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Sample records for autonomous growth potential

  1. Potential Autonomic Nervous System Effects of Statins in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Horwich, Tamara; Middlekauff, Holly

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Sympathetic nervous system activation in heart failure, as indexed by elevated norepinephrine levels, higher muscle sympathetic nerve activity and reduced heart rate variability, is associated with pathologic ventricular remodeling, increased arrhythmias, sudden death, and increased mortality. Recent evidence suggests that HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy may provide survival benefit in heart failure of both ischemic and non-ischemic etiology, and one potential mechanism of benefit of statins in heart failure is modulation of the autonomic nervous system. Animal models of heart failure demonstrate reduced sympathetic activation and improved sympathovagal balance with statin therapy. Initial human studies have reported mixed results. Ongoing translational studies and outcomes trials will help delineate the potentially beneficial effects of statins on the autonomic nervous system in heart failure. PMID:18433696

  2. Robust and Opportunistic Autonomous Science for a Potential Titan Aerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara; Schaffer, Steve; Castano, Rebecca; Elfes, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    We are developing onboard planning and execution technologies to provide robust and opportunistic mission operations for a potential Titan aerobot. Aerobot have the potential for collecting a vast amount of high priority science data. However, to be effective, an aerobot must address several challenges including communication constraints, extended periods without contact with Earth, uncertain and changing environmental conditions, maneuverability constraints and potentially short-lived science opportunities. We are developing the AerOASIS system to develop and test technology to support autonomous science operations for a potential Titan Aerobot. The planning and execution component of AerOASIS is able to generate mission operations plans that achieve science and engineering objectives while respecting mission and resource constraints as well as adapting the plan to respond to new science opportunities. Our technology leverages prior work on the OASIS system for autonomous rover exploration. In this paper we describe how the OASIS planning component was adapted to address the unique challenges of a Titan Aerobot and we describe a field demonstration of the system with the JPL prototype aerobot.

  3. Biological implications from an autonomous version of Baranyi and Roberts growth model.

    PubMed

    Vadasz, Peter; Vadasz, Alisa S

    2007-03-20

    An autonomous version of Baranyi and Roberts model (Int. J. Food Microbiology, 23, 1994, pp. 277-294) is developed and analyzed to reveal some subtle points, which are difficult to observe accurately from its equivalent non-autonomous form. In particular we are able to provide a meaningful interpretation to the "physiological state of the cells at inoculation", a parameter introduced by Baranyi and Roberts [Baranyi, J., Roberts, T. A., 1994. A dynamic approach to predicting bacterial growth in food. International Journal of Food Microbiology 23, 277-294] that has a profound impact on microbial growth but is not a direct measurable quantity. In addition, the analysis shows that the transient growth depends on the initial cell concentration and the initial growth rate, but is independent of "the history of the cells" and depends only indirectly (via the initial growth rate) on the previous (pre-inoculation) environment. The stationary solution is independent of the initial conditions. A new, more natural, and biologically meaningful formulation of LAG duration is being suggested in terms of initial conditions being in the neighborhood of one of the unstable stationary points revealed by this autonomous version of the model.

  4. Autonomous Mobile Robot Navigation Using Harmonic Potential Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panati, Subbash; Baasandorj, Bayanjargal; Chong, Kil To

    2015-05-01

    Mobile robot navigation has been an area of robotics which has gained massive attention among the researchers of robotics community. Path planning and obstacle avoidance are the key aspects of mobile robot navigation. This paper presents harmonic potential field based navigation algorithm for mobile robots. Harmonic potential field method overcomes the issue of local minima which was a major bottleneck in the case of artificial potential field method. The harmonic potential field is calculated using harmonic functions and Dirichlet boundary conditions are used for the obstacles, goal and initial position. The simulation results shows that the proposed method is able to overcome the local minima issue and navigate successfully from initial position to the goal without colliding into obstacles in static environment.

  5. Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling Is Essential for the Autonomous Formation of Cartilage-Like Tissue by Expanded Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tekari, Adel; Luginbuehl, Reto; Hofstetter, Willy; Egli, Rainer J.

    2015-01-01

    Cartilage is a tissue with limited self-healing potential. Hence, cartilage defects require surgical attention to prevent or postpone the development of osteoarthritis. For cell-based cartilage repair strategies, in particular autologous chondrocyte implantation, articular chondrocytes are isolated from cartilage and expanded in vitro to increase the number of cells required for therapy. During expansion, the cells lose the competence to autonomously form a cartilage-like tissue, that is in the absence of exogenously added chondrogenic growth factors, such as TGF-βs. We hypothesized that signaling elicited by autocrine and/or paracrine TGF-β is essential for the formation of cartilage-like tissue and that alterations within the TGF-β signaling pathway during expansion interfere with this process. Primary bovine articular chondrocytes were harvested and expanded in monolayer culture up to passage six and the formation of cartilage tissue was investigated in high density pellet cultures grown for three weeks. Chondrocytes expanded for up to three passages maintained the potential for autonomous cartilage-like tissue formation. After three passages, however, exogenous TGF-β1 was required to induce the formation of cartilage-like tissue. When TGF-β signaling was blocked by inhibiting the TGF-β receptor 1 kinase, the autonomous formation of cartilage-like tissue was abrogated. At the initiation of pellet culture, chondrocytes from passage three and later showed levels of transcripts coding for TGF-β receptors 1 and 2 and TGF-β2 to be three-, five- and five-fold decreased, respectively, as compared to primary chondrocytes. In conclusion, the autonomous formation of cartilage-like tissue by expanded chondrocytes is dependent on signaling induced by autocrine and/or paracrine TGF-β. We propose that a decrease in the expression of the chondrogenic growth factor TGF-β2 and of the TGF-β receptors in expanded chondrocytes accounts for a decrease in the activity of

  6. Implementation of Autonomous Control Technology for Plant Growth Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, Thomas A.; Sager, John C.; Krumins, Valdis; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2002-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center has significant infrastructure for research using controlled environment plant growth chambers. Such research supports development of bioregenerative life support technology for long-term space missions. Most of the existing chambers in Hangar L and Little L will be moved to the new Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory (SERPL) in the summer of 2003. The impending move has created an opportunity to update the control system technologies to allow for greater flexibility, less labor for set-up and maintenance, better diagnostics, better reliability and easier data retrieval. Part of these improvements can be realized using hardware which communicates through an ethernet connection to a central computer for supervisory control but can be operated independently of the computer during routine run-time. Both the hardware and software functionality of an envisioned system were tested on a prototype plant growth chamber (CEC-4) in Hangar L. Based upon these tests, recommendations for hardware and software selection and system design for implementation in SERPL are included.

  7. Consequences of Autonomous and Team-Oriented Forms of Dispositional Proactivity for Demonstrating Advancement Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfeld, Robert R.; Thomas, Christopher H.; Bernerth, Jeremy B.

    2011-01-01

    Under the paradigm of individualism, proactive personality has garnered much attention in connection with indicators of career success. We regard this construct as an autonomous form of dispositional proactivity and explored it along with team-oriented proactivity as a predictor of self-perceived influence and observed advancement potential in a…

  8. Autonomous and Autonomic Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    A watershed in systems engineering is represented by the advent of swarm-based systems that accomplish missions through cooperative action by a (large) group of autonomous individuals each having simple capabilities and no global knowledge of the group s objective. Such systems, with individuals capable of surviving in hostile environments, pose unprecedented challenges to system developers. Design and testing and verification at much higher levels will be required, together with the corresponding tools, to bring such systems to fruition. Concepts for possible future NASA space exploration missions include autonomous, autonomic swarms. Engineering swarm-based missions begins with understanding autonomy and autonomicity and how to design, test, and verify systems that have those properties and, simultaneously, the capability to accomplish prescribed mission goals. Formal methods-based technologies, both projected and in development, are described in terms of their potential utility to swarm-based system developers.

  9. Chloride current in mammalian cardiac myocytes. Novel mechanism for autonomic regulation of action potential duration and resting membrane potential

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The properties of the autonomically regulated chloride current (ICl) were studied in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes. This current was elicited upon exposure to isoproterenol (ISO) and reversed upon concurrent exposure to acetylcholine (ACh). ICl was time independent and exhibited outward rectification. The responses to ISO and ACh could be blocked by propranolol and atropine, respectively, and ICl was also elicited by forskolin, 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, and 3-isobutyl-l-methylxanthine, indicating that the current is regulated through a cAMP-dependent pathway. The reversal potential of the ISO- induced current followed the predicted chloride equilibrium potential, consistent with it being carried predominantly by Cl-. Activation of ICl produced changes in the resting membrane potential and action potential duration, which were Cl- gradient dependent. These results indicate that under physiological conditions ICl may play an important role in regulating action potential duration and resting membrane potential in mammalian cardiac myocytes. PMID:2165130

  10. Fetal growth potential and pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Radek

    2004-02-01

    Although the association of fetal growth restriction and adverse pregnancy outcomes is well known, lack of sensitivity limits its clinical value. To a large extent, this limitation is a result of traditionally used method to define growth restriction by comparing fetal or birth weight to population norms. The use of population norms, by virtue of their inability to fully consider individual variation, results in high false positive and negative rates. An alternative, calculating fetal individually optimal growth potential, based on physiological determinants of individual growth, is superior in predicting adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Impairment of fetal growth potential identifes some adverse pregnancy outcomes that are not associated with growth restrction defined by population norms. When compared with traditional population-based norms, fetal growth potential is a better predictor of several important adverse outcomes of pregnancy which include: stillbirth, neonatal mortality and morbidity, and long-term adverse neonatal outcomes like neonatal encephalopathy, cerebral palsy and cognitive abilities. Impairment of individual growth potential is also strongly associated with spontaneous preterm delivery. Although definitive interventional trials have not been conducted as yet to validate the clinical value of fetal growth potential, many observational studies, conducted in various populations, indicate its significant promise in this respect.

  11. Potential Interactions between the Autonomic Nervous System and Higher Level Functions in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Andrea; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) maintains the internal homeostasis by continuously interacting with other brain structures. Its failure is commonly observed in many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, including neurodegenerative and vascular brain diseases, spinal cord injury, and peripheral neuropathies. Despite the different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, ANS failure associates with various forms of higher level dysfunctions, and may also negatively impact on patients’ clinical outcome. In this review, we will discuss potential relationships between ANS and higher level dysfunctions in a selection of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, we will focus on the effect of a documented fall in blood pressure fulfilling the criteria for orthostatic hypotension and/or autonomic-reflex impairment on cognitive performances. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that cardiovascular autonomic failure may play a negative prognostic role in most neurological disorders. Despite a clear causal relationship between ANS involvement and higher level dysfunctions that is still controversial, this might have implications for neuro-rehabilitation strategies aimed at improving patients’ clinical outcome. PMID:26388831

  12. Neural correlates of the behavioral-autonomic interaction response to potentially threatening stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Farrow, Tom F. D.; Johnson, Naomi K.; Hunter, Michael D.; Barker, Anthony T.; Wilkinson, Iain D.; Woodruff, Peter W. R.

    2013-01-01

    Subjective assessment of emotional valence is typically associated with both brain activity and autonomic arousal. Accurately assessing emotional salience is particularly important when perceiving threat. We sought to characterize the neural correlates of the interaction between behavioral and autonomic responses to potentially threatening visual and auditory stimuli. Twenty-five healthy male subjects underwent fMRI scanning whilst skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded. One hundred and eighty pictures, sentences, and sounds were assessed as “harmless” or “threatening.” Individuals' stimulus-locked, phasic SCRs and trial-by-trial behavioral assessments were entered as regressors into a flexible factorial design to establish their separate autonomic and behavioral neural correlates, and convolved to examine psycho-autonomic interaction (PAI) effects. Across all stimuli, “threatening,” compared with “harmless” behavioral assessments were associated with mainly frontal and precuneus activation with specific within-modality activations including bilateral parahippocampal gyri (pictures), bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and frontal pole (sentences), and right Heschl's gyrus and bilateral temporal gyri (sounds). Across stimulus modalities SCRs were associated with activation of parieto-occipito-thalamic regions, an activation pattern which was largely replicated within-modality. In contrast, PAI analyses revealed modality-specific activations including right fusiform/parahippocampal gyrus (pictures), right insula (sentences), and mid-cingulate gyrus (sounds). Phasic SCR activity was positively correlated with an individual's propensity to assess stimuli as “threatening.” SCRs may modulate cognitive assessments on a “harmless–threatening” dimension, thereby modulating affective tone and hence behavior. PMID:23335893

  13. Association of autonomic nervous system and EEG scalp potential during playing 2D Grand Turismo 5.

    PubMed

    Subhani, Ahmad Rauf; Likun, Xia; Saeed Malik, Aamir

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral activation and autonomic nervous system have importance in studies such as mental stress. The aim of this study is to analyze variations in EEG scalp potential which may influence autonomic activation of heart while playing video games. Ten healthy participants were recruited in this study. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were measured simultaneously during playing video game and rest conditions. Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of heart were evaluated from heart rate variability (HRV), derived from the ECG. Scalp potential was measured by the EEG. The results showed a significant upsurge in the value theta Fz/alpha Pz (p<0.001) while playing game. The results also showed tachycardia while playing video game as compared to rest condition (p<0.005). Normalized low frequency power and ratio of low frequency/high frequency power were significantly increased while playing video game and normalized high frequency power sank during video games. Results showed synchronized activity of cerebellum and sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of heart. PMID:23366661

  14. Association of autonomic nervous system and EEG scalp potential during playing 2D Grand Turismo 5.

    PubMed

    Subhani, Ahmad Rauf; Likun, Xia; Saeed Malik, Aamir

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral activation and autonomic nervous system have importance in studies such as mental stress. The aim of this study is to analyze variations in EEG scalp potential which may influence autonomic activation of heart while playing video games. Ten healthy participants were recruited in this study. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were measured simultaneously during playing video game and rest conditions. Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of heart were evaluated from heart rate variability (HRV), derived from the ECG. Scalp potential was measured by the EEG. The results showed a significant upsurge in the value theta Fz/alpha Pz (p<0.001) while playing game. The results also showed tachycardia while playing video game as compared to rest condition (p<0.005). Normalized low frequency power and ratio of low frequency/high frequency power were significantly increased while playing video game and normalized high frequency power sank during video games. Results showed synchronized activity of cerebellum and sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of heart.

  15. β-Catenin activation regulates tissue growth non-cell autonomously in the hair stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Deschene, Elizabeth R; Myung, Peggy; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Zito, Giovanni; Sun, Thomas Yang; Taketo, Makoto M; Saotome, Ichiko; Greco, Valentina

    2014-03-21

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical for tissue regeneration. However, it is unclear how β-catenin controls stem cell behaviors to coordinate organized growth. Using live imaging, we show that activation of β-catenin specifically within mouse hair follicle stem cells generates new hair growth through oriented cell divisions and cellular displacement. β-Catenin activation is sufficient to induce hair growth independently of mesenchymal dermal papilla niche signals normally required for hair regeneration. Wild-type cells are co-opted into new hair growths by β-catenin mutant cells, which non-cell autonomously activate Wnt signaling within the neighboring wild-type cells via Wnt ligands. This study demonstrates a mechanism by which Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls stem cell-dependent tissue growth non-cell autonomously and advances our understanding of the mechanisms that drive coordinated regeneration.

  16. Autonomic neural signals in bone: physiological implications for mandible and dental growth.

    PubMed

    Boggio, Verónica; Ladizesky, Marta G; Cutrera, Rodolfo A; Cardinali, Daniel P

    2004-06-11

    Signals derived from the autonomic nervous system exert potent effects on osteoclast and osteoblast function. A ubiquitous sympathetic and sensory innervation of all periosteal surfaces exists and its disruption affects bone remodeling. Several neuropeptides, neurohormones and neurotransmitters and their receptors are detectable in bone. Bone mineral content decreased in sympathetically denervated mandibular bone. When a mechanical stress was superimposed on mandibular bone by cutting out the lower incisors, an increase in bone density ensued providing the sympathetic innervation was intact. A lower eruption rate of sympathetically denervated incisors at the impeded eruption side, and a higher eruption rate of denervated incisors at the unimpeded side were also observed. A normal sympathetic neural activity appears to be a pre-requisite for maintaining a minimal normal unimpeded incisor eruption and for keeping the unimpeded eruption to attain abnormally high velocities under conditions of stimulated incisor growth. These and other results suggest that the sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in mandibular bone metabolism.

  17. The E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme Uba1 in Drosophila controls apoptosis autonomously and tissue growth non-autonomously

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tom V.; Ding, Tian; Chen, Zhihong; Rajendran, Vani; Scherr, Heather; Lackey, Melinda; Bolduc, Clare; Bergmann, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Ubiquitination is an essential process regulating turnover of proteins for basic cellular processes such as the cell cycle and cell death (apoptosis). Ubiquitination is initiated by ubiquitin-activating enzymes (E1), which activate and transfer ubiquitin to ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2). Conjugation of target proteins with ubiquitin is then mediated by ubiquitin ligases (E3). Ubiquitination has been well characterized using mammalian cell lines and yeast genetics. However, the consequences of partial or complete loss of ubiquitin conjugation in a multi-cellular organism are not well understood. Here, we report the characterization of Uba1, the only E1 in Drosophila. We found that weak and strong Uba1 alleles behave genetically differently with sometimes opposing phenotypes. Whereas weak Uba1 alleles protect cells from cell death, clones of strong Uba1 alleles are highly apoptotic. Strong Uba1 alleles cause cell cycle arrest which correlates with failure to reduce cyclin levels. Surprisingly, clones of strong Uba1 mutants stimulate neighboring wild-type tissue to undergo cell division in a non-autonomous manner giving rise to overgrowth phenotypes of the mosaic fly. We demonstrate that the non-autonomous overgrowth is caused by failure to downregulate Notch signaling in Uba1 mutant clones. In summary, the phenotypic analysis of Uba1 demonstrates that impaired ubiquitin conjugation has significant consequences for the organism, and may implicate Uba1 as a tumor suppressor gene. PMID:18045837

  18. Autonomous robot navigation based on the evolutionary multi-objective optimization of potential fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera Ortiz, Juan Arturo; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Katya; Padilla Castañeda, Miguel A.; Arámbula Cosío, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the application of a new multi-objective evolutionary algorithm called RankMOEA to determine the optimal parameters of an artificial potential field for autonomous navigation of a mobile robot. Autonomous robot navigation is posed as a multi-objective optimization problem with three objectives: minimization of the distance to the goal, maximization of the distance between the robot and the nearest obstacle, and maximization of the distance travelled on each field configuration. Two decision makers were implemented using objective reduction and discrimination in performance trade-off. The performance of RankMOEA is compared with NSGA-II and SPEA2, including both decision makers. Simulation experiments using three different obstacle configurations and 10 different routes were performed using the proposed methodology. RankMOEA clearly outperformed NSGA-II and SPEA2. The robustness of this approach was evaluated with the simulation of different sensor masks and sensor noise. The scheme reported was also combined with the wavefront-propagation algorithm for global path planning.

  19. Decreased growth-induced water potential: A primary cause of growth inhibition at low water potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Nonami, Hiroshi; Wu, Yajun; Boyer, J.S.

    1997-06-01

    Cell enlargement depends on a growth-induced difference in water potential to move water into the cells. Water deficits decrease this potential difference and inhibit growth. To investigate whether the decrease causes the growth inhibition, pressure was applied to the roots of soybean seedlings and the growth and potential difference were monitored in the stems. In water-limited plants, the inhibited stem growth increased when the roots were pressurized and it reverted to the previous rate when the pressure was released. The pressure around the roots was perceived as an increased turgor in the stem in small cells next to the xylem, but not in outlying cortical cells. This local effect implied that water transport was impeded by the small cells. The diffusivity for water was much less in the small cells than in the outlying cells. The small cells thus were a barrier that caused the growth-induced potential difference to be large during rapid growth, but to reverse locally during the early part of a water deficit. Such a barrier may be a frequent property of meristems. Because stem growth responded to the pressure-induced recovery of the potential difference across this barrier, we conclude that a decrease in the growth-induced potential difference was a primary cause of the inhibition.

  20. Autonomic dysreflexia

    MedlinePlus

    Autonomic hyperreflexia; Spinal cord injury - autonomic dysreflexia; SCI - autonomic dysreflexia ... most common cause of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is spinal cord injury. The nervous system of people with AD ...

  1. Origin of growth-induced water potential

    SciTech Connect

    Nonami, H.; Boyer, J.S.

    1987-03-01

    The authors developed a new method to measure the solute concentration in the apoplast of stem tissue involving pressurizing the roots of intact seedlings (Glycine max (L.) Merr. or Pisum sativum L.), collecting a small amount of exudate from the surface of the stem under saturating humidities, and determining the osmotic potential of the solution with a micro-osmometer capable of measuring small volumes (0.5 microliter). In the elongating region, the apoplast concentrations were very low (equivalent to osmotic potentials of -0.03 to -0.04 megapascal) and negligible compared to the water potential of the apoplast (-0.15 to -0.30 megapascal) measured directly by isopiestic psychrometry in intact plants. Most of the apoplast water potential consisted of a negative pressure that could be measured with a pressure chamber (-0.15 to -0.28 megapascal). Tests showed that earlier methods involving infiltration of intercellular spaces or pressurizing cut segments caused solute to be released to the apoplast and resulted in spuriously high concentrations. These results indicate that, although a small amount of solute is present in the apoplast, the major component is a tension that is part of a growth-induced gradient in water potential in the enlarging tissue. The gradient originates from the extension of the cell walls, which prevents turgor from reaching its maximum and creates a growth-induced water potential that causes water to move from the xylem at a rate that satisfies the rate of enlargement. The magnitude of the gradient implies that growing tissue contains a large resistance to water movement.

  2. Transient receptor potential channel ankyrin-1 is not a cold sensor for autonomic thermoregulation in rodents.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Cristiane; Garami, Andras; Lehto, Sonya G; Pakai, Eszter; Tekus, Valeria; Pohoczky, Krisztina; Youngblood, Beth D; Wang, Weiya; Kort, Michael E; Kym, Philip R; Pinter, Erika; Gavva, Narender R; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2014-03-26

    The rodent transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) channel has been hypothesized to serve as a temperature sensor for thermoregulation in the cold. We tested this hypothesis by using deletion of the Trpa1 gene in mice and pharmacological blockade of the TRPA1 channel in rats. In both Trpa1(-/-) and Trpa1(+/+) mice, severe cold exposure (8°C) resulted in decreases of skin and deep body temperatures to ∼8°C and 13°C, respectively, both temperatures being below the reported 17°C threshold temperature for TRPA1 activation. Under these conditions, Trpa1(-/-) mice had the same dynamics of body temperature as Trpa1(+/+) mice and showed no weakness in the tail skin vasoconstriction response or thermogenic response to cold. In rats, the effects of pharmacological blockade were studied by using two chemically unrelated TRPA1 antagonists: the highly potent and selective compound A967079, which had been characterized earlier, and the relatively new compound 43 ((4R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-4-[3-(3-methoxypropoxy)phenyl]-2-thioxo-5H-indeno[1,2-d]pyrimidin-5-one), which we further characterized in the present study and found to be highly potent (IC50 against cold of ∼8 nm) and selective. Intragastric administration of either antagonist at 30 mg/kg before severe (3°C) cold exposure did not affect the thermoregulatory responses (deep body and tail skin temperatures) of rats, even though plasma concentrations of both antagonists well exceeded their IC50 value at the end of the experiment. In the same experimental setup, blocking the melastatin-8 (TRPM8) channel with AMG2850 (30 mg/kg) attenuated cold-defense mechanisms and led to hypothermia. We conclude that TRPA1 channels do not drive autonomic thermoregulatory responses to cold in rodents.

  3. Functional Ser205Leu polymorphism of the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) gene is associated with vagal autonomic dysregulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chuan-Chia; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chang, Hsin-An; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates that reduced cardiac vagal (parasympathetic) tone, a robust cardiovascular risk factor, is a trait vulnerability marker of major depressive disorder (MDD). The Ser205/Ser205 genotype of the functional polymorphism (Ser205Leu) of the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), also called p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)), gene is reported to increase the risk of MDD. Here, we hypothesized that the NGFR Ser205Leu polymorphism may have an effect on vagal control. A sample of 810 healthy, drug-free, unrelated Han Chinese (413 males, 397 females; mean age 35.17 ± 8.53 years) was included in the NGFR genotyping. Short-term heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess vagus-mediated autonomic function. Potential HRV covariates, such as mood/anxiety status and serum metabolic parameters, were assessed. Homozygotes of the Ser205 allele had significantly lower high frequency power and root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences, both HRV indices of vagal modulation, compared to Leu205 allele carriers. Even after adjusting for relevant confounders, these associations remained significant. Further stratification by sex revealed that the associations were observed only in males. Our results implicate that decreased parasympathetic activity is associated with the NGFR Ser205/Ser205 genotype in a gender-specific manner, suggesting a potential role of NGFR polymorphism in modulating cardiac autonomic function. PMID:26278479

  4. The Potential of Growth Mixture Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthen, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    The authors of the paper on growth mixture modelling (GMM) give a description of GMM and related techniques as applied to antisocial behaviour. They bring up the important issue of choice of model within the general framework of mixture modelling, especially the choice between latent class growth analysis (LCGA) techniques developed by Nagin and…

  5. Design of synthetic autonomous VH domain libraries and structural analysis of a VH domain bound to vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaolei; Barthelemy, Pierre A; Rouge, Lionel; Wiesmann, Christian; Sidhu, Sachdev S

    2013-06-26

    We compared the capacity of an autonomous heavy chain variable (VH) domain (VH-B1a) to support diversity within its antigen-binding site relative to the conventional antigen-binding fragment (Fab) from which it was derived. We find that VH-B1a can tolerate significant diversity within all three complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) and also within framework 3, and thus, VH-B1a and the Fab are similar in terms of the regions of the antigen-binding site that can tolerate diversity without compromising stability. We constructed libraries of synthetic VH domains and isolated binders with moderate affinity for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from a library in which only CDR3 was randomized. One binder was subjected to affinity maturation to derive an autonomous VH domain (VH-V1a) that recognized both human and mouse VEGF with high affinity (KD=16nM or 10nM, respectively). Structural analysis revealed that VH-V1a binds to an epitope that is distinct from the epitopes of a natural VEGF receptor and six different anti-VEGF Fabs. Moreover, VH-V1a recognizes VEGF by using an unusual paratope consisting predominantly of CDR3 but with significant contributions from framework residues within the former light chain interface. These results suggest that VH-B1a and other autonomous VH domains may be useful scaffolds to support both conventional libraries with antigen-binding sites built from the three CDR loops and, also, nonconventional libraries with antigen-binding sites built from CDR3 and the former light chain interface.

  6. Development of an Autonomous, Dual Chamber Bioreactor for the Growth of 3-Dimensional Epithelial-Stromal Tissues in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Wettergreen, Matthew A.; Huff, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a novel, autonomous bioreactor that can provide for the growth and maintenance in microgravity of 3-D organotypic epithelial-stromal cultures that require an air-liquid interface. These complex 3-D tissue models accurately represent the morphological features, differentiation markers, and growth characteristics observed in normal human epithelial tissues, including the skin, esophagus, lung, breast, pancreas, and colon. However, because of their precise and complex culture requirements, including that of an air-liquid interface, these 3-D models have yet to be utilized for life sciences research aboard the International Space Station. The development of a bioreactor for these cultures will provide the capability to perform biological research on the ISS using these realistic, tissue-like human epithelial-stromal cell models and will contribute significantly to advances in fundamental space biology research on questions regarding microgravity effects on normal tissue development, aging, cancer, and other disease processes. It will also allow for the study of how combined stressors, such as microgravity with radiation and nutritional deficiencies, affect multiple biological processes and will provide a platform for conducting countermeasure investigations on the ISS without the use of animal models. The technology will be autonomous and consist of a cell culture chamber that provides for air-liquid, liquid-liquid, and liquid-air exchanges within the chambers while maintaining the growth and development of the biological samples. The bioreactor will support multiple tissue types and its modular design will provide for incorporation of add-on capabilities such as microfluidics drug delivery, media sampling, and in situ biomarker analysis. Preliminary flight testing of the hardware will be conducted on a parabolic platform through NASA's Flight Opportunities Program.

  7. Potential role of human growth hormone in melanoma growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Handler, Marc Z; Ross, Andrew L; Shiman, Michael I; Elgart, George W; Grichnik, James M

    2012-10-01

    BACKGROUND Human growth hormone (HGH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been shown to play a role in the malignant transformation and progression of a variety of cancers. HGH is also known to upregulate molecular signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of melanoma. Although HGH has previously been implicated in promoting the clinical growth of both benign and malignant melanocytic neoplasms, to our knowledge there are no conclusive studies demonstrating an increased risk of melanoma following HGH therapy. Nevertheless, there are reports of melanoma developing subsequent to HGH coadministered with either other hormones or following irradiation. OBSERVATION A 49-year-old white man presented with a new pigmented papule that was diagnosed as melanoma. The patient reported using HGH for 3 months prior to the diagnosis. His 51-year-old wife, who also was white, had also been using exogenous HGH for 3 months and had been diagnosed as having a melanoma 2 weeks prior. CONCLUSIONS Given the unlikelihood of 2 unrelated people developing melanoma within a short time span, it is reasonable to assume that a common environmental component (HGH or other shared exposure) contributed to the development of both melanomas. Because of the increased use of exogenous HGH as an antiaging agent, it is important to be aware of the growth-promoting effects of this hormone. Until better data are available that determines the true risk of exogenous HGH, its use as an antiaging agent merits increased surveillance. PMID:23069955

  8. Growth hormone secretagogues: prospects and potential pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roy G; Sun, Yuxiang; Betancourt, Lorena; Asnicar, Mark

    2004-09-01

    The growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) are the first well-characterised agents that rejuvenate the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) axis. This property was discovered during investigations of the underlying causative mechanisms of age-related endocrine changes. Chronic administration of the long acting GHS, MK-0677, reverses the age-related decline in pulse-amplitude of GH secretion and restores IGF-1 levels producing profiles typical of young adults. This restoration is accompanied by improvements in body composition in frail elderly subjects. When given acutely, the GHSs also increase appetite. Following cloning and characterisation of the GHS-receptor (GHS-R) an endogenous ligand, ghrelin, was isolated and identified. Ghrelin shares the GH releasing and orexigenic properties of the GHSs. Studies using Ghsr-null mice confirmed that the GHS-R was the ghrelin-receptor; hence, the GHSs should be considered to be 'ghrelin mimetics.' Ghrelin levels are reported to decline during ageing, therefore long-acting GHSs are ideal candidates for ghrelin replacement therapy. PMID:15261841

  9. MeCP2 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Morphology through Non Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Conti, Valentina; Gandaglia, Anna; Galli, Francesco; Tirone, Mario; Bellini, Elisa; Campana, Lara; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Brunelli, Silvia; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affecting roughly 1 out of 10.000 born girls. Symptoms range in severity and include stereotypical movement, lack of spoken language, seizures, ataxia and severe intellectual disability. Notably, muscle tone is generally abnormal in RTT girls and women and the Mecp2-null mouse model constitutively reflects this disease feature. We hypothesized that MeCP2 in muscle might physiologically contribute to its development and/or homeostasis, and conversely its defects in RTT might alter the tissue integrity or function. We show here that a disorganized architecture, with hypotrophic fibres and tissue fibrosis, characterizes skeletal muscles retrieved from Mecp2-null mice. Alterations of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway accompany the muscle phenotype. A conditional mouse model selectively depleted of Mecp2 in skeletal muscles is characterized by healthy muscles that are morphologically and molecularly indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice raising the possibility that hypotonia in RTT is mainly, if not exclusively, mediated by non-cell autonomous effects. Our results suggest that defects in paracrine/endocrine signaling and, in particular, in the GH/IGF axis appear as the major cause of the observed muscular defects. Remarkably, this is the first study describing the selective deletion of Mecp2 outside the brain. Similar future studies will permit to unambiguously define the direct impact of MeCP2 on tissue dysfunctions.

  10. MeCP2 Affects Skeletal Muscle Growth and Morphology through Non Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Francesco; Tirone, Mario; Bellini, Elisa; Campana, Lara; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Brunelli, Silvia; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene and affecting roughly 1 out of 10.000 born girls. Symptoms range in severity and include stereotypical movement, lack of spoken language, seizures, ataxia and severe intellectual disability. Notably, muscle tone is generally abnormal in RTT girls and women and the Mecp2-null mouse model constitutively reflects this disease feature. We hypothesized that MeCP2 in muscle might physiologically contribute to its development and/or homeostasis, and conversely its defects in RTT might alter the tissue integrity or function. We show here that a disorganized architecture, with hypotrophic fibres and tissue fibrosis, characterizes skeletal muscles retrieved from Mecp2-null mice. Alterations of the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway accompany the muscle phenotype. A conditional mouse model selectively depleted of Mecp2 in skeletal muscles is characterized by healthy muscles that are morphologically and molecularly indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice raising the possibility that hypotonia in RTT is mainly, if not exclusively, mediated by non-cell autonomous effects. Our results suggest that defects in paracrine/endocrine signaling and, in particular, in the GH/IGF axis appear as the major cause of the observed muscular defects. Remarkably, this is the first study describing the selective deletion of Mecp2 outside the brain. Similar future studies will permit to unambiguously define the direct impact of MeCP2 on tissue dysfunctions. PMID:26098633

  11. Autonomic changes in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: toward a potential diagnostic biomarker?

    PubMed

    Reinsberger, Claus; Sarkis, Rani; Papadelis, Christos; Doshi, Chiran; Perez, David L; Baslet, Gaston; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Dworetzky, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are common in neuropsychiatric disorders. Disease specific alterations of both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity can be assessed by heart rate variability (HRV), whereas electrodermal activity (EDA) can assess sympathetic activity. In posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), parasympathetic HRV parameters are typically decreased and EDA is increased, whereas in major depressive disorder (MDD) and dissociation, both parasympathetic and sympathetic markers are decreased. ANS abnormalities have also been identified in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) by using HRV, indicating lower parasympathetic activity at baseline. In addition to reviewing the current literature on ANS abnormalities in PTSD, MDD, and disorders with prominent dissociation, including borderline personality disorder (BPD), this article also presents data from a pilot study on EDA in patients with PNES. Eleven patients with PNES, during an admission to our epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU), were compared with 9 with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). The area under the EDA curve, the number of EDA responses lasting longer than 2 seconds, and the number of EDA surges during sleep (sympathetic sleep storms) were calculated on ictal and interictal days by an automated algorithm. EDA changes in PNES patients did not follow a systematic pattern of sympathetic hyperarousal (like EDA after GTCS) but were more variable. How specific PNES semiologies, and/or underlying neuropsychiatric disorders, may influence ictal and interictal EDA patterns, and lead to a novel diagnostic biomarker remains to be evaluated in future larger studies. PMID:25780264

  12. Thermal design and turbidity sensor for autonomous bacterial growth measurements in spaceflight.

    PubMed

    van Benthem, Roel; Krooneman, Janneke; de Grave, Wubbo; Hammenga-Dorenbos, Hilma

    2009-04-01

    For application of biological air filters in manned spacecraft, research on bacterial growth is carried out under microgravity conditions. For the BIOFILTER experiment, flown in 2005 on FOTON M2, eight turbidity sensors to measure the growth rate of the bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 were used. Also thermal management provisions were implemented to control the internal temperature. The design and performance of the BIOFILTER equipment as well as results of the biological ground reference experiments performed in 2006 are discussed. High-performance thermal (vacuum) insulation (lambda= 0.7 mW/mK) and phase change material were implemented, keeping the BIOFILTER internal temperature below 16 degrees C during the 4-day integration period between transport and launch. After launch, in microgravity, the growth of X. autotrophicus GJ10 was successfully triggered by a temperature increase by using an internal heater to 26 degrees C. Although the operation of the sensor electronics was not fully satisfying, the bacterial growth was measured with the sensors, revealing growth rates between 0.046 and 0.077 h(-1) in microgravity, that is, approximately 1.5-2.5 times slower than routinely measured on Earth under optimal laboratory conditions. For the ground-reference experiments the equipment box, containing the eight sensors, was placed on a random positioning machine performing random rotations at 0.5 degrees /min (settling compensation) and 90 degrees /min (microgravity simulation) while the environment was controlled, accurately repeating the BIOFILTER internal temperature profile. Despite the rotation speed differences, growth rates of 0.115 h(-1) were confirmed by both the ground reference experiments. Biological interpretation of the measurements is, however, compromised owing to poor mixing and other unknown physical and biological phenomena that need to be addressed for further space experiments using these kinds of systems. PMID:19426313

  13. Water Potentials Induced by Growth in Soybean Hypocotyls

    PubMed Central

    Cavalieri, Anthony J.; Boyer, John S.

    1982-01-01

    Gradients in water potential form the driving force for the movement of water for cell enlargement. In stems, they are oriented radially around the vascular system but should also be present along the stem. To test this possibility, growth, water potential, osmotic potential, and turgor were determined at intervals along the length of dark-grown soybean (Glycine max L. Merr., cv. Wayne) hypocotyls. Transpiration was negligible in the dark, humid conditions, so that all water uptake was for growth. Elongation occurred in the terminal 1.5 centimeters of the hypocotyl. Water potential was −3.5 bars in the elongating region but −0.5 bar in the mature region, both in intact plants and detached tissue. There was a gradual transition between these values that was related to the growth profile along the hypocotyl. Tissue osmotic potentials generally paralleled tissue water potentials, so that turgor was the same throughout the length of the hypocotyl. If the elongating zone was excised, growth ceased immediately. If the elongating zone was excised along with mature tissue, however, growth continued, which confirmed the presence of a water-potential gradient that caused longitudinal water movement from the mature zone to the elongating zone. When the plants were grown in vermiculite having low water potentials, tissue water potentials and osmotic potentials both decreased, so that water potential gradients and turgor remained undiminished. It is concluded that growth-induced water potentials reflect the local activity for cell enlargement and are supported by appropriate osmotic potentials. PMID:16662235

  14. Cell non-autonomous regulation of hepatic IGF-1 and neonatal growth by Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lili; Costanzo-Garvey, Diane L.; Smith, Deandra R.; Zavorka, Megan E.; Venable-Kang, Megan; MacDonald, Richard G.; Lewis, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with poor postnatal growth are at risk for cardiovascular and metabolic problems as adults. Here we show that disruption of the molecular scaffold Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2) causes selective inhibition of hepatic GH signaling in neonatal mice with impaired expression of IGF-1 and IGFBP3. ksr2−/− mice are normal size at birth but show a marked increase in FGF21 accompanied by reduced body mass, shortened body length, and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) first evident during postnatal development. However, disrupting FGF21 in ksr2−/− mice does not normalize mass, length, or bone density and content in fgf21−/−ksr2−/− mice. Body length, BMC and BMD, but not body mass, are rescued by infection of two-day-old ksr2−/− mice with a recombinant adenovirus encoding human IGF-1. Relative to wild-type mice, GH injections reveal a significant reduction in JAK2 and STAT5 phosphorylation in liver, but not in skeletal muscle, of ksr2−/− mice. However, primary hepatocytes isolated from ksr2−/− mice show no reduction in GH-stimulated STAT5 phosphorylation. These data indicate that KSR2 functions in a cell non-autonomous fashion to regulate GH-stimulated IGF-1 expression in the liver of neonatal mice, which plays a key role in the development of body length. PMID:27561547

  15. Cell non-autonomous regulation of hepatic IGF-1 and neonatal growth by Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2).

    PubMed

    Guo, Lili; Costanzo-Garvey, Diane L; Smith, Deandra R; Zavorka, Megan E; Venable-Kang, Megan; MacDonald, Richard G; Lewis, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with poor postnatal growth are at risk for cardiovascular and metabolic problems as adults. Here we show that disruption of the molecular scaffold Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2) causes selective inhibition of hepatic GH signaling in neonatal mice with impaired expression of IGF-1 and IGFBP3. ksr2(-/-) mice are normal size at birth but show a marked increase in FGF21 accompanied by reduced body mass, shortened body length, and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) first evident during postnatal development. However, disrupting FGF21 in ksr2(-/-) mice does not normalize mass, length, or bone density and content in fgf21(-/-)ksr2(-/-) mice. Body length, BMC and BMD, but not body mass, are rescued by infection of two-day-old ksr2(-/-) mice with a recombinant adenovirus encoding human IGF-1. Relative to wild-type mice, GH injections reveal a significant reduction in JAK2 and STAT5 phosphorylation in liver, but not in skeletal muscle, of ksr2(-/-) mice. However, primary hepatocytes isolated from ksr2(-/-) mice show no reduction in GH-stimulated STAT5 phosphorylation. These data indicate that KSR2 functions in a cell non-autonomous fashion to regulate GH-stimulated IGF-1 expression in the liver of neonatal mice, which plays a key role in the development of body length. PMID:27561547

  16. Tubulin transport by IFT is upregulated during ciliary growth by a cilium-autonomous mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Craft, Julie M.; Harris, J. Aaron; Hyman, Sebastian; Kner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The assembly of the axoneme, the structural scaffold of cilia and flagella, requires translocation of a vast quantity of tubulin into the growing cilium, but the mechanisms that regulate the targeting, quantity, and timing of tubulin transport are largely unknown. In Chlamydomonas, GFP-tagged α-tubulin enters cilia as an intraflagellar transport (IFT) cargo and by diffusion. IFT-based transport of GFP-tubulin is elevated in growing cilia and IFT trains carry more tubulin. Cells possessing both nongrowing and growing cilia selectively target GFP-tubulin into the latter. The preferential delivery of tubulin boosts the concentration of soluble tubulin in the matrix of growing versus steady-state cilia. Cilia length mutants show abnormal kinetics of tubulin transport. We propose that cells regulate the extent of occupancy of IFT trains by tubulin cargoes. During ciliary growth, IFT concentrates soluble tubulin in cilia and thereby promotes elongation of the axonemal microtubules. PMID:25583998

  17. Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Racosta, Juan Manuel; Kimpinski, Kurt; Morrow, Sarah Anne; Kremenchutzky, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is a prevalent and significant cause of disability among patients with multiple sclerosis. Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis is usually explained by lesions within central nervous system regions responsible for autonomic regulation, but novel evidence suggests that other factors may be involved as well. Additionally, the interactions between the autonomic nervous system and the immune system have generated increased interest about the role of autonomic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In this paper we analyze systematically the most relevant signs and symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in MS, considering separately their potential causes and implications.

  18. Is There Hidden Potential for Rural Population Growth in Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Amcoff, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rural depopulation is a concern in many countries, and various policy initiatives have been taken to combat such trends. This article examines whether hidden potential for rural population growth can be found in Sweden. If such potential exists, it implies that the development prospects for many rural areas are not as unpromising as they may seem…

  19. Autonomic regulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in health and disease: potential clinical applications for altering BAT thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tupone, Domenico; Madden, Christopher J.; Morrison, Shaun F.

    2014-01-01

    From mouse to man, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a significant source of thermogenesis contributing to the maintenance of the body temperature homeostasis during the challenge of low environmental temperature. In rodents, BAT thermogenesis also contributes to the febrile increase in core temperature during the immune response. BAT sympathetic nerve activity controlling BAT thermogenesis is regulated by CNS neural networks which respond reflexively to thermal afferent signals from cutaneous and body core thermoreceptors, as well as to alterations in the discharge of central neurons with intrinsic thermosensitivity. Superimposed on the core thermoregulatory circuit for the activation of BAT thermogenesis, is the permissive, modulatory influence of central neural networks controlling metabolic aspects of energy homeostasis. The recent confirmation of the presence of BAT in human and its function as an energy consuming organ have stimulated interest in the potential for the pharmacological activation of BAT to reduce adiposity in the obese. In contrast, the inhibition of BAT thermogenesis could facilitate the induction of therapeutic hypothermia for fever reduction or to improve outcomes in stroke or cardiac ischemia by reducing infarct size through a lowering of metabolic oxygen demand. This review summarizes the central circuits for the autonomic control of BAT thermogenesis and highlights the potential clinical relevance of the pharmacological inhibition or activation of BAT thermogenesis. PMID:24570653

  20. Marital conflict and growth in children's internalizing symptoms: the role of autonomic nervous system activity.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Erath, Stephen; Dyer, W Justin

    2013-01-01

    We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms, indexed through anxiety and depression, with a focus on the role of interactions between interparental marital conflict, children's sympathetic nervous system activity indexed by skin conductance level (SCL), and parasympathetic nervous system activity indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as predictors of growth. Children participated in 3 waves of data collection with a 1-year lag between each wave. At T1, 128 girls and 123 boys participated (M age = 8.23 years; SD = 0.73). The most important findings reveal that girls with either low RSA in conjunction with low SCL (i.e., coinhibition) at baseline or with increasing RSA and decreasing SCL in response to a challenging task (i.e., reciprocal parasympathetic activation) are susceptible to high or escalating anxiety and depression symptoms, particularly in the context of marital conflict. Findings support the importance of concurrent examinations of environmental risk factors and physiological activity for better prediction of the development of anxiety and depression symptoms.

  1. Plans for the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope and Potential Coordinated Measurements with Kwajalein Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, Gene; Kervin, Paul; Mulrooney, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Orbital Debris Program Office is teaming with the US Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Maui Optical Site to deploy a moderate field-of-view, 1.3 m aperture, optical telescope for orbital debris applications. The telescope will be located on the island of Legan in the Kwajalein Atoll and is scheduled for completion in the Spring of 2011. The telescope is intended to sample both low inclination/high eccentricity orbits and near geosynchronous orbits. The telescope will have a 1 deg diagonal field-of-view on a 4K x 4K CCD. The telescope is expected to be able to detect 10-cm diameter debris at geosynchronous altitudes (5 sec exposure assuming a spherical specular phase function w/ albedo =0.13). Once operational, the telescope has the potential of conducting simultaneous observations with radars operated by the US Army at Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) and located on the island of Roi-Namur, approximately 55 km to the north of Legan. Four radars, representing 6 frequency bands, are available for use: ALTAIR (ARPA-Long Range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) operating at VHF & UHF, TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiment) operating at L-band and S-band, ALCOR (ARPA-Lincoln C-band Observables Radar) operating at S-band, and MMW (Millimeter Wave) Radar operating at Ka-band. Also potentially available is the X-band GBRP (Ground Based Radar-Prototype located 25 km to the southeast of Legan on the main island of Kwajalein.

  2. On the rational monodromy-free potentials with sextic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, J.; Veselov, A. P.

    2009-01-01

    We study the rational potentials V(x ), with sextic growth at infinity, such that the corresponding one-dimensional Schrödinger equation has no monodromy in the complex domain for all values of the spectral parameter. We investigate in detail the subclass of such potentials which can be constructed by the Darboux transformations from the well-known class of quasiexactly solvable potentials V =x6-νx2+l(l +1)/x2. We show that, in contrast with the case of quadratic growth, there are monodromy-free potentials which have quasirational eigenfunctions, but which cannot be given by this construction. We discuss the relations between the corresponding algebraic varieties and present some elementary solutions of the Calogero-Moser problem in the external field with sextic potential.

  3. Muskellunge growth potential in northern Wisconsin: implications for trophy management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faust, Matthew D.; Isermann, Daniel A.; Luehring, Mark A.; Hansen, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The growth potential of Muskellunge Esox masquinongy was evaluated by back-calculating growth histories from cleithra removed from 305 fish collected during 1995–2011 to determine whether it was consistent with trophy management goals in northern Wisconsin. Female Muskellunge had a larger mean asymptotic length (49.8 in) than did males (43.4 in). Minimum ultimate size of female Muskellunge (45.0 in) equaled the 45.0-in minimum length limit, but was less than the 50.0-in minimum length limit used on Wisconsin's trophy waters, while the minimum ultimate size of male Muskellunge (34.0 in) was less than the statewide minimum length limit. Minimum reproductive sizes for both sexes were less than Wisconsin's trophy minimum length limits. Mean growth potential of female Muskellunge in northern Wisconsin appears to be sufficient for meeting trophy management objectives and angler expectations. Muskellunge in northern Wisconsin had similar growth potential to those in Ontario populations, but lower growth potential than Minnesota's populations, perhaps because of genetic and environmental differences.

  4. Turgor and Growth at Low Water Potentials 1

    PubMed Central

    Nonami, Hiroshi; Boyer, John S.

    1989-01-01

    Turgor affects cell enlargement but has not been measured in enlarging tissue of intact plants when growth is inhibited by inadequate water. Mature or excised tissue can be problematic for these measurements because turgor may not be the same as in intact enlarging cells. Therefore, we measured the average turgor in the elongating region of intact stems of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) while the seedlings were exposed to low water potentials by transplanting to vermiculite of low water content. Stem growth was completely inhibited by the transplanting, and the average turgor decreased in the mature stem tissue. However, it did not decrease in the elongating region whether measured in intact or excised tissue (total of four methods). At the cellular level, turgor was uniform in the elongating tissue except at transplanting, when turgor decreased in a small number of cortical cells near the xylem. The reduced turgor in these cells, but constant turgor in most of the cells, confirmed that no general turgor loss had occurred but indicated that gradients in water potential extending from the xylem into the enlarging tissue were reduced, thus decreasing the movement of water into the tissue for cell enlargement. A modest growth recovery occurred after 2 days and was preceded by a recovery of the gradient. This suggests that under these conditions, growth initially was inhibited not by turgor loss but by a collapse of the water potential gradient necessary for the growth process. PMID:16666624

  5. Effect of Precipitation During Key Months on Forage Growth Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ranchers and range managers find themselves at the mercy of Mother Nature when making stocking decisions early in the spring. Most forage growth potential is determined by precipitation during key months in the spring (Heitschmidt et al., 1999) – often multiple spring months are important with resp...

  6. Well-posedness and long-time behavior of a non-autonomous Cahn-Hilliard-Darcy system with mass source modeling tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jie; Wu, Hao; Zheng, Songmu

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we study an initial boundary value problem of the Cahn-Hilliard-Darcy system with a non-autonomous mass source term S that models tumor growth. We first prove the existence of global weak solutions as well as the existence of unique local strong solutions in both 2D and 3D. Then we investigate the qualitative behavior of solutions in details when the spatial dimension is two. More precisely, we prove that the strong solution exists globally and it defines a closed dynamical process. Then we establish the existence of a minimal pullback attractor for translated bounded mass source S. Finally, when S is assumed to be asymptotically autonomous, we demonstrate that any global weak/strong solution converges to a single steady state as t → + ∞. An estimate on the convergence rate is also given.

  7. Improving estimates of tree mortality probability using potential growth rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, Adrian J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Tree growth rate is frequently used to estimate mortality probability. Yet, growth metrics can vary in form, and the justification for using one over another is rarely clear. We tested whether a growth index (GI) that scales the realized diameter growth rate against the potential diameter growth rate (PDGR) would give better estimates of mortality probability than other measures. We also tested whether PDGR, being a function of tree size, might better correlate with the baseline mortality probability than direct measurements of size such as diameter or basal area. Using a long-term dataset from the Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., as well as existing species-specific estimates of PDGR, we developed growth–mortality models for four common species. For three of the four species, models that included GI, PDGR, or a combination of GI and PDGR were substantially better than models without them. For the fourth species, the models including GI and PDGR performed roughly as well as a model that included only the diameter growth rate. Our results suggest that using PDGR can improve our ability to estimate tree survival probability. However, in the absence of PDGR estimates, the diameter growth rate was the best empirical predictor of mortality, in contrast to assumptions often made in the literature.

  8. Transpiration- and growth-induced water potentials in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Westgate, M.E.; Boyer, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Recent evidence from leaves and stems indicates that gradients in water potential (psi/sub w/) necessary for water movement through growing tissues are larger than previously assumed. Because growth is sensitive to tissue psi/sub w/ and the behavior of these gradients has not been investigated in transpiring plants, the authors examined the water status of all the growing and mature vegetative tissues of maize (Zea mays L.) during high and low rates of transpiration. The psi/sub w/ measured in the mature regions of the plant responded primarily to transpiration, while the psi/sub w/ in the growing regions was affected both by transpiration and growth. The transpiration-induced potentials of the mature tissue formed a gradient of decreasing psi/sub w/ along the transpiration stream while the growth-induced potentials formed a gradient of decreasing psi/sub w/ from the transpiration stream to the expanding cells in the growing tissue. The growth-induced gradient in psi/sub w/ within the leaf remained fairly constant as the xylem psi/sub w/ decreased during the day and was associated with a decreased osmotic potential (psi/sub s/) of the growing region (osmotic adjustment). The growth-induced gradient in psi/sub w/ was not caused by excision of the tissue because intact maize stems exhibited a similar psi/sub w/. These observations support the concept that large gradients in psi/sub w/ are required to maintain water flow to expanding cells within all the vegetative tissues and suggest that the maintenance of a favorable gradient in psi/sub w/ for cell enlargement may be an important role for osmotic adjustment. 33 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  9. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance.

  10. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  11. Autonomic neuropathies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    A limited autonomic neuropathy may underlie some unusual clinical syndromes, including the postural tachycardia syndrome, pseudo-obstruction syndrome, heat intolerance, and perhaps chronic fatigue syndrome. Antibodies to autonomic structures are common in diabetes, but their specificity is unknown. The presence of autonomic failure worsens prognosis in the diabetic state. Some autonomic neuropathies are treatable. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy may respond to liver transplantation. There are anecdotal reports of acute panautonomic neuropathy responding to intravenous gamma globulin. Orthostatic hypotension may respond to erythropoietin or midodrine.

  12. Potential Autonomic Risk Factors for Chronic TMD: Descriptive Data and Empirically Identified Domains from the OPPERA Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Maixner, William; Greenspan, Joel D.; Dubner, Ronald; Bair, Eric; Mulkey, Flora; Miller, Vanessa; Knott, Charles; Slade, Gary D.; Ohrbach, Richard; Diatchenko, Luda; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2011-01-01

    Several case-control studies have been conducted that examine the association between autonomic variables and persistent pain conditions; however, there is a surprising dearth of published studies in this area that have focused on temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The current study presents autonomic findings from the baseline case-control study of the OPPERA (Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment) cooperative agreement. Measures of arterial blood pressure, heart rate, heart rate variability, and indirect measures of baroreflex sensitivity were assessed at rest and in response to a physical (orthostatic) and psychological (Stroop) stressors in 1633 TMD-free controls and 185 TMD cases. In bivariate and demographically adjusted analyses, greater odds of TMD case status were associated with elevated heart rates, reduced heart rate variability, and reduced surrogate measures of baroreflex sensitivity across all experimental procedures. Principal component analysis was undertaken to identify latent constructs revealing five components. These findings provide evidence of associations between autonomic factors and TMD. Future prospective analyses in the OPPERA cohort will determine if the presence of these autonomic factors predicts increased risk for developing new onset TMD. PMID:22074754

  13. Therapeutic potential of growth factors and their antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Garner, A.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes studies with four peptides, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), gastrin-releasing peptide/bombesin (GRP), and gastrin. The mitogenic and anti-secretory activities of EGF/TGF alpha appear to be mediated by a single class of high-affinity membrane receptors but may involve different signal transducing mechanisms. Biological activity of EGF resides in the N-terminal 42 amino acid fragment with the C-terminal undecapeptide determining binding affinity. A parenteral depot formulation of an EGF-related peptide or a small molecule agonist of the EGF receptor could have utility in treating various ulcerative disorders of the gut. Although antagonism of EGF (and thus TGF alpha) receptors and/or transducing mechanisms is frequently cited as a potential therapeutic approach to hyperproliferative diseases, blocking the action of TGF alpha, GRP, or gastrin with neutralizing antibodies or receptor antagonists did not influence the growth of a wide range of solid tumors in nude mice. These findings suggest that, unless tumor growth displays absolute dependency on one particular mitogen, antagonism of a specific growth factor is unlikely to have great effect in cancer therapy. PMID:1341074

  14. Effect of autonomic blocking agents on the respiratory-related oscillations of ventricular action potential duration in humans

    PubMed Central

    van Duijvenboden, Stefan; Hanson, Ben; Child, Nick; Orini, Michele; Rinaldi, Christopher A.; Gill, Jaswinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular action potential duration (APD) is an important component of many physiological functions including arrhythmogenesis. APD oscillations have recently been reported in humans at the respiratory frequency. This study investigates the contribution of the autonomic nervous system to these oscillations. In 10 patients undergoing treatment for supraventricular arrhythmias, activation recovery intervals (ARI; a conventional surrogate for APD) were measured from multiple left and right ventricular (RV) endocardial sites, together with femoral artery pressure. Respiration was voluntarily regulated and heart rate clamped by RV pacing. Sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade was achieved using intravenous metoprolol and atropine, respectively. Metroprolol reduced the rate of pressure development (maximal change in pressure over time): 1,271 (± 646) vs. 930 (± 433) mmHg/s; P < 0.01. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) showed a trend to decrease after metoprolol, 133 (± 21) vs. 128 (± 25) mmHg; P = 0.06, and atropine infusion, 122 (± 26) mmHg; P < 0.05. ARI and SBP exhibited significant cyclical variations (P < 0.05) with respiration in all subjects with peak-to-peak amplitudes ranging between 0.7 and 17.0 mmHg and 1 and 16 ms, respectively. Infusion of metoprolol reduced the mean peak-to-peak amplitude [ARI, 6.2 (± 1.4) vs. 4.4 (± 1.0) ms, P = 0.008; SBP, 8.4 (± 1.6) vs. 6.2 (± 2.0) mmHg, P = 0.002]. The addition of atropine had no significant effect. ARI, SBP, and respiration showed significant coupling (P < 0.05) at the breathing frequency in all subjects. Directed coherence from respiration to ARI was high and reduced after metoprolol infusion [0.70 (± 0.17) vs. 0.50 (± 0.23); P < 0.05]. These results suggest a role of respiration in modulating the electrophysiology of ventricular myocardium in humans, which is partly, but not totally, mediated by β-adrenergic mechanisms. PMID:26475587

  15. Dally Proteoglycan Mediates the Autonomous and Nonautonomous Effects on Tissue Growth Caused by Activation of the PI3K and TOR Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana; Milán, Marco

    2015-01-01

    How cells acquiring mutations in tumor suppressor genes outcompete neighboring wild-type cells is poorly understood. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)–phosphatase with tensin homology (PTEN) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways are frequently activated in human cancer, and this activation is often causative of tumorigenesis. We utilized the Gal4-UAS system in Drosophila imaginal primordia, highly proliferative and growing tissues, to analyze the impact of restricted activation of these pathways on neighboring wild-type cell populations. Activation of these pathways leads to an autonomous induction of tissue overgrowth and to a remarkable nonautonomous reduction in growth and proliferation rates of adjacent cell populations. This nonautonomous response occurs independently of where these pathways are activated, is functional all throughout development, takes place across compartments, and is distinct from cell competition. The observed autonomous and nonautonomous effects on tissue growth rely on the up-regulation of the proteoglycan Dally, a major element involved in modulating the spreading, stability, and activity of the growth promoting Decapentaplegic (Dpp)/transforming growth factor β(TGF-β) signaling molecule. Our findings indicate that a reduction in the amount of available growth factors contributes to the outcompetition of wild-type cells by overgrowing cell populations. During normal development, the PI3K/PTEN and TSC/TOR pathways play a major role in sensing nutrient availability and modulating the final size of any developing organ. We present evidence that Dally also contributes to integrating nutrient sensing and organ scaling, the fitting of pattern to size. PMID:26313758

  16. Dally Proteoglycan Mediates the Autonomous and Nonautonomous Effects on Tissue Growth Caused by Activation of the PI3K and TOR Pathways.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana; Milán, Marco

    2015-08-01

    How cells acquiring mutations in tumor suppressor genes outcompete neighboring wild-type cells is poorly understood. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-phosphatase with tensin homology (PTEN) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways are frequently activated in human cancer, and this activation is often causative of tumorigenesis. We utilized the Gal4-UAS system in Drosophila imaginal primordia, highly proliferative and growing tissues, to analyze the impact of restricted activation of these pathways on neighboring wild-type cell populations. Activation of these pathways leads to an autonomous induction of tissue overgrowth and to a remarkable nonautonomous reduction in growth and proliferation rates of adjacent cell populations. This nonautonomous response occurs independently of where these pathways are activated, is functional all throughout development, takes place across compartments, and is distinct from cell competition. The observed autonomous and nonautonomous effects on tissue growth rely on the up-regulation of the proteoglycan Dally, a major element involved in modulating the spreading, stability, and activity of the growth promoting Decapentaplegic (Dpp)/transforming growth factor β(TGF-β) signaling molecule. Our findings indicate that a reduction in the amount of available growth factors contributes to the outcompetition of wild-type cells by overgrowing cell populations. During normal development, the PI3K/PTEN and TSC/TOR pathways play a major role in sensing nutrient availability and modulating the final size of any developing organ. We present evidence that Dally also contributes to integrating nutrient sensing and organ scaling, the fitting of pattern to size.

  17. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens during cooling of cooked meats.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Peter J; Dorsa, Warren J

    2004-07-01

    Many meat-based food products are cooked to temperatures sufficient to inactivate vegetative cells of Clostridium perfringens, but spores of this bacterium can survive, germinate, and grow in these products if sufficient time, temperature, and other variables exist. Because ingestion of large numbers of vegetative cells can lead to concomitant sporulation, enterotoxin release in the gastrointestinal tract, and diarrhea-like illness, a necessary food safety objective is to ensure that not more than acceptable levels of C. perfringens are in finished products. As cooked meat items cool they will pass through the growth temperature range of C. perfringens (50 to 15 degrees C). Therefore, an important step in determining the likely level of C. perfringens in the final product is the estimation of growth of the pathogen during cooling of the cooked product. Numerous studies exist dealing with just such estimations, yet consensual methodologies, results, and conclusions are lacking. There is a need to consider the bulk of C. perfringens work relating to cooling of cooked meat-based products and attempt to move toward a better understanding of the true growth potential of the organism. This review attempts to summarize observations made by researchers and highlight variations in experimental approach as possible explanations for different outcomes. An attempt is also made here to identify and justify optimal procedures for conducting C. perfringens growth estimation in meat-based cooked food products during cooling. PMID:15270517

  18. Growth characteristics of virulent Bacillus anthracis and potential surrogate strains.

    PubMed

    De Siano, Tara; Padhi, Sally; Schaffner, Donald W; Montville, Thomas J

    2006-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare generation and lag times of virulent Bacillus anthracis strains with those of other Bacillus strains, to identify possible surrogates for growth studies, and to determine if the B. cereus module of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pathogen Modeling Program (PMP) had predictive value for B. anthracis. Growth characteristics of B. anthracis, B. cereus, B. mycoides, and B. subtilis strains in brain heart infusion broth at pH 6.5, 6.0, and 5.5 were determined by absorbance measurements. Growth curves of B. anthracis Sterne and B. cereus strains appeared similar, and the generation times for strain Sterne fell within the PMP's 95% confidence interval for B. cereus. However, the virulent B. anthracis strains Vollum and Pasteur had shorter generation times than the avirulent Sterne strain and most other surrogates and were lower than the PMP's 95% confidence interval for B. cereus. Growth curves of B. cereus ATCC 9818 and B. subtilis ATCC 6633 were more similar to those of virulent B. anthracis strains, but all potential surrogates had significantly different generation times and lag times under some conditions.

  19. Putative floral brood-site mimicry, loss of autonomous selfing, and reduced vegetative growth are significantly correlated with increased diversification in Asarum (Aristolochiaceae).

    PubMed

    Sinn, Brandon T; Kelly, Lawrence M; Freudenstein, John V

    2015-08-01

    The drivers of angiosperm diversity have long been sought and the flower-arthropod association has often been invoked as the most powerful driver of the angiosperm radiation. We now know that features that influence arthropod interactions cannot only affect the diversification of lineages, but also expedite or constrain their rate of extinction, which can equally influence the observed asymmetric richness of extant angiosperm lineages. The genus Asarum (Aristolochiaceae; ∼100 species) is widely distributed in north temperate forests, with substantial vegetative and floral divergence between its three major clades, Euasarum, Geotaenium, and Heterotropa. We used Binary-State Speciation and Extinction Model (BiSSE) Net Diversification tests of character state distributions on a Maximum Likelihood phylogram and a Coalescent Bayesian species tree, inferred from seven chloroplast markers and nuclear rDNA, to test for signal of asymmetric diversification, character state transition, and extinction rates of floral and vegetative characters. We found that reduction in vegetative growth, loss of autonomous self-pollination, and the presence of putative fungal-mimicking floral structures are significantly correlated with increased diversification in Asarum. No significant difference in model likelihood was identified between symmetric and asymmetric rates of character state transitions or extinction. We conclude that the flowers of the Heterotropa clade may have converged on some aspects of basidiomycete sporocarp morphology and that brood-site mimicry, coupled with a reduction in vegetative growth and the loss of autonomous self-pollination, may have driven diversification within Asarum.

  20. Algal Growth Potential of Microcystis aeruginosa from Reclaimed Water.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jin Chul; Ahn, Chang Hyuk; Lee, Saeromi; Jang, Dae-Gyu; Lee, Woo Hyoung; Ryu, Byong Ro

    2016-01-01

    Algal growth potential (AGP) of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa, NIES-298) using reclaimed water from various wastewater reclamation pilot plants was investigated to evaluate the feasibility of the reclaimed water usage for recreational purposes. After completing the coagulation and ultrafiltration processes, the concentrations of most contaminants in the reclaimed water were lower than the reuse guidelines for recreational water. However, M. aeruginosa successfully adapted to low levels of soluble reactive phosphorus (PO(3-)(4)) concentrations. The AGP values of M. aeruginosa decreased with the progression of treatment processes, and with the increases in the dilution volume. Also, both the AGP and chlorophyll-a values can be estimated a priori without conducting the AGP tests. Therefore, aquatic ecosystems in locations prone to environmental conditions favorable for the growth of M. aeruginosa require more rigorous nutrient management plans (e.g., reverse osmosis and dilution with clean water resources) to reduce the nutrient availability. PMID:26803027

  1. Nutritionally directed compensatory growth enhances heifer development and lactation potential.

    PubMed

    Ford, J A; Park, C S

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the interactive influence of a compensatory nutrition regimen and lasalocid supplementation on dairy heifer growth performance and 2) to document the extent to which compensatory growth sustains lactation potential over the first two lactation cycles. Twelve Holstein heifers, weighing an average of 160 kg (about 6 mo of age) were randomly assigned to treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Treatment variables were two dietary regimens (control and stair-step compensatory nutrition) and two levels of lasalocid (0 and 200 mg/d). The control heifers were fed a diet containing 12% crude protein (CP) and 2.35 Mcal of metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram of dry matter. The stair-step compensatory nutrition heifers were subjected to a phased nutrition regimen and reared according to an alternating 3-2-4-3-4-2-mo schedule. The first stair-step (prepubertal phase) consisted of energy restriction [17% CP and 2.35 Mcal/kg of ME] for 3 mo followed by realimentation (12% CP and 3.05 Mcal/kg of ME) for 2 mo. The second step (puberty and breeding) consisted of energy restriction for 4 mo followed by realimentation for 3 mo. The third step (gestation period) was energy restriction for 4 mo concluding with realimentation for 2 mo. Dry matter intake of heifers during the restriction phase was limited to 70% of the control intake. Heifers were given ad libitum access to a high energy density diet during realimentation to allow compensatory development. Stair-step heifers supplemented with lasalocid had the highest efficiency of growth (body weight gain/dry matter intake), suggesting synergistic metabolism of lasalocid with compensatory growth action. Compensatory growth induced during the last trimester enhanced metabolic status by increasing circulating insulin and decreasing triglyceride levels. Heifers on the stair-step regimen had a significant increase in milk yield during the first (21%) and second (15%) lactation

  2. Towards autonomous fuzzy control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenoi, Sujeet; Ramer, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    The efficient implementation of on-line adaptation in real time is an important research problem in fuzzy control. The goal is to develop autonomous self-organizing controllers employing system-independent control meta-knowledge which enables them to adjust their control policies depending on the systems they control and the environments in which they operate. An autonomous fuzzy controller would continuously observe system behavior while implementing its control actions and would use the outcomes of these actions to refine its control policy. It could be designed to lie dormant when its control actions give rise to adequate performance characteristics but could rapidly and autonomously initiate real-time adaptation whenever its performance degrades. Such an autonomous fuzzy controller would have immense practical value. It could accommodate individual variations in system characteristics and also compensate for degradations in system characteristics caused by wear and tear. It could also potentially deal with black-box systems and control scenarios. On-going research in autonomous fuzzy control is reported. The ultimate research objective is to develop robust and relatively inexpensive autonomous fuzzy control hardware suitable for use in real time environments.

  3. Phytosulfokine control of growth occurs in the epidermis, is likely to be non-cell autonomous and is dependent on brassinosteroids.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Jens; Stührwohldt, Nils; Dahlke, Renate I; Sauter, Margret

    2013-02-01

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) is a secreted disulfated pentapeptide that controls root and shoot growth. The ubiquitous expression of PSK precursor and of the LRR receptor kinase genes in Arabidopsis raised the question of whether PSK acts as an autocrine growth factor in planta. Expression of PSKR1 under the control of tissue- and cell type-specific promoters in a receptor null background strongly suggests that PSK is a non-cell autonomous signal that controls growth through localized activity in the epidermis. pskr1-3 pskr2-1 seedlings had shorter roots and hypocotyls than the wild type, whereas 35S: PSKR1 or 35S: PSKR2 seedlings were larger, indicating that receptor abundance limits growth in planta. The preferential expression of PSKR1 in the epidermis of CER6: PSKR1 pskr1-3 pskr2-1 seedlings was sufficient to promote wild-type growth. Moreover, in GL2:PSKR1 pskr1-3 pskr2-1 seedlings that express PSKR1 in atrichoblasts of the root epidermis, root growth was restored to wild-type levels. In pskr1-3 pskr2-1 seedlings, trichoblasts and atrichoblasts were shorter than in the wild type. Trichoblasts of GL2:PSKR1 pskr1-3 pskr2-1 seedlings, which are unable to sense PSK, nonetheless had acquired wild-type length, suggesting that PSK acts as a non-cell autonomous signal. Inhibition of brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis with brassinazole (BZ) caused a loss of responsiveness to PSK in wild-type, tpst-1 (tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-1), PSKR1ox12 and CER6:PSKR1-3-1 seedlings, as did the genetic knock-out of BR synthesis in det2-1 and of BR perception in bri1-9, suggesting that BR mediates PSK-dependent growth. Quantitative PCR analysis of BR-related genes in wild-type, pskr1-3 pskr2-1, PSKR1ox and tpst-1 seedlings showed largely unchanged transcript levels of BR biosynthesis genes.

  4. Root pressurization affects growth-induced water potentials and growth in dehydrated maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Tang, An-Ching; Boyer, John S

    2003-11-01

    Profiles of water potential (Psi w) were measured from the soil to the tips of growing leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) when pressure (P) was applied to the soil/root system. At moderately low soil Psi w, leaf elongation was somewhat inhibited, large tensions existed in the xylem, and Psi w were slightly lower in the elongating leaf tissues than in the xylem, i.e. a growth-induced Psi w was present but small. With P, the tension was relieved, enlarging the difference in Psi w between the xylem and the elongating tissues, i.e. enlarging the growth-induced Psi w, which is critical for growth. Guttation occurred, confirming the high Psi w of the xylem, and the mature leaf tissue rehydrated. Water uptake increased and met the requirements of transpiration. Leaf elongation recovered to control rates. Under more severe conditions at lower soil Psi w, P induced only a brief elongation and the growth-induced Psi w responded only slightly. Guttation did not occur, water flow did not meet the requirements of transpiration, and the mature leaf tissues did not rehydrate. A rewatering experiment indicated that a low conductance existed in the severely dehydrated soil, which limited water delivery to the root and shoot. Therefore, the initial growth inhibition appeared to be hydraulic because the enlargement of the growth-induced Psi w by P together with rehydration of the mature leaf tissue were essential for growth recovery. In more severe conditions, P was ineffective because the soil could not supply water at the required rate, and metabolic factors began to contribute to the inhibition. PMID:14512379

  5. Skeletal muscle-specific eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α phosphorylation controls amino acid metabolism and fibroblast growth factor 21-mediated non-cell-autonomous energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Masato; Nomura, Akitoshi; Ogura, Atsushi; Takehana, Kenji; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Takahara, Kazuna; Tsugawa, Kazue; Miyamoto, Chinobu; Miura, Naoko; Sato, Ryosuke; Kurahashi, Kiyoe; Harding, Heather P; Oyadomari, Miho; Ron, David; Oyadomari, Seiichi

    2016-02-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) phosphorylation-dependent integrated stress response (ISR), a component of the unfolded protein response, has long been known to regulate intermediary metabolism, but the details are poorly worked out. We report that profiling of mRNAs of transgenic mice harboring a ligand-activated skeletal muscle-specific derivative of the eIF2α protein kinase R-like ER kinase revealed the expected up-regulation of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport but also uncovered the induced expression and secretion of a myokine, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), that stimulates energy consumption and prevents obesity. The link between the ISR and FGF21 expression was further reinforced by the identification of a small-molecule ISR activator that promoted Fgf21 expression in cell-based screens and by implication of the ISR-inducible activating transcription factor 4 in the process. Our findings establish that eIF2α phosphorylation regulates not only cell-autonomous proteostasis and amino acid metabolism, but also affects non-cell-autonomous metabolic regulation by induced expression of a potent myokine.

  6. Phosphodiesterase 4D Inhibitors Limit Prostate Cancer Growth Potential

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Ginny L.; Hammer, Kimberly D.P.; Domenech, Maribella; Frantskevich, Katsiaryna; Malinowski, Rita L.; Bushman, Wade; Beebe, David J.; Marker, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) has recently been implicated as a proliferation-promoting factor in prostate cancer and is over-expressed in human prostate carcinoma. However, the effects of PDE4D inhibition using pharmacological inhibitors have not been examined in prostate cancer. These studies examined the effects of selective PDE4D inhibitors, NVP-ABE171 and cilomilast, as anti-prostate cancer therapies in both in vitro and in vivo models. The effects of PDE4D inhibitors on pathways that are critical in prostate cancer and/or downstream of cyclic AMP (cAMP) were examined. Both NVP-ABE171 and cilomilast decreased cell growth. In vitro, PDE4D inhibitors lead to decreased signaling of the sonic hedgehog (SHH), Androgen Receptor (AR), and MAPK pathways, but growth inhibition was best correlated to the sonic hedgehog pathway. PDE4D inhibition also reduced proliferation of epithelial cells induced by paracrine signaling from co-cultured stromal cells that had activated hedgehog signaling. In addition, PDE4D inhibitors decreased the weight of the prostate in wild-type mice. Prostate cancer xenografts grown in nude mice that were treated with cilomilast or NVP-ABE171 had decreased wet weight and increased apoptosis compared to vehicle treated controls. These studies suggest the pharmacological inhibition of PDE4D using small molecule inhibitors is an effective option for prostate cancer therapy. Implications PDE4D inhibitors decrease the growth of prostate cancer cells in vivo and in vitro, and PDE4D inhibition has therapeutic potential in prostate cancer. PMID:25149359

  7. Growth-induced water potentials originate from wall yielding during growth.

    PubMed

    Boyer, J S

    2001-07-01

    Multicellular plants display growth-induced water potentials that generate tensions on water in the apoplast and move water into the growing cells. The potentials are sometimes assumed to arise from wall yielding, keeping the turgor pressure below what otherwise would occur. There has been no direct test of this theory, and therefore whole plants or growing regions of stems (hypocotyls) of dark-grown soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) seedlings were sealed in a pressure chamber, and wall yielding was decreased by applying external pressure. In whole plants, external pressure had little effect because the plants and water supply were uniformly exposed to the pressure. If pressure was applied to the stem while the roots were outside in water, stem elongation was markedly inhibited because the pressure raised the water potential of the growing region and decreased water entry, reducing wall yielding. Further increasing the pressure prevented water entry completely and measured the tensions in the apoplast in the same growing regions. Tensions were about 0.19 MPa at low external pressure, but diminished as wall yielding was inhibited. At external pressures of about 0.63 MPa, wall yielding was abolished and tensions approached zero. There was a linear relation between wall yielding and tension, supporting the theory that wall yielding lowers the turgor thus causing most of the growth-induced water potential.

  8. Autonomous isolation, long-term culture and differentiation potential of adult salivary gland-derived stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hyunjung; Noh, Yoo Hun; Lee, Joo Hee; Yeon, Soo-In; Jeong, Jaemin; Kwon, Heechung

    2014-09-01

    Salivary gland stem/progenitor cells belong to the endodermal lineage and may serve as good candidates to replace their dysfunctional counterparts. The objective of this study was to isolate large numbers of salivary gland tissue-derived stem cells (SGSCs) from adult rats in order to develop a clinically applicable method that does not involve sorting or stem cell induction by duct ligation. We analysed SGSCs isolated from normal rat salivary glands to determine whether they retained the major characteristics of stem cells, self-renewal and multipotency, especially with respect to the various endodermal cell types. SGSCs expressed high levels of integrin α6β1 and c-kit, which are surface markers of SGSCs. In particular, the integrin α6β1(+) /c-kit(+) salivary gland cells maintained the morphology, proliferation activity and multipotency of stem cells for up to 92 passages in 12 months. Furthermore, we analysed the capacity of SGSCs to differentiate into endoderm lineage cell types, such as acinar-like and insulin-secreting cells. When cultured on growth factor reduced matrigel, the morphology of progenitor cells changed to acinar-like structures and these cells expressed the acinar cell-specific marker, α-amylase, and tight junction markers. Moreover, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) data showed increased expression of pancreatic cell markers, including insulin, Pdx1, pan polypeptide and neurogenin-3, when these cells formed pancreatic clusters in the presence of activin A, exendin-4 and retinoic acid. These data demonstrate that adult salivary stem/progenitor cells may serve as a potential source for cell therapy in salivary gland hypofunction and diabetes.

  9. Autonomous Soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Victor P.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the autonomous soaring flight of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). It reviews energy sources for UAVs, and two examples of UAV's that used alternative energy sources, and thermal currents for soaring. Examples of flight tests, plans, and results are given. Ultimately, the concept of a UAV harvesting energy from the atmosphere has been shown to be feasible with existing technology.

  10. Individual insurance: health insurers try to tap potential market growth.

    PubMed

    November, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Genna R; Ginsburg, Paul B; Quinn, Brian C

    2009-11-01

    Individual insurance is the only source of health coverage for people without access to employer-sponsored insurance or public insurance. Individual insurance traditionally has been sought by older, sicker individuals who perceive the need for insurance more than younger, healthier people. The attraction of a sicker population to the individual market creates adverse selection, leading insurers to employ medical underwriting--which most states allow--to either avoid those with the greatest health needs or set premiums more reflective of their expected medical use. Recently, however, several factors have prompted insurers to recognize the growth potential of the individual market: a declining proportion of people with employer-sponsored insurance, a sizeable population of younger, healthier people forgoing insurance, and the likelihood that many people receiving subsidies to buy insurance under proposed health insurance reforms would buy individual coverage. Insurers are pursuing several strategies to expand their presence in the individual insurance market, including entering less-regulated markets, developing lower-cost, less-comprehensive products targeting younger, healthy consumers, and attracting consumers through the Internet and other new distribution channels, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Insurers' strategies in the individual insurance market are unlikely to meet the needs of less-than-healthy people seeking affordable, comprehensive coverage. Congressional health reform proposals, which envision a larger role for the individual market under a sharply different regulatory framework, would likely supersede insurers' current individual market strategies. PMID:19899193

  11. Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future NASA space crafts will be able to safely land on the Moon, Marsand even an asteroid, in potentially hazardous terrain areas, allautonomously. And NASA’s Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidan...

  12. The autonomous growth of human papillomavirus type 16-immortalized keratinocytes is related to the endothelin-1 autocrine loop.

    PubMed

    Venuti, A; Marcante, M L; Flamini, S; Di Castro, V; Bagnato, A

    1997-09-01

    Some human papillomaviruses (HPVs) such as HPV type 16 (HPV16) and HPV18 are involved in cervical carcinoma, and they can immortalize and transform keratinocytes. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is produced in keratinocytes and has been shown to act through ETA receptors as an autocrine growth factor for keratinocytes. This study examines whether HPV16 alters the ET-1-mediated autocrine loop in human keratinocytes, providing a selective growth advantage for transformed cells. ET-1 is released in similar amounts from normal and HPV-transfected keratinocytes. All HPV-transfected cell lines express high-affinity ETA receptors. A two-fold increase in ET-1 binding sites is present in HPV16-immortalized keratinocytes, and this effect seems to be linked to the overexpression of mRNA for this receptor rather than to differences in the surface/internalized ratio of the receptors. ET-1 induces significant increases in [3H]thymidine incorporation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, HPV-transfected keratinocytes can proliferate in the absence of any growth factor added to the growth medium, and the ETA receptor antagonist BQ123 prevents this proliferation. These data suggest a new mechanism in the growth control of HPV-transformed cells mediated by the upregulation of ET-1 autocrine loop.

  13. The Drosophila insulin-degrading enzyme restricts growth by modulating the PI3K pathway in a cell-autonomous manner

    PubMed Central

    Galagovsky, Diego; Katz, Maximiliano J.; Acevedo, Julieta M.; Sorianello, Eleonora; Glavic, Alvaro; Wappner, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) cleaves insulin, among other peptidic substrates, but its function in insulin signaling is elusive. We use the Drosophila system to define the function of IDE in the regulation of growth and metabolism. We find that either loss or gain of function of Drosophila IDE (dIDE) can restrict growth in a cell-autonomous manner by affecting both cell size and cell number. dIDE can modulate Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 levels, thereby restricting activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate kinase pathway and promoting activation of Drosophila forkhead box, subgroup O transcription factor. Larvae reared in high sucrose exhibit delayed developmental timing due to insulin resistance. We find that dIDE loss of function exacerbates this phenotype and that mutants display increased levels of circulating sugar, along with augmented expression of a lipid biosynthesis marker. We propose that dIDE is a modulator of insulin signaling and that its loss of function favors insulin resistance, a hallmark of diabetes mellitus type II. PMID:24430872

  14. The Drosophila insulin-degrading enzyme restricts growth by modulating the PI3K pathway in a cell-autonomous manner.

    PubMed

    Galagovsky, Diego; Katz, Maximiliano J; Acevedo, Julieta M; Sorianello, Eleonora; Glavic, Alvaro; Wappner, Pablo

    2014-03-01

    Mammalian insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) cleaves insulin, among other peptidic substrates, but its function in insulin signaling is elusive. We use the Drosophila system to define the function of IDE in the regulation of growth and metabolism. We find that either loss or gain of function of Drosophila IDE (dIDE) can restrict growth in a cell-autonomous manner by affecting both cell size and cell number. dIDE can modulate Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 levels, thereby restricting activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate kinase pathway and promoting activation of Drosophila forkhead box, subgroup O transcription factor. Larvae reared in high sucrose exhibit delayed developmental timing due to insulin resistance. We find that dIDE loss of function exacerbates this phenotype and that mutants display increased levels of circulating sugar, along with augmented expression of a lipid biosynthesis marker. We propose that dIDE is a modulator of insulin signaling and that its loss of function favors insulin resistance, a hallmark of diabetes mellitus type II.

  15. Growth reproductive potential and control strategies for deeproot sedge (Cyperus entreianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse, growth chamber, and field studies were conducted at Stoneville, MS in 2000-2008 to determine the growth rate, reproductive and overwintering potential, and control of deeproot sedge. In growth chamber studies, deeproot sedge growth rate (height) and plant dry weights were greatest for 2...

  16. Autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, A.L.; Blidberg, D.R.; Michelson, R.C. |

    1996-08-01

    There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

  17. Identification of potential genetic markers for improved growth rate in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of genetic polymorphism associated with muscle growth would improve selection efficiency of channel catfish broodstock. Because faster growth is typically associated with increased food intake, factors involved in food intake regulation may serve as potential gene markers for selecti...

  18. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  19. Gene Expression of Growth Factors and Growth Factor Receptors for Potential Targeted Therapy of Canine Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    IIDA, Gentoku; ASANO, Kazushi; SEKI, Mamiko; SAKAI, Manabu; KUTARA, Kenji; ISHIGAKI, Kumiko; KAGAWA, Yumiko; YOSHIDA, Orie; TESHIMA, Kenji; EDAMURA, Kazuya; WATARI, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors of primary hepatic masses, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and nodular hyperplasia (NH), in dogs. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression of 18 genes in 18 HCCs, 10 NHs, 11 surrounding non-cancerous liver tissues and 4 healthy control liver tissues. Platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B), transforming growth factor-α, epidermal growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor were found to be differentially expressed in HCC compared with NH and the surrounding non-cancerous and healthy control liver tissues. PDGF-B is suggested to have the potential to become a valuable ancillary target for the treatment of canine HCC. PMID:24189579

  20. Autonomous control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    KSC has been developing the Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE), which is a tool for performing automated monitoring, diagnosis, and control of electromechanical devices. KATE employs artificial intelligence computing techniques to perform these functions. The KATE system consists of a generic shell and a knowledge base. The KATE shell is the portion of the system which performs the monitoring, diagnosis, and control functions. It is generic in the sense that it is application independent. This means that the monitoring activity, for instance, will be performed with the same algorithms regardless of the particular physical device being used. The knowledge base is the portion of the system which contains specific functional and behavorial information about the physical device KATE is working with. Work is nearing completion on a project at KSC to interface a Texas Instruments Explorer running a LISP version of KATE with a Generic Checkout System (GCS) test-bed to control a physical simulation of a shuttle tanking system (humorously called the Red Wagon because of its color and mobility). The Autonomous Control System (ACS) project supplements and extends the KATE/GCS project by adding three other major activities. The activities include: porting KATE from the Texas Instruments Explorer machine to an Intel 80386-based UNIX workstation in the LISP language; rewriting KATE as necessary to run on the same 80386 workstation but in the Ada language; and investigating software and techniques to translate ANSI Standard Common LISP to Mil Standard Ada. Primary goals of this task are as follows: (1) establish the advantages of using expert systems to provide intelligent autonomous software for Space Station Freedom applications; (2) determine the feasibility of using Ada as the run-time environment for model-based expert systems; (3) provide insight into the advantages and disadvantagesof using LISP or Ada in the run-time environment for expert systems; and (4

  1. INL Autonomous Navigation System

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Autonomous Navigation System provides instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The system permits high-speed autonomous navigation including obstacle avoidance, waypoing navigation and path planning in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  2. (Metabolic mechanisms of plant growth at low water potentials)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The work supported by DOE showed that water-limitation inhibits plant growth first by imposing a physical limitation that is followed in a few h by metabolic changes leading to reduced wall extensibility in the enlarging cells. After the wall extensibility decreased, a 28kD protein accumulated particularly in the walls of the growth-affected cells. Antibodies were used to identify cDNA for the protein. The base sequence of the cDNA was typical of an enzyme rather than known structural components of walls. The sequence was identical to one published by another laboratory at the same time and encoding a protein that accumulates in vacuoles of depodded soybean plants.

  3. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of an autonomic neuropathy in the developed world. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy causes a constellation of symptoms and signs affecting cardiovascular, urogenital, gastrointestinal, pupillomotor, thermoregulatory, and sudomotor systems. Several discrete syndromes associated with diabetes cause autonomic dysfunction. The most prevalent of these are: generalized diabetic autonomic neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy associated with the prediabetic state, treatment-induced painful and autonomic neuropathy, and transient hypoglycemia-associated autonomic neuropathy. These autonomic manifestations of diabetes are responsible for the most troublesome and disabling features of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and result in a significant proportion of the mortality and morbidity associated with the disease.

  4. Projected Demand and Potential Impacts to the National Airspace System of Autonomous, Electric, On-Demand Small Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.; Hartman, Christopher L.; Kwa, Teck-Seng; Moore, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Electric propulsion and autonomy are technology frontiers that offer tremendous potential to achieve low operating costs for small-aircraft. Such technologies enable simple and safe to operate vehicles that could dramatically improve regional transportation accessibility and speed through point-to-point operations. This analysis develops an understanding of the potential traffic volume and National Airspace System (NAS) capacity for small on-demand aircraft operations. Future demand projections use the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM), a tool suite developed by NASA and the Transportation Laboratory of Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Demand projections from TSAM contain the mode of travel, number of trips and geographic distribution of trips. For this study, the mode of travel can be commercial aircraft, automobile and on-demand aircraft. NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) is used to assess NAS impact. This simulation takes a schedule that includes all flights: commercial passenger and cargo; conventional General Aviation and on-demand small aircraft, and operates them in the simulated NAS. The results of this analysis projects very large trip numbers for an on-demand air transportation system competitive with automobiles in cost per passenger mile. The significance is this type of air transportation can enhance mobility for communities that currently lack access to commercial air transportation. Another significant finding is that the large numbers of operations can have an impact on the current NAS infrastructure used by commercial airlines and cargo operators, even if on-demand traffic does not use the 28 airports in the Continental U.S. designated as large hubs by the FAA. Some smaller airports will experience greater demand than their current capacity allows and will require upgrading. In addition, in future years as demand grows and vehicle performance improves other non-conventional facilities such as short runways incorporated into

  5. An overview of reliability growth models and their potential use for NASA applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneja, V. S.; Safie, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is provided of reliability growth literature over the past 25 years. This includes a thorough literature review of different areas of the application of reliability growth such as design, prediction, tracking/management, and demonstration. Various reliability growth models use different bases on how they characterize growth. Different models are discussed. Also, the use is addressed of reliability growth models to NASA applications. This includes the application of these models to the space shuttle main engine. For potential NASA applications, we classify growth models in two groups, which are characterized.

  6. The Shark Strikes Twice: Hypervariable Loop 2 of Shark IgNAR Antibody Variable Domains and Its Potential to Function as an Autonomous Paratope.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Stefan; Empting, Martin; Könning, Doreen; Grzeschik, Julius; Krah, Simon; Becker, Stefan; Dickgießer, Stephan; Kolmar, Harald

    2015-08-01

    In this present study, we engineered hypervariable loop 2 (HV2) of the IgNAR variable domain in a way that it solely facilitates antigen binding, potentially functioning as an autonomous paratope. For this, the surface-exposed loop corresponding to HV2 was diversified and antigen-specific variable domain of IgNAR antibody (vNAR) molecules were isolated by library screening using yeast surface display (YSD) as platform technology. An epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-specific vNAR was used as starting material, and nine residues in HV2 were randomized. Target-specific clones comprising a new HV2-mediated paratope were isolated against cluster of differentiation 3ε (CD3ε) and human Fcγ while retaining high affinity for EpCAM. Essentially, we demonstrate that a new paratope comprising moderate affinities against a given target molecule can be engineered into the vNAR scaffold that acts independent of the original antigen-binding site, composed of complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) and CDR1. PMID:26003538

  7. The Shark Strikes Twice: Hypervariable Loop 2 of Shark IgNAR Antibody Variable Domains and Its Potential to Function as an Autonomous Paratope.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Stefan; Empting, Martin; Könning, Doreen; Grzeschik, Julius; Krah, Simon; Becker, Stefan; Dickgießer, Stephan; Kolmar, Harald

    2015-08-01

    In this present study, we engineered hypervariable loop 2 (HV2) of the IgNAR variable domain in a way that it solely facilitates antigen binding, potentially functioning as an autonomous paratope. For this, the surface-exposed loop corresponding to HV2 was diversified and antigen-specific variable domain of IgNAR antibody (vNAR) molecules were isolated by library screening using yeast surface display (YSD) as platform technology. An epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-specific vNAR was used as starting material, and nine residues in HV2 were randomized. Target-specific clones comprising a new HV2-mediated paratope were isolated against cluster of differentiation 3ε (CD3ε) and human Fcγ while retaining high affinity for EpCAM. Essentially, we demonstrate that a new paratope comprising moderate affinities against a given target molecule can be engineered into the vNAR scaffold that acts independent of the original antigen-binding site, composed of complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) and CDR1.

  8. Growth factors: potential for the management of solid epithelial tumours.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, J A

    1996-03-01

    At present we are on the threshold of an enormous change in clinical practice. The application of molecular medicine has already started and the area of growth factor biology is particularly relevant to this endeavor (Figure 6) (Jankowski and Polak 1996). Perhaps the major limitation to this process is the rate at which the clinician can comprehend and then undertake carefully designed molecular studies in gastroenterology. In time monographs that specifically address the issue of molecular medicine in clinical gene analysis and manipulation may perhaps replace standard text books (see Jankowski and Polak, 1996). PMID:8732307

  9. Growth hormone receptor antagonists: discovery and potential uses.

    PubMed

    Kopchick, J J; Okada, S

    2001-06-01

    Serum levels of growth hormone (GH) in the human body vary and can influence the levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1). Low levels of GH can result in a dwarf phenotype and have been positively correlated with an increased life expectancy. High levels of GH can lead to gigantism or a clinical syndrome termed acromegaly, and also have been implicated in diabetic eye and kidney damage. Additionally, it has been postulated that the GH-IGF-I system can be involved in several types of cancers. Overall, both elevated and suppressed circulating levels of GH can have pronounced physiological effects. More than a decade ago a new class of drug, a GH antagonist, was discovered. It is now being tested for its ability to combat the effects of high circulating levels of GH. In this review, we will discuss some of the detrimental actions of GH and how a GH antagonist may be used to combat these effects. PMID:11527080

  10. Autonomous Navigation Using Celestial Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Gramling, Cheryl; Leung, Dominic; Belur, Sheela; Long, Anne

    1999-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Enterprises envision frequent low-cost missions to explore the solar system, observe the universe, and study our planet. Satellite autonomy is a key technology required to reduce satellite operating costs. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center (GNCC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) currently sponsors several initiatives associated with the development of advanced spacecraft systems to provide autonomous navigation and control. Autonomous navigation has the potential both to increase spacecraft navigation system performance and to reduce total mission cost. By eliminating the need for routine ground-based orbit determination and special tracking services, autonomous navigation can streamline spacecraft ground systems. Autonomous navigation products can be included in the science telemetry and forwarded directly to the scientific investigators. In addition, autonomous navigation products are available onboard to enable other autonomous capabilities, such as attitude control, maneuver planning and orbit control, and communications signal acquisition. Autonomous navigation is required to support advanced mission concepts such as satellite formation flying. GNCC has successfully developed high-accuracy autonomous navigation systems for near-Earth spacecraft using NASA's space and ground communications systems and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Recently, GNCC has expanded its autonomous navigation initiative to include satellite orbits that are beyond the regime in which use of GPS is possible. Currently, GNCC is assessing the feasibility of using standard spacecraft attitude sensors and communication components to provide autonomous navigation for missions including: libration point, gravity assist, high-Earth, and interplanetary orbits. The concept being evaluated uses a combination of star, Sun, and Earth sensor measurements along with forward-link Doppler

  11. Fractal growth kinetics and electric potential oscillations during electropolymerization of pyrrole.

    PubMed

    Das, Ishwar; Agrawal, Namita R; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Gupta, Sujeet Kumar; Rastogi, R P

    2009-05-01

    Fractal growth, growth kinetics, and electrical conductivity of aggregates obtained during electropolymerization in the systems (A) pyrrole-4-toluene sulfonic acid silver salt (4-TSS)-acetonitrile, (B) pyrrole-4-TSS-ZnSO(4)-acetonitrile, and (C) pyrrole-4-TSS-aniline-acetonitrile were investigated. In the case of system (A), effect of [4-TSS], [pyrrole], field intensity, and solvents H(2)O and CH(3)OH on morphology, fractal character, and growth kinetics was also studied. Fractal growth data were examined in detail. During studies on system (A), electric potential oscillations were observed and subjected to detailed study. The results indicate that fractal growth pattern and electric potential oscillations are inter-related. The mechanism of development of fractal growth, dendritic structure, and electric potential oscillations is discussed in terms of diffusion-limited aggregation and modified Diaz's mechanism, which explains the random movement of radical cations.

  12. Attainability of Carnot efficiency with autonomous engines.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Naoto

    2015-11-01

    The maximum efficiency of autonomous engines with a finite chemical potential difference is investigated. We show that, without a particular type of singularity, autonomous engines cannot attain the Carnot efficiency. This singularity is realized in two ways: single particle transports and the thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that both of these ways actually lead to the Carnot efficiency in concrete setups. Our results clearly illustrate that the singularity plays a crucial role in the maximum efficiency of autonomous engines.

  13. Attainability of Carnot efficiency with autonomous engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Naoto

    2015-11-01

    The maximum efficiency of autonomous engines with a finite chemical potential difference is investigated. We show that, without a particular type of singularity, autonomous engines cannot attain the Carnot efficiency. This singularity is realized in two ways: single particle transports and the thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that both of these ways actually lead to the Carnot efficiency in concrete setups. Our results clearly illustrate that the singularity plays a crucial role in the maximum efficiency of autonomous engines.

  14. (Metabolic mechanisms of plant growth at low-water potentials)

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    For the year 1989, the progress made on this DOE sponsored research will be described by considering the questions presented in the original proposal and describing the work on each one. We used soybean seedlings grown in vermiculite in a dark, humid environment because they are convenient to grow, undergo most of the physiological changes induced by low water potentials in large plants, and have exposed growing regions on which molecular experiments can be done.

  15. Stimulation of human thyroid growth via the inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein Gi: constitutive expression of the G-protein alpha subunit Gi alpha-1 in autonomous adenoma.

    PubMed Central

    Selzer, E; Wilfing, A; Schiferer, A; Hermann, M; Grubeck-Loebenstein, B; Freissmuth, M

    1993-01-01

    The alpha subunits of the stimulatory and inhibitory G proteins, Gs alpha and Gi alpha, activate transmembrane-signaling systems involved in the control of cell proliferation. We have investigated the pattern of expression of Gi alpha subtypes and Gi alpha-mediated proliferative responses in the human thyroid. Human thyroid membranes contain two subtypes of Gi alpha, Gi alpha-1 and Gi alpha-2, as assessed by using specific antibodies. The expression of Gi alpha-1 is under tight control by thyrotropin in vivo and in primary cultures of thyroid epithelial cells. In contrast, Gi alpha-1 is expressed in the absence of thyrotropin in thyroid autonomous adenoma, an endocrine-active tumor, and its levels are not regulated by thyrotropin in thyroid epithelial cells prepared from these tumors. If thyroid epithelial cells are treated with pertussis toxin to block signal transduction via Gi, the mitogenic response to serum factors is reduced. These observations demonstrate that Gi subtypes transmit growth stimuli in the human thyroid. The constitutive expression of Gi alpha-1 in autonomous adenoma may allow for the unregulated stimulation of thyroid cell proliferation by a yet unidentified signaling pathway and, thus, be causally related to autonomous growth of thyroid cells. Images PMID:8434024

  16. Primary events regulating stem growth at low water potentials. [Glycine max (L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Nonami, Hiroshi; Boyer, J.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Cell enlargement is inhibited by inadequate water. As a first step toward understanding the mechanism, all the physical parameters affecting enlargement were monitored to identify those that changed first, particularly in coincidence with the inhibition. The osmotic potential, turgor, yield threshold turgor, growth-induced water potential, wall extensibility, and conductance to water were measured in the elongating region, and the water potential was measured in the xylem of stems of dark-grown soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seedlings. The results indicate that the primary event during the growth inhibition was the change in the growth-induced water potential. Because the growth limitation subsequently shifted to the low wall extensibility and tissue conductance for water, the initial change in potential may have set in motion subsequent metabolic changes that altered the characteristics of the wall and cell membranes.

  17. Metabolic mechanisms of plant growth at low water potentials. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to identify primary and secondary factors that cause cell enlargement to be inhibited in the stems of soybean seedlings exposed to low water potentials. The factors that were analyzed are wall extensibility, yield threshold of the walls, hydraulic conductance of the tissue, turgor, osmotic potential, and growth-induced water potentials.

  18. Endophytic bacteria isolated from orchid and their potential to promote plant growth.

    PubMed

    Faria, Deise Cristina; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Melo, Itamar Soares; de Carvalho Costa, Francisco Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    Twelve endophytic bacteria were isolated from the meristem of in vitro Cymbidium eburneum orchid, and screened according to indole yield quantified by colorimetric assay, in vitro phosphate solubilization, and potential for plant growth promotion under greenhouse conditions. Eight strains with positive results were classified into the genus Paenibacillus by FAME profile, and evaluated for their ability to increase survival and promote the growth of in vitro germinated Cattleya loddigesii seedlings during the acclimatization process. The obtained results showed that all strains produced detectable indole levels and did not exhibit potential for solubilizing inorganic phosphate. Particularly, an increase of the total biomass and number of leaves was observed. Two strains of Paenibacillus macerans promoted plant growth under greenhouse conditions. None of the treatments had a deleterious effect on growth of inoculated plants. These results suggest that these bacterial effects could be potentially useful to promote plant growth during seedling acclimatization in orchid species other than the species of origin.

  19. Information for Successful Interaction with Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Johnson, Kathy A.

    2003-01-01

    Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information agent and information management tool suite for managing information from many sources, including autonomous agents. We present an integrated model of levels of complexity of agent and human behavior, which shows types of information processing and points of potential error in agent activities. We discuss the types of information needed for diagnosing problems and planning interactions with an autonomous system. We discuss types of coordination for which designs are needed for autonomous system functions.

  20. The Human Potential Movement: Body/Nonverbal/Movement Approaches to Human Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Stratton F.

    This report briefly describes the recent search for personal and interpersonal growth which has been termed the "Human Potential Movement," and the institutions or "growth centers" which have evolved as a result of this movement. It presents a list of body, nonverbal, and movement experiences derived from descriptive literature of the growth…

  1. Coordinating Gene Expression and Axon Assembly to Control Axon Growth: Potential Role of GSK3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang-Mei; Hur, Eun-Mi; Zhou, Feng-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Axon growth requires the coordinated regulation of gene expression in the neuronal soma, local protein translation in the axon, anterograde transport of synthesized raw materials along the axon, and assembly of cytoskeleton and membranes in the nerve growth cone. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) signaling has recently been shown to play key roles in the regulation of axonal transport and cytoskeletal assembly during axon growth. GSK3 signaling is also known to regulate gene expression via controlling the functions of many transcription factors, suggesting that GSK3 may be an important regulator of gene transcription supporting axon growth. We review signaling pathways that control local axon assembly at the growth cone and gene expression in the soma during developmental or regenerative axon growth and discuss the potential involvement of GSK3 signaling in these processes, with a particular focus on how GSK3 signaling modulates the function of axon growth-associated transcription factors. PMID:22347166

  2. Autonomic Involvement in Subacute and Chronic Immune-Mediated Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeo, Anna; Stancanelli, Claudia; Vita, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic function can be impaired in many disorders in which sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric arms of the autonomic nervous system are affected. Signs and symptoms of autonomic involvement are related to impairment of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urogenital, thermoregulatory, sudomotor, and pupillomotor autonomic functions. Availability of noninvasive, sensitive, and reproducible tests can help to recognize these disorders and to better understand specific mechanisms of some, potentially treatable, immune-mediated autonomic neuropathies. This paper describes autonomic involvement in immune-mediated neuropathies with a subacute or chronic course. PMID:23853716

  3. Adaptability of growth and nutrient uptake potential of Chlorella sorokiniana with variable nutrient loading.

    PubMed

    Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Ansari, Faiz Ahmad; Rawat, Ismail; Bux, Faizal

    2014-12-01

    Chlorella sorokiniana can sustain growth in conditions hostile to other species, and possesses good nutrient removal and lipid accumulation potentials. However, the effects of variable nutrient levels (N and P) in wastewaters on growth, productivity, and nutrient uptake by C. sorokiniana have not been studied in detail. This study demonstrates the ability of this alga to sustain uniform growth and productivity, while regulating the relative nutrient uptake in accordance to their availability in the bulk medium. These results highlight the potential of C. sorokiniana as a suitable candidate for fulfilling the coupled objectives of nutrient removal and biomass production for bio-fuel with wastewaters having great variability in nutrient levels.

  4. Autonomous power system intelligent diagnosis and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. Knowledge-based software provides a robust method of control for highly complex space-based power systems that conventional methods do not allow. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis and control, the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space based power system. The operation of the Autonomous Power System as a whole is described and the responsibilities of the three elements - APEX, AIPS, and Brassboard - are characterized. A discussion of the methodologies used in each element is provided. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Power System.

  5. Towards an Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) with Reflex Autonomicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Hinchey, Mike; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of providing a fault-tolerant environment and achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications. However, the task of manually managing and configuring a cluster quickly becomes daunting as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing, with its vision to provide self-management, can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management and its evolution to include reflex reactions via pulse monitoring.

  6. Influence of electrolytes on growth, phototropism, nutation and surface potential in etiolated cucumber seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalding, E. P.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of electrolytes (10-30 mol m-3) increased the relative growth rate of etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Burpee's Pickler) hypocotyls by 20-50% relative to water-only controls. The nonelectrolyte mannitol inhibited growth by 10%. All salts tested were effective, regardless of chemical composition or valence. Measurements of cell-sap osmolality ruled out an osmotic mechanism for the growth stimulation by electrolytes. This, and the nonspecificity of the response, indicate that an electrical property of the solutions was responsible for their growth-stimulating activity. Measurements of surface electrical potential supported this reasoning. Treatment with electrolytes also enhanced nutation and altered the pattern of phototropic curvature development. A novel analytical method for quantitating these effects on growth was developed. The evidence indicates that electrolytes influence an electrophysiological parameter that is involved in the control of cell expansion and the coordination of growth underlying tropisms and nutations.

  7. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 strongly potentiates growth factor-induced proliferation of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montesano, Roberto Sarkoezi, Rita; Schramek, Herbert

    2008-09-12

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional cytokines that elicit pleiotropic effects on biological processes such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. With respect to cell proliferation, BMPs can exert either mitogenic or anti-mitogenic activities, depending on the target cells and their context. Here, we report that in low-density cultures of immortalized mammary epithelial cells, BMP-4 did not stimulate cell proliferation by itself. However, when added in combination with suboptimal concentrations of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, FGF-7, FGF-10, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), BMP-4 potently enhanced growth factor-induced cell proliferation. These results reveal a hitherto unsuspected interplay between BMP-4 and growth factors in the regulation of mammary epithelial cell proliferation. We suggest that the ability of BMP-4 to potentiate the mitogenic activity of multiple growth factors may contribute to mammary gland ductal morphogenesis as well as to breast cancer progression.

  8. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  9. Growth Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.

    2004-01-01

    Students enjoy carrying out an exciting and challenging research project that combines science with computers and mathematics to investigate how polyacrylate animals change in size over time when placed in water and aqueous salt solutions. The hands-on activity motivates students and provides them with the necessary skills and information to have…

  10. Development of autonomous control in a closed microbial bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Smernoff, D T; Mancinelli, R L

    1999-01-01

    Space-based life support systems which include ecological components will rely on sophisticated hardware and software to monitor and control key system parameters. Autonomous closed artificial ecosystems are useful for research in numerous fields. We are developing a bioreactor designed to study both microbe-environment interactions and autonomous control systems. Currently we are investigating N-cycling and N-mass balance in closed microbial systems. The design features of the system involve real-time monitoring of physical parameters (e.g. temperature, light), growth solution composition (e.g. pH, NOx, CO2), cell density and the status of important hardware components. Control of key system parameters is achieved by incorporation of artificial intelligence software tools that permit autonomous decision-making by the instrument. These developments provide a valuable research tool for terrestrial microbial ecology, as well as a testbed for implementation of artificial intelligence concepts. Autonomous instrumentation will be necessary for robust operation of space-based life support systems, and for use on robotic spacecraft. Sample data acquired from the system, important features of software components, and potential applications for terrestrial and space research will be presented.

  11. Water potential affects Coniothyrium minitans growth, germination and parasitism of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia.

    PubMed

    Jones, E Eirian; Stewart, Alison; Whipps, John M

    2011-09-01

    Water availability is an important environmental factor which has major effects on fungal activity. The effects of osmotic (KCl amended agar) and matric Polyethylene glycol ((PEG) 8000 amended agar) potentials over the range -0.1 to -5.0MPa on mycelial growth and conidial germination of eight isolates of the sclerotial parasite Coniothyrium minitans was assessed. The influence of soil water potential on the ability of three selected isolates (LU112, LU545, and T5R42i) to parasitise sclerotia of the plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was determined. For all eight C. minitans isolates, decreasing osmotic and matric potentials caused a reduction in mycelial growth and conidial germination. Isolates were more sensitive to decreasing matric potential than osmotic potential. Across the isolates, growth at an osmotic potential of -5.0MPa was 30-70% of the growth seen in the control, whereas less than 20% of the control growth was seen at the corresponding matric potential. Across all isolates no conidial germination was seen at matric potential of -5.0MPa. The C. minitans isolates varied in their sensitivity to decreasing water potentials. Mycelial growth and conidial germination of three isolates (LU112, Conio, and CH1) were more tolerant of low osmotic potential and matric potential with respect to mycelial growth. Isolates T5R42i and LU430 were least tolerant. In contrast, conidial germination of isolates Conio, LU545, and T5R42i were less sensitive to decreasing matric potential. Soil water potential was seen to affect infection and viability of sclerotia by the three C. minitans isolates. Isolate LU545 reduced sclerotial viability over a wider water potential range (-0.01 to -1.5MPa) compared with LU112 (-0.01 to -1.0MPa), with isolate T5R42i being intermediate. Indigenous soil fungi (Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys rosea) were recovered from sclerotia but did not result in reduction in sclerotial viability. The relevance of these results in relation to

  12. Water potential affects Coniothyrium minitans growth, germination and parasitism of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia.

    PubMed

    Jones, E Eirian; Stewart, Alison; Whipps, John M

    2011-09-01

    Water availability is an important environmental factor which has major effects on fungal activity. The effects of osmotic (KCl amended agar) and matric Polyethylene glycol ((PEG) 8000 amended agar) potentials over the range -0.1 to -5.0MPa on mycelial growth and conidial germination of eight isolates of the sclerotial parasite Coniothyrium minitans was assessed. The influence of soil water potential on the ability of three selected isolates (LU112, LU545, and T5R42i) to parasitise sclerotia of the plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was determined. For all eight C. minitans isolates, decreasing osmotic and matric potentials caused a reduction in mycelial growth and conidial germination. Isolates were more sensitive to decreasing matric potential than osmotic potential. Across the isolates, growth at an osmotic potential of -5.0MPa was 30-70% of the growth seen in the control, whereas less than 20% of the control growth was seen at the corresponding matric potential. Across all isolates no conidial germination was seen at matric potential of -5.0MPa. The C. minitans isolates varied in their sensitivity to decreasing water potentials. Mycelial growth and conidial germination of three isolates (LU112, Conio, and CH1) were more tolerant of low osmotic potential and matric potential with respect to mycelial growth. Isolates T5R42i and LU430 were least tolerant. In contrast, conidial germination of isolates Conio, LU545, and T5R42i were less sensitive to decreasing matric potential. Soil water potential was seen to affect infection and viability of sclerotia by the three C. minitans isolates. Isolate LU545 reduced sclerotial viability over a wider water potential range (-0.01 to -1.5MPa) compared with LU112 (-0.01 to -1.0MPa), with isolate T5R42i being intermediate. Indigenous soil fungi (Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys rosea) were recovered from sclerotia but did not result in reduction in sclerotial viability. The relevance of these results in relation to

  13. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  14. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  15. Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-01-01

    During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

  16. Autonomous Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siders, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    The continued assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) is the cornerstone within NASA's overall Strategic P an. As indicated in NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), the International Space Station requires Shuttle to fly through at least the middle of the next decade to complete assembly of the Station, provide crew transport, and to provide heavy lift up and down mass capability. The ISTP reflects a tight coupling among the Station, Shuttle, and OSP programs to support our Nation's space goal . While the Shuttle is a critical component of this ISTP, there is a new emphasis for the need to achieve greater efficiency and safety in transporting crews to and from the Space Station. This need is being addressed through the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program. However, the OSP is being designed to "complement" the Shuttle as the primary means for crew transfer, and will not replace all the Shuttle's capabilities. The unique heavy lift capabilities of the Space Shuttle is essential for both ISS, as well as other potential missions extending beyond low Earth orbit. One concept under discussion to better fulfill this role of a heavy lift carrier, is the transformation of the Shuttle to an "un-piloted" autonomous system. This concept would eliminate the loss of crew risk, while providing a substantial increase in payload to orbit capability. Using the guidelines reflected in the NASA ISTP, the autonomous Shuttle a simplified concept of operations can be described as; "a re-supply of cargo to the ISS through the use of an un-piloted Shuttle vehicle from launch through landing". Although this is the primary mission profile, the other major consideration in developing an autonomous Shuttle is maintaining a crew transportation capability to ISS as an assured human access to space capability.

  17. [Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias].

    PubMed

    Maximova, M Yu; Piradov, M A; Suanova, E T; Sineva, N A

    2015-01-01

    Review of literature on the trigeminal autonomic cephalgias are presented. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias are primary headaches with phenotype consisting of trigeminal pain with autonomic sign including lacrimation, rhinorrhea and miosis. Discussed are issues of classification, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of this headache. Special attention is paid to cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT syndrome, hemicrania continua.

  18. Skeletal muscle–specific eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α phosphorylation controls amino acid metabolism and fibroblast growth factor 21–mediated non–cell-autonomous energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Masato; Nomura, Akitoshi; Ogura, Atsushi; Takehana, Kenji; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Takahara, Kazuna; Tsugawa, Kazue; Miyamoto, Chinobu; Miura, Naoko; Sato, Ryosuke; Kurahashi, Kiyoe; Harding, Heather P.; Oyadomari, Miho; Ron, David; Oyadomari, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) phosphorylation-dependent integrated stress response (ISR), a component of the unfolded protein response, has long been known to regulate intermediary metabolism, but the details are poorly worked out. We report that profiling of mRNAs of transgenic mice harboring a ligand-activated skeletal muscle–specific derivative of the eIF2α protein kinase R-like ER kinase revealed the expected up-regulation of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport but also uncovered the induced expression and secretion of a myokine, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), that stimulates energy consumption and prevents obesity. The link between the ISR and FGF21 expression was further reinforced by the identification of a small-molecule ISR activator that promoted Fgf21 expression in cell-based screens and by implication of the ISR-inducible activating transcription factor 4 in the process. Our findings establish that eIF2α phosphorylation regulates not only cell-autonomous proteostasis and amino acid metabolism, but also affects non–cell-autonomous metabolic regulation by induced expression of a potent myokine.—Miyake, M., Nomura, A., Ogura, A., Takehana, K., Kitahara, Y., Takahara, K., Tsugawa, K., Miyamoto, C., Miura, N., Sato, R., Kurahashi, K., Harding, H. P., Oyadomari, M., Ron, D., Oyadomari, S. Skeletal muscle–specific eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α phosphorylation controls amino acid metabolism and fibroblast growth factor 21–mediated non–cell-autonomous energy metabolism. PMID:26487695

  19. Effects of water potential on mycelial growth, sclerotial production, and germination of Rhizoctonia solani from potato.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Faye; McQuilken, Mark P; Bain, Ruairidh A

    2006-06-01

    The effects of osmotic and matric potential on mycelial growth, sclerotial production and germination of isolates of Rhizoctonia solani [anastomosis groups (AGs) 2-1 and 3] from potato were studied on potato dextrose agar (PDA) adjusted osmotically with sodium chloride, potassium chloride, glycerol, and matrically with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. All isolates from AGs 2-1 and AG-3 exhibited fastest mycelial growth on unamended PDA (-0.4MPa), and growth generally declined with decreasing osmotic and matric potentials. Growth ceased between -3.5 and -4.0MPa on osmotically adjusted media, and at -2.0MPa on matrically adjusted media, with slight differences between isolates and osmotica. Sclerotium yield declined with decreasing osmotic potential, and formation by AG 2-1 and AG-3 isolates ceased between -1.5 and -3.0MPa and -2.5 and -3.5MPa, respectively. On matrically adjusted media, sclerotial formation by AG 2-1 isolates ceased at -0.8MPa, whereas formation by AG-3 isolates ceased at the lower matric potential of -1.5MPa. Sclerotial germination also declined with decreasing osmotic and matric potential, with total inhibition occurring over the range -3.0 to -4.0MPa on osmotically adjusted media, and at -2.0MPa on matrically adjusted media. In soil, mycelial growth and sclerotial germination of AG-3 isolates declined with decreasing total water potential, with a minimum potential of -6.3MPa permitting both growth and germination. The relevance of these results to the behaviour of R. solani AGs in soil and their pathogenicity on potato is discussed.

  20. Integrated Kinetic and Probabilistic Modeling of the Growth Potential of Bacterial Populations

    PubMed Central

    George, S. M.; Métris, A.

    2015-01-01

    When bacteria are exposed to osmotic stress, some cells recover and grow, while others die or are unculturable. This leads to a viable count growth curve where the cell number decreases before the onset of the exponential growth phase. From such curves, it is impossible to estimate what proportion of the initial cells generates the growth because it leads to an ill-conditioned numerical problem. Here, we applied a combination of experimental and statistical methods, based on optical density measurements, to infer both the probability of growth and the maximum specific growth rate of the culture. We quantified the growth potential of a bacterial population as a quantity composed from the probability of growth and the “suitability” of the growing subpopulation to the new environment. We found that, for all three laboratory media studied, the probability of growth decreased while the “work to be done” by the growing subpopulation (defined as the negative logarithm of their suitability parameter) increased with NaCl concentration. The results suggest that the effect of medium on the probability of growth could be described by a simple shift parameter, a differential NaCl concentration that can be accounted for by the change in the medium composition. Finally, we highlighted the need for further understanding of the effect of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine on metabolism. PMID:25747002

  1. Integrated kinetic and probabilistic modeling of the growth potential of bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    George, S M; Métris, A; Baranyi, J

    2015-05-01

    When bacteria are exposed to osmotic stress, some cells recover and grow, while others die or are unculturable. This leads to a viable count growth curve where the cell number decreases before the onset of the exponential growth phase. From such curves, it is impossible to estimate what proportion of the initial cells generates the growth because it leads to an ill-conditioned numerical problem. Here, we applied a combination of experimental and statistical methods, based on optical density measurements, to infer both the probability of growth and the maximum specific growth rate of the culture. We quantified the growth potential of a bacterial population as a quantity composed from the probability of growth and the "suitability" of the growing subpopulation to the new environment. We found that, for all three laboratory media studied, the probability of growth decreased while the "work to be done" by the growing subpopulation (defined as the negative logarithm of their suitability parameter) increased with NaCl concentration. The results suggest that the effect of medium on the probability of growth could be described by a simple shift parameter, a differential NaCl concentration that can be accounted for by the change in the medium composition. Finally, we highlighted the need for further understanding of the effect of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine on metabolism.

  2. The potential of Arctica islandica growth records to reconstruct coastal climate in north west Scotland, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, K. J.; Austin, W. E. N.; Sayer, M. D. J.; Weidman, C. R.; Cage, A. G.; Wilson, R. J. S.

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes potential methods for reconstructing past marine environmental and climatic variability in Scottish coastal waters through the investigation of annual growth increments measured from shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (L.). This is accomplished by using a combination of sclerochronological and dendrochronological techniques which were employed to determine the age of specimens and to create growth chronologies. Using negative exponential detrending methods, a preliminary A. islandica master chronology for the Lynn of Lorn, Scotland has been produced. This chronology indicates highly suppressed growth between the mid 1940s and late 1980s. The growth response of this species to the sea surface temperatures in Scottish coastal waters appears to be complex, most notably during recent decades when land-use changes and marine aquaculture may influence shell growth at this site.

  3. Genetic autonomic disorders.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B

    2013-03-01

    Genetic disorders affecting the autonomic nervous system can result in abnormal development of the nervous system or they can be caused by neurotransmitter imbalance, an ion-channel disturbance or by storage of deleterious material. The symptoms indicating autonomic dysfunction, however, will depend upon whether the genetic lesion has disrupted peripheral or central autonomic centers or both. Because the autonomic nervous system is pervasive and affects every organ system in the body, autonomic dysfunction will result in impaired homeostasis and symptoms will vary. The possibility of genetic confirmation by molecular testing for specific diagnosis is increasing but treatments tend to remain only supportive and directed toward particular symptoms. PMID:23465768

  4. Seasonal growth potential of rare lake water bacteria suggest their disproportional contribution to carbon fluxes.

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Stefan M; Pernthaler, Jakob; Posch, Thomas; Salcher, Michaela M

    2015-03-01

    We studied the seasonal growth potential of opportunistic bacterial populations in Lake Zurich (Switzerland) by a series of grazer-free dilution culture assays. Pronounced shifts in the composition of the bacterial assemblages were observed within one doubling of total cell numbers, from initially abundant Actinobacteria to other fast-growing microbial lineages. Small populations with growth potentials far above community average were detected throughout the year with striking seasonal differences in their respective taxonomic affiliations. Members of Cytophaga-Flavobacteria (CF) were disproportionally proliferating only during phytoplankton blooms in spring and summer, while Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria showed superior growth at all other occasions. Growth rates of Alphaproteobacteria and esp. Sphingomonadaceae were significantly correlated to water temperatures and were far above community average in summer. Within the genus Flavobacterium, two species-like populations showed a tendency for fast growth in most experiments, while four others were exclusively proliferating either during a spring or during a summer phytoplankton bloom. Their high growth potentials but low in situ abundances hint at a tight control by bacterivorous grazers and at a consequently accelerated carbon flux to higher trophic levels.

  5. Riparian shading and groundwater enhance growth potential for smallmouth bass in Ozark streams.

    PubMed

    Whitledge, Gregory W; Rabeni, Charles F; Annis, Gust; Sowa, Scott P

    2006-08-01

    Moderation of stream temperatures by riparian shading and groundwater are known to promote growth and survival of salmonid fishes, but effects of riparian shade and groundwater on to be growth of warmwater stream fishes are poorly understood or assumed to be negligible. We used stream temperature models to relate shading from riparian vegetation and groundwater inflow to summer water temperatures in Missouri Ozark streams and evaluated effects of summer water temperatures on smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, growth using a bioenergetics model. Bioenergetics model simulations revealed that adult smallmouth bass in non-spring-fed streams have lower growth potential during summer than fish in spring-fed streams, are subject to mass loss when stream temperatures exceed 27 degrees C, and will likely exhibit greater interannual variation in growth during summer if all growth-influencing factors, other than temperature, are identical between the two stream types. Temperature models indicated that increased riparian shading will expand the longitudinal extent of thermal habitat capable of supporting adult smallmouth bass growth in spring-fed stream reaches when mean daily air temperatures exceed 27 degrees C. Optimum growth temperature (22 degrees C) will be present only in spring-fed streams under these conditions. Potential for increasing shade through riparian restoration is greatest for streams <5 m wide and along north-south reaches of larger streams. However, temperature models also indicated that restoring riparian shading to maximum levels throughout a watershed would increase the total stream mileage capable of supporting positive growth of adult smallmouth bass by only 1-6% when air temperatures are at or near average summer maxima; increases in suitable thermal habitat would be greatest in watersheds with higher spring densities. Riparian management for maintenance or restoration of the thermal habitat of adult smallmouth bass during summer should be

  6. Maximum Growth Potential and Periods of Resource Limitation in Apple Tree.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Francesco; DeJong, Theodore; Franceschi, Pietro; Tagliavini, Massimo; Gianelle, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of seasonal maximum potential growth rates are important for assessing periods of resource limitations in fruit tree species. In this study we assessed the periods of resource limitation for vegetative (current year stems, and woody biomass) and reproductive (fruit) organs of a major agricultural crop: the apple tree. This was done by comparing relative growth rates (RGRs) of individual organs in trees with reduced competition for resources to trees grown under standard field conditions. Special attention was dedicated to disentangling patterns and values of maximum potential growth for each organ type. The period of resource limitation for vegetative growth was much longer than in another fruit tree species (peach): from late May until harvest. Two periods of resource limitation were highlighted for fruit: from the beginning of the season until mid-June, and about 1 month prior to harvest. By investigating the variability in individual organs growth we identified substantial differences in RGRs among different shoot categories (proleptic and epicormic) and within each group of monitored organs. Qualitatively different and more accurate values of growth rates for vegetative organs, compared to the use of the simple compartmental means, were estimated. Detailed, source-sink based tree growth models, commonly in need of fine parameter tuning, are expected to benefit from the results produced by these analyses.

  7. Maximum Growth Potential and Periods of Resource Limitation in Apple Tree.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Francesco; DeJong, Theodore; Franceschi, Pietro; Tagliavini, Massimo; Gianelle, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of seasonal maximum potential growth rates are important for assessing periods of resource limitations in fruit tree species. In this study we assessed the periods of resource limitation for vegetative (current year stems, and woody biomass) and reproductive (fruit) organs of a major agricultural crop: the apple tree. This was done by comparing relative growth rates (RGRs) of individual organs in trees with reduced competition for resources to trees grown under standard field conditions. Special attention was dedicated to disentangling patterns and values of maximum potential growth for each organ type. The period of resource limitation for vegetative growth was much longer than in another fruit tree species (peach): from late May until harvest. Two periods of resource limitation were highlighted for fruit: from the beginning of the season until mid-June, and about 1 month prior to harvest. By investigating the variability in individual organs growth we identified substantial differences in RGRs among different shoot categories (proleptic and epicormic) and within each group of monitored organs. Qualitatively different and more accurate values of growth rates for vegetative organs, compared to the use of the simple compartmental means, were estimated. Detailed, source-sink based tree growth models, commonly in need of fine parameter tuning, are expected to benefit from the results produced by these analyses. PMID:26973676

  8. Growth potential of exponential- and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium during sausage fermentation.

    PubMed

    Birk, T; Henriksen, S; Müller, K; Hansen, T B; Aabo, S

    2016-11-01

    Raw meat for sausage production can be contaminated with Salmonella. For technical reasons, meat is often frozen prior to mincing but it is unknown how growth of Salmonella in meat prior to freezing affects its growth potential during sausage fermentation. We investigated survival of exponential- and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium (DT12 and DTU292) during freezing at -18°C and their subsequent growth potential during 72h sausage fermentation at 25°C. After 0, 7 and >35d of frozen storage, sausage batters were prepared with NaCl (3%) and NaNO2 (0, 100ppm) and fermented with and without starter culture. With no starter culture, both strains grew in both growth phases. In general, a functional starter culture abolished S. Typhimurium growth independent of growth phase and we concluded that ensuring correct fermentation is important for sausage safety. However, despite efficient fermentation, sporadic growth of exponential-phase cells of S. Typhimurium was observed drawing attention to the handling and storage of sausage meat.

  9. Maximum Growth Potential and Periods of Resource Limitation in Apple Tree

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Francesco; DeJong, Theodore; Franceschi, Pietro; Tagliavini, Massimo; Gianelle, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of seasonal maximum potential growth rates are important for assessing periods of resource limitations in fruit tree species. In this study we assessed the periods of resource limitation for vegetative (current year stems, and woody biomass) and reproductive (fruit) organs of a major agricultural crop: the apple tree. This was done by comparing relative growth rates (RGRs) of individual organs in trees with reduced competition for resources to trees grown under standard field conditions. Special attention was dedicated to disentangling patterns and values of maximum potential growth for each organ type. The period of resource limitation for vegetative growth was much longer than in another fruit tree species (peach): from late May until harvest. Two periods of resource limitation were highlighted for fruit: from the beginning of the season until mid-June, and about 1 month prior to harvest. By investigating the variability in individual organs growth we identified substantial differences in RGRs among different shoot categories (proleptic and epicormic) and within each group of monitored organs. Qualitatively different and more accurate values of growth rates for vegetative organs, compared to the use of the simple compartmental means, were estimated. Detailed, source-sink based tree growth models, commonly in need of fine parameter tuning, are expected to benefit from the results produced by these analyses. PMID:26973676

  10. Foraging and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon after tidal restoration of a large river delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Aaron T.; Ellings, Christopher; Woo, Isa; Simenstad, Charles A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Turner, Kelley L.; Smith, Ashley L.; Takekawa, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether restoring tidal flow to previously diked estuarine wetlands also restores foraging and growth opportunities for juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Several studies have assessed the value of restored tidal wetlands for juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., but few have used integrative measures of salmon performance, such as habitat-specific growth potential, to evaluate restoration. Our study took place in the Nisqually River delta, Washington, where recent dike removals restored tidal flow to 364 ha of marsh—the largest tidal marsh restoration project in the northwestern contiguous United States. We sampled fish assemblages, water temperatures, and juvenile Chinook Salmon diet composition and consumption rates in two restored and two reference tidal channels during a 3-year period after restoration; these data were used as inputs to a bioenergetics model to compare Chinook Salmon foraging performance and growth potential between the restored and reference channels. We found that foraging performance and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon were similar between restored and reference tidal channels. However, Chinook Salmon densities were significantly lower in the restored channels than in the reference channels, and growth potential was more variable in the restored channels due to their more variable and warmer (2°C) water temperatures. These results indicate that some—but not all—ecosystem attributes that are important for juvenile Pacific salmon can recover rapidly after large-scale tidal marsh restoration.

  11. The autonomic laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system can now be studied quantitatively, noninvasively, and reproducibly in a clinical autonomic laboratory. The approach at the Mayo Clinic is to study the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers of peripheral nerve (using the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]), the parasympathetic nerves to the heart (cardiovagal tests), and the regulation of blood pressure by the baroreflexes (adrenergic tests). Patient preparation is extremely important, since the state of the patient influences the results of autonomic function tests. The autonomic technologist in this evolving field needs to have a solid core of knowledge of autonomic physiology and autonomic function tests, followed by training in the performance of these tests in a standardized fashion. The range and utilization of tests of autonomic function will likely continue to evolve.

  12. Potential Targets for Antifungal Drug Discovery Based on Growth and Virulence in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuyun; Hou, Yinglong; Yue, Longtao; Liu, Shuyuan; Du, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections, especially infections caused by Candida albicans, remain a challenging problem in clinical settings. Despite the development of more-effective antifungal drugs, their application is limited for various reasons. Thus, alternative treatments with drugs aimed at novel targets in C. albicans are needed. Knowledge of growth and virulence in fungal cells is essential not only to understand their pathogenic mechanisms but also to identify potential antifungal targets. This article reviews the current knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and virulence in C. albicans and examines potential targets for the development of new antifungal drugs. PMID:26195510

  13. Evaluating the Growth Potential of Pathogenic Bacteria in Water ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Marius; Stucki, David; Egli, Thomas; Hammes, Frederik

    2010-01-01

    The degree to which a water sample can potentially support the growth of human pathogens was evaluated. For this purpose, a pathogen growth potential (PGP) bioassay was developed based on the principles of conventional assimilable organic carbon (AOC) determination, but using pure cultures of selected pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli O157, Vibrio cholerae, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa) as the inoculum. We evaluated 19 water samples collected after different treatment steps from two drinking water production plants and a wastewater treatment plant and from ozone-treated river water. Each pathogen was batch grown to stationary phase in sterile water samples, and the concentration of cells produced was measured using flow cytometry. In addition, the fraction of AOC consumed by each pathogen was estimated. Pathogen growth did not correlate with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and correlated only weakly with the concentration of AOC. Furthermore, the three pathogens never grew to the same final concentration in any water sample, and the relative ratio of the cultures to each other was unique in each sample. These results suggest that the extent of pathogen growth is affected not only by the concentration but also by the composition of AOC. Through this bioassay, PGP can be included as a parameter in water treatment system design, control, and operation. Additionally, a multilevel concept that integrates the results from the bioassay into the bigger framework of pathogen growth in water is discussed. The proposed approach provides a first step for including pathogen growth into microbial risk assessment. PMID:20693455

  14. Turgor and growth at low water potentials. [Glycine max (L. ) Merr

    SciTech Connect

    Nonami, H.; Boyer, J.S. )

    1989-03-01

    Turgor affects cell enlargement but has not been measured in enlarging tissue of intact plants when growth is inhibited by inadequate water. Mature or excised tissue can be problematic for these measurements because turgor may not be the same as in intact enlarging cells. Therefore, we measured the average turgor in the elongating region of intact stems of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) while the seedlings were exposed to low water potentials by transplanting to vermiculite of low water content. Stem growth was completely inhibited by the transplanting, and the average turgor decreased in the mature stem tissue. However, it did not decrease in the elongating region whether measured in intact or excised tissue (total of four methods). At the cellular level, turgor was uniform in the elongating tissue except at transplanting, when turgor decreased in a small number of cortical cells near the xylem. The reduced turgor in these cells, but constant turgor in most of the cells confirmed that no general turgor loss had occurred but indicated that gradients in water potential extending from the xylem into the enlarging tissue were reduced, thus decreasing the movement of water into the tissue for cell enlargement. A modest growth recovery occurred after 2 days and was preceded by a recovery of the gradient. This suggests that under these conditions, growth initially was inhibited not by turgor loss but by a collapse of the water potential gradient necessary for the growth process.

  15. Changes in muscle gene expression related to metabolism according to growth potential in young bulls.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Carine; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Renand, Gilles; Hocquette, Jean-François

    2009-06-01

    To analyse the effects of genetic selection in favour of high muscle development on muscle gene expression, oligonucleotide microarrays were used to compare the transcriptome of Longissimusthoracis muscle from 15- and 19-month-old Charolais bull calves divergently selected for high (H) or low (L) muscle growth. Transcriptome data revealed that about two thirds of the genes involved in glycolysis were up-regulated at 15 and at 19months of age in H animals. Lastly, some differentially expressed genes were associated with muscle mass in the carcass (FGF6, PLD2) independently of fat deposition and meat quality. Selection for muscle growth potential is associated with modified expression of some genes involved in growth, and also with increased expression of genes involved in glycolysis. Furthermore, this change in muscle metabolism is likely to be dissociated from fat deposition and beef quality, providing new criteria for genetic selection in favour of muscle growth. PMID:20416758

  16. Changes in muscle gene expression related to metabolism according to growth potential in young bulls.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Carine; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Renand, Gilles; Hocquette, Jean-François

    2009-06-01

    To analyse the effects of genetic selection in favour of high muscle development on muscle gene expression, oligonucleotide microarrays were used to compare the transcriptome of Longissimusthoracis muscle from 15- and 19-month-old Charolais bull calves divergently selected for high (H) or low (L) muscle growth. Transcriptome data revealed that about two thirds of the genes involved in glycolysis were up-regulated at 15 and at 19months of age in H animals. Lastly, some differentially expressed genes were associated with muscle mass in the carcass (FGF6, PLD2) independently of fat deposition and meat quality. Selection for muscle growth potential is associated with modified expression of some genes involved in growth, and also with increased expression of genes involved in glycolysis. Furthermore, this change in muscle metabolism is likely to be dissociated from fat deposition and beef quality, providing new criteria for genetic selection in favour of muscle growth.

  17. Influence of microbial growth in the redox potential of fermented cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commonly, pH measurements are used during the production of fermented cucumbers to indirectly monitor growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acid production. Redox potential (Eh) measurements, which are determined by the flux of electrons in a system, could serve as a more accurate tool to monitor...

  18. Predicting Reading Growth with Event-Related Potentials: Thinking Differently about Indexing "Responsiveness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Christopher J.; Key, Alexandra P. F.; Fuchs, Douglas; Yoder, Paul J.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Williams, Susan M.; Bouton, Bobette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if event-related potential (ERP) data collected during three reading-related tasks (Letter Sound Matching, Nonword Rhyming, and Nonword Reading) could be used to predict short-term reading growth on a curriculum-based measure of word identification fluency over 19 weeks in a sample of 29 first-grade…

  19. Pediatric autonomic disorders.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Chelimsky, Gisela G; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2006-07-01

    The scope of pediatric autonomic disorders is not well recognized. The goal of this review is to increase awareness of the expanding spectrum of pediatric autonomic disorders by providing an overview of the autonomic nervous system, including the roles of its various components and its pervasive influence, as well as its intimate relationship with sensory function. To illustrate further the breadth and complexities of autonomic dysfunction, some pediatric disorders are described, concentrating on those that present at birth or appear in early childhood. PMID:16818580

  20. Xylem tension affects growth-induced water potential and daily elongation of maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Tang, An-Ching; Boyer, John S

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal rates of leaf elongation vary in maize (Zea mays L.) and are characterized by a decline each afternoon. The cause of the afternoon decline was investigated. When the atmospheric environment was held constant in a controlled environment, and water and nutrients were adequately supplied to the soil or the roots in solution, the decline persisted and indicated that the cause was internal. Inside the plants, xylem fluxes of water and solutes were essentially constant during the day. However, the forces moving these components changed. Tensions rose in the xylem, and gradients of growth-induced water potentials decreased in the surrounding growing tissues of the leaf. These potentials, measured with isopiestic thermocouple psychrometry, changed because the roots became less conductive to water as the day progressed. The increased tensions were reversed by applying pressure to the soil/root system, which rehydrated the leaf. Afternoon elongation immediately recovered to rapid morning rates. The rapid morning rates did not respond to soil/root pressurization. It was concluded that increased xylem tension in the afternoon diminished the gradients in growth-induced water potential and thus inhibited elongation. Because increased tensions cause a similar but larger inhibition of elongation if maize dehydrates, these hydraulics are crucial for shaping the growth-induced water potential and thus the rates of leaf elongation in maize over the entire spectrum of water availability.

  1. Impact of water potential on growth and germination of Fusarium solani soilborne pathogen of peanut.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Sofia; Casasnovas, Francisco; Ramirez, María L; Reynoso, María M; Torres, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of osmotic and matric stress on germination and growth of two Fusarium solani strains, the etiological agent responsible of peanut brown root rot. Both strains had similar osmotic and matric potential ranges that allowed growth, being the latter one narrower. F. solani showed the ability to grow down to -14 MPa at 25 °C in non-ionic modified osmotic medium, while under matric stress this was limited to -8.4 MPa at 25 °C. However, both strains were seen to respond differently to decreasing osmotic and matric potentials, during early stages of germination. One strain (RC 338) showed to be more sensitive to matric than osmotic (non ionic) and the other one (RC 386) showed to be more sensitive to osmotic than matric imposed water stress. After 24 h of incubation, both isolates behaved similarly. The minimum water potential for germination was -8.4 MPa on glycerol amended media and -5.6 MPa for NaCl and PEG amended media, respectively. The knowledge of the water potential range which allow mycelia growth and spore germination of F. solani provides an inside to the likely behaviour of this devastating soilborne plant pathogen in nature and has important practical implications.

  2. Impact of water potential on growth and germination of Fusarium solani soilborne pathogen of peanut

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Sofia; Casasnovas, Francisco; Ramirez, María L.; Reynoso, María. M.; Torres, Adriana M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of osmotic and matric stress on germination and growth of two Fusarium solani strains, the etiological agent responsible of peanut brown root rot. Both strains had similar osmotic and matric potential ranges that allowed growth, being the latter one narrower. F. solani showed the ability to grow down to −14 MPa at 25 °C in non-ionic modified osmotic medium, while under matric stress this was limited to −8.4 MPa at 25 °C. However, both strains were seen to respond differently to decreasing osmotic and matric potentials, during early stages of germination. One strain (RC 338) showed to be more sensitive to matric than osmotic (non ionic) and the other one (RC 386) showed to be more sensitive to osmotic than matric imposed water stress. After 24 h of incubation, both isolates behaved similarly. The minimum water potential for germination was −8.4 MPa on glycerol amended media and −5.6 MPa for NaCl and PEG amended media, respectively. The knowledge of the water potential range which allow mycelia growth and spore germination of F. solani provides an inside to the likely behaviour of this devastating soilborne plant pathogen in nature and has important practical implications. PMID:25477950

  3. Impact of water potential on growth and germination of Fusarium solani soilborne pathogen of peanut.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Sofia; Casasnovas, Francisco; Ramirez, María L; Reynoso, María M; Torres, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of osmotic and matric stress on germination and growth of two Fusarium solani strains, the etiological agent responsible of peanut brown root rot. Both strains had similar osmotic and matric potential ranges that allowed growth, being the latter one narrower. F. solani showed the ability to grow down to -14 MPa at 25 °C in non-ionic modified osmotic medium, while under matric stress this was limited to -8.4 MPa at 25 °C. However, both strains were seen to respond differently to decreasing osmotic and matric potentials, during early stages of germination. One strain (RC 338) showed to be more sensitive to matric than osmotic (non ionic) and the other one (RC 386) showed to be more sensitive to osmotic than matric imposed water stress. After 24 h of incubation, both isolates behaved similarly. The minimum water potential for germination was -8.4 MPa on glycerol amended media and -5.6 MPa for NaCl and PEG amended media, respectively. The knowledge of the water potential range which allow mycelia growth and spore germination of F. solani provides an inside to the likely behaviour of this devastating soilborne plant pathogen in nature and has important practical implications. PMID:25477950

  4. Xylem tension affects growth-induced water potential and daily elongation of maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Tang, An-Ching; Boyer, John S

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal rates of leaf elongation vary in maize (Zea mays L.) and are characterized by a decline each afternoon. The cause of the afternoon decline was investigated. When the atmospheric environment was held constant in a controlled environment, and water and nutrients were adequately supplied to the soil or the roots in solution, the decline persisted and indicated that the cause was internal. Inside the plants, xylem fluxes of water and solutes were essentially constant during the day. However, the forces moving these components changed. Tensions rose in the xylem, and gradients of growth-induced water potentials decreased in the surrounding growing tissues of the leaf. These potentials, measured with isopiestic thermocouple psychrometry, changed because the roots became less conductive to water as the day progressed. The increased tensions were reversed by applying pressure to the soil/root system, which rehydrated the leaf. Afternoon elongation immediately recovered to rapid morning rates. The rapid morning rates did not respond to soil/root pressurization. It was concluded that increased xylem tension in the afternoon diminished the gradients in growth-induced water potential and thus inhibited elongation. Because increased tensions cause a similar but larger inhibition of elongation if maize dehydrates, these hydraulics are crucial for shaping the growth-induced water potential and thus the rates of leaf elongation in maize over the entire spectrum of water availability. PMID:18349050

  5. Study of Growth Potential of Listeria Monocytogenes in Low Fat Salami: An Innovative Italian Meat Product

    PubMed Central

    Cosciani-Cunico, Elena; Pavoni, Enrico; Bertasi, Barbara; Daminelli, Paolo; Finazzi, Guido; Losio, Marina N.; Varisco, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, consequently to EC Regulation no. 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods, some Italian food businnes operators (FBOs) leaders in the meat sector, invested in research to develop innovative products such as low fat salami, containing up to 30% less fat than the traditional one. For FBOs it is essential to demonstrate for each production process whether the substrate allows the growth of L. monocytogenes and whether L. monocytogenes could reach or exceed the limit of 100 cfu g–1 at the end of the shelf life, as stated by EC Regulation no. 2073/2005. In the present study, the growth potential of L. monocytogenes during the shelf life of low fat salami packed in modified atmosphere was evaluated. The results show that the product is unable to support the growth of pathogen, even if the storage temperature is between 8 and 12°C. PMID:27800321

  6. Growth potential limits drought morphological plasticity in seedlings from six Eucalyptus provenances.

    PubMed

    Maseda, Pablo H; Fernández, Roberto J

    2016-02-01

    Water stress modifies plant above- vs belowground biomass allocation, i.e., morphological plasticity. It is known that all species and genotypes reduce their growth rate in response to stress, but in the case of water stress it is unclear whether the magnitude of such reduction is linked to the genotype's growth potential, and whether the reduction can be largely attributed to morphological adjustments such as plant allocation and leaf and root anatomy. We subjected seedlings of six seed sources, three from each of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (potentially fast growing) and E. globulus (inherently slow growing), to three experimental water regimes. Biomass, leaf area and root length were measured in a 6-month glasshouse experiment. We then performed functional growth analysis of relative growth rate (RGR), and aboveground (leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass ratio (LMR)) and belowground (root length ratio (RLR), specific root length (SRL) and root mass ratio (RMR)) morphological components. Total biomass, root biomass and leaf area were reduced for all Eucalyptus provenances according to drought intensity. All populations exhibited drought plasticity, while those of greater growth potential (RGRmax) had a larger reduction in growth (discounting the effect of size). A positive correlation was observed between drought sensitivity and RGRmax. Aboveground, drought reduced LAR and LMR; under severe drought a negative correlation was found between LMR and RGRmax. Belowground, drought reduced SRL but increased RMR, resulting in no change in RLR. Under severe drought, a negative correlation was found between RLR, SRL and RGRmax. Our evidence strongly supports the classic ecophysiological trade-off between growth potential and drought tolerance for woody seedlings. It also suggests that slow growers would have a low capacity to adjust their morphology. For shoots, this constraint on plasticity was best observed in partition (i.e., LMR) whereas for

  7. Do costochondral grafts have any growth potential in temporomandibular joint surgery? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Praveen; Rattan, Vidya; Rai, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the study To assess the growth potential of costochondral graft in temporomandibular joint reconstruction in patients with temporomandibular ankylosis and hemifacial microsomia. Method Systematic review after inclusion of articles fulfilling the following criteria: (1) only human studies; (2) patients of temporomandibular joint ankylosis and hemifacial microsomia; and (3) studies with minimum of five cases and with a minimum follow-up for a period of 5 years. The primary outcome measure was the percentage of patients with optimum growth of costochondral graft. Secondary outcomes were any abnormal growth and restoration of function. Delphi's criteria were used for assessing the quality of the included studies. Result Only three studies satisfied all the inclusion criteria. A total of 96 costochondral grafts were placed in the included studies. Optimum growth was reported in 54 grafts, undergrowth in 1 graft, overgrowth in 7 grafts, lateral overgrowth in 1 graft and no growth in 1 graft. Graft resorption, reankylosis and sequestration were seen in 21, 8 and 3 cases, respectively. When the Delphi's criteria were applied to the case series for the assessment of quality, majority of the studies could be considered as satisfying at least 50% of the criteria. Conclusion There are no randomised clinical trials and the only evidence is in the form of case series that is considered as the lowest level of evidence for any study. No inference can be interpreted regarding growth potential of costochondral graft. Thus, on the basis of available evidence, it can be concluded that use of costochondral graft for temporomandibular joint reconstruction lacks scientific evidence. PMID:26605146

  8. Anti-icing potential of superhydrophobic Ti6Al4V surfaces: ice nucleation and growth.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yizhou; Tao, Jie; Tao, Haijun; Chen, Shanlong; Pan, Lei; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    On the basis of the icing-delay performance and ice adhesion strength, the anti-icing potential of the superhydrophobic surface has been well-investigated in the past few years. The present work mainly emphasized the investigations of ice nucleation and growth to fully explore the anti-icing potential of the superhydrophobic surface. We took the various surfaces ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic as the research objects and, combining the classical nucleation theory, discussed the ice nucleation behaviors of the water droplets on these sample surfaces under the condition of supercooling. Meanwhile, the macroscopical growth processes of ice on these surfaces were analyzed on the basis of the growth mechanism of the ice nucleus. It was found that the superhydrophobic surface could greatly reduce the solid-liquid interface nucleation rate, owing to the extremely low actual solid-liquid contact area caused by the composite micro-nanoscale hierarchical structures trapping air pockets, leading to the bulk nucleation dominating the entire ice nucleation at the lower temperatures. Furthermore, ice on the superhydrophobic surface possessed a lower macroscopical growth velocity as a result of the less ice nucleation rate and the insulating action of the trapped air pockets. PMID:26367109

  9. Evaluation of Brevibacillus brevis as a potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop.

    PubMed

    Nehra, Vibha; Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Choudhary, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to isolate, screen and evaluate a selected promising PGPR Brevibacillus brevis on cotton crop. Out of 156 bacterial isolates one of the most promising isolate was analyzed for the various PGP traits. A seed germination analysis was conducted with cotton seeds to evaluate the potential of the isolate to promote plant growth. The bacterial isolate was checked for its growth and survival at high temperatures. The isolate was also analyzed for the PGP traits exhibited after the heat treatment. To identify the isolate morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization was performed. The isolate was found positive for many of the PGP attributes like IAA, ARA, anti-fungal activity and ammonia production. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters was used as an indicator. The isolate showed significant growth and exhibited various PGP traits at high temperature making it suitable as an inoculant for cotton crop. Isolate was identified as Brevibacillus brevis [SVC(II)14] based on phenotypic as well as genotypic attributes and after conducting this research we propose that the B. brevis which is reported for the first time for its PGP potential in cotton, exerts its beneficial effects on cotton crop through combined modes of actions.

  10. Evaluation of Brevibacillus brevis as a potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop.

    PubMed

    Nehra, Vibha; Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Choudhary, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to isolate, screen and evaluate a selected promising PGPR Brevibacillus brevis on cotton crop. Out of 156 bacterial isolates one of the most promising isolate was analyzed for the various PGP traits. A seed germination analysis was conducted with cotton seeds to evaluate the potential of the isolate to promote plant growth. The bacterial isolate was checked for its growth and survival at high temperatures. The isolate was also analyzed for the PGP traits exhibited after the heat treatment. To identify the isolate morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization was performed. The isolate was found positive for many of the PGP attributes like IAA, ARA, anti-fungal activity and ammonia production. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters was used as an indicator. The isolate showed significant growth and exhibited various PGP traits at high temperature making it suitable as an inoculant for cotton crop. Isolate was identified as Brevibacillus brevis [SVC(II)14] based on phenotypic as well as genotypic attributes and after conducting this research we propose that the B. brevis which is reported for the first time for its PGP potential in cotton, exerts its beneficial effects on cotton crop through combined modes of actions. PMID:27386392

  11. Direct current electrical potential measurement of the growth of small cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Slavik, Donald C.; Piascik, Robert S.; Van Stone, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    The analytical and experimental aspects of the direct-current electrical potential difference (dcEPD) method for continuous monitoring of the growth kinetics of short (50 to 500 microns) fatigue cracks are reviewed, and successful applications of the deEPD method to study fatigue crack propagation in a variety of metallic alloys exposed to various environments are described. Particular attention is given to the principle of the dcEPD method, the analytical electrical potential calibration relationships, and the experimental procedures and equipment.

  12. Model-driven evaluation of the production potential for growth-coupled products of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Feist, Adam M; Zielinski, Daniel C; Orth, Jeffrey D; Schellenberger, Jan; Herrgard, Markus J; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2010-05-01

    Integrated approaches utilizing in silico analyses will be necessary to successfully advance the field of metabolic engineering. Here, we present an integrated approach through a systematic model-driven evaluation of the production potential for the bacterial production organism Escherichia coli to produce multiple native products from different representative feedstocks through coupling metabolite production to growth rate. Designs were examined for 11 unique central metabolism and amino acid targets from three different substrates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Optimal strain designs were reported for designs which possess maximum yield, substrate-specific productivity, and strength of growth-coupling for up to 10 reaction eliminations (knockouts). In total, growth-coupled designs could be identified for 36 out of the total 54 conditions tested, corresponding to eight out of the 11 targets. There were 17 different substrate/target pairs for which over 80% of the theoretical maximum potential could be achieved. The developed method introduces a new concept of objective function tilting for strain design. This study provides specific metabolic interventions (strain designs) for production strains that can be experimentally implemented, characterizes the potential for E. coli to produce native compounds, and outlines a strain design pipeline that can be utilized to design production strains for additional organisms.

  13. Inhibition of hydroxyapatite growth by casein, a potential salivary phosphoprotein homologue.

    PubMed

    Romero, Maria J R H; Nakashima, Syozi; Nikaido, Toru; Ichinose, Shizuko; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2015-08-01

    Salivary phosphoproteins are essential in tooth mineral regulation but are often overlooked in vitro. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of casein, as a salivary phosphoprotein homologue, on the deposition and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) on tooth surfaces. Hydroxyapatite growth was quantified using seeded crystal systems. Artificial saliva (AS) containing HA powder and 0, 10, 20, 50, or 100 μg ml(-1) of casein, or 100 μg ml(-1) of dephosphorylated casein (Dcasein), was incubated for 0-8 h at 37°C, pH 7.2. Calcium concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Surface precipitation of HA on bovine enamel and dentine blocks, incubated in similar conditions for 7 d, was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Casein adsorption was assessed using modified Lowry assays and zeta-potential measurements. The AAS results revealed a concentration-dependent inhibition of calcium consumption. Hydroxyapatite precipitation occurred when no casein was present, whereas precipitation of HA was apparently completely inhibited in casein-containing groups. Adsorption data demonstrated increasingly negative zeta-potential with increased casein concentration and an affinity constant similar to proline-rich proteins with Langmuir modelling. Casein inhibited the deposition and growth of HA primarily through the binding of esterized phosphate to HA active sites, indicating its potential as a mineral-regulating salivary phosphoprotein homologue in vitro. PMID:26083784

  14. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics.

    PubMed

    Chazdon, Robin L; Broadbent, Eben N; Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Craven, Dylan; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Lohbeck, Madelon; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velazquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, Isabel Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans; Vieira, Ima Celia G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-05-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km(2) of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services.

  15. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics

    PubMed Central

    Chazdon, Robin L.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T. Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M.; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Craven, Dylan; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S.; Cabral, George A. L.; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S.; Dent, Daisy H.; DeWalt, Saara J.; Dupuy, Juan M.; Durán, Sandra M.; Espírito-Santo, Mario M.; Fandino, María C.; César, Ricardo G.; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Junqueira, André B.; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G.; Lohbeck, Madelon; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A.; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R. F.; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S.; Rodríguez-Velazquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, Isabel Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B.; Steininger, Marc K.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D. M.; Vester, Hans; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G. Bruce; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-01-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km2 of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services. PMID:27386528

  16. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics.

    PubMed

    Chazdon, Robin L; Broadbent, Eben N; Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Craven, Dylan; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Lohbeck, Madelon; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velazquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, Isabel Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans; Vieira, Ima Celia G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-05-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km(2) of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services. PMID:27386528

  17. An Autonomously Reciprocating Transmembrane Nanoactuator.

    PubMed

    Watson, Matthew A; Cockroft, Scott L

    2016-01-22

    Biological molecular machines operate far from equilibrium by coupling chemical potential to repeated cycles of dissipative nanomechanical motion. This principle has been exploited in supramolecular systems that exhibit true machine behavior in solution and on surfaces. However, designed membrane-spanning assemblies developed to date have been limited to simple switches or stochastic shuttles, and true machine behavior has remained elusive. Herein, we present a transmembrane nanoactuator that turns over chemical fuel to drive autonomous reciprocating (back-and-forth) nanomechanical motion. Ratcheted reciprocating motion of a DNA/PEG copolymer threaded through a single α-hemolysin pore was induced by a combination of DNA strand displacement processes and enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Ion-current recordings revealed saw-tooth patterns, indicating that the assemblies operated in autonomous, asymmetric cycles of conformational change at rates of up to one cycle per minute. PMID:26661295

  18. The potential impacts of increasing temperatures on old-growth forest biomass density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larjavaara, M.; Muller-Landau, H. C.

    2012-04-01

    Global atmospheric and climate change could alter forest carbon stores, potentially causing important positive or negative feedbacks on global change. For example, rising temperatures are likely to influence old-growth forest biomass density (biomass per unit area), and thereby could make old growth forests sources or sinks of carbon to the atmosphere, but the magnitude and direction of likely change continue to be debated. It is difficult if not impossible to run experiments on sufficiently large spatial and temporal scale to capture global change impacts on old-growth biomass in different forest types. Thus, models that capture the key physiological impacts of global change on forest carbon budgets are a critical tool for assessing impacts of climate and atmospheric change. The expected changes in temperatures are similar to spatial temperature variation observed currently and, therefore, models explaining current variation in old¬-growth forest biomass can be directly applied to predict expected equilibrium biomass after a transitional period lasting decades or centuries. In a recent paper (Larjavaara and Muller-Landau 2012. Temperature explains global variation in biomass among humid old-growth forests. Global Ecology and Biogeography), we developed a physiologically motivated model for global variation in old-growth forest biomass. We modelled annual GPP as a function of monthly average temperatures (minimum and maximum) and sun angle, and modelled plant biomass "maintenance cost" (including autotrophic respiration and construction required to maintain biomass) as a function of temperatures alone. We then used fitted models for GPP and maintenance cost to predict old-growth forest biomass density under different climates. We found that highest old-growth biomass is expected in maritime temperate climates in which temperatures remain between 5˚C and 25˚C for most of the year, and in which the ratio of GPP to maintenance cost is thus the highest. In tropical

  19. Chemical diversity of microbial volatiles and their potential for plant growth and productivity

    PubMed Central

    Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala; Malnoy, Mickael; Maffei, Massimo E.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) are produced by a wide array of microorganisms ranging from bacteria to fungi. A growing body of evidence indicates that MVOCs are ecofriendly and can be exploited as a cost-effective sustainable strategy for use in agricultural practice as agents that enhance plant growth, productivity, and disease resistance. As naturally occurring chemicals, MVOCs have potential as possible alternatives to harmful pesticides, fungicides, and bactericides as well as genetic modification. Recent studies performed under open field conditions demonstrate that efficiently adopting MVOCs may contribute to sustainable crop protection and production. We review here the chemical diversity of MVOCs by describing microbial–plants and microbial–microbial interactions. Furthermore, we discuss MVOCs role in inducing phenotypic plant responses and their potential physiological effects on crops. Finally, we analyze potential and actual limitations for MVOC use and deployment in field conditions as a sustainable strategy for improving productivity and reducing pesticide use. PMID:25821453

  20. A potential energy scaling Monte Carlo simulation of thin film nucleation and growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, R. A.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    The initial growth of thin Ge fims on the (100) surface of an Fe substrate is investigated theoretically by means of Monte Carlo simulations based on a potential-energy-scaling technique. The substrate is modeled as a 20 x 20-square array with periodic boundary conditions, as described by Heinbockel et al. (1983), and the movement of surface atoms under the influence of the substrate interaction potential and the lateral interaction of neighboring atoms is explored via continuous updating (on the time scale of single events) of the potential energy at each site in the array. Results for the clustering of nine dispersed atoms over 1.0 s at 600 K and for deposition at 5 x 10 to the -14th/sq cm s over 2.0 s at 500 K are presented graphically.

  1. Anaerobic growth and potential for amino acid production by nitrate respiration in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Takeno, Seiki; Ohnishi, Junko; Komatsu, Tomoha; Masaki, Tatsuya; Sen, Kikuo; Ikeda, Masato

    2007-07-01

    Oxygen limitation is a crucial problem in amino acid fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum. Toward this subject, our study was initiated by analysis of the oxygen-requiring properties of C. glutamicum, generally regarded as a strict aerobe. This organism formed colonies on agar plates up to relatively low oxygen concentrations (0.5% O(2)), while no visible colonies were formed in the absence of O(2). However, in the presence of nitrate (NO3-), the organism exhibited limited growth anaerobically with production of nitrite (NO2-), indicating that C. glutamicum can use nitrate as a final electron acceptor. Assays of cell extracts from aerobic and hypoxic cultures yielded comparable nitrate reductase activities, irrespective of nitrate levels. Genome analysis revealed a narK2GHJI cluster potentially relevant to nitrate reductase and transport. Disruptions of narG and narJ abolished the nitrate-dependent anaerobic growth with the loss of nitrate reductase activity. Disruption of the putative nitrate/nitrite antiporter gene narK2 did not affect the enzyme activity but impaired the anaerobic growth. These indicate that this locus is responsible for nitrate respiration. Agar piece assays using L-lysine- and L-arginine-producing strains showed that production of both amino acids occurred anaerobically by nitrate respiration, indicating the potential of C. glutamicum for anaerobic amino acid production.

  2. A Two-Stage-to-Orbit Spaceplane Concept With Growth Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.

    2001-01-01

    A two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) spaceplane concept developed in 1993 is revisited, and new information is provided to assist in the development of the next-generation space transportation vehicles. The design philosophy, TSTO spaceplane concept, and the design method are briefly described. A trade study between cold and hot structures leads to the choice of cold structures with external thermal protection systems. The optimal Mach number for staging the second stage of the TSTO spaceplane (with air-breathing propulsion on the first stage) is 10, based on life-cycle cost analysis. The performance and specification of a prototype/experimental (P/X) TSTO spaceplane with a turbo/ram/scramjet propulsion system and built-in growth potential are presented and discussed. The internal rate of return on investment is the highest for the proposed TSTO spaceplane, vis-A-vis a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rocket vehicle and a TSTO spaceplane without built-in growth. Additional growth potentials for the proposed spaceplane are suggested. This spaceplane can substantially decrease access-to-space cost and risk, and increase safety and reliability in the near term It can be a serious candidate for the next-generation space transportation system.

  3. Remote coral reefs can sustain high growth potential and may match future sea-level trends

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Chris T.; Murphy, Gary N.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Wilson, Shaun K.; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A.; East, Holly K.

    2015-01-01

    Climate-induced disturbances are contributing to rapid, global-scale changes in coral reef ecology. As a consequence, reef carbonate budgets are declining, threatening reef growth potential and thus capacity to track rising sea-levels. Whether disturbed reefs can recover their growth potential and how rapidly, are thus critical research questions. Here we address these questions by measuring the carbonate budgets of 28 reefs across the Chagos Archipelago (Indian Ocean) which, while geographically remote and largely isolated from compounding human impacts, experienced severe (>90%) coral mortality during the 1998 warming event. Coral communities on most reefs recovered rapidly and we show that carbonate budgets in 2015 average +3.7 G (G = kg CaCO3 m−2 yr−1). Most significantly the production rates on Acropora-dominated reefs, the corals most severely impacted in 1998, averaged +8.4 G by 2015, comparable with estimates under pre-human (Holocene) disturbance conditions. These positive budgets are reflected in high reef growth rates (4.2 mm yr−1) on Acropora-dominated reefs, demonstrating that carbonate budgets on these remote reefs have recovered rapidly from major climate-driven disturbances. Critically, these reefs retain the capacity to grow at rates exceeding measured regional mid-late Holocene and 20th century sea-level rise, and close to IPCC sea-level rise projections through to 2100. PMID:26669758

  4. Potential for plant growth promotion of rhizobacteria associated with Salicornia growing in Tunisian hypersaline soils.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands.

  5. Volasertib suppresses tumor growth and potentiates the activity of cisplatin in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Feng-Feng; Pan, Shi-Shi; Ou, Rong-Ying; Zheng, Zhen-Zhen; Huang, Xiao-Xiu; Jian, Meng-Ting; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Jiang, Qi-Wei; Yang, Yang; Li, Wen-Feng; Shi, Zhi; Yan, Xiao-Jian

    2015-01-01

    Volasertib (BI 6727), a highly selective and potent inhibitor of PLK1, has shown broad antitumor activities in the preclinical and clinical studies for the treatment of several types of cancers. However, the anticancer effect of volasertib on cervical cancer cells is still unknown. In the present study, we show that volasertib can markedly induce cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis with the decreased protein expressions of PLK1 substrates survivin and wee1 in human cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, volasertib also enhances the intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) levels, and pretreated with ROS scavenger N-acety-L-cysteine totally blocks ROS generation but partly reverses volasertib-induced apoptosis. In addition, volasertib significantly potentiates the activity of cisplatin to inhibit the growth of cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. In brief, volasertib suppresses tumor growth and potentiates the activity of cisplatin in cervical cancer, suggesting the combination of volasertib and cisplatin may be a promising strategy for the treatment of patients with cervical cancer. PMID:26885445

  6. Volasertib suppresses tumor growth and potentiates the activity of cisplatin in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng-Feng; Pan, Shi-Shi; Ou, Rong-Ying; Zheng, Zhen-Zhen; Huang, Xiao-Xiu; Jian, Meng-Ting; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Jiang, Qi-Wei; Yang, Yang; Li, Wen-Feng; Shi, Zhi; Yan, Xiao-Jian

    2015-01-01

    Volasertib (BI 6727), a highly selective and potent inhibitor of PLK1, has shown broad antitumor activities in the preclinical and clinical studies for the treatment of several types of cancers. However, the anticancer effect of volasertib on cervical cancer cells is still unknown. In the present study, we show that volasertib can markedly induce cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis with the decreased protein expressions of PLK1 substrates survivin and wee1 in human cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, volasertib also enhances the intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) levels, and pretreated with ROS scavenger N-acety-L-cysteine totally blocks ROS generation but partly reverses volasertib-induced apoptosis. In addition, volasertib significantly potentiates the activity of cisplatin to inhibit the growth of cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. In brief, volasertib suppresses tumor growth and potentiates the activity of cisplatin in cervical cancer, suggesting the combination of volasertib and cisplatin may be a promising strategy for the treatment of patients with cervical cancer. PMID:26885445

  7. Remote coral reefs can sustain high growth potential and may match future sea-level trends.

    PubMed

    Perry, Chris T; Murphy, Gary N; Graham, Nicholas A J; Wilson, Shaun K; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; East, Holly K

    2015-12-16

    Climate-induced disturbances are contributing to rapid, global-scale changes in coral reef ecology. As a consequence, reef carbonate budgets are declining, threatening reef growth potential and thus capacity to track rising sea-levels. Whether disturbed reefs can recover their growth potential and how rapidly, are thus critical research questions. Here we address these questions by measuring the carbonate budgets of 28 reefs across the Chagos Archipelago (Indian Ocean) which, while geographically remote and largely isolated from compounding human impacts, experienced severe (>90%) coral mortality during the 1998 warming event. Coral communities on most reefs recovered rapidly and we show that carbonate budgets in 2015 average +3.7 G (G = kg CaCO3 m(-2) yr(-1)). Most significantly the production rates on Acropora-dominated reefs, the corals most severely impacted in 1998, averaged +8.4 G by 2015, comparable with estimates under pre-human (Holocene) disturbance conditions. These positive budgets are reflected in high reef growth rates (4.2 mm yr(-1)) on Acropora-dominated reefs, demonstrating that carbonate budgets on these remote reefs have recovered rapidly from major climate-driven disturbances. Critically, these reefs retain the capacity to grow at rates exceeding measured regional mid-late Holocene and 20th century sea-level rise, and close to IPCC sea-level rise projections through to 2100.

  8. Sildenafil Potentiates a cGMP-Dependent Pathway to Promote Melanoma Growth.

    PubMed

    Dhayade, Sandeep; Kaesler, Susanne; Sinnberg, Tobias; Dobrowinski, Hyazinth; Peters, Stefanie; Naumann, Ulrike; Liu, He; Hunger, Robert E; Thunemann, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Schittek, Birgit; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Feil, Susanne; Feil, Robert

    2016-03-22

    Sildenafil, an inhibitor of the cGMP-degrading phosphodiesterase 5 that is used to treat erectile dysfunction, has been linked to an increased risk of melanoma. Here, we have examined the potential connection between cGMP-dependent signaling cascades and melanoma growth. Using a combination of biochemical assays and real-time monitoring of melanoma cells, we report a cGMP-dependent growth-promoting pathway in murine and human melanoma cells. We document that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a ligand of the membrane-bound guanylate cyclase B, enhances the activity of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) in melanoma cells by increasing the intracellular levels of cGMP. Activation of this cGMP pathway promotes melanoma cell growth and migration in a p44/42 MAPK-dependent manner. Sildenafil treatment further increases intracellular cGMP concentrations, potentiating activation of this pathway. Collectively, our data identify this cGMP-cGKI pathway as the link between sildenafil usage and increased melanoma risk. PMID:26971999

  9. Remote coral reefs can sustain high growth potential and may match future sea-level trends.

    PubMed

    Perry, Chris T; Murphy, Gary N; Graham, Nicholas A J; Wilson, Shaun K; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; East, Holly K

    2015-01-01

    Climate-induced disturbances are contributing to rapid, global-scale changes in coral reef ecology. As a consequence, reef carbonate budgets are declining, threatening reef growth potential and thus capacity to track rising sea-levels. Whether disturbed reefs can recover their growth potential and how rapidly, are thus critical research questions. Here we address these questions by measuring the carbonate budgets of 28 reefs across the Chagos Archipelago (Indian Ocean) which, while geographically remote and largely isolated from compounding human impacts, experienced severe (>90%) coral mortality during the 1998 warming event. Coral communities on most reefs recovered rapidly and we show that carbonate budgets in 2015 average +3.7 G (G = kg CaCO3 m(-2) yr(-1)). Most significantly the production rates on Acropora-dominated reefs, the corals most severely impacted in 1998, averaged +8.4 G by 2015, comparable with estimates under pre-human (Holocene) disturbance conditions. These positive budgets are reflected in high reef growth rates (4.2 mm yr(-1)) on Acropora-dominated reefs, demonstrating that carbonate budgets on these remote reefs have recovered rapidly from major climate-driven disturbances. Critically, these reefs retain the capacity to grow at rates exceeding measured regional mid-late Holocene and 20th century sea-level rise, and close to IPCC sea-level rise projections through to 2100. PMID:26669758

  10. Potential for Plant Growth Promotion of Rhizobacteria Associated with Salicornia Growing in Tunisian Hypersaline Soils

    PubMed Central

    Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands. PMID:23781499

  11. Natural Variation in the Degree of Autonomous Endosperm Formation Reveals Independence and Constraints of Embryo Growth During Seed Development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ungru, Alexander; Nowack, Moritz K.; Reymond, Matthieu; Shirzadi, Reza; Kumar, Manoj; Biewers, Sandra; Grini, Paul E.; Schnittger, Arp

    2008-01-01

    Seed development in flowering plants is a paradigm for the coordination of different tissues during organ growth. It requires a tight interplay between the two typically sexually produced structures: the embryo, developing from the fertilized egg cell, and the endosperm, originating from a fertilized central cell, along with the surrounding maternal tissues. Little is known about the presumptive signal transduction pathways administering and coordinating these different tissues during seed growth and development. Recently, a new signal has been identified emanating from the fertilization of the egg cell that triggers central cell proliferation without prior fertilization. Here, we demonstrate that there exists a large natural genetic variation with respect to the outcome of this signaling process in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. By using a recombinant inbred line population between the two Arabidopsis accessions Bayreuth-0 and Shahdara, we have identified two genetic components that influence the development of unfertilized endosperm. Exploiting this natural variation, we could further dissect the interdependence of embryo and endosperm growth during early seed development. Our data show an unexpectedly large degree of independence in embryo growth, but also reveal the embryo's developmental restrictions with respect to endosperm size. This work provides a genetic framework for dissection of the interplay between embryo and endosperm during seed growth in plants. PMID:18505878

  12. Growth of Sobolev Norms in Linear Schrödinger Equations with Quasi-Periodic Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgain, J.

    In this paper, we consider the following problem. Let iut+Δu+V(x,t)u= 0 be a linear Schrödinger equation ( periodic boundary conditions) where V is a real, bounded, real analytic potential which is periodic in x and quasi periodic in t with diophantine frequency vector λ. Denote S(t) the corresponding flow map. Thus S(t) preserves the L2-norm and our aim is to study its behaviour on Hs(TD), s> 0. Our main result is the growth in time is at most logarithmic; thus if φ∈Hs, then More precisely, (*) is proven in 1D and 2D when V is small. We also exhibit examples showing that a growth of higher Sobolev norms may occur in this context and (*) is thus essentially best possible.

  13. Potential mechanisms for hypoalgesia induced by anti-nerve growth factor immunoglobulin are identified using autoimmune nerve growth factor deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, E M; Zhang, Z; Anderson, M B; Schechter, R; Miller, K E

    2011-10-13

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) antagonism has long been proposed as a chronic pain treatment. In 2010, the FDA suspended clinical trials using tanezumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-NGF antibody, to treat osteoarthritis due to worsening joint damage in 16 patients. Increased physical activity in the absence of acute pain which normally prevents self-harm was purported as a potential cause. Such an adverse effect is consistent with an extension of tanezumab's primary mechanism of action by decreasing pain sensitivity below baseline levels. In animal inflammatory pain models, NGF antagonism decreases intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and attenuates increases in expression of nociception-related proteins, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). Little is known of the effects of NGF antagonism in noninflamed animals and the hypoalgesia that ensues. In the current study, we immunized rats with NGF or cytochrome C (cytC) and examined (1) nocifensive behaviors with thermal latencies, mechanical thresholds, the hot plate test, and the tail flick test, (2) IENF density, and (3) expression of CGRP, SP, voltage-gated sodium channel 1.8 (Nav1.8), and glutaminase in subpopulations of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons separated by size and isolectin B4 (IB4) labeling. Rats with high anti-NGF titers had delayed responses on the hot plate test but no other behavioral abnormalities. Delayed hot plate responses correlated with lower IENF density. CGRP and SP expression was decreased principally in medium (400-800 μm(2)) and small neurons (<400 μm(2)), respectively, regardless of IB4 labeling. Expression of Nav1.8 was only decreased in small and medium IB4 negative neurons. NGF immunization appears to result in a more profound antagonism of NGF than tanezumab therapy, but we hypothesize that decreases in IENF density and nociception-related protein expression are potential mechanisms for tanezumab-induced hypoalgesia. PMID:21802499

  14. Effect of dsRNA on growth rate and reproductive potential of Monosporascus cannonballus.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Josep; Alaniz, Sandra; Vicent, Antonio; Beltrán, Roberto; Abad-Campos, Paloma; Pérez-Sierra, Ana; García-Jiménez, José; Ben Salem, Ibtissem; Souli, Mounira; Boughalleb, Naima

    2011-03-01

    The effect of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) infection on growth rate and the reproductive potential of Monosporascus cannonballus was studied in 21 isolates collected in cucurbit growing areas of Spain and Tunisia. The isolates were incubated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) under different conditions of temperature, pH, and water potential (Ψ(s)). They showed optimal growth temperatures over the range of 27-34°C and perithecia formation was obtained mainly at 25 and 30°C, although some isolates were able to produce perithecia at 35°C. All isolates were able to produce perithecia in a broad range of pHs (4-8). Regarding the effect of Ψ(s,) the isolates were more tolerant to grow on KCl than on NaCl. For each solute, radial growth decreased progressively as Ψ(s) decreased and was severely limited at -5.0 to -6.0MPa. Perithecia formation was highest at -0.5MPa, decreased at -1.0MPa and occurred just in some isolates at -2.0MPa. Nine of the M. cannonballus isolates harboured dsRNA with 2-6 bands each and a size range of 1.9-18.0Kb. Phenotypical data were subjected to multivariate factorial analysis. Most of the isolates clustered in two groups corresponding with the presence/absence of dsRNA elements. Isolates without detectable dsRNA produced more perithecia. However, isolates with dsRNA produced lower number of perithecia depending on the pH, Ψ(s,) or solute used. These results improve our understanding of the behaviour and growth of this pathogen in soil, and can be useful to implement effective disease control.

  15. Detection of Virulence Genes and Growth Potential in Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from Ricotta Salata Cheese.

    PubMed

    Coroneo, Valentina; Carraro, Valentina; Aissani, Nadhem; Sanna, Adriana; Ruggeri, Alessandra; Succa, Sara; Meloni, Barbara; Pinna, Antonella; Sanna, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Ricotta Salata is a traditional ripened and salted whey cheese made in Sardinia (Italy) from sheep's milk. This product is catalogued as ready-to-eat food (RTE) since it is not submitted to any further treatment before consumption. Thus, foodborne pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, can represent a health risk for consumers. In September 2012, the FDA ordered the recall of several batches of Ricotta Salata imported from Italy linked to 22 cases of Listeriosis in the United States. This study was aimed at evaluating the presence and virulence properties of L. monocytogenes in 87 samples of Ricotta Salata produced in Sardinia. The ability of this product to support its growth under foreseen packing and storing conditions was also evaluated in 252 samples. Of the 87 samples 17.2% were positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes with an average concentration of 2.2 log10 cfu/g. All virulence-associated genes (prfA, rrn, hlyA, actA, inlA, inlB, iap, plcA, and plcB) were detected in only one isolated strain. The Ricotta Salata samples were artificially inoculated and growth potential (δ) was assessed over a period of 3 mo. The value of the growth potential was always >0.5 log10 cfu/g under foreseen packing and storing conditions. This study indicates that Ricotta Salata supports the L. monocytogenes growth to levels that may present a serious risk to public health, even while stored at refrigeration temperatures. PMID:26666835

  16. Effect of dsRNA on growth rate and reproductive potential of Monosporascus cannonballus.

    PubMed

    Armengol, Josep; Alaniz, Sandra; Vicent, Antonio; Beltrán, Roberto; Abad-Campos, Paloma; Pérez-Sierra, Ana; García-Jiménez, José; Ben Salem, Ibtissem; Souli, Mounira; Boughalleb, Naima

    2011-03-01

    The effect of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) infection on growth rate and the reproductive potential of Monosporascus cannonballus was studied in 21 isolates collected in cucurbit growing areas of Spain and Tunisia. The isolates were incubated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) under different conditions of temperature, pH, and water potential (Ψ(s)). They showed optimal growth temperatures over the range of 27-34°C and perithecia formation was obtained mainly at 25 and 30°C, although some isolates were able to produce perithecia at 35°C. All isolates were able to produce perithecia in a broad range of pHs (4-8). Regarding the effect of Ψ(s,) the isolates were more tolerant to grow on KCl than on NaCl. For each solute, radial growth decreased progressively as Ψ(s) decreased and was severely limited at -5.0 to -6.0MPa. Perithecia formation was highest at -0.5MPa, decreased at -1.0MPa and occurred just in some isolates at -2.0MPa. Nine of the M. cannonballus isolates harboured dsRNA with 2-6 bands each and a size range of 1.9-18.0Kb. Phenotypical data were subjected to multivariate factorial analysis. Most of the isolates clustered in two groups corresponding with the presence/absence of dsRNA elements. Isolates without detectable dsRNA produced more perithecia. However, isolates with dsRNA produced lower number of perithecia depending on the pH, Ψ(s,) or solute used. These results improve our understanding of the behaviour and growth of this pathogen in soil, and can be useful to implement effective disease control. PMID:21354530

  17. Detection of Virulence Genes and Growth Potential in Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from Ricotta Salata Cheese.

    PubMed

    Coroneo, Valentina; Carraro, Valentina; Aissani, Nadhem; Sanna, Adriana; Ruggeri, Alessandra; Succa, Sara; Meloni, Barbara; Pinna, Antonella; Sanna, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Ricotta Salata is a traditional ripened and salted whey cheese made in Sardinia (Italy) from sheep's milk. This product is catalogued as ready-to-eat food (RTE) since it is not submitted to any further treatment before consumption. Thus, foodborne pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, can represent a health risk for consumers. In September 2012, the FDA ordered the recall of several batches of Ricotta Salata imported from Italy linked to 22 cases of Listeriosis in the United States. This study was aimed at evaluating the presence and virulence properties of L. monocytogenes in 87 samples of Ricotta Salata produced in Sardinia. The ability of this product to support its growth under foreseen packing and storing conditions was also evaluated in 252 samples. Of the 87 samples 17.2% were positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes with an average concentration of 2.2 log10 cfu/g. All virulence-associated genes (prfA, rrn, hlyA, actA, inlA, inlB, iap, plcA, and plcB) were detected in only one isolated strain. The Ricotta Salata samples were artificially inoculated and growth potential (δ) was assessed over a period of 3 mo. The value of the growth potential was always >0.5 log10 cfu/g under foreseen packing and storing conditions. This study indicates that Ricotta Salata supports the L. monocytogenes growth to levels that may present a serious risk to public health, even while stored at refrigeration temperatures.

  18. Potential benefits of biotechnology in aquaculture: The case of growth hormones in French trout farming

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnieux, F.; Gloaguen, Y.; Rainelli, P.; Faure, A.; Fauconneau, B.; Le Bail, P.Y.; Maisse, G.; Prunet, P.

    1993-05-01

    Against the background of rapidly increasing fish demand and stagnant or declining marine harvest, aquaculture or fish farming has assumed a major role in France which is set to expand. Trout farming in particular has already displayed considerable growth and France is the leading producer in the EEC. Biotechnology holds the key to future changes in trout culture. One such technology, which trials show has potential to reduce production costs, is recombinant trout growth hormone (rtGH). This paper sets out to perform a preliminary ex ante assessment of the possible social benefits from the adoption of rtGH by French trout producers. Several scenarios, based on possible hypotheses of supply and demand growth, are considered. Scenarios assuming an association of the technology with diversification towards more highly processed trout products display the highest estimated welfare gains. A key factor which will determine the outcome of using rtGH is its acceptance by the public. There has already been strong adverse reaction in Europe to the use of genetically engineered growth hormones in meat production and to the use of bovine somatotropin to enhance milk yields. The possibility that there might be a similar response in the case of trout is examined by considering the possibility of a sharp drop in demand. Part 1 of the paper sets out the economic and technological background to biotechnological development of trout farming in France. Part 2 undertakes an ex ante assessment of potential changes in producer and consumer surplus from the adoption of rtGH applying alternative supply and demand shifts in the framework of partial equilibrium analysis. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Influence of projected ocean warming on population growth potential in two North Atlantic copepod species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegert, Christoph; Ji, Rubao; Davis, Cabell S.

    2010-10-01

    Copepods of the genera Pseudocalanus and Centropages play an important role in the North Atlantic ecosystems and have distinctive spatial and temporal patterns depending on physiological adaptation to different environmental conditions. To examine the possible impact of climate change on these biogeographic patterns, potential population growth rate was computed for each species using IPCC projections of sea surface temperature together with chlorophyll distributions from SeaWiFS climatology and published laboratory data on temperature and food-dependent life-history parameters. The results indicate that the predicted temperature increase throughout the North Atlantic will cause temporal and spatial shifts in copepod species population growth potential. The Centropages population is projected to increase in mid-latitudinal shelf areas, e.g. the Gulf of Maine and the North Sea, due to shorter generation times and a longer growing season, while Pseudocalanus is predicted to be less abundant in these regions after 2050. These shifts potentially have a significant impact on the future demographics of pelagic fish species for which the copepods are the major food source.

  20. Stalagmite growth perturbations from the Kumaun Himalaya as potential earthquake recorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, C. P.; Sanwal, Jaishri; Morell, Kristin D.; Sandiford, Mike; Kotlia, B. S.; Hellstrom, John; Rajendran, Kusala

    2016-04-01

    The central part of the Himalaya (Kumaun and Garhwal Provinces of India) is noted for its prolonged seismic quiescence, and therefore, developing a longer-term time series of past earthquakes to understand their recurrence pattern in this segment assumes importance. In addition to direct observations of offsets in stratigraphic exposures or other proxies like paleoliquefaction, deformation preserved within stalagmites (speleothems) in karst system can be analyzed to obtain continuous millennial scale time series of earthquakes. The Central Indian Himalaya hosts natural caves between major active thrusts forming potential storehouses for paleoseismological records. Here, we present results from the limestone caves in the Kumaun Himalaya and discuss the implications of growth perturbations identified in the stalagmites as possible earthquake recorders. This article focuses on three stalagmites from the Dharamjali Cave located in the eastern Kumaun Himalaya, although two other caves, one of them located in the foothills, were also examined for their suitability. The growth anomalies in stalagmites include abrupt tilting or rotation of growth axes, growth termination, and breakage followed by regrowth. The U-Th age data from three specimens allow us to constrain the intervals of growth anomalies, and these were dated at 4273 ± 410 years BP (2673-1853 BC), 2782 ± 79 years BP (851-693 BC), 2498 ± 117 years BP (605-371 BC), 1503 ± 245 years BP (262-752 AD), 1346 ± 101 years BP (563-765 AD), and 687 ± 147 years BP (1176-1470 AD). The dates may correspond to the timings of major/great earthquakes in the region and the youngest event (1176-1470 AD) shows chronological correspondence with either one of the great medieval earthquakes (1050-1250 and 1259-1433 AD) evident from trench excavations across the Himalayan Frontal Thrust.

  1. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

    1998-01-01

    It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

  2. Predicting Fish Growth Potential and Identifying Water Quality Constraints: A Spatially-Explicit Bioenergetics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budy, Phaedra; Baker, Matthew; Dahle, Samuel K.

    2011-10-01

    Anthropogenic impairment of water bodies represents a global environmental concern, yet few attempts have successfully linked fish performance to thermal habitat suitability and fewer have distinguished co-varying water quality constraints. We interfaced fish bioenergetics, field measurements, and Thermal Remote Imaging to generate a spatially-explicit, high-resolution surface of fish growth potential, and next employed a structured hypothesis to detect relationships among measures of fish performance and co-varying water quality constraints. Our thermal surface of fish performance captured the amount and spatial-temporal arrangement of thermally-suitable habitat for three focal species in an extremely heterogeneous reservoir, but interpretation of this pattern was initially confounded by seasonal covariation of water residence time and water quality. Subsequent path analysis revealed that in terms of seasonal patterns in growth potential, catfish and walleye responded to temperature, positively and negatively, respectively; crappie and walleye responded to eutrophy (negatively). At the high eutrophy levels observed in this system, some desired fishes appear to suffer from excessive cultural eutrophication within the context of elevated temperatures whereas others appear to be largely unaffected or even enhanced. Our overall findings do not lead to the conclusion that this system is degraded by pollution; however, they do highlight the need to use a sensitive focal species in the process of determining allowable nutrient loading and as integrators of habitat suitability across multiple spatial and temporal scales. We provide an integrated approach useful for quantifying fish growth potential and identifying water quality constraints on fish performance at spatial scales appropriate for whole-system management.

  3. Predicting fish growth potential and identifying water quality constraints: a spatially-explicit bioenergetics approach.

    PubMed

    Budy, Phaedra; Baker, Matthew; Dahle, Samuel K

    2011-10-01

    Anthropogenic impairment of water bodies represents a global environmental concern, yet few attempts have successfully linked fish performance to thermal habitat suitability and fewer have distinguished co-varying water quality constraints. We interfaced fish bioenergetics, field measurements, and Thermal Remote Imaging to generate a spatially-explicit, high-resolution surface of fish growth potential, and next employed a structured hypothesis to detect relationships among measures of fish performance and co-varying water quality constraints. Our thermal surface of fish performance captured the amount and spatial-temporal arrangement of thermally-suitable habitat for three focal species in an extremely heterogeneous reservoir, but interpretation of this pattern was initially confounded by seasonal covariation of water residence time and water quality. Subsequent path analysis revealed that in terms of seasonal patterns in growth potential, catfish and walleye responded to temperature, positively and negatively, respectively; crappie and walleye responded to eutrophy (negatively). At the high eutrophy levels observed in this system, some desired fishes appear to suffer from excessive cultural eutrophication within the context of elevated temperatures whereas others appear to be largely unaffected or even enhanced. Our overall findings do not lead to the conclusion that this system is degraded by pollution; however, they do highlight the need to use a sensitive focal species in the process of determining allowable nutrient loading and as integrators of habitat suitability across multiple spatial and temporal scales. We provide an integrated approach useful for quantifying fish growth potential and identifying water quality constraints on fish performance at spatial scales appropriate for whole-system management.

  4. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  5. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Clarke, B F; Ewing, D J; Campbell, I W

    1979-10-01

    This review attempts to outline the present understanding of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The clinical features have been increasinly recognised but knowledge of the localization and morphology of the lesions and their pathogenesis remains fragmentary. A metabolic causation as postulated in somatic nerves accords best with clinical observations. Most bodily systems, particularly the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and urogenital, are involved with added disturbances of thermoregulatory function and pupillary reflexes. Possible effects on neuroendocrine and peptidergic secretion and respiratory control await definition. Current interest centres around the development of a new generation of tests of autonomic nerve function that are simple, non-invasive, reproducible and allow precision in diagnosis and accurate quantitation. Most are based on cardiovascular reflexes and abnormality in them is assumed to reflect autonomic damage elsewhere. Probably no single test suffices and a battery of tests reflecting both parasympathetic and sympathetic function is preferable. Little is known of the natural history. The prevalence may be greater than previously suspected and although symptoms are mild in the majority, a few develop florid features. The relation of control and duration of diabetes to the onset and progression of autonomic neuropathy is not clearly established. Once tests of autonomic function become abnormal they usually remain abnormal. Symptomatic autonomic neuropathy carries a greatly increased mortality rate possibly due to indirect mechanisms such as renal failure and direct mechanisms such as cardio-resiratory arrest. Improved treatment of some of the more disabling symptoms has been possible in recent years. PMID:387501

  6. Effect of growth potential on the electrodeposition of CIS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanwate, Vishakha N.; Chaure, N. B.

    2013-02-01

    Thin films of copper indium diselenide (CIS) were prepared in aqueous bath by low-cost potentiostatic electrodeposition technique onto Fluorine doped tin oxide substrates. The deposition potential was optimized using cyclic voltammetry study in a ternary Cu-In-Se system. The films were characterized systematically with the aid of UV-Vis spectroscopy, IV measurements, X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis. CIS films deposited for different growth potential shows the tetragonal structure with (112) preferential orientation. Annealing of the films at temperature 400°C not only improves the crystallinity of layers, but it also increases the grain size, which is suitable for the development of high efficiency solar cells.

  7. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation: Mechanisms, Pathophysiology, and Potential Therapies in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Steven J; Kawai, Tatsuo; O'Brien, Shannon; Thomas, Walter; Harris, Raymond C; Eguchi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation impacts the physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system, and inhibition of EGFR activity is emerging as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat diseases including hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, renal fibrosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysm. The capacity of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists, such as angiotensin II (AngII), to promote EGFR signaling is called transactivation and is well described, yet delineating the molecular processes and functional relevance of this crosstalk has been challenging. Moreover, these critical findings are dispersed among many different fields. The aim of our review is to highlight recent advancements in defining the signaling cascades and downstream consequences of EGFR transactivation in the cardiovascular renal system. We also focus on studies that link EGFR transactivation to animal models of the disease, and we discuss potential therapeutic applications.

  8. A potential-energy scaling model to simulate the initial stages of thin-film growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.; Walker, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    A solid on solid (SOS) Monte Carlo computer simulation employing a potential energy scaling technique was used to model the initial stages of thin film growth. The model monitors variations in the vertical interaction potential that occur due to the arrival or departure of selected adatoms or impurities at all sites in the 400 sq. ft. array. Boltzmann ordered statistics are used to simulate fluctuations in vibrational energy at each site in the array, and the resulting site energy is compared with threshold levels of possible atomic events. In addition to adsorption, desorption, and surface migration, adatom incorporation and diffusion of a substrate atom to the surface are also included. The lateral interaction of nearest, second nearest, and third nearest neighbors is also considered. A series of computer experiments are conducted to illustrate the behavior of the model.

  9. Hair growth promoting potential of phospholipids purified from porcine lung tissues.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-Il; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-03-01

    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. The numbers of hair follicles in the anagen phase of BP201-treated mice were also higher than those of control mice. In combination with MNX, BP201 further increased the total number of hair follicles, but did not alter the percentage of hair follicles in the anagenic phase. BP201 also increased the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Collectively, BP201 possesses hair growth promoting potential, which would suggest its use singly or in combination for hair growth products. PMID:25767686

  10. Growth Potential of Halophilic Bacteria Isolated from Solar Salt Environments: Carbon Sources and Salt Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Javor, Barbara J.

    1984-01-01

    Eighteen strains of extremely halophilic bacteria and three strains of moderately halophilic bacteria were isolated from four different solar salt environments. Growth tests on carbohydrates, low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids, and complex medium demonstrated that the moderate halophiles and strains of the extreme halophiles Haloarcula and Halococcus grew on most of the substrates tested. Among the Halobacterium isolates were several metabolic groups: strains that grew on a broad range of substrates and strains that were essentially confined to either amino acid (peptone) or carbohydrate oxidation. One strain (WS-4) only grew well on pyruvate and acetate. Most strains of extreme halophiles grew by anaerobic fermentation and possibly by nitrate reduction. Tests of growth potential in natural saltern brines demonstrated that none of the halobacteria grew well in brines which harbor the densest populations of these bacteria in solar salterns. All grew best in brines which were unsaturated with NaCl. The high concentrations of Na+ and Mg2+ found in saltern crystallizer brines limited bacterial growth, but the concentrations of K+ found in these brines had little effect. MgSO4 was relatively more inhibitory to the extreme halophiles than was MgCl2, but the reverse was true for the moderate halophiles. PMID:16346609

  11. Hair Growth Promoting Potential of Phospholipids Purified from Porcine Lung Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-Il; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. The numbers of hair follicles in the anagen phase of BP201-treated mice were also higher than those of control mice. In combination with MNX, BP201 further increased the total number of hair follicles, but did not alter the percentage of hair follicles in the anagenic phase. BP201 also increased the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Collectively, BP201 possesses hair growth promoting potential, which would suggest its use singly or in combination for hair growth products. PMID:25767686

  12. Growth and nutrients accumulation potentials of giant reed (Arundo donax L.) in different habitats in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Galal, Tarek M; Shehata, Hanaa S

    2016-12-01

    Arundo donax L. has a high biomass production and a tendency toward community dominance in many habitats and thereby a tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions. Therefore, the present study investigated the potentiality of A. donax to accumulate nutrients and trace metals in its biomass. Six main habitats (Nile Bank, Drain Bank, Canal Bank, Field Edges, Railways and Roadsides) were recognized. At each habitat, six quadrats (each 1 m(2)), distributed equally in two sites, were selected for growth measurements (e.g., density, shoot height, diameter, leaf area and biomass), plant and soil analyses. Plants from Nile, Canal and Drain Banks had the highest values of most growth measurements, while those from Railways and Roadsides had the lowest. Canal Bank plants accumulated the highest concentrations of P, Cu and Pb in their leaves; Zn in the stem; and Mg, Cd and Fe in the rhizome. The bioaccumulation factor (BF) of A. donax, for Cd, Fe, Mn and Zn, was greater than 1, while the translocation factor (TF) of most trace metals was less than unity in most habitats. In conclusion, A. donax showed morphological plasticity in response to habitat heterogeneity, and its growth was most vigorous in the riparian habitats. The high BF, as well as the significant positive correlations between trace metals, especially Cd, in soil and plant, renders A. donax a powerful phytoremediator. PMID:27257886

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors: Molecular mechanisms of activation and therapeutic potentials

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Nader

    2006-01-01

    Angiogenesis-associated eye diseases are among the most common cause of blindness in the United States and worldwide. Recent advances in the development of angiogenesis-based therapies for treatment of angiogenesis-associated diseases have provided new hope in a wide variety of human diseases ranging from eye diseases to cancer. One group of growth factor receptors critically implicated in angiogenesis is vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR), a subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 are closely related receptor tyrosine kinases and have both common and specific ligands. VEGFR-1 is a kinase-impaired RTK and its kinase activity is suppressed by a single amino acid substitution in its kinase domain and by its carboxyl terminus. VEGFR-2 is highly active kinase, stimulates a variety of signaling pathways and broad biological responses in endothelial cells. The mechanisms that govern VEGFR-2 activation, its ability to recruit signaling proteins and to undergo downregulation are highly regulated by phosphorylation activation loop tyrosines and its carboxyl terminus. Despite their differential potentials to undergo tyrosine phosphorylation and kinase activation, both VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 are required for normal embryonic development and pathological angiogenesis. VEGFR-1 regulates angiogenesis by mechanisms that involve ligand trapping, receptor homodimerization and heterodimerization. This review highlights recent insights into the mechanism of activation of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, and focuses on the signaling pathways employed by VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 that regulate angiogenesis and their therapeutic potentials in angiogenesis-associated diseases. PMID:16713597

  14. Autonomic imbalance: prophet of doom or scope for hope?

    PubMed

    Vinik, A I; Maser, R E; Ziegler, D

    2011-06-01

    It has long been recognized that cardiac autonomic neuropathy increases morbidity and mortality in diabetes and may have greater predictive power than traditional risk factors for cardiovascular events. Significant morbidity and mortality can now be attributable to autonomic imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system regulation of cardiovascular function. New and emerging syndromes include orthostatic tachycardia, orthostatic bradycardia and an inability to use heart rate as a guide to exercise intensity because of the resting tachycardia. Recent studies have shown that autonomic imbalance may be a predictor of risk of sudden death with intensification of glycaemic control. This review examines an association of autonomic dysregulation and the role of inflammatory cytokines and adipocytokines that promote cardiovascular risk. In addition, conditions of autonomic imbalance associated with cardiovascular risk are discussed. Potential treatment for restoration of autonomic balance is outlined.

  15. Growth study and hydrocarbonoclastic potential of microorganisms isolated from aviation fuel spill site in Ibeno, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Etuk, C U; John, R C; Ekong, U E; Akpan, M M

    2012-10-01

    The growth study and hydrocarbonoclastic potential of microorganisms isolated from aviation fuel spill sites at Inua-eyet Ikot in Ibeno, Nigeria were examined using standard microbiological methods. The results of the analysis revealed that the viable plate count of microorganisms in the polluted soil ranged from 2.2 ± 0.04 × 10(3) to 3.4 ± 0.14 × 10(6) cfu/g for bacteria and 1.4 ± 0.5 × 10(2) to 2.3 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cfu/g for fungi while count of biodegraders ranged from 1.2 ± 0.4 × 10(3) to 2.1 ± 0.8 × 10(5) cfu/g. A total of 11 microbial isolates comprising of Micrococcus, Klebsiella, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Candida, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Saccharomyces and Fusarium were characterized. The ability of the selected isolates to utilize the pollutant (aviation fuel) as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and noticed to vary in growth profiles between the isolates. The results of their degradability after 28 days of incubation shows that species of Cladosporium, Pseudomonas, Candida, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Penicillium were the most efficient Aviation fuel degraders with percentage weight loss of 86.2, 78.4, 78, 56, 53 and 50.6 respectively. Flavobacterium, Saccharomyces and Aspergillus exhibited moderate growth with percentage weight loss of 48, 45.8 and 43.4 respectively while Klebsiella and Fusarium species showed minimal growth with percentage weight loss of 20 and 18.5 respectively. The results imply that the most efficient biodegraders like Cladosporium, Pseudomonas, Candida, Bacillus and Microoccus could tolerate and remove aviation fuel from the environment.

  16. Hypertrophy of Neurons Within Cardiac Ganglia in Human, Canine, and Rat Heart Failure: The Potential Role of Nerve Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sanjay; Sayers, Scott; Walter, James S.; Thomas, Donald; Dieter, Robert S.; Nee, Lisa M.; Wurster, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Autonomic imbalances including parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic overactivity are cardinal features of heart failure regardless of etiology; however, mechanisms underlying these imbalances remain unknown. Animal model studies of heart and visceral organ hypertrophy predict that nerve growth factor levels should be elevated in heart failure; whether this is so in human heart failure, though, remains unclear. We tested the hypotheses that neurons in cardiac ganglia are hypertrophied in human, canine, and rat heart failure and that nerve growth factor, which we hypothesize is elevated in the failing heart, contributes to this neuronal hypertrophy. Methods and Results Somal morphology of neurons from human (579.54±14.34 versus 327.45±9.17 μm2; P<0.01) and canine hearts (767.80±18.37 versus 650.23±9.84 μm2; P<0.01) failing secondary to ischemia and neurons from spontaneously hypertensive rat hearts (327.98±3.15 versus 271.29±2.79 μm2; P<0.01) failing secondary to hypertension reveal significant hypertrophy of neurons in cardiac ganglia compared with controls. Western blot analysis shows that nerve growth factor levels in the explanted, failing human heart are 250% greater than levels in healthy donor hearts. Neurons from cardiac ganglia cultured with nerve growth factor are significantly larger and have greater dendritic arborization than neurons in control cultures. Conclusions Hypertrophied neurons are significantly less excitable than smaller ones; thus, hypertrophy of vagal postganglionic neurons in cardiac ganglia would help to explain the parasympathetic withdrawal that accompanies heart failure. Furthermore, our observations suggest that nerve growth factor, which is elevated in the failing human heart, causes hypertrophy of neurons in cardiac ganglia. PMID:23959444

  17. Thinking Ahead: Autonomic Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R. )

    2002-08-31

    The time has come for the commercial buildings industries to reconsider the very nature of the systems installed in facilities today and to establish a vision for future buildings that differs from anything in the history of human shelter. Drivers for this examination include reductions in building operation staffs; uncertain costs and reliability of electric power; growing interest in energy-efficient and resource-conserving?green? and?high-performance? commercial buildings; and a dramatic increase in security concerns since the tragic events of September 11. This paper introduces a new paradigm? autonomic buildings? which parallels the concept of autonomic computing, introduced by IBM as a fundamental change in the way computer networks work. Modeled after the human nervous system,?autonomic systems? themselves take responsibility for a large portion of their own operation and even maintenance. For commercial buildings, autonomic systems could provide environments that afford occupants greater opportunity to focus on the things we do in buildings rather than on operation of the building itself, while achieving higher performance levels, increased security, and better use of energy and other natural resources. The author uses the human body and computer networking to introduce and illustrate this new paradigm for high-performance commercial buildings. He provides a vision for the future of commercial buildings based on autonomicity, identifies current research that could contribute to this future, and highlights research and technological gaps. The paper concludes with a set of issues and needs that are key to converting this idealized future into reality.

  18. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  19. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  20. Suitable Days for Plant Growth Disappear under Projected Climate Change: Potential Human and Biotic Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R; Caldwell, Jamie M; Fisher, Micah R; Genco, Brandon M; Running, Steven W

    2015-06-01

    Ongoing climate change can alter conditions for plant growth, in turn affecting ecological and social systems. While there have been considerable advances in understanding the physical aspects of climate change, comprehensive analyses integrating climate, biological, and social sciences are less common. Here we use climate projections under alternative mitigation scenarios to show how changes in environmental variables that limit plant growth could impact ecosystems and people. We show that although the global mean number of days above freezing will increase by up to 7% by 2100 under "business as usual" (representative concentration pathway [RCP] 8.5), suitable growing days will actually decrease globally by up to 11% when other climatic variables that limit plant growth are considered (i.e., temperature, water availability, and solar radiation). Areas in Russia, China, and Canada are projected to gain suitable plant growing days, but the rest of the world will experience losses. Notably, tropical areas could lose up to 200 suitable plant growing days per year. These changes will impact most of the world's terrestrial ecosystems, potentially triggering climate feedbacks. Human populations will also be affected, with up to ~2,100 million of the poorest people in the world (~30% of the world's population) highly vulnerable to changes in the supply of plant-related goods and services. These impacts will be spatially variable, indicating regions where adaptations will be necessary. Changes in suitable plant growing days are projected to be less severe under strong and moderate mitigation scenarios (i.e., RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5), underscoring the importance of reducing emissions to avoid such disproportionate impacts on ecosystems and people.

  1. Suitable Days for Plant Growth Disappear under Projected Climate Change: Potential Human and Biotic Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R.; Caldwell, Jamie M.; Fisher, Micah R.; Genco, Brandon M.; Running, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing climate change can alter conditions for plant growth, in turn affecting ecological and social systems. While there have been considerable advances in understanding the physical aspects of climate change, comprehensive analyses integrating climate, biological, and social sciences are less common. Here we use climate projections under alternative mitigation scenarios to show how changes in environmental variables that limit plant growth could impact ecosystems and people. We show that although the global mean number of days above freezing will increase by up to 7% by 2100 under “business as usual” (representative concentration pathway [RCP] 8.5), suitable growing days will actually decrease globally by up to 11% when other climatic variables that limit plant growth are considered (i.e., temperature, water availability, and solar radiation). Areas in Russia, China, and Canada are projected to gain suitable plant growing days, but the rest of the world will experience losses. Notably, tropical areas could lose up to 200 suitable plant growing days per year. These changes will impact most of the world’s terrestrial ecosystems, potentially triggering climate feedbacks. Human populations will also be affected, with up to ~2,100 million of the poorest people in the world (~30% of the world’s population) highly vulnerable to changes in the supply of plant-related goods and services. These impacts will be spatially variable, indicating regions where adaptations will be necessary. Changes in suitable plant growing days are projected to be less severe under strong and moderate mitigation scenarios (i.e., RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5), underscoring the importance of reducing emissions to avoid such disproportionate impacts on ecosystems and people. PMID:26061091

  2. Salinity as a constraint on growth of oligohaline marsh macrophytes. II. Salt pulses and recovery potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, R.J.; Mendelssohn, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of common oligohaline marsh macrophytes of the northern Gulf of Mexico coast to recover from pulses of increased salinity was investigated in a greenhouse experiment with Eleocharis palustris, Panicum hemitomon, Sagittaria lancifolia, and Scirpus americanus monocultures. Components of salinity pulses applied were final salinity reached (6 or 12 g/L), salinity influx rate (3 d or 3 wk), and duration of exposure (1, 2, or 3 mo). After each exposure period, we placed plants into freshwater until the end of the 120-d experiment to determine recovery potential. The four species varied in their ability to recover from the salinity pulses. Within a species, recovery varied with final salinity level and duration of exposure, and to a lesser extent with salinity influx rate. Scirpus americanus, growth of which was stimulated by <3 mo of exposure to 6 g/L, was able to recover even under the most extreme conditions of exposure to 12 g/L salinity for 3 mo. Ability to recover decreased with increased salinity and increased duration of exposure for the remaining three species. Recovery of specific aspects of growth was also suppressed in these species by a rapid salinity influx rate compared to a slow influx rate. The complex variations in recovery patterns displayed by the different species may lead to changes in species dominance following the short-term salinity pulses that can occur during storm events, which in turn may affect marsh plant community composition and structure.

  3. Immunoreactivity of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in salivary gland tumours: an assessment of growth potential.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Hashimura, K; Qin, C; Shrestha, P; Sumitomo, S; Mori, M

    1993-01-01

    Immunoreactivity of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was assessed to evaluate growth potential in surgically resected tissue specimens from 70 cases of benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. Three stage streptavidin-biotin immunoperoxidase immunostaining using monoclonal antibody to PCNA showed a heterogeneity of PCNA index and distribution. In normal salivary gland specimens, PCNA was demonstrated in the nuclei of few ductal and acinar cells. In pleomorphic adenoma a multiple nodular growth pattern was observed with positive immunoreactivity restricted to the nuclei of tubulo-ductal structures. Warthin's tumour had positive nuclei in the outer cuboidal cells of epithelial component and germinal centres of lymphoid tissue. Myoepithelioma and acinic cell carcinoma showed slightly differing values and a statistically significant difference in the value of the index was observed in tumour cell aggregates of the cribiform type of adenoid cystic carcinoma and the solid undifferentiated type and between low/intermediate and high-grade mucoepidermoid tumours. PCNA is a useful marker of tumour cell proliferation; the index correlates with the grade of malignancy in salivary gland tumours.

  4. Supervised autonomous robotic soft tissue surgery.

    PubMed

    Shademan, Azad; Decker, Ryan S; Opfermann, Justin D; Leonard, Simon; Krieger, Axel; Kim, Peter C W

    2016-05-01

    The current paradigm of robot-assisted surgeries (RASs) depends entirely on an individual surgeon's manual capability. Autonomous robotic surgery-removing the surgeon's hands-promises enhanced efficacy, safety, and improved access to optimized surgical techniques. Surgeries involving soft tissue have not been performed autonomously because of technological limitations, including lack of vision systems that can distinguish and track the target tissues in dynamic surgical environments and lack of intelligent algorithms that can execute complex surgical tasks. We demonstrate in vivo supervised autonomous soft tissue surgery in an open surgical setting, enabled by a plenoptic three-dimensional and near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging system and an autonomous suturing algorithm. Inspired by the best human surgical practices, a computer program generates a plan to complete complex surgical tasks on deformable soft tissue, such as suturing and intestinal anastomosis. We compared metrics of anastomosis-including the consistency of suturing informed by the average suture spacing, the pressure at which the anastomosis leaked, the number of mistakes that required removing the needle from the tissue, completion time, and lumen reduction in intestinal anastomoses-between our supervised autonomous system, manual laparoscopic surgery, and clinically used RAS approaches. Despite dynamic scene changes and tissue movement during surgery, we demonstrate that the outcome of supervised autonomous procedures is superior to surgery performed by expert surgeons and RAS techniques in ex vivo porcine tissues and in living pigs. These results demonstrate the potential for autonomous robots to improve the efficacy, consistency, functional outcome, and accessibility of surgical techniques. PMID:27147588

  5. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  6. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy often goes unrecognized. We present a case of a 22-year-old man with multiple manifestations of this disease, including weakness, dizziness, fatigue, tachycardia, abnormal QTc, and orthostasis, which occurred 2 years after his type 1 diabetes diagnosis. He exhibited parasympathetic denervation with resting tachycardia and exercise intolerance but also had evidence of orthostatic hypotension, which suggests sympathetic denervation. He did not have complete cardiovascular autonomic reflex testing, which would have been helpful, but improved with aggressive diabetes treatment and the increase of beta-blockade. It is important to identify these patients to understand their signs and symptoms and consider appropriate therapies. PMID:27034552

  7. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Niamh; Silverman, Barry

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy often goes unrecognized. We present a case of a 22-year-old man with multiple manifestations of this disease, including weakness, dizziness, fatigue, tachycardia, abnormal QTc, and orthostasis, which occurred 2 years after his type 1 diabetes diagnosis. He exhibited parasympathetic denervation with resting tachycardia and exercise intolerance but also had evidence of orthostatic hypotension, which suggests sympathetic denervation. He did not have complete cardiovascular autonomic reflex testing, which would have been helpful, but improved with aggressive diabetes treatment and the increase of beta-blockade. It is important to identify these patients to understand their signs and symptoms and consider appropriate therapies. PMID:27034552

  8. Variations in Environmental Signals in Tree-Ring Indices in Trees with Different Growth Potential

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Polona; Gričar, Jožica; Skudnik, Mitja; Levanič, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We analysed two groups of Quercus robur trees, growing at nearby plots with different micro-location condition (W-wet and D-dry) in the floodplain Krakovo forest, Slovenia. In the study we compared the growth response of two different tree groups to environmental variables, the potential signal stored in earlywood (EW) structure and the potential difference of the information stored in carbon isotope discrimination of EW and latewood (LW). For that purpose EW and LW widths and carbon isotope discrimination for the period 1970–2008 AD were measured. EW and LW widths were measured on stained microscopic slides and chronologies were standardised using the ARSTAN program. α-cellulose was extracted from pooled EW and LW samples and homogenized samples were further analysed using an elemental analyser and IRMS. We discovered that W oaks grew significantly better over the whole analysed period. The difference between D and W oaks was significant in all analysed variables with the exception of stable carbon isotope discrimination in latewood. In W oaks, latewood widths correlated with summer (June to August) climatic variables, while carbon isotope discrimination was more connected to River Krka flow during the summer. EW discrimination correlated with summer and autumn River Krka flow of the previous year, while latewood discrimination correlated with flow during the current year. In the case of D oaks, the environmental signal appears to be vague, probably due to less favourable growth conditions resulting in markedly reduced increments. Our study revealed important differences in responses to environmental factors between the two oak groups of different physiological conditions that are preconditioned by environmental stress. Environmental information stored in tree-ring features may vary, even within the same forest stand, and largely depends on the micro-environment. Our analysis confirmed our assumptions that separate EW and LW analysis of widths and carbon

  9. Variations in Environmental Signals in Tree-Ring Indices in Trees with Different Growth Potential.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Polona; Gričar, Jožica; Skudnik, Mitja; Levanič, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We analysed two groups of Quercus robur trees, growing at nearby plots with different micro-location condition (W-wet and D-dry) in the floodplain Krakovo forest, Slovenia. In the study we compared the growth response of two different tree groups to environmental variables, the potential signal stored in earlywood (EW) structure and the potential difference of the information stored in carbon isotope discrimination of EW and latewood (LW). For that purpose EW and LW widths and carbon isotope discrimination for the period 1970-2008 AD were measured. EW and LW widths were measured on stained microscopic slides and chronologies were standardised using the ARSTAN program. α-cellulose was extracted from pooled EW and LW samples and homogenized samples were further analysed using an elemental analyser and IRMS. We discovered that W oaks grew significantly better over the whole analysed period. The difference between D and W oaks was significant in all analysed variables with the exception of stable carbon isotope discrimination in latewood. In W oaks, latewood widths correlated with summer (June to August) climatic variables, while carbon isotope discrimination was more connected to River Krka flow during the summer. EW discrimination correlated with summer and autumn River Krka flow of the previous year, while latewood discrimination correlated with flow during the current year. In the case of D oaks, the environmental signal appears to be vague, probably due to less favourable growth conditions resulting in markedly reduced increments. Our study revealed important differences in responses to environmental factors between the two oak groups of different physiological conditions that are preconditioned by environmental stress. Environmental information stored in tree-ring features may vary, even within the same forest stand, and largely depends on the micro-environment. Our analysis confirmed our assumptions that separate EW and LW analysis of widths and carbon isotope

  10. Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waag, Andreas

    This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000∘C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However

  11. Evidence for a reduction of growth potential in adolescent female gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Theintz, G E; Howald, H; Weiss, U; Sizonenko, P C

    1993-02-01

    The goal of this prospective study was to assess whether intensive physical training during puberty could alter the growth potential of adolescent female athletes. Height, sitting height, leg length, weight, body fat, and pubertal stage of 22 gymnasts aged 12.3 +/- 0.2 years (mean +/- SEM), with an average training period of 22 hr/wk, and of 21 swimmers aged 12.3 +/- 0.3 years (average training period 8 hr/wk) were recorded half-yearly for a mean period of 2.35 years (range 2.0 to 3.7 years). Adult height predictions were performed with the methods of Bayley and Pinneau; Roche, Wainer, and Thissen, and Tanner et al. Growth velocity of gymnasts was significantly lower than that of swimmers from 11 to 13 years of bone age (p < 0.05), with a mean peak height velocity of 5.48 +/- 0.32 cm/yr versus 8.0 +/- 0.50 cm/yr for swimmers. Height standard deviation score decreased significantly in gymnasts with time (r = -0.747; p < 0.001). This observation was not associated with a significant alteration of chronologic age/bone age ratio. By contrast, height standard deviation score remained unchanged in swimmers (r = -0.165; p = 0.1). A marked stunting of leg-length growth was observed in gymnasts from 12 years of bone age, resulting in a marked difference in overall sitting-height/leg-length ratio (gymnasts 1.054 +/- 0.005 vs swimmers 1.100 +/- 0.005; p < 0.001). Concomitantly, predicted height of gymnasts decreased significantly with time (Tanner et al.: r = 0.63, p < 0.001; Bayley-Pinneau: r = 0.44, p < 0.001), whereas those of swimmers did not change. We conclude that heavy training in gymnastics (> 18 hr/wk), starting before puberty and maintained throughout puberty, can alter growth rate to such an extent that full adult height will not be reached. The mechanisms underlying these observations are not settled; we suggest that prolonged inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by exercise, together with or because of the metabolic effects of dieting, is

  12. Autonomous Deep-Space Optical Navigation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This project will advance the Autonomous Deep-space navigation capability applied to Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) system by testing it on hardware, particularly in a flight processor, with a goal of limited testing in the Integrated Power, Avionics and Software (IPAS) with the ARCM (Asteroid Retrieval Crewed Mission) DRO (Distant Retrograde Orbit) Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) scenario. The technology, which will be harnessed, is called 'optical flow', also known as 'visual odometry'. It is being matured in the automotive and SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) applications but has yet to be applied to spacecraft navigation. In light of the tremendous potential of this technique, we believe that NASA needs to design a optical navigation architecture that will use this technique. It is flexible enough to be applicable to navigating around planetary bodies, such as asteroids.

  13. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a potential targeting agent for delivery of boron to malignant gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Capala, J.; Barth, R.F.; Adams, D.M.; Bailey, M.Q.; Soloway, A.H.; Carlsson, J.

    1994-12-31

    The majority of high grade gliomas express an amplified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and this often is associated with an increase in cell surface receptor expression. The rapid internalization and degradation of EGF-EGFR complexes, as well as their high affinity make EGF a potential targeting agent for delivery of {sup 10}B to tumor cells with an amplified number of EGFR. Human glioma cells can expresses as many as 10{sup 5} {minus}10{sup 6} EGF receptors per cell, and if these could be saturated with boronated EGF, then > 10{sup 8} boron atoms would be delivered per cell. Since EGF has a comparatively low molecular weight ({approximately} 6 kD), this has allowed us to construct relatively small bioconjugates containing {approximately} 900 boron atoms per EGF molecule{sup 3}, which also had high affinity for EGFR on tumor cells. In the present study, the feasibility of using EGF receptors as a potential target for therapy of gliomas was investigated by in vivo scintigraphic studies using {sup 131}I{minus} or {sup 99m}{Tc}-labeled EGF in a rat brain tumor model. Our results indicate that intratumorally delivered boron- EGF conjugates might be useful for targeting EGFR on glioma cells if the boron containing moiety of the conjugates persisted intracellularly. Further studies are required, however, to determine if this approach can be used for BNCT of the rat glioma.

  14. Stromal interactions as regulators of tumor growth and therapeutic response: A potential target for photodynamic therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Celli, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    It has become increasingly widely recognized that the stroma plays several vital roles in tumor growth and development and that tumor-stroma interactions can in many cases account poor therapeutic response. Inspired by an emerging body of literature, we consider the potential role of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for targeting interactions with stromal fibroblasts and mechano-sensitive signaling with the extracellular matrix as a means to drive tumors toward a more therapeutically responsive state and synergize with other treatments. This concept is particularly relevant for cancer of the pancreas, which is characterized by tumors with a profoundly dense, rigid fibrous stroma. Here we introduce new in vitro systems to model interactions between pancreatic tumors and their mechanical microenvironment and restore signaling with stromal fibroblasts. Using one such model as a test bed it is shown here that PDT treatment is able to destroy fibroblasts in an in vitro 3D pancreatic tumor-fibroblast co-culture. These results and the literature suggest the further development of PDT as a potential modality for stromal depletion. PMID:23457416

  15. Daily shoot extension growth of peach trees growing on rootstocks that reduce scion growth is related to daily dynamics of stem water potential.

    PubMed

    Basile, Boris; Marsal, Jordi; DeJong, Theodore M

    2003-07-01

    We studied relationships between diurnal patterns of stem water potential (PsiSTEM) and stem extension growth of the same scion cultivar growing on three rootstocks with differing size-controlling potentials. The peach trees (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) used in this field experiment consisted of an early-maturing freestone cultivar, 'Flavorcrest,' grafted onto three different rootstocks: Nemaguard (a vigorous seed-propagated control, P. persica x P. davidiana hybrid), Hiawatha (an intermediate vigor rootstock, derived from an open pollinated seedling of a P. besseyi x P. salicina hybrid) and K-146-43 (a semi-dwarfing rootstock, P. salicina x P. persica hybrid). Diurnal patterns of PsiSTEM and stem extension growth were measured on six dates (March 29, April 12, April 26, May 10, May 24 and June 18) during the primary period of peach shoot extension growth. Rootstocks clearly affected diurnal patterns of PsiSTEM and stem extension growth. Trees on K-146-43 had the lowest midday PsiSTEM and stem extension growth. Differences among rootstocks in the amount of diurnal oscillation in PsiSTEM explained stem extension rate differences induced by the three rootstocks. The sensitivity of shoot extension growth to tree water relations tended to decrease as the season progressed and was not apparent by mid-June. The results of the study indicate that water relations may play an important role in the dwarfing mechanism induced by size-controlling peach rootstocks.

  16. Biophysical basis of growth promotion in primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. by hormones versus light: solute accumulation and the growth potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Rapid cell enlargement in primary leaves of bean is induced by bright white light (WL), gibberellic acid (GA3) or the cytokinin N6-benzyladenine (BA). In previous studies it has been show that all three agents cause an increase in wall extensibility, although by different mechanisms. Here we examine the effects of the three growth promoters on the osmotic potential difference (delta Psi), the accumulation of solutes (delta TSC), the wall yield threshold (Y) and the growth potential (delta Psi -Y). With GA3 and BA, but not WL, there was a rapid decline in delta Psi as measured by the osmotic concentration of expressed sap. Unlike WL, neither GA3 nor BA promoted the accumulation of osmotic solutes. The decline in delta Psi, however, was apparently counteracted by a decline in Y since the growth potential, as measured by the external-osmoticum method, remained unchanged. It is concluded that WL, GA3 and BA all promote cell enlargement of bean leaves by increasing one cellular growth parameter, wall extensibility. Only WL, however, promotes osmotic adjustment during growth.

  17. Autonomous Biological System (ABS) experiments.

    PubMed

    MacCallum, T K; Anderson, G A; Poynter, J E; Stodieck, L S; Klaus, D M

    1998-12-01

    Three space flight experiments have been conducted to test and demonstrate the use of a passively controlled, materially closed, bioregenerative life support system in space. The Autonomous Biological System (ABS) provides an experimental environment for long term growth and breeding of aquatic plants and animals. The ABS is completely materially closed, isolated from human life support systems and cabin atmosphere contaminants, and requires little need for astronaut intervention. Testing of the ABS marked several firsts: the first aquatic angiosperms to be grown in space; the first higher organisms (aquatic invertebrate animals) to complete their life cycles in space; the first completely bioregenerative life support system in space; and, among the first gravitational ecology experiments. As an introduction this paper describes the ABS, its flight performance, advantages and disadvantages.

  18. Developing Autonomous Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Defines the concept of autonomous learning. Presents the Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking (SPELT), including its underlying assumptions, instructional model, teacher training procedures, research findings, and anticipated future development. Research results include implications for learning-disabled and gifted students. (KS)

  19. Learning for autonomous navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Autonomous off-road navigation of robotic ground vehicles has important applications on Earth and in space exploration. Progress in this domain has been retarded by the limited lookahead range of 3-D sensors and by the difficulty of preprogramming systems to understand the traversability of the wide variety of terrain they can encounter.

  20. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  1. Autonomous staff selection teams.

    PubMed

    Mills, J; Oie, M

    1992-12-01

    Although some other organizations encourage staff input into employee selection, the advanced care department at Bellin Hospital in Green Bay, Wisconsin has taken this concept to a new level by implementing an autonomous interview team. This team is empowered to make hiring decisions for all positions within the department without management influence or interference.

  2. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  3. Growth patterns of dendrimers and electric potential oscillations during electropolymerization of pyrrole using mono- and mixed surfactants.

    PubMed

    Das, Ishwar; Goel, Neha; Agrawal, Namita R; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2010-10-14

    Fractal and dendrimer growth patterns of polypyrrole were obtained during electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole in systems (A) pyrrole-sodium dodecyl sulfate (NaDS)-water and (B) pyrrole-NaDS-cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-water. Different morphological transitions including compact → flower-like and fractal → dendrimer → fractal were observed depending on experimental conditions. Growth kinetics during electropolymerization of pyrrole was studied. Growth rate was found to be higher in system A than in B. Effect of [NaDS], [pyrrole], and field intensity on morphology and weight of polymer aggregates was also studied in both the systems. Different empirical equations were obeyed under different conditions. Electropolymerized aggregates were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrical conductivity measurement, and reflectance spectroscopy. TEM studies revealed that the particle size decreased to ∼140-200 nm in the presence of CTAB. The decrease in particle size on addition of CTAB was also observed in XRD studies. Reflectance spectra of the polymer aggregates support the large π-conjugation in the dendrimer. During electropolymerization, oscillations in potential were monitored as a function of time. Results indicated that growth pattern and electric potential oscillations were interrelated. In the case of fractal growth, the amplitude of chaotic oscillation was higher than the amplitude of oscillation during the growth of dendrimer. Growth morphologies and electric potential oscillations have been explained on the basis of modified Diaz's mechanism.

  4. Processing, secretion, and biological properties of a novel growth factor of the fibroblast growth factor family with oncogenic potential.

    PubMed Central

    Delli-Bovi, P; Curatola, A M; Newman, K M; Sato, Y; Moscatelli, D; Hewick, R M; Rifkin, D B; Basilico, C

    1988-01-01

    We recently reported that the protein encoded in a novel human oncogene isolated from Kaposi sarcoma DNA was a growth factor with significant homology to basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). To study the properties of this growth factor (referred to as K-FGF) and the mechanism by which the K-fgf oncogene transforms cells, we have studied the production and processing of K-FGF in COS-1 cells transfected with a plasmid encoding the K-fgf cDNA. The results show that, unlike basic and acidic FGFs, the K-FGF protein is cleaved after a signal peptide, glycosylated, and efficiently secreted as a mature protein of 176 or 175 amino acids. Inhibition of glycosylation impaired secretion, and the stability of the secreted K-FGF was greatly enhanced by the presence of heparin in the cultured medium. We have used the conditioned medium from transfected COS-1 cells to test K-FGF biological activity. Similar to basic FGF, the K-FGF protein was mitogenic for fibroblasts and endothelial cells and induced the growth of NIH 3T3 mouse cells in serum-free medium. Accordingly, K-fgf-transformed NIH 3T3 cells grew in serum-free medium, consistent with an autocrine mechanism of growth. We have also expressed the protein encoded in the K-fgf protooncogene in COS-1 cells, and it was indistinguishable in its molecular weight, glycosylation, secretion, and biological activity from K-FGF. Taken together, these results suggest that the mechanism of activation of this oncogene is due to overexpression rather than to mutations in the coding sequences. Images PMID:3043199

  5. Potential effects of climate change on the growth of fishes from different thermal guilds in Lakes Michigan and Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kao, Yu-Chun; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Lofgren, Brent M.; Perroud, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    We used a bioenergetics modeling approach to investigate potential effects of climate change on the growth of two economically important native fishes: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), a cool-water fish, and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), a cold-water fish, in deep and oligotrophic Lakes Michigan and Huron. For assessing potential changes in fish growth, we contrasted simulated fish growth in the projected future climate regime during the period 2043-2070 under different prey availability scenarios with the simulated growth during the baseline (historical reference) period 1964-1993. Results showed that effects of climate change on the growth of these two fishes are jointly controlled by behavioral thermoregulation and prey availability. With the ability of behavioral thermoregulation, temperatures experienced by yellow perch in the projected future climate regime increased more than those experienced by lake whitefish. Thus simulated future growth decreased more for yellow perch than for lake whitefish under scenarios where prey availability remains constant into the future. Under high prey availability scenarios, simulated future growth of these two fishes both increased but yellow perch could not maintain the baseline efficiency of converting prey consumption into body weight. We contended that thermal guild should not be the only factor used to predict effects of climate change on the growth of a fish, and that ecosystem responses to climate change should be also taken into account.

  6. Attenuated expression of HRH4 in colorectal carcinomas: a potential influence on tumor growth and progression

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Earlier studies have reported the production of histamine in colorectal cancers (CRCs). The effect of histamine is largely determined locally by the histamine receptor expression pattern. Recent evidence suggests that the expression level of histamine receptor H4 (HRH4) is abnormal in colorectal cancer tissues. However, the role of HRH4 in CRC progression and its clinical relevance is not well understood. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and molecular phenotypes of colorectal tumors with abnormal HRH4 expression. Methods Immunoblotting, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry assays were adopted to examine HRH4 expression in case-matched CRC samples (n = 107) and adjacent normal tissues (ANTs). To assess the functions of HRH4 in CRC cells, we established stable HRH4-transfected colorectal cells and examined cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle and apoptosis in these cells. Results The protein levels of HRH4 were reduced in most of the human CRC samples regardless of grade or Dukes classification. mRNA levels of HRH4 were also reduced in both early-stage and advanced CRC samples. In vitro studies showed that HRH4 over-expression caused growth arrest and induced expression of cell cycle proteins in CRC cells upon exposure to histamine through a cAMP -dependent pathway. Furthermore, HRH4 stimulation promoted the 5-Fu-induced cell apoptosis in HRH4-positive colorectal cells. Conclusion The results from the current study supported previous findings of HRH4 abnormalities in CRCs. Expression levels of HRH4 could influence the histamine-mediated growth regulation in CRC cells. These findings suggested a potential role of abnormal HRH4 expression in the progression of CRCs and provided some new clues for the application of HRH4-specific agonist or antagonist in the molecular therapy of CRCs. PMID:21609450

  7. Extracellular matrix protein in calcified endoskeleton: a potential additive for crystal growth and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizur Rahman, M.; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Oomori, Tamotsu

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a key function of extracellular matrix proteins (ECMPs) on seed crystals, which are isolated from calcified endoskeletons of soft coral and contain only CaCO 3 without any living cells. This is the first report that an ECMP protein extracted from a marine organism could potentially influence in modifying the surface of a substrate for designing materials via crystallization. We previously studied with the ECMPs from a different type of soft coral ( Sinularia polydactyla) without introducing any seed crystals in the process , which showed different results. Thus, crystallization on the seed in the presence of ECMPs of present species is an important first step toward linking function to individual proteins from soft coral. For understanding this interesting phenomenon, in vitro crystallization was initiated in a supersaturated solution on seed particles of calcite (1 0 4) with and without ECMPs. No change in the crystal growth shape occurred without ECMPs present during the crystallization process. However, with ECMPs, the morphology and phase of the crystals in the crystallization process changed dramatically. Upon completion of crystallization with ECMPs, an attractive crystal morphology was found. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the crystal morphologies on the seeds surface. The mineral phases of crystals nucleated by ECMPs on the seeds surface were examined by Raman spectroscopy. Although 50 mM Mg 2+ is influential in making aragonite in the crystallization process, the ECMPs significantly made calcite crystals even when 50 mM Mg 2+ was present in the process. Crystallization with the ECMP additive seems to be a technically attractive strategy to generate assembled micro crystals that could be used in crystals growth and design in the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  8. Study on Potential Clostridium Botulinum Growth and Toxin Production in Parma Ham

    PubMed Central

    Ramini, Mattia; Parolari, Giovanni; Barbuti, Silvana; Frustoli, Maria Angela; Taddei, Roberta; Pongolini, Stefano; Ardigò, Paolo; Cozzolino, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate Clostridium botulinum growth and toxin production in the industrially manufactured Italian Parma ham. The study focuses on the Parma ham production phase identified as maximum risk to C. botulinum proliferation, i.e. the transition from cold phase (salting and resting) to a phase carried out at temperature between 15 and 23°C (drying). A preliminary in vitro test was carried out in order to verify the capability of 6 C. botulinum strains (1 type A, 4 type B, and 1 type E strains) to grow in conditions of temperature, pH and NaCl concentration comparable to those of the beginning stage of ham drying. Five C. botulinum strains grew at 20°C and pH 6, four strains produced toxin when inoculated at a concentration equal to 103 cfu/mL at NaCl concentration of 4%, while when the inoculum concentration was 10 cfu/mL, NaCl concentration of 3% resulted the toxin-genesis limiting factor. An experimental contamination with a mixture of the 5 C. botulinum strains selected by the preliminary in vitro test was performed on 9 thighs inoculated at the end of the resting phase. The study was designed to evaluate the potential growth and toxin production in extremely favourable conditions for the bacterium. Type B proteolytic C. botulinum toxin was produced after 14 days of incubation at 20°C in 2 thighs characterised by high weight, low number of days of resting and anomalous physiochemical characteristics [one for very low NaCl concentration (1.59%), the other for elevated pH (6.27) and both for high water activity values (>0.970)]. The results of this research confirm that the cold resting step is a critical phase in the production process of Parma ham for the investigated hazard. Based on the present study, the long resting phase adopted in the manufacturing of Parma ham is proven effective to prevent the growth of C. botulinum, an event which could not otherwise be excluded if the hams were processed under less stringent

  9. Reuse potential of laundry greywater for irrigation based on growth, water and nutrient use of tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, R. K.; Patel, J. H.; Baxi, V. R.

    2010-05-01

    SummaryGreywater is considered as a valuable resource with a high reuse potential for irrigation of household lawns and gardens. However, there are possibilities of surfactant and sodium accumulation in soil from reuse of greywater which may affect agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability adversely. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to examine variation in growth, water and nutrient use of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Grosse Lisse) using tap water (TW), laundry greywater (GW) and solutions of low and high concentration of a detergent surfactant (LC and HC, respectively) as irrigation treatments. Each treatment was replicated five times using a randomised block design. Measurements throughout the experiment showed greywater to be significantly more alkaline and saline than the other types of irrigation water. Although all plants received 16 irrigations over a period of 9 weeks until flowering, there were little or no significant effects of irrigation treatments on plant growth. Soil water retention following irrigation reduced significantly when plants were irrigated with GW or surfactant solutions on only three of 12 occasions. On one occasion, water use measured as evapotranspiration (ET) with GW irrigation was similar to TW, but it was significantly higher than the plants receiving HC irrigation. At harvest, various components of plant biomass and leaf area for GW irrigated plants were found to be similar or significantly higher than the TW irrigated plants with a common trend of GW ⩾ TW > LC ⩾ HC. Whole-plant concentration was measured for 12 essential plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo and B) and Na (often considered as a beneficial nutrient). Irrigation treatments affected the concentration of four nutrients (P, Fe, Zn and Na) and uptake of seven nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe and B) significantly. Uptake of these seven nutrients by tomato was generally in the order GW ⩾ TW > HC ⩾ LC. GW

  10. Autonomous pathogen detection system 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, R G; Wang, A; Colston, B; Masquelier, D; Jones, L; Venkateswaran, K S; Nasarabadi, S; Brown, S; Ramponi, A; Milanovich, F P

    2001-01-09

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field-demonstrate a fully Autonomous Pathogen Detector (identifier) System (APDS). This will be accomplished by integrating a proven flow cytometer and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detector with sample collection, sample preparation and fluidics to provide a compact, autonomously operating instrument capable of simultaneously detecting multiple pathogens and/or toxins. The APDS will be designed to operate in fixed locations, where it continuously monitors air samples and automatically reports the presence of specific biological agents. The APDS will utilize both multiplex immuno and nucleic acid assays to provide ''quasi-orthogonal'', multiple agent detection approaches to minimize false positives and increase the reliability of identification. Technical advancements across several fronts must first be made in order to realize the full extent of the APDS. Commercialization will be accomplished through three progressive generations of instruments. The APDS is targeted for domestic applications in which (1) the public is at high risk of exposure to covert releases of bioagent such as in major subway systems and other transportation terminals, large office complexes, and convention centers; and (2) as part of a monitoring network of sensors integrated with command and control systems for wide area monitoring of urban areas and major gatherings (e.g., inaugurations, Olympics, etc.). In this latter application there is potential that a fully developed APDS could add value to Defense Department monitoring architectures.

  11. Autonomous Robotic Inspection in Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopapadakis, E.; Stentoumis, C.; Doulamis, N.; Doulamis, A.; Loupos, K.; Makantasis, K.; Kopsiaftis, G.; Amditis, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an automatic robotic inspector for tunnel assessment is presented. The proposed platform is able to autonomously navigate within the civil infrastructures, grab stereo images and process/analyse them, in order to identify defect types. At first, there is the crack detection via deep learning approaches. Then, a detailed 3D model of the cracked area is created, utilizing photogrammetric methods. Finally, a laser profiling of the tunnel's lining, for a narrow region close to detected crack is performed; allowing for the deduction of potential deformations. The robotic platform consists of an autonomous mobile vehicle; a crane arm, guided by the computer vision-based crack detector, carrying ultrasound sensors, the stereo cameras and the laser scanner. Visual inspection is based on convolutional neural networks, which support the creation of high-level discriminative features for complex non-linear pattern classification. Then, real-time 3D information is accurately calculated and the crack position and orientation is passed to the robotic platform. The entire system has been evaluated in railway and road tunnels, i.e. in Egnatia Highway and London underground infrastructure.

  12. Growth of Acinetobacter baumannii in Pellicle Enhanced the Expression of Potential Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Stéphane; Coquet, Laurent; Vila, Jordi; Jouenne, Thierry; Dé, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Background Interestingly, Acinetobacter baumannii presents an enhanced capacity to form biofilms (also named pellicles) at the air-liquid interface as compared to the other Acinetobacter species. This characteristic questions the contribution of this phenotype to an increased risk of clinical infections by this pathogen. Methodology/Principal Findings By a proteomic approach using 2-D gel electrophoresis-LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry, we compared the membrane protein patterns of A. baumannii 77, a pellicle-forming clinical isolate, grown in planktonic and in sessile modes. We identified 52 proteins with a differential expression, including 32 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated in the pellicle state. Several proteins, differentially expressed during pellicle development, were of particular interest. We determined the over-expression of four siderophore iron uptake systems including the acinetobactin and enterobactin receptors and confirmed that the development of this type of biofilm is promoted by ferric ions. Two over-expressed proteins, CarO and an OprD-homologue, putative carbapenem-resistance associated porins, would be involved in the transport of specific compounds, like ornithine, a biosynthesis precursor of a siderophore from the hydroxamate family. We evidenced the overexpression of a lipase and a transporter of LCFA that may be involved in the recycling of lipids inside the pellicle matrix. Finally, we demonstrated both by proteomic and by AFM studies that this particular type of biofilm required multiple pili systems to maintain this cohesive structure at the air-liquid interface; two of these systems have never been described in A. baumannii. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrated that several proteins, overexpressed at a late state of pellicle development, could be potentially involved in virulence processes. Therefore, regarding the number of potential virulence factors that are over-expressed in this growth mode, the pellicle-forming clinical

  13. Synchronization of autonomous objects in discrete event simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Ralph V.

    1990-01-01

    Autonomous objects in event-driven discrete event simulation offer the potential to combine the freedom of unrestricted movement and positional accuracy through Euclidean space of time-driven models with the computational efficiency of event-driven simulation. The principal challenge to autonomous object implementation is object synchronization. The concept of a spatial blackboard is offered as a potential methodology for synchronization. The issues facing implementation of a spatial blackboard are outlined and discussed.

  14. Carcinogenic Parasite Secretes Growth Factor That Accelerates Wound Healing and Potentially Promotes Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Smout, Michael J; Sotillo, Javier; Laha, Thewarach; Papatpremsiri, Atiroch; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Pimenta, Rafael N; Chan, Lai Yue; Johnson, Michael S; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Giacomin, Paul R; Moran, Corey S; Golledge, Jonathan; Daly, Norelle; Sripa, Banchob; Mulvenna, Jason P; Brindley, Paul J; Loukas, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Infection with the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini induces cancer of the bile ducts, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Injury from feeding activities of this parasite within the human biliary tree causes extensive lesions, wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing, and re-injury over years of chronic infection. We show that O. viverrini secreted proteins accelerated wound resolution in human cholangiocytes, an outcome that was compromised following silencing of expression of the fluke-derived gene encoding the granulin-like growth factor, Ov-GRN-1. Recombinant Ov-GRN-1 induced angiogenesis and accelerated mouse wound healing. Ov-GRN-1 was internalized by human cholangiocytes and induced gene and protein expression changes associated with wound healing and cancer pathways. Given the notable but seemingly paradoxical properties of liver fluke granulin in promoting not only wound healing but also a carcinogenic microenvironment, Ov-GRN-1 likely holds marked potential as a therapeutic wound-healing agent and as a vaccine against an infection-induced cancer of major public health significance in the developing world. PMID:26485648

  15. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-2 Expression in Thyroid Tumor Progression: Potential Diagnostic Application

    PubMed Central

    Redler, Adriano; Di Rocco, Giorgio; Giannotti, Domenico; Frezzotti, Francesca; Bernieri, Maria Giulia; Ceccarelli, Simona; D’Amici, Sirio; Vescarelli, Enrica; Mitterhofer, Anna Paola; Angeloni, Antonio; Marchese, Cinzia

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2) plays an important role in tumorigenesis. In thyroid cancer it has been observed a FGFR-2 down-modulation, but the role of this receptor has not been yet clarified. Therefore, we decided to examine the expression of both FGFR-2 isoform, FGFR-2-IIIb and FGFR-2-IIIc, in different histological thyroid variants such as hyperplasia, follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative Real-Time PCR analyses were performed on samples of hyperplasia, follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma, compared with normal thyroid tissue. Thyroid hyperplasia did not show statistically significant reduction in FGFR-2 protein and mRNA levels. Interestingly, in both follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma samples we observed a strongly reduced expression of both FGFR-2 isoforms. We speculate that FGFR-2 down-modulation might be an early event in thyroid carcinogenesis. Furthermore, we suggest the potential use of FGFR-2 as an early marker for thyroid cancer diagnosis. PMID:23977259

  16. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 expression in thyroid tumor progression: potential diagnostic application.

    PubMed

    Redler, Adriano; Di Rocco, Giorgio; Giannotti, Domenico; Frezzotti, Francesca; Bernieri, Maria Giulia; Ceccarelli, Simona; D'Amici, Sirio; Vescarelli, Enrica; Mitterhofer, Anna Paola; Angeloni, Antonio; Marchese, Cinzia

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2) plays an important role in tumorigenesis. In thyroid cancer it has been observed a FGFR-2 down-modulation, but the role of this receptor has not been yet clarified. Therefore, we decided to examine the expression of both FGFR-2 isoform, FGFR-2-IIIb and FGFR-2-IIIc, in different histological thyroid variants such as hyperplasia, follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative Real-Time PCR analyses were performed on samples of hyperplasia, follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma, compared with normal thyroid tissue. Thyroid hyperplasia did not show statistically significant reduction in FGFR-2 protein and mRNA levels. Interestingly, in both follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma samples we observed a strongly reduced expression of both FGFR-2 isoforms. We speculate that FGFR-2 down-modulation might be an early event in thyroid carcinogenesis. Furthermore, we suggest the potential use of FGFR-2 as an early marker for thyroid cancer diagnosis. PMID:23977259

  17. Arsenite and insulin exhibit opposing effects on epidermal growth factor receptor and keratinocyte proliferative potential

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Timothy J.; Rice, Robert H. . E-mail: rhrice@ucdavis.edu

    2007-05-15

    Previous work has suggested that arsenic exposure contributes to skin carcinogenesis by preserving the proliferative potential of human epidermal keratinocytes, thereby slowing the exit of putative target stem cells into the differentiation pathway. To find a molecular basis for this action, present work has explored the influence of arsenite on keratinocyte responses to epidermal growth factor (EGF). The ability of cultured keratinocytes to found colonies upon passaging several days after confluence was preserved by arsenite and EGF in an additive fashion, but neither was effective when the receptor tyrosine kinase activity was inhibited. Arsenite prevented the loss of EGF receptor protein and phosphorylation of tyrosine 1173, preserving its capability to signal. The level of nuclear {beta}-catenin was higher in cells treated with arsenite and EGF in parallel to elevated colony forming ability, and expression of a dominant negative {beta}-catenin suppressed the increase in both colony forming ability and yield of putative stem cells induced by arsenite and EGF. As judged by expression of three genes regulated by {beta}-catenin, this transcription factor had substantially higher activity in the arsenite/EGF-treated cells. Trivalent antimony exhibited the same effects as arsenite. A novel finding is that insulin in the medium induced the loss of EGF receptor protein, which was largely prevented by arsenite exposure.

  18. Determination of cypermethrin degradation potential of soil bacteria along with plant growth-promoting characteristics.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Shamsa; Sultan, Sikander; Kertesz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is in extensive use since 1980s for insect control. However, its toxicity toward aquatic animals and humans requires its complete removal from contaminated areas that can be done using indigenous microbes through bioremediation. In this study, three bacterial strains isolated from agricultural soil and identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus MCm5, Brevibacillus parabrevis FCm9, and Sphingomonas sp. RCm6 were found highly efficient in degrading cypermethrin and other pyrethroids. These bacterial strains were able to degrade more than 85 % of cypermethrin (100 mg L(-1)) within 10 days. Degradation kinetics of cypermethrin (200 mg kg(-1)) in soils inoculated with isolates MCm5, FCm9, and RCm6 suggested time-dependent disappearance of cypermethrin with rate constants of 0.0406, 0.0722, and 0.0483 d(-1) following first-order rate kinetics. Enzyme assays for Carboxylesterase, 3-PBA dioxygenase, Phenol hydroxylase, and Catechol-1,2 dioxygenase showed higher activities with cypermethrin treated cell-free extracts compared to non-treated cell-free extracts. Meanwhile, SDS-PAGE analysis showed upregulation of some bands in cypermethrin-treated cells. This might suggest that cypermethrin degradation in these strains involves inducible enzymes. Besides, the isolates displayed substantial plant growth-promoting traits such as phosphate solubilization, Indole acetic acid production, and ammonia production. Implying the efficient biodegradation potential along with multiple biological properties, these isolates can be valuable candidates for the development of bioremediation strategies.

  19. Carcinogenic Parasite Secretes Growth Factor That Accelerates Wound Healing and Potentially Promotes Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Smout, Michael J.; Sotillo, Javier; Laha, Thewarach; Papatpremsiri, Atiroch; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Pimenta, Rafael N.; Chan, Lai Yue; Johnson, Michael S.; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Giacomin, Paul R.; Moran, Corey S.; Golledge, Jonathan; Daly, Norelle; Sripa, Banchob; Mulvenna, Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infection with the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini induces cancer of the bile ducts, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Injury from feeding activities of this parasite within the human biliary tree causes extensive lesions, wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing, and re-injury over years of chronic infection. We show that O. viverrini secreted proteins accelerated wound resolution in human cholangiocytes, an outcome that was compromised following silencing of expression of the fluke-derived gene encoding the granulin-like growth factor, Ov-GRN-1. Recombinant Ov-GRN-1 induced angiogenesis and accelerated mouse wound healing. Ov-GRN-1 was internalized by human cholangiocytes and induced gene and protein expression changes associated with wound healing and cancer pathways. Given the notable but seemingly paradoxical properties of liver fluke granulin in promoting not only wound healing but also a carcinogenic microenvironment, Ov-GRN-1 likely holds marked potential as a therapeutic wound-healing agent and as a vaccine against an infection-induced cancer of major public health significance in the developing world. PMID:26485648

  20. Phenolic acid degradation potential and growth behavior of lactic acid bacteria in sunflower substrates.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Caroline; Heinrich, Veronika; Vogel, Rudi F; Toelstede, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Sunflower flour provides a high content of protein with a well-balanced amino acid composition and is therefore regarded as an attractive source for protein. The use for human nutrition is hindered by phenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acid, which can lead under specific circumstances to undesirable discolorations. In this study, growth behavior and degradation ability of chlorogenic acid of four lactic acid bacteria were explored. Data suggested that significant higher fermentation performances on sunflower flour as compared to sunflower protein concentrate were reached by Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In fermentation with the latter two strains reduced amounts of chlorogenic acid were observed in sunflower flour (-11.4% and -19.8%, respectively), which were more pronounced in the protein concentrate (-50.7% and -95.6%, respectively). High tolerances against chlorogenic acid and the cleavage product quinic acid with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥20.48 mg/ml after 48 h were recorded for all strains except Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, which was more sensitive. The second cleavage compound, caffeic acid revealed a higher antimicrobial potential with MIC values of 0.64-5.12 mg/ml. In this proof of concept study, degradation versus inhibitory effect suggest the existence of basic mechanisms of interaction between phenolic acids in sunflower and lactic acid bacteria and a feasible way to reduce the chlorogenic acid content, which may help to avoid undesired color changes.

  1. Determination of cypermethrin degradation potential of soil bacteria along with plant growth-promoting characteristics.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Shamsa; Sultan, Sikander; Kertesz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is in extensive use since 1980s for insect control. However, its toxicity toward aquatic animals and humans requires its complete removal from contaminated areas that can be done using indigenous microbes through bioremediation. In this study, three bacterial strains isolated from agricultural soil and identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus MCm5, Brevibacillus parabrevis FCm9, and Sphingomonas sp. RCm6 were found highly efficient in degrading cypermethrin and other pyrethroids. These bacterial strains were able to degrade more than 85 % of cypermethrin (100 mg L(-1)) within 10 days. Degradation kinetics of cypermethrin (200 mg kg(-1)) in soils inoculated with isolates MCm5, FCm9, and RCm6 suggested time-dependent disappearance of cypermethrin with rate constants of 0.0406, 0.0722, and 0.0483 d(-1) following first-order rate kinetics. Enzyme assays for Carboxylesterase, 3-PBA dioxygenase, Phenol hydroxylase, and Catechol-1,2 dioxygenase showed higher activities with cypermethrin treated cell-free extracts compared to non-treated cell-free extracts. Meanwhile, SDS-PAGE analysis showed upregulation of some bands in cypermethrin-treated cells. This might suggest that cypermethrin degradation in these strains involves inducible enzymes. Besides, the isolates displayed substantial plant growth-promoting traits such as phosphate solubilization, Indole acetic acid production, and ammonia production. Implying the efficient biodegradation potential along with multiple biological properties, these isolates can be valuable candidates for the development of bioremediation strategies. PMID:25194282

  2. Changes in bacterial flora of Japanese cabbage during growth and potential source of flora.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hidemi; Sera, Kaori

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial flora of cabbage were identified and enumerated during various stages of growth, and the potential sources of contamination in the field were determined. Bacterial counts increased from below the level of detection (2.4 log CFU/g) on seeds to 2.5 to 5.7 log CFU/g on seedlings. After transplanting, the counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria on leaves decreased and then increased to 5.7 log CFU/g on outer leaves, 5.0 log CFU/g on middle leaves, and 3.0 log CFU/g on inner leaves at the harvesting stage. Counts of coliforms were below the level of detection during the growing period of the leaves. Bacteria isolated from cabbage seeds, seedlings, and leaves were soilborne organisms such as Bacillus, Curtobacterium, and Delftia and phytopathogenic organisms such as Pseudomonas, Pantoea, and Stenotrophomonas. These bacteria were found frequently in seeding machines, potting soil mix, soil, agricultural water, pesticide solutions mixed with the agricultural water, liquid fertilizers, and chemical fertilizers. Contamination from these environmental sites occurred throughout the cabbage growing period rather than only at the harvesting stage. These results indicate that use of clean water for irrigation and for mixing with pesticides and amendments from seeding to the harvesting stage is an important part of a good agricultural practices program for cabbage in Japan. PMID:21477482

  3. CCL5 Neutralization Restricts Cancer Growth and Potentiates the Targeting of PDGFRβ in Colorectal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cambien, Béatrice; Richard-Fiardo, Peggy; Karimdjee, Babou F.; Martini, Violette; Ferrua, Bernard; Pitard, Bruno; Schmid-Antomarchi, Heidy; Schmid-Alliana, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Increased CCL5 levels are markers of an unfavourable outcome in patients with melanoma, breast, cervical, prostate, gastric or pancreatic cancer. Here, we have assessed the role played by CCL5/CCR5 interactions in the development of colon cancer. To do so, we have examined a number of human colorectal carcinoma clinical specimens and found CCL5 and its receptors over-expressed within primary as well as liver and pulmonary metastases of patients compared to healthy tissues. In vitro, CCL5 increased the growth and migratory responses of colon cancer cells from both human and mouse origins. In addition, systemic treatment of mice with CCL5-directed antibodies reduced the extent of development of subcutaneous colon tumors, of liver metastases and of peritoneal carcinosis. Consistently, we found increased numbers of CD45-immunoreactive cells within the stroma of the remaining lesions as well as at the interface with the healthy tissue. In contrast, selective targeting of CCR5 through administration of TAK-779, a CCR5 antagonist, only partially compromised colon cancer progression. Furthermore, CCL5 neutralization rendered the tumors more sensitive to a PDGFRβ-directed strategy in mice, this combination regimen offering the greatest protection against liver metastases and suppressing macroscopic peritoneal carcinosis. Collectively, our data demonstrate the involvement of CCL5 in the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma and point to its potential value as a therapeutic target. PMID:22205974

  4. Calcitonin and vitamin D3 have high therapeutic potential for improving diabetic mandibular growth.

    PubMed

    Abbassy, Mona A; Watari, Ippei; Bakry, Ahmed S; Ono, Takashi; Hassan, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of the intermittent combination of an antiresorptive agent (calcitonin) and an anabolic agent (vitamin D3) on treating the detrimental effects of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) on mandibular bone formation and growth. Forty 3-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the control group (normal rats), the control C+D group (normal rats injected with calcitonin and vitamin D3), the diabetic C+D group (diabetic rats injected with calcitonin and vitamin D3) and the diabetic group (uncontrolled diabetic rats). An experimental DM condition was induced in the male Wistar rats in the diabetic and diabetic C+D groups using a single dose of 60 mg·kg(-1) body weight of streptozotocin. Calcitonin and vitamin D3 were simultaneously injected in the rats of the control C+D and diabetic C+D groups. All rats were killed after 4 weeks, and the right mandibles were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis. Diabetic rats showed a significant deterioration in bone quality and bone formation (diabetic group). By contrast, with the injection of calcitonin and vitamin D3, both bone parameters and bone formation significantly improved (diabetic C+D group) (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that these two hormones might potentially improve various bone properties. PMID:27025264

  5. Improved health and growth of fish fed mannan oligosaccharides: potential mode of action.

    PubMed

    Torrecillas, Silvia; Montero, Daniel; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2014-02-01

    Nowadays, aquaculture industry still confronts several disease-related problems mainly caused by viruses, bacteria and parasites. In the last decade, the use of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) in fish production has received increased attention due to its beneficial effects on fish performance and disease resistance. This review shows the MOS use in aquaculture with a specific emphasis on the effectiveness of the several MOS forms available in the market related to disease resistance, fish nutrition and the possible mechanisms involved. Among the main beneficial effects attributed to MOS dietary supplementation, enhanced fish performance, feed efficiency and pathogen protection by potentiation of the systemic and local immune system and the reinforcement of the epithelial barrier structure and functionality are some of the most commonly demonstrated benefits. These combined effects suggest that the reinforcement of the intestinal integrity and functionality, together with the stimulation of the innate immune system, are the primary mode of action of MOS in fish. However, the supplementation strategy related to the structure of the MOS added, the correct dose and duration, as well as fish species, size and culture conditions are determinant factors to achieve improvements in health status and growth performance.

  6. Calcitonin and vitamin D3 have high therapeutic potential for improving diabetic mandibular growth.

    PubMed

    Abbassy, Mona A; Watari, Ippei; Bakry, Ahmed S; Ono, Takashi; Hassan, Ali H

    2016-03-30

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of the intermittent combination of an antiresorptive agent (calcitonin) and an anabolic agent (vitamin D3) on treating the detrimental effects of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) on mandibular bone formation and growth. Forty 3-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the control group (normal rats), the control C+D group (normal rats injected with calcitonin and vitamin D3), the diabetic C+D group (diabetic rats injected with calcitonin and vitamin D3) and the diabetic group (uncontrolled diabetic rats). An experimental DM condition was induced in the male Wistar rats in the diabetic and diabetic C+D groups using a single dose of 60 mg·kg(-1) body weight of streptozotocin. Calcitonin and vitamin D3 were simultaneously injected in the rats of the control C+D and diabetic C+D groups. All rats were killed after 4 weeks, and the right mandibles were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis. Diabetic rats showed a significant deterioration in bone quality and bone formation (diabetic group). By contrast, with the injection of calcitonin and vitamin D3, both bone parameters and bone formation significantly improved (diabetic C+D group) (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that these two hormones might potentially improve various bone properties.

  7. Calcitonin and vitamin D3 have high therapeutic potential for improving diabetic mandibular growth

    PubMed Central

    Abbassy, Mona A; Watari, Ippei; Bakry, Ahmed S; Ono, Takashi; Hassan, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of the intermittent combination of an antiresorptive agent (calcitonin) and an anabolic agent (vitamin D3) on treating the detrimental effects of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) on mandibular bone formation and growth. Forty 3-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the control group (normal rats), the control C+D group (normal rats injected with calcitonin and vitamin D3), the diabetic C+D group (diabetic rats injected with calcitonin and vitamin D3) and the diabetic group (uncontrolled diabetic rats). An experimental DM condition was induced in the male Wistar rats in the diabetic and diabetic C+D groups using a single dose of 60 mg·kg−1 body weight of streptozotocin. Calcitonin and vitamin D3 were simultaneously injected in the rats of the control C+D and diabetic C+D groups. All rats were killed after 4 weeks, and the right mandibles were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis. Diabetic rats showed a significant deterioration in bone quality and bone formation (diabetic group). By contrast, with the injection of calcitonin and vitamin D3, both bone parameters and bone formation significantly improved (diabetic C+D group) (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that these two hormones might potentially improve various bone properties. PMID:27025264

  8. Symmetries and solutions of the non-autonomous von Bertalanffy equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Maureen P.; Anderssen, Robert S.

    2015-05-01

    For growth in a closed environment, which is indicative of the situation in laboratory experiments, autonomous ODE models do not necessarily capture the dynamics under investigation. The importance and impact of a closed environment arise when the question under examination relates, for example, to the number of the surviving microbes, such as in a study of the spoilage and contamination of food, the gene silencing activity of fungi or the production of a chemical compound by bacteria or fungi. Autonomous ODE models are inappropriate as they assume that only the current size of the population controls the growth-decay dynamics. This is reflected in the fact that, asymptotically, their solutions can only grow or decay monotonically or asymptote. Non-autonomous ODE models are not so constrained. A natural strategy for the choice of non-autonomous ODEs is to take appropriate autonomous ones and change them to be non-autonomous through the introduction of relevant non-autonomous terms. This is the approach in this paper with the focus being the von Bertalanffy equation. Since this equation has independent importance in relation to practical applications in growth modelling, it is natural to explore the deeper relationships between the introduced non-autonomous terms through a symmetry analysis, which is the purpose and goal of the current paper. Infinitesimals are derived which allow particular forms of the non-autonomous von Bertalanffy equation to be transformed into autonomous forms for which some new analytic solutions have been found.

  9. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary points 1. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TACs) are headaches/facial pains classified together based on:a suspected common pathophysiology involving the trigeminovascular system, the trigeminoparasympathetic reflex and centres controlling circadian rhythms;a similar clinical presentation of trigeminal pain, and autonomic activation. 2. There is much overlap in the diagnostic features of individual TACs. 3. In contrast, treatment response is relatively specific and aids in establishing a definitive diagnosis. 4. TACs are often presentations of underlying pathology; all patients should be imaged. 5. The aim of the article is to provide the reader with a broad introduction to, and an overview of, TACs. The reading list is extensive for the interested reader. PMID:26516482

  10. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Jerry L.; Petrik, Edward J.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Truong, Long Van; Quinn, Todd; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) system was designed to monitor and diagnose fault conditions that occur within the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) Testbed. APEX is designed to interface with SSF/EPS testbed power management controllers to provide enhanced autonomous operation and control capability. The APEX architecture consists of three components: (1) a rule-based expert system, (2) a testbed data acquisition interface, and (3) a power scheduler interface. Fault detection, fault isolation, justification of probable causes, recommended actions, and incipient fault analysis are the main functions of the expert system component. The data acquisition component requests and receives pertinent parametric values from the EPS testbed and asserts the values into a knowledge base. Power load profile information is obtained from a remote scheduler through the power scheduler interface component. The current APEX design and development work is discussed. Operation and use of APEX by way of the user interface screens is also covered.

  11. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  12. [Central autonomic failures].

    PubMed

    Senard, Jean-Michel; Despas, Fabien; Pathak, Atul

    2012-11-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulates the function of all body organs through both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers. Orthostatic hypotension is frequently observed in the course of central nervous system diseases including cortical (stroke, epilepsy, dementias), neurodegenerative (Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophies) and spinal cord diseases. In some cases, the mechanism of orthostatic hypotension associated with central nervous system diseases involves a dysfunction of peripheral ANS fibers.

  13. The role of the autonomic ganglia in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Stavrakis, Stavros; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Po, Sunny S.; Scherlag, Benjamin J.; Lazzara, Ralph; Jackman, Warren M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown that the epicardial autonomic ganglia play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). In this review, we present the current data on the role of the autonomic ganglia in the pathogenesis of AF and discuss potential therapeutic implications. Experimental studies have demonstrated that acute autonomic remodeling may play a crucial role in AF maintenance in the very early stages. The benefit of adding ablation of the autonomic ganglia to the standard pulmonary vein (PV) isolation procedure for patients with paroxysmal AF is supported by both experimental and clinical data. The interruption of axons from these hyperactive autonomic ganglia to the PV myocardial sleeves may be an important factor in the success of PV isolation procedures. The vagus nerve exerts an inhibitory control over the autonomic ganglia and attenuation or loss of this control may allow these ganglia to become hyperactive. Autonomic neuromodulation using low-level vagus nerve stimulation inhibits the activity of the autonomic ganglia and reverses acute electrical atrial remodeling during rapid atrial pacing and may provide an alternative non-ablative approach for the treatment of AF, especially in the early stages. This notion is supported by a preliminary human study. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:26301262

  14. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  15. Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias.

    PubMed

    Eller, M; Goadsby, P J

    2016-01-01

    The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of primary headache disorders characterised by lateralized symptoms: prominent headache and ipsilateral cranial autonomic features, such as conjunctival injection, lacrimation and rhinorrhea. The TACs are: cluster headache (CH), paroxysmal hemicrania (PH), short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT)/short-lasting neuralgiform headache attacks with cranial autonomic features (SUNA) and hemicrania continua (HC). Their diagnostic criteria are outlined in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition-beta (ICHD-IIIb). These conditions are distinguished by their attack duration and frequency, as well as response to treatment. HC is continuous and by definition responsive to indomethacin. The main differential when considering this headache is chronic migraine. Other TACs are remarkable for their short duration and must be distinguished from other short-lasting painful conditions, such as trigeminal neuralgia and primary stabbing headache. Cluster headache is characterised by exquisitely painful attacks that occur in discrete episodes lasting 15-180 min a few times a day. In comparison, PH occurs more frequently and is of shorter duration, and like HC is responsive to indomethacin. SUNCT/SUNA is the shortest duration and highest frequency TAC; attacks can occur over a hundred times every day.

  16. Transferrin-Targeted Nanoparticles Containing Zoledronic Acid as a Potential Tool to Inhibit Glioblastoma Growth.

    PubMed

    Salzano, G; Zappavigna, S; Luce, A; D'Onofrio, N; Balestrieri, M L; Grimaldi, A; Lusa, S; Ingrosso, D; Artuso, S; Porru, M; Leonetti, C; Caraglia, M; De Rosa, G

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) is a challenge for the biomedical research since cures remain elusive. Its current therapy, consisted on surgery, radiotherapy, and concomitant chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ), is often uneffective. Here, we proposed the use of zoledronic acid (ZOL) as a potential agent for the treatment of GBM. Our group previously developed self-assembling nanoparticles, also named PLCaPZ NPs, to use ZOL in the treatment of prostate cancer. Here, we updated the previously developed nanoparticles (NPs) by designing transferrin (Tf)-targeted self-assembling NPs, also named Tf-PLCaPZ NPs, to use ZOL in the treatment of brain tumors, e.g., GBM. The efficacy of Tf-PLCaPZ NPs was evaluated in different GBM cell lines and in an animal model of GBM, in comparison with PLCaPZ NPs and free ZOL. Tf-PLCaPZ NPs were characterized by a narrow size distribution and a high incorporation efficiency of ZOL. Moreover, the presence of Tf significantly reduced the hemolytic activity of the formulation. In vitro, in LN229 cells, a significant uptake and cell growth inhibition after treatment with Tf-PLCaPZ NPs was achieved. Moreover, the sequential therapy of TMZ and Tf-PLCaPZ NPs lead to a superior therapeutic activity compared to their single administration. The results obtained in mice xenografted with U373MG, revealed a significant anticancer activity of Tf-PLCaPZ NPs, while the tumors remained unaffected with free TMZ. These promising results introduce a novel type of easy-to-obtain NPs for the delivery of ZOL in the treatment of GBM tumors.

  17. Transferrin-Targeted Nanoparticles Containing Zoledronic Acid as a Potential Tool to Inhibit Glioblastoma Growth.

    PubMed

    Salzano, G; Zappavigna, S; Luce, A; D'Onofrio, N; Balestrieri, M L; Grimaldi, A; Lusa, S; Ingrosso, D; Artuso, S; Porru, M; Leonetti, C; Caraglia, M; De Rosa, G

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) is a challenge for the biomedical research since cures remain elusive. Its current therapy, consisted on surgery, radiotherapy, and concomitant chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ), is often uneffective. Here, we proposed the use of zoledronic acid (ZOL) as a potential agent for the treatment of GBM. Our group previously developed self-assembling nanoparticles, also named PLCaPZ NPs, to use ZOL in the treatment of prostate cancer. Here, we updated the previously developed nanoparticles (NPs) by designing transferrin (Tf)-targeted self-assembling NPs, also named Tf-PLCaPZ NPs, to use ZOL in the treatment of brain tumors, e.g., GBM. The efficacy of Tf-PLCaPZ NPs was evaluated in different GBM cell lines and in an animal model of GBM, in comparison with PLCaPZ NPs and free ZOL. Tf-PLCaPZ NPs were characterized by a narrow size distribution and a high incorporation efficiency of ZOL. Moreover, the presence of Tf significantly reduced the hemolytic activity of the formulation. In vitro, in LN229 cells, a significant uptake and cell growth inhibition after treatment with Tf-PLCaPZ NPs was achieved. Moreover, the sequential therapy of TMZ and Tf-PLCaPZ NPs lead to a superior therapeutic activity compared to their single administration. The results obtained in mice xenografted with U373MG, revealed a significant anticancer activity of Tf-PLCaPZ NPs, while the tumors remained unaffected with free TMZ. These promising results introduce a novel type of easy-to-obtain NPs for the delivery of ZOL in the treatment of GBM tumors. PMID:27301207

  18. Plant growth-promoting traits of biocontrol potential bacteria isolated from rice rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Upadhyaya, Hd; Vadlamudi, Srinivas; Humayun, Pagidi; Vidya, Meesala Sree; Alekhya, Gottumukkala; Singh, Amit; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Bhimineni, Ratna Kumari; Seema, Murali; Rathore, Abhishek; Rupela, Om

    2012-12-01

    Seven isolates of bacteria (SRI-156, SRI-158, SRI-178, SRI-211, SRI-229, SRI-305 and SRI-360) were earlier reported by us as having potential for biocontrol of charcoal rot of sorghum and plant growth promotion (PGP) of the plant. In the present study, the seven isolates were characterized for their physiological traits (tolerance to salinity, pH, temperature and resistance to antibiotics and fungicides) and further evaluated in the field for their PGP of rice. All the seven isolates were able to grow at pH values between 5 and 13, in NaCl concentrations of up to 8% (except SRI-156 and SRI-360), temperatures between 20 and 40°C and were resistant to ampicillin (>100 ppm; except SRI-158 and SRI-178) but sensitive (<10 ppm) to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin (except SRI-156 and SRI-211) and tetracycline. They were tolerant to fungicides benlate and captan, except SRI-158 and SRI-178, bavistin and sensitive to thiram (except SRI-156 and SRI-211) at field application level. In the field, four of the seven isolates (SRI-158, SRI-211, SRI-229 and SRI-360) significantly enhanced the tiller numbers, stover and grain yields, total dry matter, root length, volume and dry weight over the un-inoculated control. In the rhizosphere soil at harvest, all the isolates significantly enhanced microbial biomass carbon (except SRI-156), microbial biomass nitrogen and dehydrogenase activity (up to 33%, 36% and 39%, respectively) and total N, available P and% organic carbon (up to 10%, 38% and 10%, respectively) compared to the control. This investigation further confirms that the SRI isolates have PGP properties.

  19. Blocking Nerve Growth Factor Signaling Reduces the Neural Invasion Potential of Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bapat, Aditi A.; Munoz, Ruben M.; Von Hoff, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is thought to be one of the factors responsible for the high rate of tumor recurrence after surgery and the pain generation associated with pancreatic cancer. Signaling via the nerve growth factor (NGF) pathway between pancreatic cancer cells and the surrounding nerves has been implicated in PNI, and increased levels of these proteins have been correlated to poor prognosis. In this study, we examine the molecular mechanism of the NGF signaling pathway in PNI in pancreatic cancer. We show that knocking down NGF or its receptors, TRKA and p75NTR, or treatment with GW441756, a TRKA kinase inhibitor, reduces the proliferation and migration of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, pancreatic cancer cells migrate towards dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in a co-culture assay, indicating a paracrine NGF signaling between the DRGs and pancreatic cancer cells. Knocking down the expression of NGF pathway proteins or inhibiting the activity of TRKA by GW441756 reduced the migratory ability of Mia PaCa2 towards the DRGs. Finally, blocking NGF signaling by NGF neutralizing antibodies or GW441756 inhibited the neurite formation in PC-12 cells in response to conditioned media from pancreatic cancer cells, indicating a reciprocal signaling pathway between the pancreatic cancer cells and nerves. Our results indicate that NGF signaling pathway provides a potential target for developing molecularly targeted therapies to decrease PNI and reduce pain generation. Since there are several TRKA antagonists currently in early clinical trials they could now be tested in the clinical situation of pancreatic cancer induced pain. PMID:27792755

  20. Nerve growth factor contribution via transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 to ectopic orofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Masamichi; Asano, Masatake; Omagari, Daisuke; Honda, Kuniya; Hitomi, Suzuro; Katagiri, Ayano; Iwata, Koichi

    2011-05-11

    It is well known that oral inflammation causes tenderness in temporomandibular joints or masseter muscles. The exact mechanism of such an orofacial ectopic hyperalgesia remains unclear. Here, we investigated the functional significance of interaction of nerve growth factor (NGF) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in relation to heat hyperalgesia in the whisker pad skin caused by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection into the lower lip. CFA injection induced heat hyperalgesia of the ipsilateral whisker pad skin. Moreover, it leads to enhancement of spontaneous activity and heat responses in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons that was elicited by heat stimulation of the whisker pad skin. The heat hyperalgesia was dose-dependently reversed by intraperitoneal TRPV1 antagonist administration, also diminished by neutralizing anti-NGF antibody administration into the lower lip and intraganglionic administration of K252a, a tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor. Nerve fibers in bundle of mandibular nerve and TG neurons that innervates the whisker pad skin and lower lip both expressed labeled NGF, which was administrated into the lower lip. Moreover, the NGF concentrations in ophthalmic-maxillary and mandibular divisions of the TG increased after CFA injection into the lower lip. The number of TRPV1-positive neurons that innervates the whisker pad skin and lower lip was increased after CFA injection into the lower lip, and this increase was annulled by anti-NGF administration. The present findings suggest that inflammation in the lower lip induces release of NGF that regulates TRPV1 expression in TG neurons. This TRPV1 overexpression may underlie ectopic heat hyperalgesia in the whisker pad skin.

  1. Phenolic acid degradation potential and growth behavior of lactic acid bacteria in sunflower substrates.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Caroline; Heinrich, Veronika; Vogel, Rudi F; Toelstede, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Sunflower flour provides a high content of protein with a well-balanced amino acid composition and is therefore regarded as an attractive source for protein. The use for human nutrition is hindered by phenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acid, which can lead under specific circumstances to undesirable discolorations. In this study, growth behavior and degradation ability of chlorogenic acid of four lactic acid bacteria were explored. Data suggested that significant higher fermentation performances on sunflower flour as compared to sunflower protein concentrate were reached by Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In fermentation with the latter two strains reduced amounts of chlorogenic acid were observed in sunflower flour (-11.4% and -19.8%, respectively), which were more pronounced in the protein concentrate (-50.7% and -95.6%, respectively). High tolerances against chlorogenic acid and the cleavage product quinic acid with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥20.48 mg/ml after 48 h were recorded for all strains except Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, which was more sensitive. The second cleavage compound, caffeic acid revealed a higher antimicrobial potential with MIC values of 0.64-5.12 mg/ml. In this proof of concept study, degradation versus inhibitory effect suggest the existence of basic mechanisms of interaction between phenolic acids in sunflower and lactic acid bacteria and a feasible way to reduce the chlorogenic acid content, which may help to avoid undesired color changes. PMID:27052717

  2. The effect of potential upon the high-temperature fatigue crack growth response of low-alloy steels. Part 1: Crack growth results

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.; Moshier, W.C.

    1997-04-01

    Corrosion-fatigue crack propagation experiments were conducted on several low-alloy steels in elevated temperature aqueous environments, and experimental parameters included temperature, sulfur content of the steel, applied potential level, and dissolved hydrogen (and in one case, dissolved oxygen) concentration in the water. Specimen potentials were controlled potentiostatically, and the observation (or non-observation) of accelerated fatigue crack growth rates was a complex function of the above parameters. Electrochemical results and the postulated explanation for the complex behavior are given in Part II.

  3. Regional growth decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and its potential causes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Daniel A.; Beier, Colin M.; Pederson, Neil; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Stella, John C; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) has experienced poor vigor, regeneration failure, and elevated mortality across much of its range, but there has been relatively little attention to its growth rates. Based on a well-replicated dendrochronological network of range-centered populations in the Adirondack Mountains (USA), which encompassed a wide gradient of soil fertility, we observed that the majority of sugar maple trees exhibited negative growth trends in the last several decades, regardless of age, diameter, or soil fertility. Such growth patterns were unexpected, given recent warming and increased moisture availability, as well as reduced acidic deposition, which should have favored growth. Mean basal area increment was greater on base-rich soils, but these stands also experienced sharp reductions in growth. Growth sensitivity of sugar maple to temperature and precipitation was non-stationary during the last century, with overall weaker relationships than expected. Given the favorable competitive status and age structure of the Adirondack sugar maple populations sampled, evidence of widespread growth reductions raises concern over this ecologically and economically important tree. Further study will be needed to establish whether growth declines of sugar maple are occurring more widely across its range.

  4. Potential productivity benefits of float-zone versus Czochralski crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, T.

    1985-01-01

    Efficient mass production of single-crystal silicon is necessary for the efficient silicon solar arrays needed in the coming decade. However, it is anticipated that there will be difficulty growing such volumes of crystals using conventional Czochralski (Cz) methods. While the productivity of single crystals might increase with a crystal diameter increase, there are two obstacles to the mass production of large diameter Czochralski crystals, the long production cycle due to slow growth rate and the high heat requirements of the furnaces. Also counterproductive would be the large resistivity gradient along the growth direction of the crystals due to impurity concentration. Comparison between Float zone (FZ) and Cz crystal growth on the basis of a crystal 150 mm in diameter is on an order of two to four times in favor of the FZ method. This advantage results from high growth rates and steady-state growth while maintaining a dislocation-free condition and impurity segregation.

  5. Isolation of Bacteria Whose Growth Is Dependent on High Levels of CO2 and Implications of Their Potential Diversity▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Kenji; Tagami, Yudai; Kamihara, Yuka; Shiratori, Hatsumi; Takano, Hideaki; Beppu, Teruhiko

    2008-01-01

    Although some bacteria require an atmosphere with high CO2 levels for their growth, CO2 is not generally supplied to conventional screening cultures. Here, we isolated 84 bacterial strains exhibiting high-CO2 dependence. Their phylogenetic affiliations imply that high-CO2 culture has potential as an effective method to isolate unknown microorganisms. PMID:18487395

  6. Identification of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) as a potential marker of impaired growth in the newborn piglet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between the circulating levels of the acute phase proteins haptoglobin (HP) and alpha 1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) and growth potential in neonatal pigs. In runts, the circulating level of AGP, but not HP in serum of newborn piglets was higher...

  7. Growth and invasive potential of Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiaceae) within the coastal prairie region: the effects of soil and moisture regime

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrilleaux, T.C.; Grace, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The introduced tree Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiaceae) is considered a serious threat to the preservation of the coastal prairie region of Louisiana and Texas, although it is currently uncommon in the western part of the region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of location, soils, and available moisture on the growth and survival of S. sebiferum in coastal prairie. In a field experiment, S. sebiferum mortality was significantly greater at a western site than at central and eastern sites. The greatest mortality and least growth of surviving plants occurred on a soil from the western region, regardless of site. A greenhouse study also found that S. sebiferum growth was lowest on the western soil. Watering frequency significantly affected S. sebiferum growth, except on the western soil. Sapium sebiferum growth responded to both nitrogen and phosphorum additions for all soils. Soil analyses revealed the highest sand, sodium, and phosphorus contents, and much higher electrical conductivity in the western soil. It is concluded that the soil examined from the western region is unfavorable for S. sebiferum growth, though not to the extent to preclude S. sebiferum completely. Evidence suggests that soil salinity may be the primary cause of the poor S. sebiferum growth at the western site.

  8. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    PubMed Central

    Macey, Paul M.; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and demonstrate how disturbed systems can interact to produce aberrant regulation during autonomic challenges. Understanding autonomic dysfunction in various illnesses reveals mechanisms that potentially lead to interventions in the impairments. The objectives here are to: (1) describe the fMRI neuroimaging methodology for assessment of autonomic neural control, (2) outline the widespread, lateralized distribution of function in autonomic sites in the normal brain which includes structures from the neocortex through the medulla and cerebellum, (3) illustrate the importance of the time course of neural changes when coordinating responses, and how those patterns are impacted in conditions of sleep-disordered breathing, and (4) highlight opportunities for future research studies with emerging methodologies. Methodological considerations specific to autonomic testing include timing of challenges relative to the underlying fMRI signal, spatial resolution sufficient to identify autonomic brainstem nuclei, blood pressure, and blood oxygenation influences on the fMRI signal, and the sustained timing, often measured in minutes of challenge periods and recovery. Key findings include the lateralized nature of autonomic organization, which is reminiscent of asymmetric motor, sensory, and language pathways. Testing brain function during autonomic challenges demonstrate closely-integrated timing of responses in connected brain areas during autonomic challenges, and the involvement with brain

  9. Understanding the development of roots exposed to contaminants and the potential of plant-associated bacteria for optimization of growth

    PubMed Central

    Remans, Tony; Thijs, Sofie; Truyens, Sascha; Weyens, Nele; Schellingen, Kerim; Keunen, Els; Gielen, Heidi; Cuypers, Ann; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2012-01-01

    Background and Scope Plant responses to the toxic effects of soil contaminants, such as excess metals or organic substances, have been studied mainly at physiological, biochemical and molecular levels, but the influence on root system architecture has received little attention. Nevertheless, the precise position, morphology and extent of roots can influence contaminant uptake. Here, data are discussed that aim to increase the molecular and ecological understanding of the influence of contaminants on root system architecture. Furthermore, the potential of plant-associated bacteria to influence root growth by their growth-promoting and stress-relieving capacities is explored. Methods Root growth parameters of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in vertical agar plates are quantified. Mutants are used in a reverse genetics approach to identify molecular components underlying quantitative changes in root architecture after exposure to excess cadmium, copper or zinc. Plant-associated bacteria are isolated from contaminated environments, genotypically and phenotypically characterized, and used to test plant root growth improvement in the presence of contaminants. Key Results The molecular determinants of primary root growth inhibition and effects on lateral root density by cadmium were identified. A vertical split-root system revealed local effects of cadmium and copper on root development. However, systemic effects of zinc exposure on root growth reduced both the avoidance of contaminated areas and colonization of non-contaminated areas. The potential for growth promotion and contaminant degradation of plant-associated bacteria was demonstrated by improved root growth of inoculated plants exposed to 2,4-di-nitro-toluene (DNT) or cadmium. Conclusions Knowledge concerning the specific influence of different contaminants on root system architecture and the molecular mechanisms by which this is achieved can be combined with the exploitation of plant-associated bacteria to

  10. Heterogeneity of cytokine and growth factor gene expression in human melanoma cells with different metastatic potentials.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Gutman, M; Radinsky, R

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mRNA expression level of multiple cytokine and growth factor genes in human malignant melanoma. Melanoma cells were isolated from several surgical specimens, adapted to growth in culture, characterized for their ability to produce experimental metastases in nude mice, and assessed for cytokine and growth factor steady-state gene expression. Highly metastatic in vivo- and in vitro-derived variants isolated from a single melanoma, A375, were also analyzed. Northern blot analyses revealed that all melanomas analyzed constitutively expressed steady-state mRNA transcripts for the growth and angiogenic factors, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), which correlated with metastatic propensity. Only one highly metastatic melanoma, TXM-1, originally isolated from a lymph node metastasis, expressed mRNA transcripts specific for monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Similarly, of the nine melanomas examined, only TXM-1 expressed interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6, important immunomodulatory cytokines. These data demonstrate the differential and heterogeneous expression of cytokine and growth factor genes in human malignant melanoma. PMID:7648437

  11. Potentiation of growth factor signaling by insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 in breast epithelial cells requires sphingosine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Janet L; Lin, Mike Z; McGowan, Eileen M; Baxter, Robert C

    2009-09-18

    We have investigated the mechanism underlying potentiation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1) signaling by IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in MCF-10A breast epithelial cells, focusing on a possible involvement of the sphingosine kinase (SphK) system. IGFBP-3 potentiated EGF-stimulated EGF receptor activation and DNA synthesis, and this was blocked by inhibitors of SphK activity or small interference RNA-mediated silencing of SphK1, but not SphK2, expression. Similarly, IGFR1 phosphorylation and DNA synthesis stimulated by LR3-IGF-I (an IGF-I analog not bound by IGFBP-3), were enhanced by IGFBP-3, and this was blocked by SphK1 silencing. SphK1 expression and activity were stimulated by IGFBP-3 approximately 2-fold over 24 h. Silencing of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) or S1P3, but not S1P2, abolished the effect of IGFBP-3 on EGF-stimulated EGFR activation. The effects of IGFBP-3 could be reproduced with exogenous S1P or medium conditioned by cells treated with IGFBP-3, and this was also blocked by inhibition of S1P1 and S1P3. These data indicate that potentiation of growth factor signaling by IGFBP-3 in MCF-10A cells requires SphK1 activity and S1P1/S1P3, suggesting that S1P, the product of SphK activity and ligand for S1P1 and S1P3, is the "missing link" mediating IGF and EGFR transactivation and cell growth stimulation by IGFBP-3.

  12. Collaborating with Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous agent must be at a level that the operator needs and the agents can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous agent which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.

  13. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  14. Toward autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.

  15. Autonomous interplanetary constellation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Cornelius Channing, II

    According to NASA's integrated space technology roadmaps, space-based infrastructures are envisioned as necessary ingredients to a sustained effort in continuing space exploration. Whether it be for extra-terrestrial habitats, roving/cargo vehicles, or space tourism, autonomous space networks will provide a vital communications lifeline for both future robotic and human missions alike. Projecting that the Moon will be a bustling hub of activity within a few decades, a near-term opportunity for in-situ infrastructure development is within reach. This dissertation addresses the anticipated need for in-space infrastructure by investigating a general design methodology for autonomous interplanetary constellations; to illustrate the theory, this manuscript presents results from an application to the Earth-Moon neighborhood. The constellation design methodology is formulated as an optimization problem, involving a trajectory design step followed by a spacecraft placement sequence. Modeling the dynamics as a restricted 3-body problem, the investigated design space consists of families of periodic orbits which play host to the constellations, punctuated by arrangements of spacecraft autonomously guided by a navigation strategy called LiAISON (Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation). Instead of more traditional exhaustive search methods, a numerical continuation approach is implemented to map the admissible configuration space. In particular, Keller's pseudo-arclength technique is used to follow folding/bifurcating solution manifolds, which are otherwise inaccessible with other parameter continuation schemes. A succinct characterization of the underlying structure of the local, as well as global, extrema is thus achievable with little a priori intuition of the solution space. Furthermore, the proposed design methodology offers benefits in computation speed plus the ability to handle mildly stochastic systems. An application of the constellation design

  16. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 μL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 μL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 μL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species.

  17. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 μL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 μL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 μL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species. PMID:24031186

  18. Cumulative role of bioinoculants on growth, antioxidant potential and artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. under organic field conditions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rupali; Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, M M; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia annua L. is mostly known for a bioactive metabolite, artemisinin, an effective sesquiterpene lactone used against malaria without any reputed cases of resistance. In this experiment, bioinoculants viz., Streptomyces sp. MTN14, Bacillus megaterium MTN2RP and Trichoderma harzianum Thu were applied as growth promoting substances to exploit full genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield, nutrient uptake and particularly artemisinin content. Further, multi-use of the bioinoculants singly and in combinations for the enhancement of antioxidant potential and therapeutic value was also undertaken which to our knowledge has never been investigated in context with microbial application. The results demonstrated that a significant (P < 0.05) increase in growth, nutrient uptake, total phenolic, flavonoid, free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity were observed in the A. annua treated with a combination of bioinoculants in comparison to control. Most importantly, an increase in artemisinin content and yield by 34 and 72 % respectively in the treatment having all the three microbes was observed. These results were further authenticated by the PCA analysis which showed positive correlation between plant macronutrients and antioxidant content with plant growth and artemisinin yield of A. annua. The present study thus highlights a possible new application of compatible bioinoculants for enhancing the growth along with antioxidant and therapeutic value of A. annua. PMID:27565777

  19. Autonomous Deicing System For Airplane Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, G. A.; Gerardi, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype autonomous deicing system for airplane includes network of electronic and electromechanical modules at various locations in wings and connected to central data-processing unit. Small, integrated solid-state device, using long coils installed under leading edge, exciting small vibrations to detect ice and larger vibrations to knock ice off. In extension of concept, outputs of vibration sensors and other sensors used to detect rivet-line fractures, fatigue cracks, and other potentially dangerous defects.

  20. [Growth and proton-potassium exchange in Enterococcus hirae: protonophore effect and the role of oxidation-reduction potential].

    PubMed

    Poladian, A; Kirakosian, G; Trchunian, A

    2006-01-01

    Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790 are able to grow under anaerobic conditions during the fermentation of sugars (pH 8.0) in the presence of the protonophore carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone at a lesser specific growth rate. As bacteria grow, the acidification of the external medium and a drop in the redox potential from positive to negative (up to -220 mV) values occur. The reducer dithiothreitol, which maintains the negative values of the redox potential, increases the growth rate and acidification of the medium, recovering thereby the effect of the protonophore (without interacting with it). Conversely, the impermeable oxidizer ferricyanide, while maintaining positive values of the redox potential, inhibits the bacterial growth. These results indicate the role of the proton-motive force and importance of reducing processes in bacterial growth. The proton-potassium exchange is inhibited by carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydazone but is restored with dithiothreitol. Dithiothreiol is able to substitute the proton-motive force; however, ferricyanide and dithiothreitol may also directly affect the bacterial membrane.

  1. Heparin-binding growth factor type 1 (acidic fibroblast growth factor): a potential biphasic autocrine and paracrine regulator of hepatocyte regeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Kan, M; Huang, J S; Mansson, P E; Yasumitsu, H; Carr, B; McKeehan, W L

    1989-01-01

    Heparin-binding growth factor type 1 (HBGF-1; sometimes termed acidic fibroblast growth factor) is potentially an important factor in liver regeneration. HBGF-1 alone (half-maximal effect at 60 pM) stimulated hepatocyte DNA synthesis and bound to a high-affinity receptor (Kd = 62 pM; 5000 per cell). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) neutralized or masked the mitogenic effect of HBGF-1 concurrent with appearance of low-affinity HBGF-1 binding sites. HBGF-1 reduced the inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-beta) on the EGF stimulus. Nanomolar levels of HBGF-1 decreased the EGF stimulus. An increase in hepatic HBGF-1 gene expression after partial hepatectomy precedes increases in expression of the EGF homolog, TGF-alpha, and nonparenchymal-cell-derived TGF-beta in the regenerating liver. Expression of HBGF-1 mRNA occurs in both hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells and persists for 7 days in liver tissue after partial hepatectomy. HBGF-1 acting through a high-affinity receptor is a candidate for the early autocrine stimulus that drives hepatocyte DNA synthesis prior to or concurrent with the EGF/TGF-alpha stimulus. It may allow hepatocyte proliferation to proceed in the presence of low levels of TGF-beta. An EGF/TGF-alpha-dependent change in HBGF-1 receptor phenotype and increasing levels of nonparenchymal-cell-derived HBGF-1 and TGF-beta may serve to limit hepatocyte proliferation. Images PMID:2477840

  2. Extrapolation of gas-reserve growth potential: Development of examples from macro approaches. Final report, October 1990-November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.L.W.; Finley, R.J.

    1992-08-01

    An analysis of infield completions and reserve growth potential was made in Tertiary nonassociated gas reservoirs in South Texas. Infield well completions were defined from a concurrent GRI project involving macro-scale prediction of reserve growth. The report validates 78 percent, or 5.6 Tcf, of a high-end infill estimate of 7.2 Tcf for nine stratigraphic units in South Texas. This is a significant resource volume given the historical expectation that natural gas can be efficiently drained with widely spaced wells (1 or 2 per square mile) in conventional reservoirs. Groups of infield completions, or reservoir sections, from Frio, Vicksburg, Wilcox, and Miocene reservoirs were examined using geophysical well logs and production and pressure analyses. Seven reservoir-section types that contributed to the macro reserve growth estimate were evaluated. About 20 percent of the estimate consists of gas volumes extrapolated using consolidated reservoir groups, cycled reservoirs with invalid data. Additional gas volumes in the estimate were extrapolated from reservoir sections representing rate acceleration. The estimate also includes reservoir volumes from the low-permeability Wilcox Lobo trend, where limited drainage radii lead to expected reserve growth. Volumes that represent within-reservoir reserve growth and volumes that represent shallower- or deeper-pool reservoirs determined not to be in pressure communication with preceding completions in a reservoir section formed most of the macro reserve growth estimate.

  3. Autonomic Responses to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.; Miller, N. E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe how changes in autonomic nervous system responses may be used as an index of individual differences in adaptational capacity to space flight. During two separate Spacelab missions, six crewmembers wore an ambulatory monitoring system which enabled continuous recording of their physiological responses for up to twelve hours a day for 3 to 5 mission days. The responses recorded were electrocardiography, respiration wave form, skin conductance level, hand temperature, blood flow to the hands and triaxial accelerations of the head and upper body. Three of these subjects had been given training, before the mission, in voluntary control of these autonomic responses as a means of facilitating adaptation to space. Three of these subjects served as Controls, i.e., did not receive this training but took anti-motion sickness medication. Nearly 300 hours of flight data are summarized. These data were examined using time-series analyses, spectral analyses of heart rate variability, and analyses of variance. Information was obtained on responses to space motion sickness, inflight medications, circadian rhythm, workload and fatigue. Preliminary assessment was made on the effectiveness of self-regulation training as a means of facilitating adaptation, with recommendations for future flights.

  4. Nemesis Autonomous Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

  5. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  6. Autonomous wildfire surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Jan S.

    1993-11-01

    Until recently, problems resulting from fires in forests and natural areas were solved on a national rather than international level. This resulted in duplicating research efforts. The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) tries to enhance the cooperation between European countries to stimulate research on the causes and the technological developments for wildfire prevention, detection, and fighting. One result of these efforts has been the start of an international project on the development of a demonstration system that will be used to aid wild land managers and fire fighters in preventing and fighting wild fires. The system will consist of a decision support system and an autonomous wild fire detection system. The basic information that is used by the decision support system is on the one hand a database system with historical, topographical, logistic, meteorological and geographic information and on the other hand `real-time' data from automated cameras and weather sensors. Also, in other large countries outside Europe, such as Canada, the United States and Australia, technological approaches are being developed to reduce hazards as a result of wild fires. In this paper a summary is given on the various problems and solutions in the area of autonomous wild fire detection and surveillance in the CEC and some other parts of the world.

  7. Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  8. Autonomous mobile communication relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Everett, Hobart R.; Manouk, Narek; Verma, Ambrish

    2002-07-01

    Maintaining a solid radio communication link between a mobile robot entering a building and an external base station is a well-recognized problem. Modern digital radios, while affording high bandwidth and Internet-protocol-based automatic routing capabilities, tend to operate on line-of-sight links. The communication link degrades quickly as a robot penetrates deeper into the interior of a building. This project investigates the use of mobile autonomous communication relay nodes to extend the effective range of a mobile robot exploring a complex interior environment. Each relay node is a small mobile slave robot equipped with sonar, ladar, and 802.11b radio repeater. For demonstration purposes, four Pioneer 2-DX robots are used as autonomous mobile relays, with SSC-San Diego's ROBART III acting as the lead robot. The relay robots follow the lead robot into a building and are automatically deployed at various locations to maintain a networked communication link back to the remote operator. With their on-board external sensors, they also act as rearguards to secure areas already explored by the lead robot. As the lead robot advances and RF shortcuts are detected, relay nodes that become unnecessary will be reclaimed and reused, all transparent to the operator. This project takes advantage of recent research results from several DARPA-funded tasks at various institutions in the areas of robotic simulation, ad hoc wireless networking, route planning, and navigation. This paper describes the progress of the first six months of the project.

  9. Coral reef ecosystem decline: changing dynamics of coral reef carbonate production and implications for reef growth potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Global-scale deteriorations in coral reef health have caused major shifts in species composition and are likely to be exacerbated by climate change. It has been suggested that one effect of these ecological changes will be to lower reef carbonate production rates, which will impair reef growth potential and, ultimately, may lead to states of net reef erosion. However, quantitative data to support such assertions are limited, and linkages between the ecological state of coral reefs and their past and present geomorphic performance (in other words their growth potential) are poorly resolved. Using recently collected data from sites in the Caribbean and Indian Ocean, and which have undergone very different post-disturbance ecological trajectories over the last ~20-30 years, the differential impacts of disturbance on contemporary carbonate production regimes and on reef growth potential can be explored. In the Caribbean, a region which has been severely impacted ecological over the last 30+ years, our datasets show that average carbonate production rates on reefs are now less than 50% of pre-disturbance rates, and that calculated accretion rates (mm yr-1) are an about order of magnitude lower within shallow water habitats compared to Holocene averages. Collectively, these data suggest that recent ecological declines are now propagating through the system to impact on the geomorphic performance of Caribbean reefs and will impair their future growth potential. In contrast, the carbonate budgets of most reefs across the Chagos archipelago (central Indian Ocean), which is geographically remote and largely isolated from direct human disturbances, have recovered rapidly from major past disturbances (specifically the 1998 coral bleaching event). The carbonate budgets on these remote reefs now average +3.7 G (G = kg CaCO3 m-2 yr-1). Most significantly the production rates on Acropora-dominated reefs, which were most severely impacted by the 1998 bleaching event, average +8.4 G

  10. Awareness and Responsibility in Autonomous Weapons Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuta, Nehal; Rotolo, Antonino; Sartor, Giovanni

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Why Computational Awareness is Important in Autonomous Weapons * Flying Drones and Other Autonomous Weapons * The Impact of Autonomous Weapons Systems * From Autonomy to Awareness: A Perspective from Science Fiction * Summary and Conclusions

  11. Glypican-1 nanoliposomes for potentiating growth factor activity in therapeutic angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Monteforte, Anthony J; Lam, Brian; Das, Subhamoy; Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Wright, Catherine S; Martin, Patricia E; Dunn, Andrew K; Baker, Aaron B

    2016-07-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis is a highly appealing concept for treating tissues that become ischemic due to vascular disease. A major barrier to the clinical translation of angiogenic therapies is that the patients that are in the greatest need of these treatments often have long term disease states and co-morbidities, such as diabetes and obesity, that make them resistant to angiogenic stimuli. In this study, we identified that human patients with type 2 diabetes have reduced levels of glypican-1 in the blood vessels of their skin. The lack of this key co-receptor in the tissue may make the application of exogenous angiogenic growth factors or cell therapies ineffective. We created a novel therapeutic enhancer for growth factor activity consisting of glypican-1 delivered in a nanoliposomal carrier (a "glypisome"). Here, we demonstrate that glypisomes enhance FGF-2 mediated endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation. In addition, glypisomes enhance FGF-2 trafficking by increasing both uptake and endosomal processing. We encapsulated FGF-2 or FGF-2 with glypisomes in alginate beads and used these to deliver localized growth factor therapy in a murine hind limb ischemia model. Co-delivery of glypisomes with FGF-2 markedly increased the recovery of perfusion and vessel formation in ischemic hind limbs of wild type and diabetic mice in comparison to mice treated with FGF-2 alone. Together, our findings support that glypisomes are effective means for enhancing growth factor activity and may improve the response to local angiogenic growth factor therapies for ischemia. PMID:27101205

  12. Synonymous codon usage and its potential link with optimal growth temperature in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Lobry, J R; Necşulea, A

    2006-12-30

    The relationship between codon usage in prokaryotes and their ability to grow at extreme temperatures has been given much attention over the past years. Previous studies have suggested that the difference in synonymous codon usage between (hyper)thermophiles and mesophiles is a consequence of a selective pressure linked to growth temperature. Here, we performed an updated analysis of the variation in synonymous codon usage with growth temperature; our study includes a large number of species from a wide taxonomic and growth temperature range. The presence of psychrophilic species in our study allowed us to test whether the same selective pressure acts on synonymous codon usage at very low growth temperature. Our results show that the synonymous codon usage for Arg (through the AGG, AGA and CGT codons) is the most discriminating factor between (hyper)thermophilic and non-thermophilic species, thus confirming previous studies. We report the unusual clustering of an Archaeal psychrophile with the thermophilic and hyperthermophilic species on the synonymous codon usage factorial map; the other psychrophiles in our study cluster with the mesophilic species. Our conclusion is that the difference in synonymous codon usage between (hyper)thermophilic and non-thermophilic species cannot be clearly attributed to a selective pressure linked to growth at high temperatures.

  13. Autonomic dysfunction in early breast cancer: Incidence, clinical importance, and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lakoski, Susan G; Jones, Lee W; Krone, Ronald J; Stein, Phyllis K; Scott, Jessica M

    2015-08-01

    Autonomic dysfunction represents a loss of normal autonomic control of the cardiovascular system associated with both sympathetic nervous system overdrive and reduced efficacy of the parasympathetic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction is a strong predictor of future coronary heart disease, vascular disease, and sudden cardiac death. In the current review, we will discuss the clinical importance of autonomic dysfunction as a cardiovascular risk marker among breast cancer patients. We will review the effects of antineoplastic therapy on autonomic function, as well as discuss secondary exposures, such as psychological stress, sleep disturbances, weight gain/metabolic derangements, and loss of cardiorespiratory fitness, which may negatively impact autonomic function in breast cancer patients. Lastly, we review potential strategies to improve autonomic function in this population. The perspective can help guide new therapeutic interventions to promote longevity and cardiovascular health among breast cancer survivors. PMID:26299219

  14. Autonomic Dysfunction in Early Breast Cancer: Incidence, Clinical Importance, and Underlying Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lakoski, Susan G.; Jones, Lee W.; Krone, Ronald J.; Stein, Phyllis K.; Scott, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction represents a loss of normal autonomic control of the cardiovascular system associated with both sympathetic nervous system overdrive and reduced efficacy of the parasympathetic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction is a strong predictor of future coronary heart disease, vascular disease and sudden cardiac death. In the current review, we will discuss the clinical importance of autonomic dysfunction as a cardiovascular risk marker among breast cancer patients. We will review the effects of antineoplastic therapy on autonomic function, as well as discuss secondary exposures, such as psychological stress, sleep disturbances, weight gain/metabolic derangements, and loss of cardiorespiratory fitness which may negatively impact autonomic function in breast cancer patients. Lastly, we review potential strategies to improve autonomic function in this population. The perspective can help guide new therapeutic interventions to promote longevity and cardiovascular health among breast cancer survivors. PMID:26299219

  15. Autonomous Medical Care for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Polk, J. D.; Hines, John W.; Nall, Marsha M.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of Autonomous Medical Care (AMC) is to ensure a healthy, well-performing crew which is a primary need for exploration. The end result of this effort will be the requirements and design for medical systems for the CEV, lunar operations, and Martian operations as well as a ground-based crew health optimization plan. Without such systems, we increase the risk of medical events occurring during a mission and we risk being unable to deal with contingencies of illness and injury, potentially threatening mission success. AMC has two major components: 1) pre-flight crew health optimization and 2) in-flight medical care. The goal of pre-flight crew health optimization is to reduce the risk of illness occurring during a mission by primary prevention and prophylactic measures. In-flight autonomous medical care is the capability to provide medical care during a mission with little or no real-time support from Earth. Crew medical officers or other crew members provide routine medical care as well as medical care to ill or injured crew members using resources available in their location. Ground support becomes telemedical consultation on-board systems/people collect relevant data for ground support to review. The AMC system provides capabilities to incorporate new procedures and training and advice as required. The on-board resources in an autonomous system should be as intelligent and integrated as is feasible, but autonomous does not mean that no human will be involved. The medical field is changing rapidly, and so a challenge is to determine which items to pursue now, which to leverage other efforts (e.g. military), and which to wait for commercial forces to mature. Given that what is used for the CEV or the Moon will likely be updated before going to Mars, a critical piece of the system design will be an architecture that provides for easy incorporation of new technologies into the system. Another challenge is to determine the level of care to provide for each

  16. Asteroid Exploration with Autonomic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Christopher; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. The prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission comprises autonomous agents including worker agents (small spacecra3) designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration under the overall authoriq of at least one ruler agent (a larger spacecraft) whose goal is to cause science data to be returned to Earth. The ANTS team (ruler plus workers and messenger agents), but not necessarily any individual on the team, will exhibit behaviors that qualify it as an autonomic system, where an autonomic system is defined as a system that self-reconfigures, self-optimizes, self-heals, and self-protects. Autonomic system concepts lead naturally to realistic, scalable architectures rich in capabilities and behaviors. In-depth consideration of a major mission like ANTS in terms of autonomic systems brings new insights into alternative definitions of autonomic behavior. This paper gives an overview of the ANTS mission and discusses the autonomic properties of the mission.

  17. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  18. Making phytoremediation work better: maximizing a plant's growth potential in the midst of adversity.

    PubMed

    Glick, Bernard R; Stearns, Jennifer C

    2011-01-01

    While a number of different plants can either breakdown a variety of organic contaminants or hyperaccumulate metals from the environment, even the most efficient of those plants is typically inhibited by the presence of the toxicant(s). The plant stress that is induced by the presence of various environmental toxicants typically limits a plant's growth and ultimately its ability to phytoremediate the toxicant(s). Here, it is argued that the simple strategy of adding plant growth-promoting bacteria (preferably endophytes) that reduce plant ethylene levels by ACC deaminase activity and have the ability to synthesize the phytohoromone IAA, and are used to phytoremediate various toxicants can significantly (and often dramatically) increase both plant growth and phytoremediation activity in the presence of those toxicants. PMID:22046748

  19. Temperature and pressure dependent Mott potentials and their influence on self-limiting oxide film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Na; Zhou, Guangwen; Müller, Kathrin; Starr, David E.

    2012-10-01

    Classic Cabrera-Mott theory stipulates that the limited oxide-film growth results from electron tunneling from the metal through the oxide film to adsorbed oxygen. This leads to an electric field across the oxide film that assists ion migration for low-temperature oxide-film growth. Here, we show that the field-driven oxide-film growth can be manipulated via the temperature and pressure of oxidation. The magnitude of the self-generated electric field depends on the oxygen surface coverage that exhibits a Langmuir isotherm behavior with changes in temperature and oxygen pressure. These observations demonstrate the ability to tune an interfacial reaction via self-adaptation to its environment.

  20. Excess dampness and mold growth in homes: an evidence-based review of the aeroirritant effect and its potential causes.

    PubMed

    Hope, Andrew P; Simon, Ronald A

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to fungi produces respiratory disease in humans through both allergic and nonallergic mechanisms. Occupants of homes with excess dampness and mold growth often present to allergists with complaints of aeroirritant symptoms. This review describes the major epidemiological and biological studies evaluating the association of indoor dampness and mold growth with upper respiratory tract symptoms. The preponderance of epidemiological data supports a link between exposure to dampness and excess mold growth and the development of aeroirritant symptoms. In addition, biological and clinical studies evaluating potential causal substances for the aeroirritant effect, notably volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are examined in detail. These studies support the role of VOCs in contributing to the aeroirritant symptoms of occupants of damp and mold-contaminated homes.

  1. Growth of Sobolev Norms in the Cubic Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with a Convolution Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardia, Marcel

    2014-07-01

    Fix s > 1. Colliander et al. proved in (Invent Math 181:39-113, 2010) the existence of solutions of the cubic defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the two torus whose s-Sobolev norm undergoes arbitrarily large growth as time evolves. In this paper we generalize their result to the cubic defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a convolution potential. Moreover, we show that the speed of growth is the same as the one obtained for the cubic defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation in Guardia and Kaloshin (Growth of Sobolev norms in the cubic defocusing Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation. To appear in the Journal of the European Mathematical Society, 2012).

  2. [Autonomic features in Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshimasa; Tamura, Naotoshi

    2012-04-01

    Nonmotor symptoms such as autonomic and neuropsychiatric dysfunctions, are commonly seen in Parkinson disease (PD). Recent studies have shown that PD is accompanied by cardiac sympathetic denervation and constipation even in the early stage. Neuropathological studies confirmed changes in the cardiac sympathetic nerves and the gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggest that PD neuropathology may occur first in the peripheral autonomic pathways and extend to the central autonomic pathways, in agreement with the "Braak theory". This article will reviews the symptoms and pathophysiology of gastrointestinal dysfunction, urinary disturbance, sexual dysfunction, sweating dysfunction, pupillary autonomic dysfunction, and orthostatic and postprandial hypotension in PD patients, and discuss to organ selectiveness in autonomic dysfunction in PD. PMID:22481512

  3. Impact of Matric Potential and Pore Size Distribution on Growth Dynamics of Filamentous and Non-Filamentous Soil Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Alexandra B.; Vos, Michiel; de Boer, Wietse; Kowalchuk, George A.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to what extent, filamentous bacteria may also display similar advantages over non-filamentous bacteria in soils with low hydraulic connectivity. In addition to allowing for microbial interactions and competition across connected micro-sites, water films also facilitate the motility of non-filamentous bacteria. To examine these issues, we constructed and characterized a series of quartz sand microcosms differing in matric potential and pore size distribution and, consequently, in connection of micro-habitats via water films. Our sand microcosms were used to examine the individual and competitive responses of a filamentous bacterium (Streptomyces atratus) and a motile rod-shaped bacterium (Bacillus weihenstephanensis) to differences in pore sizes and matric potential. The Bacillus strain had an initial advantage in all sand microcosms, which could be attributed to its faster growth rate. At later stages of the incubation, Streptomyces became dominant in microcosms with low connectivity (coarse pores and dry conditions). These data, combined with information on bacterial motility (expansion potential) across a range of pore-size and moisture conditions, suggest that, like their much larger fungal counterparts, filamentous bacteria also use this growth form to facilitate growth and expansion under conditions of low hydraulic conductivity. The sand microcosm system developed and used in this study allowed for precise manipulation of hydraulic properties and pore size distribution, thereby providing a useful approach for future examinations of how these properties influence the composition, diversity and function of soil-borne microbial communities. PMID:24391805

  4. Alginate Oligosaccharides Inhibit Fungal Cell Growth and Potentiate the Activity of Antifungals against Candida and Aspergillus spp

    PubMed Central

    Tøndervik, Anne; Sletta, Håvard; Klinkenberg, Geir; Emanuel, Charlotte; Powell, Lydia C.; Pritchard, Manon F.; Khan, Saira; Craine, Kieron M.; Onsøyen, Edvar; Rye, Phil D.; Wright, Chris; Thomas, David W.; Hill, Katja E.

    2014-01-01

    The oligosaccharide OligoG, an alginate derived from seaweed, has been shown to have anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm properties and potentiates the activity of selected antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria. The ability of OligoG to perturb fungal growth and potentiate conventional antifungal agents was evaluated using a range of pathogenic fungal strains. Candida (n = 11) and Aspergillus (n = 3) spp. were tested using germ tube assays, LIVE/DEAD staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high-throughput minimum inhibition concentration assays (MICs). In general, the strains tested showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in cell growth at ≥6% OligoG as measured by optical density (OD600; P<0.05). OligoG (>0.5%) also showed a significant inhibitory effect on hyphal growth in germ tube assays, although strain-dependent variations in efficacy were observed (P<0.05). SEM and AFM both showed that OligoG (≥2%) markedly disrupted fungal biofilm formation, both alone, and in combination with fluconazole. Cell surface roughness was also significantly increased by the combination treatment (P<0.001). High-throughput robotic MIC screening demonstrated the potentiating effects of OligoG (2, 6, 10%) with nystatin, amphotericin B, fluconazole, miconazole, voriconazole or terbinafine with the test strains. Potentiating effects were observed for the Aspergillus strains with all six antifungal agents, with an up to 16-fold (nystatin) reduction in MIC. Similarly, all the Candida spp. showed potentiation with nystatin (up to 16-fold) and fluconazole (up to 8-fold). These findings demonstrate the antifungal properties of OligoG and suggest a potential role in the management of fungal infections and possible reduction of antifungal toxicity. PMID:25409186

  5. Siderophore as a potential plant growth-promoting agent produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25.

    PubMed

    Sulochana, M B; Jayachandra, S Y; Kumar, S Anil; Parameshwar, A B; Reddy, K Mohan; Dayanand, A

    2014-09-01

    Siderophores scavenges Fe(+3) from the vicinity of the roots of plants, and thus limit the amount of iron required for the growth of pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium ultimum, and Fusarium udum, which cause wilt and root rot disease in crops. The ability of Pseudomonas to grow and to produce siderophore depends upon the iron content, pH, and temperature. Maximum yield of siderophore of 130 μM was observed at pH 7.0 ± 0.2 and temperature of 30 °C at 30 h. The threshold level of iron was 50 μM, which increases up to 150 μM, favoring growth but drastically affecting the production of siderophore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25. The seeds of agricultural crops like Cicer arietinum (chick pea), Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), and Arachis hypogaea (ground nut) were treated with P. aeruginosa JAS-25, which enhanced the seed germination, root length, shoot length, and dry weight of chick pea, pigeon pea, and ground nut plants under pot studies. The efficient growth of the plants was not only due to the biocontrol activity of the siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa JAS-25 but also may be by the production of indole acetic acid (IAA), which influences the growth of the plants as phytohormones. PMID:25062779

  6. Siderophore as a potential plant growth-promoting agent produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25.

    PubMed

    Sulochana, M B; Jayachandra, S Y; Kumar, S Anil; Parameshwar, A B; Reddy, K Mohan; Dayanand, A

    2014-09-01

    Siderophores scavenges Fe(+3) from the vicinity of the roots of plants, and thus limit the amount of iron required for the growth of pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium ultimum, and Fusarium udum, which cause wilt and root rot disease in crops. The ability of Pseudomonas to grow and to produce siderophore depends upon the iron content, pH, and temperature. Maximum yield of siderophore of 130 μM was observed at pH 7.0 ± 0.2 and temperature of 30 °C at 30 h. The threshold level of iron was 50 μM, which increases up to 150 μM, favoring growth but drastically affecting the production of siderophore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25. The seeds of agricultural crops like Cicer arietinum (chick pea), Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), and Arachis hypogaea (ground nut) were treated with P. aeruginosa JAS-25, which enhanced the seed germination, root length, shoot length, and dry weight of chick pea, pigeon pea, and ground nut plants under pot studies. The efficient growth of the plants was not only due to the biocontrol activity of the siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa JAS-25 but also may be by the production of indole acetic acid (IAA), which influences the growth of the plants as phytohormones.

  7. Growth and xylem water potential of white oak and loblolly pine seedlings as affected by simulated acidic rain

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.F. ); McLaughlin, S.B. )

    1993-01-01

    Effects of simulated acidic rainfall on the growth and water relations of white oak (Quercus albya L.) and loblolly pin (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings grown under two fertility regimes were examined. Seedling of each species grown in a loam soil were exposed to two simulated rains per week of pH 4.8, 4.2 or 3.6 for 26 wk. High and low fertility regimes were imposed by monthly application of one-half and one-quarter concentration, respectively, of Hoagland's solution No. 2. Diameter growth of both species was reduced by exposure to rains of the higher acidities regardless of fertility treatment, and seedlings that received pH 4.2 and 3.6 rains also exhibited greater foliar chlorosis and necrosis than those that received rains of pH 4.8. The high fertility treatment stimulated diameter growth of white oak, but height growth, shoot and root dry weights and total root length were no substantially affected b acid rain or fertility treatments in either species. Following the final rain applications, drought was simulated by withholding irrigation for 2 wk, and seedling xylem pressure potential was then measured using the pressure chamber technique. Xylem pressure potential of white oak seedlings which had received rains of pH 3.6 was significantly lower than that of seedlings which had received rains of higher pH, a result that became more pronounced as soil water potential decreased. Rain acidity had little effect on the xylem pressure potential of loblolly pine, however. Soil pH analyses before initiation and after completion of the rain applications indicated that rainfall of pH 3.6 increased soil acidity more than rains of pH 4.2 or 4.8, although changes in soil pH were small overall. 26 refs., 1 fig. 2 tabs.

  8. Inducible nitric oxide synthase-vascular endothelial growth factor axis: a potential target to inhibit tumor angiogenesis by dietary agents.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rana P; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2007-08-01

    Human solid tumors remain latent in the absence of angiogenesis since it is a critical process for their further growth and progression. Experimental evidence suggests that targeting tumor angiogenesis may be a novel strategy to check tumor growth and metastases. Recent studies suggest that several bioactive food components can suppress tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis. This suppression occurs because of a direct effect on the tumor, as well as a direct effect on vascular endothelial cells. These food components can target epigenetic processes and thereby suppress the pro-angiogenic tumor microenvironment. One likely epigenetic target is inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). iNOS is known to regulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and thereby tumor angiogenesis. The ability of food components to influence the inducible form of cyclooxygenase, COX-2 may also contribute to their impact on tumor growth and angiogenesis. This review focuses on recent developments related to the angiogenic role of the iNOS-VEGF axis and how dietary components may target this axis. Overall, studies suggest that the anti-angiogenic potential of physiologically concentrations of relevant food components could be used as a practical approach for cancer prevention and intervention. PMID:17691907

  9. Cell growth stimulating effect of Ganoderma lucidum spores and their potential application for Chinese hamster ovary K1 cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ding; Zhong, Qi; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Jufang

    2016-06-01

    In this work, water-soluble extracts of Ganoderma lucidum spores (Gls), a Chinese medicinal herb that possesses cell growth stimulating function, were found to be an effective growth factor for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultivation. The Gls extract was prepared and supplemented to CHO K1 cell culture media with various serum levels. Our results obtained from both the static culture and the spinner-flask suspension culture showed that use of small-amount Gls extract effectively promoted cell growth and suppressed cell apoptosis induced by serum deprivation with normal cell cycle maintained in a low-serum medium. The low-serum medium containing 1 % (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 0.01 % (w/v) Gls extract showed a comparable performance on both cell growth and fusion protein productivity with the conventional CHO culture medium containing 10 % (v/v) FBS and a commercial serum-free medium. This is the first study of the potential of Gls extracts for use as an alternative cell growth factor and nutrient for CHO cells. The findings have presented a new approach to economic cultivation of CHO cells for therapeutic protein production. PMID:26921102

  10. Cell growth stimulating effect of Ganoderma lucidum spores and their potential application for Chinese hamster ovary K1 cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ding; Zhong, Qi; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Jufang

    2016-06-01

    In this work, water-soluble extracts of Ganoderma lucidum spores (Gls), a Chinese medicinal herb that possesses cell growth stimulating function, were found to be an effective growth factor for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultivation. The Gls extract was prepared and supplemented to CHO K1 cell culture media with various serum levels. Our results obtained from both the static culture and the spinner-flask suspension culture showed that use of small-amount Gls extract effectively promoted cell growth and suppressed cell apoptosis induced by serum deprivation with normal cell cycle maintained in a low-serum medium. The low-serum medium containing 1 % (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 0.01 % (w/v) Gls extract showed a comparable performance on both cell growth and fusion protein productivity with the conventional CHO culture medium containing 10 % (v/v) FBS and a commercial serum-free medium. This is the first study of the potential of Gls extracts for use as an alternative cell growth factor and nutrient for CHO cells. The findings have presented a new approach to economic cultivation of CHO cells for therapeutic protein production.

  11. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  12. Autonomous Martian flying rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A remotely programmable, autonomous flying rover is proposed to extensively survey the Martian surface environment. A Mach .3, solar powered, modified flying wing could cover roughly a 2000 mile range during Martian daylight hours. Multiple craft launched from an orbiting mother ship could provide near-global coverage. Each craft is envisioned to fly at about 1 km above the surface and measure atmospheric composition, pressure and temperature, map surface topography, and remotely penetrate the near subsurface looking for water (ice) and perhaps evidence of life. Data collected are relayed to Earth via the orbiting mother ship. Near surface guidance and control capability is an adaptation of current cruise missile technology. A solar powered aircraft designed to fly in the low temperature, low density, carbon dioxide Martian atmosphere near the surface appears feasible.

  13. Autonomous attitude determination systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrie, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    A summary of autonomous attitude determination systems is presented by separating it into four areas: types of attitude determination systems which can be automated, a description of the attitude determination problem and its solution, specific types of sensors, and the processor requirements of two automated systems. The sensors used in attitude determination have been characteristically carried on-board the spacecraft in the past, so the major development requirement of automated systems is in the area of on-board processors. It is concluded that standardization of computers is not as beneficial as the standardization of computer architecture and the basic components which go into making them. It is also concluded that charge-coupled devices (CCD) or other solid state star tracking devices offer considerable advantages over the image-dissector type of star tracker.

  14. Existence, Functional Impairment, and Lung Repair Potential of Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells in Oxygen-Induced Arrested Alveolar Growth

    PubMed Central

    Alphonse, Rajesh S.; Vadivel, Arul; Fung, Moses; Shelley, William Chris; Critser, Paul John; Ionescu, Lavinia; O’Reilly, Megan; Ohls, Robin K.; McConaghy, Suzanne; Eaton, Farah; Zhong, Shumei; Yoder, Merv; Thébaud, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Background Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and emphysema are life-threatening diseases resulting from impaired alveolar development or alveolar destruction. Both conditions lack effective therapies. Angiogenic growth factors promote alveolar growth and contribute to alveolar maintenance. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) represent a subset of circulating and resident endothelial cells capable of self-renewal and de novo vessel formation. We hypothesized that resident ECFCs exist in the developing lung, that they are impaired during arrested alveolar growth in experimental bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and that exogenous ECFCs restore disrupted alveolar growth. Methods and Results Human fetal and neonatal rat lungs contain ECFCs with robust proliferative potential, secondary colony formation on replating, and de novo blood vessel formation in vivo when transplanted into immunodeficient mice. In contrast, human fetal lung ECFCs exposed to hyperoxia in vitro and neonatal rat ECFCs isolated from hyperoxic alveolar growth–arrested rat lungs mimicking bronchopulmonary dysplasia proliferated less, showed decreased clonogenic capacity, and formed fewer capillary-like networks. Intrajugular administration of human cord blood–derived ECFCs after established arrested alveolar growth restored lung function, alveolar and lung vascular growth, and attenuated pulmonary hypertension. Lung ECFC colony- and capillary-like network-forming capabilities were also restored. Low ECFC engraftment and the protective effect of cell-free ECFC-derived conditioned media suggest a paracrine effect. Long-term (10 months) assessment of ECFC therapy showed no adverse effects with persistent improvement in lung structure, exercise capacity, and pulmonary hypertension. Conclusions Impaired ECFC function may contribute to arrested alveolar growth. Cord blood–derived ECFC therapy may offer new therapeutic options for lung diseases characterized by alveolar damage. PMID:24710033

  15. Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.

    2004-04-01

    The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.

  16. Mycelium-Like Networks Increase Bacterial Dispersal, Growth, and Biodegradation in a Model Ecosystem at Various Water Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Worrich, Anja; König, Sara; Miltner, Anja; Banitz, Thomas; Centler, Florian; Frank, Karin; Thullner, Martin; Harms, Hauke; Wick, Lukas Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal mycelia serve as effective dispersal networks for bacteria in water-unsaturated environments, thereby allowing bacteria to maintain important functions, such as biodegradation. However, poor knowledge exists on the effects of dispersal networks at various osmotic (Ψo) and matric (Ψm) potentials, which contribute to the water potential mainly in terrestrial soil environments. Here we studied the effects of artificial mycelium-like dispersal networks on bacterial dispersal dynamics and subsequent effects on growth and benzoate biodegradation at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and −1.5 MPa. In a multiple-microcosm approach, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged derivative of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as a model organism and sodium benzoate as a representative of polar aromatic contaminants. We found that decreasing ΔΨo and ΔΨm values slowed bacterial dispersal in the system, leading to decelerated growth and benzoate degradation. In contrast, dispersal networks facilitated bacterial movement at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and −0.5 MPa and thus improved the absolute biodegradation performance by up to 52 and 119% for ΔΨo and ΔΨm, respectively. This strong functional interrelationship was further emphasized by a high positive correlation between population dispersal, population growth, and degradation. We propose that dispersal networks may sustain the functionality of microbial ecosystems at low osmotic and matric potentials. PMID:26944849

  17. Mycelium-Like Networks Increase Bacterial Dispersal, Growth, and Biodegradation in a Model Ecosystem at Various Water Potentials.

    PubMed

    Worrich, Anja; König, Sara; Miltner, Anja; Banitz, Thomas; Centler, Florian; Frank, Karin; Thullner, Martin; Harms, Hauke; Kästner, Matthias; Wick, Lukas Y

    2016-05-15

    Fungal mycelia serve as effective dispersal networks for bacteria in water-unsaturated environments, thereby allowing bacteria to maintain important functions, such as biodegradation. However, poor knowledge exists on the effects of dispersal networks at various osmotic (Ψo) and matric (Ψm) potentials, which contribute to the water potential mainly in terrestrial soil environments. Here we studied the effects of artificial mycelium-like dispersal networks on bacterial dispersal dynamics and subsequent effects on growth and benzoate biodegradation at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and -1.5 MPa. In a multiple-microcosm approach, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged derivative of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as a model organism and sodium benzoate as a representative of polar aromatic contaminants. We found that decreasing ΔΨo and ΔΨm values slowed bacterial dispersal in the system, leading to decelerated growth and benzoate degradation. In contrast, dispersal networks facilitated bacterial movement at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and -0.5 MPa and thus improved the absolute biodegradation performance by up to 52 and 119% for ΔΨo and ΔΨm, respectively. This strong functional interrelationship was further emphasized by a high positive correlation between population dispersal, population growth, and degradation. We propose that dispersal networks may sustain the functionality of microbial ecosystems at low osmotic and matric potentials. PMID:26944849

  18. Methods for Facilitating Microbial Growth on Pulp Mill Waste Streams and Characterization of the Biodegradation Potential of Cultured Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Stephanie L.; Ayoub, Ali S.; Pawlak, Joel; Grunden, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    The kraft process is applied to wood chips for separation of lignin from the polysaccharides within lignocellulose for pulp that will produce a high quality paper. Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. However, the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulose resources, its chemical derivatives that constitute the majority of available organic carbon within black liquor, and its basic pH present challenges to microbial biodegradation of this waste material. Methods for the collection and modification of black liquor for microbial growth are aimed at utilization of this pulp waste to convert the lignin, organic acids, and polysaccharide degradation byproducts into valuable chemicals. The lignocellulose extraction techniques presented provide a reproducible method for preparation of lignocellulose growth substrates for understanding metabolic capacities of cultured microorganisms. Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry enables the identification and quantification of the fermentation products resulting from the growth of microorganisms on pulping waste. These methods when used together can facilitate the determination of the metabolic activity of microorganisms with potential to produce fermentation products that would provide greater value to the pulping system and reduce effluent waste, thereby increasing potential paper milling profits and offering additional uses for black liquor. PMID:24378616

  19. Separating water-potential induced swelling and shrinking from measured radial stem variations reveals a cambial growth and osmotic concentration signal.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tommy; Hölttä, Teemu; Berninger, Frank; Mäkinen, Harri; Nöjd, Pekka; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Nikinmaa, Eero

    2016-02-01

    The quantification of cambial growth over short time periods has been hampered by problems to discern between growth and the swelling and shrinking of a tree stem. This paper presents a model, which separates cambial growth and reversible water-potential induced diurnal changes from simultaneously measured whole stem and xylem radial variations, from field-measured Scots pine trees in Finland. The modelled growth, which includes osmotic concentration changes, was compared with (direct) dendrometer measurements and microcore samples. In addition, the relationship of modelled growth and dendrometer measurements to environmental factors was analysed. The results showed that the water-potential induced changes of tree radius were successfully separated from stem growth. Daily growth predicted by the model exhibited a high correlation with the modelled daily changes of osmotic concentration in phloem, and a temperature dependency in early summer. Late-summer growth saw higher dependency on water availability and temperature. Evaluation of the model against dendrometer measurements showed that the latter masked a true environmental signal in stem growth due to water-potential induced changes. The model provides better understanding of radial growth physiology and offers potential to examine growth dynamics and changes due to osmotic concentration, and how the environment affects growth.

  20. Separating water-potential induced swelling and shrinking from measured radial stem variations reveals a cambial growth and osmotic concentration signal.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tommy; Hölttä, Teemu; Berninger, Frank; Mäkinen, Harri; Nöjd, Pekka; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Nikinmaa, Eero

    2016-02-01

    The quantification of cambial growth over short time periods has been hampered by problems to discern between growth and the swelling and shrinking of a tree stem. This paper presents a model, which separates cambial growth and reversible water-potential induced diurnal changes from simultaneously measured whole stem and xylem radial variations, from field-measured Scots pine trees in Finland. The modelled growth, which includes osmotic concentration changes, was compared with (direct) dendrometer measurements and microcore samples. In addition, the relationship of modelled growth and dendrometer measurements to environmental factors was analysed. The results showed that the water-potential induced changes of tree radius were successfully separated from stem growth. Daily growth predicted by the model exhibited a high correlation with the modelled daily changes of osmotic concentration in phloem, and a temperature dependency in early summer. Late-summer growth saw higher dependency on water availability and temperature. Evaluation of the model against dendrometer measurements showed that the latter masked a true environmental signal in stem growth due to water-potential induced changes. The model provides better understanding of radial growth physiology and offers potential to examine growth dynamics and changes due to osmotic concentration, and how the environment affects growth. PMID:25808847

  1. Growth of Bulk Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Crystals and Their Potential Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Kuo-Tong; Shi, Detang; Morgan, S. H.; Collins, W. Eugene; Burger, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    Developments in bulk crystal growth research for electro-optical devices in the Center for Photonic Materials and Devices since its establishment have been reviewed. Purification processes and single crystal growth systems employing physical vapor transport and Bridgman methods were assembled and used to produce high purity and superior quality wide bandgap materials such as heavy metal halides and II-VI compound semiconductors. Comprehensive material characterization techniques have been employed to reveal the optical, electrical and thermodynamic properties of crystals, and the results were used to establish improved material processing procedures. Postgrowth treatments such as passivation, oxidation, chemical etching and metal contacting during the X-ray and gamma-ray device fabrication process have also been investigated and low noise threshold with improved energy resolution has been achieved.

  2. Biological potential of extraterrestrial materials - 1. Nutrients in carbonaceous meteorites, and effects on biological growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautner, Michael N.

    1997-06-01

    Soil nutrient analysis of the Murchison C2 carbonaceous chondrite shows biologically available S, P, Ca, Mg, Na, K and Fe and cation exchange capacity (CEC) at levels comparable with terrestrial agricultural soils. Weathering, and aqueous, hydrothermal (121°C, 15 min) and high-temperature (550°C, 3 h) processing increase the extractable nutrients. Extractable phosphorus (by 0.3 M NH 4F + 0.1 M HCl) content, which may be growth-limiting, is 6.3 μg g -1 in the unprocessed meteorite, but increases to 81 μg g -1 by hydrothermal processing and weathering, and to 130 μg g -1 by high temperature processing. The cation exchange capacity (CEC), attributed mainly to the organic fraction, corresponds responds to 345 meq per 100 g of the polymer, suggesting one ionizable COOH or OH group per 3-4 aromatic rings. The Allende C3(V) meteorite has low extractable Ca, Mg and K, in parallel to its low organic content and CEC, but high extractable P levels (160 μg g -1). Biological effects are observed on growth of the soil microorganisms Flavobacterium oryzihabitans and Nocardia asteroides in meteorite extracts, and the population levels suggest that P is the limiting nutrient. Effects on plant growth are examined on Solanum tuberosum (potato), where extracts of the Murchison meteorite lead to enhanced growth and pigmentation. The biologically available organic and inorganic nutrients in carbonaceous chondrites can provide concentrated solutions for prebiotic and early life processes, and serve as soils and fertilizers for future space-based biological expansion.

  3. New insights on Antarctic gorgonians' age, growth and their potential as paleorecords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Dios, Ariadna; Dominguez-Carrió, Carlos; Zapata-Guardiola, Rebeca; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2016-06-01

    Antarctic benthic communities have long been regarded as relicts of the past, since they have developed in a very stable environment and are formed by slow-growing and extraordinary long-lived organisms. However, little is known about the life history traits of gorgonian species, which are considered key components of the Antarctic benthos. In this study, age, Radial Growth Rates (RGR) and skeletal composition of Thouarella variabilis, Fannyella abies and Fannyella rossii colonies (Octocorallia, Primnoidae) that inhabit Antarctic shelf waters were examined. The radioisotopes 14C and 210Pb used for dating revealed that these colonies are long-lived, with ages spanning from 50 to 1100 years, thus confirming the archaic character of the Antarctic ecosystem. Some RGR obtained are among the lowest rates ever reported for primnoid species and gorgonians as a whole, with Thouarella species showing rates of 5.08 μm yr-1. Growth ring deposition seemed to occur every 2-3 years on average, although this result cannot be confirmed. Irregularities in the growth rings could be observed under the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as fluctuations in the skeletal composition, which may be indicative of changes in the environmental conditions, most possibly primary production.

  4. Promoting blood vessel growth in ischemic diseases: challenges in translating preclinical potential into clinical success

    PubMed Central

    Dragneva, Galina; Korpisalo, Petra; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenic therapy, which involves the use of an exogenous stimulus to promote blood vessel growth, is an attractive approach for the treatment of ischemic diseases. It has been shown in animal models that the stimulation of blood vessel growth leads to the growth of the whole vascular tree, improvement of ischemic tissue perfusion and improved muscle aerobic energy metabolism. However, very few positive results have been gained from Phase 2 and 3 clinical angiogenesis trials. Many reasons have been given for the failures of clinical trials, including poor transgene expression (in gene-therapy trials) and instability of the vessels induced by therapy. In this Review, we discuss the selection of preclinical models as one of the main reasons why clinical translation has been unsuccessful thus far. This issue has received little attention, but could have had dramatic implications on the expectations of clinical trials. We highlight crucial differences between human patients and animal models with regards to blood flow and pressure, as well as issues concerning the chronic nature of ischemic diseases in humans. We use these as examples to demonstrate why the results from preclinical trials might have overestimated the efficacy of angiogenic therapies developed to date. We also suggest ways in which currently available animal models of ischemic disease could be improved to better mimic human disease conditions, and offer advice on how to work with existing models to avoid overestimating the efficacy of new angiogenic therapies. PMID:23471910

  5. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): Their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents

    PubMed Central

    Beneduzi, Anelise; Ambrosini, Adriana; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). PGPR are highly diverse and in this review we focus on rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents. Their effects can occur via local antagonism to soil-borne pathogens or by induction of systemic resistance against pathogens throughout the entire plant. Several substances produced by antagonistic rhizobacteria have been related to pathogen control and indirect promotion of growth in many plants, such as siderophores and antibiotics. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants resembles pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR) under conditions where the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remain spatially separated. Both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant to pathogens in several plant species. Rhizobacteria induce resistance through the salicylic acid-dependent SAR pathway, or require jasmonic acid and ethylene perception from the plant for ISR. Rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus are well known for their antagonistic effects and their ability to trigger ISR. Resistance-inducing and antagonistic rhizobacteria might be useful in formulating new inoculants with combinations of different mechanisms of action, leading to a more efficient use for biocontrol strategies to improve cropping systems. PMID:23411488

  6. Potential mechanisms for the inhibition of tumor cell growth by manganese superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Kim, K H; Rodriguez, A M; Carrico, P M; Melendez, J A

    2001-06-01

    Studies from many laboratories have shown that overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inhibits the growth of numerous tumor cell types. The inhibition of tumor cell growth can be attributed to the increase in the steady-state levels of H2O2 as a result of the increased dismuting activity of MnSOD. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of MnSOD enhances the activity of the superoxide (O2*-)-sensitive enzyme aconitase, decreases the intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio, and dose-dependently inhibits pyruvate carboxylase activity. Thus, alterations in the steady-state concentrations of mitochondrial O2*- and H2O2 as a result of MnSOD overexpression can alter the metabolic capacity of the cell leading to inhibition of cell growth. Furthermore, we propose that MnSOD overexpression can modulate the activity of nitric oxide (*NO) by preventing its reaction with O2*-. This hypothesis suggests that the redox environment of the mitochondria can be altered to favor the activity of *NO rather than peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and may explain the enhanced toxicity of *NO-generating compounds toward MnSOD-overexpressing cell lines. These findings indicate that therapeutic strategies targeted at overexpressing MnSOD in tumor tissue may be more effective when used in combination with agents that deplete the oxidant-buffering and enhance the *NO-generating capacity of the tumor and host, respectively. PMID:11491650

  7. Gibberellin production by newly isolated strain Leifsonia soli SE134 and its potential to promote plant growth.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Abdul Latif; You, Young-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Guk; Kamran, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Very few plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to produce gibberellins (GAs). The current study aimed to isolate a phytohormone-producing PGP rhizobacterium from soil and assess its potential to enhance plant growth. The newly isolated bacterium was identified as Leifsonia soli sp. SE134 on the basis of partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence. Application of L. soli culture filtrate significantly increased the biomass, hypocotyl, and root lengths of cucumber seeds as compared with non-inoculated sole medium and distilled water treated controls. Furthermore, the PGPR culture was applied to the GA-deficient mutant rice cultivar Waito-C. Treatment with L. soli SE134 significantly increased the growth of Waito-C rice seedlings as compared with controls. Upon chromatographic analysis of L. soli culture, we isolated, detected and quantified different GAs; namely, GA1 (0.61 ± 0.15), GA4 (1.58 ± 0.26), GA7 (0.54 ± 0.18), GA8 (0.98 ± 0.15), GA9 (0.45 ± 0.17), GA12 (0.64 ± 0.21), GA19 (0.18 ± 0.09), GA20 (0.78 ± 0.15), GA24 (0.38 ± 0.09), GA34 (0.35 ± 0.10), and GA53 (0.17 ± 0.05). Plant growth promotion in cucumber, tomato, and young radish plants further evidenced the potential of this strain as a PGP bacterium. The results suggest that GA secretion by L. soli SE134 might prove advantageous for its ameliorative role in crop growth. These findings can be extended for improving the productivity of different crops under diverse environmental conditions. PMID:24100624

  8. Gibberellin production by newly isolated strain Leifsonia soli SE134 and its potential to promote plant growth.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Abdul Latif; You, Young-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Guk; Kamran, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Very few plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to produce gibberellins (GAs). The current study aimed to isolate a phytohormone-producing PGP rhizobacterium from soil and assess its potential to enhance plant growth. The newly isolated bacterium was identified as Leifsonia soli sp. SE134 on the basis of partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence. Application of L. soli culture filtrate significantly increased the biomass, hypocotyl, and root lengths of cucumber seeds as compared with non-inoculated sole medium and distilled water treated controls. Furthermore, the PGPR culture was applied to the GA-deficient mutant rice cultivar Waito-C. Treatment with L. soli SE134 significantly increased the growth of Waito-C rice seedlings as compared with controls. Upon chromatographic analysis of L. soli culture, we isolated, detected and quantified different GAs; namely, GA1 (0.61 ± 0.15), GA4 (1.58 ± 0.26), GA7 (0.54 ± 0.18), GA8 (0.98 ± 0.15), GA9 (0.45 ± 0.17), GA12 (0.64 ± 0.21), GA19 (0.18 ± 0.09), GA20 (0.78 ± 0.15), GA24 (0.38 ± 0.09), GA34 (0.35 ± 0.10), and GA53 (0.17 ± 0.05). Plant growth promotion in cucumber, tomato, and young radish plants further evidenced the potential of this strain as a PGP bacterium. The results suggest that GA secretion by L. soli SE134 might prove advantageous for its ameliorative role in crop growth. These findings can be extended for improving the productivity of different crops under diverse environmental conditions.

  9. Autonomous Rovers for Polar Science Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lever, J. H.; Ray, L. E.; Williams, R. M.; Morlock, A. M.; Burzynski, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed and deployed two over-snow autonomous rovers able to conduct remote science campaigns on Polar ice sheets. Yeti is an 80-kg, four-wheel-drive (4WD) battery-powered robot with 3 - 4 hr endurance, and Cool Robot is a 60-kg 4WD solar-powered robot with unlimited endurance during Polar summers. Both robots navigate using GPS waypoint-following to execute pre-planned courses autonomously, and they can each carry or tow 20 - 160 kg instrument payloads over typically firm Polar snowfields. In 2008 - 12, we deployed Yeti to conduct autonomous ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys to detect hidden crevasses to help establish safe routes for overland resupply of research stations at South Pole, Antarctica, and Summit, Greenland. We also deployed Yeti with GPR at South Pole in 2011 to identify the locations of potentially hazardous buried buildings from the original 1950's-era station. Autonomous surveys remove personnel from safety risks posed during manual GPR surveys by undetected crevasses or buried buildings. Furthermore, autonomous surveys can yield higher quality and more comprehensive data than manual ones: Yeti's low ground pressure (20 kPa) allows it to cross thinly bridged crevasses or other voids without interrupting a survey, and well-defined survey grids allow repeated detection of buried voids to improve detection reliability and map their extent. To improve survey efficiency, we have automated the mapping of detected hazards, currently identified via post-survey manual review of the GPR data. Additionally, we are developing machine-learning algorithms to detect crevasses autonomously in real time, with reliability potentially higher than manual real-time detection. These algorithms will enable the rover to relay crevasse locations to a base station for near real-time mapping and decision-making. We deployed Cool Robot at Summit Station in 2005 to verify its mobility and power budget over Polar snowfields. Using solar power, this zero

  10. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  11. Critical role of zinc finger protein 521 in the control of growth, clonogenicity and tumorigenic potential of medulloblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Iaccino, Enrico; Scicchitano, Stefania; Lupia, Michela; Chiarella, Emanuela; Mega, Tiziana; Bernaudo, Francesca; Pelaggi, Daniela; Mesuraca, Maria; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Semenkow, Samantha; Bar, Eli E.; Kool, Marcel; Pfister, Stefan; Bond, Heather M.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Steinkühler, Christian; Morrone, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The stem cell-associated transcription co-factor ZNF521 has been implicated in the control of hematopoietic, osteo-adipogenic and neural progenitor cells. ZNF521 is highly expressed in cerebellum and in particular in the neonatal external granule layer that contains candidate medulloblastoma cells-of-origin, and in the majority of human medulloblastomas. Here we have explored its involvement in the control of human and murine medulloblastoma cells. The effect of ZNF521 on growth and tumorigenic potential of human medulloblastoma cell lines as well as primary Ptc1−/+ mouse medulloblastoma cells was investigated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo assays, by modulating its expression using lentiviral vectors carrying the ZNF521 cDNA, or shRNAs that silence its expression. Enforced overexpression of ZNF521 in DAOY medulloblastoma cells significantly increased their proliferation, growth as spheroids and ability to generate clones in single-cell cultures and semisolid media, and enhanced their migratory ability in wound-healing assays. Importantly, ZNF521-expressing cells displayed a greatly enhanced tumorigenic potential in nude mice. All these activities required the ZNF521 N-terminal motif that recruits the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase complex, which might therefore represent an appealing therapeutic target. Conversely, silencing of ZNF521 in human UW228 medulloblastoma cells that display high baseline expression decreased their proliferation, clonogenicity, sphere formation and wound-healing ability. Similarly, Zfp521 silencing in mouse Ptc1−/+ medulloblastoma cells drastically reduced their growth and tumorigenic potential. Our data strongly support the notion that ZNF521, through the recruitment of the NuRD complex, contributes to the clonogenic growth, migration and tumorigenicity of medulloblastoma cells. PMID:23907569

  12. Effects of water potential and solute on the growth and interactions of two fungal symbionts of the mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Bleiker, K P; Six, D L

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effect of water potential (WP) on the growth of, and interaction between, two ophiostomatoid fungi, Grosmannia clavigera and Ophiostoma montium, associated with the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). The WP of malt extract agar was amended by adding potassium chloride (KCl) or sucrose. Growth of both fungi decreased with WP on KCl-amended media. Growth of G. clavigera also decreased with WP on sucrose-amended media, although growth was stimulated on these media compared to unamended treatments. Growth of O. montium remained relatively constant on sucrose-amended media, confounding the effect of WP on this species. Both fungi were able to colonize media occupied by the other species, but at a slower rate than on unoccupied media, indicating competition. In most treatments, G. clavigera grew faster than O. montium and colonized a greater area when the two fungi were inoculated concurrently but distant to one another on a Petri dish. However, when each fungus was inoculated adjacent to a 10-d-old well-established colony of the other species, O. montium colonized occupied media more effectively than G. clavigera considering the growth rate of each species alone. Thus, G. clavigera dominated primary (uncolonized) resources on most media, whereas O. montium was more effective in colonizing secondary (occupied) resources. The differential response of the two fungi to sucrose indicates that they may use different carbon sources, or use different carbon sources at different rates, in the tree. Fine-scale resource partitioning, differences in primary and secondary resource capture abilities, and the non-equilibrium dynamics in an attacked tree over time, could all act to promote the co-existence of two unit-restricted dispersers on a discontinuous resource.

  13. Potential use of duckweed based anaerobic digester effluent as a feed source for heterotrophic growth of micro-algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, L.; Dupont, R.

    2013-12-01

    Finding an alternative source of energy for the growing world's demand is a challenging task being considered by many scientists. Various types of renewable energy alternatives are being investigated by researchers around the world. The abundance of duckweed (i.e., Lemna and Wolfia sp.) in wetlands and wastewater lagoons, their rapid growth, and their capacity for nutrient, metal and other contaminant removal from wastewater suggests their potential as an inexpensive source of biomass for biofuel production. Another source of biomass for biofuel and energy production is micro-algae. The large-scale growth of micro-algae can potentially be achieved in a smaller footprint and at a higher rate and lower cost via heterotrophic growth compared to autotrophic growth for specific species that can grow under both conditions. Here we describe two types of research. First, two lab-scale, 5 L anaerobic digesters containing municipal raw wastewater that were set up, maintained and monitored over the course of 6 months using duckweed as the feed source. The pH, salinity, amount of gas production and gas composition were measured on a daily basis. The results from these measurements show that duckweed can be used as a good source of biofuel production in the form of methane gas. The second set of reactors consisted of two 1 L batch fed reactors containing algae (Chlorella vulgaris) grown in the lab environment heterotrophically. The pH and DO were monitored on a daily basis in order to investigate their effect on algae growth. Lipid analysis of the harvested algal biomass was done to investigate the efficiency of harvestable biofuel products. A nutrient solution containing glucose as an energy source was used as the initial feed solution, and the potential substitution of the glucose solution with the organic carbon residue from the duckweed digester effluent was investigated. Methane production, carbon stabilization, and gas composition results from the duckweed fed anaerobic

  14. odd-skipped genes and lines organize the notum anterior-posterior axis using autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Del Signore, Steven J; Hayashi, Teru; Hatini, Victor

    2012-07-01

    The growth and patterning of Drosophila wing and notum primordia depend on their subdivision into progressively smaller domains by secreted signals that emanate from localized sources termed organizers. While the mechanisms that organize the wing primordium have been studied extensively, those that organize the notum are incompletely understood. The genes odd-skipped (odd), drumstick (drm), sob, and bowl comprise the odd-skipped family of C(2)H(2) zinc finger genes, which has been implicated in notum growth and patterning. Here we show that drm, Bowl, and eyegone (eyg), a gene required for notum patterning, accumulate in nested domains in the anterior notum. Ectopic drm organized the nested expression of these anterior notum genes and downregulated the expression of posterior notum genes. The cell-autonomous induction of Bowl and Eyg required bowl, while the non-autonomous effects were independent of bowl. The homeodomain protein Bar is expressed along the anterior border of the notum adjacent to cells expressing the Notch (N) ligand Delta (Dl). bowl was required to promote Bar and repress Dl expression to pattern the anterior notum in a cell-autonomous manner, while lines acted antagonistically to bowl posterior to the Bowl domain. Our data suggest that the odd-skipped genes act at the anterior notum border to organize the notum anterior-posterior (AP) axis using both autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms. PMID:22613630

  15. Fibroblast growth factor homologous factors in the heart: a potential locus for cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Wei, Eric Q; Barnett, Adam S; Pitt, Geoffrey S; Hennessey, Jessica A

    2011-10-01

    The four fibroblast growth factor homologous factors (FHFs; FGF11-FGF14) are intracellular proteins that bind and modulate voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Although FHFs have been well studied in neurons and implicated in neurologic disease, their role in cardiomyocytes was unclear until recently. This review discusses the expression profile and function of FHFs in mouse and rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Recent data show that FGF13 is the predominant FHF in the murine heart, directly binds the cardiac VGSC α subunit, and is essential for normal cardiac conduction. FHF loss-of-function mutations may be unrecognized causes of cardiac arrhythmias, such as long QT and Brugada syndromes.

  16. Synthesis of octadecyl esters of histidine-containing tripeptides as potential regulators of plant growth

    SciTech Connect

    Ogrel, A.A.; Zvonkova, E.N.; Gafurov, R.G.

    1995-08-01

    Octadecyl esters of dipeptides and tripeptides of the type Phe-His, Val-His, Phe-Val-His and Val-Phe-His were synthesized using different methods. The minimum energy conformations of these peptides were calculated with computer minimization programs and compared with those of paclobutrazol, a well-known regulator of plant growth. It was demonstrated that the elongation of the peptide chain leads to a higher topochemical correspondence between paclobutrazol and the peptide derivatives than between paclobutrazol and amino acid derivatives. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Successful survival, growth, and reproductive potential of quagga mussels in low calcium lake water: is there uncertainty of establishment risk?

    PubMed Central

    Ruhmann, Emma K.; Acharya, Kumud; Chandra, Sudeep; Jerde, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov 1897) establishment into water-bodies of the western US has expanded the geographic concern regarding the ecological and economic impacts this species will have in aquatic ecosystems. Thresholds based on calcium concentrations, an element critical for mussel growth and physiology, have been used as a primary predictor of quagga mussel establishment success to aid management decisions. We evaluated the invasion potential of quagga mussels in low calcium waters using laboratory experiments to compare the survival, growth and reproductive potential of adult mussels held for 90 days at low (9 and 12 ppm), moderate (15 to 32 ppm) and high (72 ppm) calcium water concentrations. In conjunction with adult experiments, veliger stage survival, growth and settlement were evaluated under similar low, moderate, and high calcium water treatments. Adult mussels survived, grew and showed reproductive potential in low calcium water (12 ppm). Veligers were also able to survive, grow and settle in low calcium water. Higher levels of natural seston biomass appeared to improve adult mussel life history performance in low calcium water. Survival curve analysis predicted that 99% adult mortality could occur in <170 days at 9 ppm and 12 ppm, however water with >15 ppm could have adults surviving more than a year. The results from these bioassays provide further evidence that quagga mussels have higher risk of establishment in low calcium lakes if habitats exist that have slightly elevated calcium. These results should help emphasize the vulnerability of water-body in the 12 to 15 ppm calcium range that could potentially be at risk of establishing sustainable quagga mussel populations. Furthermore, these results provide insights into the uncertainty of using a single parameter in assigning establishment risk given the complexity of variables in specific water-bodies that influence life history performance of introduced

  18. Landscape scale measures of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioenergetic growth rate potential in Lake Michigan and comparison with angler catch rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Brines, Shannon J.; Geddes, C.A.; Mason, D.M.; Schwab, D.J.; Fleischer, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relative quality of a habitat can influence fish consumption, growth, mortality, and production. In order to quantify habitat quality, several authors have combined bioenergetic and foraging models to generate spatially explicit estimates of fish growth rate potential (GRP). However, the capacity of GRP to reflect the spatial distributions of fishes over large areas has not been fully evaluated. We generated landscape scale estimates of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) GRP throughout Lake Michigan for 1994-1996, and used these estimates to test the hypotheses that GRP is a good predictor of spatial patterns of steelhead catch rates. We used surface temperatures (measured with AVHRR satellite imagery) and acoustically measured steelhead prey densities (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus) as inputs for the GRP model. Our analyses demonstrate that potential steelhead growth rates in Lake Michigan are highly variable in both space and time. Steelhead GRP tended to increase with latitude, and mean GRP was much higher during September 1995, compared to 1994 and 1996. In addition, our study suggests that landscape scale measures of GRP are not good predictors of steelhead catch rates throughout Lake Michigan, but may provide an index of interannual variation in system-wide habitat quality.

  19. Piper cubeba targets multiple aspects of the androgen-signalling pathway. A potential phytotherapy against prostate cancer growth?

    PubMed

    Yam, Jianying; Kreuter, Matthias; Drewe, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of prostate cancer (PC) in the Western world, there is a dearth of effective medication. Since the androgen-signalling pathway is very much involved in PC growth and development, we investigated the potential of Piper cubeba L. extract, P9605, in targeting multiple events simultaneously within this pathway. This may be more effective compared to an antiandrogen monotherapy. Our results indicated that P9605 inhibited proliferation in androgen-dependent LNCaP human prostate cancer cells by reducing DNA synthesis and inducing apoptosis. This antigrowth effect was less pronounced in androgen-independent PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. P9605 potently inhibited 5 alpha-reductase II activity, which is responsible for converting testosterone to its active form, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), in the prostate. It also acted as an antagonist at recombinant wild-type androgen receptors (AR). P9605 suppressed cell growth and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) secretion stimulated by physiological concentrations of DHT in LNCaP cells. Interestingly, it down-regulated AR levels. In conclusion, our findings suggest that P9605 may potentially retard the growth of androgen-dependent PC via several mechanisms.

  20. Do cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous effects drive the structure of tumor ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Tissot, Tazzio; Ujvari, Beata; Solary, Eric; Lassus, Patrice; Roche, Benjamin; Thomas, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    By definition, a driver mutation confers a growth advantage to the cancer cell in which it occurs, while a passenger mutation does not: the former is usually considered as the engine of cancer progression, while the latter is not. Actually, the effects of a given mutation depend on the genetic background of the cell in which it appears, thus can differ in the subclones that form a tumor. In addition to cell-autonomous effects generated by the mutations, non-cell-autonomous effects shape the phenotype of a cancer cell. Here, we review the evidence that a network of biological interactions between subclones drives cancer cell adaptation and amplifies intra-tumor heterogeneity. Integrating the role of mutations in tumor ecosystems generates innovative strategies targeting the tumor ecosystem's weaknesses to improve cancer treatment. PMID:26845682

  1. Evaluating the growth potential of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) feeding on siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, E.K.; Weidel, B.C.; Ahrenstorff, T.D.; Mattes, W.P.; Kitchell, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in the preferred thermal habitat of Lake Superior lake trout morphotypes create alternative growth scenarios for parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attached to lake trout hosts. Siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabit deep, consistently cold water (4–6 °C) and are more abundant than lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) which occupy temperatures between 8 and 12 °C during summer thermal stratification. Using bioenergetics models we contrasted the growth potential of sea lampreys attached to siscowet and lean lake trout to determine how host temperature influences the growth and ultimate size of adult sea lamprey. Sea lampreys simulated under the thermal regime of siscowets are capable of reaching sizes within the range of adult sea lamprey sizes observed in Lake Superior tributaries. High lamprey wounding rates on siscowets suggest siscowets are important lamprey hosts. In addition, siscowets have higher survival rates from lamprey attacks than those observed for lean lake trout which raises the prospect that siscowets serve as a buffer to predation on more commercially desirable hosts such as lean lake trout, and could serve to subsidize lamprey growth.

  2. Relationships between muscle growth potential, intramuscular fat content and different indicators of muscle fibre types in young Charolais bulls.

    PubMed

    Hocquette, Jean-François; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Jurie, Catherine; Bauchart, Dominique; Picard, Brigitte; Renand, Gilles

    2012-11-01

    Genetic selection in favor of muscle growth at the expense of fat should affect characteristics of muscles, and therefore beef quality. This study was conducted with two extreme groups of six animals selected among 64 Charolais young bulls ranked according to their genetic potential for muscle growth. Muscle characteristics were assessed in Rectus abdominis (RA, slow oxidative) and Semitendinosus (ST, fast glycolytic) muscles. Intramuscular fat content and proportions of myosin heavy chains I (slow) and IIA (fast oxido-glycolytic) and certain indicators of oxidative metabolism (activities of citrate synthase (CS), isocitrate dehydrogenase and cytochrome-c oxidase (COX); expression of H-fatty acid binding protein (FABP)) were higher in RA than in ST muscle. Genetic selection for muscle growth reduced intramuscular fat content and the activities of some oxidative metabolism indicators (namely CS, COX only). The positive correlation between muscle triacylglycerol content and A-FABP messenger RNA level (a marker of adipocyte differentiation) (r = 0.53, P < 0.05) suggests that A-FABP may be a good marker of the ability of bovines to deposit intramuscular fat. In conclusion, the metabolic muscle characteristics which respond to the selection process in favor of muscle growth clearly differ from the muscle characteristics which allow muscle types to be differentiated.

  3. Physics Simulation Software for Autonomous Propellant Loading and Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regalado Reyes, Bjorn Constant

    2015-01-01

    1. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a mobile launching system with autonomous propellant loading capabilities for liquid-fueled rockets. An autonomous system will be responsible for monitoring and controlling the storage, loading and transferring of cryogenic propellants. The Physics Simulation Software will reproduce the sensor data seen during the delivery of cryogenic fluids including valve positions, pressures, temperatures and flow rates. The simulator will provide insight into the functionality of the propellant systems and demonstrate the effects of potential faults. This will provide verification of the communications protocols and the autonomous system control. 2. The High Pressure Gas Facility (HPGF) stores and distributes hydrogen, nitrogen, helium and high pressure air. The hydrogen and nitrogen are stored in cryogenic liquid state. The cryogenic fluids pose several hazards to operators and the storage and transfer equipment. Constant monitoring of pressures, temperatures and flow rates are required in order to maintain the safety of personnel and equipment during the handling and storage of these commodities. The Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring software will be responsible for constantly observing and recording sensor data, identifying and predicting faults and relaying hazard and operational information to the operators.

  4. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the

  5. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-10-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the

  6. Connective tissue growth factor differentially binds to members of the cystine knot superfamily and potentiates platelet-derived growth factor-B signaling in rabbit corneal fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Liya; Chung, Pei-Yu; Sriram, Sriniwas; Rahman, Masmudur M; Song, Wen-Yuan; Scott, Edward W; Petersen, Bryon E; Schultz, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the binding of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) to cystine knot-containing ligands and how this impacts platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B signaling. METHODS: The binding strengths of CTGF to cystine knot-containing growth factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, PDGF-B, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were compared using the LexA-based yeast two-hybrid system. EYG48 reporter strain that carried a wild-type LEU2 gene under the control of LexA operators and a lacZ reporter plasmid (p80p-lacZ) containing eight high affinity LexA binding sites were used in the yeast two-hybrid analysis. Interactions between CTGF and the tested growth factors were evaluated based on growth of transformed yeast cells on selective media and colorimetric detection in a liquid β-galactosidase activity assay. Dissociation constants of CTGF to VEGF-A isoform 165 or PDGF-BB homo-dimer were measured in surface plasma resonance (SPR) analysis. CTGF regulation in PDGF-B presentation to the PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) was also quantitatively assessed by the SPR analysis. Combinational effects of CTGF protein and PDGF-BB on activation of PDGFRβ and downstream signaling molecules ERK1/2 and AKT were assessed in rabbit corneal fibroblast cells by Western analysis. RESULTS: In the LexA-based yeast two-hybrid system, cystine knot motifs of tested growth factors were fused to the activation domain of the transcriptional factor GAL4 while CTGF was fused to the DNA binding domain of the bacterial repressor protein LexA. Yeast co-transformants containing corresponding fusion proteins for CTGF and all four tested cystine knot motifs survived on selective medium containing galactose and raffinose but lacking histidine, tryptophan, and uracil. In liquid β-galactosidase assays, CTGF expressing cells that were co-transformed with the cystine knot of VEGF-A had the highest activity, at 29.88 ± 0.91 fold above controls

  7. Potential of plant growth promoting traits by bacteria isolated from heavy metal contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Simranjeet; Singh, Joginder; Upadhyay, Niraj

    2015-06-01

    Rhizobacteria can enhance biomass production and heavy metal tolerance of plants under the stress environment. The aim of this study was to collect soil samples from different industrial sites followed by their heavy metal analysis. After performing the ICP-AES analysis of soil samples from seven different sites, bacterial strains were isolated from the soil samples of most polluted (heavy metal) site. Phylogenetic analysis of isolates based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that the isolates belonged to four species: Bacillus thuringiensis, Azotobacter chroococcum, Paenibacillus ehimensis and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes. Plant growth promoting activities; siderophore production, indole acetic acid production, HCN production, and phosphate solubilisation were assayed in vitro, and statistically analysis done by using ANOVA analysis and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference test (p ≤ 0.05). Plant growth-promoting characteristics of isolated strains were higher compared to the control Pseudomonas fluorescens (NICM 5096). In vitro study was performed to check resistance against two heavy metals of isolates. It was observed that isolated bacterial strains have higher heavy metal resistance as compared to control E. coli (NICM 2563). These isolates may cause pathogenic effects, so to avoid this risk, their antibacterial susceptibility was checked against eight antibiotics. Among the eight antibiotics, Ciprofloxacin-1 has shown higher inhibition against all the isolated bacterial strains.

  8. Controlling Heteroepitaxy by Oxygen Chemical Potential: Exclusive Growth of (100) Oriented Ceria Nanostructures on Cu(111)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Höcker, Jan; Duchoň, Tomáš; Veltruská, Kateřina; Matolín, Vladimír; Falta, Jens; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Flege, J. Ingo

    2016-01-06

    We present a novel and simple method for the preparation of a well-defined CeO2(100) model system on Cu(111) based on the adjustment of the Ce/O ratio during growth. The method yields micrometer-sized, several nanometers high, single-phase CeO2(100) islands with controllable size and surface termination that can be benchmarked against the known (111) nanostructured islands on Cu(111). We also demonstrate the ability to adjust the Ce to O stoichiometry from CeO2(100) (100% Ce4+) to c-Ce2O3(100) (100% Ce3+), which can be readily recognized by characteristic surface reconstructions observed by low-energy electron diffraction. Finally, the discovery of the highly stable CeOx(100) phase onmore » a hexagonally close packed metal surface represents an unexpected growth mechanism of ceria on Cu(111), and it provides novel opportunities to prepare more elaborate models, benchmark surface chemical reactivity, and thus gain valuable insights into the redox chemistry of ceria in catalytic processes.« less

  9. Growth kinetics of Chlorococcum humicola - A potential feedstock for biomass with biofuel properties.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jibu; Jayachithra, E V

    2015-11-01

    Economically viable production facilities for microalgae depend on the optimization of growth parameters with regard to nutrient requirements. Using microalgae to treat industrial effluents containing heavy metals presents an alternative to the current practice of using physical and chemical methods. Present work focuses on the statistical optimization of growth of Chlorococcum humicola to ascertain the maximum production of biomass. Plackett Burman design was carried out to screen the significant variables influencing biomass production. Further, Response Surface Methodology was employed to optimize the effect of inoculum, light intensity and pH on net biomass yield. Optimum conditions for maximum biomass yield were identified to be inoculum at 15%, light intensity to be 1500lx and pH 8.5. Theoretical and predicted values were in agreement and thus the model was found to be significant. Gas chromatography analyses of the FAME derivatives showed a high percentage of saturated fatty acids thereby confirming the biofuel properties of the oil derived from algal biomass.

  10. Crack-growth properties of various elastomers with potential application in small joint prostheses.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, D T; Savory, K M; Bachus, K N

    1997-10-01

    Silastic small joint spacers for the metacarpophalangeal joint fail catastrophically at a reported rate ranging from 2 to 26%. Although the exact cause of this problem is not known, it is speculated that failure is due to the propagation of flaws generated in the material surface. In addition to wear secondary to bony impingement, these flaws can be introduced through manufacturing, surgical handling, and in vivo frictional wear. In an effort to identify an elastomeric material that will function similarly to Silastic as a self-hinging joint spacer but provide an increased functional life, we have investigated and compared the crack-growth properties of two polyurethanes, ChronoFlex and Medicaflex, and a thermoplastic elastomer, Santoprene, with those of Silastic. The materials were evaluated after sterilization by either ethylene oxide or gamma irradiation in an ASTM standard flexing machine under conditions of high humidity and body temperature both before and after artificially aging. In each case, the materials investigated presented significantly lower crack-growth rates than Silastic (p < 0.001).

  11. Crack-growth properties of various elastomers with potential application in small joint prostheses.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, D T; Savory, K M; Bachus, K N

    1997-10-01

    Silastic small joint spacers for the metacarpophalangeal joint fail catastrophically at a reported rate ranging from 2 to 26%. Although the exact cause of this problem is not known, it is speculated that failure is due to the propagation of flaws generated in the material surface. In addition to wear secondary to bony impingement, these flaws can be introduced through manufacturing, surgical handling, and in vivo frictional wear. In an effort to identify an elastomeric material that will function similarly to Silastic as a self-hinging joint spacer but provide an increased functional life, we have investigated and compared the crack-growth properties of two polyurethanes, ChronoFlex and Medicaflex, and a thermoplastic elastomer, Santoprene, with those of Silastic. The materials were evaluated after sterilization by either ethylene oxide or gamma irradiation in an ASTM standard flexing machine under conditions of high humidity and body temperature both before and after artificially aging. In each case, the materials investigated presented significantly lower crack-growth rates than Silastic (p < 0.001). PMID:9335353

  12. Growth Potential of Listeria Monocytogenes in Sliced Turkey Bresaola Packed in Modified Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Cosciani-Cunico, Elena; D’Amico, Stefano; Sfameni, Chiara; Bertasi, Barbara; Losio, Marina N.; Serraino, Andrea; Daminelli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    According to EC Regulation No 2073/2005, for food business operators that produce ready-to-eat (RTE) product, it is crucial to be able to demonstrate if the product supports the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. The objective of the study was therefore to evaluate the behaviour of L. monocytogenes in sliced RTE turkey bresaola (made by cured turkey breast 4.5% NaCl, 1% sodium lactate, sodium nitrite 150 ppm and flavouring) during the shelf life of the product, simulating a contamination during the slicing operation. Considering a shelf life of 90 days, as defined by manufacturer, the packages of sliced bresaola were stored at 5°C for 7 days and at 8°C for the remaining storage time (83 days). L. monocytogenes count decreased during storage test from 1.43/1.98 log cfu/g in the three batches tested to 1.03 log cfu/g in one batch and to undetectable levels in the other two batches. The results show that the investigated product is unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenes. PMID:27800323

  13. Noninvasive Index of Cryorecovery and Growth Potential for Human Follicles In Vitro1

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Susan L.; Shea, Lonnie D.; Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2010-01-01

    Cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos is commonly used to preserve fertility. However, women undergoing cancer treatment may not have the time or may not be good candidates for these options. Ovarian cortical tissue cryopreservation and subsequent tissue transplant has been proven successful yet inefficient in preserving larger secondary follicles, and is not recommended as a fertility preservation option for women with certain cancers. We evaluated cryopreservation of individual follicles as an alternative option in rodents, nonhuman primates, and human primates. Under optimal conditions, cryopreserved mouse secondary follicles were able to reestablish granulosa cell-oocyte interactions, which are essential for subsequent follicle growth. Individual secondary follicles survived cryopreservation, were able to be cultured in a three-dimensional alginate hydrogel matrix to the antral stage, and the enclosed oocytes were competent for fertilization. Using a vital imaging technique (pol-scope) employed in many fertility centers, we were able to bioassay the thawed, cultured follicles for the presence of transzonal connections between the somatic and germ cells. Perturbations in these linkages were shown to be reversed when follicles were cryopreserved under optimal freezing conditions. We applied the optimized cryopreservation protocol to isolated rhesus monkey and human secondary follicles, and using the birefringent bioassay, we were able to show good correlation between early follicle growth and healthy somatic cell-oocyte connections. Our results suggest that ovarian follicles can be cryopreserved, thawed, and analyzed noninvasively, making follicle preservation an additional option for young cancer patients. PMID:20200211

  14. Potential of plant growth promoting traits by bacteria isolated from heavy metal contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Simranjeet; Singh, Joginder; Upadhyay, Niraj

    2015-06-01

    Rhizobacteria can enhance biomass production and heavy metal tolerance of plants under the stress environment. The aim of this study was to collect soil samples from different industrial sites followed by their heavy metal analysis. After performing the ICP-AES analysis of soil samples from seven different sites, bacterial strains were isolated from the soil samples of most polluted (heavy metal) site. Phylogenetic analysis of isolates based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that the isolates belonged to four species: Bacillus thuringiensis, Azotobacter chroococcum, Paenibacillus ehimensis and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes. Plant growth promoting activities; siderophore production, indole acetic acid production, HCN production, and phosphate solubilisation were assayed in vitro, and statistically analysis done by using ANOVA analysis and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference test (p ≤ 0.05). Plant growth-promoting characteristics of isolated strains were higher compared to the control Pseudomonas fluorescens (NICM 5096). In vitro study was performed to check resistance against two heavy metals of isolates. It was observed that isolated bacterial strains have higher heavy metal resistance as compared to control E. coli (NICM 2563). These isolates may cause pathogenic effects, so to avoid this risk, their antibacterial susceptibility was checked against eight antibiotics. Among the eight antibiotics, Ciprofloxacin-1 has shown higher inhibition against all the isolated bacterial strains. PMID:25782590

  15. Relationships between Electrically Evoked Potentials and Loudness Growth in Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Benjamin; Brown, Carolyn; Abbas, Paul; Etler, Christine; O’Brien, Sara

    2011-01-01

    SHORT SUMMARY Bilateral cochlear implantation has motivated efforts to ensure that sounds presented at equal levels to each ear are perceived as equally loud. Psychophysical loudness balancing is not always practical, especially with pediatric users. Electrophysiological potentials -- electrically evoked auditory brain stem response (EABR) and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) measures -- may provide a means of approximating loudness balance. It was hypothesized that stimuli evoking equal amplitude neural responses would be more closely matched in loudness than stimuli with equal current levels. No significant differences in loudness discrepancy across ears were found for ECAP, EABR or matched current levels. PMID:22246138

  16. Autonomic closure for turbulence simulations.

    PubMed

    King, Ryan N; Hamlington, Peter E; Dahm, Werner J A

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to turbulence closure is presented that eliminates the need to specify a predefined turbulence model and instead provides for fully adaptive, self-optimizing, autonomic closures. The closure is autonomic in the sense that the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and resolved quantities through the solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. This nonparametric approach allows the autonomic closure to freely adapt to varying nonlinear, nonlocal, nonequilibrium, and other turbulence characteristics in the flow. Even a simple implementation of the autonomic closure for large eddy simulations provides remarkably more accurate results in a priori tests than do dynamic versions of traditional prescribed closures. PMID:27078285

  17. ISS Update: Autonomous Mission Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Jeff Mauldin, Simulation Supervisor for Autonomous Mission Operations at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson a...

  18. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pintér, Alexandra; Cseh, Domonkos; Sárközi, Adrienn; Illigens, Ben M.; Siepmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26213927

  19. Beyond plant defense: insights on the potential of salicylic and methylsalicylic acid to contain growth of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Dieryckx, Cindy; Gaudin, Vanessa; Dupuy, Jean-William; Bonneu, Marc; Girard, Vincent; Job, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Using Botrytis cinerea we confirmed in the present work several previous studies showing that salicylic acid, a main plant hormone, inhibits fungal growth in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect was also observed for the two salicylic acid derivatives, methylsalicylic and acetylsalicylic acid. In marked contrast, 5-sulfosalicylic acid was totally inactive. Comparative proteomics from treated vs. control mycelia showed that both the intracellular and extracellular proteomes were affected in the presence of salicylic acid or methylsalicylic acid. These data suggest several mechanisms that could potentially account for the observed fungal growth inhibition, notably pH regulation, metal homeostasis, mitochondrial respiration, ROS accumulation and cell wall remodeling. The present observations support a role played by the phytohormone SA and derivatives in directly containing the pathogen. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002873. PMID:26528317

  20. Autonomous landing guidance program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, John A.

    1996-05-01

    The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

  1. Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-04-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  2. Simple autonomous Mars walker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

    1989-01-01

    Under a contract with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Martin Marietta has developed several alternative rover concepts for unmanned exploration of the planet Mars. One of those concepts, the 'Walking Beam', is the subject of this paper. This concept was developed with the goal of achieving many of the capabilities of more sophisticated articulated-leg walkers with a much simpler, more robust, less computationally demanding and more power efficient design. It consists of two large-base tripods nested one within the other which alternately translate with respect to each other along a 5-meter beam to propel the vehicle. The semiautonomous navigation system relies on terrain geometry sensors and tacticle feedback from each foot to autonomously select a path which avoids hazards along a route designated from earth. Both mobility and navigation features of this concept are discussed including a top-level description of the vehicle's physical characteristics, deployment strategy, mobility elements, sensor suite, theory of operation, navigation and control processes, and estimated performance.

  3. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Dickey, John

    2015-04-15

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  4. Autonomous mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

  5. Is paramecium swimming autonomic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Toplosky, Norman; Hansen, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We seek to explore if the swimming of paramecium has an underlying autonomic mechanism. Such robotic elements may be useful in capturing the disturbance field in an environment in real time. Experimental evidence is emerging that motion control neurons of other animals may be present in paramecium as well. The limit cycle determined using analog simulation of the coupled nonlinear oscillators of olivo-cerebellar dynamics (ieee joe 33, 563-578, 2008) agrees with the tracks of the cilium of a biological paramecium. A 4-motor apparatus has been built that reproduces the kinematics of the cilium motion. The motion of the biological cilium has been analyzed and compared with the results of the finite element modeling of forces on a cilium. The modeling equates applied torque at the base of the cilium with drag, the cilium stiffness being phase dependent. A low friction pendulum apparatus with a multiplicity of electromagnetic actuators is being built for verifying the maps of the attractor basin computed using the olivo-cerebellar dynamics for different initial conditions. Sponsored by ONR 33.

  6. Autonomous Aerobraking at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, Jill L.; Tolson, Robert; Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Dec, John

    2002-01-01

    Aerobraking has become a proven approach for orbital missions at Mars. A launch of a 1000 kg class spacecraft on a Delta class booster saves 90% of the post-MOI fuel otherwise required to circularize the orbit. In 1997, Mars Global Surveyor demonstrated the feasibility and Mars 2001 Odyssey completed a nearly trouble free aerobraking phase in January 2002. In 2006, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also utilize aerobraking. From the flight operations standpoint, however, aerobraking is labor intensive and high risk due to the large density variability in the Mars thermosphere. The maximum rate of aerobraking is typically limited by the maximum allowable temperature of the solar array which is the primary drag surface. Prior missions have used a surrogate variable, usually maximum free stream heat flux, as a basis for performing periapsis altitude corridor control maneuvers. This paper provides an adaptive sequential method for operationally relating measured temperatures to heat flux profile characteristics and performing maneuvers based directly on measured temperatures and atmospheric properties derived from the heat flux profiles. Simulations of autonomous aerobraking are performed using Odyssey mission data.

  7. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  8. Genetic engineering and autonomous agency.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Linda

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the genetic manipulation of sexual orientation at the embryo stage could have a detrimental effect on the subsequent person's later capacity for autonomous agency. By focussing on an example of sexist oppression I show that the norms and expectations expressed with this type of genetic manipulation can threaten the development of autonomous agency and the kind of social environment that makes its exercise likely. PMID:14989287

  9. Biomimetic smart sensors for autonomous robotic behavior I: acoustic processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligeorges, Socrates; Xue, Shuwan; Soloway, Aaron; Lichtenstein, Lee; Gore, Tyler; Hubbard, Allyn

    2009-05-01

    Robotics are rapidly becoming an integral tool on the battlefield and in homeland security, replacing humans in hazardous conditions. To enhance the effectiveness of robotic assets and their interaction with human operators, smart sensors are required to give more autonomous function to robotic platforms. Biologically inspired sensors are an essential part of this development of autonomous behavior and can increase both capability and performance of robotic systems. Smart, biologically inspired acoustic sensors have the potential to extend autonomous capabilities of robotic platforms to include sniper detection, vehicle tracking, personnel detection, and general acoustic monitoring. The key to enabling these capabilities is biomimetic acoustic processing using a time domain processing method based on the neural structures of the mammalian auditory system. These biologically inspired algorithms replicate the extremely adaptive processing of the auditory system yielding high sensitivity over broad dynamic range. The algorithms provide tremendous robustness in noisy and echoic spaces; properties necessary for autonomous function in real world acoustic environments. These biomimetic acoustic algorithms also provide highly accurate localization of both persistent and transient sounds over a wide frequency range, using baselines on the order of only inches. A specialized smart sensor has been developed to interface with an iRobot Packbot® platform specifically to enhance its autonomous behaviors in response to personnel and gunfire. The low power, highly parallel biomimetic processor, in conjunction with a biomimetic vestibular system (discussed in the companion paper), has shown the system's autonomous response to gunfire in complicated acoustic environments to be highly effective.

  10. Growth and potential yield of perch (Perca spp.) in selected areas of Lake Baikal and the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Bronte, Charles R.; Hatcher, Charles O.; Pronin, Nikolai M.; Sokolnikov, Yury

    1998-01-01

    We compared growth, mortality, and potential yield of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Chivirkui Bay in Lake Baikal with that of yellow perch (P. flavescens) from three areas of the Laurentian Great Lakes --Chequamegon Bay in Lake Superior, northeastern Lake Ontario, and southwestern Lake Erie. Graded mesh gill nets were fished in August to sample perch in lakes Baikal (1993), Ontario (1985-93), and Erie (1994). Bottom trawls were fished in July-August to sample perch in Lake Superior (1973-93). Adult yellow perch from the Laurentian Great Lakes were heavier at most lengths than adult Eurasian perch from Lake Baikal. The increase in body weight per unit increase in length was greatest in Lake Erie. Total annual mortality of perch was low in Lake Baikal (0.31), intermediate in lakes Superior (0.41) and Ontario (0.54), and high in Lake Erie (0.66). Annual fishing mortality (u) for perch in Lake Baikal was 60%-70% lower than that for perch in the Great Lakes. At ages 1-3, perch in Lake Erie were longer than those in lakes Baikal, Superior, and Ontario but at ages 4-9 perch in Lake Baikal were longer than those in the other lakes. Although Eurasian perch in Lake Baikal were longer at age 4 and older, growth in length, as measured by the Brody growth coefficient, K, was lower there than in the other lakes and was similar to that in Lake Superior; yellow perch in Lake Erie grew the fastest. Yield-per-recruit was lowest in Lake Erie and highest in Lake Superior. Potential yield was influenced by growth rates and fishing mortality.

  11. Descriptive, cross-country analysis of the nurse practitioner workforce in six countries: size, growth, physician substitution potential

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Claudia B; Barnes, Hilary; Aiken, Linda H; Busse, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Many countries are facing provider shortages and imbalances in primary care or are projecting shortfalls for the future, triggered by the rise in chronic diseases and multimorbidity. In order to assess the potential of nurse practitioners (NPs) in expanding access, we analysed the size, annual growth (2005–2015) and the extent of advanced practice of NPs in 6 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Design Cross-country data analysis of national nursing registries, regulatory bodies, statistical offices data as well as OECD health workforce and population data, plus literature scoping review. Setting/participants NP and physician workforces in 6 OECD countries (Australia, Canada, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand and USA). Primary and secondary outcome measures The main outcomes were the absolute and relative number of NPs per 100 000 population compared with the nursing and physician workforces, the compound annual growth rates, annual and median percentage changes from 2005 to 2015 and a synthesis of the literature on the extent of advanced clinical practice measured by physician substitution effect. Results The USA showed the highest absolute number of NPs and rate per population (40.5 per 100 000 population), followed by the Netherlands (12.6), Canada (9.8), Australia (4.4), and Ireland and New Zealand (3.1, respectively). Annual growth rates were high in all countries, ranging from annual compound rates of 6.1% in the USA to 27.8% in the Netherlands. Growth rates were between three and nine times higher compared with physicians. Finally, the empirical studies emanating from the literature scoping review suggested that NPs are able to provide 67–93% of all primary care services, yet, based on limited evidence. Conclusions NPs are a rapidly growing workforce with high levels of advanced practice potential in primary care. Workforce monitoring based on accurate data is critical to inform educational capacity

  12. Isolation and Screening of Bacteria for Their Diazotrophic Potential and Their Influence on Growth Promotion of Maize Seedlings in Greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Kifle, Medhin H; Laing, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Poor soil fertility is one of the major constraints for crop production. Nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient for increasing crop productivity. Therefore, there is a need to identify diazotrophic inoculants as an alternative or supplement to N-fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. In the current study, a number of free-living diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from soils collected from maize rhizosphere and from leaves and roots of maize within the KwaZulu-Natal Province, Republic of South Africa. Ninety-two isolates were selected for further screening because they were able to grow on N-free media containing different carbon sources. Isolates that were very slow to grow on N-free media were discarded. The isolates were screened in vitro for diazotrophic potential tests for ammonia production and acetylene reduction. Ethylene (C2H4) production was quantified and ranged from 4 to 73 nmoles of C2H4h(-1) culture(-1). The top 20 isolates were re-screened on maize seedlings, and eight isolates significantly (P = 0.001) enhanced some growth parameters of maize above the un-inoculated control. Isolates that showed significant effect on at least two growth parameters were identified at species or genera level. In conclusion, selected diazotrophic isolates may be potentially beneficial but they should be tested more in greenhouse and field conditions with maize to confirm their potential for application as biofertilizers. PMID:26779245

  13. Isolation and Screening of Bacteria for Their Diazotrophic Potential and Their Influence on Growth Promotion of Maize Seedlings in Greenhouses

    PubMed Central

    Kifle, Medhin H.; Laing, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Poor soil fertility is one of the major constraints for crop production. Nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient for increasing crop productivity. Therefore, there is a need to identify diazotrophic inoculants as an alternative or supplement to N-fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. In the current study, a number of free-living diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from soils collected from maize rhizosphere and from leaves and roots of maize within the KwaZulu-Natal Province, Republic of South Africa. Ninety-two isolates were selected for further screening because they were able to grow on N-free media containing different carbon sources. Isolates that were very slow to grow on N-free media were discarded. The isolates were screened in vitro for diazotrophic potential tests for ammonia production and acetylene reduction. Ethylene (C2H4) production was quantified and ranged from 4 to 73 nmoles of C2H4h−1 culture−1. The top 20 isolates were re-screened on maize seedlings, and eight isolates significantly (P = 0.001) enhanced some growth parameters of maize above the un-inoculated control. Isolates that showed significant effect on at least two growth parameters were identified at species or genera level. In conclusion, selected diazotrophic isolates may be potentially beneficial but they should be tested more in greenhouse and field conditions with maize to confirm their potential for application as biofertilizers. PMID:26779245

  14. Epidermal growth factor suppresses insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 levels in human papillomavirus type 16-immortalized cervical epithelial cells and thereby potentiates the effects of insulin-like growth factor 1.

    PubMed

    Hembree, J R; Agarwal, C; Eckert, R L

    1994-06-15

    ) stimulating growth indirectly by reducing the levels of inhibitory IGFBPs and thereby potentiating the effects of IGF-I. In addition, the observation that more highly transformed cell types produce lower levels of IGFBP-3 and higher levels of 24-kDa IGFBP suggests that tumor cells in more advanced cervical cancers may have an altered response to IGF-I.

  15. Insulin-like growth factors and their potential role in cardiac epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Iosef Husted, Cristiana; Valencik, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) constitutes a major public health threat worldwide, accounting for 17.3 million deaths annually. Heart disease and stroke account for the majority of healthcare costs in the developed world. While much has been accomplished in understanding the pathophysiology, molecular biology and genetics underlying the diagnosis and treatment of CVD, we know less about the role of epigenetics and their molecular determinants. The impact of environmental changes and epigenetics in CVD is now emerging as critically important in understanding the origin of disease and the development of new therapeutic approaches to prevention and treatment. This review focuses on the emerging role of epigenetics mediated by insulin like-growth factors-I and -II in major CVDs such as heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy and diabetes. PMID:27061217

  16. The potential role of nerve growth factor in cryoneurolysis-induced neuropathic pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hui; Feng, Yi; Gao, Zhifeng; Yang, Ba-Xian

    2012-10-01

    Cryoanalgesia is suggested as a risk factor of neuropathic pain. The current study investigated the pain behavior of sciatic nerve cryoneurolysis (SCN) in adult male rats. The role of nerve growth factor (NGF) was also studied. The mechanical threshold was significantly elevated in SCN group than sham-operation group within 14days after surgery. After 28days, 22 out of 39 SCN rats (56.4%) represented mechanical hyperalgesia. There were much more NGF-immunoreactive nerve cells expressed in the dorsal horn in SCN rats with hyperalgesia. The NGF protein levels of SCN rats measured by Western blot were higher than sham-operation rats, while they were significantly higher in SCN rats with hyperalgesia than those without hyperalgesia. Pain-related behavior improved after anti-NGF treatment, compared with vehicle control group. NGF is associated with SCN-induced neuropathic pain. Peripherally secreted NGF may play an important role in this mechanism. PMID:22580175

  17. Essential role of tissue-specific proline synthesis and catabolism in growth and redox balance at low water potential.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Villamor, Joji Grace; Verslues, Paul E

    2011-09-01

    To better define the still unclear role of proline (Pro) metabolism in drought resistance, we analyzed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase1 (p5cs1) mutants deficient in stress-induced Pro synthesis as well as proline dehydrogenase (pdh1) mutants blocked in Pro catabolism and found that both Pro synthesis and catabolism were required for optimal growth at low water potential (ψ(w)). The abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant aba2-1 had similar reduction in root elongation as p5cs1 and p5cs1/aba2-1 double mutants. However, the reduced growth of aba2-1 but not p5cs1/aba2-1 could be complemented by exogenous ABA, indicating that Pro metabolism was required for ABA-mediated growth protection at low ψ(w). PDH1 maintained high expression in the root apex and shoot meristem at low ψ(w) rather than being repressed, as in the bulk of the shoot tissue. This, plus a reduced oxygen consumption and buildup of Pro in the root apex of pdh1-2, indicated that active Pro catabolism was needed to sustain growth at low ψ(w). Conversely, P5CS1 expression was most highly induced in shoot tissue. Both p5cs1-4 and pdh1-2 had a more reduced NADP/NADPH ratio than the wild type at low ψ(w). These results indicate a new model of Pro metabolism at low ψ(w) whereby Pro synthesis in the photosynthetic tissue regenerates NADP while Pro catabolism in meristematic and expanding cells is needed to sustain growth. Tissue-specific differences in Pro metabolism and function in maintaining a favorable NADP/NADPH ratio are relevant to understanding metabolic adaptations to drought and efforts to enhance drought resistance.

  18. Autonomous In-Situ Resources Prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dissly, R. W.; Buehler, M. G.; Schaap, M. G.; Nicks, D.; Taylor, G. J.; Castano, R.; Suarez, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will describe the concept of an autonomous, intelligent, rover-based rapid surveying system to identify and map several key lunar resources to optimize their ISRU (In Situ Resource Utilization) extraction potential. Prior to an extraction phase for any target resource, ground-based surveys are needed to provide confirmation of remote observation, to quantify and map their 3-D distribution, and to locate optimal extraction sites (e.g. ore bodies) with precision to maximize their economic benefit. The system will search for and quantify optimal minerals for oxygen production feedstock, water ice, and high glass-content regolith that can be used for building materials. These are targeted because of their utility and because they are, or are likely to be, variable in quantity over spatial scales accessible to a rover (i.e., few km). Oxygen has benefits for life support systems and as an oxidizer for propellants. Water is a key resource for sustainable exploration, with utility for life support, propellants, and other industrial processes. High glass-content regolith has utility as a feedstock for building materials as it readily sinters upon heating into a cohesive matrix more readily than other regolith materials or crystalline basalts. Lunar glasses are also a potential feedstock for oxygen production, as many are rich in iron and titanium oxides that are optimal for oxygen extraction. To accomplish this task, a system of sensors and decision-making algorithms for an autonomous prospecting rover is described. One set of sensors will be located in the wheel tread of the robotic search vehicle providing contact sensor data on regolith composition. Another set of instruments will be housed on the platform of the rover, including VIS-NIR imagers and spectrometers, both for far-field context and near-field characterization of the regolith in the immediate vicinity of the rover. Also included in the sensor suite are a neutron spectrometer, ground

  19. Metabolic mechanisms of plant growth at low water potentials: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    As proposed, we investigated the effects of low water potentials on cell enlargement and photosynthesis. We described a new instrument (a guillotine psychometer) and method for investigating the control of cell enlargement in plants. The method allows all the factors affecting cell enlargement to be evaluated in a single plant sample growing at a steady rate. All the measurements were conducted while the plants were completely intact with the exception of the yield threshold turgor. This parameter was measured within 5-10 min after excision of the enlarging tissue. Because the time is short, the data probably represented the condition in the intact plant just prior to excision. We investigated the effect of leaf magnesium on the photosynthetic response to low water potential because biochemical work from our laboratory indicated that magnesium concentrations slightly above those normally occurring in the chloroplast stroma resulted in an inhibition of photophosphorylation. The inhibition of photophosphorylation by Mg/sup 2 +/ was similar to that caused by low water potential is that the ATPase activity of coupling factor (the terminal enzyme for phosphorylation in chloroplasts) was inhibited, the conformation of the purified coupling factor protein was altered, and the changes persisted in vitro. 21 refs.

  20. Potential anthelmintic: D-psicose inhibits motility, growth and reproductive maturity of L1 larvae of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masashi; Kurose, Hiroyuki; Yamasaki, Toru; Izumori, Ken

    2008-04-01

    No anthelmintic sugars have yet been identified. Eight ketohexose stereoisomers (D- and L-forms of psicose, fructose, tagatose and sorbose), along with D-galactose and D-glucose, were examined for potency against L1 stage Caenorhabditis elegans fed Escherichia coli. Of the sugars, D-psicose specifically inhibited the motility, growth and reproductive maturity of the L1 stage. D-Psicose probably interferes with the nematode nutrition. The present results suggest that D-psicose, one of the rare sugars, is a potential anthelmintic.

  1. Imbalance of the nerve growth factor and its precursor as a potential biomarker for diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Mysona, B A; Matragoon, S; Stephens, M; Mohamed, I N; Farooq, A; Bartasis, M L; Fouda, A Y; Shanab, A Y; Espinosa-Heidmann, D G; El-Remessy, A B

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that diabetes-induced oxidative stress alters homeostasis of retinal nerve growth factor (NGF) resulting in accumulation of its precursor, proNGF, at the expense of NGF which plays a critical role in preserving neuronal and retinal function. This imbalance coincided with retinal damage in experimental diabetes. Here we test the hypothesis that alteration of proNGF and NGF levels observed in retina and vitreous will be mirrored in serum of diabetic patients. Blood and vitreous samples were collected from patients (diabetic and nondiabetic) undergoing vitrectomy at Georgia Regents University under approved IRB. Levels of proNGF, NGF, and p75(NTR) shedding were detected using Western blot analysis. MMP-7 activity was also assayed. Diabetes-induced proNGF expression and impaired NGF expression were observed in vitreous and serum. Vitreous and sera from diabetic patients (n = 11) showed significant 40.8-fold and 3.6-fold increases, respectively, compared to nondiabetics (n = 9). In contrast, vitreous and sera from diabetic patients showed significant 44% and 64% reductions in NGF levels, respectively, compared to nondiabetics. ProNGF to NGF ratios showed significant correlation between vitreous and serum. Further characterization of diabetes-induced imbalance in the proNGF to NGF ratio will facilitate its utility as an early biomarker for diabetic complications. PMID:25853140

  2. Synergistic growth of Bacillus and Pseudomonas and its degradation potential on pretreated polypropylene.

    PubMed

    Aravinthan, Adithan; Arkatkar, Ambika; Juwarkar, Asha A; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated biodegradation of physically pretreated polypropylene (PP) by using two different combinations of microorganisms, namely, Bacillus flexus + Pseudomonas azotoformans(B1) and B. flexus + B. subtilis(B2), for a period of 12 months. The growth rate of (B1) was found to be high throughout the study period, and reached a maximum of 1 × 10(14) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. At the end of the experiment, the polymers become hydrophilic. Carbonyl indices showed that ultraviolet (UV)-treated polymers started degrading faster than the thermally treated PP. The thermogravimetric analysis also revealed that UV-treated PP exposed to the B. flexus + P. azotoformans combination for 1 year exhibited maximum degradation (22.7%). The gravimetric weight loss method showed 1.95% weight loss followed by 1.45% with B. flexus + B. subtilis. The changes in the carbonyl indices of the polymer through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis also support the degradation.

  3. GM trees with increased resistance to herbivores: trait efficiency and their potential to promote tree growth

    PubMed Central

    Hjältén, Joakim; Axelsson, E. Petter

    2015-01-01

    Climate change, as well as a more intensive forestry, is expected to increase the risk of damage by pests and pathogens on trees, which can already be a severe problem in tree plantations. Recent development of biotechnology theoretically allows for resistance enhancement that could help reduce these risks but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of benefits and tradeoffs with pest resistant GM (genetically modified) trees. We synthesized the current knowledge on the effectiveness of GM forest trees with increased resistance to herbivores. There is ample evidence that induction of exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis genes reduce performance of target pests whereas upregulation of endogenous resistance traits e.g., phenolics, generates variable results. Our review identified very few studies estimating the realized benefits in tree growth of GM trees in the field. This is concerning as the realized benefit with insect resistant GM plants seems to be context-dependent and likely manifested only if herbivore pressure is sufficiently high. Future studies of secondary pest species and resistance evolution in pest to GM trees should be prioritized. But most importantly we need more long-term field tests to evaluate the benefits and risks with pest resistant GM trees. PMID:25983736

  4. Nerve Growth Factor-Immobilized Electrically Conducting Fibrous Scaffolds for Potential Use in Neural Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Y.; Bashur, Chris A.; Milroy, Craig A.; Forciniti, Leandro; Goldstein, Aaron S.

    2015-01-01

    Engineered scaffolds simultaneously exhibiting multiple cues are highly desirable for neural tissue regeneration. To this end, we developed a neural tissue engineering scaffold that displays submicrometer-scale features, electrical conductivity, and neurotrophic activity. Specifically, electrospun poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofibers were layered with a nanometer thick coating of electrically conducting polypyrrole (PPy) presenting carboxylic groups. Then, nerve growth factor (NGF) was chemically immobilized onto the surface of the fibers. These NGF-immobilized PPy-coated PLGA (NGF-PPyPLGA) fibers supported PC12 neurite formation (28.0±3.0% of the cells) and neurite outgrowth (14.2 µm median length), which were comparable to that observed with NGF (50 ng/mL) in culture medium (29.0±1.3%, 14.4 µm). Electrical stimulation of PC12 cells on NGF-immobilized PPyPLGA fiber scaffolds was found to further improve neurite development and neurite length by 18% and 17%, respectively, compared to unstimulated cells on the NGF-immobilized fibers. Hence, submicrometer-scale fibrous scaffolds that incorporate neurotrophic and electroconducting activities may serve as promising neural tissue engineering scaffolds such as nerve guidance conduits. PMID:21712166

  5. Dialkoxyquinazolines: Screening Epidermal Growth Factor ReceptorTyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Potential Tumor Imaging Probes

    SciTech Connect

    VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Lim, John K.; Coffing, Stephanie L.; Hom,Darren L.; Negash, Kitaw; Ono, Michele Y.; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Taylor,Scott E.; Vanderpoel, Jennifer L.; Slavik, Sarah M.; Morris, Andrew B.; Riese II, David J.

    2005-09-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a long-standingdrug development target, is also a desirable target for imaging. Sixteendialkoxyquinazoline analogs, suitable for labeling with positron-emittingisotopes, have been synthesized and evaluated in a battery of in vitroassays to ascertain their chemical and biological properties. Thesecharacteristics provided the basis for the adoption of a selection schemato identify lead molecules for labeling and in vivo evaluation. A newEGFR tyrosine kinase radiometric binding assay revealed that all of thecompounds possessed suitable affinity (IC50 = 0.4 - 51 nM) for the EGFRtyrosine kinase. All of the analogs inhibited ligand-induced EGFRtyrosine phosphorylation (IC50 = 0.8 - 20 nM). The HPLC-estimatedoctanol/water partition coefficients ranged from 2.0-5.5. Four compounds,4-(2'-fluoroanilino)- and 4-(3'-fluoroanilino)-6,7-diethoxyquinazoline aswell as 4-(3'-chloroanilino)- and4-(3'-bromoanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, possess the bestcombination of characteristics that warrant radioisotope labeling andfurther evaluation in tumor-bearing mice.

  6. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  7. The Importance of Autonomous Regulation for Students' Successful Translation of Intentions into Behavior Change via Planning

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dian Sheng; Lippke, Sonia; Liu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity has a high prevention potential in adolescents. This study investigated the relations between physical activity and intention, autonomous regulation, and planning. We hypothesized that planning mediates the relationship between intention and behavior and that this mediation should depend on the level of autonomous regulation. Stratified randomization sampling method was administered to assemble a sample of N = 534 students among two schools in China. To test the hypothesis, autonomous regulation, intention, and physical activity were assessed at baseline as well as planning and follow-up physical activity four weeks after the pretest. A moderated mediation model confirmed that planning mediated the intention-behavior relation with the effect of planning being moderated by autonomous regulation. Study results demonstrated that autonomous regulation facilitated the translation of intention into behavior change via planning. To promote physical activity among adolescents, interventions targeting planning and autonomous regulation might facilitate successful translation of intentions into behavior change. PMID:21991441

  8. Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) as a potential autologous growth factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Sheng; Chu, Jia-Hui; Cui, Shu-Xiang; Song, Zhi-Yu; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) is a prothrombin precursor produced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Because of deficiency of vitamin K or γ-glutamyl carboxylase in HCC cells, the 10 glutamic acid (Glu) residues in prothrombin precursor did not completely carboxylate to γ-carboxylated glutamic acid (Gla) residues, leaving some Glu residues remained in N-terminal domain. These prothrombin precursors with Glu residues are called DCPs. DCP displays insufficient coagulation activity. Since Liebman reported an elevated plasma DCP in patients with HCC, DCP has been used in the diagnosis of HCC. Recently, its biological malignant potential has been specified to describe DCP as an autologous growth factor to stimulate HCC growth and a paracrine factor to integrate HCC with vascular endothelial cells. DCP was found to stimulate HCC growth through activation of the DCP-Met-JAK1-STAT3 signaling pathway. DCP might increase HCC invasion and metastasis through activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. DCP has also been found to play a crucial role in the formation of angiogenesis. DCP could increase the angiogenic factors released from HCC and vascular endothelial cells. These effects of DCP in angiogenesis might be related to activation of the DCP-KDR-PLC-γ-MAPK signaling pathway. In this article, we summarized recent studies on DCP in biological roles related to cancer progression and angiogenesis in HCC.

  9. Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) as a potential autologous growth factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Sheng; Chu, Jia-Hui; Cui, Shu-Xiang; Song, Zhi-Yu; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) is a prothrombin precursor produced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Because of deficiency of vitamin K or γ-glutamyl carboxylase in HCC cells, the 10 glutamic acid (Glu) residues in prothrombin precursor did not completely carboxylate to γ-carboxylated glutamic acid (Gla) residues, leaving some Glu residues remained in N-terminal domain. These prothrombin precursors with Glu residues are called DCPs. DCP displays insufficient coagulation activity. Since Liebman reported an elevated plasma DCP in patients with HCC, DCP has been used in the diagnosis of HCC. Recently, its biological malignant potential has been specified to describe DCP as an autologous growth factor to stimulate HCC growth and a paracrine factor to integrate HCC with vascular endothelial cells. DCP was found to stimulate HCC growth through activation of the DCP-Met-JAK1-STAT3 signaling pathway. DCP might increase HCC invasion and metastasis through activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. DCP has also been found to play a crucial role in the formation of angiogenesis. DCP could increase the angiogenic factors released from HCC and vascular endothelial cells. These effects of DCP in angiogenesis might be related to activation of the DCP-KDR-PLC-γ-MAPK signaling pathway. In this article, we summarized recent studies on DCP in biological roles related to cancer progression and angiogenesis in HCC. PMID:25200250

  10. Loss of Tumor Necrosis Factor α Potentiates Transforming Growth Factor β-mediated Pathogenic Tissue Response during Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Saika, Shizuya; Ikeda, Kazuo; Yamanaka, Osamu; Flanders, Kathleen C.; Okada, Yuka; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Kitano, Ai; Ooshima, Akira; Nakajima, Yuji; Ohnishi, Yoshitaka; Kao, Winston W.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    Animal cornea is an avascular transparent tissue that is suitable for research on wound healing-related scarring and neovascularization. Here we show that loss of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) potentiates the undesirable, pathogenic response of wound healing in an alkali-burned cornea in mice. Excessive invasion of macrophages and subsequent formation of a vascularized scar tissue were much more marked in TNFα-null knockout (KO) mice than in wild-type mice. Such an unfavorable outcome in KO mice was abolished by Smad7 gene introduction, indicating the involvement of transforming growth factor β or activin/Smad signaling. Bone marrow transplantation from wild-type mice normalized healing of the KO mice, suggesting the involvement of bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells in this phenomenon. Co-culture experiments showed that loss of TNFα in macrophages, but not in fibroblasts, augmented the fibroblast activation as determined by detection of α-smooth muscle actin, the hallmark of myofibroblast generation, mRNA expression of collagen Iα2 and connective tissue growth factor, and detection of collagen protein. TNFα in macrophages may be required to suppress undesirable excessive inflammation and scarring, both of which are promoted by transforming growth factor β, and for restoration of tissue architecture in a healing alkali-burned cornea in mice. PMID:16723700

  11. Autonomous unmanned air vehicles (UAV) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ming-Kai; Lee, Ting N.

    2007-04-01

    The UAVs (Unmanned Air Vehicles) have great potentials in different civilian applications, such as oil pipeline surveillance, precision farming, forest fire fighting (yearly), search and rescue, boarder patrol, etc. The related industries of UAVs can create billions of dollars for each year. However, the road block of adopting UAVs is that it is against FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and ATC (Air Traffic Control) regulations. In this paper, we have reviewed the latest technologies and researches on UAV navigation and obstacle avoidance. We have purposed a system design of Jittering Mosaic Image Processing (JMIP) with stereo vision and optical flow to fulfill the functionalities of autonomous UAVs.

  12. Effects of vatalanib on tumor growth can be potentiated by mTOR blockade in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jaeger-Lansky, Agnes; Cejka, Daniel; Ying, Liu; Preusser, Matthias; Hoeflmayer, Doris; Fuereder, Thorsten; Koehrer, Stefan; Wacheck, Volker

    2010-06-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a central mediator of tumor-induced angiogenesis. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, decreases VEGF-secretion of cancer cells. Vatalanib is a selective inhibitor of VEGF receptors 1-3. In the present study it was hypothesized that dual inhibition of VEGF signaling by inhibition of VEGF production and VEGF receptor signaling leads to synergistic anti-tumor effects. In vitro, effects of vatalanib and everolimus on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and signal transduction were examined in three gastric cancer cell lines. Effects on angiogenesis were assessed using tube formation assays of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In vivo, the antitumor effect of compounds was studied using a gastric cancer xenograft nude mouse model. VEGF of murine origin (mVEGF) and human cancer cell-derived VEGF (hVEGF) were studied separately by specific ELISAs. Tumor vascularization and proliferation were quantified by immunohistochemistry. In vitro, everolimus but not vatalanib decreased gastric cancer proliferation without inducing apoptosis. Vatalanib abolished endothelial cell tube formation, whereas inhibition of tube formation by everolimus was incomplete. In vivo, the combination of vatalanib with everolimus was superior to single agent treatments and reduced tumor size by about 50% relative to everolimus monotherapy (p < 0.005). Pharmacodynamic analysis of VEGF plasma level showed a decrease of hVEGF by everolimus and indicated a trend towards lower mVEGF level only in the combination group. In line, there was a tendency for lower vascular density and proliferation for combination treatment. We conclude that in a preclinical model of gastric cancer the antitumor activity of vatalanib can be augmented by everolimus. PMID:20404549

  13. Palmatine inhibits growth and invasion in prostate cancer cell: Potential role for rpS6/NFκB/FLIP.

    PubMed

    Hambright, Heather G; Batth, Izhar Singh; Xie, Jianping; Ghosh, Rita; Kumar, Addanki Pratap

    2015-10-01

    Novel agents are desperately needed for improving the quality of life and 5-year survival to more than 30% for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Previously we showed that Nexrutine, Phellodendron amurense bark extract, inhibits prostate tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently using biochemical fractionation we identified butanol fraction contributes to the observed biological activities. We report here that palmatine, which is present in the butanol fraction, selectively inhibits growth of prostate cancer cells without significant effect on non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. By screening receptor tyrosine kinases in a protein kinase array, we identified ribosomal protein S6, a downstream target of p70S6K and the Akt/mTOR signaling cascade as a potential target. We further show that palmatine treatment is associated with decreased activation of NFκB and its downstream target gene FLIP. These events led to inhibition of invasion. Similar results were obtained using parent extract Nexrutine (Nx) suggesting that palmatine either in the purified form or as one of the components in Nx is a potent cytotoxic agent with tumor invasion inhibitory properties. Synergistic inhibition of rpS6/NFκB/FLIP axis with palmatine may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of prostate cancer and possibly other malignancies with their constitutive activation. These data support a biological link between rpS6/NFκB/FLIP in mediating palmatine-induced inhibitory effects and warrants additional preclinical studies to test its therapeutic efficacy.

  14. CSBF/C10orf99, a novel potential cytokine, inhibits colon cancer cell growth through inducing G1 arrest.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen; Cheng, Yingying; Zhang, Heyu; Liu, Baocai; Mo, Xiaoning; Li, Ting; Li, Lin; Cheng, Xiaojing; Zhang, Lianhai; Ji, Jiafu; Wang, Pingzhang; Han, Wenling

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are soluble proteins that exert their functions by binding specific receptors. Many cytokines play essential roles in carcinogenesis and have been developed for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we identified a novel potential cytokine using immunogenomics designated colon-derived SUSD2 binding factor (CSBF), also known as chromosome 10 open reading frame 99 (C10orf99). CSBF/C10orf99 is a classical secreted protein with predicted molecular mass of 6.5 kDa, and a functional ligand of Sushi Domain Containing 2 (SUSD2). CSBF/C10orf99 has the highest expression level in colon tissue. Both CSBF/C10orf99 and SUSD2 are down-regulated in colon cancer tissues and cell lines with different regulation mechanisms. CSBF/C10orf99 interacts with SUSD2 to inhibit colon cancer cell growth and induce G1 cell cycle arrest by down-regulating cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6). CSBF/C10orf99 displays a bell-shaped activity curve with the optimal effect at ~10 ng/ml. Its growth inhibitory effects can be blocked by sSUSD2-Fc soluble protein. Our results suggest that CSBF/C10orf99 is a novel potential cytokine with tumor suppressor functions. PMID:25351403

  15. Identifying potential sources of Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits over its growth period.

    PubMed

    Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Li, Fengfei; Han, Wenjie

    2015-04-15

    Sudan dyes in spices are often assumed to arise from cross-contamination or malicious addition. Here, experiments were carried out to identify the potential source of Sudan I-IV in Capsicum fruits through investigation of their contents in native Capsicum tissues, soils and associated agronomic materials. Sudan II-IV was not detected in any of the tested samples. Sudan I was found in almost all samples except for the mulching film. Sudan I concentrations decreased from stems to leaves and then to fruits or roots. Sudan I levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatment. These results exclude the possibility of soil as the main source for Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits. Further study found out pesticide and fertilizer constitutes the major source of Sudan I contamination. This work represents a preliminary step for a detailed Sudan I assessment to support Capsicum management and protection in the studied region.

  16. Autonomic nerve preserving total mesorectal excision.

    PubMed

    Havenga, Klaas; Enker, Warren E

    2002-10-01

    the problem reside in autonomic nerve-preservation. Attention to all of the potential causes of impotence and of urinary dysfunction will require continued longitudinal research by clinical investigators from multiple disciplines.

  17. Vestibular influences on autonomic cardiovascular control in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaggioni, I.; Costa, F.; Kaufmann, H.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that anatomical connections exist between vestibular and autonomic nuclei. Animal studies have shown functional interactions between the vestibular and autonomic systems. The nature of these interactions, however, is complex and has not been fully defined. Vestibular stimulation has been consistently found to reduce blood pressure in animals. Given the potential interaction between vestibular and autonomic pathways this finding could be explained by a reduction in sympathetic activity. However, rather than sympathetic inhibition, vestibular stimulation has consistently been shown to increase sympathetic outflow in cardiac and splanchnic vascular beds in most experimental models. Several clinical observations suggest that a link between vestibular and autonomic systems may also exist in humans. However, direct evidence for vestibular/autonomic interactions in humans is sparse. Motion sickness has been found to induce forearm vasodilation and reduce baroreflex gain, and head down neck flexion induces transient forearm and calf vasoconstriction. On the other hand, studies using optokinetic stimulation have found either very small, variable, or inconsistent changes in heart rate and blood pressure, despite substantial symptoms of motion sickness. Furthermore, caloric stimulation severe enough to produce nystagmus, dizziness, and nausea had no effect on sympathetic nerve activity measured directly with microneurography. No effect was observed on heart rate, blood pressure, or plasma norepinephrine. Several factors may explain the apparent discordance of these results, but more research is needed before we can define the potential importance of vestibular input to cardiovascular regulation and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  18. PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, James T; Bengel, Frank M

    2016-12-01

    The autonomic nervous system is the primary extrinsic control of heart rate and contractility, and is subject to adaptive and maladaptive changes in cardiovascular disease. Consequently, noninvasive assessment of neuronal activity and function is an attractive target for molecular imaging. A myriad of targeted radiotracers have been developed over the last 25 years for imaging various components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic signal cascades. While routine clinical use remains somewhat limited, a number of larger scale studies in recent years have supplied momentum to molecular imaging of autonomic signaling. Specifically, the findings of the ADMIRE HF trial directly led to United States Food and Drug Administration approval of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) assessment of sympathetic neuronal innervation, and comparable results have been reported using the analogous PET agent 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED). Due to the inherent capacity for dynamic quantification and higher spatial resolution, regional analysis may be better served by PET. In addition, preliminary clinical and extensive preclinical experience has provided a broad foundation of cardiovascular applications for PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system. Recent years have witnessed the growth of novel quantification techniques, expansion of multiple tracer studies, and improved understanding of the uptake of different radiotracers, such that the transitional biology of dysfunctional subcellular catecholamine handling can be distinguished from complete denervation. As a result, sympathetic neuronal molecular imaging is poised to play a role in individualized patient care, by stratifying cardiovascular risk, visualizing underlying biology, and guiding and monitoring therapy. PMID:27611712

  19. Hyperpolarization of the Membrane Potential Caused by Somatostatin in Dissociated Human Pituitary Adenoma Cells that Secrete Growth Hormone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Naohide; Shibuya, Naohiko; Ogata, Etsuro

    1986-08-01

    Membrane electrical properties and the response to somatostatin were examined in dissociated human pituitary adenoma cells that secrete growth hormone (GH). Under current clamp condition with a patch electrode, the resting potential was -52.4 ± 8.0 mV, and spontaneous action potentials were observed in 58% of the cells. Under voltage clamp condition an outward K+ current, a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ current, and a Ca2+ current were observed. Cobalt ions suppressed the Ca2+ current. The threshold of Ca2+ current activation was about -60 mV. Somatostatin elicited a membrane hyperpolarization associated with increased membrane permeability in these cells. The reversal potential of somatostatin-induced hyperpolarization was -78.4 ± 4.3 mV in 6 mM K+ medium and -97.2 ± 6.4 mV in 3 mM K+ medium. These reversal potential values and a shift with the external K+ concentration indicated that membrane hyperpolarization was caused by increased permeability to K+. The hyperpolarized membrane potential induced by somatostatin was -63.6 ± 5.9 mV in the standard medium. This level was subthreshold for Ca2+ and Na+ currents and was sufficient to inhibit spontaneous action potentials. Hormone secretion was significantly suppressed by somatostatin and cobalt ions. Therefore, we suggest that Ca2+ entering the cell through voltage-dependent channels are playing an important role for GH secretion and that somatostatin suppresses GH secretion by blocking Ca2+ currents. Finally, we discuss other possibilities for the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on GH secretion.

  20. Effects of sire growth potential, growing-finishing strategy, and time on feed on performance, composition, and efficiency of steers.

    PubMed

    Short, R E; Grings, E E; MacNeil, M D; Heitschmidt, R K; Williams, C B; Bennett, G L

    1999-09-01

    Beef production systems that increase use of unharvested forages and use animals with greater potential for gain affect age and size of animals placed on a finishing regimen. This experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of genetic potential for gain, age at the start of a finishing period, and time on feed on composition, quantity, and quality of beef produced and efficiency of production during finishing. Crossbred cows were bred by AI to Charolais or Line 1 Hereford bulls that represented potentially high (HG) or moderate growth (MG) rates, respectively, to produce spring- or fall-born calves. Steer calves from these matings were placed on an individually fed finishing diet at three ages (A). Spring-born steers were started at 6 or 18 mo of age (A6 and A18), and fall-born steers were started at 12 mo of age (A12). Slaughter times (T) were at 0, 90, 180, and 270 d for A6; 68, 136, and 204 d for A12; and 0, 45, 90, and 135 d for A18. Data collected on each animal included feed intake, growth, chemical composition of the complete body and carcass, and quantitative and qualitative assessment of the meat produced. Four steers of each sire group were slaughtered in each of the 11 A-T treatment groups, and the experiment was repeated for 2 yr in the A12 groups and 3 yr in the A6 and A18 groups (n = 237). Steers sired by HG bulls were larger and produced larger carcasses and more carcass protein than MG-sired steers (S, P < .05 or .01). Steers sired by MG bulls were fatter, had higher quality grades, and accumulated fat at a faster rate than HG-sired steers, and this effect was greater in older steers (G and GA, P < .05 or .01). Sire growth potential did not affect gain, intake, live weight efficiency, tenderness, or taste panel scores (P > .2). Steers sired by HG bulls were more efficient at producing carcass weight and carcass protein at A12 and A18 than were MG-sired steers. At the end of the finishing period, older (A18), HG-sired steers were too large with

  1. Folate ameliorates dexamethasone-induced fetal and placental growth restriction potentially via improvement of trophoblast migration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linfang; Zhang, Ai; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Qian; Duan, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal dexamethasone (Dex) leads to small placental and fetal size and the alteration of fetal programming. Folate plays important roles in processes associated with successful pregnancy, including angiogenesis and trophoblast invasion. Placental folate transport is altered with prenatal Dex administration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective role of maternal folate administration in placentas exposed to Dex. In vitro, four groups of C57BL/6J pregnant mice were utilized: 1) normal drinking water+Saline injection group (NN); 2) normal drinking water+Dex injection group (ND); 3) drinking water with folate+Saline injection group (FN); and 4) drinking water with folate+Dex injection group (FD). In vivo, four treatment groups of the human extravillous trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells were classified: 1) control (NN); 2) Dex treatment (ND); 3) folate treatment (FN); and 4) folate and Dex treatment (FD). The results showed the maternal folate increases the placental size, birth weight, and expression of matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP9) in a mice model of Dex overexposure. In human extravillous trophoblast HTR8/SVneo, folate ameliorated the Dex-induced supress of cell migration and improved the expression/activity of MMP2 and MMP9. In conclusion, folate might be a potential therapy intervention to reduce the adverse effects of prenatal Dex exposure partially via improved trophoblast migration.

  2. Air Launch: Examining Performance Potential of Various Configurations and Growth Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a high-level analysis of various air launch vehicle configurations, objectively determining maximum launch vehicle payload while considering carrier aircraft capabilities and given dimensional constraints. With the renewed interest in aerial launch of low-earth orbit payloads, referenced by programs such as Stratolaunch and Spaceship2, there existed a need to qualify the boundaries of the trade space, identify performance envelopes, and understand advantages and limiting factors of designing for maximum payload capability. Using the NASA/DARPA Horizontal Launch Study (HLS) Point Design 2 (PD-2) as a point-of-departure configuration, two independent design actions were undertaken. Both configurations utilized a Boeing 747-400F as the carrier aircraft, LOX/RP-1 first stage and LOX/LH2 second stage. Each design was sized to meet dimensional and mass constraints while optimizing propellant loads and stage delta V (?V) splits. All concepts, when fully loaded, exceeded the allowable Gross Takeoff Weight (GTOW) of the aircraft platform. This excess mass was evaluated as propellant/fuel offload available for a potential in-flight refueling scenario. Results indicate many advantages such as large, relative payload delivery of approximately 47,000 lbm and significant mission flexibility, such as variable launch site inclination and launch window; however, in-flight cryogenic fluid transfer and carrier aircraft platform integration are substantial technical hurdles to the realization of such a system configuration.

  3. Air Launch: Examining Performance Potential of Various Configurations and Growth Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a high-level analysis of various air launch vehicle configurations, objectively determining maximum launch vehicle payload while considering carrier aircraft capabilities and given dimensional constraints. With the renewed interest in aerial launch of low-earth orbit payloads, referenced by programs such as Stratolaunch and Spaceship2, there exists a need to qualify the boundaries of the trade space, identify performance envelopes, and understand advantages and limiting factors of designing for maximum payload capability. Using the NASA/DARPA Horizontal Launch Study (HLS) Point Design 2 (PD-2) as a pointof- departure configuration, two independent design actions were undertaken. Both designs utilized a Boeing 747-400F as the carrier aircraft, LOX/RP-1 first stage and LOX/LH2 second stage. Each design was sized to meet dimensional and mass constraints while optimizing propellant loads and stage delta V splits. All concepts, when fully loaded, exceeded the allowable Gross Takeoff Weight (GTOW) of the aircraft platform. This excess mass was evaluated as propellant/fuel offload available for a potential in-flight propellant loading scenario. Results indicate many advantages such as payload delivery of approximately 47,000 lbm and significant mission flexibility including variable launch site inclination and launch window. However, in-flight cryogenic fluid transfer and carrier aircraft platform integration are substantial technical hurdles to the realization of such a system configuration.

  4. Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS): A Demonstration of Autonomic Principles at Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldassari, James D.; Kopec, Christopher L.; Leshay, Eric S.; Truszkowski, Walt; Finkel, David

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications, while simultaneously affording the ability to. increase that capability simply by adding more (inexpensive) processors. However, the task of manually managing and con.guring a cluster quickly becomes impossible as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing is a relatively new approach to managing complex systems that can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Automatic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management.

  5. An evaluation of the allelopathic potential of selected perennial groundcovers: foliar volatiles of catmint (Nepeta x faassenii) inhibit seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Eom, Seok Hyun; Yang, Hyun Seuk; Weston, Leslie A

    2006-08-01

    Six perennial groundcovers including Alchemilla mollis, Nepeta x faassenii, Phlox subulata, Sedum acre, Solidago cutleri, and Thymus praecox were investigated for the allelopathic potential of their respective foliar tissues via evaluation of volatile constituents produced by foliage. These groundcovers were selected for further laboratory evaluation because of superior performance as weed-suppressive groundcovers in previous field experiments. Foliar volatile components of N. x faassenii exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects on seedling growth of curly cress (Lepidium sativum), but S. cutleri also showed allelopathic potential by reducing shoot growth of curly cress seedlings with extracted volatiles. Although A. mollis and P. subulata exhibited strong weed-suppressive traits in past field experiments, weed suppression is apparently associated with either competition for resources or other allelopathic mechanisms rather than an allelopathic effect caused by volatiles. Volatiles of N. x faassenii were further evaluated with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 21 chemical constituents were identified in the volatile cocktail; 17 components were identified from a direct crude leaf sample extraction, including sabinene, beta-pinene, beta-myrcene, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-ethanol, 1,8-cineole, ocimene, neryl Acetate, 4aalpha,7alpha,7aalpha-nepetalactone, alpha-copaene, trans-caryophyllene, alloaromadendrene, 4abeta,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone, germacrene D, beta-farnesene, chi-cadinene, germacrene B, and beta-sesquiphellandrene. Five additional constituents were identified in a methanolic extract of dried of N. x faassenii foliage, but not the volatile cocktail collected from N. x faassenii foliage. These included methyl benzoate, 2,4-decadienal, neryl acetate, isodihydronepetalactone, and caryophyllene oxide. Three components, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-ethanol, alloaromadendrene, and chi-cadinene, were not only detected in both the volatile

  6. Potentiating the efficacy of molecular targeted therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibiting the insulin-like growth factor pathway.

    PubMed

    Ou, Da-Liang; Lee, Bin-Shyun; Chang, Ya-Chi; Lin, Liang-In; Liou, Jun-Yang; Hsu, Chiun; Cheng, Ann-Lii

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway is an important regulatory mechanism of tumorigenesis and drug resistance in many cancers. The present study explored the potential synergistic effects between IGF receptor (IGFR) inhibition and other molecular targeted agents (MTA) in HCC cells. HCC cell lines (Hep3B, PLC5, and SK-Hep1) and HUVECs were tested. The MTA tested included sorafenib, sunitinib, and the IGFR kinase inhibitor NVP-AEW541. The potential synergistic antitumor effects were tested by median dose effect analysis and apoptosis assay in vitro and by xenograft models in vivo. The activity and functional significance of pertinent signaling pathways and expression of apoptosis-related proteins were measured by RNA interference and Western blotting. We found that IGF can activate IGFR and downstream AKT signaling activities in all the HCC cells tested, but the growth-stimulating effect of IGF was most prominent in Hep3B cells. NVP-AEW541 can abrogate IGF-induced activation of IGFR and AKT signaling in HCC cells. IGF can increase the resistance of HCC cells to sunitinib. The apoptosis-inducing effects of sunitinib, but not sorafenib, were enhanced when IGFR signaling activity was inhibited by NVP-AEW541 or IGFR knockdown. Chk2 kinase activation was found contributory to the synergistic anti-tumor effects between sunitinib and IGFR inhibition. Our data indicate that the apoptosis-potentiating effects of IGFR inhibition for HCC may be drug-specific. Combination therapy of IGFR inhibitors with other MTA may improve the therapeutic efficacy in HCC.

  7. Autonomous mobile robots: Vehicles with cognitive control

    SciTech Connect

    Meystel, A.

    1987-01-01

    This book explores a new rapidly developing area of robotics. It describes the state-of-the-art intelligence control, applied machine intelligence, and research and initial stages of manufacturing of autonomous mobile robots. A complete account of the theoretical and experimental results obtained during the last two decades together with some generalizations on Autonomous Mobile Systems are included in this book. Contents: Introduction; Requirements and Specifications; State-of-the-art in Autonomous Mobile Robots Area; Structure of Intelligent Mobile Autonomous System; Planner, Navigator; Pilot; Cartographer; Actuation Control; Computer Simulation of Autonomous Operation; Testing the Autonomous Mobile Robot; Conclusions; Bibliography.

  8. Potential of Multitemporal Tandem-X Derived Crop Surface Models for Maize Growth Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hütt, C.; Tilly, N.; Schiedung, H.; Bareth, G.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, first results of retrieving plant heights of maize fields from multitemporal TanDEM-X images are shown. Three TanDEM-X dual polarization spotlight acquisitions were taken over a rural area in Germany in the growing season 2014. By interferometric processing, digital terrain models (DTM) were derived for each date with 5m resolution. From the data of the first acquisition (June 1st) taken before planting, a DTM of the bare ground is generated. The data of the following acquisition dates (July 15th, July 26th) are used to establish crop surface models (CSM). A CSM represents the crop surface of a whole field in a high resolution. By subtracting the DTM of the ground from each CSM, the actual plant height is calculated. Within these data sets 30 maize fields in the area of interest could be detected and verified by external land use data. Besides the spaceborne measurements, one of the maize fields was intensively investigated using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), which was carried out at the same dates as the predicted TanDEM-X acquisitions. Visual inspection of the derived plant heights, and accordance of the individually processed polarisations over the maize fields, demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Unfortunately, the infield variability of the intensively monitored field could not be successfully captured in the TanDEM-X derived plant heights and merely the general trend is visible. Nevertheless, the study shows the potential of the TanDEM-X constellation for maize height monitoring on field level.

  9. A potential cause for kidney stone formation during space flights: enhanced growth of nanobacteria in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Haddad, Ruwaida S.; Golden, D. C.; Morrison, Dennis R.; McKay, David S.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although some information is available regarding the cellular/molecular changes in immune system exposed to microgravity, little is known about the reasons of the increase in the kidney stone formation in astronauts during and/or after long duration missions at zero gravity (0 g). In our earlier studies, we have assessed a unique agent, nanobacteria (NB), in kidney stones and hypothesized that NB have an active role in calcium phosphate-carbonate deposition in kidney. In this research we studied effect of microgravity on multiplication and calcification of NB in vitro. METHODS: We examined NB cultures in High Aspect Rotating Vessels (HARVs) designed at the NASA's Johnson Space Center, which are designed to stimulate some aspects of microgravity. Multiplication rate and calcium phosphate composition of those NB were compared with NB cultured on stationary and shaker flasks. Collected aliquots of the cultures from different incubation periods were analyzed using spectrophotometer, SEM, TEM, EDX, and x-ray diffraction techniques. RESULTS: The results showed that NB multiplied 4.6x faster in HARVs compared to stationary cultures, and 3.2x faster than shaker flask conditions. X-ray diffraction and EDX analysis showed that the degree of apatite crystal formation and the properties of the apatite depend on the specific culture conditions used. CONCLUSION: We now report an increased multiplication rate of NB in microgravity-simulated conditions. Thus, NB infection may have a potential role in kidney stone formation in crew members during space flights. For further proof to this hypothesis, screening of the NB antigen and antibody level in flight crew before and after flight would be necessary.

  10. Effects of growth substrate on triclosan biodegradation potential of oxygenase-expressing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Gyun; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2013-11-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent, an endocrine disrupting compound, and an emerging contaminant in the environment. This is the first study investigating triclosan biodegradation potential of four oxygenase-expressing bacteria: Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5, Rhodococcus ruber ENV425, and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. B. xenovorans LB400 and R. ruber ENV425 were unable to degrade triclosan. Propane-grown M. vaccae JOB5 can completely degrade triclosan (5 mg L(-1)). R. jostii RHA1 grown on biphenyl, propane, and LB medium with dicyclopropylketone (DCPK), an alkane monooxygenase inducer, was able to degrade the added triclosan (5 mg L(-1)) to different extents. Incomplete degradation of triclosan by RHA1 is probably due to triclosan product toxicity. The highest triclosan transformation capacity (Tc, defined as the amount of triclosan degraded/the number of cells inactivated; 5.63×10(-3) ng triclosan/16S rRNA gene copies) was observed for biphenyl-grown RHA1 and the lowest Tc (0.20×10(-3) ng-triclosan/16S rRNA gene copies) was observed for propane-grown RHA1. No triclosan degradation metabolites were detected during triclosan degradation by propane- and LB+DCPK-grown RHA1. When using biphenyl-grown RHA1 for degradation, four chlorinated metabolites (2,4-dichlorophenol, monohydroxy-triclosan, dihydroxy-triclosan, and 2-chlorohydroquinone (a new triclosan metabolite)) were detected. Based on the detected metabolites, a meta-cleavage pathway was proposed for triclosan degradation.

  11. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor is a potential therapeutic target for gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Tarn, Chi; Rink, Lori; Merkel, Erin; Flieder, Douglas; Pathak, Harsh; Koumbi, Daphne; Testa, Joseph R; Eisenberg, Burton; von Mehren, Margaret; Godwin, Andrew K

    2008-06-17

    A subset of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) lack gain-of-function mutations in c-KIT and PDGFRalpha. These so-called wild-type (WT) GISTs tend to be less responsive to imatinib-based therapies and have a poor prognosis. We identified amplification of IGF1R in a SNP analysis of GIST and thus studied its potential as a therapeutic target in WT and mutant GIST. Expression of IGF1R and downstream effectors in clinical GIST samples was examined by using immunoblots and immunohistochemistry. The roles of IGF1R signaling in GIST and viability were analyzed by using NVP-AEW541, an inhibitor of IGF1R, alone and in combination with imatinib, or via siRNA silencing of IGF1R. IGF1R was strongly overexpressed, and IGF1R amplification was detected at a significantly higher frequency in WT GISTs, including a pediatric WT GIST, compared with mutant GISTs (P = 0.0173 and P = 0.0163, respectively). Inhibition of IGF1R activity in vitro with NVP-AEW541 or down-regulation of expression with siIGF1R led to cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in GIST cell lines via AKT and MAPK signaling. Combination of NVP-AEW541 and imatinib in GIST cell lines induced a strong cytotoxicity response. Our results reveal that IGF1R is amplified and the protein is overexpressed in WT and pediatric GISTs. We also demonstrate that the aberrant expression of IGF1R may be associated with oncogenesis in WT GISTs and suggest an alternative and/or complementary therapeutic regimen in the clinical management of all GISTs, especially in a subset of tumors that respond less favorably to imatinib-based therapy.

  12. Growth Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF-15) is a potential marker of radiation response and radiation sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Nikolett; Schilling-Tóth, Boglárka; Kis, Enikő; Benedek, Anett; Lumniczky, Katalin; Sáfrány, Géza; Hegyesi, Hargita

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated the importance of GDF-15 (secreted cytokine belonging to the TGF-β superfamily) in low and high dose radiation-induced cellular responses. A telomerase immortalized human fibroblast cell line (F11hT) was used in the experiments. A lentiviral system encoding small hairpin RNAs (shRNA) was used to establish GDF-15 silenced cells. Secreted GDF-15 levels were measured in culture medium by ELISA. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry. The experiments demonstrated that in irradiated human fibroblasts GDF-15 expression increased with dose starting from 100mGy. Elevated GDF-15 expression was not detected in bystander cells. The potential role of GDF-15 in radiation response was investigated by silencing GDF-15 in immortalized human fibroblasts with five different shRNA encoded in lentiviral vectors. Cell lines with considerably reduced GDF-15 levels presented increased radiation sensitivity, while a cell line with elevated GDF-15 was more radiation resistant than wild type cells. We have investigated how the reduced GDF-15 levels alter the response of several known radiation inducible genes. In F11hT-shGDF-15 cells the basal expression level of CDKN1A was unaltered relative to F11hT cells, while GADD45A and TGF-β1 mRNA levels were slightly higher, and TP53INP1 was considerably reduced. The radiation-induced expression of TP53INP1 was lower in the silenced than in wild type fibroblast cells. Cell cycle analysis indicated that radiation-induced early G2/M arrest was abrogated in GDF-15 silenced cells. Moreover, radiation-induced bystander effect was less pronounced in GDF-15 silenced fibroblasts. In conclusion, the results suggest that GDF-15 works as a radiation inducible radiation resistance increasing factor in normal human fibroblast cells, acts by regulating the radiation-induced transcription of several genes and might serve as a radiation-induced early biomarker in exposed cells. PMID:26520384

  13. Chromium reduction, plant growth-promoting potentials, and metal solubilizatrion by Bacillus sp. isolated from alluvial soil.

    PubMed

    Wani, Parvaze Ahmad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Zaidi, Almas

    2007-03-01

    The plant growth-promoting potentials, production of siderophore and solubilization of insoluble phosphorus (P) and zinc and lead by the chromium (vi) -reducing Bacillus species, PSB 1, PSB 7, and PSB 10, was assessed both in the presence and absence of chromium under in vitro conditions. The Bacillus strains tolerated chromium up to the concentration of 500 (PSB1), 400 (PSB7), and 550 microg ml(-1) (PSB10), respectively, on nutrient agar plates. Bacillus sp. PSB 10 reduced Cr (vi) by 87% at pH 7, which was followed by Bacillus sp. PSB 1 (83%) and PSB 7 (74%) in nutrient broth after 120 h of incubation. A concentration of 50 microg ml(-1) of Cr (vi) was completely reduced by Bacillus sp. PSB 1 and PSB 10 (after 100 h) and PSB 7 (after 120 h). The Bacillus strains PSB 1, PSB 7, and PSB 10 produced 19.3, 17.7, and 17.4 microg ml(-1) of indole acetic acid, respectively, in luria bertani broth at 100 microg ml(-1) of tryptophan, which consistently decreased with an increase in chromium concentration. The Bacillus strains were positive for siderophore, HCN, and ammonia both in the absence and presence of chromium. The Bacillus strains solubilized 375 (PSB 1), 340 (PSB 7), and 379 (PSB 10) microg ml(-1) P, respectively, in Pikovskaya broth devoid of chromium. In contrast, chromium at 150 microg ml(-1) reduced the amount of P solubilized by 17 (PSB 1), 15 (PSB 7), and 9% (PSB 10) compared to control. The tested bacterial strains solubilized a considerable amount of zinc and lead in nutrient broth both in the absence and presence of chromium. Generally, the chromium reduction and the plant growth-promoting potentials of chromium-reducing Bacillus were strongly correlated at the tested concentration of chromium. The present observations demonstrated that the chromium-reducing, metal-solubilizing, and plant growth-promoting potentials of the Bacillus strains PSB1, PSB 7, and PSB10 were not adversely affected by the chromium application and, hence, may be applied for raising

  14. Plant growth promotion potential is equally represented in diverse grapevine root-associated bacterial communities from different biopedoclimatic environments.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Fusi, Marco; Cherif, Ameur; Abou-Hadid, Ayman; El-Bahairy, Usama; Borin, Sara; Sorlini, Claudia; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Plant-associated bacteria provide important services to host plants. Environmental factors such as cultivar type and pedoclimatic conditions contribute to shape their diversity. However, whether these environmental factors may influence the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of the root-associated bacteria is not widely understood. To address this issue, the diversity and PGP potential of the bacterial assemblage associated with the grapevine root system of different cultivars in three Mediterranean environments along a macrotransect identifying an aridity gradient were assessed by culture-dependent and independent approaches. According to 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE, the structure of endosphere and rhizosphere bacterial communities was highly diverse (P = 0.03) and was associated with a cultivar/latitudinal/climatic effect. Despite being diverse, the bacterial communities associated with Egyptian grapevines shared a higher similarity with the Tunisian grapevines than those cultivated in North Italy. A similar distribution, according to the cultivar/latitude/aridity gradients, was observed for the cultivable bacteria. Many isolates (23%) presented in vitro multiple stress resistance capabilities and PGP activities, the most frequent being auxin synthesis (82%), insoluble phosphate solubilisation (61%), and ammonia production (70%). The comparable numbers and types of potential PGP traits among the three different environmental settings indicate a strong functional homeostasis of beneficial bacteria associated with grape root. PMID:23878810

  15. Plant Growth Promotion Potential Is Equally Represented in Diverse Grapevine Root-Associated Bacterial Communities from Different Biopedoclimatic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fusi, Marco; Cherif, Ameur; Abou-Hadid, Ayman; El-Bahairy, Usama; Sorlini, Claudia; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Plant-associated bacteria provide important services to host plants. Environmental factors such as cultivar type and pedoclimatic conditions contribute to shape their diversity. However, whether these environmental factors may influence the plant growth promoting (PGP) potential of the root-associated bacteria is not widely understood. To address this issue, the diversity and PGP potential of the bacterial assemblage associated with the grapevine root system of different cultivars in three Mediterranean environments along a macrotransect identifying an aridity gradient were assessed by culture-dependent and independent approaches. According to 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE, the structure of endosphere and rhizosphere bacterial communities was highly diverse (P = 0.03) and was associated with a cultivar/latitudinal/climatic effect. Despite being diverse, the bacterial communities associated with Egyptian grapevines shared a higher similarity with the Tunisian grapevines than those cultivated in North Italy. A similar distribution, according to the cultivar/latitude/aridity gradients, was observed for the cultivable bacteria. Many isolates (23%) presented in vitro multiple stress resistance capabilities and PGP activities, the most frequent being auxin synthesis (82%), insoluble phosphate solubilisation (61%), and ammonia production (70%). The comparable numbers and types of potential PGP traits among the three different environmental settings indicate a strong functional homeostasis of beneficial bacteria associated with grape root. PMID:23878810

  16. Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

  17. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2014-09-01

    Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale-from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems-their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous the

  18. Progress towards autonomous, intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1987-01-01

    An aggressive program has been initiated to develop, integrate, and implement autonomous systems technologies starting with today's expert systems and evolving to autonomous, intelligent systems by the end of the 1990s. This program includes core technology developments and demonstration projects for technology evaluation and validation. This paper discusses key operational frameworks in the content of systems autonomy applications and then identifies major technological challenges, primarily in artificial intelligence areas. Program content and progress made towards critical technologies and demonstrations that have been initiated to achieve the required future capabilities in the year 2000 era are discussed.

  19. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of contingency software for autonomous systems. Autonomous vehicles currently have a limited capacity to diagnose and mitigate failures. There is a need to be able to handle a broader range of contingencies. The goals of the project are: 1. Speed up diagnosis and mitigation of anomalous situations.2.Automatically handle contingencies, not just failures.3.Enable projects to select a degree of autonomy consistent with their needs and to incrementally introduce more autonomy.4.Augment on-board fault protection with verified contingency scripts

  20. Intelligent, autonomous systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, H.; Heer, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station is expected to be equipped with intelligent, autonomous capabilities; to achieve and incorporate these capabilities, the required technologies need to be identitifed, developed and validated within realistic application scenarios. The critical technologies for the development of intelligent, autonomous systems are discussed in the context of a generalized functional architecture. The present state of this technology implies that it be introduced and applied in an evolutionary process which must start during the Space Station design phase. An approach is proposed to accomplish design information acquisition and management for knowledge-base development.

  1. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  2. Frontiers in growth and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Andreas; Kuhl, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Unlike common engineering materials, living matter can autonomously respond to environmental changes. Living structures can grow stronger, weaker, larger, or smaller within months, weeks, or days as a result of a continuous microstructural turnover and renewal. Hard tissues can adapt by increasing their density and grow strong. Soft tissues can adapt by increasing their volume and grow large. For more than three decades, the mechanics community has actively contributed to understand the phenomena of growth and remodeling from a mechanistic point of view. However, to date, there is no single, unified characterization of growth, which is equally accepted by all scientists in the field. Here we shed light on the continuum modeling of growth and remodeling of living matter, and give a comprehensive overview of historical developments and trends. We provide a state-of-the-art review of current research highlights, and discuss challenges and potential future directions. Using the example of volumetric growth, we illustrate how we can establish and utilize growth theories to characterize the functional adaptation of soft living matter. We anticipate this review to be the starting point for critical discussions and future research in growth and remodeling, with a potential impact on life science and medicine. PMID:22919118

  3. Frontiers in growth and remodeling.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Andreas; Kuhl, Ellen

    2012-06-01

    Unlike common engineering materials, living matter can autonomously respond to environmental changes. Living structures can grow stronger, weaker, larger, or smaller within months, weeks, or days as a result of a continuous microstructural turnover and renewal. Hard tissues can adapt by increasing their density and grow strong. Soft tissues can adapt by increasing their volume and grow large. For more than three decades, the mechanics community has actively contributed to understand the phenomena of growth and remodeling from a mechanistic point of view. However, to date, there is no single, unified characterization of growth, which is equally accepted by all scientists in the field. Here we shed light on the continuum modeling of growth and remodeling of living matter, and give a comprehensive overview of historical developments and trends. We provide a state-of-the-art review of current research highlights, and discuss challenges and potential future directions. Using the example of volumetric growth, we illustrate how we can establish and utilize growth theories to characterize the functional adaptation of soft living matter. We anticipate this review to be the starting point for critical discussions and future research in growth and remodeling, with a potential impact on life science and medicine. PMID:22919118

  4. Critically Reflective Work Behaviour within Autonomous Professionals' Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; van den Berg, B. A. M.; Endedijk, M. D.; van Beukelen, P.; Simons, P. R. J.

    2011-01-01

    Informal learning communities in which participants show critically reflective work behaviour (CRWB) have the potential to support lifelong learning. In practice this behaviour does not always occur in groups of autonomous professionals. This study explores design principles (DPs) that could act as social affordances for CRWB, within the context…

  5. Observation of growth mode dependence on over-potential values: a combination of in-situ optical monitoring and ex-situ atomic force microscopy characterization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, M. K.; Gray, J.; Moffat, T.; Orme, C.; Schwarzacher, W.; Zhu, X. D.

    2005-03-01

    We study the over-potential electrodeposition of Pb on Cu(100) using a combination of an in-situ oblique-incidence reflectivity difference technique and ex-situ atomic force microscopy. We identified two distinctly different over-potential growth modes that depend on the values of the overpotential. We have characterized the morphology corresponding to the two growth modes using AFM. At a high over-potential there is even growth of small clusters across the monolayer thick under-potential deposited (UPD) Pb covered Cu(100) surface. At lower over-potentials (a fraction of a volt from the value for UPD), we observed much larger 3-D clusters, more than 400 nm in height and separated by an averaged distance of one micron.

  6. Autonomous satellite navigation with the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, A. J.; Wooden, W. H., II; Long, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) to provide autonomous navigation capability to NASA satellites in the 1980 era. Some of the driving forces motivating autonomous navigation are presented. These include such factors as advances in attitude control systems, onboard science annotation, and onboard gridding of imaging data. Simulation results which demonstrate baseline orbit determination accuracies using GPS data on Seasat, Landsat-D, and the Solar Maximum Mission are presented. Emphasis is placed on identifying error sources such as GPS time, GPS ephemeris, user timing biases, and user orbit dynamics, and in a parametric sense on evaluating their contribution to the orbit determination accuracies.

  7. An Analytical Thermal Model for Autonomous Soaring Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing an analytical thermal model used to enable research on autonomous soaring for a small UAV aircraft is given. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Approach; 3) SURFRAD Data; 4) Convective Layer Thickness; 5) Surface Heat Budget; 6) Surface Virtual Potential Temperature Flux; 7) Convective Scaling Velocity; 8) Other Calculations; 9) Yearly trends; 10) Scale Factors; 11) Scale Factor Test Matrix; 12) Statistical Model; 13) Updraft Strength Calculation; 14) Updraft Diameter; 15) Updraft Shape; 16) Smoothed Updraft Shape; 17) Updraft Spacing; 18) Environment Sink; 19) Updraft Lifespan; 20) Autonomous Soaring Research; 21) Planned Flight Test; and 22) Mixing Ratio.

  8. Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Koelreuteria Paniculata Seedlings and Their Potential for Restoring Manganese Mine Wastelands in Hunan, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhihong; Xiang, Wenhua; Ma, Yu’e; Lei, Pifeng; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Yan, Wende; Fang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil. PMID:25654773

  9. Growth and heavy metal accumulation of Koelreuteria paniculata seedlings and their potential for restoring manganese mine wastelands in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhihong; Xiang, Wenhua; Ma, Yu'e; Lei, Pifeng; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Yan, Wende; Fang, Xi

    2015-02-03

    The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil.

  10. Predators with multiple ontogenetic niche shifts have limited potential for population growth and top-down control of their prey.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Anieke; Huss, Magnus; Gårdmark, Anna; Casini, Michele; Vitale, Francesca; Hjelm, Joakim; Persson, Lennart; de Roos, André M

    2013-07-01

    Catastrophic collapses of top predators have revealed trophic cascades and community structuring by top-down control. When populations fail to recover after a collapse, this may indicate alternative stable states in the system. Overfishing has caused several of the most compelling cases of these dynamics, and in particular Atlantic cod stocks exemplify such lack of recovery. Often, competition between prey species and juvenile predators is hypothesized to explain the lack of recovery of predator populations. The predator is then considered to compete with its prey for one resource when small and to subsequently shift to piscivory. Yet predator life history is often more complex than that, including multiple ontogenetic diet shifts. Here we show that no alternative stable states occur when predators in an intermediate life stage feed on an additional resource (exclusive to the predator) before switching to piscivory, because predation and competition between prey and predator do not simultaneously structure community dynamics. We find top-down control by the predator only when there is no feedback from predator foraging on the additional resource. Otherwise, the predator population dynamics are governed by a bottleneck in individual growth occurring in the intermediate life stage. Therefore, additional resources for predators may be beneficial or detrimental for predator population growth and strongly influence the potential for top-down community control. PMID:23778226

  11. PDK1 and SGK3 contribute to the growth of BRAF mutant melanomas and are potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Scortegagna, Marzia; Lau, Eric; Zhang, Tongwu; Feng, Yongmei; Sereduk, Chris; Yin, Hongwei; De, Surya K.; Meeth, Katrina; Platt, James T.; Langdon, Casey G.; Halaban, Ruth; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Davies, Michael A.; Brown, Kevin; Stern, David F.; Bosenberg, Marcus; Ronai, Ze’ev A.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma development involves members of the AGC kinase family including AKT, PKC and, most recently, PDK1, as elucidated recently in studies of Braf::Pten mutant melanomas. Here we report that PDK1 contributes functionally to skin pigmentation and to the development of melanomas harboring a wild-type PTEN genotype, which occurs in ~70% of human melanomas. The PDK1 substrate SGK3 was determined to be is an important mediator of PDK1 activities in melanoma cells. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PDK1 and SGK3 attenuated melanoma growth by inducing G1 phase cell cycle arrest. In a synthetic lethal screen, pan-PI3K inhibition synergized with PDK1 inhibition to suppress melanoma growth, suggesting that focused blockade of PDK1/PI3K signaling might offer a new therapeutic modality for wild-type PTEN tumors. We also noted that responsiveness to PDK1 inhibition associated with decreased expression of pigmentation genes and increased expression of cytokines and inflammatory genes, suggesting a method to stratify melanoma patients for PDK1-based therapies. Overall, our work highlights the potential significance of PDK1 as a therapeutic target to improve melanoma treatment. PMID:25712345

  12. Potential role of phytohormones and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in abiotic stresses: consequences for changing environment.

    PubMed

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Bano, Asghari; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Shan, Darakh; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Khan, Fahad; Chen, Yutiao; Wu, Chao; Tabassum, Muhammad Adnan; Chun, Ma Xiao; Afzal, Muhammad; Jan, Amanullah; Jan, Mohammad Tariq; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-04-01

    Plants are sessile beings, so the need of mechanisms to flee from unfavorable circumstances has provided the development of unique and sophisticated responses to environmental stresses. Depending on the degree of plasticity, many morphological, cellular, anatomical, and physiological changes occur in plants in response to abiotic stress. Phytohormones are small molecules that play critical roles in regulating plant growth and development, as well as stress tolerance to promote survival and acclimatize to varying environments. To congregate the challenges of salinity, temperature extremes, and osmotic stress, plants use their genetic mechanism and different adaptive and biological approaches for survival and high production. In the present attempt, we review the potential role of different phytohormones and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in abiotic stresses and summarize the research progress in plant responses to abiotic stresses at physiological and molecular levels. We emphasized the regulatory circuits of abscisic acid, indole acetic acid, cytokinins, gibberellic acid, salicylic acid, brassinosteroids, jasmonates, ethylene, and triazole on exposure to abiotic stresses. Current progress is exemplified by the identification and validation of several significant genes that enhanced crop tolerance to stress in the field. These findings will make the modification of hormone biosynthetic pathways for the transgenic plant generation with augmented abiotic stress tolerance and boosting crop productivity in the coming decades possible.

  13. Suppression of the Insulin Receptors in Adult Schistosoma japonicum Impacts on Parasite Growth and Development: Further Evidence of Vaccine Potential

    PubMed Central

    You, Hong; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Cai, Pengfei; Mou, Rong; Nawaratna, Sujeevi; Fang, Guofu; Villinger, Francois; McManus, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    To further investigate the importance of insulin signaling in the growth, development, sexual maturation and egg production of adult schistosomes, we have focused attention on the insulin receptors (SjIRs) of Schistosoma japonicum, which we have previously cloned and partially characterised. We now show, by Biolayer Interferometry, that human insulin can bind the L1 subdomain (insulin binding domain) of recombinant (r)SjIR1 and rSjIR2 (designated SjLD1 and SjLD2) produced using the Drosophila S2 protein expression system. We have then used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down the expression of the SjIRs in adult S. japonicum in vitro and show that, in addition to their reduced transcription, the transcript levels of other important downstream genes within the insulin pathway, associated with glucose metabolism and schistosome fecundity, were also impacted substantially. Further, a significant decrease in glucose uptake was observed in the SjIR-knockdown worms compared with luciferase controls. In vaccine/challenge experiments, we found that rSjLD1 and rSjLD2 depressed female growth, intestinal granuloma density and faecal egg production in S. japonicum in mice presented with a low dose challenge infection. These data re-emphasize the potential of the SjIRs as veterinary transmission blocking vaccine candidates against zoonotic schistosomiasis japonica in China and the Philippines. PMID:25961574

  14. Predators with multiple ontogenetic niche shifts have limited potential for population growth and top-down control of their prey.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Anieke; Huss, Magnus; Gårdmark, Anna; Casini, Michele; Vitale, Francesca; Hjelm, Joakim; Persson, Lennart; de Roos, André M

    2013-07-01

    Catastrophic collapses of top predators have revealed trophic cascades and community structuring by top-down control. When populations fail to recover after a collapse, this may indicate alternative stable states in the system. Overfishing has caused several of the most compelling cases of these dynamics, and in particular Atlantic cod stocks exemplify such lack of recovery. Often, competition between prey species and juvenile predators is hypothesized to explain the lack of recovery of predator populations. The predator is then considered to compete with its prey for one resource when small and to subsequently shift to piscivory. Yet predator life history is often more complex than that, including multiple ontogenetic diet shifts. Here we show that no alternative stable states occur when predators in an intermediate life stage feed on an additional resource (exclusive to the predator) before switching to piscivory, because predation and competition between prey and predator do not simultaneously structure community dynamics. We find top-down control by the predator only when there is no feedback from predator foraging on the additional resource. Otherwise, the predator population dynamics are governed by a bottleneck in individual growth occurring in the intermediate life stage. Therefore, additional resources for predators may be beneficial or detrimental for predator population growth and strongly influence the potential for top-down community control.

  15. The insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway is a potential therapeutic target for low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    King, Erin R.; Zu, Zhifei; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Deavers, Michael T.; Malpica, Anais; Mok, Samuel C.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2011-01-01

    Objective To validate the overexpression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) in low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (SOC), and to investigate whether the IGF-1 pathway is a potential therapeutic target for low-grade SOC. Methods Gene expression profiling was performed on serous borderline ovarian tumors (SBOTs) and low-grade SOC, and overexpression of IGF-1 in low-grade SOC was validated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The effect of exogenous IGF-1 on cell proliferation was determined in cell lines by cell proliferation assays, cell migration assays, and Western blot. Signaling pathways downstream of IGF-1 and the effects of the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were investigated by Western blot analysis and by generating IGF-1R short hairpin RNA stable knockdown cell lines. Low- and high-grade cell lines were treated with the dual IGF-1R- and insulin receptor-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitor OSI-906, and cellular proliferation was measured. Results mRNA analysis and immunostaining revealed significantly higher IGF-1 expression in low-grade SOCs than in SBOTs or high-grade SOCs. In response to exogenous treatment with IGF-1, low-grade cell lines exhibited more intense upregulation of phosphorylated AKT than did high-grade cell lines, an effect that was diminished with IGF-1R knockdown and MK-2206 treatment. Low-grade SOC cell lines were more sensitive to growth inhibition with OSI-906 than were high-grade cell lines. Conclusions IGF-1 is overexpressed in low-grade SOCs compared with SBOTs and high-grade SOCs. Additionally, low-grade SOC cell lines were more responsive to IGF-1 stimulation and IGF-1R inhibition than were high-grade lines. The IGF-1 pathway is therefore a potential therapeutic target in low-grade SOC. PMID:21726895

  16. A Robust Compositional Architecture for Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume; Deney, Ewen; Farrell, Kimberley; Giannakopoulos, Dimitra; Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy; Bobby, Mark; Carpenter, Todd; Estlin, Tara

    2006-01-01

    Space exploration applications can benefit greatly from autonomous systems. Great distances, limited communications and high costs make direct operations impossible while mandating operations reliability and efficiency beyond what traditional commanding can provide. Autonomous systems can improve reliability and enhance spacecraft capability significantly. However, there is reluctance to utilizing autonomous systems. In part this is due to general hesitation about new technologies, but a more tangible concern is that of reliability of predictability of autonomous software. In this paper, we describe ongoing work aimed at increasing robustness and predictability of autonomous software, with the ultimate goal of building trust in such systems. The work combines state-of-the-art technologies and capabilities in autonomous systems with advanced validation and synthesis techniques. The focus of this paper is on the autonomous system architecture that has been defined, and on how it enables the application of validation techniques for resulting autonomous systems.

  17. Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Autonomic Function.

    PubMed

    Basiago, Adam; Binder, Devin K

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of the development of deep brain stimulation (DBS) into a well-established therapy for Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, its utility as a potential treatment for autonomic dysfunction has emerged. Dysfunction of autonomic processes is common in neurological diseases. Depending on the specific target in the brain, DBS has been shown to raise or lower blood pressure, normalize the baroreflex, to alter the caliber of bronchioles, and eliminate hyperhidrosis, all through modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. It has also been shown to improve cortical control of the bladder, directly induce or inhibit the micturition reflex, and to improve deglutition and gastric emptying. In this review, we will attempt to summarize the relevant available studies describing these effects of DBS on autonomic function, which vary greatly in character and magnitude with respect to stimulation target. PMID:27537920

  18. Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Autonomic Function

    PubMed Central

    Basiago, Adam; Binder, Devin K.

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of the development of deep brain stimulation (DBS) into a well-established therapy for Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, its utility as a potential treatment for autonomic dysfunction has emerged. Dysfunction of autonomic processes is common in neurological diseases. Depending on the specific target in the brain, DBS has been shown to raise or lower blood pressure, normalize the baroreflex, to alter the caliber of bronchioles, and eliminate hyperhidrosis, all through modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. It has also been shown to improve cortical control of the bladder, directly induce or inhibit the micturition reflex, and to improve deglutition and gastric emptying. In this review, we will attempt to summarize the relevant available studies describing these effects of DBS on autonomic function, which vary greatly in character and magnitude with respect to stimulation target. PMID:27537920

  19. Stimulation of methane oxidation potential and effects on vegetation growth by bottom ash addition in a landfill final evapotranspiration cover.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gil Won; Ho, Adrian; Kim, Pil Joo; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2016-09-01

    The landfilling of municipal solid waste is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4), contributing up to 20% of total anthropogenic CH4 emissions. The evapotranspiration (ET) cover system, an alternative final cover system in waste landfills, has been considered to be a promising way to mitigate CH4 emissions, as well as to prevent water infiltration using vegetation on landfill cover soils. In our previous studies, bottom ash from coal-fired power plants was selected among several industrial residues (blast furnace slag, bottom ash, construction waste, steel manufacture slag, stone powder sludge, and waste gypsum) as the best additive for ET cover systems, with the highest mechanical performance achieved for a 35% (wtwt(-1)) bottom ash content in soil. In this study, to evaluate the field applicability of bottom ash mixed soil as ET cover, four sets of lysimeters (height 1.2m×width 2m×length 6m) were constructed in 2007, and four different treatments were installed: (i) soil+bottom ash (35% wtwt(-1)) (SB); (ii) soil+compost (2% wtwt(-1), approximately corresponding to 40Mgha(-1) in arable field scale) (SC); (iii) soil+bottom ash+compost (SBC); and (iv) soil only as the control (S). The effects of bottom ash mixing in ET cover soil on CH4 oxidation potential and vegetation growth were evaluated in a pilot ET cover system in the 5th year after installation by pilot experiments using the treatments. Our results showed that soil properties were significantly improved by bottom ash mixing, resulting in higher plant growth. Bottom ash addition significantly increased the CH4 oxidation potential of the ET cover soil, mainly due to improved organic matter and available copper concentration, enhancing methanotrophic abundances in soil amended with bottom ash. Conclusively, bottom ash could be a good alternative as a soil additive in the ET cover system to improve vegetation growth and mitigate CH4 emission impact in the waste landfill system. PMID:27067424

  20. The autonomic phenotype of rumination.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Cristina; Shapiro, David; Davydov, Dmitry M; Goldstein, Iris B; Mills, Paul J

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that ruminative thoughts may be mediators of the prolonged physiological effects of stress. We hypothesized that autonomic dysregulation plays a role in the relation between rumination and health. Rumination was induced by an anger-recall task in 45 healthy subjects. Heart rate variability (HRV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and baroreflex effectiveness index (BEI) change scores were evaluated to obtain the autonomic phenotype of rumination. Personality traits and endothelial activation were examined for their relation to autonomic responses during rumination. Degree of endothelial activation was assessed by circulating soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Vagal withdrawal during rumination was greater for women than men. Larger decreases in the high frequency component of HRV were associated with higher levels of anger-in, depression, and sICAM-1 levels. BRS reactivity was negatively related to trait anxiety. BEI reactivity was positively related to anger-in, hostility, anxiety, and depression. Lower BEI and BRS recovery were associated with lower social desirability and higher anger-out, anxiety, and depression. Findings suggest that the autonomic dysregulation that characterizes rumination plays a role in the relationships between personality and cardiovascular health. PMID:19272312

  1. Linguistic geometry for autonomous navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Stilman, B.

    1995-09-01

    To discover the inner properties of human expert heuristics, which were successful in a certain class of complex control systems, we develop a formal theory, the Linguistic Geometry. This paper reports two examples of application of Linguistic Geometry to autonomous navigation of aerospace vehicles that demonstrate dramatic search reduction.

  2. Autonomous navigation for artificial satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    An autonomous navigation system is considered that provides a satellite with sufficient numbers and types of sensors, as well as computational hardware and software, to enable it to track itself. Considered are attitude type sensors, meteorological cameras and scanners, one way Doppler, and image correlator.

  3. The Functioning of Autonomous Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, V. Pala Prasada; Rao, Digumarti Bhaskara

    2012-01-01

    The college gets separated from the university, though not completely, when it is an autonomous college, which is practice in India. Academic package will become flexible and the decision-making is internalized, changes and updating could be easily carried out, depending on the need as reflected from the feedback taken from alumni, user sectors,…

  4. Computing architecture for autonomous microgrids

    DOEpatents

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-09-29

    A computing architecture that facilitates autonomously controlling operations of a microgrid is described herein. A microgrid network includes numerous computing devices that execute intelligent agents, each of which is assigned to a particular entity (load, source, storage device, or switch) in the microgrid. The intelligent agents can execute in accordance with predefined protocols to collectively perform computations that facilitate uninterrupted control of the .

  5. Testing the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Roy; Chapleau, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic testing is used to define the role of the autonomic nervous system in diverse clinical and research settings. Because most of the autonomic nervous system is inaccessible to direct physiological testing, in the clinical setting the most widely used techniques entail the assessment of an end-organ response to a physiological provocation. The noninvasive measures of cardiovascular parasympathetic function involve the assessment of heart rate variability while the measures of cardiovascular sympathetic function assess the blood pressure response to physiological stimuli. Tilt-table testing, with or without pharmacological provocation, has become an important tool in the assessment of a predisposition to neurally mediated (vasovagal) syncope, the postural tachycardia syndrome, and orthostatic hypotension. Distal, postganglionic, sympathetic cholinergic (sudomotor) function may be evaluated by provoking axon reflex mediated sweating, e.g., the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex (QSART) or the quantitative direct and indirect axon reflex (QDIRT). The thermoregulatory sweat test provides a nonlocalizing measure of global pre- and postganglionic sudomotor function. Frequency domain analyses of heart rate and blood pressure variability, microneurography, and baroreflex assessment are currently research tools but may find a place in the clinical assessment of autonomic function in the future. PMID:23931777

  6. Growth and Potential Damage of Human Bone-Derived Cells Cultured on Fresh and Aged C60/Ti Films

    PubMed Central

    Kopova, Ivana; Lavrentiev, Vasily; Vacik, Jiri; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of binary C60/Ti composites, with various concentrations of Ti ranging from ~ 25% to ~ 70%, were deposited on microscopic glass coverslips and were tested for their potential use in bone tissue engineering as substrates for the adhesion and growth of bone cells. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of Ti atoms (i.e., widely used biocompatible material for the construction of stomatological and orthopedic implants) with atoms of fullerene C60, which can act as very efficient radical scavengers. However, fullerenes and their derivatives are able to generate harmful reactive oxygen species and to have cytotoxic effects. In order to stabilize C60 molecules and to prevent their possible cytotoxic effects, deposition in the compact form of Ti/C60 composites (with various Ti concentrations) was chosen. The reactivity of C60/Ti composites may change in time due to the physicochemical changes of molecules in an air atmosphere. In this study, we therefore tested the dependence between the age of C60/Ti films (from one week to one year) and the adhesion, morphology, proliferation, viability, metabolic activity and potential DNA damage to human osteosarcoma cells (lines MG-63 and U-2 OS). After 7 days of cultivation, we did not observe any negative influence of fresh or aged C60/Ti layers on cell behavior, including the DNA damage response. The presence of Ti atoms resulted in improved properties of the C60 layers, which became more suitable for cell cultivation. PMID:25875338

  7. Application of Direct Current Potential Drop for the J-integral vs. Crack Growth Resistance Curve Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiang; Nanstad, Randy K; Sokolov, Mikhail A

    2014-01-01

    The direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique has been applied to derive the J-integral vs. crack growth resistance curve (J-R curve) for fracture toughness characterization of structural materials. The test matrix covered three materials including type 316LN stainless steels, Ni-based alloy 617, and one ferritic-martensitic steel, three specimen configurations including standard compact, single edge bending, and disk-shaped compact specimens, and temperatures ranging from 20 C to 650 C. When compared with baseline J-R curves derived from the ASTM normalization method, the original J-R curves from the DCPD technique yielded much smaller Jq values due to the influence of crack blunting, plastic deformation, etc. on potential drop. To counter these effects, a new procedure for adjusting DCPD J-R curves was proposed. After applying the new adjustment procedure, the average difference in Jq between the DCPD technique and the normalization method was only 5.2% and the difference in tearing modulus was 7.4%. The promising result demonstrates the applicability of the DCPD technique for the J-R curve characterization especially in extreme environments, such as elevated temperatures, where the conventional elastic unloading compliance method faces considerable challenges.

  8. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF, FGF-2) Potentiates Leukocyte Recruitment to Inflammation by Enhancing Endothelial Adhesion Molecule Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zittermann, Sandra I.; Issekutz, Andrew C.

    2006-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF-2) is a potent angiogenic factor and endothelial cell mitogen. Although bFGF levels are increased in chronically inflamed tissue, its role in inflammation is unclear. We investigated the effect of bFGF on acute dermal inflammation and the recruitment of monocytes, T cells, and neutrophils. Leukocyte recruitment to inflamed sites was quantified with radiolabeled leukocytes. Intradermal injection of bFGF in rats did not induce leukocyte recruitment or inflammation. However, the recruitment of leukocytes to inflammation induced by tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, C5a, or a delayed hypersensitivity reaction was enhanced by bFGF by 55 to 132% (P < 0.05). Either acute or prolonged bFGF treatment of dermal sites had this effect. The potentiating effect of bFGF on leukocyte recruitment was also seen in joints. There was no associated modulation of vascular permeability, blood flow, or angiogenesis in the sites by bFGF. However, the expression of the endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) for leukocytes, P-selectin, E-selectin, and ICAM-1, was significantly up-regulated in the inflamed tissue by bFGF, as quantified by radiolabeled anti-CAM antibody binding in vivo. Thus, although not directly proinflammatory, bFGF synergistically potentiates inflammatory mediator-induced leukocyte recruitment, at least in part, by enhancing CAM up-regulation on endothelium. PMID:16507899

  9. Bioenergetic model estimates of interannual and spatial patterns in consumption demand and growth potential of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, J.H.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Cross, A.D.; Farley, E.V.; Murphy, J.M.; Helle, J.H.; Walker, R.V.; Myers, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    A bioenergetic model of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) was used to estimate daily prey consumption and growth potential of four ocean habitats in the Gulf of Alaska during 2001 and 2002. Growth potential was not significantly higher in 2002 than in 2001 at an alpha level of 0.05 (P=0.073). Average differences in growth potential across habitats were minimal (slope habitat=0.844 g d-1, shelf habitat=0.806 g d-1, offshore habitat=0.820 g d-1, and nearshore habitat=0.703 g d-1) and not significantly different (P=0.630). Consumption demand differed significantly between hatchery and wild stocks (P=0.035) when examined within year due to the interaction between hatchery verses wild origin and year. However, the overall effect of origin across years was not significant (P=0.705) due to similar total amounts of prey consumed by all juvenile pink salmon in both study years. We anticipated that years in which ocean survival was high would have had high growth potential, but this relationship did not prove to be true. Therefore, modeled growth potential may not be useful as a tool for forecasting survival of Prince William Sound hatchery pink salmon stocks. Significant differences in consumption demand and a two-fold difference in nearshore abundance during 2001 of hatchery and wild pink salmon confirmed the existence of strong and variable interannual competition and the importance of the nearshore region as being a potential competitive bottleneck.

  10. Autonomous microdevices for phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Naumov, Sergey A.; Khlusov, Igor A.

    2001-09-01

    In photomedicine in some of cases radiation delivery to local zones through optical fibers can be changed for the direct placing of tiny optical sources like micro lasers or LED in required zones of ears, nostrils, larynx, nasopharynx cochlea or alimentary tract. Our study focuses on the creation of optoelectronic microdevices for local photo therapy. Now, they are taking pre-clinical trials in stomatology to treat inflammatory processes in the mouth cavity, in otolaryngology to treat otitis and for treatment of the gastro-intestinal tract. This paper is more emphasized on development optical microdevices for phototherapy of the gastro-intestinal tract. The influence of radiation from phototherapetic micromodules on composition of intestinal microflroa and the immunologic inspection of patients with dysbacteriosis of the intestine as a result of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and after antibacterial therapy for other disturbances are studied. The obtained result are comparable with indices of the control group. At the same time, it should be noted that stimulation of growth of natural flora is recorded in the main group of patients which inhibits the activity of conditioned pathogenic microflora.

  11. Organ transplantation in the Madrid Autonomous Region.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, C; Aparicio, M; Marmisa, G; Martinez-Urrialde, J L

    2009-01-01

    The Madrid Autonomous Region, a Spanish area with 6,200,000 inhabitants, has 7 hospitals authorized for organ transplantation, with 25 active programs for carrying out various transplantations: 18 for adults and 7 for children. Most of these hospitals are reference transplant centers for other Spanish regions. Between 715 and 760 transplantations are performed annually, which represents between 19% and 22% of Spanish activity. During 2007, 395 kidney, 220 liver, 55 heart, and 35 lung transplantations were performed, as well as 23 isolated or combination transplantations of other abdominal organs (pancreatic, intestinal, or multivisceral). Kidney, liver, heart, and children's intestinal transplant activity in 2007 represented 37%, 63%, 80%, and 100%, respectively, of all pediatric national activity. The Madrid Autonomous Region has a donation rate of 34.2 donors per million inhabitants. Of these, 30% are from non-heart-beating donors (NHBD), Maastrich criteria category 1 or 2. Various hospitals perform kidney, liver, and lung transplantations with these organs, representing 11% of the lung transplantations carried out in recent years, with this being a pioneer procedure worldwide. Despite the important transplant activity, we are working to increase donations, to improve organ donor detection and management protocols, as well as to reach a consensus on criteria to decrease the nonviability rates of potential transplant organs.

  12. Autonomic control of the aging heart.

    PubMed

    Kaye, David M; Esler, Murray D

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure continue to account for the majority of deaths in the developed world. Whilst the incidence of these clinical disorders does increase with age, outcomes in affected patients tend to be disproportionately adverse with advancing years. In this context it is important to understand the various compensatory processes which become activated in cardiovascular disease. In particular, the autonomic nervous system is known to play a key pathogenic role in the cause and response to many of these conditions. The normal aging process is accompanied by a complex series of changes in the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system, favoring heightened cardiac sympathetic tone with parasympathetic withdrawal and blunted cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity. Together these changes have the potential to further magnify the effects of concomitant cardiovascular disease. Attention to the mechanisms of these changes and the development of appropriate therapies may serve to reduce the added influence of age on outcome in patients experiencing cardiovascular disease.

  13. Micturition disturbance in acute idiopathic autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, R; Uchiyama, T; Asahina, M; Suzuki, A; Yamanishi, T; Hattori, T

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To define the nature of micturition disturbance in patients with acute idiopathic autonomic neuropathy (AIAN). Methods: Micturitional symptoms were observed during hospital admissions and the in outpatient clinics in six patients with clinically definite AIAN (typical form in four, cholinergic variant in one, autonomic-sensory variant in one). Urodynamic studies included medium-fill water cystometry, external sphincter electromyography, and a bethanechol test. Results: Four patients had urinary retention and two had voiding difficulty as the initial presentation. Patients with retention became able to urinate within a week (two to seven days). The major symptoms at the time of urodynamic studies (three weeks to four months after disease onset in most cases) were voiding difficulty and nocturnal frequency. None had urinary incontinence. Complete recovery from the micturition disturbance took from three months to >18 years. The recovery period was shorter in a patient with cholinergic variant, and it was longer in two patients who had a longer duration of initial urinary retention. Micturition disturbance tended to improve earlier than orthostatic hypotension. The major urodynamic abnormalities were detrusor areflexia on voiding (5), denervation supersensitivity to bethanechol (3); low compliance detrusor (1); and impaired bladder sensation (2). None had neurogenic motor unit potentials of the external sphincter muscles. Conclusions: In patients with AIAN, urinary retention and voiding difficulty are common initial presentations. The underlying mechanisms seem to be pre- and postganglionic cholinergic dysfunction with preservation of somatic sphincter function. The bladder problems tend to improve earlier than orthostatic hypotension. PMID:14742606

  14. Small fibre function in primary autonomic failure.

    PubMed

    Baron, R; Feldmann, R; Lindner, V

    1993-12-01

    A case of primary autonomic failure (AF) with uncomplicated Parkinson's disease is presented with clinical and neurophysiological data. Special emphasis is placed on new methods of examining impairment of unmyelinated sympathetic and afferent C-fibres. Sympathetic vasoconstrictor responses in the skin induced by deep inspiration were examined quantitatively with laser Doppler flowmetry. The vasoconstriction was markedly depressed in primary AF compared with healthy controls and similar to secondary forms of AF. Peripheral nociceptive C-fibre function was quantitatively assessed by measurement of axon reflex vasodilatation induced by histamine iontophoresis. The axon reflex vasodilatation was completely intact in primary AF in contrast to patients with secondary peripheral small fibre neuropathy. The results indicate that sympathetic C-fibres are considerably affected by the degenerative disease, whereas the afferent C-fibres seem to be totally preserved. Modern neurophysiological methods of testing sympathetic and afferent small fibre function in combination with other neurophysiological tests, e.g. brain-stem auditory evoked potentials, might help to diagnose and differentiate primary AF in early stages and make it easier to distinguish between secondary autonomic neuropathies of unknown origin that often also involve unmyelinated afferent fibres. PMID:8138830

  15. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The Simulation Software, KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), is used to demonstrate the automatic identification of faults in a system. The ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operation) project uses KATE to monitor and find faults in the loading of the cryogenics int o a vehicle fuel tank. The KATE software interfaces with the IHM (Integrated Health Management) systems bus to communicate with other systems that are part of ACLO. One system that KATE uses the IHM bus to communicate with is AIS (Advanced Inspection System). KATE will send messages to AIS when there is a detected anomaly. These messages include visual inspection of specific valves, pressure gauges and control messages to have AIS open or close manual valves. My goals include implementing the connection to the IHM bus within KATE and for the AIS project. I will also be working on implementing changes to KATE's Ul and implementing the physics objects in KATE that will model portions of the cryogenics loading operation.

  16. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

  17. Loss of protein tyrosine phosphatase N2 potentiates epidermal growth factor suppression of intestinal epithelial chloride secretion.

    PubMed

    Scharl, Michael; Rudenko, Ivan; McCole, Declan F

    2010-10-01

    The Crohn's disease candidate gene, protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 2 (PTPN2), has been shown to regulate epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation in fibroblasts. In intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), EGF-induced EGF receptor (EGFR) activation and recruitment of PI3K play a key role in regulating many cellular functions including Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) secretion. Moreover, EGFR also serves as a conduit for signaling by other non-growth factor receptor ligands such as the proinflammatory cytokine, IFN-γ. Here we investigated a possible role for PTPN2 in the regulation of EGFR signaling and Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) secretion in IECs. PTPN2 knockdown enhanced EGF-induced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation in T(84) cells. In particular, PTPN2 knockdown promoted EGF-induced phosphorylation of EGFR residues Tyr-992 and Tyr-1068 and led subsequently to increased association of the catalytic PI3K subunit, p110, with EGFR and elevated phosphorylation of the downstream marker, Akt. As a functional consequence, loss of PTPN2 potentiated EGF-induced inhibition of carbachol-stimulated Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) secretion. In contrast, PTPN2 knockdown affected neither IFN-γ-induced EGFR transactivation nor EGF- or IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2. In summary, our data establish a role for PTPN2 in the regulation of EGFR signaling in IECs in response to EGF but not IFN-γ. Knockdown of PTPN2 directs EGFR signaling toward increased PI3K activation and increased suppression of epithelial chloride secretory responses. Moreover, our findings suggest that PTPN2 dysfunction in IECs leads to altered control of intestinal epithelial functions regulated by EGFR. PMID:20689057

  18. Effects of potential probiotic Bacillus cereus EN25 on growth, immunity and disease resistance of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yancui; Yuan, Lei; Wan, Junli; Sun, Zhenxing; Wang, Yiyan; Sun, Hushan

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine effects of potential probiotic Bacillus cereus EN25 (isolated from mud of sea cucumber culturing water bodies) on growth, immunity and disease resistance against Vibrio splendidus infection in juvenile sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus. Animals were respectively fed diets with B. cereus EN25 at 0 (control), 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) CFU/g for 30 days. Results showed that dietary B. cereus EN25 had no significant effects on growth, total coelomocytes counts and acid phosphatase activity of A. japonicus (P > 0.05). Dietary EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g had significantly improved the phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity and total nitric oxide synthase activity of animals (P < 0.05). Compared to control, dietary EN25 at 10(5) or 10(7) CFU/g had no significant effects on superoxide dismutase activity of A. japonicus (P > 0.05), whereas dietary EN25 at 10(9) CFU/g had significantly decreased its activity (P < 0.05). The cumulative mortality after V. splendidus challenge decreased significantly in sea cucumbers fed with EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed dietary B. cereus EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g could significantly improve immunity and disease resistance in juvenile A. japonicus. PMID:26723266

  19. Effects of potential probiotic Bacillus cereus EN25 on growth, immunity and disease resistance of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yancui; Yuan, Lei; Wan, Junli; Sun, Zhenxing; Wang, Yiyan; Sun, Hushan

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine effects of potential probiotic Bacillus cereus EN25 (isolated from mud of sea cucumber culturing water bodies) on growth, immunity and disease resistance against Vibrio splendidus infection in juvenile sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus. Animals were respectively fed diets with B. cereus EN25 at 0 (control), 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) CFU/g for 30 days. Results showed that dietary B. cereus EN25 had no significant effects on growth, total coelomocytes counts and acid phosphatase activity of A. japonicus (P > 0.05). Dietary EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g had significantly improved the phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity and total nitric oxide synthase activity of animals (P < 0.05). Compared to control, dietary EN25 at 10(5) or 10(7) CFU/g had no significant effects on superoxide dismutase activity of A. japonicus (P > 0.05), whereas dietary EN25 at 10(9) CFU/g had significantly decreased its activity (P < 0.05). The cumulative mortality after V. splendidus challenge decreased significantly in sea cucumbers fed with EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed dietary B. cereus EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g could significantly improve immunity and disease resistance in juvenile A. japonicus.

  20. Paradox of plant growth promotion potential of rhizobacteria and their actual promotion effect on growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Ratering, Stefan; Suarez, Christian; Zapata Montoya, Ana Maria; Geissler-Plaum, Rita; Schnell, Sylvia

    2015-12-01

    From the rhizosphere of two salt tolerant plant species, Hordeum secalinum and Plantago winteri growing in a naturally salt meadow, 100 strains were isolation on enrichment media for various plant growth-promoting (PGP) functions (ACC deaminase activity, auxin synthesis, calcium phosphate mobilization and nitrogen fixation). Based on the taxonomic affiliation of the isolated bacteria and their enrichment medium 22 isolates were selected to test their growth promotion effect on the crop barley (Hordeum vulgare) under salt stress in pot experiment. In parallel the isolates were characterized in pure culture for their plant growth-promoting activities. Surprisingly the best promotors did not display a promising set of PGP activities. Isolates with multiple PGP-activities in pure culture like Microbacterium natoriense strain E38 and Pseudomonas brassicacearum strain E8 did not promote plant growth. The most effective isolate was strain E108 identified as Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, which increased barley growth up to 300%. In pure culture strain E108 showed only two out of six plant growth promoting activities and would have been neglected. Our results highlight that screening based on pure culture assays may not be suitable for recognition of best plant growth promotion candidates and could preclude the detection of both new PGPR and new plant promotion mechanisms. PMID:26640049

  1. Paradox of plant growth promotion potential of rhizobacteria and their actual promotion effect on growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Ratering, Stefan; Suarez, Christian; Zapata Montoya, Ana Maria; Geissler-Plaum, Rita; Schnell, Sylvia

    2015-12-01

    From the rhizosphere of two salt tolerant plant species, Hordeum secalinum and Plantago winteri growing in a naturally salt meadow, 100 strains were isolation on enrichment media for various plant growth-promoting (PGP) functions (ACC deaminase activity, auxin synthesis, calcium phosphate mobilization and nitrogen fixation). Based on the taxonomic affiliation of the isolated bacteria and their enrichment medium 22 isolates were selected to test their growth promotion effect on the crop barley (Hordeum vulgare) under salt stress in pot experiment. In parallel the isolates were characterized in pure culture for their plant growth-promoting activities. Surprisingly the best promotors did not display a promising set of PGP activities. Isolates with multiple PGP-activities in pure culture like Microbacterium natoriense strain E38 and Pseudomonas brassicacearum strain E8 did not promote plant growth. The most effective isolate was strain E108 identified as Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, which increased barley growth up to 300%. In pure culture strain E108 showed only two out of six plant growth promoting activities and would have been neglected. Our results highlight that screening based on pure culture assays may not be suitable for recognition of best plant growth promotion candidates and could preclude the detection of both new PGPR and new plant promotion mechanisms.

  2. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Heung Yong; Baek, Hong Sun

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed. PMID:26706915

  3. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Heung Yong; Baek, Hong Sun; Park, Tae Sun

    2015-12-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed. PMID:26706915

  4. Bacterial growth efficiency in a partly eutrophicated bay of South China Sea: Implication for anthropogenic impacts and potential hypoxia events.

    PubMed

    Song, Xing-Yu; Liu, Hua-Xue; Zhong, Yu; Tan, Ye-Hui; Qin, Geng; Li, Kai-Zhi; Shen, Ping-Ping; Huang, Liang-Min; Wang, You-Shao

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial metabolism plays a dual role [bacterial production (BP) and bacterial respiration (BR)] in the aquatic ecosystem and potentially leads to hypoxia in the coastal eutrophic area. Bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) is an important index showing the contribution of bacterial metabolism to marine biological production and carbon budget in the pelagic ecosystem. In this study, the spatial and seasonal variety as well as diurnal variation dynamics of BGE and associated ecological characteristics were investigated in a partly eutrophicated subtropical bay (the Daya Bay) located in the northern South China Sea. Furthermore, the relationship between bacterial metabolism and potential hypoxia event was analyzed. The average BGE was 0.14 and 0.22 in summer and winter, respectively, which was lower than the mean value ever reported in other coastal and estuarine waters. The diurnal variations of BGE and BP were widely fluctuated in the Daya Bay, with approximately 3-8 fold variation of BP and 2-3 fold variation of BR in different seasons, suggesting the importance of short-term ecological dynamics on evaluating the long-term ecological processes in the coastal waters. BR was the predominant contributor to the bacterial carbon demand; however, the variation of BGE was controlled by BP in both seasons. BGE was always high in the near-shore waters with higher eutrophic level and more active BP and BR. The bacterial metabolism could deplete dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Daya bay within about 9 days when the water body was enclosed and photosynthesis was prohibited. Therefore, low DO concentration and potential hypoxia was more likely to be found in the near-shore waters of the Daya Bay in summer, since the water was stratified and enclosed with poor water exchange capacity in this area. While in winter, hypoxia seldom occurred due to vertical mixing throughout the water column. Further biological-physical coupling research is recommended to find out the detailed formation

  5. Human fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF-20; CG53135-05): a novel cytoprotectant with radioprotective potential.

    PubMed

    Maclachlan, T; Narayanan, B; Gerlach, V L; Smithson, G; Gerwien, R W; Folkerts, O; Fey, E G; Watkins, B; Seed, T; Alvarez, E

    2005-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate the radioprotective properties of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF-20; CG53135-05) in vitro and in vivo and to examine its effects on known cellular pathways of radioprotection. Relative transcript levels of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), Mn-super oxide dismutase (SOD), CuZn-SOD, extracellular (EC)-SOD, nuclear respiratory factor 2 (Nrf2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and intestinal trefoil factor 3 (ITF3) genes, which are involved in radiation response pathways, were assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in NIH/3T3, IEC18, CCD-18Co, CCD-1070sk and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cells exposed to FGF-20. Activation of the radioprotective signal transduction pathways initiating with the serine/threonine Akt kinase and the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) were analysed. Levels of intracellular hydrogen peroxide and cytosolic redox potential were also measured in irradiated and unirradiated cells in the presence or absence of FGF-20. The effects of FGF-20 on cell survival in vitro following ionizing radiation were evaluated using clonogenic assays. To test the potential activity of FGF-20 as a radioprotectant in vivo, mice were administered a single dose of FGF-20 (4 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally (i.p.) 1 day before lethal total-body irradiation and evaluated for survival. In vitro exposure to FGF-20 increased expression of the Nrf2 transcription factor and oxygen radical scavenging enzymes such as MnSOD, activated signal transduction pathways (ERK and Akt) and resulted in increased survival of irradiated cells in vitro. FGF-20 treatment also resulted in a concomitant reduction in intracellular levels of injurious reactive oxygen species (ROS) following acute ionizing irradiation. Finally, prophylactic administration of FGF-20 to mice before potentially lethal, whole-body X-irradiation led to significant increases in overall survival. FGF-20 reduced the lethal effects of acute

  6. Human fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF-20; CG53135-05): a novel cytoprotectant with radioprotective potential.

    PubMed

    Maclachlan, T; Narayanan, B; Gerlach, V L; Smithson, G; Gerwien, R W; Folkerts, O; Fey, E G; Watkins, B; Seed, T; Alvarez, E

    2005-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate the radioprotective properties of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF-20; CG53135-05) in vitro and in vivo and to examine its effects on known cellular pathways of radioprotection. Relative transcript levels of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), Mn-super oxide dismutase (SOD), CuZn-SOD, extracellular (EC)-SOD, nuclear respiratory factor 2 (Nrf2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and intestinal trefoil factor 3 (ITF3) genes, which are involved in radiation response pathways, were assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in NIH/3T3, IEC18, CCD-18Co, CCD-1070sk and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cells exposed to FGF-20. Activation of the radioprotective signal transduction pathways initiating with the serine/threonine Akt kinase and the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) were analysed. Levels of intracellular hydrogen peroxide and cytosolic redox potential were also measured in irradiated and unirradiated cells in the presence or absence of FGF-20. The effects of FGF-20 on cell survival in vitro following ionizing radiation were evaluated using clonogenic assays. To test the potential activity of FGF-20 as a radioprotectant in vivo, mice were administered a single dose of FGF-20 (4 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally (i.p.) 1 day before lethal total-body irradiation and evaluated for survival. In vitro exposure to FGF-20 increased expression of the Nrf2 transcription factor and oxygen radical scavenging enzymes such as MnSOD, activated signal transduction pathways (ERK and Akt) and resulted in increased survival of irradiated cells in vitro. FGF-20 treatment also resulted in a concomitant reduction in intracellular levels of injurious reactive oxygen species (ROS) following acute ionizing irradiation. Finally, prophylactic administration of FGF-20 to mice before potentially lethal, whole-body X-irradiation led to significant increases in overall survival. FGF-20 reduced the lethal effects of acute

  7. Chinese hamster V79 cells harbor potentially lethal damage which is neither fixed nor repaired for long times after attaining maximal survival under growth conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, N.M.S.; Nori, D.; Mayer, P.J.; Lange, C.S.

    1995-03-01

    The kinetics of the repair and fixation of potentially lethal damage (PLD) was studied in log-phase Chinese hamster V79 cells. The postirradiation (10 Gy) survival of cells treated with hypertonic saline increased when these cells were incubated further in conditioned medium but not in growth medium, indicating that damage which is neither fixed by hypertonic saline nor amenable to repair in growth medium is nonetheless repaired in conditioned medium. Recovery of X-irradiated cells incubated in growth medium or in conditioned medium was maximal by about 70 min and was two times higher in conditioned medium than in growth medium. Cells incubated in growth medium for 70-120 min postirradiation continued to repair damage when subsequently shifted to conditioned medium only. Thus PLD is not fixed by the time the recovery plateau has been attained in growth medium, and this unfixed PLD can still be repaired when cells are shifted to conditioned medium. To study the kinetics of fixation of PLD (without hypertonic saline), the survival of cells incubated in growth medium for up to 9 h postirradiation was compared with that for cells incubated in conditioned medium. These results show that the damage was neither fixed nor misrepaired in growth medium but rather remained unrepaired for up to 2 h, and that damage fixation in growth medium does not begin until after 2 h and is completed by 6 h postirradiation. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. The hypertension of autonomic failure and its treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J.; Jordan, J.; Costa, F.; Robertson, R. M.; Biaggioni, I.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the incidence and severity of supine hypertension in 117 patients with severe primary autonomic failure presenting to a referral center over a 9-year period. Patients were uniformly characterized by disabling orthostatic hypotension, lack of compensatory heart rate increase, abnormal autonomic function tests, and unresponsive plasma norepinephrine. Fifty-four patients had isolated autonomic impairment (pure autonomic failure). Sixty-three patients had central nervous system involvement in addition to autonomic impairment (multiple-system atrophy). Patients were studied off medications, in a metabolic ward, and on a controlled diet containing 150 mEq of sodium. Fifty-six percent of patients had supine diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mm Hg. The prevalence of hypertension was slightly greater in females (63%) than in males (52%). Potential mechanisms responsible for this hypertension were investigated. No correlation was found between blood volume and blood pressure. Similarly, plasma norepinephrine (92+/-15 pg/mL) and plasma renin activity (0.3+/-0.05 ng/mL per hour) were very low in the subset of patients with pure autonomic failure and supine hypertension (mean systolic/diastolic pressure, 177 +/- 6/108 +/- 2 mm Hg, range 167/97 to 219/121). Supine hypertension represents a challenge in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension. We found these patients to be particularly responsive to the hypotensive effects of transdermal nitroglycerin. Doses ranging from 0.025 to 0.1 mg/h decreased systolic blood pressure by 36+/-7 mm Hg and may effectively treat supine hypertension overnight, but the dose should be individualized and used with caution.

  9. Insulin-like growth factor-1 potentiates platelet activation via the IRS/PI3Kalpha pathway.

    PubMed

    Hers, Ingeborg

    2007-12-15

    As insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is present in the alpha granules of platelets and its receptor is expressed on the platelet surface, it may contribute to the amplification of platelet responses and pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The functional and signaling pathways that are involved in IGF-1 modulation of platelet function, however, are presently unknown. Here, I report that IGF-1 stimulation of platelets results in dose-dependent phosphorylation of the IGF receptor in the range of 1 to 100 nM. Phosphorylation of the IGF receptor is rapid and sustained, with maximal phosphorylation reached within 1 minute. Furthermore, IGF-1 stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and IRS-2 and their association with the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K). IGF-1-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2 and subsequent p85 binding is transient and precedes phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB) on Ser473. PAR-1-mediated platelet aggregation is potentiated by IGF-1 and this potentiation, together with PKB phosphorylation, is abolished by the PI3Kalpha inhibitors PI-103 and PIK-75. Importantly, the IGF receptor inhibitor NVP-AEW541 and the neutralization antibody alphaIR3 inhibit SFLLRN-stimulated aggregation, implicating IGF-1 in autocrine regulation of platelet function. These results demonstrate that IGF-1 activates the IGF receptor/IRS/PI3K/PKB pathway, and that PI3Kalpha is essential for the potentiatory effect of IGF-1 on platelet responses. PMID:17827393

  10. Insulin-like growth factor-1 potentiates platelet activation via the IRS/PI3Kalpha pathway.

    PubMed

    Hers, Ingeborg

    2007-12-15

    As insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is present in the alpha granules of platelets and its receptor is expressed on the platelet surface, it may contribute to the amplification of platelet responses and pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The functional and signaling pathways that are involved in IGF-1 modulation of platelet function, however, are presently unknown. Here, I report that IGF-1 stimulation of platelets results in dose-dependent phosphorylation of the IGF receptor in the range of 1 to 100 nM. Phosphorylation of the IGF receptor is rapid and sustained, with maximal phosphorylation reached within 1 minute. Furthermore, IGF-1 stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and IRS-2 and their association with the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K). IGF-1-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2 and subsequent p85 binding is transient and precedes phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB) on Ser473. PAR-1-mediated platelet aggregation is potentiated by IGF-1 and this potentiation, together with PKB phosphorylation, is abolished by the PI3Kalpha inhibitors PI-103 and PIK-75. Importantly, the IGF receptor inhibitor NVP-AEW541 and the neutralization antibody alphaIR3 inhibit SFLLRN-stimulated aggregation, implicating IGF-1 in autocrine regulation of platelet function. These results demonstrate that IGF-1 activates the IGF receptor/IRS/PI3K/PKB pathway, and that PI3Kalpha is essential for the potentiatory effect of IGF-1 on platelet responses.

  11. Cytotoxic Potential of Bacillus cereus Strains ATCC 11778 and 14579 Against Human Lung Epithelial Cells Under Microaerobic Growth Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kilcullen, Kathleen; Teunis, Allison; Popova, Taissia G.; Popov, Serguei G.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus, a food poisoning bacterium closely related to Bacillus anthracis, secretes a multitude of virulence factors including enterotoxins, hemolysins, and phospholipases. However, the majority of the in vitro experiments evaluating the cytotoxic potential of B. cereus were carried out in the conditions of aeration, and the impact of the oxygen limitation in conditions encountered by the microbe in natural environment such as gastrointestinal tract remains poorly understood. This research reports comparative analysis of ATCC strains 11778 (BC1) and 14579 (BC2) in aerobic and microaerobic (static) cultures with regard to their toxicity for human lung epithelial cells. We showed that BC1 increased its toxicity upon oxygen limitation while BC2 was highly cytotoxic in both growth conditions. The combined effect of the pore-forming, cholesterol-dependent hemolysin, cereolysin O (CLO), and metabolic product(s) such as succinate produced in microaerobic conditions provided substantial contribution to the toxicity of BC1 but not BC2 which relied mainly on other toxins. This mechanism is shared between CB1 and B. anthracis. It involves the permeabilization of the cell membrane which facilitates transport of toxic bacterial metabolites into the cell. The toxicity of BC1 was potentiated in the presence of bovine serum albumin which appeared to serve as reservoir for bacteria-derived nitric oxide participating in the downstream production of reactive oxidizing species with the properties of peroxynitrite. In agreement with this the BC1 cultures demonstrated the increased oxidation of the indicator dye Amplex Red catalyzed by peroxidase as well as the increased toxicity in the presence of externally added ascorbic acid. PMID:26870026

  12. Chaotic neurodynamics for autonomous agents.

    PubMed

    Harter, Derek; Kozma, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Mesoscopic level neurodynamics study the collective dynamical behavior of neural populations. Such models are becoming increasingly important in understanding large-scale brain processes. Brains exhibit aperiodic oscillations with a much more rich dynamical behavior than fixed-point and limit-cycle approximation allow. Here we present a discretized model inspired by Freeman's K-set mesoscopic level population model. We show that this version is capable of replicating the important principles of aperiodic/chaotic neurodynamics while being fast enough for use in real-time autonomous agent applications. This simplification of the K model provides many advantages not only in terms of efficiency but in simplicity and its ability to be analyzed in terms of its dynamical properties. We study the discrete version using a multilayer, highly recurrent model of the neural architecture of perceptual brain areas. We use this architecture to develop example action selection mechanisms in an autonomous agent. PMID:15940987

  13. Autonomous spacecraft maintenance study group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, M. H.; Low, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    A plan to incorporate autonomous spacecraft maintenance (ASM) capabilities into Air Force spacecraft by 1989 is outlined. It includes the successful operation of the spacecraft without ground operator intervention for extended periods of time. Mechanisms, along with a fault tolerant data processing system (including a nonvolatile backup memory) and an autonomous navigation capability, are needed to replace the routine servicing that is presently performed by the ground system. The state of the art fault handling capabilities of various spacecraft and computers are described, and a set conceptual design requirements needed to achieve ASM is established. Implementations for near term technology development needed for an ASM proof of concept demonstration by 1985, and a research agenda addressing long range academic research for an advanced ASM system for 1990s are established.

  14. Evasion of anti-growth signaling: A key step in tumorigenesis and potential target for treatment and prophylaxis by natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Amin, A R M Ruhul; Karpowicz, Phillip A; Carey, Thomas E; Arbiser, Jack; Nahta, Rita; Chen, Zhuo G; Dong, Jin-Tang; Kucuk, Omer; Khan, Gazala N; Huang, Gloria S; Mi, Shijun; Lee, Ho-Young; Reichrath, Joerg; Honoki, Kanya; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Amedei, Amedeo; Amin, Amr; Helferich, Bill; Boosani, Chandra S; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Keith, W Nicol; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Niccolai, Elena; Fujii, Hiromasa; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan; Bilsland, Alan; Shin, Dong M

    2015-12-01

    The evasion of anti-growth signaling is an important characteristic of cancer cells. In order to continue to proliferate, cancer cells must somehow uncouple themselves from the many signals that exist to slow down cell growth. Here, we define the anti-growth signaling process, and review several important pathways involved in growth signaling: p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), retinoblastoma protein (Rb), Hippo, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A), Notch, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) pathways. Aberrations in these processes in cancer cells involve mutations and thus the suppression of genes that prevent growth, as well as mutation and activation of genes involved in driving cell growth. Using these pathways as examples, we prioritize molecular targets that might be leveraged to promote anti-growth signaling in cancer cells. Interestingly, naturally occurring phytochemicals found in human diets (either singly or as mixtures) may promote anti-growth signaling, and do so without the potentially adverse effects associated with synthetic chemicals. We review examples of naturally occurring phytochemicals that may be applied to prevent cancer by antagonizing growth signaling, and propose one phytochemical for each pathway. These are: epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for the Rb pathway, luteolin for p53, curcumin for PTEN, porphyrins for Hippo, genistein for GDF15, resveratrol for ARID1A, withaferin A for Notch and diguelin for the IGF1-receptor pathway. The coordination of anti-growth signaling and natural compound studies will provide insight into the future application of these compounds in the clinical setting.

  15. Novel diphenylamine 2,4'-dicarboxamide based azoles as potential epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors: synthesis and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Abou-Seri, Sahar Mahmoud; Farag, Nahla Ahmed; Hassan, Ghaneya Sayed

    2011-01-01

    Several hybrid molecules of diphenylamine-2,4'-dicarboxamide with various azolidinones and related heterocyclic rings have been synthesized and explored as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors. Most of them displayed promising in vitro tyrosine kinase inhibition as well as potent cellular antiproliferative activity in the EGFR over-expressing breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Compounds 12b and 13b that exhibited the highest inhibition in the kinase assay (89, 81% inhibition at 10 μM, respectively), showed potent antiproliferative effect against MCF-7 tumor cell line (IC(50) 1.04, 0.91 μM respectively). Molecular docking studies revealed that these compounds can bind to ATP binding site of the EGFR kinase domain and were involved in H-bonding with Met 793, in analogy to the known EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Moreover, compounds 15a-c possessed profound antitumor activity (IC(50) 0.59-0.73 μM) and significant EGFR-TK inhibition, making them of particular interest. In summary, the newly synthesized compounds provide promising new lead for the future design and development of anticancer agents of potential EGFR-TK inhibitory activity.

  16. A Comprehensive Tool for Exploring the Availability, Scalability and Growth Potential of Conventional and Renewable Energy Sources and Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack-Scott, E.; Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.; Davis, S. J.; Delman, E.

    2015-12-01

    It has been a generational challenge to simultaneously meet the world's energy requirements, while remaining within the bounds of acceptable cost and environmental impact. To this end, substantial research has explored various energy futures on a global scale, leaving decision-makers and the public overwhelmed by information on energy options. In response, this interactive energy table was developed as a comprehensive resource through which users can explore the availability, scalability, and growth potentials of all energy technologies currently in use or development. Extensive research from peer-reviewed papers and reports was compiled and summarized, detailing technology costs, technical considerations, imminent breakthroughs, and obstacles to integration, as well as political, social, and environmental considerations. Energy technologies fall within categories of coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, solar, wind, hydropower, ocean, geothermal and biomass. In addition to 360 expandable cells of cited data, the interactive table also features educational windows with background information on each energy technology. The table seeks not to advocate for specific energy futures, but to succinctly and accurately centralize peer-reviewed research and information in an interactive, accessible resource. With this tool, decision-makers, researchers and the public alike can explore various combinations of energy technologies and their quantitative and qualitative attributes that can satisfy the world's total primary energy supply (TPES) while making progress towards a near zero carbon future.

  17. Effects of substrate water potential in root growth of Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings.

    PubMed

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; Sánchez-Urdaneta, Adriana B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that root of maguey (Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck) seedlings reacts during the first 24 h to low substrate water potential (PsiW), by anatomical modifications. Three-4 cm root length seedlings were planted in vermiculite for 24 h at PsiW between -0.03 and -2.35 MPa. Root dimensions, proline content and anatomy were evaluated. Substrate PsiW between -0.65 and -2.35 MPa did not significantly affect longitudinal root growth. However, proline content significantly increased from 1.6 to 2.1 micromoles mg(-1). Significant reductions of transverse root area (41%), thickness of mucilage covering the epidermis (47%), thickness of epidermis (between 15 and 46%), area of the parenchyma (between 35 and 41%) and number of vessels (up to 28%) were observed with PsiW of -2.35 MPa. In contrast, thickness of xylem wall, diameter of xylem vessels and the number of cells of the cortex of the differentiation root region significantly increased (64, 17, and 97%, respectively). The anatomical changes associated with low substrate PsiW indicate a net increase of root apoplatic paths; structures involved in water conduction increased their diameter under low substrate PsiW conditions and anatomical changes occurred during the first 24 h of water stress.

  18. Effects of intrauterine growth restriction on sleep and the cardiovascular system: The use of melatonin as a potential therapy?

    PubMed

    Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wallace, Euan M; Miller, Suzanne L; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2016-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) complicates 5-10% of pregnancies and is associated with increased risk of preterm birth, mortality and neurodevelopmental delay. The development of sleep and cardiovascular control are closely coupled and IUGR is known to alter this development. In the long-term, IUGR is associated with altered sleep and an increased risk of hypertension in adulthood. Melatonin plays an important role in the sleep-wake cycle. Experimental animal studies have shown that melatonin therapy has neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects in the IUGR fetus. Consequently, clinical trials are currently underway to assess the short and long term effects of antenatal melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies. Given melatonin's role in sleep regulation, this hormone could affect the developing infants' sleep-wake cycle and cardiovascular function after birth. In this review, we will 1) examine the role of melatonin as a therapy for IUGR pregnancies and the potential implications on sleep and the cardiovascular system; 2) examine the development of sleep-wake cycle in fetal and neonatal life; 3) discuss the development of cardiovascular control during sleep; 4) discuss the effect of IUGR on sleep and the cardiovascular system and 5) discuss the future implications of melatonin therapy in IUGR pregnancies.

  19. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative

    PubMed Central

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. Conclusions In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi. PMID:25183114

  20. Nerve growth factor and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D): a potential therapeutic target?*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-juan; Liu, Liang; Yao, Shu-kun

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with abnormal bowel habits. Diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) is a major subtype of IBS, the predominant manifestations of which are abdominal pain and diarrhea. The pathogenesis of IBS-D remained unknown until recently. The effects of psychosocial stress, central hypervigilance, neuroendocrine abnormality, disturbed gastrointestinal motility, mucosal immune activation, intestinal barrier dysfunction, visceral hypersensitivity (VH), altered gut flora, and genetic susceptibility may be involved in its development. Recently, increased attention has been placed on the neural-immune-endocrine network mechanism in IBS-D, especially the role of various neuroendocrine mediators. As a member of the neurotrophin family, nerve growth factor (NGF) has diverse biological effects, and participates in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Basic studies have demonstrated that NGF is associated with inflammatory- and stress-related VH, as well as stress-related intestinal barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study is to summarize recent literature and discuss the role of NGF in the pathophysiology of IBS-D, especially in VH and intestinal barrier dysfunction, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target in IBS-D. PMID:26739521

  1. Integrated System for Autonomous Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Shulman, Seth; Doggett, Thomas; Ip, Felipe; Greeley, Ron; Baker, Victor; Dohn, James; Boyer, Darrell

    2006-01-01

    The New Millennium Program Space Technology 6 Project Autonomous Sciencecraft software implements an integrated system for autonomous planning and execution of scientific, engineering, and spacecraft-coordination actions. A prior version of this software was reported in "The TechSat 21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment" (NPO-30784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 3 (March 2004), page 33. This software is now in continuous use aboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) spacecraft mission and is being adapted for use in the Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. This software enables EO-1 to detect and respond to such events of scientific interest as volcanic activity, flooding, and freezing and thawing of water. It uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect changes, including events of scientific interest. Detection of such events triggers acquisition of follow-up imagery. The mission-planning component of the software develops a response plan that accounts for visibility of targets and operational constraints. The plan is then executed under control by a task-execution component of the software that is capable of responding to anomalies.

  2. Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Verrotti, Alberto; Prezioso, Giovanni; Scattoni, Raffaella; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified, which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention, and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss, and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population. PMID:25520703

  3. Autonomic Computing: Panacea or Poppycock?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Autonomic Computing arose out of a need for a means to cope with rapidly growing complexity of integrating, managing, and operating computer-based systems as well as a need to reduce the total cost of ownership of today's systems. Autonomic Computing (AC) as a discipline was proposed by IBM in 2001, with the vision to develop self-managing systems. As the name implies, the influence for the new paradigm is the human body's autonomic system, which regulates vital bodily functions such as the control of heart rate, the body's temperature and blood flow-all without conscious effort. The vision is to create selfivare through self-* properties. The initial set of properties, in terms of objectives, were self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protecting, along with attributes of self-awareness, self-monitoring and self-adjusting. This self-* list has grown: self-anticipating, self-critical, self-defining, self-destructing, self-diagnosis, self-governing, self-organized, self-reflecting, and self-simulation, for instance.

  4. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  5. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Few, Doug; Versteeg, Roelof; Herman, Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude - from an autonomous robotic perspective - the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  6. Pilot In Command: A Feasibility Assessment of Autonomous Flight Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2004-01-01

    Several years of NASA research have produced the air traffic management operational concept of Autonomous Flight Management with high potential for operational feasibility, significant system and user benefits, and safety. Among the chief potential benefits are demand-adaptive or scalable capacity, user flexibility and autonomy that may finally enable truly successful business strategies, and compatibility with current-day operations such that the implementation rate can be driven from within the user community. A concept summary of Autonomous Flight Management is provided, including a description of how these operations would integrate in shared airspace with existing ground-controlled flight operations. The mechanisms enabling the primary benefits are discussed, and key findings of a feasibility assessment of airborne autonomous operations are summarized. Concept characteristics that impact safety are presented, and the potential for initially implementing Autonomous Flight Management is discussed.

  7. Objective speckle velocimetry for autonomous vehicle odometry.

    PubMed

    Francis, D; Charrett, T O H; Waugh, L; Tatam, R P

    2012-06-01

    Speckle velocimetry is investigated as a means of determining odometry data with potential for application on autonomous robotic vehicles. The technique described here relies on the integration of translation measurements made by normalized cross-correlation of speckle patterns to determine the change in position over time. The use of objective (non-imaged) speckle offers a number of advantages over subjective (imaged) speckle, such as a reduction in the number of optical components, reduced modulation of speckles at the edges of the image, and improved light efficiency. The influence of the source/detector configuration on the speckle translation to vehicle translation scaling factor for objective speckle is investigated using a computer model and verified experimentally. Experimental measurements are presented at velocities up to 80  mm s(-1) which show accuracy better than 0.4%.

  8. The Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI)

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1995-12-31

    A mobile robot system called Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) is under development by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure to potential hazards and create accurate, high-quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance and enhance waste management operations. Development work is coordinated among several Department of Energy (DOE), academic, and commercial entities in accordance wit DOE`s technology transfer initiative. The prototype system, SWAMI I, was demonstrated at Savannah River Site (SRS) in November, 1993. SWAMI II is now under development for field trails at the Fernald site.

  9. Autonomous Formations of Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhali, Sanjana; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous formation control of multi-agent dynamic systems has a number of applications that include ground-based and aerial robots and satellite formations. For air vehicles, formation flight ("flocking") has the potential to significantly increase airspace utilization as well as fuel efficiency. This presentation addresses two main problems in multi-agent formations: optimal role assignment to minimize the total cost (e.g., combined distance traveled by all agents); and maintaining formation geometry during flock motion. The Kuhn-Munkres ("Hungarian") algorithm is used for optimal assignment, and consensus-based leader-follower type control architecture is used to maintain formation shape despite the leader s independent movements. The methods are demonstrated by animated simulations.

  10. Objective speckle velocimetry for autonomous vehicle odometry.

    PubMed

    Francis, D; Charrett, T O H; Waugh, L; Tatam, R P

    2012-06-01

    Speckle velocimetry is investigated as a means of determining odometry data with potential for application on autonomous robotic vehicles. The technique described here relies on the integration of translation measurements made by normalized cross-correlation of speckle patterns to determine the change in position over time. The use of objective (non-imaged) speckle offers a number of advantages over subjective (imaged) speckle, such as a reduction in the number of optical components, reduced modulation of speckles at the edges of the image, and improved light efficiency. The influence of the source/detector configuration on the speckle translation to vehicle translation scaling factor for objective speckle is investigated using a computer model and verified experimentally. Experimental measurements are presented at velocities up to 80  mm s(-1) which show accuracy better than 0.4%. PMID:22695586

  11. Effects of sires with different weight gain potentials and varying planes of nutrition on growth of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Ha, Duck-Min; Jung, Dae-Yun; Park, Man Jong; Park, Byung-Chul; Lee, C Young

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of two groups of sires with 'medium' and 'high' weight gain potentials (M-sires and H-sires, respectively) on growth of their progenies on varying planes of nutrition during the growing-finishing period. The ADG of the M-sires' progeny was greater (P < 0.05) than that of the H-sires' progeny (0.51 vs. 0.47 kg) during a 26- to 29-d early grower phase beginning from 55 d of age, but the opposite was true (0.66 vs. 0.72 kg) during the latter grower phase. Overall grower-phase ADG was greatest on the high plane of nutrition (H plane) followed by the medium (M) and low (L) planes (0.65, 0.61, and 0.51 kg, respectively; P < 0.05) in the M-sires' progeny, whereas in the H-sires' progeny, ADG was greater on the H and M planes vs. L plane (0.63, 0.62, and 0.54 kg, respectively). The ADG of pigs on the M or H plane during the grower phase and switched to the H plane thereafter (M-to-H or H-to-H planes) was greater than that of pigs on the L-to-L planes (0.99 vs. 0.78 kg) during the early finisher phase in the M-sires' progeny (P < 0.01). However, in the H-sires' progeny, ADG of pigs on the L-to-L planes did not differ from that of pigs on the M-to-M or H-to-M planes (0.94 vs. 0.96 kg). Results suggest that the H-to-H or H-to-M planes and M-to-M or M-to-L planes are optimal for maximal growth of the M- and H-sires' progenies, respectively.

  12. [Effects of the thiol reagent dithiothreitol on the oxidation-reduction potential and the growth of Escherichia coli in anaerobic conditions at different pH].

    PubMed

    Kirakosian, G; Bagramian, K; Trchunian, A

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the oxidation-reduction potential of medium during the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria under anaerobic conditions in the pH range 5.5-7.5 were studied. It was shown that dithiothreitol, a reducer of thiol groups, at a concentration of 3 mM decreased the initial value of oxidation-reduction potential to negative values of -60 to -220 mV, increased the duration of the lag growth phase, decreased the growth rate, and lowered the acidification of the medium and accumulation of potassium ions independently of pH. The value of the potential in the presence of 3 mM dithiothreitol decreased by 15-20 mV both at alkaline and acidic pH. Dithiothreitol at a concentration of 10 mM stopped molecular hydrogen production at pH 5.5 only. The effects of dithiothreitol on the oxidation-reduction potential and bacterial growth were probably associated with changes in the state of thiol groups in membrane proteins, which affects the generation of membrane potential, proton secretion from cells, K+ accumulation in bacteria, and the activity of membrane-associated enzymes.

  13. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrading, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  14. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  15. Role of the Autonomic Nervous System in Atrial Fibrillation: Pathophysiology and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-Sheng; Chen, Lan S.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Lin, Shien-Fong; Nattel, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic nervous system activation can induce significant and heterogeneous changes of atrial electrophysiology and induce atrial tachyarrhythmias, including atrial tachycardia (AT) and atrial fibrillation (AF). The importance of the autonomic nervous system in atrial arrhythmogenesis is also supported by circadian variation in the incidence of symptomatic AF in humans. Methods that reduce autonomic innervation or outflow have been shown to reduce the incidence of spontaneous or induced atrial arrhythmias, suggesting that neuromodulation may be helpful in controlling AF. In this review we focus on the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and the pathophysiology of AF, and the potential benefit and limitations of neuromodulation in the management of this arrhythmia. We conclude that autonomic nerve activity plays an important role in the initiation and maintenance of AF, and modulating autonomic nerve function may contribute to AF control. Potential therapeutic applications include ganglionated plexus ablation, renal sympathetic denervation, cervical vagal nerve stimulation, baroreflex stimulation, cutaneous stimulation, novel drug approaches and biological therapies. While the role of the autonomic nervous system has long been recognized, new science and new technologies promise exciting prospects for the future. PMID:24763467

  16. Transforming Growth Factor Beta Family: Insight into the Role of Growth Factors in Regulation of Fracture Healing Biology and Potential Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Poniatowski, Łukasz A.; Gasik, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family forms a group of three isoforms, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3, with their structure formed by interrelated dimeric polypeptide chains. Pleiotropic and redundant functions of the TGF-β family concern control of numerous aspects and effects of cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and migration, in all tissues of the human body. Amongst many cytokines and growth factors, the TGF-β family is considered a group playing one of numerous key roles in control of physiological phenomena concerning maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in the bone tissue. By breaking the continuity of bone tissue, a spread-over-time and complex bone healing process is initiated, considered a recapitulation of embryonic intracartilaginous ossification. This process is a cascade of local and systemic phenomena spread over time, involving whole cell lineages and various cytokines and growth factors. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies in various models analysing cytokines and growth fa