remotely from Boise, Idaho. Here we describe GROVER's unique abilities and design. The software stack features a modular design that can be adapted for any application that requires autonomous behavior, reliable communications using different technologies and low level control of peripherals. The modules are built to communicate using the publisher-subscriber design pattern to maximize data-reuse and allow for graceful failures at the software level, along with the ability to be loaded or unloaded on-the-fly, enabling the software to adopt different behaviors based on power constraints or specific processing needs. These modules can also be loaded or unloaded remotely for servicing and telemetry can be configured to contain any kind of information being generated by the sensors or scientific instruments. The hardware design protects the electronic components and the control system can change functional parameters based on sensor input. Power failure modes built into the hardware prevent the vehicle from running out of energy permanently by monitoring voltage levels and triggering software reboots when the levels match pre-established conditions. This guarantees that the control software will be operational as soon as there is enough charge to sustain it, giving the vehicle increased longevity in case of a temporary power loss. GROVER demonstrates that autonomous rovers

  6. Towards a New Architecture for Autonomous Data Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanzi, T. J.; Roudier, Y.; Apvrille, L.

    2015-08-01

    A new generation of UAVs is coming that will help improve the situational awareness and assessment necessary to ensure quality data collection, especially in difficult conditions like natural disasters. Operators should be relieved from time-consuming data collection tasks as much as possible and at the same time, UAVs should assist data collection operations through a more insightful and automated guidance thanks to advanced sensing capabilities. In order to achieve this vision, two challenges must be addressed though. The first one is to achieve a sufficient autonomy, both in terms of navigation and of interpretation of the data sensed. The second one relates to the reliability of the UAV with respect to accidental (safety) or even malicious (security) risks. This however requires the design and development of new embedded architectures for drones to be more autonomous, while mitigating the harm they may potentially cause. We claim that the increased complexity and flexibility of such platforms requires resorting to modelling, simulation, or formal verification techniques in order to validate such critical aspects of the platform. This paper first discusses the potential and challenges faced by autonomous UAVs for data acquisition. The design of a flexible and adaptable embedded UAV architecture is then addressed. Finally, the need for validating the properties of the platform is discussed. Our approach is sketched and illustrated with the example of a lightweight drone performing 3D reconstructions out of the combination of 2D image acquisition and a specific motion control.

  7. Terrain modelling and motion planning for an autonomous exploration rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, F.; Benoliel, S.; Faugeras, O.; Grandjean, P.; Hayard, M.; Simeon, T.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of planetary exploration missions using rovers, the French national agency CNES, with a consortium of European laboratories and industrial concerns, has initiated the Eureka project, 'Illustration of an Autonomous Robot for the Exploration of Space' (IARES). IARES is a demonstrator composed of a rover and a ground station, linked by telemetry and telecommand. It is aimed at verifying, on earth, robotic concepts developed by the RISP group of French laboratories (LAAS, INRIA, CERT, LETI) to perform scientific missions such as autonomous terrain sample collecting over large areas. To cope with the actual needs of planet exploration, IARES suitability is assessed through constraints on limited bandwidth, time delay and on-board resources. This autonomy relies heavily on robust onboard trajectory generation capabilities. This paper presents the main functions of the IARES navigation sub-system and shows how they are combined to allow movement in Mars-like environments. Section 2 gives an overall description of the IARES system. Section 3 details the functions of the Navigation sub-system, and finally, section 4 illustrates with a simple example the use of these functions.

  8. Autonomous Satellite Operations Via Secure Virtual Mission Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Eric; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Pasciuto, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The science community is interested in improving their ability to respond to rapidly evolving, transient phenomena via autonomous rapid reconfiguration, which derives from the ability to assemble separate but collaborating sensors and data forecasting systems to meet a broad range of research and application needs. Current satellite systems typically require human intervention to respond to triggers from dissimilar sensor systems. Additionally, satellite ground services often need to be coordinated days or weeks in advance. Finally, the boundaries between the various sensor systems that make up such a Sensor Web are defined by such things as link delay and connectivity, data and error rate asymmetry, data reliability, quality of service provisions, and trust, complicating autonomous operations. Over the past ten years, researchers from the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), General Dynamics, Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL), Cisco, Universal Space Networks (USN), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Naval Research Laboratory, the DoD Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Office, and others have worked collaboratively to develop a virtual mission operations capability. Called VMOC (Virtual Mission Operations Center), this new capability allows cross-system queuing of dissimilar mission unique systems through the use of a common security scheme and published application programming interfaces (APIs). Collaborative VMOC demonstrations over the last several years have supported the standardization of spacecraft to ground interfaces needed to reduce costs, maximize space effects to the user, and allow the generation of new tactics, techniques and procedures that lead to responsive space employment.

  9. Capturing Requirements for Autonomous Spacecraft with Autonomy Requirements Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike

    2014-08-01

    The Autonomy Requirements Engineering (ARE) approach has been developed by Lero - the Irish Software Engineering Research Center within the mandate of a joint project with ESA, the European Space Agency. The approach is intended to help engineers develop missions for unmanned exploration, often with limited or no human control. Such robotics space missions rely on the most recent advances in automation and robotic technologies where autonomy and autonomic computing principles drive the design and implementation of unmanned spacecraft [1]. To tackle the integration and promotion of autonomy in software-intensive systems, ARE combines generic autonomy requirements (GAR) with goal-oriented requirements engineering (GORE). Using this approach, software engineers can determine what autonomic features to develop for a particular system (e.g., a space mission) as well as what artifacts that process might generate (e.g., goals models, requirements specification, etc.). The inputs required by this approach are the mission goals and the domain-specific GAR reflecting specifics of the mission class (e.g., interplanetary missions).

  10. Autonomous Pathogen Detection System - FY02 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Colston, B; Brown, S; Burris, K; Elkin, C; Hindson, B; Langlois, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Metz, T; Nasarabadi, S; Makarewicz, T; Milznovich, F; Venkateswaran, K S; Visuri, S

    2002-11-11

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field demonstrate a biological agent detection and identification capability, the Autonomous Pathogen Detector System (APDS). Integrating a flow cytometer and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detector with sample collection, sample preparation and fluidics will provide a compact, autonomously operating instrument capable of simultaneously detecting multiple pathogens and/or toxins. The APDS will operate in fixed locations, continuously monitoring air samples and automatically reporting the presence of specific biological agents. The APDS will utilize both multiplex immunoassays and nucleic acid assays to provide ''quasi-orthogonal'' multiple agent detection approaches to minimize false positives and increase the reliability of identification. Technical advances across several fronts must occur, however, to realize the full extent of the APDS. The end goal of a commercially available system for civilian biological weapon defense will be accomplished through three progressive generations of APDS instruments. The APDS is targeted for civilian applications in which the public is at high risk of exposure to covert releases of bioagent, such as major subway systems and other transportation terminals, large office complexes and convention centers. APDS is also designed to be part of a monitoring network of sensors integrated with command and control systems for wide-area monitoring of urban areas and major public gatherings. In this latter application there is potential that a fully developed APDS could add value to DoD monitoring architectures.

  11. Robust and Opportunistic Autonomous Science for a Potential Titan Aerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara; Schaffer, Steve; Castano, Rebecca; Elfes, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    We are developing onboard planning and execution technologies to provide robust and opportunistic mission operations for a potential Titan aerobot. Aerobot have the potential for collecting a vast amount of high priority science data. However, to be effective, an aerobot must address several challenges including communication constraints, extended periods without contact with Earth, uncertain and changing environmental conditions, maneuverability constraints and potentially short-lived science opportunities. We are developing the AerOASIS system to develop and test technology to support autonomous science operations for a potential Titan Aerobot. The planning and execution component of AerOASIS is able to generate mission operations plans that achieve science and engineering objectives while respecting mission and resource constraints as well as adapting the plan to respond to new science opportunities. Our technology leverages prior work on the OASIS system for autonomous rover exploration. In this paper we describe how the OASIS planning component was adapted to address the unique challenges of a Titan Aerobot and we describe a field demonstration of the system with the JPL prototype aerobot.

  12. Autonomous buoy for offshore well control and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    Conventional subsea control systems require expensive electrohydraulic umbilicals that limit the maximum distance between platform and well. A proposed control-buoy concept is a hybrid well-control system with the reliability of conventional umbilical-based systems and the long-distance cost advantages of umbilical-free systems. Well 4-ALS-39 is a marginal gas well off-shore the state of Alagoas, northeast Brazil, in 25-m-deep water. Its production development became economically feasible with the use of an autonomous control buoy for well control and monitoring. A control and data-acquisition system installed on the buoy monitors wellhead pressure and temperature and controls the wet-Christmas-tree valves and production choke through a conventional electrohydraulic umbilical. A radio link between the buoy and shore ensures permanent supervision and interlock with the onshore pipeline valves and metering station. Because the onshore plant is normally unmanned, a dialed cellular-telephone line allows remote well monitoring and operation. The small buoy is completely autonomous in terms of energy. All energy required to power the system is generated locally by solar panels and a low-power, electrically driven hydraulic-power unit.

  13. Mapping planetary caves with an autonomous, heterogeneous robot team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.

    Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.

  14. [Emotion, amygdala, and autonomic nervous system].

    PubMed

    Ueyama, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Emotion refers to the dynamic changes of feeling accompanied by the alteration of physical and visceral activities. Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic) regulates the visceral activities. Therefore, monitoring and analyzing autonomic nervous activity help understand the emotional changes. To this end, the survey of the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), such as c-Fos in the brain and target organs, and the viral transneuronal labeling method using the pseudorabies virus (PRV) have enabled the visualization of the neurocircuitry of emotion. By comparing c-Fos expression and data from PRV or other neuroanatomical labeling techniques, the central sites that regulate emotional stress-induced autonomic activation can be deduced. Such regions have been identified in the limbic system (e. g., the extended amygdaloid complex; lateral septum; and infralimbic, insular, and ventromedial temporal cortical regions), as well as in several hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei. The amygdala is structurally diverse and comprises several subnuclei, which play a role in emotional process via projections from the cortex and a variety of subcortical structures. All amygdaloid subnuclei receive psychological information from other limbic systems, while the lateral and central subnuclei receive peripheral and sensory information. Output to the hypothalamus and peripheral sympathetic system mainly originates from the medial amygdala. As estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β, and androgen receptor are expressed in the medial amygdala, sex steroids may modulate the autonomic nervous activities.

  15. The CASCADAS Framework for Autonomic Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baresi, Luciano; Ferdinando, Antonio Di; Manzalini, Antonio; Zambonelli, Franco

    An interesting approach to the design and development of the future Internet foresees a networked service eco-system capable of seamlessly offering services for human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions. This chapter builds in this direction by describing a distributed component-ware framework for autonomic and situation-aware communication developed within the CASCADAS project. The core of this framework is the Autonomic Communication Element (ACE), an innovative software abstraction capable of providing dynamically adaptable services that can be built, composed, and let evolve according to autonomic principles. Services are capable of adapting their logic to the dynamically changing context they operate in without human intervention. As a result, whenever the need arises, ACEs can be federated autonomously and produce new services on a situation-aware basis. Systems and, in particular, eco-systems can thus be conceived as collections of ACEs. The chapter introduces the concept of ACE and its different facets. It also presents the architecture of a prototype ACE-based platform and exemplifies the different concepts through a future Pervasive Behavioral Advertisement scenario.

  16. Autonomous Learning from a Social Cognitive Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton, Michael K.; Rhea, Nancy E.

    2006-01-01

    The current perspective of autonomous learning defines it as the agentive exhibition of resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in self-directed learning. As a form of human agency, it has been argued in the literature that this perspective should be consistent with Bandura's (1986) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The purpose of this article…

  17. Pelvic autonomic neuromonitoring: present reality, future prospects.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Stanley A

    2014-08-01

    Currently, the means to assess the autonomic nervous system primarily depend on end organ functional measurement: intravesical pressure, skin resistance, and penile strain gauge tension, for example. None of these measures has been generally accepted in the operating room. Nevertheless, the segmental and peripheral pelvic autonomic nerve supply is placed at risk during both pelvic and lower spine surgery. In this difficult era of suboptimal post-prostatectomy outcomes, the urological literature does reveal the salutary development of safer dissection techniques about the peri-prostatic and cavernous plexus. Means of reliably specific nerve identification remain elusive. The need for actual nerve monitoring (not just identification) has only recently been proposed. Data from the animal lab reinforce an appreciation of the intimate and elegant interconnectedness of autonomic and somatic structures, particularly at the segmental level. Also, the biochemistry of erectile tissue engorgement (in both sexes) is very well understood (the electrophysiology increasingly so). Understanding these principles should permit parallel investigation and implementation of neurophysiological techniques which both identify and monitor pelvic autonomic function. The predicates for these proposed new approaches in the operating room are discussed in this review.

  18. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

  19. Autonomic nervous system functions in obese children.

    PubMed

    Yakinci, C; Mungen, B; Karabiber, H; Tayfun, M; Evereklioglu, C

    2000-05-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex syndrome, probably due to the multiplicity of contributing factors, contradictory literature information about etiology, prognosis, prevention and treatment. In the recent reports, autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction has been documented in adult obesity. Autonomic nervous system functions in obese children are not clear. This study was planned to investigate autonomic nervous system function in childhood (7-13 years of age) obesity. Study and control groups consisted of 33 simple obese (23 boys and ten girls, mean age 9.5+/-1.4 years) and 30 healthy children (18 boys and 12 girls, mean age 10.1+/-1.8 years), respectively. Four non-invasive autonomic nervous system function tests (Orthostatic test, Valsalva ratio, 30/15 ratio, Heart rate responses to deep breathing) and general ophthalmic examination were performed on both groups. The difference between the obese and control groups was found statistically significant in Valsalva ratio, 30/15 ratio and Heart rate responses to deep breathing (P<0.025), and insignificant in Orthostatic test (P>0.05). Ophthalmic examinations were normal. The result of these tests suggested normal activity of sympathetic, and hypoactivity of parasympathetic nervous system, implying parasympathetic nervous system dysfunction as a risk factor or associated finding in childhood obesity. PMID:10814895

  20. Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…

  1. An Algorithm for Autonomous Formation Obstacle Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Yunior I.

    The level of human interaction with Unmanned Aerial Systems varies greatly from remotely piloted aircraft to fully autonomous systems. In the latter end of the spectrum, the challenge lies in designing effective algorithms to dictate the behavior of the autonomous agents. A swarm of autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles requires collision avoidance and formation flight algorithms to negotiate environmental challenges it may encounter during the execution of its mission, which may include obstacles and chokepoints. In this work, a simple algorithm is developed to allow a formation of autonomous vehicles to perform point to point navigation while avoiding obstacles and navigating through chokepoints. Emphasis is placed on maintaining formation structures. Rather than breaking formation and individually navigating around the obstacle or through the chokepoint, vehicles are required to assemble into appropriately sized/shaped sub-formations, bifurcate around the obstacle or negotiate the chokepoint, and reassemble into the original formation at the far side of the obstruction. The algorithm receives vehicle and environmental properties as inputs and outputs trajectories for each vehicle from start to the desired ending location. Simulation results show that the algorithm safely routes all vehicles past the obstruction while adhering to the aforementioned requirements. The formation adapts and successfully negotiates the obstacles and chokepoints in its path while maintaining proper vehicle separation.

  2. Love alters autonomic reactivity to emotions.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Inna; Zilberstein-Kra, Yael; Leckman, James F; Feldman, Ruth

    2011-12-01

    Periods of bond formation are accompanied by physiological and emotional changes, yet, little is known about the effects of falling in love on the individual's physiological response to emotions. We examined autonomic reactivity to the presentation of negative and positive films in 112 young adults, including 57 singles and 55 new lovers who began a romantic relationship 2.5 months prior to the experiment Autonomic reactivity was measured by Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) to two baseline emotionally neutral films, two negative films, and two positive films. Results demonstrated that RSA in singles decreased during the presentation of negative emotions, indicating physiological stress response. However, no such decrease was found among new lovers, pointing to more optimal vagal regulation during the period of falling in love. Autonomic reactivity, indexed by RSA decrease from the positive to the negative films, was greater among singles as compared to lovers, suggesting that love buffers against autonomic stress and facilitates emotion regulation. Findings suggest that vagal regulation may be one mechanism through which love and attachment reduce stress and promote well-being and health.

  3. Spatial abstraction for autonomous robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Susan L; Aroor, Anoop; Evanusa, Matthew; Sklar, Elizabeth I; Parsons, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Optimal navigation for a simulated robot relies on a detailed map and explicit path planning, an approach problematic for real-world robots that are subject to noise and error. This paper reports on autonomous robots that rely on local spatial perception, learning, and commonsense rationales instead. Despite realistic actuator error, learned spatial abstractions form a model that supports effective travel. PMID:26227680

  4. Autonomous biomorphic robots as platforms for sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Tilden, M.; Hasslacher, B.; Mainieri, R.; Moses, J.

    1996-10-01

    The idea of building autonomous robots that can carry out complex and nonrepetitive tasks is an old one, so far unrealized in any meaningful hardware. Tilden has shown recently that there are simple, processor-free solutions to building autonomous mobile machines that continuously adapt to unknown and hostile environments, are designed primarily to survive, and are extremely resistant to damage. These devices use smart mechanics and simple (low component count) electronic neuron control structures having the functionality of biological organisms from simple invertebrates to sophisticated members of the insect and crab family. These devices are paradigms for the development of autonomous machines that can carry out directed goals. The machine then becomes a robust survivalist platform that can carry sensors or instruments. These autonomous roving machines, now in an early stage of development (several proof-of-concept prototype walkers have been built), can be developed so that they are inexpensive, robust, and versatile carriers for a variety of instrument packages. Applications are immediate and many, in areas as diverse as prosthetics, medicine, space, construction, nanoscience, defense, remote sensing, environmental cleanup, and biotechnology.

  5. Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, C.C.

    1985-09-20

    This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced.

  6. Spatial abstraction for autonomous robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Susan L; Aroor, Anoop; Evanusa, Matthew; Sklar, Elizabeth I; Parsons, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Optimal navigation for a simulated robot relies on a detailed map and explicit path planning, an approach problematic for real-world robots that are subject to noise and error. This paper reports on autonomous robots that rely on local spatial perception, learning, and commonsense rationales instead. Despite realistic actuator error, learned spatial abstractions form a model that supports effective travel.

  7. Comparative anatomy of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Stefan

    2011-11-16

    This short review aims to point out the general anatomical features of the autonomic nervous systems of non-mammalian vertebrates. In addition it attempts to outline the similarities and also the increased complexity of the autonomic nervous patterns from fish to tetrapods. With the possible exception of the cyclostomes, perhaps the most striking feature of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system is the similarity between the vertebrate classes. An evolution of the complexity of the system can be seen, with the segmental ganglia of elasmobranchs incompletely connected longitudinally, while well developed paired sympathetic chains are present in teleosts and the tetrapods. In some groups the sympathetic chains may be reduced (dipnoans and caecilians), and have yet to be properly described in snakes. Cranial autonomic pathways are present in the oculomotor (III) and vagus (X) nerves of gnathostome fish and the tetrapods, and with the evolution of salivary and lachrymal glands in the tetrapods, also in the facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves. PMID:20444653

  8. Integrating the autonomous subsystems management process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, Barry R.

    1992-01-01

    Ways in which the ranking of the Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution testbed may be achieved and an individual subsystem's internal priorities may be managed within the complete system are examined. The application of these results in the integration and performance leveling of the autonomously managed system is discussed.

  9. Autonomic adjustments to exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N; Fadel, Paul J

    2015-04-01

    Autonomic nervous system adjustments to the heart and blood vessels are necessary for mediating the cardiovascular responses required to meet the metabolic demands of working skeletal muscle during exercise. These demands are met by precise exercise intensity-dependent alterations in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity. The purpose of this review is to examine the contributions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in mediating specific cardiovascular and hemodynamic responses to exercise. These changes in autonomic outflow are regulated by several neural mechanisms working in concert, including central command (a feed forward mechanism originating from higher brain centers), the exercise pressor reflex (a feed-back mechanism originating from skeletal muscle), the arterial baroreflex (a negative feed-back mechanism originating from the carotid sinus and aortic arch), and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors (a feed-back mechanism from stretch receptors located in the heart and lungs). In addition, arterial chemoreceptors and phrenic afferents from respiratory muscles (i.e., respiratory metaboreflex) are also capable of modulating the autonomic responses to exercise. Our goal is to provide a detailed review of the parasympathetic and sympathetic changes that occur with exercise distinguishing between the onset of exercise and steady-state conditions, when appropriate. In addition, studies demonstrating the contributions of each of the aforementioned neural mechanisms to the autonomic changes and ensuing cardiac and/or vascular responses will be covered.

  10. Algorithmic solution for autonomous vision-based off-road navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnik, Marina; Paar, Gerhard; Bauer, Arnold; Ulm, Michael

    1998-07-01

    A vision based navigation system is a basic tool to provide autonomous operations of unmanned vehicles. For offroad navigation that means that the vehicle equipped with a stereo vision system and perhaps a laser ranging device shall be able to maintain a high level of autonomy under various illumination conditions and with little a priori information about the underlying scene. The task becomes particularly important for unmanned planetary exploration with the help of autonomous rovers. For example in the LEDA Moon exploration project currently under focus by the European Space Agency (ESA), during the autonomous mode the vehicle (rover) should perform the following operations: on-board absolute localization, elevation model (DEM) generation, obstacle detection and relative localization, global path planning and execution. Focus of this article is a computational solution for fully autonomous path planning and path execution. An operational DEM generation method based on stereoscopy is introduced. Self-localization on the DEM and robust natural feature tracking are used as basic navigation steps, supported by inertial sensor systems. The following operations are performed on the basis of stereo image sequences: 3D scene reconstruction, risk map generation, local path planning, camera position update during the motion on the basis of landmarks tracking, obstacle avoidance. Experimental verification is done with the help of a laboratory terrain mockup and a high precision camera mounting device. It is shown that standalone tracking using automatically identified landmarks is robust enough to give navigation data for further stereoscopic reconstruction of the surrounding terrain. Iterative tracking and reconstruction leads to a complete description of the vehicle path and its surrounding with an accuracy high enough to meet the specifications for autonomous outdoor navigation.

  11. Autonomic nervous system and immune system interactions.

    PubMed

    Kenney, M J; Ganta, C K

    2014-07-01

    The present review assesses the current state of literature defining integrative autonomic-immune physiological processing, focusing on studies that have employed electrophysiological, pharmacological, molecular biological, and central nervous system experimental approaches. Central autonomic neural networks are informed of peripheral immune status via numerous communicating pathways, including neural and non-neural. Cytokines and other immune factors affect the level of activity and responsivity of discharges in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves innervating diverse targets. Multiple levels of the neuraxis contribute to cytokine-induced changes in efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve outflows, leading to modulation of peripheral immune responses. The functionality of local sympathoimmune interactions depends on the microenvironment created by diverse signaling mechanisms involving integration between sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitters and neuromodulators; specific adrenergic receptors; and the presence or absence of immune cells, cytokines, and bacteria. Functional mechanisms contributing to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway likely involve novel cholinergic-adrenergic interactions at peripheral sites, including autonomic ganglion and lymphoid targets. Immune cells express adrenergic and nicotinic receptors. Neurotransmitters released by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve endings bind to their respective receptors located on the surface of immune cells and initiate immune-modulatory responses. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic arms of the autonomic nervous system are instrumental in orchestrating neuroimmune processes, although additional studies are required to understand dynamic and complex adrenergic-cholinergic interactions. Further understanding of regulatory mechanisms linking the sympathetic nervous, parasympathetic nervous, and immune systems is critical for understanding relationships between chronic disease

  12. Exercise and the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to acute (dynamic) exercise in animals and humans. During exercise, oxygen uptake is a function of the triple-product of heart rate and stroke volume (i.e., cardiac output) and arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (the Fick principle). The degree to which each of the variables can increase determines maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max). Both "central command" and "the exercise pressor reflex" are important in determining the cardiovascular response and the resetting of the arterial baroreflex during exercise to precisely match systemic oxygen delivery with metabolic demand. In general, patients with autonomic disorders have low levels of V˙O2max, indicating reduced physical fitness and exercise capacity. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients have blunted or abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise, especially during maximal exercise. There is now convincing evidence that some of the protective and therapeutic effects of chronic exercise training are related to the impact on the autonomic nervous system. Additionally, training induced improvement in vascular function, blood volume expansion, cardiac remodeling, insulin resistance and renal-adrenal function may also contribute to the protection and treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic disorders. Exercise training also improves mental health, helps to prevent depression, and promotes or maintains positive self-esteem. Moderate-intensity exercise at least 30 minutes per day and at least 5 days per week is recommended for the vast majority of people. Supervised exercise training is preferable to maximize function capacity, and may be particularly important for patients with autonomic disorders. PMID:24095123

  13. Autonomous Surface Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. P.

    2007-08-01

    Surface science sample acquisition is a critical activity within any planetary and lunar exploration mission, and our research is focused upon the design, implementation, experimentation and demonstration of an onboard autonomous surface sample acquisition capability for a rover equipped with a robotic arm upon which are mounted appropriate science instruments. Images captured by a rover stereo camera system can be processed using shape from stereo methods and a digital elevation model (DEM) generated. We have developed a terrain feature identification algorithm that can determine autonomously from DEM data suitable regions for instrument placement and/or surface sample acquisition. Once identified, surface normal data can be generated autonomously which are then used to calculate an arm trajectory for instrument placement and sample acquisition. Once an instrument placement and sample acquisition trajectory has been calculated, a collision detection algorithm is required to ensure the safe operation of the arm during sample acquisition.We have developed a novel adaptive 'bounding spheres' approach to this problem. Once potential science targets have been identified, and these are within the reach of the arm and will not cause any undesired collision, then the 'cost' of executing the sample acquisition activity is required. Such information which includes power expenditure and duration can be used to select the 'best' target from a set of potential targets. We have developed a science sample acquisition resource requirements calculation that utilises differential inverse kinematics methods to yield a high fidelity result, thus improving upon simple 1st order approximations. To test our algorithms a new Planetary Analogue Terrain (PAT) Laboratory has been created that has a terrain region composed of Mars Soil Simulant-D from DLR Germany, and rocks that have been fully characterised in the laboratory. These have been donated by the UK Planetary Analogue Field Study

  14. Apoptosis and Self-Destruct: A Contribution to Autonomic Agents?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward in designing reliable systems. Agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomicity in systems, both in terms of retrofitting autonomicity into legacy systems and designing new systems. The AC initiative provides an opportunity to consider other biological systems and principles in seeking new design strategies. This paper reports on one such investigation; utilizing the apoptosis metaphor of biological systems to provide a dynamic health indicator signal between autonomic agents.

  15. Cardiac autonomic control in individuals with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goulopoulou, Styliani; Baynard, Tracy; Collier, Scott; Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Figueroa, Arturo; Beets, Michael; Pitetti, Kenneth; Fernhall, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to compare cardiac autonomic control at rest between 50 individuals with Down syndrome and 24 control participants without disabilities. Resting autonomic function was assessed using analysis of heart rate variability. Participants with Down syndrome had reduced total heart rate variability, which indicates possible autonomic dysfunction in this population. Their VO2 peak and BMI were not significantly correlated with resting cardiac autonomic control. This may suggest that fitness level and obesity differentially affect cardiac autonomic control in persons with Down syndrome compared to their healthy, nondisabled peers.

  16. Multi-Window Controllers for Autonomous Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, B, J.; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1997-01-01

    Multi-window controllers select between elementary linear controllers using nonlinear windows based on the amplitude and frequency content of the feedback error. The controllers are relatively simple to implement and perform much better than linear controllers. The commanders for such controllers only order the destination point and are freed from generating the command time-profiles. The robotic missions rely heavily on the tasks of acquisition and tracking. For autonomous and optimal control of the spacecraft, the control bandwidth must be larger while the feedback can (and, therefore, must) be reduced.. Combining linear compensators via multi-window nonlinear summer guarantees minimum phase character of the combined transfer function. It is shown that the solution may require using several parallel branches and windows. Several examples of multi-window nonlinear controller applications are presented.

  17. Application of a Chaotic Oscillator in an Autonomous Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlelo-Cuautle, Esteban; Ramos-López, Hugo C.; Sánchez-Sánchez, Mauro; Pano-Azucena, Ana D.; Sánchez-Gaspariano, Luis A.; Núñez-Pérez, José C.; Camas-Anzueto, Jorge L.

    2014-05-01

    Terrain exploration robots can be of great usefulness in critical navigation circumstances. However, the challenge is how to guarantee a control for covering a full terrain area. That way, the application of a chaotic oscillator to control the wheels of an autonomous mobile robot, is introduced herein. Basically, we describe the realization of a random number generator (RNG) based on a double-scroll chaotic oscillator, which is used to guide the robot to cover a full terrain area. The resolution of the terrain exploration area is determined by both the number of bits provided by the RNG and the characteristics of step motors. Finally, the experimental results highlight the covered area by painting the trajectories that the robot explores.

  18. Navigation strategies for multiple autonomous mobile robots moving in formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of deriving navigation strategies for a fleet of autonomous mobile robots moving in formation is considered. Here, each robot is represented by a particle with a spherical effective spatial domain and a specified cone of visibility. The global motion of each robot in the world space is described by the equations of motion of the robot's center of mass. First, methods for formation generation are discussed. Then, simple navigation strategies for robots moving in formation are derived. A sufficient condition for the stability of a desired formation pattern for a fleet of robots each equipped with the navigation strategy based on nearest neighbor tracking is developed. The dynamic behavior of robot fleets consisting of three or more robots moving in formation in a plane is studied by means of computer simulation.

  19. Autonomous star tracker based on active pixel sensors (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, U.

    2004-06-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used onboard of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years, star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The Jena-Optronik GmbH is active in the field of opto-electronic sensors like star trackers since the early 80-ties. Today, with the product family ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15, all marked segments like earth observation, scientific applications and geo-telecom are supplied to European and Overseas customers. A new generation of star trackers can be designed based on the APS detector technical features. The measurement performance of the current CCD based star trackers can be maintained, the star tracker functionality, reliability and robustness can be increased while the unit costs are saved.

  20. Understanding the efficiency of autonomous nano- and microscale motors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Chiang, Tso-Yi; Velegol, Darrell; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2013-07-17

    We analyze the power conversion efficiency of different classes of autonomous nano- and micromotors. For bimetallic catalytic motors that operate by a self-electrophoretic mechanism, there are four stages of energy loss, and together they result in a power conversion efficiency on the order of 10(-9). The results of finite element modeling agree well with experimental measurements of the efficiency of catalytic Pt-Au nanorod motors. Modifications of the composition and shape of bimetallic catalytic motors were predicted computationally and found experimentally to lead to higher efficiency. The efficiencies of bubble-propelled catalytic micromotors, magnetically driven flagellar motors, Janus micromotors driven by self-generated thermal gradients, and ultrasonically driven metallic micromotors are also analyzed and discussed.

  1. Dynamic map building for an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.J.; Durrant-Whyte, H.F. ); Cox, I.J. )

    1992-08-01

    This article presents an algorithm for autonomous map building and maintenance for a mobile robot. The authors believe that mobile robot navigation can be treated as a problem of tracking geometric features that occur naturally in the environment. They represent each feature in the map by a location estimate (the feature state vector) and two distinct measures of uncertainty: a covariance matrix to represent uncertainty in feature location, and a credibility measure to represent their belief in the validity of the feature. During each position update cycle, predicted measurements are generated for each geometric feature in the map and compared with actual sensor observations. Successful matches cause a feature's credibility to be increased. Unpredicted observations are used to initialize new geometric features, while unobserved predictions result in a geometric feature's credibility being decreased. They also describe experimental results obtained with the algorithm that demonstrate successful map building using real sonar data.

  2. Autonomous kinematic calibration for robot with force sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongbo; Xiong, Youlun

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents an autonomous calibration procedure for identifying robot geometric parameters using a wrist force sensor, which guides the robot end effector to track the section contour of an accurately cylindrical workpiece and to find its center. The information from the wrist sensor is needed to determine the motion direction for the end effector and to generate control strategy (hybrid control law of position and force), meanwhile the force vector is required to correct the deformation of the manipulator, which maps in turn into the joint differential vector. The system of constraint equation is in fact nonlinear, and can be linearized for the constraint surface of the cylinder. Simulation has been performed for a PUMA 760 robot and the result shows that the robot positioning accuracy can be improved to the level of the repeatability by the proposed calibration method.

  3. Autonomous urban reconnaissance ingress system (AURIS): providing a tactically relevant autonomous door-opening kit for unmanned ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shane, David J.; Rufo, Michael A.; Berkemeier, Matthew D.; Alberts, Joel A.

    2012-06-01

    The Autonomous Urban Reconnaissance Ingress System (AURIS™) addresses a significant limitation of current military and first responder robotics technology: the inability of reconnaissance robots to open doors. Leveraging user testing as a baseline, the program has derived specifications necessary for military personnel to open doors with fielded UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles), and evaluates the technology's impact on operational mission areas: duration, timing, and user patience in developing a tactically relevant, safe, and effective system. Funding is provided through the US ARMY Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and the project represents a leap forward in perception, autonomy, robotic implements, and coordinated payload operation in UGVs. This paper describes high level details of specification generation, status of the last phase of development, an advanced view of the system autonomy capability, and a short look ahead towards the ongoing work on this compelling and important technology.

  4. Fuzzy logic in autonomous orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant

    1991-01-01

    Fuzzy logic can be used advantageously in autonomous orbital operations that require the capability of handling imprecise measurements from sensors. Several applications are underway to investigate fuzzy logic approaches and develop guidance and control algorithms for autonomous orbital operations. Translational as well as rotational control of a spacecraft have been demonstrated using space shuttle simulations. An approach to a camera tracking system has been developed to support proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Pattern recognition and object identification algorithms currently under development will become part of this camera system at an appropriate level in the future. A concept to control environment and life support systems for large Lunar based crew quarters is also under development. Investigations in the area of reinforcement learning, utilizing neural networks, combined with a fuzzy logic controller, are planned as a joint project with the Ames Research Center.

  5. Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bornstein, Benjamin J.; Castano, Rebecca; Estlin, Tara A.; Gaines, Daniel M.; Anderson, Robert C.; Thompson, David R.; DeGranville, Charles K.; Chien, Steve A.; Tang, Benyang; Burl, Michael C.; Judd, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science System (AEGIS) provides automated targeting for remote sensing instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, which at the time of this reporting has had two rovers exploring the surface of Mars (see figure). Currently, targets for rover remote-sensing instruments must be selected manually based on imagery already on the ground with the operations team. AEGIS enables the rover flight software to analyze imagery onboard in order to autonomously select and sequence targeted remote-sensing observations in an opportunistic fashion. In particular, this technology will be used to automatically acquire sub-framed, high-resolution, targeted images taken with the MER panoramic cameras. This software provides: 1) Automatic detection of terrain features in rover camera images, 2) Feature extraction for detected terrain targets, 3) Prioritization of terrain targets based on a scientist target feature set, and 4) Automated re-targeting of rover remote-sensing instruments at the highest priority target.

  6. Autonomous Flight Safety System Road Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James C.; Zoemer, Roger D.; Forney, Chris S.

    2005-01-01

    On February 3, 2005, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) conducted the first Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) test on a moving vehicle -- a van driven around the KSC industrial area. A subset of the Phase III design was used consisting of a single computer, GPS receiver, and UPS antenna. The description and results of this road test are described in this report.AFSS is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility project that is in its third phase of development. AFSS is an independent subsystem intended for use with Expendable Launch Vehicles that uses tracking data from redundant onboard sensors to autonomously make flight termination decisions using software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors. The goals of this project are to increase capabilities by allowing launches from locations that do not have or cannot afford extensive ground-based range safety assets, to decrease range costs, and to decrease reaction time for special situations.

  7. Autonomous vehicle platforms from modular robotic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonlau, William J.

    2004-09-01

    A brief survey of current autonomous vehicle (AV) projects is presented with intent to find common infrastructure or subsystems that can be configured from commercially available modular robotic components, thereby providing developers with greatly reduced timelines and costs and encouraging focus on the selected problem domain. The Modular Manipulator System (MMS) robotic system, based on single degree of freedom rotary and linear modules, is introduced and some approaches to autonomous vehicle configuration and deployment are examined. The modules may be configured to provide articulated suspensions for very rugged terrain and fall recovery, articulated sensors and tooling plus a limited capacity for self repair and self reconfiguration. The MMS on-board visually programmed control software (Model Manager) supports experimentation with novel physical configurations and behavior algorithms via real-time 3D graphics for operations simulation and provides useful subsystems for vision, learning and planning to host intelligent behavior.

  8. Autonomous Rovers for Polar Science Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lever, J. H.; Ray, L. E.; Williams, R. M.; Morlock, A. M.; Burzynski, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed and deployed two over-snow autonomous rovers able to conduct remote science campaigns on Polar ice sheets. Yeti is an 80-kg, four-wheel-drive (4WD) battery-powered robot with 3 - 4 hr endurance, and Cool Robot is a 60-kg 4WD solar-powered robot with unlimited endurance during Polar summers. Both robots navigate using GPS waypoint-following to execute pre-planned courses autonomously, and they can each carry or tow 20 - 160 kg instrument payloads over typically firm Polar snowfields. In 2008 - 12, we deployed Yeti to conduct autonomous ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys to detect hidden crevasses to help establish safe routes for overland resupply of research stations at South Pole, Antarctica, and Summit, Greenland. We also deployed Yeti with GPR at South Pole in 2011 to identify the locations of potentially hazardous buried buildings from the original 1950's-era station. Autonomous surveys remove personnel from safety risks posed during manual GPR surveys by undetected crevasses or buried buildings. Furthermore, autonomous surveys can yield higher quality and more comprehensive data than manual ones: Yeti's low ground pressure (20 kPa) allows it to cross thinly bridged crevasses or other voids without interrupting a survey, and well-defined survey grids allow repeated detection of buried voids to improve detection reliability and map their extent. To improve survey efficiency, we have automated the mapping of detected hazards, currently identified via post-survey manual review of the GPR data. Additionally, we are developing machine-learning algorithms to detect crevasses autonomously in real time, with reliability potentially higher than manual real-time detection. These algorithms will enable the rover to relay crevasse locations to a base station for near real-time mapping and decision-making. We deployed Cool Robot at Summit Station in 2005 to verify its mobility and power budget over Polar snowfields. Using solar power, this zero

  9. Autonomous RPRV Navigation, Guidance and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Donald E.; Myers, Thomas T.; Zellner, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Dryden Flight Research Center has the responsibility for flight testing of advanced remotely piloted research vehicles (RPRV) to explore highly maneuverable aircraft technology, and to test advanced structural concepts, and related aeronautical technologies which can yield important research results with significant cost benefits. The primary purpose is to provide the preliminary design of an upgraded automatic approach and landing control system and flight director display to improve landing performance and reduce pilot workload. A secondary purpose is to determine the feasibility of an onboard autonomous navigation, orbit, and landing capability for safe vehicle recovery in the event of loss of telemetry uplink communication with the vehicles. The current RPRV approach and landing method, the proposed automatic and manual approach and autoland system, and an autonomous navigation, orbit, and landing system concept which is based on existing operational technology are described.

  10. Autonomous reinforcement learning with experience replay.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyński, Paweł; Tanwani, Ajay Kumar

    2013-05-01

    This paper considers the issues of efficiency and autonomy that are required to make reinforcement learning suitable for real-life control tasks. A real-time reinforcement learning algorithm is presented that repeatedly adjusts the control policy with the use of previously collected samples, and autonomously estimates the appropriate step-sizes for the learning updates. The algorithm is based on the actor-critic with experience replay whose step-sizes are determined on-line by an enhanced fixed point algorithm for on-line neural network training. An experimental study with simulated octopus arm and half-cheetah demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed algorithm to solve difficult learning control problems in an autonomous way within reasonably short time. PMID:23237972

  11. Forced synchronization of autonomous dynamical Boolean networks

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera-Durón, R. R. Campos-Cantón, E.; Campos-Cantón, I.; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2015-08-15

    We present the design of an autonomous time-delay Boolean network realized with readily available electronic components. Through simulations and experiments that account for the detailed nonlinear response of each circuit element, we demonstrate that a network with five Boolean nodes displays complex behavior. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of two identical networks display near-instantaneous synchronization to a periodic state when forced by a common periodic Boolean signal. A theoretical analysis of the network reveals the conditions under which complex behavior is expected in an individual network and the occurrence of synchronization in the forced networks. This research will enable future experiments on autonomous time-delay networks using readily available electronic components with dynamics on a slow enough time-scale so that inexpensive data collection systems can faithfully record the dynamics.

  12. Multiple Autonomous Discrete Event Controllers for Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, Timothy C.

    2003-01-01

    The Multiple Autonomous Discrete Event Controllers for Constellations (MADECC) project is an effort within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center's (NASA/GSFC) Information Systems Division to develop autonomous positioning and attitude control for constellation satellites. It will be accomplished using traditional control theory and advanced coordination algorithms developed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL). This capability will be demonstrated in the discrete event control test-bed located at JHU/APL. This project will be modeled for the Leonardo constellation mission, but is intended to be adaptable to any constellation mission. To develop a common software architecture. the controllers will only model very high-level responses. For instance, after determining that a maneuver must be made. the MADECC system will output B (Delta)V (velocity change) value. Lower level systems must then decide which thrusters to fire and for how long to achieve that (Delta)V.

  13. Autonomous rough terrain navigation - Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David P.

    1991-01-01

    Because of light-time delays, a planetary rover located on Mars or beyond will probably need to be able to navigate autonomously, in order to do significant exploration. Recent work at JPL has explored several different autonomous navigation strategies. This work includes highly deliberative methods that require large amounts of computation and internal storage but yield very planful behavior to more reactive systems that require less resources but whose behavior is more difficult to model. This paper briefly presents these methods, the results from experiments both in simulation and in the field, and some conclusions on the value of different approaches, and their possible impact on the structure of the robot and the mission architecture.

  14. Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.

    2004-04-01

    The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.

  15. Novel navigation sensor for autonomous guide vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenwei; Zhuang, Bao Hua; Zhang, YanXin

    2000-09-01

    We describe a novel navigation sensor used for real-time navigation in which a position-sensitive detector is used. According to the features of the position-sensitive detector, the special floor mark stuck on the predefined path is developed. In addition, the formulas for the centroid position of the image of incident laser line on the position-sensitive detector, which is determined by the relative position between the floor mark and the navigation sensor, are derived. The navigation sensor, which can obtain proper navigation accuracy and controlling signal, navigates the autonomous guide vehicle running on the predefined path. It is suitable for application in autonomous guide vehicles and other automatic instruments. The experimental results are given.

  16. Forced synchronization of autonomous dynamical Boolean networks.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Durón, R R; Campos-Cantón, E; Campos-Cantón, I; Gauthier, Daniel J

    2015-08-01

    We present the design of an autonomous time-delay Boolean network realized with readily available electronic components. Through simulations and experiments that account for the detailed nonlinear response of each circuit element, we demonstrate that a network with five Boolean nodes displays complex behavior. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of two identical networks display near-instantaneous synchronization to a periodic state when forced by a common periodic Boolean signal. A theoretical analysis of the network reveals the conditions under which complex behavior is expected in an individual network and the occurrence of synchronization in the forced networks. This research will enable future experiments on autonomous time-delay networks using readily available electronic components with dynamics on a slow enough time-scale so that inexpensive data collection systems can faithfully record the dynamics.

  17. Systems, methods and apparatus for modeling, specifying and deploying policies in autonomous and autonomic systems using agent-oriented software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Penn, Joaquin (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments, an agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS, is analyzed, flaws in the agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS are corrected, and an implementation is derived from the corrected agent-oriented specification. Described herein are systems, method and apparatus that produce fully (mathematically) tractable development of agent-oriented specification(s) modeled with methodology fragment for analyzing complex multiagent systems (MaCMAS) and policies for autonomic systems from requirements through to code generation. The systems, method and apparatus described herein are illustrated through an example showing how user formulated policies can be translated into a formal mode which can then be converted to code. The requirements-based programming systems, method and apparatus described herein may provide faster, higher quality development and maintenance of autonomic systems based on user formulation of policies.

  18. Multiple independent autonomous hydraulic oscillators driven by a common gravity head.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Yokokawa, Ryuji; Lesher-Perez, Sasha Cai; Takayama, Shuichi

    2015-06-15

    Self-switching microfluidic circuits that are able to perform biochemical experiments in a parallel and autonomous manner, similar to instruction-embedded electronics, are rarely implemented. Here, we present design principles and demonstrations for gravity-driven, integrated, microfluidic pulsatile flow circuits. With a common gravity head as the only driving force, these fluidic oscillator arrays realize a wide range of periods (0.4 s-2 h) and flow rates (0.10-63 μl min(-1)) with completely independent timing between the multiple oscillator sub-circuits connected in parallel. As a model application, we perform systematic, parallel analysis of endothelial cell elongation response to different fluidic shearing patterns generated by the autonomous microfluidic pulsed flow generation system.

  19. Multiple independent autonomous hydraulic oscillators driven by a common gravity head

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Yokokawa, Ryuji; Lesher-Perez, Sasha Cai; Takayama, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Self-switching microfluidic circuits that are able to perform biochemical experiments in a parallel and autonomous manner similar to instruction-embedded electronics, are rarely implemented. Here, we present design principles and demonstrations for gravity-driven, integrated, microfluidic pulsatile flow circuits. With a common gravity-head as the only driving force, these fluidic oscillator arrays realize a wide range of periods (0.4 s – 2 h) and flow rates (0.10 – 63 μL min−1) with completely independent timing between the multiple oscillator sub-circuits connected in parallel. As a model application, we perform systematic, parallel analysis of endothelial cell elongation response to different fluidic shearing patterns generated by the autonomous microfluidic pulsed flow generation system. PMID:26073884

  20. An architectural approach to create self organizing control systems for practical autonomous robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, Helen

    1991-01-01

    For practical industrial applications, the development of trainable robots is an important and immediate objective. Therefore, the developing of flexible intelligence directly applicable to training is emphasized. It is generally agreed upon by the AI community that the fusion of expert systems, neural networks, and conventionally programmed modules (e.g., a trajectory generator) is promising in the quest for autonomous robotic intelligence. Autonomous robot development is hindered by integration and architectural problems. Some obstacles towards the construction of more general robot control systems are as follows: (1) Growth problem; (2) Software generation; (3) Interaction with environment; (4) Reliability; and (5) Resource limitation. Neural networks can be successfully applied to some of these problems. However, current implementations of neural networks are hampered by the resource limitation problem and must be trained extensively to produce computationally accurate output. A generalization of conventional neural nets is proposed, and an architecture is offered in an attempt to address the above problems.

  1. Flocking algorithm for autonomous flying robots.

    PubMed

    Virágh, Csaba; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Tarcai, Norbert; Szörényi, Tamás; Somorjai, Gergő; Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás

    2014-06-01

    Animal swarms displaying a variety of typical flocking patterns would not exist without the underlying safe, optimal and stable dynamics of the individuals. The emergence of these universal patterns can be efficiently reconstructed with agent-based models. If we want to reproduce these patterns with artificial systems, such as autonomous aerial robots, agent-based models can also be used in their control algorithms. However, finding the proper algorithms and thus understanding the essential characteristics of the emergent collective behaviour requires thorough and realistic modeling of the robot and also the environment. In this paper, we first present an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot. The model takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects. We present two decentralized control algorithms. One is based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion, the other is a collective target tracking algorithm. Both algorithms contain a viscous friction-like term, which aligns the velocities of neighbouring agents parallel to each other. We show that this term can be essential for reducing the inherent instabilities of such a noisy and delayed realistic system. We discuss simulation results on the stability of the control algorithms, and perform real experiments to show the applicability of the algorithms on a group of autonomous quadcopters. In our case, bio-inspiration works in two ways. On the one hand, the whole idea of trying to build and control a swarm of robots comes from the observation that birds tend to flock to optimize their behaviour as a group. On the other hand, by using a realistic simulation framework and studying the group behaviour of autonomous robots we can learn about the major factors influencing the flight of bird flocks. PMID:24852272

  2. System for autonomous monitoring of bioagents

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, Richard G.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Colston, Jr, Billy W.; Brown, Steve B.; Masquelier, Don A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Venkateswaran, Kodomudi

    2015-06-09

    An autonomous monitoring system for monitoring for bioagents. A collector gathers the air, water, soil, or substance being monitored. A sample preparation means for preparing a sample is operatively connected to the collector. A detector for detecting the bioagents in the sample is operatively connected to the sample preparation means. One embodiment of the present invention includes confirmation means for confirming the bioagents in the sample.

  3. Automatic learning by an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    de Saussure, G.; Spelt, P.F.; Killough, S.M.; Pin, F.G.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes recent research in automatic learning by the autonomous mobile robot HERMIES-IIB at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR). By acting on the environment and observing the consequences during a set of training examples, the robot learns a sequence of successful manipulations on a simulated control panel. The robot learns to classify panel configurations in order to deal with new configurations that are not part of the original training set. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Flocking algorithm for autonomous flying robots.

    PubMed

    Virágh, Csaba; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Tarcai, Norbert; Szörényi, Tamás; Somorjai, Gergő; Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás

    2014-06-01

    Animal swarms displaying a variety of typical flocking patterns would not exist without the underlying safe, optimal and stable dynamics of the individuals. The emergence of these universal patterns can be efficiently reconstructed with agent-based models. If we want to reproduce these patterns with artificial systems, such as autonomous aerial robots, agent-based models can also be used in their control algorithms. However, finding the proper algorithms and thus understanding the essential characteristics of the emergent collective behaviour requires thorough and realistic modeling of the robot and also the environment. In this paper, we first present an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot. The model takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects. We present two decentralized control algorithms. One is based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion, the other is a collective target tracking algorithm. Both algorithms contain a viscous friction-like term, which aligns the velocities of neighbouring agents parallel to each other. We show that this term can be essential for reducing the inherent instabilities of such a noisy and delayed realistic system. We discuss simulation results on the stability of the control algorithms, and perform real experiments to show the applicability of the algorithms on a group of autonomous quadcopters. In our case, bio-inspiration works in two ways. On the one hand, the whole idea of trying to build and control a swarm of robots comes from the observation that birds tend to flock to optimize their behaviour as a group. On the other hand, by using a realistic simulation framework and studying the group behaviour of autonomous robots we can learn about the major factors influencing the flight of bird flocks.

  5. Autonomous Spacecraft Communication Interface for Load Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Timothy P.; May, Ryan D.; Morris, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Ground-based controllers can remain in continuous communication with spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) with near-instantaneous communication speeds. This permits near real-time control of all of the core spacecraft systems by ground personnel. However, as NASA missions move beyond LEO, light-time communication delay issues, such as time lag and low bandwidth, will prohibit this type of operation. As missions become more distant, autonomous control of manned spacecraft will be required. The focus of this paper is the power subsystem. For present missions, controllers on the ground develop a complete schedule of power usage for all spacecraft components. This paper presents work currently underway at NASA to develop an architecture for an autonomous spacecraft, and focuses on the development of communication between the Mission Manager and the Autonomous Power Controller. These two systems must work together in order to plan future load use and respond to unanticipated plan deviations. Using a nominal spacecraft architecture and prototype versions of these two key components, a number of simulations are run under a variety of operational conditions, enabling development of content and format of the messages necessary to achieve the desired goals. The goals include negotiation of a load schedule that meets the global requirements (contained in the Mission Manager) and local power system requirements (contained in the Autonomous Power Controller), and communication of off-plan disturbances that arise while executing a negotiated plan. The message content is developed in two steps: first, a set of rapid-prototyping "paper" simulations are preformed; then the resultant optimized messages are codified for computer communication for use in automated testing.

  6. Abnormal autonomic cardiovascular control in ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Toussirot, E.; Bahjaoui-Bouhaddi, M.; Poncet, J.; Cappelle, S.; Henriet, M.; Wendling, D.; Regnard, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study was aimed at assessing the contribution of the autonomic nervous system to adjustments of cardiovascular function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).
METHODS—In 18 AS patients (mean age: 34.9; mean disease duration: 6.4 years) and 13 healthy controls (mean age: 31.7) the changes of heart rate (HR) with deep breathing (E/I ratio) and standing up (30/15 ratio) were recorded. The slope of cardiac baroreflex, the times series of blood pressure and HR values upon lying and standing, and venous plasma concentrations of catecholamines were also analysed. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), plasma C reactive protein (CRP) concentration and a clinical index (BASDAI score) were used to assess the degree of disease activity in patients.
RESULTS—In the standing patients, blood pressure was found to decrease progressively (p< 0.001). Furthermore, the patients with a BASDAI score > 5 had a higher heart rate than patients with a BASDAI score < 5 (p<0.02), and there was a trend for a similar difference when patients were classified according to their ESR and CRP. Plasma catecholamine concentrations and the E/I ratio were not different in patients from controls. The 30/15 ratio and the slope of the spontaneous baroreflex during standing were both lower in AS patients than controls (p< 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS—This study demonstrated a change in autonomic nervous system function of AS patients, with a decreased parasympathetic activity, as evidenced by higher HR and lower baroreflex slope. As these significant deviances were mainly observed in patients with more active (or more inflammatory) disease, the autonomic nervous system involvement could be related to the inflammatory process. This autonomic strain may be related to the cardiac involvement in AS patients.

 PMID:10419866

  7. ALHAT: Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2015-01-01

    The ALHAT project was chartered by NASA HQ in 2006 to develop and mature to TRL 6 an autonomous lunar landing GN&C and sensing system for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The multi-center ALHAT team was tasked with providing a system capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards in real time to enable safe precision landing to within tens of meters of a designated planetary landing site under any lighting conditions.

  8. Autonomous Flight Safety System - Phase III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility project that uses tracking and attitude data from onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors and configurable rule-based algorithms to make flight termination decisions. AFSS objectives are to increase launch capabilities by permitting launches from locations without range safety infrastructure, reduce costs by eliminating some downrange tracking and communication assets, and reduce the reaction time for flight termination decisions.

  9. Autonomously motile catalytic nanomotors by bubble propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, J. G.; Zhao, Y.-P.

    2009-04-01

    A bubble propulsion model based on catalyzed hydrogen peroxide decomposition and momentum change via O2 bubbles detaching from the catalytic surface is proposed to explain the autonomous motion of catalytic nanomotors. The propelling force closely depends upon the surface tension of the liquid as well as the bulk concentration of hydrogen peroxide, and the model predictions are supported by the experimental data of Pt-coated spherical silica microbead motors.

  10. Autonomous Deicing System For Airplane Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, G. A.; Gerardi, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype autonomous deicing system for airplane includes network of electronic and electromechanical modules at various locations in wings and connected to central data-processing unit. Small, integrated solid-state device, using long coils installed under leading edge, exciting small vibrations to detect ice and larger vibrations to knock ice off. In extension of concept, outputs of vibration sensors and other sensors used to detect rivet-line fractures, fatigue cracks, and other potentially dangerous defects.

  11. An architecture for an autonomous learning robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tillotson, Brian

    1988-01-01

    An autonomous learning device must solve the example bounding problem, i.e., it must divide the continuous universe into discrete examples from which to learn. We describe an architecture which incorporates an example bounder for learning. The architecture is implemented in the GPAL program. An example run with a real mobile robot shows that the program learns and uses new causal, qualitative, and quantitative relationships.

  12. Precise laser gyroscope for autonomous inertial navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A G; Molchanov, A V; Izmailov, E A; Chirkin, M V

    2015-01-31

    Requirements to gyroscopes of strapdown inertial navigation systems for aircraft application are formulated. The construction of a ring helium – neon laser designed for autonomous navigation is described. The processes that determine the laser service life and the relation between the random error of the angular velocity measurement and the surface relief features of the cavity mirrors are analysed. The results of modelling one of the promising approaches to processing the laser gyroscope signals are presented. (laser gyroscopes)

  13. Autonomous navigation for structured exterior environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, J B

    1993-12-01

    The Telemanaged Mobile Security Station (TMSS) was developed at Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the role of mobile robotics in exterior perimeter security systems. A major feature of the system is its capability to perform autonomous patrols of the security site`s network of roads. Perimeter security sites are well known, structured environments; the locations of the roads, buildings, and fences are relatively static. A security robot has the advantage of being able to learn its new environment prior to autonomous travel. The TMSS robot combines information from a microwave beacon system and on-board dead reckoning sensors to determine its location within the site. The operator is required to teleoperate the robot in a teach mode over all desired paths before autonomous operations can commence. During this teach phase, TMSS stores points from its position location system at two meter intervals. This map data base is used for planning paths and for reference during path following. Details of the position location and path following systems will be described along with system performance and recommendations for future enhancements.

  14. Autonomic Cardiovascular Adaptation to Prolonged Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couckuyt, Kurt; Verheyden, Bart; Liu, Jiexin; Aubert, Andre E.

    2008-06-01

    In this study, the evolution of autonomic cardiovascular modulation during 6 months of weightlessness was investigated. Six male astronauts participated in the study. Each astronaut performed the experiments 4 times during their stay on board of the ISS, on day 10, day 60, day 100 and day 160 after launch. Preflight reference measurements in supine and standing position were performed 30 days before launch. We hypothesized that during prolonged stay in space, autonomic cardiovascular control would adapt to changes in the cardiovascular system and total blood volume, reaching a new operating point. Autonomic cardiovascular control in the early stage of the space mission was comparable with pre-flight supine condition. Surprisingly, there was no evolution in heart rate, baroreflex and heart rate variability over 6 months of weightlessness. Mean and diastolic blood pressure were also equal to pre-flight supine pressures at the beginning of the space mission. However, mean and diastolic blood pressure increased during prolonged stay in space. This increase could be caused by structural adaptation of the vasculature to weightlessness.

  15. Hemicrania continua. Unquestionably a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Maurice B

    2013-05-01

    Hemicrania continua (HC) is a well-known primary headache. The present version of the International Classification of Headache Disorders lists HC in the "other primary headaches" group. However, evidence has emerged demonstrating that HC is a phenotype that belongs to the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias together with cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania (PH), and short-lasting, unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing. This is supported by a common general clinical picture - paroxysmal, fluctuating, unilateral, side-locked headaches located to the ocular, frontal, and/or temporal regions, accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic dysfunctions including for example, tearing and conjunctival injection. Apart from the remarkable clinical similarities, the absolute and incomparable effect of indomethacin in HC parallels the effect of this drug in PH, suggesting a shared core pathogenesis. Finally, neuroimage findings demonstrate a posterior hypothalamic activation in HC similarly to cluster headache, PH, and short-lasting, unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing. Taken together, data indicate that HC is certainly a type of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia that should no longer be placed in a group of miscellaneous primary headache disorders.

  16. Applying neural networks in autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornbrugh, Allison L.; Layne, J. D.; Wilson, James M., III

    1992-03-01

    Autonomous and teleautonomous operations have been defined in a variety of ways by different groups involved with remote robotic operations. For example, Conway describes architectures for producing intelligent actions in teleautonomous systems. Applying neural nets in such systems is similar to applying them in general. However, for autonomy, learning or learned behavior may become a significant system driver. Thus, artificial neural networks are being evaluated as components in fully autonomous and teleautonomous systems. Feed- forward networks may be trained to perform adaptive signal processing, pattern recognition, data fusion, and function approximation -- as in control subsystems. Certain components of particular autonomous systems become more amenable to implementation using a neural net due to a match between the net's attributes and desired attributes of the system component. Criteria have been developed for distinguishing such applications and then implementing them. The success of hardware implementation is a crucial part of this application evaluation process. Three basic applications of neural nets -- autoassociation, classification, and function approximation -- are used to exemplify this process and to highlight procedures that are followed during the requirements, design, and implementation phases. This paper assumes some familiarity with basic neural network terminology and concentrates upon the use of different neural network types while citing references that cover the underlying mathematics and related research.

  17. Multi-mission, autonomous, synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Thomas J.; Wilson, Michael L.; Madsen, David; Jensen, Mark; Sullivan, Stephanie; Addario, Michael; Hally, Iain

    2014-05-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) have become a critical asset in current battlespaces and continue to play an increasing role for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. With the development of medium-to-low altitude, rapidly deployable aircraft platforms, the ISR community has seen an increasing push to develop ISR sensors and systems with real-time mission support capabilities. This paper describes recent flight demonstrations and test results of the RASAR (Real-time, Autonomous, Synthetic Aperture Radar) sensor system. RASAR is a modular, multi-band (L and X) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging sensor designed for self-contained, autonomous, real-time operation with mission flexibility to support a wide range of ISR needs within the size, weight and power constraints of Group III UASs. The sensor command and control and real-time image formation processing are designed to allow integration of RASAR into a larger, multi-intelligence system of systems. The multi-intelligence architecture and a demonstration of real-time autonomous cross-cueing of a separate optical sensor will be presented.

  18. Autonomic correlates of physical and moral disgust.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Cristina; Mancini, Francesco; Petrocchi, Nicola; Medea, Barbara; Couyoumdjian, Alessandro

    2013-07-01

    Given that the hypothesis of a common origin of physical and moral disgust has received sparse empirical support, this study aimed to shed light on the subjective and autonomic signatures of these two facets of the same emotional response. Participants (20 men, 20 women) were randomly assigned to physical or moral disgust induction by the use of audio scripts while their electrocardiogram was continuously recorded. Affect ratings were obtained before and after the induction. Time and frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV) measures were obtained. After controlling for disgust sensitivity (DS-R) and obsessive-compulsive (OCI-R) tendencies, both scripts elicited disgust but whereas the physical script elicited a feeling of dirtiness, the moral script evoked more indignation and contempt. The disgust-induced subjective responses were associated with opposite patterns of autonomic reactivity: enhanced activity of the parasympathetic nervous system without concurrent changes in heart rate (HR) for physical disgust and decreased vagal tone and increased HR and autonomic imbalance for moral disgust. Results suggest that immorality relies on the same biological root of physical disgust only in subjects with obsessive compulsive tendencies. Disgust appears to be a heterogeneous response that varies based on the individuals' contamination-based appraisal.

  19. SOLON: An autonomous vehicle mission planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudziak, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    The State-Operator Logic Machine (SOLON) Planner provides an architecture for effective real-time planning and replanning for an autonomous vehicle. The highlights of the system, which distinguish it from other AI-based planners that have been designed previously, are its hybrid application of state-driven control architecture and the use of both schematic representations and logic programming for the management of its knowledge base. SOLON is designed to provide multiple levels of planning for a single autonomous vehicle which is supplied with a skeletal, partially-specified mission plan at the outset of the vehicle's operations. This mission plan consists of a set of objectives, each of which will be decomposable by the planner into tasks. These tasks are themselves comparatively complex sets of actions which are executable by a conventional real-time control system which does not perform planning but which is capable of making adjustments or modifications to the provided tasks according to constraints and tolerances provided by the Planner. The current implementation of the SOLON is in the form of a real-time simulation of the Planner module of an Intelligent Vehicle Controller (IVC) on-board an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The simulation is embedded within a larger simulator environment known as ICDS (Intelligent Controller Development System) operating on a Symbolics 3645/75 computer.

  20. Surveillance sensor for autonomous wildfire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Jan S.; Kemp, Rob A. W.

    1993-11-01

    Autonomous wildfire detection systems may help to reduce hazards resulting from large wildland fires. In many situations wildfires start in the duff below trees and shrubs, which are hidden from direct view by groundbased sensors overlooking forests and wildlands. Mid- and thermal infrared measurements only detect wildfires when the fire has become a crownfire, and, by then, it usually has developed into a large wildfire. Therefore, the early discovery of wildfires using groundbased, autonomous sensors should be performed by detecting smoke clouds rather than the heat of the fire, since smoke becomes earlier visible above the trees as a result of convection than the heat of the fire. A demonstration sensor is being developed to show the feasibility of an affordable system for autonomous wildland fire detection. The system is designed to minimize false alarms by simultaneously analyzing the temporal, spatial and spectral information in the acquired imagery. The groundbased sensor will be horizon scanning and will employ linear CCD's for better contrast sensitivity in three different spectral bands.

  1. Autonomous system for cross-country navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stentz, Anthony; Brumitt, Barry L.; Coulter, R. C.; Kelly, Alonzo

    1993-05-01

    Autonomous cross-country navigation is essential for outdoor robots moving about in unstructured environments. Most existing systems use range sensors to determine the shape of the terrain, plan a trajectory that avoids obstacles, and then drive the trajectory. Performance has been limited by the range and accuracy of sensors, insufficient vehicle-terrain interaction models, and the availability of high-speed computers. As these elements improve, higher- speed navigation on rougher terrain becomes possible. We have developed a software system for autonomous navigation that provides for greater capability. The perception system supports a large braking distance by fusing multiple range images to build a map of the terrain in front of the vehicle. The system identifies range shadows and interpolates undersamples regions to account for rough terrain effects. The motion planner reduces computational complexity by investigating a minimum number of trajectories. Speeds along the trajectory are set to provide for dynamic stability. The entire system was tested in simulation, and a subset of the capability was demonstrated on a real vehicle. Results to date include a continuous 5.1 kilometer run across moderate terrain with obstacles. This paper begins with the applications, prior work, limitations, and current paradigms for autonomous cross-country navigation, and then describes our contribution to the area.

  2. Autonomic Circulatory Control during Pregnancy in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D.

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with dramatic alterations in maternal hemodynamics, which begin early (i.e., following conception, 4 to 5 weeks of gestation) and are accompanied by changing levels of various pressor hormones and vasoactive metabolites. It has been proposed that these changes occur through autonomic control mechanisms, but the actual role of the autonomic nervous system in pregnancy is poorly understood. New research has shed more light on the links between pregnancy and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the understanding of the pathophysiology underlying autonomic control of maternal hemodynamics is extremely helpful and particularly important for prevention of cardiovascular complications during pregnancy, and for an improved medical care for all pregnant women and beyond into later life. In this review, we highlight some previous results of hemodynamic adaptation and hormonal effects during pregnancy, changes in vascular endothelial function associated with pregnancy, sympathetic neural control and vascular responsiveness in pregnancy, and baroreflex function during pregnancy in humans. However, whether and how the sympathetic nervous system plays a role in hemodynamic homeostasis during early human pregnancy remains completely unknown. PMID:19530067

  3. Autonomous and Autonomic Systems: A Paradigm for Future Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walter F.; Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA increasingly will rely on autonomous systems concepts, not only in the mission control centers on the ground, but also on spacecraft and on rovers and other assets on extraterrestrial bodies. Automomy enables not only reduced operations costs, But also adaptable goal-driven functionality of mission systems. Space missions lacking autonomy will be unable to achieve the full range of advanced mission objectives, given that human control under dynamic environmental conditions will not be feasible due, in part, to the unavoidably high signal propagation latency and constrained data rates of mission communications links. While autonomy cost-effectively supports accomplishment of mission goals, autonomicity supports survivability of remote mission assets, especially when human tending is not feasible. Autonomic system properties (which ensure self-configuring, self-optimizing self-healing, and self-protecting behavior) conceptually may enable space missions of a higher order into any previously flown. Analysis of two NASA agent-based systems previously prototyped, and of a proposed future mission involving numerous cooperating spacecraft, illustrates how autonomous and autonomic system concepts may be brought to bear on future space missions.

  4. Autonomous Image Analysis for Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, V. C.; Morris, R. L.; Ruzon, M. A.; Bandari, E.; Roush, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    To explore high priority landing sites and to prepare for eventual human exploration, future Mars missions will involve rovers capable of traversing tens of kilometers. However, the current process by which scientists interact with a rover does not scale to such distances. Specifically, numerous command cycles are required to complete even simple tasks, such as, pointing the spectrometer at a variety of nearby rocks. In addition, the time required by scientists to interpret image data before new commands can be given and the limited amount of data that can be downlinked during a given command cycle constrain rover mobility and achievement of science goals. Experience with rover tests on Earth supports these concerns. As a result, traverses to science sites as identified in orbital images would require numerous science command cycles over a period of many weeks, months or even years, perhaps exceeding rover design life and other constraints. Autonomous onboard science analysis can address these problems in two ways. First, it will allow the rover to preferentially transmit "interesting" images, defined as those likely to have higher science content. Second, the rover will be able to anticipate future commands. For example, a rover might autonomously acquire and return spectra of "interesting" rocks along with a high-resolution image of those rocks in addition to returning the context images in which they were detected. Such approaches, coupled with appropriate navigational software, help to address both the data volume and command cycle bottlenecks that limit both rover mobility and science yield. We are developing fast, autonomous algorithms to enable such intelligent on-board decision making by spacecraft. Autonomous algorithms developed to date have the ability to identify rocks and layers in a scene, locate the horizon, and compress multi-spectral image data. We are currently investigating the possibility of reconstructing a 3D surface from a sequence of images

  5. Autonomic nerve preserving total mesorectal excision.

    PubMed

    Havenga, Klaas; Enker, Warren E

    2002-10-01

    The main objectives of surgery for rectal cancer are cure and the prevention of local or pelvic recurrence. Preservation of pelvic autonomic functions are important associated goals that have influenced the design of the operation. These changes began with modifications to the art of lateral pelvic lymphadenectomy, and with the introduction of sharp pelvic dissection along anatomical pelvic fascial planes for rectal cancer in the mid-1970s. These changes evolved to include deliberate autonomic nerve preservation as a part of the operation that was ultimately reported as TME with ANP [1]. While it is a small nuance. dissection was generally directed to the widest possible pelvic margin--medial to the autonomic nerves, as opposed to just peripheral to the mesorectum. Both sexual and urinary functions are complex. and patients undergoing surgery for rectal cancer may have differing baseline levels of function. Pre-existing benign prostatic hypertrophy or stress incontinence are common physical conditions. Patients bring personal or cultural attitudes to the subject of sexual function with advancing years. in a population with a median age in the mid-sixties. Other health issues such as coronary artery or peripheral vascular atherosclerotic disease, diabetes mellitus. smoking or alcohol intake, or the use of medications to treat these conditions, may influence sexual function. Radiation therapy, frequently used in conjunction with chemotherapy in the treatment of rectal cancer, may be associated with its own incidence of impotence caused via a different mechanism. While radiation may affect the vasa nervosa of the autonomic nerves, leading to fibrosis and dysfunction. radiation therapy may also be associated with smooth muscle fibrosis, causing vasculogenic impotence due to penile outflow dysfunction in the corpora cavernosa. The causes of impotence after surgery alone or after surgery. radiation, and chemotherapy for rectal cancer are complex, and not all answers to

  6. Autonomous In-Situ Resources Prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dissly, R. W.; Buehler, M. G.; Schaap, M. G.; Nicks, D.; Taylor, G. J.; Castano, R.; Suarez, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will describe the concept of an autonomous, intelligent, rover-based rapid surveying system to identify and map several key lunar resources to optimize their ISRU (In Situ Resource Utilization) extraction potential. Prior to an extraction phase for any target resource, ground-based surveys are needed to provide confirmation of remote observation, to quantify and map their 3-D distribution, and to locate optimal extraction sites (e.g. ore bodies) with precision to maximize their economic benefit. The system will search for and quantify optimal minerals for oxygen production feedstock, water ice, and high glass-content regolith that can be used for building materials. These are targeted because of their utility and because they are, or are likely to be, variable in quantity over spatial scales accessible to a rover (i.e., few km). Oxygen has benefits for life support systems and as an oxidizer for propellants. Water is a key resource for sustainable exploration, with utility for life support, propellants, and other industrial processes. High glass-content regolith has utility as a feedstock for building materials as it readily sinters upon heating into a cohesive matrix more readily than other regolith materials or crystalline basalts. Lunar glasses are also a potential feedstock for oxygen production, as many are rich in iron and titanium oxides that are optimal for oxygen extraction. To accomplish this task, a system of sensors and decision-making algorithms for an autonomous prospecting rover is described. One set of sensors will be located in the wheel tread of the robotic search vehicle providing contact sensor data on regolith composition. Another set of instruments will be housed on the platform of the rover, including VIS-NIR imagers and spectrometers, both for far-field context and near-field characterization of the regolith in the immediate vicinity of the rover. Also included in the sensor suite are a neutron spectrometer, ground

  7. Neural dynamic optimization for autonomous aerial vehicle trajectory design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Verma, Ajay; Mayer, Richard J.

    2007-04-01

    Online aerial vehicle trajectory design and reshaping are crucial for a class of autonomous aerial vehicles such as reusable launch vehicles in order to achieve flexibility in real-time flying operations. An aerial vehicle is modeled as a nonlinear multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) system. The inputs include the control parameters and current system states that include velocity and position coordinates of the vehicle. The outputs are the new system states. An ideal trajectory control design system generates a series of control commands to achieve a desired trajectory under various disturbances and vehicle model uncertainties including aerodynamic perturbations caused by geometric damage to the vehicle. Conventional approaches suffer from the nonlinearity of the MIMO system, and the high-dimensionality of the system state space. In this paper, we apply a Neural Dynamic Optimization (NDO) based approach to overcome these difficulties. The core of an NDO model is a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network, which generates the control parameters online. The inputs of the MLP are the time-variant states of the MIMO systems. The outputs of the MLP and the control parameters will be used by the MIMO to generate new system states. By such a formulation, an NDO model approximates the time-varying optimal feedback solution.

  8. Cell Autonomous and Non-Autonomous Effects of Senescent Cells in the Skin.

    PubMed

    Demaria, Marco; Desprez, Pierre Yves; Campisi, Judith; Velarde, Michael C

    2015-07-01

    Human and mouse skin accumulate senescent cells in both the epidermis and dermis during aging. When chronically present, senescent cells are thought to enhance the age-dependent deterioration of the skin during extrinsic and intrinsic aging. However, when transiently present, senescent cells promote optimal wound healing. Here, we review recent studies on how senescent cells and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype contribute to different physiological and pathophysiological conditions in the skin with a focus on some of the cell autonomous and non-autonomous functions of senescent cells in the context of skin aging and wound healing.

  9. Multi-organ autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Jain, Samay

    2011-02-01

    Both pathologic and clinical studies of autonomic pathways have expanded the concept of Parkinson disease (PD) from a movement disorder to a multi-level widespread neurodegenerative process with non-motor features spanning several organ systems. This review integrates neuropathologic findings and autonomic physiology in PD as it relates to end organ autonomic function. Symptoms, pathology and physiology of the cardiovascular, skin/sweat gland, urinary, gastrointestinal, pupillary and neuroendocrine systems can be probed by autopsy, biopsy and non-invasive electrophysiological techniques in vivo which assess autonomic anatomy and function. There is mounting evidence that PD affects a chain of neurons in autonomic pathways. Consequently, autonomic physiology may serve as a window into non-motor PD progression and allow the development of mechanistically based treatment strategies for several non-motor features of PD. End-organ physiologic markers may be used to inform a model of PD pathophysiology and non-motor progression.

  10. The nature of the autonomic dysfunction in multiple system atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, Samir M.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, David

    2002-01-01

    The concept that multiple system atrophy (MSA, Shy-Drager syndrome) is a disorder of the autonomic nervous system is several decades old. While there has been renewed interest in the movement disorder associated with MSA, two recent consensus statements confirm the centrality of the autonomic disorder to the diagnosis. Here, we reexamine the autonomic pathophysiology in MSA. Whereas MSA is often thought of as "autonomic failure", new evidence indicates substantial persistence of functioning sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves even in clinically advanced disease. These findings help explain some of the previously poorly understood features of MSA. Recognition that MSA entails persistent, constitutive autonomic tone requires a significant revision of our concepts of its diagnosis and therapy. We will review recent evidence bearing on autonomic tone in MSA and discuss their therapeutic implications, particularly in terms of the possible development of a bionic baroreflex for better control of blood pressure.

  11. Autonomic imbalance: prophet of doom or scope for hope?

    PubMed

    Vinik, A I; Maser, R E; Ziegler, D

    2011-06-01

    It has long been recognized that cardiac autonomic neuropathy increases morbidity and mortality in diabetes and may have greater predictive power than traditional risk factors for cardiovascular events. Significant morbidity and mortality can now be attributable to autonomic imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system regulation of cardiovascular function. New and emerging syndromes include orthostatic tachycardia, orthostatic bradycardia and an inability to use heart rate as a guide to exercise intensity because of the resting tachycardia. Recent studies have shown that autonomic imbalance may be a predictor of risk of sudden death with intensification of glycaemic control. This review examines an association of autonomic dysregulation and the role of inflammatory cytokines and adipocytokines that promote cardiovascular risk. In addition, conditions of autonomic imbalance associated with cardiovascular risk are discussed. Potential treatment for restoration of autonomic balance is outlined.

  12. Methods of determining complete sensor requirements for autonomous mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of determining complete sensor requirements for autonomous mobility of an autonomous system includes computing a time variation of each behavior of a set of behaviors of the autonomous system, determining mobility sensitivity to each behavior of the autonomous system, and computing a change in mobility based upon the mobility sensitivity to each behavior and the time variation of each behavior. The method further includes determining the complete sensor requirements of the autonomous system through analysis of the relative magnitude of the change in mobility, the mobility sensitivity to each behavior, and the time variation of each behavior, wherein the relative magnitude of the change in mobility, the mobility sensitivity to each behavior, and the time variation of each behavior are characteristic of the stability of the autonomous system.

  13. Metatranscriptomic analysis of autonomously collected and preserved marine bacterioplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Ottesen, Elizabeth A.; Marin, Roman; Preston, Christina M.; Young, Curtis R.; Ryan, John P.; Scholin, Christopher A.; DeLong, Edward F.

    2011-06-30

    Planktonic microbial activity and community structure is dynamic, and can change dramatically on time scales of hours to days. Yet for logistical reasons, this temporal scale is typically undersampled in the marine environment. In order to facilitate higher-resolution, long-term observation of microbial diversity and activity, we developed a protocol for automated collection and fixation of marine microbes using the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) platform. The protocol applies a preservative (RNALater) to cells collected on filters, for long-term storage and preservation of total cellular RNA. Microbial samples preserved using this protocol yielded high-quality RNA after 30 days of storage at room temperature, or onboard the ESP at in situ temperatures. Pyrosequencing of complementary DNA libraries generated from ESP-collected and preserved samples yielded transcript abundance profiles nearly indistinguishable from those derived from conventionally treated replicate samples. To demonstrate the utility of the method, we used a moored ESP to remotely and autonomously collect Monterey Bay seawater for metatranscriptomic analysis. Community RNA was extracted and pyrosequenced from samples collected at four time points over the course of a single day. In all four samples, the oxygenic photoautotrophs were predominantly eukaryotic, while the bacterial community was dominated by Polaribacter-like Flavobacteria and a Rhodobacterales bacterium sharing high similarity with Rhodobacterales sp. HTCC2255. However, each time point was associated with distinct species abundance and gene transcript profiles. These laboratory and field tests confirmed that autonomous collection and preservation is a feasible and useful approach for characterizing the expressed genes and environmental responses of marine microbial communities.

  14. Towards Autonomous Agriculture: Automatic Ground Detection Using Trinocular Stereovision

    PubMed Central

    Reina, Giulio; Milella, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous driving is a challenging problem, particularly when the domain is unstructured, as in an outdoor agricultural setting. Thus, advanced perception systems are primarily required to sense and understand the surrounding environment recognizing artificial and natural structures, topology, vegetation and paths. In this paper, a self-learning framework is proposed to automatically train a ground classifier for scene interpretation and autonomous navigation based on multi-baseline stereovision. The use of rich 3D data is emphasized where the sensor output includes range and color information of the surrounding environment. Two distinct classifiers are presented, one based on geometric data that can detect the broad class of ground and one based on color data that can further segment ground into subclasses. The geometry-based classifier features two main stages: an adaptive training stage and a classification stage. During the training stage, the system automatically learns to associate geometric appearance of 3D stereo-generated data with class labels. Then, it makes predictions based on past observations. It serves as well to provide training labels to the color-based classifier. Once trained, the color-based classifier is able to recognize similar terrain classes in stereo imagery. The system is continuously updated online using the latest stereo readings, thus making it feasible for long range and long duration navigation, over changing environments. Experimental results, obtained with a tractor test platform operating in a rural environment, are presented to validate this approach, showing an average classification precision and recall of 91.0% and 77.3%, respectively.

  15. Metatranscriptomic analysis of autonomously collected and preserved marine bacterioplankton.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, Elizabeth A; Marin, Roman; Preston, Christina M; Young, Curtis R; Ryan, John P; Scholin, Christopher A; DeLong, Edward F

    2011-12-01

    Planktonic microbial activity and community structure is dynamic, and can change dramatically on time scales of hours to days. Yet for logistical reasons, this temporal scale is typically under-sampled in the marine environment. In order to facilitate higher-resolution, long-term observation of microbial diversity and activity, we developed a protocol for automated collection and fixation of marine microbes using the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) platform. The protocol applies a preservative (RNALater) to cells collected on filters, for long-term storage and preservation of total cellular RNA. Microbial samples preserved using this protocol yielded high-quality RNA after 30 days of storage at room temperature, or onboard the ESP at in situ temperatures. Pyrosequencing of complementary DNA libraries generated from ESP-collected and preserved samples yielded transcript abundance profiles nearly indistinguishable from those derived from conventionally treated replicate samples. To demonstrate the utility of the method, we used a moored ESP to remotely and autonomously collect Monterey Bay seawater for metatranscriptomic analysis. Community RNA was extracted and pyrosequenced from samples collected at four time points over the course of a single day. In all four samples, the oxygenic photoautotrophs were predominantly eukaryotic, while the bacterial community was dominated by Polaribacter-like Flavobacteria and a Rhodobacterales bacterium sharing high similarity with Rhodobacterales sp. HTCC2255. However, each time point was associated with distinct species abundance and gene transcript profiles. These laboratory and field tests confirmed that autonomous collection and preservation is a feasible and useful approach for characterizing the expressed genes and environmental responses of marine microbial communities.

  16. A Proposal of Autonomous Robotic Systems Educative Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ierache, Jorge; Garcia-Martinez, Ramón; de Giusti, Armando

    This work presents our experiences in the implementation of a laboratory of autonomous robotic systems applied to the training of beginner and advanced students doing a degree course in Computer Engineering., taking into account the specific technologies, robots, autonomous toys, and programming languages. They provide a strategic opportunity for human resources formation by involving different aspects which range from the specification elaboration, modeling, software development and implementation and testing of an autonomous robotic system.

  17. Analysis of sequences conferring autonomous replication in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Kearsey, S

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented for rapid sequencing and mapping of elements which support autonomous replication in yeast. The strategy relies on a novel phage M13 vector which allows detection of ARS (autonomously replicating sequence) function in cloned fragments. Deletion mapping of an ARS element linked to the HO gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has identified a 57-bp region 3' to the gene, which is essential for autonomous replication. This region shows sequence homology to other ARS elements.

  18. Meiotic transmission of an in vitro-assembled autonomous maize minichromosome.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Shawn R; Rudgers, Gary W; Zieler, Helge; Mach, Jennifer M; Luo, Song; Grunden, Eric; Krol, Cheryl; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Preuss, Daphne

    2007-10-01

    Autonomous chromosomes are generated in yeast (yeast artificial chromosomes) and human fibrosarcoma cells (human artificial chromosomes) by introducing purified DNA fragments that nucleate a kinetochore, replicate, and segregate to daughter cells. These autonomous minichromosomes are convenient for manipulating and delivering DNA segments containing multiple genes. In contrast, commercial production of transgenic crops relies on methods that integrate one or a few genes into host chromosomes; extensive screening to identify insertions with the desired expression level, copy number, structure, and genomic location; and long breeding programs to produce varieties that carry multiple transgenes. As a step toward improving transgenic crop production, we report the development of autonomous maize minichromosomes (MMCs). We constructed circular MMCs by combining DsRed and nptII marker genes with 7-190 kb of genomic maize DNA fragments containing satellites, retroelements, and/or other repeats commonly found in centromeres and using particle bombardment to deliver these constructs into embryogenic maize tissue. We selected transformed cells, regenerated plants, and propagated their progeny for multiple generations in the absence of selection. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and segregation analysis demonstrated that autonomous MMCs can be mitotically and meiotically maintained. The MMC described here showed meiotic segregation ratios approaching Mendelian inheritance: 93% transmission as a disome (100% expected), 39% transmission as a monosome crossed to wild type (50% expected), and 59% transmission in self crosses (75% expected). The fluorescent DsRed reporter gene on the MMC was expressed through four generations, and Southern blot analysis indicated the encoded genes were intact. This novel approach for plant transformation can facilitate crop biotechnology by (i) combining several trait genes on a single DNA fragment, (ii) arranging genes in a defined sequence

  19. Non-Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Retrograde Motoneuronal Axonal Transport in an SBMA Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Halievski, Katherine; Kemp, Michael Q; Breedlove, S Marc; Miller, Kyle E; Jordan, Cynthia L

    2016-01-01

    Defects in axonal transport are seen in motoneuronal diseases, but how that impairment comes about is not well understood. In spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), a disorder linked to a CAG/polyglutamine repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, the disease-causing AR disrupts axonal transport by acting in both a cell-autonomous fashion in the motoneurons themselves, and in a non-cell-autonomous fashion in muscle. The non-cell-autonomous mechanism is suggested by data from a unique "myogenic" transgenic (TG) mouse model in which an AR transgene expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle fibers triggers an androgen-dependent SBMA phenotype, including defects in retrograde transport. However, motoneurons in this TG model retain the endogenous AR gene, leaving open the possibility that impairments in transport in this model also depend on ARs in the motoneurons themselves. To test whether non-cell-autonomous mechanisms alone can perturb retrograde transport, we generated male TG mice in which the endogenous AR allele has the testicular feminization mutation (Tfm) and, consequently, is nonfunctional. Males carrying the Tfm allele alone show no deficits in motor function or axonal transport, with or without testosterone treatment. However, when Tfm males carrying the myogenic transgene (Tfm/TG) are treated with testosterone, they develop impaired motor function and defects in retrograde transport, having fewer retrogradely labeled motoneurons and deficits in endosomal flux based on time-lapse video microscopy of living axons. These findings demonstrate that non-cell-autonomous disease mechanisms originating in muscle are sufficient to induce defects in retrograde transport in motoneurons. PMID:27517091

  20. Non-Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Retrograde Motoneuronal Axonal Transport in an SBMA Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Halievski, Katherine; Kemp, Michael Q.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Miller, Kyle E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Defects in axonal transport are seen in motoneuronal diseases, but how that impairment comes about is not well understood. In spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), a disorder linked to a CAG/polyglutamine repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, the disease-causing AR disrupts axonal transport by acting in both a cell-autonomous fashion in the motoneurons themselves, and in a non-cell-autonomous fashion in muscle. The non-cell-autonomous mechanism is suggested by data from a unique “myogenic” transgenic (TG) mouse model in which an AR transgene expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle fibers triggers an androgen-dependent SBMA phenotype, including defects in retrograde transport. However, motoneurons in this TG model retain the endogenous AR gene, leaving open the possibility that impairments in transport in this model also depend on ARs in the motoneurons themselves. To test whether non-cell-autonomous mechanisms alone can perturb retrograde transport, we generated male TG mice in which the endogenous AR allele has the testicular feminization mutation (Tfm) and, consequently, is nonfunctional. Males carrying the Tfm allele alone show no deficits in motor function or axonal transport, with or without testosterone treatment. However, when Tfm males carrying the myogenic transgene (Tfm/TG) are treated with testosterone, they develop impaired motor function and defects in retrograde transport, having fewer retrogradely labeled motoneurons and deficits in endosomal flux based on time-lapse video microscopy of living axons. These findings demonstrate that non-cell-autonomous disease mechanisms originating in muscle are sufficient to induce defects in retrograde transport in motoneurons. PMID:27517091

  1. Autonomous CaMKII requires further stimulation by Ca2+/calmodulin for enhancing synaptic strength

    PubMed Central

    Barcomb, Kelsey; Buard, Isabelle; Coultrap, Steven J.; Kulbe, Jacqueline R.; O'Leary, Heather; Benke, Timothy A.; Bayer, K. Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark feature of Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is generation of autonomous (Ca2+-independent) activity by T286 autophosphorylation. Biochemical studies have shown that “autonomous” CaMKII is ∼5-fold further stimulated by Ca2+/CaM, but demonstration of a physiological function for such regulation within cells has remained elusive. In this study, CaMKII-induced enhancement of synaptic strength in rat hippocampal neurons required both autonomous activity and further stimulation. Synaptic strength was decreased by CaMKIIα knockdown and rescued by reexpression, but not by mutants impaired for autonomy (T286A) or binding to NMDA-type glutamate receptor subunit 2B (GluN2B; formerly NR2B; I205K). Full rescue was seen with constitutively autonomous mutants (T286D), but only if they could be further stimulated (additional T305/306A mutation), and not with two other mutations that additionally impair Ca2+/CaM binding. Compared to rescue with wild-type CaMKII, the CaM-binding-impaired mutants even had reduced synaptic strength. One of these mutants (T305/306D) mimicked an inhibitory autophosphorylation of CaMKII, whereas the other one (Δstim) abolished CaM binding without introducing charged residues. Inhibitory T305/306 autophosphorylation also reduced GluN2B binding, but this effect was independent of reduced Ca2+/CaM binding and was not mimicked by T305/306D mutation. Thus, even autonomous CaMKII activity must be further stimulated by Ca2+/CaM for enhancement of synaptic strength.—Barcomb, K., Buard, I., Coultrap, S. J., Kulbe, J. R., O'Leary, H., Benke, T. A., Bayer, K. U. Autonomous CaMKII requires further stimulation by Ca2+/calmodulin for enhancing synaptic strength. PMID:24843070

  2. Development of Virtual Robot Based on Autonomous Behavior Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masahito; Iwadate, Kenji; Ooe, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Ikuo; Furukawa, Masashi

    In this paper, we demonstrate a design of autonomous virtual robots and develop a design tool for autonomous virtual robots. A virtual robot can behave autonomously by using its own sensors and controllers on three-dimensional physically modeled environment. An approximate fluid environment model based on the drag force modeling is presented. The developed tool can simulate a physical environment at any time during the modeling process. A combinatorial use of neural network implementation for controllers and optimization method (genetic algorithm or particle swarm optimization) enables us to create autonomous behaviors of virtual robots.

  3. Autonomic and cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease (PD).

    PubMed

    Oh, Eung Seok; Lee, Ji Hee; Seo, Jin Gi; Sohn, Eun Hee; Lee, Ae Young

    2011-01-01

    We performed this study to evaluate the relationship between the stages of PD and autonomic dysfunction, and to find an association between the autonomic dysfunction and cognitive impairment in PD. Sixty-three patients who met the criteria of the United Kingdom PD Society Brain Bank were enrolled prospectively. Clinical stages were using the Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) staging and unified PD rating scale motor scores. Cognitive functions were evaluated using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the modified MMSE (3MS) test. The scale for outcome in PD-autonomic (SCOPA-AUT) was used to evaluate autonomic symptoms. Severities of autonomic dysfunction were classified using the composite autonomic scoring scale (CASS). Fifty-four of the 63 patients (86%) had shown abnormalities on CASS. H&Y stages correlated with SCOPA-AUT (p<0.05) and 3MS and MMSE scores (p<0.05). H&Y stages were positively related with autonomic dysfunction, heart rate ratios during deep breathing and the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) scores. Autonomic dysfunction may be present from disease onset, whereas the rate of cognitive decline increases with disease progression. We recommend that both qualitative and quantitative autonomic evaluation from the early stage of disease and regular cognitive screening with disease progression might be useful to facilitate optimal management in PD.

  4. Autonomic changes in Brahmakumaris Raja yoga meditation.

    PubMed

    Telles, S; Desiraju, T

    1993-09-01

    This report presents the changes in various autonomic and respiratory variables during the practice of Brahmakumaris Raja yoga meditation. This practice requires considerable commitment and involves concentrated thinking. 18 males in the age range of 20 to 52 years (mean 34.1 +/- 8.1), with 5-25 years experience in mediation (mean 10.1 +/- 6.2), participated in the study. Each subject was assessed in three test sessions which included a period of meditation, and also in three control (non-mediation) sessions, which included a period of random thinking. Group analysis showed that the heart rate during the meditation period was increased compared to the preceding baseline period, as well as compared to the value during the non-meditation period of control sessions. In contrast to the change in the heart rate, there was no significant change during meditation, for the group as a whole, in palmar GSR, finger plethysmogram amplitude, and respiratory rate. On an individual basis, changes which met the following criteria were noted: (1), changes which were greater during meditation (compared to its preceding baseline) than changes during post meditation or non-meditation periods (also compared to their preceding baseline); (2), Changes which occurred consistently during the three repeat sessions of a subject and (3), changes which exceeded arbitrarily-chosen cut-off points (described at length below). This individual level analysis revealed that changes in autonomic variables suggestive of both activation and relaxation occurred simultaneously in different subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system in a subject. Apart from this, there were differences in patterns of change among the subjects who practised the same meditation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, James T; Bengel, Frank M

    2016-12-01

    The autonomic nervous system is the primary extrinsic control of heart rate and contractility, and is subject to adaptive and maladaptive changes in cardiovascular disease. Consequently, noninvasive assessment of neuronal activity and function is an attractive target for molecular imaging. A myriad of targeted radiotracers have been developed over the last 25 years for imaging various components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic signal cascades. While routine clinical use remains somewhat limited, a number of larger scale studies in recent years have supplied momentum to molecular imaging of autonomic signaling. Specifically, the findings of the ADMIRE HF trial directly led to United States Food and Drug Administration approval of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) assessment of sympathetic neuronal innervation, and comparable results have been reported using the analogous PET agent 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED). Due to the inherent capacity for dynamic quantification and higher spatial resolution, regional analysis may be better served by PET. In addition, preliminary clinical and extensive preclinical experience has provided a broad foundation of cardiovascular applications for PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system. Recent years have witnessed the growth of novel quantification techniques, expansion of multiple tracer studies, and improved understanding of the uptake of different radiotracers, such that the transitional biology of dysfunctional subcellular catecholamine handling can be distinguished from complete denervation. As a result, sympathetic neuronal molecular imaging is poised to play a role in individualized patient care, by stratifying cardiovascular risk, visualizing underlying biology, and guiding and monitoring therapy. PMID:27611712

  6. Age Related Changes in Autonomic Functions

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Mohammed; Pakhare, Abhijit; Rathi, Preeti; Chaudhary, Lalita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) imbalance may trigger or enhance pathology in different organ systems that varies in different age groups hence objective of present study was to evaluate association of different Age-groups with autonomic functions. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 62 healthy volunteers in Department of Physiology LLRM Medical College Meerut, India. Volunteers were divided into three groups as younger (15-45 years), middle (45-60) and elder age (above 60), Autonomic functions were tested in three domains viz. Cardio-vagal, adrenergic and sudomotor functions. Numerical data was summarized as mean and standard deviation and categorical data as count and percentage. ANOVA and Chi-square test were used to find difference among groups, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Mean ± standard deviation OHT(Orthostatic Hypotension Test) among of younger, middle and elder age groups were 8.80±2.28, 13.40±4.64 and 21.82±6.04 respectively which represent decrease in sympathetic functions with age (p<0.001). Cardio-vagal or parasympathetic responses indicated by DBT (Deep Breathing Test) Valsalva and 30:15 ratio of HR response to standing tests has shown statistically significant (p<0.001) decrease in mean response with increasing age. Sudomotor response appeared normal in younger and middle group but was interrupted in more than half of elderly people (p<0.001). Conclusion Sympathetic responses & para-sympathetic responses have shown the significant decline with increasing age group. Sudomotor responses were partially interrupted in elderly age group. PMID:27134865

  7. Attention and autonomic self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J; Sedlacek, K

    1983-06-01

    To examine how various aspects of attentional functioning are affected by autonomic self-regulation procedures, this study compared the effect of two treatment programs (EMG and thermal biofeedback used in conjunction with various somatic and cognitive relaxation/self-regulation strategies, and Benson's Relaxation Response procedure) and a Waiting List control group for essential hypertensive adults on three, perhaps overlapping, attentional dimensions: the capacity to disembed figure from ground (Embedded Figures Test, Block Design, and Picture Completion WAIS subtests); the capacity to voluntarily deploy attention (Digit Span subtest of the WAIS), and capacity to sustain attention or become absorbed (as measured by the Tellegen Absorption Scale). Thirty essential hypertensive men and women were randomly placed in one of the three groups. Attentional dimensions were assessed before and after the 10-week treatment program (or waiting period) and the relationship between blood pressure and attentional changes were assessed. The only group to evidence significant blood pressure reduction, the "Biofeedback Group," became significantly more Field Independent as measured by the EFT (p less than 0.001) and the Block Design measure (p less than 0.01) and evidenced a strong trend in the same direction on the Picture Completion measure (p less than 0.052, NS). No other significant pre-post attentional changes were found. A Pearson product correlation revealed that changes in diastolic blood pressure were significantly correlated with changes in EFT (r = 0.54, p less than 0.0001) and the Picture Completion measure (r = 0.32, p less than 0.05). The cognitive effect of autonomic self-regulation is discussed. In addition, the possible role of attention in autonomic self-regulation is examined.

  8. Autonomous Mission Operations for Sensor Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underbrink, A.; Witt, K.; Stanley, J.; Mandl, D.

    2008-12-01

    We present interim results of a 2005 ROSES AIST project entitled, "Using Intelligent Agents to Form a Sensor Web for Autonomous Mission Operations", or SWAMO. The goal of the SWAMO project is to shift the control of spacecraft missions from a ground-based, centrally controlled architecture to a collaborative, distributed set of intelligent agents. The network of intelligent agents intends to reduce management requirements by utilizing model-based system prediction and autonomic model/agent collaboration. SWAMO agents are distributed throughout the Sensor Web environment, which may include multiple spacecraft, aircraft, ground systems, and ocean systems, as well as manned operations centers. The agents monitor and manage sensor platforms, Earth sensing systems, and Earth sensing models and processes. The SWAMO agents form a Sensor Web of agents via peer-to-peer coordination. Some of the intelligent agents are mobile and able to traverse between on-orbit and ground-based systems. Other agents in the network are responsible for encapsulating system models to perform prediction of future behavior of the modeled subsystems and components to which they are assigned. The software agents use semantic web technologies to enable improved information sharing among the operational entities of the Sensor Web. The semantics include ontological conceptualizations of the Sensor Web environment, plus conceptualizations of the SWAMO agents themselves. By conceptualizations of the agents, we mean knowledge of their state, operational capabilities, current operational capacities, Web Service search and discovery results, agent collaboration rules, etc. The need for ontological conceptualizations over the agents is to enable autonomous and autonomic operations of the Sensor Web. The SWAMO ontology enables automated decision making and responses to the dynamic Sensor Web environment and to end user science requests. The current ontology is compatible with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC

  9. TRAC based sensing for autonomous rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, Louis J.; Monford, Leo

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a TRAC (Targeting Reflective Alignment Concept) based sensing system for use in an autonomous rendezvous and docking experiment. The proposed experiment will utilize a COMET (COMmercial Experiment Transporter) based target satellite and a second chase vehicle. The sensor system consists of a target mounted on the target vehicle and a vision based sensor on the chase vehicle. The target has both active and passive components to enable the evaluation of both technologies. The chase vehicle will possess structured lighting and a single off the shelf camera.

  10. PRIMUS: autonomous driving robot for military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Ingo

    2000-07-01

    This article describes the government experimental program PRIMUS (PRogram of Intelligent Mobile Unmanned Systems) and the achieved results of phase C demonstrated in summer 1999 on a military prooving ground. In this program there shall be shown the autonomous driving on an unmanned robot in open terrain. The most possible degree of autonomy shall be reached with today's technology to get a platform for different missions. The goal is to release the soldier from high dangerous tasks, to increase the performance and to come to a reduction of personnel and costs with unmanned systems. In phase C of the program two small tracked vehicles (Digitized Wiesel 2, airtransportable by CH53) are used. One as a robot vehicle the other as a command & control system. The Wiesel 2 is configured as a drive by wire-system and therefore well suited for the adaption of control computers. The autonomous detection and avoidance of obstacles in unknown, not cooperative environment is the main task. For navigation and orientation a sensor package is integrated. To detect obstacles the scene in the driving corridor of the robot is scanned 4 times per second by a 3D- Range image camera (LADAR). The measured 3D-range image is converted into a 2D-obstacle map and used as input for calculation of an obstacle free path. The combination of local navigation (obstacle avoidance) and global navigation leads to a collission free driving in open terrain to a predefined goal point with a velocity of up to 25km/h. A contour tracker with a TV-camera as sensor is also implemented which allows to follow contours (e.g. edge of a meadow) or to drive on paved or unpaved roads with a velocity up to 50km/h. In addition to these autonomous driving modes the operator in the command & control station can drive the robot by remote control. All the functions were successfully demonstrated in the summer 1999 on a military prooving ground. During a mission example the robot vehicle covered a distance of several

  11. Autonomous unmanned air vehicles (UAV) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ming-Kai; Lee, Ting N.

    2007-04-01

    The UAVs (Unmanned Air Vehicles) have great potentials in different civilian applications, such as oil pipeline surveillance, precision farming, forest fire fighting (yearly), search and rescue, boarder patrol, etc. The related industries of UAVs can create billions of dollars for each year. However, the road block of adopting UAVs is that it is against FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and ATC (Air Traffic Control) regulations. In this paper, we have reviewed the latest technologies and researches on UAV navigation and obstacle avoidance. We have purposed a system design of Jittering Mosaic Image Processing (JMIP) with stereo vision and optical flow to fulfill the functionalities of autonomous UAVs.

  12. Pipeline inspection using an autonomous underwater vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Egeskov, P.; Bech, M.; Bowley, R.; Aage, C.

    1995-12-31

    Pipeline inspection can be carried out by means of small Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), operating either with a control link to a surface vessel, or totally independently. The AUV offers an attractive alternative to conventional inspection methods where Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) or paravanes are used. A flatfish type AUV ``MARTIN`` (Marine Tool for Inspection) has been developed for this purpose. The paper describes the proposed types of inspection jobs to be carried out by ``MARTIN``. The design and construction of the vessel, its hydrodynamic properties, its propulsion and control systems are discussed. The pipeline tracking and survey systems, as well as the launch and recovery systems are described.

  13. A Diversified Investment Strategy Using Autonomous Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Rui Pedro; Belo, Orlando

    In a previously published article, we presented an architecture for implementing agents with the ability to trade autonomously in the Forex market. At the core of this architecture is an ensemble of classification and regression models that is used to predict the direction of the price of a currency pair. In this paper, we will describe a diversified investment strategy consisting of five agents which were implemented using that architecture. By simulating trades with 18 months of out-of-sample data, we will demonstrate that data mining models can produce profitable predictions, and that the trading risk can be diminished through investment diversification.

  14. Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Conference, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (ARD) will be a requirement for future space programs. Clear examples include satellite servicing, repair, recovery, and reboost in the near term, and the longer range lunar and planetary exploration programs. ARD will permit more aggressive unmanned space activities, while providing a valuable operational capability for manned missions. The purpose of the conference is to identify the technologies required for an on-orbit demonstration of ARD, assess the maturity of those technologies, and provide the necessary insight for a quality assessment of programmatic management, technical, schedule, and cost risks.

  15. A design strategy for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forster, Pete

    1989-01-01

    Some solutions to crucial issues regarding the competent performance of an autonomously operating robot are identified; namely, that of handling multiple and variable data sources containing overlapping information and maintaining coherent operation while responding adequately to changes in the environment. Support for the ideas developed for the construction of such behavior are extracted from speculations in the study of cognitive psychology, an understanding of the behavior of controlled mechanisms, and the development of behavior-based robots in a few robot research laboratories. The validity of these ideas is supported by some simple simulation experiments in the field of mobile robot navigation and guidance.

  16. Malicious Hubs: Detecting Abnormally Malicious Autonomous Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kalafut, Andrew J.; Shue, Craig A; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi

    2010-01-01

    While many attacks are distributed across botnets, investigators and network operators have recently targeted malicious networks through high profile autonomous system (AS) de-peerings and network shut-downs. In this paper, we explore whether some ASes indeed are safe havens for malicious activity. We look for ISPs and ASes that exhibit disproportionately high malicious behavior using 12 popular blacklists. We find that some ASes have over 80% of their routable IP address space blacklisted and others account for large fractions of blacklisted IPs. Overall, we conclude that examining malicious activity at the AS granularity can unearth networks with lax security or those that harbor cybercrime.

  17. Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the physiology of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The following topics are presented: regulation of activity; efferent pathways; sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions; neurotransmitters, their receptors and the termination of their activity; functions of the ANS; and the adrenal medullae. In addition, the application of this material to the practice of pharmacy is of special interest. Two case studies regarding insecticide poisoning and pheochromocytoma are included. The ANS and the accompanying case studies are discussed over 5 lectures and 2 recitation sections during a 2-semester course in Human Physiology. The students are in the first-professional year of the doctor of pharmacy program. PMID:17786266

  18. AMID: autonomous modeler of intragenic duplication.

    PubMed

    Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Weiss, Anthony S; Fekete, Alan; Jermiin, Lars S

    2003-01-01

    Intragenic duplication is an evolutionary process where segments of a gene become duplicated. While there has been much research into whole-gene or domain duplication, there have been very few studies of non-tandem intragenic duplication. The identification of intragenically replicated sequences may provide insight into the evolution of proteins, helping to link sequence data with structure and function. This paper describes a tool for autonomously modelling intragenic duplication. AMID provides: identification of modularly repetitive genes; an algorithm for identifying repeated modules; and a scoring system for evaluating the modules' similarity. An evaluation of the algorithms and use cases are presented.

  19. Physics Simulation Software for Autonomous Propellant Loading and Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regalado Reyes, Bjorn Constant

    2015-01-01

    1. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a mobile launching system with autonomous propellant loading capabilities for liquid-fueled rockets. An autonomous system will be responsible for monitoring and controlling the storage, loading and transferring of cryogenic propellants. The Physics Simulation Software will reproduce the sensor data seen during the delivery of cryogenic fluids including valve positions, pressures, temperatures and flow rates. The simulator will provide insight into the functionality of the propellant systems and demonstrate the effects of potential faults. This will provide verification of the communications protocols and the autonomous system control. 2. The High Pressure Gas Facility (HPGF) stores and distributes hydrogen, nitrogen, helium and high pressure air. The hydrogen and nitrogen are stored in cryogenic liquid state. The cryogenic fluids pose several hazards to operators and the storage and transfer equipment. Constant monitoring of pressures, temperatures and flow rates are required in order to maintain the safety of personnel and equipment during the handling and storage of these commodities. The Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring software will be responsible for constantly observing and recording sensor data, identifying and predicting faults and relaying hazard and operational information to the operators.

  20. Experiences with a Requirements-Based Programming Approach to the Development of a NASA Autonomous Ground Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Gracanin, Denis; Erickson, John

    2005-01-01

    Requirements-to-Design-to-Code (R2D2C) is an approach to the engineering of computer-based systems that embodies the idea of requirements-based programming in system development. It goes further; however, in that the approach offers not only an underlying formalism, but full formal development from requirements capture through to the automatic generation of provably-correct code. As such, the approach has direct application to the development of systems requiring autonomic properties. We describe a prototype tool to support the method, and illustrate its applicability to the development of LOGOS, a NASA autonomous ground control system, which exhibits autonomic behavior. Finally, we briefly discuss other areas where the approach and prototype tool are being considered for application.

  1. Aided strapdown inertial navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Li, X. Rong

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a navigation algorithm based on aided strapdown inertial navigation (INS) for an underwater autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The AUV is equipped with a long baseline (LBL) acoustic positioning system, acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and a depth sensor to aid the INS. They have, however, much slower data rates than that of the INS. A linearized, quaternion-based dynamic model and measurement model of the INS output errors are presented. Data from different sensors are fused by applying the extended Kalman filer (EKF) to estimate and correct the errors. Due to the difficulty of generating realistic simulation scenario, real data (raw INS measurement) collected from AUV field experiments are processed to test the algorithm. Without knowing the ground truth, however, performance evaluation becomes much more complicated and needs further research. In this paper, the problem is circumvented by considering the post-processed real data as the "ground truth" and noisy raw measurements are generated from this "ground truth" to feed the algorithm. The simulation results demonstrate the algorithm applicability and show that by incorporating readings from the ADCP and the depth sensor, the (horizontal) position errors still increase but with a significant lower rate than the case of stand-alone operation. If the LBL sensor is further included, the navigation errors can be constrained within a certain bound.

  2. Classifying and recovering from sensing failures in autonomous mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.R.; Hershberger, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a characterization of sensing failures in autonomous mobile robots, a methodology for classification and recovery, and a demonstration of this approach on a mobile robot performing landmark navigation. A sensing failure is any event leading to defective perception, including sensor malfunctions, software errors, environmental changes, and errant expectations. The approach demonstrated in this paper exploits the ability of the robot to interact with its environment to acquire additional information for classification (i.e., active perception). A Generate and Test strategy is used to generate hypotheses to explain the symptom resulting from the sensing failure. The recovery scheme replaces the affected sensing processes with an alternative logical sensor. The approach is implemented as the Sensor Fusion Effects Exception Handling (SFX-EH) architecture. The advantages of SFX-EH are that it requires only a partial causal model of sensing failure, the control scheme strives for a fast response, tests are constructed so as to prevent confounding from collaborating sensors which have also failed, and the logical sensor organization allows SFX-EH to be interfaced with the behavioral level of existing robot architectures.

  3. Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Svoboda, John M.; Hess, J. Richard

    2003-07-08

    Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery such as a grain combine. The operation components of a combine that function to harvest the grain have characteristics that are measured by sensors. For example, the combine speed, the fan speed, and the like can be measured. An important sensor is the grain loss sensor, which may be used to quantify the amount of grain expelled out of the combine. The grain loss sensor utilizes the fluorescence properties of the grain kernels and the plant residue to identify when the expelled plant material contains grain kernels. The sensor data, in combination with historical and current data stored in a database, is used to identify optimum operating conditions that will result in increased crop yield. After the optimum operating conditions are identified, an on-board computer can generate control signals that will adjust the operation of the components identified in the optimum operating conditions. The changes result in less grain loss and improved grain yield. Also, because new data is continually generated by the sensor, the system has the ability to continually learn such that the efficiency of the agricultural machinery is continually improved.

  4. Novel microbial diversity retrieved by autonomous robotic exploration of the world's deepest vertical phreatic sinkhole.

    PubMed

    Sahl, Jason W; Fairfield, Nathaniel; Harris, J Kirk; Wettergreen, David; Stone, William C; Spear, John R

    2010-03-01

    The deep phreatic thermal explorer (DEPTHX) is an autonomous underwater vehicle designed to navigate an unexplored environment, generate high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) maps, collect biological samples based on an autonomous sampling decision, and return to its origin. In the spring of 2007, DEPTHX was deployed in Zacatón, a deep (approximately 318 m), limestone, phreatic sinkhole (cenote) in northeastern Mexico. As DEPTHX descended, it generated a 3-D map based on the processing of range data from 54 onboard sonars. The vehicle collected water column samples and wall biomat samples throughout the depth profile of the cenote. Post-expedition sample analysis via comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a wealth of microbial diversity. Traditional Sanger gene sequencing combined with a barcoded-amplicon pyrosequencing approach revealed novel, phylum-level lineages from the domains Bacteria and Archaea; in addition, several novel subphylum lineages were also identified. Overall, DEPTHX successfully navigated and mapped Zacatón, and collected biological samples based on an autonomous decision, which revealed novel microbial diversity in a previously unexplored environment.

  5. Novel microbial diversity retrieved by autonomous robotic exploration of the world's deepest vertical phreatic sinkhole.

    PubMed

    Sahl, Jason W; Fairfield, Nathaniel; Harris, J Kirk; Wettergreen, David; Stone, William C; Spear, John R

    2010-03-01

    The deep phreatic thermal explorer (DEPTHX) is an autonomous underwater vehicle designed to navigate an unexplored environment, generate high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) maps, collect biological samples based on an autonomous sampling decision, and return to its origin. In the spring of 2007, DEPTHX was deployed in Zacatón, a deep (approximately 318 m), limestone, phreatic sinkhole (cenote) in northeastern Mexico. As DEPTHX descended, it generated a 3-D map based on the processing of range data from 54 onboard sonars. The vehicle collected water column samples and wall biomat samples throughout the depth profile of the cenote. Post-expedition sample analysis via comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a wealth of microbial diversity. Traditional Sanger gene sequencing combined with a barcoded-amplicon pyrosequencing approach revealed novel, phylum-level lineages from the domains Bacteria and Archaea; in addition, several novel subphylum lineages were also identified. Overall, DEPTHX successfully navigated and mapped Zacatón, and collected biological samples based on an autonomous decision, which revealed novel microbial diversity in a previously unexplored environment. PMID:20298146

  6. Organ transplantation in the Madrid Autonomous Region.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, C; Aparicio, M; Marmisa, G; Martinez-Urrialde, J L

    2009-01-01

    The Madrid Autonomous Region, a Spanish area with 6,200,000 inhabitants, has 7 hospitals authorized for organ transplantation, with 25 active programs for carrying out various transplantations: 18 for adults and 7 for children. Most of these hospitals are reference transplant centers for other Spanish regions. Between 715 and 760 transplantations are performed annually, which represents between 19% and 22% of Spanish activity. During 2007, 395 kidney, 220 liver, 55 heart, and 35 lung transplantations were performed, as well as 23 isolated or combination transplantations of other abdominal organs (pancreatic, intestinal, or multivisceral). Kidney, liver, heart, and children's intestinal transplant activity in 2007 represented 37%, 63%, 80%, and 100%, respectively, of all pediatric national activity. The Madrid Autonomous Region has a donation rate of 34.2 donors per million inhabitants. Of these, 30% are from non-heart-beating donors (NHBD), Maastrich criteria category 1 or 2. Various hospitals perform kidney, liver, and lung transplantations with these organs, representing 11% of the lung transplantations carried out in recent years, with this being a pioneer procedure worldwide. Despite the important transplant activity, we are working to increase donations, to improve organ donor detection and management protocols, as well as to reach a consensus on criteria to decrease the nonviability rates of potential transplant organs.

  7. Autonomic control of the aging heart.

    PubMed

    Kaye, David M; Esler, Murray D

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure continue to account for the majority of deaths in the developed world. Whilst the incidence of these clinical disorders does increase with age, outcomes in affected patients tend to be disproportionately adverse with advancing years. In this context it is important to understand the various compensatory processes which become activated in cardiovascular disease. In particular, the autonomic nervous system is known to play a key pathogenic role in the cause and response to many of these conditions. The normal aging process is accompanied by a complex series of changes in the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system, favoring heightened cardiac sympathetic tone with parasympathetic withdrawal and blunted cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity. Together these changes have the potential to further magnify the effects of concomitant cardiovascular disease. Attention to the mechanisms of these changes and the development of appropriate therapies may serve to reduce the added influence of age on outcome in patients experiencing cardiovascular disease.

  8. Verification of Autonomous Systems for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, G.; Denney, E.; Giannakopoulou, D.; Frank, J.; Jonsson, A.

    2006-01-01

    Autonomous software, especially if it is based on model, can play an important role in future space applications. For example, it can help streamline ground operations, or, assist in autonomous rendezvous and docking operations, or even, help recover from problems (e.g., planners can be used to explore the space of recovery actions for a power subsystem and implement a solution without (or with minimal) human intervention). In general, the exploration capabilities of model-based systems give them great flexibility. Unfortunately, it also makes them unpredictable to our human eyes, both in terms of their execution and their verification. The traditional verification techniques are inadequate for these systems since they are mostly based on testing, which implies a very limited exploration of their behavioral space. In our work, we explore how advanced V&V techniques, such as static analysis, model checking, and compositional verification, can be used to gain trust in model-based systems. We also describe how synthesis can be used in the context of system reconfiguration and in the context of verification.

  9. Intrinsic adaptation in autonomous recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Marković, Dimitrije; Gros, Claudius

    2012-02-01

    A massively recurrent neural network responds on one side to input stimuli and is autonomously active, on the other side, in the absence of sensory inputs. Stimuli and information processing depend crucially on the quality of the autonomous-state dynamics of the ongoing neural activity. This default neural activity may be dynamically structured in time and space, showing regular, synchronized, bursting, or chaotic activity patterns. We study the influence of nonsynaptic plasticity on the default dynamical state of recurrent neural networks. The nonsynaptic adaption considered acts on intrinsic neural parameters, such as the threshold and the gain, and is driven by the optimization of the information entropy. We observe, in the presence of the intrinsic adaptation processes, three distinct and globally attracting dynamical regimes: a regular synchronized, an overall chaotic, and an intermittent bursting regime. The intermittent bursting regime is characterized by intervals of regular flows, which are quite insensitive to external stimuli, interceded by chaotic bursts that respond sensitively to input signals. We discuss these findings in the context of self-organized information processing and critical brain dynamics. PMID:22091667

  10. Promethazine affects autonomic cardiovascular mechanisms minimally

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, T. E.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Promethazine hydrochloride, Phenergan, is a phenothiazine derivative with antihistaminic (H1), sedative, antiemetic, anticholinergic, and antimotion sickness properties. These properties have made promethazine a candidate for use in environments such as microgravity, which provoke emesis and motion sickness. Recently, we evaluated carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses during two Space Shuttle missions 18 to 20 hr after the 50 mg intramuscular administration of promethazine. Because the effects of promethazine on autonomic cardiovascular mechanisms in general and baroreflex function in particular were not known, we were unable to exclude a possible influence of promethazine on our results. Our purpose was to determine the ground-based effects of promethazine on autonomic cardiovascular control. Because of promethazine's antihistaminic and anticholinergic properties, we expected that a 50-mg intramuscular injection of promethazine would affect sympathetically and vagally mediated cardiovascular mechanisms. Eight healthy young subjects, five men and three women, were studied at rest in recumbency. All reported drowsiness as a result of the promethazine injection; most also reported nervous excitation, dry mouth, and fatigue. Three subjects had significant reactions: two reported excessive anxiety and one reported dizziness. Measurements were performed immediately prior to injection and 3.1 +/- 0.1 and 19.5 +/- 0.4 hr postinjection. We found no significant effect of promethazine on resting mean R-R interval, arterial pressure, R-R interval power spectra, carotid baroreflex function, and venous plasma catecholamine levels.

  11. Quantum Behavior of an Autonomous Maxwell Demon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Adrian; Miyake, Akimasa

    2015-03-01

    A Maxwell Demon is an agent that can exploit knowledge of a system's microstate to perform useful work. The second law of thermodynamics is only recovered upon taking into account the work required to irreversibly update the demon's memory, bringing information theoretic concepts into a thermodynamic framework. Recently, there has been interest in modeling a classical Maxwell demon as an autonomous physical system to study this information-work tradeoff explicitly. Motivated by the idea that states with non-local entanglement structure can be used as a computational resource, we ask whether these states have thermodynamic resource quality as well by generalizing a particular classical autonomous Maxwell demon to the quantum regime. We treat the full quantum description using a matrix product operator formalism, which allows us to handle quantum and classical correlations in a unified framework. Applying this, together with techniques from statistical mechanics, we are able to approximate nonlocal quantities such as the erasure performed on the demon's memory register when correlations are present. Finally, we examine how the demon may use these correlations as a resource to outperform its classical counterpart.

  12. Autonomous in situ measurements of seawater alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Reggie S; DeGrandpre, Michael D; Beck, James C; Hart, Robert D; Peterson, Brittany; De Carlo, Eric H; Drupp, Patrick S; Hammar, Terry R

    2014-08-19

    Total alkalinity (AT) is an important parameter for describing the marine inorganic carbon system and understanding the effects of atmospheric CO2 on the oceans. Measurements of AT are limited, however, because of the laborious process of collecting and analyzing samples. In this work we evaluate the performance of an autonomous instrument for high temporal resolution measurements of seawater AT. The Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for alkalinity (SAMI-alk) uses a novel tracer monitored titration method where a colorimetric pH indicator quantifies both pH and relative volumes of sample and titrant, circumventing the need for gravimetric or volumetric measurements. The SAMI-alk performance was validated in the laboratory and in situ during two field studies. Overall in situ accuracy was -2.2 ± 13.1 μmol kg(-1) (n = 86), on the basis of comparison to discrete samples. Precision on duplicate analyses of a carbonate standard was ±4.7 μmol kg(-1) (n = 22). This prototype instrument can measure in situ AT hourly for one month, limited by consumption of reagent and standard solutions.

  13. Micturition disturbance in acute idiopathic autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, R; Uchiyama, T; Asahina, M; Suzuki, A; Yamanishi, T; Hattori, T

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To define the nature of micturition disturbance in patients with acute idiopathic autonomic neuropathy (AIAN). Methods: Micturitional symptoms were observed during hospital admissions and the in outpatient clinics in six patients with clinically definite AIAN (typical form in four, cholinergic variant in one, autonomic-sensory variant in one). Urodynamic studies included medium-fill water cystometry, external sphincter electromyography, and a bethanechol test. Results: Four patients had urinary retention and two had voiding difficulty as the initial presentation. Patients with retention became able to urinate within a week (two to seven days). The major symptoms at the time of urodynamic studies (three weeks to four months after disease onset in most cases) were voiding difficulty and nocturnal frequency. None had urinary incontinence. Complete recovery from the micturition disturbance took from three months to >18 years. The recovery period was shorter in a patient with cholinergic variant, and it was longer in two patients who had a longer duration of initial urinary retention. Micturition disturbance tended to improve earlier than orthostatic hypotension. The major urodynamic abnormalities were detrusor areflexia on voiding (5), denervation supersensitivity to bethanechol (3); low compliance detrusor (1); and impaired bladder sensation (2). None had neurogenic motor unit potentials of the external sphincter muscles. Conclusions: In patients with AIAN, urinary retention and voiding difficulty are common initial presentations. The underlying mechanisms seem to be pre- and postganglionic cholinergic dysfunction with preservation of somatic sphincter function. The bladder problems tend to improve earlier than orthostatic hypotension. PMID:14742606

  14. Autonomous support for microorganism research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleet, Mary L.; Miller, Mark S.; Shipley, Derek, E.; Smith, Jeff D.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design for performing on orbit, autonomous research on microorganisms and cultured cells/tissues is presented. An understanding of gravity and its effects on cells is crucial for space exploration as well as for terrestrial applications. The payload is designed to be compatible with the Commercial Experiment Transporter (COMET) launch vehicle, an orbiter middeck locker interface, and with Space Station Freedom. Uplink/downlink capabilities and sample return through controlled reentry are available for all carriers. Autonomous testing activities are preprogrammed with in-flight reprogrammability. Sensors for monitoring temperature, pH, light, gravity levels, vibrations, and radiation are provided for environmental regulation and experimental data collection. Additional experimental data acquisition includes optical density measurement, microscopy, video, and film photography. On-board full data storage capabilities are provided. A fluid transfer mechanism is utilized for inoculation, sampling, and nutrient replenishment of experiment cultures. In addition to payload design, representative experiments were developed to ensure scientific objectives remained compatible with hardware capabilities. The project is defined to provide biological data pertinent to extended duration crewed space flight including crew health issues and development of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). In addition, opportunities are opened for investigations leading to commercial applications of space, such as pharmaceutical development, modeling of terrestrial diseases, and material processing.

  15. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott T.

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion is a destructive process that often causes failure in metallic components and structures. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of other existing microcapsules designs, the corrosion controlled release function that allows the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand only when and where they are needed. Corrosion indicators as well as corrosion inhibitors have been incorporated into the microcapsules, blended into several paint systems, and tested for corrosion detection and protection efficacy.

  16. Autonomous Space Processor for Orbital Debris (ASPOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Mitchell, Dominique; Taft, Brett

    1992-01-01

    A project in the Advanced Design Program at the University of Arizona is described. The project is named the Autonomous Space Processor for Orbital Debris (ASPOD) and is a Universities Space Research Association (USRA) sponsored design project. The development of ASPOD and the students' abilities in designing and building a prototype spacecraft are the ultimate goals of this project. This year's focus entailed the development of a secondary robotic arm and end-effector to work in tandem with an existent arm in the removal of orbital debris. The new arm features the introduction of composite materials and a linear drive system, thus producing a light-weight and more accurate prototype. The main characteristic of the end-effector design is that it incorporates all of the motors and gearing internally, thus not subjecting them to the harsh space environment. Furthermore, the arm and the end-effector are automated by a control system with positional feedback. This system is composed of magnetic and optical encoders connected to a 486 PC via two servo-motor controller cards. Programming a series of basic routines and sub-routines allowed the ASPOD prototype to become more autonomous. The new system is expected to perform specified tasks with a positional accuracy of 0.5 cm.

  17. Small Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quintero, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Small air vehicles offer challenging power, weight, and volume constraints when considering implementation of system health monitoring technologies. In order to develop a testbed for monitoring the health and integrity of control surface servos and linkages, the Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring system has been designed for small Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms to detect problematic behavior from servos and the air craft structures they control, This system will serve to verify the structural integrity of an aircraft's servos and linkages and thereby, through early detection of a problematic situation, minimize the chances of an aircraft accident. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's rotary-winged UAV has an Airborne Power management unit that is responsible for regulating, distributing, and monitoring the power supplied to the UAV's avionics. The current sensing technology utilized by the Airborne Power Management system is also the basis for the Servo Health system. The Servo Health system measures the current draw of the servos while the servos are in Motion in order to quantify the servo health. During a preflight check, deviations from a known baseline behavior can be logged and their causes found upon closer inspection of the aircraft. The erratic behavior nay include binding as a result of dirt buildup or backlash caused by looseness in the mechanical linkages. Moreover, the Servo Health system will allow elusive problems to be identified and preventative measures taken to avoid unnecessary hazardous conditions in small autonomous aircraft.

  18. Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost of walking.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Luke M; Rouse, Elliott J; Herr, Hugh M

    2014-01-01

    We developed an autonomous powered leg exoskeleton capable of providing large amounts of positive mechanical power to the wearer during powered plantarflexion phase of walking. The autonomous exoskeleton consisted of a winch actuator fasted to the shin which pulled on fiberglass struts attached to a boot. The fiberglass struts formed a rigid extension of the foot when the proximal end of the strut was pulled in forward by the winch actuator. This lightweight, geometric transmission allowed the electric winch actuator to efficiently produce biological levels of power at the ankle joint. The exoskeleton was powered and controlled by lithium polymer batteries and motor controller worn around the waist. Preliminary testing on two subjects walking at 1.4 m/s resulted in the exoskeleton reducing the metabolic cost of walking by 6-11% as compared to not wearing the device. The exoskeleton provided a peak mechanical power of over 180 W at each ankle (mean standard ± deviation) and an average positive mechanical power of 27 ± 1 W total to both ankles, while electrically using 75-89 W of electricity. The batteries (800 g) used in this experiment are estimated to be capable of providing this level of assistance for up to 7 km of walking. PMID:25570638

  19. Small fibre function in primary autonomic failure.

    PubMed

    Baron, R; Feldmann, R; Lindner, V

    1993-12-01

    A case of primary autonomic failure (AF) with uncomplicated Parkinson's disease is presented with clinical and neurophysiological data. Special emphasis is placed on new methods of examining impairment of unmyelinated sympathetic and afferent C-fibres. Sympathetic vasoconstrictor responses in the skin induced by deep inspiration were examined quantitatively with laser Doppler flowmetry. The vasoconstriction was markedly depressed in primary AF compared with healthy controls and similar to secondary forms of AF. Peripheral nociceptive C-fibre function was quantitatively assessed by measurement of axon reflex vasodilatation induced by histamine iontophoresis. The axon reflex vasodilatation was completely intact in primary AF in contrast to patients with secondary peripheral small fibre neuropathy. The results indicate that sympathetic C-fibres are considerably affected by the degenerative disease, whereas the afferent C-fibres seem to be totally preserved. Modern neurophysiological methods of testing sympathetic and afferent small fibre function in combination with other neurophysiological tests, e.g. brain-stem auditory evoked potentials, might help to diagnose and differentiate primary AF in early stages and make it easier to distinguish between secondary autonomic neuropathies of unknown origin that often also involve unmyelinated afferent fibres. PMID:8138830

  20. Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost of walking.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Luke M; Rouse, Elliott J; Herr, Hugh M

    2014-01-01

    We developed an autonomous powered leg exoskeleton capable of providing large amounts of positive mechanical power to the wearer during powered plantarflexion phase of walking. The autonomous exoskeleton consisted of a winch actuator fasted to the shin which pulled on fiberglass struts attached to a boot. The fiberglass struts formed a rigid extension of the foot when the proximal end of the strut was pulled in forward by the winch actuator. This lightweight, geometric transmission allowed the electric winch actuator to efficiently produce biological levels of power at the ankle joint. The exoskeleton was powered and controlled by lithium polymer batteries and motor controller worn around the waist. Preliminary testing on two subjects walking at 1.4 m/s resulted in the exoskeleton reducing the metabolic cost of walking by 6-11% as compared to not wearing the device. The exoskeleton provided a peak mechanical power of over 180 W at each ankle (mean standard ± deviation) and an average positive mechanical power of 27 ± 1 W total to both ankles, while electrically using 75-89 W of electricity. The batteries (800 g) used in this experiment are estimated to be capable of providing this level of assistance for up to 7 km of walking.

  1. The MAP Autonomous Mission Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breed, Juile; Coyle, Steven; Blahut, Kevin; Dent, Carolyn; Shendock, Robert; Rowe, Roger

    2000-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission is the second mission in NASA's Office of Space Science low-cost, Medium-class Explorers (MIDEX) program. The Explorers Program is designed to accomplish frequent, low cost, high quality space science investigations utilizing innovative, streamlined, efficient management, design and operations approaches. The MAP spacecraft will produce an accurate full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations with high sensitivity and angular resolution. The MAP spacecraft is planned for launch in early 2001, and will be staffed by only single-shift operations. During the rest of the time the spacecraft must be operated autonomously, with personnel available only on an on-call basis. Four (4) innovations will work cooperatively to enable a significant reduction in operations costs for the MAP spacecraft. First, the use of a common ground system for Spacecraft Integration and Test (I&T) as well as Operations. Second, the use of Finite State Modeling for intelligent autonomy. Third, the integration of a graphical planning engine to drive the autonomous systems without an intermediate manual step. And fourth, the ability for distributed operations via Web and pager access.

  2. Acceptance Criteria Framework for Autonomous Biological Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M

    2006-12-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine a set of user acceptance criteria for autonomous biological detection systems for application in high-traffic, public facilities. The test case for the acceptance criteria was the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) operating in high-traffic facilities in New York City (NYC). However, the acceptance criteria were designed to be generally applicable to other biological detection systems in other locations. For such detection systems, ''users'' will include local authorities (e.g., facility operators, public health officials, and law enforcement personnel) and national authorities [including personnel from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the BioWatch Program, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)]. The panel members brought expertise from a broad range of backgrounds to complete this picture. The goals of this document are: (1) To serve as informal guidance for users in considering the benefits and costs of these systems. (2) To serve as informal guidance for developers in understanding the needs of users. In follow-up work, this framework will be used to systematically document the APDS for appropriateness and readiness for use in NYC.

  3. Autonomous in situ measurements of seawater alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Reggie S; DeGrandpre, Michael D; Beck, James C; Hart, Robert D; Peterson, Brittany; De Carlo, Eric H; Drupp, Patrick S; Hammar, Terry R

    2014-08-19

    Total alkalinity (AT) is an important parameter for describing the marine inorganic carbon system and understanding the effects of atmospheric CO2 on the oceans. Measurements of AT are limited, however, because of the laborious process of collecting and analyzing samples. In this work we evaluate the performance of an autonomous instrument for high temporal resolution measurements of seawater AT. The Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for alkalinity (SAMI-alk) uses a novel tracer monitored titration method where a colorimetric pH indicator quantifies both pH and relative volumes of sample and titrant, circumventing the need for gravimetric or volumetric measurements. The SAMI-alk performance was validated in the laboratory and in situ during two field studies. Overall in situ accuracy was -2.2 ± 13.1 μmol kg(-1) (n = 86), on the basis of comparison to discrete samples. Precision on duplicate analyses of a carbonate standard was ±4.7 μmol kg(-1) (n = 22). This prototype instrument can measure in situ AT hourly for one month, limited by consumption of reagent and standard solutions. PMID:25051401

  4. Sensor study for high speed autonomous operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anne; La Celle, Zachary; Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Del Giorno, Mark; Close, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    As robotic ground systems advance in capabilities and begin to fulfill new roles in both civilian and military life, the limitation of slow operational speed has become a hindrance to the wide-spread adoption of these systems. For example, military convoys are reluctant to employ autonomous vehicles when these systems slow their movement from 60 miles per hour down to 40. However, these autonomous systems must operate at these lower speeds due to the limitations of the sensors they employ. Robotic Research, with its extensive experience in ground autonomy and associated problems therein, in conjunction with CERDEC/Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), has performed a study to specify system and detection requirements; determined how current autonomy sensors perform in various scenarios; and analyzed how sensors should be employed to increase operational speeds of ground vehicles. The sensors evaluated in this study include the state of the art in LADAR/LIDAR, Radar, Electro-Optical, and Infrared sensors, and have been analyzed at high speeds to study their effectiveness in detecting and accounting for obstacles and other perception challenges. By creating a common set of testing benchmarks, and by testing in a wide range of real-world conditions, Robotic Research has evaluated where sensors can be successfully employed today; where sensors fall short; and which technologies should be examined and developed further. This study is the first step to achieve the overarching goal of doubling ground vehicle speeds on any given terrain.

  5. Autonomous support for microorganism research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttges, M. W.; Klaus, D. M.; Fleet, M. L.; Miller, M. S.; Shipley, D. E.; Smith, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design for performing on-orbit, autonomous research on microorganisms and cultured cells/tissues is presented. An understanding of gravity and its effects on cells is crucial for space exploration as well as for terrestrial applications. The payload is designed to be compatible with the COMmercial Experiment Transported (COMET) launch vehicle, an orbiter middeck locker interface, and with Space Station Freedom. Uplink/downlink capabilities and sample return through controlled reentry are available for all carriers. Autonomous testing activities are preprogrammed with inflight reprogrammability. Sensors for monitoring temperature, pH, light, gravity levels, vibration, and radiation are provided for environmental regulation and experimental data collection. Additional experiment data acquisition includes optical density measurement, microscopy, video, and file photography. Onboard full data storage capabilities are provided. A fluid transfer mechanism is utilized for inoculation, sampling, and nutrient replenishment of experiment cultures. In addition to payload design, representative experiments were developed to ensure scientific objectives remained compatible with hardware capabilities. The project is defined to provide biological data pertinent to extended duration crewed space flight including crew health issues and development of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). In addition, opportunities are opened for investigations leading to commercial applications of space, such as pharmaceutical development, modeling of terrestrial diseases, and material processing.

  6. Autonomic function in manganese alloy workers

    SciTech Connect

    Barrington, W.W.; Angle, C.R.; Willcockson, N.K.; Padula, M.A.; Korn, T.

    1998-07-01

    The observation of orthostatic hypotension in an index case of manganese toxicity lead to this prospective attempt to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function and cognitive and emotional neurotoxicity in eight manganese alloy welders and machinists. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample consisting of an index case of manganese dementia, his four co-workers in a frog shop for gouging, welding, and grinding repair of high manganese railway track and a convenience sample of three mild steel welders with lesser manganese exposure also referred because of cognitive or autonomic symptoms. Frog shop air manganese samples 9.6--10 years before and 1.2--3.4 years after the diagnosis of the index case exceeded 1.0 mg/m{sup 3} in 29% and 0.2 mg/m{sup 3} in 62%. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring was used to determine the temporal variability of the heartrate (RR{prime} interval) and the rates of change at low frequency and high frequency. MMPI and MCMI personality assessment and short-term memory, figure copy, controlled oral word association, and symbol digit tests were used.

  7. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in anabolic steroid users.

    PubMed

    Maior, A S; Carvalho, A R; Marques-Neto, S R; Menezes, P; Soares, P P; Nascimento, J H M

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate if androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) abuse may induce cardiac autonomic dysfunction in recreational trained subjects. Twenty-two men were volunteered for the study. The AAS group (n = 11) utilized AAS at mean dosage of 410 ± 78.6 mg/week. All of them were submitted to submaximal exercise testing using an Astrand-Rhyming protocol. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respired gas analysis were monitored at rest, during, and post-effort. Mean values of VO2 , VCO2 , and VE were higher in AAS group only at rest. The heart rate variability variables were calculated from ECG using MATLAB-based algorithms. At rest, AAS group showed lower values of the standard deviation of R-R intervals, the proportion of adjacent R-R intervals differing by more than 50 ms (pNN50), the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), and the total, the low-frequency (LF) and the high-frequency (HF) spectral power, as compared to Control group. After submaximal exercise testing, pNN50, RMSSD, and HF were lower, and the LF/HF ratio was higher in AAS group when compared to control group. Thus, the use of supraphysiological doses of AAS seems to induce dysfunction in tonic cardiac autonomic regulation in recreational trained subjects.

  8. Autonomously Calibrating a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program autonomously manages the calibration of a quadrupole ion mass spectrometer intended for use in monitoring concentrations and changes in concentrations of organic chemicals in the cabin air of the International Space Station. The instrument parameters calibrated include the voltage on a channel electron multiplier, a discriminator threshold, and an ionizer current. Calibration is achieved by analyzing the mass spectrum obtained while sweeping the parameter ranges in a heuristic procedure, developed by mass spectrometer experts, that involves detection of changes in signal trends that humans can easily recognize but cannot necessarily be straightforwardly codified in an algorithm. The procedure includes calculation of signal-to-noise ratios, signal-increase rates, and background-noise-increase rates; finding signal peaks; and identifying peak patterns. The software provides for several recovery-from-error scenarios and error-handling schemes. The software detects trace amounts of contaminant gases in the mass spectrometer and notifies associated command- and-data-handling software to schedule a cleaning. Furthermore, the software autonomously analyzes the mass spectrum to determine whether the parameters of a radio-frequency ramp waveform are set properly so that the peaks of the mass spectrum are at expected locations.

  9. Multiblock copolymers exhibiting spatio-temporal structure with autonomous viscosity oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Onoda, Michika; Ueki, Takeshi; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Here we report an ABA triblock copolymer that can express microscopic autonomous formation and break-up of aggregates under constant condition to generate macroscopic viscoelastic self-oscillation of the solution. The ABA triblock copolymer is designed to have hydrophilic B segment and self-oscillating A segment at the both sides by RAFT copolymerization. In the A segment, a metal catalyst of chemical oscillatory reaction, i.e., the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction, is introduced as a chemomechanical transducer to change the aggregation state of the polymer depending on the redox states. Time-resolved DLS measurements of the ABA triblock copolymer confirm the presence of a transitional network structure of micelle aggregations in the reduced state and a unimer structure in the oxidized state. This autonomous oscillation of a well-designed triblock copolymer enables dynamic biomimetic softmaterials with spatio-temporal structure. PMID:26511660

  10. ANTS: Exploring the Solar System with an Autonomous Nanotechnology Swarm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S.; Rilee, M.; Truszkowski, W.; Marr, G.

    2002-01-01

    ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm), a NASA advanced mission concept, calls for a large (1000 member) swarm of pico-class (1 kg) totally autonomous spacecraft to prospect the asteroid belt. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Application of laser radar to autonomous spacecraft landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleichman, Kurt; Tchoryk, Peter, Jr.; Sampson, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the scenario of an autonomous landing like that required for the Mars Rover Sample Return Mission. An application of laser radar for conducting autonomous hazard detection and avoidance is discussed. A trade-study is performed to identify operational and implementation constraints as well as the state of the art in component technology.

  12. Cardiac Autonomic Control in Individuals With Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulopoulou, Styliani; Baynard, Tracy; Collier, Scott; Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Figueroa, Arturo; Beets, Michael; Pitetti, Kenneth; Fernhall, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to compare cardiac autonomic control at rest between 50 individuals with Down syndrome and 24 control participants without disabilities. Resting autonomic function was assessed using analysis of heart rate variability. Participants with Down syndrome had reduced total heart rate variability, which indicates possible…

  13. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems: Technical Level Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.; Patterson-Hines, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Contingency management is essential to the robust operation of complex systems such as spacecraft and Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Automatic contingency handling allows a faster response to unsafe scenarios with reduced human intervention on low-cost and extended missions. Results, applied to the Autonomous Rotorcraft Project and Mars Science Lab, pave the way to more resilient autonomous systems.

  14. Symptoms of Autonomic Dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Dominic; Nakamoto, Beau K.; Sullivan, Katherine; Sletten, David M.; Fujii, Satomi; Umekawa, Sari; Kocher, Morgan; Kallianpur, Kalpana J.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Low, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequencies of symptoms associated with autonomic dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on stable combined antiretroviral therapy. Patients infected with HIV reported higher frequencies of dysautonomia symptoms compared with HIV-negative patients, particularly in the autonomic domains related to urinary, sleep, gastroparesis, secretomotor, pupillomotor, and male sexual dysfunction. PMID:26269797

  15. The role of the autonomic ganglia in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Stavrakis, Stavros; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Po, Sunny S.; Scherlag, Benjamin J.; Lazzara, Ralph; Jackman, Warren M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown that the epicardial autonomic ganglia play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). In this review, we present the current data on the role of the autonomic ganglia in the pathogenesis of AF and discuss potential therapeutic implications. Experimental studies have demonstrated that acute autonomic remodeling may play a crucial role in AF maintenance in the very early stages. The benefit of adding ablation of the autonomic ganglia to the standard pulmonary vein (PV) isolation procedure for patients with paroxysmal AF is supported by both experimental and clinical data. The interruption of axons from these hyperactive autonomic ganglia to the PV myocardial sleeves may be an important factor in the success of PV isolation procedures. The vagus nerve exerts an inhibitory control over the autonomic ganglia and attenuation or loss of this control may allow these ganglia to become hyperactive. Autonomic neuromodulation using low-level vagus nerve stimulation inhibits the activity of the autonomic ganglia and reverses acute electrical atrial remodeling during rapid atrial pacing and may provide an alternative non-ablative approach for the treatment of AF, especially in the early stages. This notion is supported by a preliminary human study. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:26301262

  16. Autonomous Systems, Robotics, and Computing Systems Capability Roadmap: NRC Dialogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zornetzer, Steve; Gage, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Introduction. Process, Mission Drivers, Deliverables, and Interfaces. Autonomy. Crew-Centered and Remote Operations. Integrated Systems Health Management. Autonomous Vehicle Control. Autonomous Process Control. Robotics. Robotics for Solar System Exploration. Robotics for Lunar and Planetary Habitation. Robotics for In-Space Operations. Computing Systems. Conclusion.

  17. Autonomic Impairment in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Laboratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Anna; Klonsky, E. David; Hajcak, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that emotional dysfunction in psychiatric disorders can be reflected in autonomic abnormalities. The present study examines sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system activity in individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) before, during, and following a social stressor task. Data were obtained…

  18. View generated database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downward, James G.

    1992-01-01

    This document represents the final report for the View Generated Database (VGD) project, NAS7-1066. It documents the work done on the project up to the point at which all project work was terminated due to lack of project funds. The VGD was to provide the capability to accurately represent any real-world object or scene as a computer model. Such models include both an accurate spatial/geometric representation of surfaces of the object or scene, as well as any surface detail present on the object. Applications of such models are numerous, including acquisition and maintenance of work models for tele-autonomous systems, generation of accurate 3-D geometric/photometric models for various 3-D vision systems, and graphical models for realistic rendering of 3-D scenes via computer graphics.

  19. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    PubMed Central

    Macey, Paul M.; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and demonstrate how disturbed systems can interact to produce aberrant regulation during autonomic challenges. Understanding autonomic dysfunction in various illnesses reveals mechanisms that potentially lead to interventions in the impairments. The objectives here are to: (1) describe the fMRI neuroimaging methodology for assessment of autonomic neural control, (2) outline the widespread, lateralized distribution of function in autonomic sites in the normal brain which includes structures from the neocortex through the medulla and cerebellum, (3) illustrate the importance of the time course of neural changes when coordinating responses, and how those patterns are impacted in conditions of sleep-disordered breathing, and (4) highlight opportunities for future research studies with emerging methodologies. Methodological considerations specific to autonomic testing include timing of challenges relative to the underlying fMRI signal, spatial resolution sufficient to identify autonomic brainstem nuclei, blood pressure, and blood oxygenation influences on the fMRI signal, and the sustained timing, often measured in minutes of challenge periods and recovery. Key findings include the lateralized nature of autonomic organization, which is reminiscent of asymmetric motor, sensory, and language pathways. Testing brain function during autonomic challenges demonstrate closely-integrated timing of responses in connected brain areas during autonomic challenges, and the involvement with brain

  20. Autonomous controller employing 155IP3 arithmetic-logic unit

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A.B.; Fokin, E.Y.; Marchenkov, V.V.; Tubol'tsev, Y.V.

    1985-05-01

    This paper describes an autonomous CAMAC crate controller and its software. The controller is intended for use in autonomous subsystems designed for autonomous control, measurement, preselection, storage, representation and transmission of data. The software that has been developed contains a number of common subroutines, a computer-communications program and the CAMAC-oriented language COMPAX, which allows the operator to program the controller in convenient text form from the crate terminal. At the present time, the autonomous controller is being used at the Leningrad Institute of Nuclear Physics to develop and build an autonomous measuring station for the GNEIS neutron time-of-flight spectrometer and a local plane for a dose-monitoring system for the PIK reactor under construction.