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Sample records for autonomous observing strategies

  1. Autonomous observing strategies for the ocean carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, James K.; Davis, Russ E.

    2000-07-26

    Understanding the exchanges of carbon between the atmosphere and ocean and the fate of carbon delivered to the deep sea is fundamental to the evaluation of ocean carbon sequestration options. An additional key requirement is that sequestration must be verifiable and that environmental effects be monitored and minimized. These needs can be addressed by carbon system observations made from low-cost autonomous ocean-profiling floats and gliders. We have developed a prototype ocean carbon system profiler based on the Sounding Oceanographic Lagrangian Observer (SOLO; Davis et al., 1999). The SOLO/ carbon profiler will measure the two biomass components of the carbon system and their relationship to physical variables, such as upper ocean stratification and mixing. The autonomous observations within the upper 1500 m will be made on daily time scales for periods of months to seasons and will be carried out in biologically dynamic locations in the world's oceans that are difficult to access with ships (due to weather) or observe using remote sensing satellites (due to cloud cover). Such an observational capability not only will serve an important role in carbon sequestration research but will provide key observations of the global ocean's natural carbon cycle.

  2. Actions, Observations, and Decision-Making: Biologically Inspired Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Young, Larry A.; Lau, Benton

    2003-01-01

    This paper details the development and demonstration of an autonomous aerial vehicle embodying search and find mission planning and execution srrategies inspired by foraging behaviors found in biology. It begins by describing key characteristics required by an aeria! explorer to support science and planetary exploration goals, and illustrates these through a hypothetical mission profile. It next outlines a conceptual bio- inspired search and find autonomy architecture that implements observations, decisions, and actions through an "ecology" of producer, consumer, and decomposer agents. Moving from concepts to development activities, it then presents the results of mission representative UAV aerial surveys at a Mars analog site. It next describes hardware and software enhancements made to a commercial small fixed-wing UAV system, which inc!nde a ncw dpvelopnent architecture that also provides hardware in the loop simulation capability. After presenting the results of simulated and actual flights of bioinspired flight algorithms, it concludes with a discussion of future development to include an expansion of system capabilities and field science support.

  3. Autonomous landmark tracking orbit determination strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. K.; Cheng, Y.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an orbit determination strategy is described that is fully autonomous and relies on a computer-based crater detection and identification algorithm that is suitable for both automation of the ground based navigation system and autonomous spacecraft based navigation.

  4. A Diversified Investment Strategy Using Autonomous Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Rui Pedro; Belo, Orlando

    In a previously published article, we presented an architecture for implementing agents with the ability to trade autonomously in the Forex market. At the core of this architecture is an ensemble of classification and regression models that is used to predict the direction of the price of a currency pair. In this paper, we will describe a diversified investment strategy consisting of five agents which were implemented using that architecture. By simulating trades with 18 months of out-of-sample data, we will demonstrate that data mining models can produce profitable predictions, and that the trading risk can be diminished through investment diversification.

  5. Path planning strategies for autonomous ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Kevin Kent

    Several key issues involved with the planning and executing of optimally generated paths for autonomous vehicles are addressed. Two new path planning algorithms are developed, and examined, which effectively minimize replanning as unmapped hazards are encountered. The individual algorithms are compared via extensive simulation. The search strategy results are implemented and tested using the University of Colorado's autonomous vehicle test-bed, RoboCar, and results show the advantages of solving the single-destination all-paths problem for autonomous vehicle path planning. Both path planners implement a graph search methodology incorporating dynamic programming that solves the single-destination shortest-paths problem. Algorithm 1, termed DP for dynamic programming, searches a state space where each state represents a potential vehicle location in a breadth-first fashion expanding from the goal to all potential start locations in the state space. Algorithm 2, termed DP*, couples the heuristic search power of the well-known A* search procedure (Nilsson-80) with the dynamic programming principle applied to graph searching to efficiently make use of overlapping subproblems. DP* is the primary research contribution of the work contained within this thesis. The advantage of solving the single-destination shortest-paths problem is that the entire terrain map is solved in terms of reaching a specified goal. Therefore, if the robot is diverted from the pre-planned path, an alternative path is already computed. The search algorithms are extended to include a probabilistic approach using empirical loss functions to incorporate terrain map uncertainties into the path considering terrain planning process. The results show the importance of considering terrain uncertainty. If the map representation ignores uncertainty by marking any area with less than perfect confidence as unpassable or assigns it the worst case rating, then the paths are longer than intuitively necessary. A

  6. SVOM Observing Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachaud, C.; SVOM Consortium

    2016-10-01

    We will present the observing strategy developed to optimize the scientific return of the SVOM mission. We will review the attitude law, the communication processes and the different observation programs (Core Program, ToO and General Program).

  7. A design strategy for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forster, Pete

    1989-01-01

    Some solutions to crucial issues regarding the competent performance of an autonomously operating robot are identified; namely, that of handling multiple and variable data sources containing overlapping information and maintaining coherent operation while responding adequately to changes in the environment. Support for the ideas developed for the construction of such behavior are extracted from speculations in the study of cognitive psychology, an understanding of the behavior of controlled mechanisms, and the development of behavior-based robots in a few robot research laboratories. The validity of these ideas is supported by some simple simulation experiments in the field of mobile robot navigation and guidance.

  8. Modeling and Control Strategies for Autonomous Robotic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-23

    Robotic Systems 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Roger W. Brockett A]&. TYPE Of REPORT 113b. TIME COVERD 114 DATt__Of RE PVRT (Year- month, Day) S.PAGE COUNT Final...NO. ACCESSION NO Reseaich Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211I I 11 TITLE (ir-’-4 Cae-unrv Canmuicauon) Modeling and Control Strategies for Autonomous

  9. Autonomous UAV persistent surveillance using bio-inspired strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

    2012-06-01

    A team consisting of Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the Army Research Laboratory, the Engineer Research and Development Center, and IBM UK is developing technologies in support of automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous battlefield sensor networks to enhance situational awareness for dismounts and command echelons. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from a sparse network of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous collection routes that are data-driven. Bioinspired techniques for autonomous search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data from heterogeneous sensor networks. The bio-inspired algorithm is based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. Field tests of a bio-inspired system that routed UAVs were conducted in June 2011 at Camp Roberts, CA. The field test results showed that such a system can autonomously detect and locate the source of terrestrial events with very high accuracy and visually verify the event. In June 2011, field tests of the system were completed and include the use of multiple autonomously controlled UAVs, detection and disambiguation of multiple acoustic events occurring in short time frames, optimal sensor placement based on local phenomenology and the use of the International Technology Alliance (ITA) Sensor Network Fabric. The system demonstrated TRL 6 performance in the field at Camp Roberts.

  10. SSPARR: Development of an efficient autonomous sampling strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayes, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    The Seafloor Sounding in Polar and Remote Regions (SSPARR) effort was launched in 2004 with funding from the US National Science Foundation (Anderson et al. 2005.) Experiments with a prototype were encouraging (Greenspan et al., 2012, Chayes et al. 2012) and we are proceeding toward building and testing units for deployment during the 2014 season season in ice covered parts of the Arctic ocean. The simplest operational mode for a SSPARR buoy will be to wake and sample on a fixed time interval. A slightly more complex mode will check the distance traveled since the pervious sounding and potentially return to sleep-mode if it has not traveled far enough to make a significant new measurement. We are developing a mode that will use a sampling strategy based on querying an on-board copy of the best available digital terrain model (DTM) e.g. IBCAO in the Arctic, to help decide if it is appropriate to turn on the echo sounder and make a new measurement. We anticipate that a robust strategy of this type will allow a buoy to operate substantially longer on a fixed battery size. Anderson, R., D. Chayes, et al. (2005). "Seafloor Soundings in Polar and Remote Regions - A new instrument for unattended bathymetric observations," Eos Trans. AGU 86(18): Abstract C43A-10. Greenspan, D., D. Porter, et al. (2012). "IBuoy: Expendable Echo Sounder Buoy with Satellite Telemetry." EOS Fall Meeting Supplement C13E-0660. Chayes, D. N., S. A. Goemmer, et al. (2012). "SSPARR-3: A cost-effective autonomous drifting echosounder." EOS Fall Meeting supplement C13E-0659.

  11. Autonomous Coordination of Science Observations Using Multiple Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara A.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel M.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Schoolcraft, Joshua B.; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton G.; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Granville, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This software provides capabilities for autonomous cross-cueing and coordinated observations between multiple orbital and landed assets. Previous work has been done in re-tasking a single Earth orbiter or a Mars rover in response to that craft detecting a science event. This work enables multiple spacecraft to communicate (over a network designed for deep-space communications) and autonomously coordinate the characterization of such a science event. This work investigates a new paradigm of space science campaigns where opportunistic science observations are autonomously coordinated among multiple spacecraft. In this paradigm, opportunistic science detections can be cued by multiple assets where a second asset is requested to take additional observations characterizing the identified surface feature or event. To support this new paradigm, an autonomous science system for multiple spacecraft assets was integrated with the Interplanetary Network DTN (Delay Tolerant Network) to provide communication between spacecraft assets. This technology enables new mission concepts that are not feasible with current technology. The ability to rapidly coordinate activities across spacecraft without requiring ground in the loop enables rapid reaction to dynamic events across platforms, such as a survey instrument followed by a targeted high resolution instrument, as well as regular simultaneous observations.

  12. Navigation strategies for multiple autonomous mobile robots moving in formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of deriving navigation strategies for a fleet of autonomous mobile robots moving in formation is considered. Here, each robot is represented by a particle with a spherical effective spatial domain and a specified cone of visibility. The global motion of each robot in the world space is described by the equations of motion of the robot's center of mass. First, methods for formation generation are discussed. Then, simple navigation strategies for robots moving in formation are derived. A sufficient condition for the stability of a desired formation pattern for a fleet of robots each equipped with the navigation strategy based on nearest neighbor tracking is developed. The dynamic behavior of robot fleets consisting of three or more robots moving in formation in a plane is studied by means of computer simulation.

  13. Autonomous Flight Rules Concept: User Implementation Costs and Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, William B.; Hilb, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The costs to implement Autonomous Flight Rules (AFR) were examined for estimates in acquisition, installation, training and operations. The user categories were airlines, fractional operators, general aviation and unmanned aircraft systems. Transition strategies to minimize costs while maximizing operational benefits were also analyzed. The primary cost category was found to be the avionics acquisition. Cost ranges for AFR equipment were given to reflect the uncertainty of the certification level for the equipment and the extent of existing compatible avionics in the aircraft to be modified.

  14. Autonomic nervous system correlates in movement observation and motor imagery

    PubMed Central

    Collet, C.; Di Rienzo, F.; El Hoyek, N.; Guillot, A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature offering a better understanding of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) correlates in motor imagery (MI) and movement observation. These are two high brain functions involving sensori-motor coupling, mediated by memory systems. How observing or mentally rehearsing a movement affect ANS activity has not been extensively investigated. The links between cognitive functions and ANS responses are not so obvious. We will first describe the organization of the ANS whose main purposes are controlling vital functions by maintaining the homeostasis of the organism and providing adaptive responses when changes occur either in the external or internal milieu. We will then review how scientific knowledge evolved, thus integrating recent findings related to ANS functioning, and show how these are linked to mental functions. In turn, we will describe how movement observation or MI may elicit physiological responses at the peripheral level of the autonomic effectors, thus eliciting autonomic correlates to cognitive activity. Key features of this paper are to draw a step-by step progression from the understanding of ANS physiology to its relationships with high mental processes such as movement observation or MI. We will further provide evidence that mental processes are co-programmed both at the somatic and autonomic levels of the central nervous system (CNS). We will thus detail how peripheral physiological responses may be analyzed to provide objective evidence that MI is actually performed. The main perspective is thus to consider that, during movement observation and MI, ANS activity is an objective witness of mental processes. PMID:23908623

  15. Clinical laboratory evaluation of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy: Preliminary observations

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, David S.; Holmes, Courtney; Imrich, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Several forms of chronic autonomic failure manifest as neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, including autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) and pure autonomic failure (PAF). AAG and PAF are thought to differ in pathogenesis, AAG reflecting decreased ganglionic neurotransmission due to circulating antibodies to the neuronal nicotinic receptor and PAF being a Lewy body disease with prominent loss of sympathetic noradrenergic nerves. AAG therefore would be expected to differ from PAF in terms of clinical laboratory findings indicating postganglionic noradrenergic denervation. Both diseases are rare. Here we report preliminary observations about clinical physiologic, neuropharmacologic, neurochemical, and neuroimaging data that seem to fit with the hypothesized pathogenetic difference between AAG and PAF. Patients with either condition have evidence of baroreflex–sympathoneural and baroreflex–cardiovagal failure. Both disorders feature low plasma levels of catecholamines during supine rest, but plasma levels of the other endogenous catechols, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), seem to be lower in PAF than in AAG, probably reflecting decreased norepinephrine synthesis and turnover in PAF, due to diffuse sympathetic noradrenergic denervation. PAF entails cardiac sympathetic denervation, whereas cardiac sympathetic neuroimaging by thoracic 6-[18F]fluorodopamine scanning indicates intact myocardial sympathetic innervation in AAG. PMID:19155193

  16. The Interaction of Motivation, Self-Regulatory Strategies, and Autonomous Learning Behavior in Different Learner Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kormos, Judit; Csizér, Kata

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous learning and effective self-regulatory strategies are increasingly important in foreign language learning; without these, students might not be able to exploit learning opportunities outside language classrooms. This study investigated the influence of motivational factors and self-regulatory strategies on autonomous learning behavior.…

  17. Autonomous observations of the ocean biological carbon pump

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2009-03-01

    Prediction of the substantial biologically mediated carbon flows in a rapidly changing and acidifying ocean requires model simulations informed by observations of key carbon cycle processes on the appropriate space and time scales. From 2000 to 2004, the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) supported the development of the first low-cost fully-autonomous ocean profiling Carbon Explorers that demonstrated that year-round real-time observations of particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration and sedimentation could be achieved in the world's ocean. NOPP also initiated the development of a sensor for particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) suitable for operational deployment across all oceanographic platforms. As a result, PIC profile characterization that once required shipboard sample collection and shipboard or shore based laboratory analysis, is now possible to full ocean depth in real time using a 0.2W sensor operating at 24 Hz. NOPP developments further spawned US DOE support to develop the Carbon Flux Explorer, a free-vehicle capable of following hourly variations of particulate inorganic and organic carbon sedimentation from near surface to kilometer depths for seasons to years and capable of relaying contemporaneous observations via satellite. We have demonstrated the feasibility of real time - low cost carbon observations which are of fundamental value to carbon prediction and when further developed, will lead to a fully enhanced global carbon observatory capable of real time assessment of the ocean carbon sink, a needed constraint for assessment of carbon management policies on a global scale.

  18. Sewage outfall plume dispersion observations with an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    PubMed

    Ramos, P; Cunha, S R; Neves, M V; Pereira, F L; Quintaneiro, I

    2005-01-01

    This work represents one of the first successful applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for interdisciplinary coastal research. A monitoring mission to study the shape and estimate the initial dilution of the S. Jacinto sewage outfall plume using an AUV was performed on July 2002. An efficient sampling strategy enabling greater improvements in spatial and temporal range of detection demonstrated that the sewage effluent plume can be clearly traced using naturally occurring tracers in the wastewater. The outfall plume was found at the surface highly influenced by the weak stratification and low currents. Dilution varying with distance downstream was estimated from the plume rise over the outfall diffuser until a nearly constant value of 130:1, 60 m from the diffuser, indicating the near field end. Our results demonstrate that AUVs can provide high-quality measurements of physical properties of effluent plumes in a very effective manner and valuable considerations about the initial mixing processes under real oceanic conditions can be further investigated.

  19. Maintaining Situation Awareness with Autonomous Airborne Observation Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Fitzgerald, Will

    2005-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer tremendous potential as intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) platforms for early detection of security threats and for acquisition and maintenance of situation awareness in crisis conditions. However, using their capabilities effectively requires addressing a range of practical and theoretical problems. The paper will describe progress by the "Autonomous Rotorcraft Project," a collaborative effort between NASA and the U.S. Army to develop a practical, flexible capability for UAV-based ISR. Important facets of the project include optimization methods for allocating scarce aircraft resources to observe numerous, distinct sites of interest; intelligent flight automation software than integrates high-level plan generation capabilities with executive control, failure response and flight control functions; a system architecture supporting reconfiguration of onboard sensors to address different kinds of threats; and an advanced prototype vehicle designed to allow large-scale production at low cost. The paper will also address human interaction issues including an empirical method for determining how to allocate roles and responsibilities between flight automation and human operations.

  20. Cooperative Autonomous Observation of Volcanic Environments with sUAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravela, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Cooperative Autonomous Observing System Project (CAOS) at the MIT Earth Signals and Systems Group has developed methodology and systems for dynamically mapping coherent fluids such as plumes using small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS). In the CAOS approach, two classes of sUAS, one remote the other in-situ, implement a dynamic data-driven mapping system by closing the loop between Modeling, Estimation, Sampling, Planning and Control (MESPAC). The continually gathered measurements are assimilated to produce maps/analyses which also guide the sUAS network to adaptively resample the environment. Rather than scan the volume in fixed Eulerian or Lagrangian flight plans, the adaptive nature of the sampling process enables objectives for efficiency and resilience to be incorporated. Modeling includes realtime prediction using two types of reduced models, one based on nowcasting remote observations of plume tracer using scale-cascaded alignment, and another based on dynamically-deformable EOF/POD developed for coherent structures. Ensemble-based Information-theoretic machine learning approaches are used for the highly non-linear/non-Gaussian state/parameter estimation, and for planning. Control of the sUAS is based on model reference control coupled with hierarchical PID. MESPAC is implemented in part on a SkyCandy platform, and implements an airborne mesh that provides instantaneous situational awareness and redundant communication to an operating fleet. SkyCandy is deployed on Itzamna Aero's I9X/W UAS with low-cost sensors, and is currently being used to study the Popocatepetl volcano. Results suggest that operational communities can deploy low-cost sUAS to systematically monitor whilst optimizing for efficiency/maximizing resilience. The CAOS methodology is applicable to many other environments where coherent structures are present in the background. More information can be found at caos.mit.edu.

  1. Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Hawkins, Albin; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control center at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm and the onboard flight design and presents the validation results of this unique system. Results from functionality assessment through fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(tm), its ground-based predecessor, and a standalone algorithm.

  2. Preliminary Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin

    2001-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission is completing a primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control center at the Goddard Space Flight Center has implemented an autonomous universal three-axis formation flying algorithm in executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm and the onboard design and presents the preliminary validation results of this unique system. Results from functionality assessment and autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(tm), its ground-based predecessor, and a stand-alone algorithm.

  3. Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch at the Goddard Space Flight Center implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and the validation results of this unique system. Results from fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon, its ground-based predecessor used in operations, and the original standalone algorithm. Maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary, routine formation maintenance, and inclination control. Orbital data is also examined to verify that all formation flying requirements were met.

  4. Results Of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin

    2002-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called Enhanced Formation Flying. To enable this technology, a team at the Goddard Space Flight Center implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and the validation results of this unique system. Results from fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(trademark), its ground-based predecessor used in operations, and the original standalone algorithm. Maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary, routine formation maintenance, and inclination control. Orbital data is also examined to verify that all formation flying requirements were met.

  5. An autonomous observation and control system based on EPICS and RTS2 for Antarctic telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian; Tang, Peng-yi; Jia, Ming-hao; Chen, Jie; Dong, Shu-cheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Wu, Wen-qing; Liu, Jia-jing; Zhang, Hong-fei

    2016-01-01

    For unattended telescopes in Antarctic, the remote operation, autonomous observation and control are essential. An EPICS-(Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) and RTS2-(Remote Telescope System, 2nd Version) based autonomous observation and control system with remoted operation is introduced in this paper. EPICS is a set of open source software tools, libraries and applications developed collaboratively and used worldwide to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments while RTS2 is an open source environment for control of a fully autonomous observatory. Using the advantage of EPICS and RTS2, respectively, a combined integrated software framework for autonomous observation and control is established that use RTS2 to fulfil the function of astronomical observation and use EPICS to fulfil the device control of telescope. A command and status interface for EPICS and RTS2 is designed to make the EPICS IOC (Input/Output Controller) components integrate to RTS2 directly. For the specification and requirement of control system of telescope in Antarctic, core components named Executor and Auto-focus for autonomous observation is designed and implemented with remote operation user interface based on browser-server mode. The whole system including the telescope is tested in Lijiang Observatory in Yunnan Province for practical observation to complete the autonomous observation and control, including telescope control, camera control, dome control, weather information acquisition with the local and remote operation.

  6. Enhanced Ocean Predictability Through Optimal Observing Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    oceanographic applications. Second, use these methods to design optimal observing strategies with special emphasis on drifter deployments that achieve...to assess the predictability of the optimal deployment strategy . The original idea was to use ensemble methods for this analysis. However, a...Enhanced Ocean Predictability Through Optimal Observing Strategies PI: A. D. Kirwan, Jr. College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware

  7. Autonomous space systems control incorporating automated maneuvers strategies in the presence of parameters uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Mazinan, A H; Shakhesi, S

    2016-05-01

    The research attempts to deal with the autonomous space systems incorporating new automated maneuvers strategies in the presence of parameters uncertainties. The main subject behind the investigation is to realize the high-resolution small amplitude orbital maneuvers via the first control strategy. And subsequently to realize the large amplitude orbital maneuvers via the second control strategy, as well. There is a trajectory optimization to provide the three-axis referenced commends for the aforementioned overactuated autonomous space system to be able to transfer from the initial orbit to its final ones, in finite burn, as long as the uncertainties of key parameters of the system such as the thrust vector, the center of the gravity, the moments of the inertia and so on are taken into real consideration. The strategies performances are finally considered through a series of experiments and a number of benchmarks to be tangibly verified.

  8. Autonomous Learning and Metacognitive Strategies Essentials in ESP Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajideh, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    The reform in teaching and curriculum involves not only in the teaching content, but more so in teachers' methodology, the students' learning strategies and the changed relationship between students and teachers in the classroom setting. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that what is needed for ESP is a different orientation to English study…

  9. Innovative hazard detection and avoidance strategy for autonomous safe planetary landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiuqiang; Li, Shuang; Tao, Ting

    2016-09-01

    Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) is one of the key technologies for future safe planetary landing missions. In this paper, we address the latest progress on planetary autonomous hazard detection and avoidance technologies. First, the innovative autonomous relay hazard detection and avoidance strategy adopted in Chang'e-3 lunar soft landing mission and its flight results are reported in detail. Second, two new conceptual candidate schemes of hazard detection and avoidance are presented based on the Chang'e-3 AHDA system and the latest developing technologies for the future planetary missions, and some preliminary testing results are also given. Finally, the related supporting technologies for the two candidate schemes above are analyzed.

  10. Biologically Inspired Behavioral Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Explorers on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plice, Laura; Pisanich, Greg; Lau, Benton; Young, Larry A.

    2002-01-01

    The natural world is a rich source of problem- solving approaches. This paper discusses the feasibility and technical challenges underlying mimicking, or analogously adapting, biological behavioral strategies to mission/flight planning for aerial vehicles engaged in planetary exploration. Two candidate concepts based on natural resource utilization and searching behaviors are adapted io technological applications. Prototypes and test missions addressing the difficulties of implementation and their solutions are also described.

  11. Optimization of Planet Finder Observing Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinukoff, E.

    2014-03-01

    We evaluate radial velocity observing strategies to be considered for future planethunting surveys with the Automated Planet Finder, a new 2.4-m telescope at Lick Observatory. Observing strategies can be optimized to mitigate stellar noise, which can mask and imitate the weak Doppler signals of low-mass planets. We estimate and compare sensitivities of 5 different observing strategies to planets around G2-M2 dwarfs, constructing RV noise models for each stellar spectral type, accounting for acoustic, granulation, and magnetic activity modes. The strategies differ in exposure time, nightly and monthly cadence, and number of years. Synthetic RV time-series are produced by injecting a planet signal onto the stellar noise, sampled according to each observing strategy. For each star and each observing strategy, thousands of planet injection recovery trials are conducted to determine the detection efficiency as a function of orbital period, minimum mass, and eccentricity. We find that 4-year observing strategies of 10 nights per month are sensitive to planets ~25-40% lower in mass than the corresponding 1 year strategies of 30 nights per month. Three 5-minute exposures spaced evenly throughout each night provide a 10% gain in sensitivity over the corresponding single 15-minute exposure strategies. All strategies are sensitive to planets of lowest mass around the modeled K7 dwarf. This study indicates that APF surveys adopting the 4-year strategies should detect Earth-mass planets on < 10-day orbits around quiet late-K dwarfs as well as > 1.6 Earth-mass planets in their habitable zones.

  12. Autonomous Investigations of Marginal Ice Zone Processes- Changing Feedbacks and Observational Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.

    2014-12-01

    The observed reduction of Arctic summertime sea ice extent and expansion of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) has profound impacts on the balance of processes controlling sea ice evolution, including the introduction of several positive feedback mechanisms that may act to accelerate melting. Examples of such feedbacks include increased upper ocean warming though absorption of solar radiation, elevated internal wave energy and mixing that may entrain heat stored in subsurface watermasses (e.g. the relatively warm Pacific Summer (PSW) and Atlantic (AW) waters) and elevated surface wave energy that acts to deform and fracture sea ice, all of which grow in importance with increasing open water extent. Investigations of MIZ dynamics must resolve the short spatial and temporal scales associated with the processes that govern the exchange of momentum, heat and freshwater near the atmosphere-ice-ocean interface while also achieving the spatial scope and temporal persistence required to characterize how the balance of processes shifts as a function of evolving open water fraction and open water fetch to the south. The recent Office of Naval Research (ONR) Marginal Ice Zone program provides an example of how autonomous platforms can be applied to provide high-resolution measurements that extend from open water, through the MIZ and deep into ice-covered regions while providing persistence to quantify evolution over an entire summertime melt season. This talk will provide an overview of the strategy developed by the ONR MIZ team and highlight early results from the 2014 field program.

  13. Autonomous Investigations of Marginal Ice Zone Processes- Changing Feedbacks and Observational Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Craig; Doble, Martin; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Stanton, Tim; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Thomson, Jim; Wilkinson, Jeremy

    2015-04-01

    The observed reduction of Arctic summertime sea ice extent and expansion of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) have profound impacts on the balance of processes controlling sea ice evolution, including the introduction of several positive feedback mechanisms that may act to accelerate melting. Examples of such feedbacks include increased upper ocean warming though absorption of solar radiation, elevated internal wave energy and mixing that may entrain heat stored in subsurface watermasses (e.g. the relatively warm Pacific Summer (PSW) and Atlantic (AW) waters) and elevated surface wave energy that acts to deform and fracture sea ice, all of which grow in importance with increasing open water extent. Investigations of MIZ dynamics must resolve the short spatial and temporal scales associated with the processes that govern the exchange of momentum, heat and freshwater near the atmosphere-ice-ocean interface while also achieving the spatial scope and temporal persistence required to characterize how the balance of processes shifts as a function of evolving open water fraction and open water fetch to the south. The recent Office of Naval Research (ONR) Marginal Ice Zone program employed an integrated system of autonomous platforms to provide high-resolution measurements that extend from open water, through the MIZ and deep into ice-covered regions while providing persistence to quantify evolution over an entire summertime melt season. This presentation will provide an overview of the strategy developed by the ONR MIZ team and present early results from the 2014 field program.

  14. An Autonomous, Low Cost Platform for Seafloor Geodetic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericksen, T.; Foster, J. H.; Bingham, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    The high cost of acquiring geodetic data from the sea floor has limited the observations available to help us understand and model the behavior of seafloor geodetic processes. To address this problem, the Pacific GPS Facility at the University of Hawaii is developing a cost effective approach for accurately measuring short-term vertical motions of the seafloor and maintaining a continuous long-term record of seafloor pressure without the requirement for costly ship time. There is a recognized need to vastly increase our underwater geodetic observing capacity. Most of the largest recorded earthquakes and most devastating tsunamis are generated at subduction zones underwater. Similarly, many volcanoes are partly (e.g. Santorini) or completely (e.g. Loihi) submerged, and are not well observed and understood. Furthermore, landslide features ring many ocean basins, and huge debris deposits surround many volcanic oceanic islands. Our approach will lower the cost of collecting sea-floor geodetic data, reducing the barriers preventing us from acquiring the information we need to observe and understand these types of structures and provide a direct societal benefit in improving hazard assessment. The capability is being developed by equipping one of the University of Hawaii Wave Gliders with an integrated acoustic telemetry package, a dual frequency geodetic-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, processing unit, and cellular communications. The Wave Glider will interrogate high accuracy pressure sensors on the sea floor to maintain a near-continuous stream of pressure and temperature data, but seafloor pressure data includes contribution from a variety of sources and on its own may not provide the accuracy required for geodetic investigations. Independent measurements of sea surface pressure and sea surface height can be used to remove these contributions from the observed sea floor pressure timeseries. We will integrate our seafloor pressure measurements with air

  15. An Autonomous, Low Cost Platform for Seafloor Geodetic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericksen, T.; Foster, J. H.; Bingham, B. S.; Oshiro, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific GPS Facility and the Field Robotics Laboratory at the University of Hawaii have developed an approach to significantly reduce the costs of accurately measuring short-term vertical motions of the seafloor and maintaining a continuous long-term record of seafloor pressure. Traditional ship-based methods of acquiring these measurements are often prohibitively expensive. Our goal has been to reduce the primary barrier preventing us from acquiring the observations we need to understand geodetic processes, and the hazards they present, at subduction zones, submarine volcanoes, and subsea landslides. To this end, we have designed a payload package for the University of Hawaii Wave Glider which incorporates an acoustic telemetry package, a dual frequency geodetic-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, meteorological sensors, processing computer, and cellular communications. The Wave Glider is able to interrogate high accuracy pressure sensors on the seafloor to maintain a near-continuous stream of ocean bottom pressure and temperature data. The Wave Glider also functions as an integral part of the seafloor geodetic observing system, recording accurate sea surface elevations and barometric pressure; direct measurements of two of the primary sources of seafloor pressure change. The seafloor geodetic monument seats a sensor capable of recording pressure, temperature, and sound velocity for a deployment duration of over 5 years with an acoustic modem for communications, and an integral acoustic release for recovery and replacement of batteries. The design of the geodetic monument allows for precise repositioning of the sensor to extend the pressure record beyond a single 5+ year deployment, and includes the capability to install a mobile pressure recorder for calibration of the linear drift of the continuous pressure sensor. We will present the results of our field tests and an assessment of our ability to determine cm-scale vertical seafloor motions by

  16. An Autonomous, Low Cost Platform for Seafloor Geodetic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericksen, T.; Foster, J. H.; Bingham, B. S.; Oshiro, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Pacific GPS Facility and the Field Robotics Laboratory at the University of Hawaii have developed an approach to significantly reduce costs below ship based methods of accurately measuring short-term vertical motions of the seafloor and maintaining a continuous long-term record of seafloor pressure. Our goal has been to reduce the primary barrier preventing us from acquiring the observations we need to understand geodetic processes, and the hazards they present, at subduction zones, submarine volcanoes, and subsea landslides. To this end, we have designed a payload package for one of the University of Hawaii Wave Gliders which incorporates an acoustic telemetry package, a dual frequency geodetic-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, meteorological sensors, processing computer, and cellular communications. The Wave Glider will interrogate high accuracy pressure sensors on the seafloor to maintain a near-continuous stream of pressure and temperature data. The seafloor geodetic monument seats a sensor capable of recording pressure, temperature, and sound velocity for a deployment duration of over 5 years with an acoustic modem for communications, and an integral acoustic release for recovery and replacement of batteries. The design of the geodetic monument allows for precise repositioning of the sensor to extend the pressure record beyond a single 5+ year deployment, and includes the capability to install a mobile pressure recorder for calibration of the linear drift of the continuous pressure sensor. We will present the design of the Wave Glider payload and seafloor geodetic monument, as well as a discussion of nearshore and offshore field tests and operational procedures. An assessment of our ability to determine cm-scale vertical seafloor motions will be made by integrating the seafloor pressure measurements recovered during field testing with independent measurements of sea surface pressure and sea surface height made by the sea surface payload.

  17. Strategy application, observability, and the choice combinator.

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Victor Lono

    2004-03-01

    In many strategic systems, the choice combinator provides a powerful mechanism for controlling the application of rules and strategies to terms. The ability of the choice combinator to exercise control over rewriting is based on the premise that the success and failure of strategy application can be observed. In this paper we present a higher-order strategic framework with the ability to dynamically construct strategies containing the choice combinator. To this framework, a combinator called hide is introduced that prevents the successful application of a strategy from being observed by the choice combinator. We then explore the impact of this new combinator on a real-world problem involving a restricted implementation of the Java Virtual Machine.

  18. VLBI2010: Networks and Observing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill; Corey, Brian; Himwich, Ed; Ma, Chopo; Malkin, Zinovy; Niell, Arthur; Shaffer, David; Vandenberg, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The Observing Strategies Sub-group of IVS's Working Group 3 has been tasked with producing a vision for the following aspects of geodetic VLBI: antenna-network structure and observing strategies; source strength/structure/distribution; frequency bands, RFI; and field system and scheduling. These are high level considerations that have far reaching impact since they significantly influence performance potential and also constrain requirements for a number of other \\VG3 sub-groups. The paper will present the status of the sub-group's work on these topics.

  19. Autonomous Glider Observations from the Oregon Shelf: The New Vagaries of Fortune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearman, R.; Barth, J. A.; Erofeev, A.; Rubiano-Gomez, L.; Brodersen, J.; Fortier, R.

    2008-12-01

    Since April 2006, we have maintained a small fleet of autonomous gliders, sampling cross-shelf transects of hydrography, currents and bio-optical properties within the central Oregon coastal ocean. The benefits of autonomous sampling are well known; the cost relative to comparable ship-time is minuscule, sampling is not curtailed by strong winds or large waves, and by maintaining a continuous presence in the ocean, the chances of observing intermittent, unpredictable (possibly important) processes are increased. For example, the ongoing observations off Oregon have found finescale structures composed of relatively warm, high- chlorophyll water subducting along the outcropping isopycnals of the seasonal upwelling front - consistent with the interactions between turbulent stresses and frontal dynamics seen at open ocean fronts. The subducting tongues of chlorophyll range from 2-20 m thick, can persist for more than 2 days, and extend 20 km or more offshore, offering a potentially new mechanism for thin-layer formation.

  20. Earth Observations: Experiences from Various Communication Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilja Bye, Bente

    2015-04-01

    With Earth observations and the Group of Earth Observations as the common thread, a variety of communication strategies have been applied showcasing the use of Earth observations in geosciences such as climate change, natural hazards, hydrology and more. Based on the experiences from these communication strategies, using communication channels ranging from popular articles in established media, video production, event-based material and social media, lessons have been learned both with respect to the need of capacity, skills, networks, and resources. In general it is not difficult to mobilize geoscientists willing to spend some time on outreach activities. Time for preparing and training is however scarce among scientists. In addition, resources to cover the various aspects of professional science outreach is far from abundant. Among the challenges is the connection between the scientific networks and media channels. Social media competence and capacity are also issues that needs to be addressed more explicitly and efficiently. An overview of the experiences from several types of outreach activities will be given along with some input on possible steps towards improved communication strategies. Steady development of science communication strategies continuously integrating trainging of scientists in use of new outreach tools such as web technology and social innovations for more efficient use of limited resources will remain an issue for the scientific community.

  1. Enhanced Ocean Predictability Through Optimal Observing Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-14

    Enhanced Ocean Predictability Through Optimal Observing Strategies A. D. Kirwan, Jr. College of Marine Studies University of Delaware Robinson Hall...forecasts of oceanic conditions. OBJECTIVES There are three tightly integrated objectives. The first is to focus both oceanographic and dynamical...control number 1. REPORT DATE 30 SEP 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhanced Ocean

  2. NASA's Autonomous Formation Flying Technology Demonstration, Earth Observing-1(EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Bristow, John; Hawkins, Albin; Dell, Greg

    2002-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission, the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft, recently completed its principal goal of demonstrating advanced formation control technology. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of an onboard system that was developed originally as a ground mission planning and operations tool. We discuss the Goddard Space Flight Center s formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and its implementation, the interface and functionality of the onboard system, and the implementation of a Kalman filter based GPS data smoother. A number of safeguards that allow the incremental phasing in of autonomy and alleviate the potential for mission-impacting anomalies from the on- board autonomous system are discussed. A comparison of the maneuvers planned onboard using the EO-1 autonomous control system to those from the operational ground-based maneuver planning system is presented to quantify our success. The maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary and routine formation maintenance. Definitive orbital data is presented that verifies all formation flying requirements.

  3. Autonomous aerial observations to extend and complement the Earth Observing System: a science-driven systems-oriented approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford, Stephen P.; Harrison, F. W.; Langford, John; Johnson, James W.; Qualls, Garry; Emmitt, David; Jones, W. Linwood; Shugart, Herman H., Jr.

    2004-12-01

    The current Earth observing capability depends primarily on spacecraft missions and ground-based networks to provide the critical on-going observations necessary for improved understanding of the Earth system. Aircraft missions play an important role in process studies but are limited to relatively short-duration flights. Suborbital observations have contributed to global environmental knowledge by providing in-depth, high-resolution observations that space-based and in-situ systems are challenged to provide; however, the limitations of aerial platforms - e.g., limited observing envelope, restrictions associated with crew safety and high cost of operations have restricted the suborbital program to a supporting role. For over a decade, it has been recognized that autonomous aerial observations could potentially be important. Advances in several technologies now enable autonomous aerial observation systems (AAOS) that can provide fundamentally new observational capability for Earth science and applications and thus lead scientists and engineers to rethink how suborbital assets can best contribute to Earth system science. Properly developed and integrated, these technologies will enable new Earth science and operational mission scenarios with long term persistence, higher-spatial and higher-temporal resolution at lower cost than space or ground based approaches. This paper presents the results of a science driven, systems oriented study of broad Earth science measurement needs. These needs identify aerial mission scenarios that complement and extend the current Earth Observing System. These aerial missions are analogous to space missions in their complexity and potential for providing significant data sets for Earth scientists. Mission classes are identified and presented based on science driven measurement needs in atmospheric, ocean and land studies. Also presented is a nominal concept of operations for an AAOS: an innovative set of suborbital assets that

  4. An integrated design and fabrication strategy for entirely soft, autonomous robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Michael; Truby, Ryan L.; Fitzgerald, Daniel J.; Mosadegh, Bobak; Whitesides, George M.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Wood, Robert J.

    2016-08-01

    Soft robots possess many attributes that are difficult, if not impossible, to achieve with conventional robots composed of rigid materials. Yet, despite recent advances, soft robots must still be tethered to hard robotic control systems and power sources. New strategies for creating completely soft robots, including soft analogues of these crucial components, are needed to realize their full potential. Here we report the untethered operation of a robot composed solely of soft materials. The robot is controlled with microfluidic logic that autonomously regulates fluid flow and, hence, catalytic decomposition of an on-board monopropellant fuel supply. Gas generated from the fuel decomposition inflates fluidic networks downstream of the reaction sites, resulting in actuation. The body and microfluidic logic of the robot are fabricated using moulding and soft lithography, respectively, and the pneumatic actuator networks, on-board fuel reservoirs and catalytic reaction chambers needed for movement are patterned within the body via a multi-material, embedded 3D printing technique. The fluidic and elastomeric architectures required for function span several orders of magnitude from the microscale to the macroscale. Our integrated design and rapid fabrication approach enables the programmable assembly of multiple materials within this architecture, laying the foundation for completely soft, autonomous robots.

  5. An integrated design and fabrication strategy for entirely soft, autonomous robots.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Michael; Truby, Ryan L; Fitzgerald, Daniel J; Mosadegh, Bobak; Whitesides, George M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Wood, Robert J

    2016-08-25

    Soft robots possess many attributes that are difficult, if not impossible, to achieve with conventional robots composed of rigid materials. Yet, despite recent advances, soft robots must still be tethered to hard robotic control systems and power sources. New strategies for creating completely soft robots, including soft analogues of these crucial components, are needed to realize their full potential. Here we report the untethered operation of a robot composed solely of soft materials. The robot is controlled with microfluidic logic that autonomously regulates fluid flow and, hence, catalytic decomposition of an on-board monopropellant fuel supply. Gas generated from the fuel decomposition inflates fluidic networks downstream of the reaction sites, resulting in actuation. The body and microfluidic logic of the robot are fabricated using moulding and soft lithography, respectively, and the pneumatic actuator networks, on-board fuel reservoirs and catalytic reaction chambers needed for movement are patterned within the body via a multi-material, embedded 3D printing technique. The fluidic and elastomeric architectures required for function span several orders of magnitude from the microscale to the macroscale. Our integrated design and rapid fabrication approach enables the programmable assembly of multiple materials within this architecture, laying the foundation for completely soft, autonomous robots.

  6. Autonomous, high-resolution observations of particle flux in the oligotrophic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estapa, M. L.; Buesseler, K.; Boss, E.; Gerbi, G.

    2013-01-01

    Observational gaps limit our understanding of particle flux attenuation through the upper mesopelagic because available measurements (sediment traps and radiochemical tracers) have limited temporal resolution, are labor-intensive, and require ship support. Here, we conceptually evaluate an autonomous, optical proxy-based method for high-resolution observations of particle flux. We present four continuous records of particle flux collected with autonomous, profiling floats in the western Sargasso Sea and the subtropical North Pacific, as well as one shorter record of depth-resolved particle flux near the Bermuda Atlantic Timeseries Study (BATS) and Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) sites. These observations illustrate strong variability in particle flux over very short (~1 day) timescales, but at longer timescales they reflect patterns of variability previously recorded during sediment trap timeseries. While particle flux attenuation at BATS/OFP agreed with the canonical power-law model when observations were averaged over a month, flux attenuation was highly variable on timescales of 1-3 days. Particle fluxes at different depths were decoupled from one another and from particle concentrations and chlorophyll fluorescence in the immediately-overlying surface water, consistent with horizontal advection of settling particles. We finally present an approach for calibrating this optical proxy in units of carbon flux, discuss in detail the related, inherent physical and optical assumptions, and look forward toward the requirements for the quantitative application of this method in highly time-resolved studies of particle export and flux attenuation.

  7. Autonomous, high-resolution observations of particle flux in the oligotrophic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estapa, M. L.; Buesseler, K.; Boss, E.; Gerbi, G.

    2013-08-01

    Observational gaps limit our understanding of particle flux attenuation through the upper mesopelagic because available measurements (sediment traps and radiochemical tracers) have limited temporal resolution, are labor-intensive, and require ship support. Here, we conceptually evaluate an autonomous, optical proxy-based method for high-resolution observations of particle flux. We present four continuous records of particle flux collected with autonomous profiling floats in the western Sargasso Sea and the subtropical North Pacific, as well as one shorter record of depth-resolved particle flux near the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) and Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) sites. These observations illustrate strong variability in particle flux over very short (~1-day) timescales, but at longer timescales they reflect patterns of variability previously recorded during sediment trap time series. While particle flux attenuation at BATS/OFP agreed with the canonical power-law model when observations were averaged over a month, flux attenuation was highly variable on timescales of 1-3 days. Particle fluxes at different depths were decoupled from one another and from particle concentrations and chlorophyll fluorescence in the immediately overlying surface water, consistent with horizontal advection of settling particles. We finally present an approach for calibrating this optical proxy in units of carbon flux, discuss in detail the related, inherent physical and optical assumptions, and look forward toward the requirements for the quantitative application of this method in highly time-resolved studies of particle export and flux attenuation.

  8. Multidimensional analysis of autonomous aerial observation systems (AAOS) for scientific, civil, and defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Mark A.; Hamill, Doris L.; Harrison, F. W.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.; Lawrence, Roland W.; Healy, Edward A.; Wright, Henry S.

    2004-12-01

    Better knowledge of the atmosphere, ocean and land are needed by a wide range of users spanning the scientific, civil and defense communities. Observations to provide this knowledge will require aerial systems with greater operational flexibility and lower life-cycle costs than are currently available. Persistent monitoring of severe storms, sampling and measurements of the Earth"s carbon cycle, wildfire monitoring/management, crop assessments, ozone and polar ice changes, and natural disaster response (communications and surveillance) are but a few applications where autonomous aerial observations can effectively augment existing measurement systems. User driven capabilities include high altitude, long range, long-loiter (days/weeks), smaller deployable sensor-ships for in-situ sampling, and sensors providing data with spectral bandwidth and high temporal and three-dimensional spatial resolution. Starting with user needs and considering all elements and activities required to acquire the needed observations leads to the definition of autonomous aerial observation systems (AAOS) that can significantly complement and extend the current Earth observation capability. In this approach, UAVs are viewed as only one, albeit important, element in a mission system and overall cost and performance for the user are the critical success factors. To better understand and meet the challenges of developing such AAOSs, a systems oriented multi-dimensional analysis has been performed that illuminates the enabling and high payoff investments that best address the needs of scientific, civil, and defense users of Earth observations. The analysis further identifies technology gaps and serves to illustrate how investments in a range of mission subsystems together can enable a new class of Earth observations.

  9. Stability analysis of autonomous space systems in the presence of large disturbances: A Lyapunov-based constrained control strategy.

    PubMed

    Mazinan, A H

    2016-03-01

    The research addresses a Lyapunov-based constrained control strategy to deal with the autonomous space system in the presence of large disturbances. The aforementioned autonomous space system under control is first represented through a dynamics model and subsequently the proposed control strategy is fully investigated with a focus on the three-axis detumbling and the corresponding pointing mode control approaches. The three-axis detumbling mode control approach is designed to deal with the unwanted angular rates of the system to be zero, while the saturations of the actuators are taken into consideration. Moreover, the three-axis pointing mode control approach is designed in the similar state to deal with the rotational angles of the system to be desirable. The contribution of the research is mathematically made to propose a control law in connection with a new candidate of Lyapunov function to deal with the rotational angles and the related angular rates of the present autonomous space system with respect to state-of-the-art. A series of experiments are carried out to consider the efficiency of the proposed control strategy, as long as a number of benchmarks are realized in the same condition to verify and guarantee the strategy performance in both modes of control approaches.

  10. Risk-Free Volcano Observations Using an Unmanned Autonomous Helicopter: seismic observations near the active vent of Sakurajima volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohminato, T.; Kaneko, T.; Koyama, T.; Yasuda, A.; Watanabe, A.; Takeo, M.; Honda, Y.; Kajiwara, K.; Kanda, W.; Iguchi, M.; Yanagisawa, T.

    2010-12-01

    Observations in the vicinity of summit area of active volcanoes are important not only for understanding physical processes in the volcanic conduit but also for eruption prediction and volcanic hazards mitigation. It is, however, challenging to install observation sensors near active vents because of the danger of sudden eruptions. We need safe and efficient ways of installing sensors near the summit of active volcanoes. We have been developing an volcano observation system based on an unmanned autonomous vehicle (UAV) for risk-free volcano observations. Our UAV is an unmanned autonomous helicopter manufactured by Yamaha-Motor Co., Ltd. The UAV is 3.6m long and weighs 84kg with maximum payload of 10kg. The UAV can aviate autonomously along a previously programmed path within a meter accuracy using real-time kinematics differential GPS equipment. The maximum flight time and distance from the operator are 90 minutes and 5km, respectively. We have developed various types of volcano observation techniques adequate for the UAV, such as aeromagnetic survey, taking infrared and visible images from onboard high-resolution cameras, volcanic ash sampling in the vicinity of active vents. Recently, we have developed an earthquake observation module (EOM), which is exclusively designed for the UAV installation in the vicinity of active volcanic vent. In order to meet the various requirements for UAV installation, the EOM is very compact, light-weight (5-6kg), and is solar-powered. It is equipped with GPS for timing, a communication device using cellular-phone network, and triaxial accelerometers. Our first application of the EOM installation using the UAV is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan, Sakurajima volcano. Since 2006, explosive eruptions have been continuing at the reopened Showa crater at the eastern flank near the summit of Sakurajima. Entering the area within 2 km from the active craters is prohibited, and thus there were no observation station in the vicinity

  11. Autonomous telemetry system by using mobile networks for a long-term seismic observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirahara, S.; Uchida, N.; Nakajima, J.

    2012-04-01

    When a large earthquake occurs, it is important to know the detailed distribution of aftershocks immediately after the main shock for the estimation of the fault plane. The large amount of seismic data is also required to determine the three-dimensional seismic velocity structure around the focal area. We have developed an autonomous telemetry system using mobile networks, which is specialized for aftershock observations. Because the newly developed system enables a quick installation and real-time data transmission by using mobile networks, we can construct a dense online seismic network even in mountain areas where conventional wired networks are not available. This system is equipped with solar panels that charge lead-acid battery, and enables a long-term seismic observation without maintenance. Furthermore, this system enables a continuous observation at low costs with flat-rate or prepaid Internet access. We have tried to expand coverage areas of mobile communication and back up Internet access by configuring plural mobile carriers. A micro server embedded with Linux consists of automatic control programs of the Internet connection and data transmission. A status monitoring and remote maintenance are available via the Internet. In case of a communication failure, an internal storage can back up data for two years. The power consumption of communication device ranges from 2.5 to 4.0 W. With a 50 Ah lead-acid battery, this system continues to record data for four days if the battery charging by solar panels is temporarily unavailable.

  12. Water Cycle Multimission Observation Strategy (WACMOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Z.

    2009-04-01

    To understand the role of the terrestrial hydrosphere-biosphere in Earth's climate system it is essential to be able to measure from space hydroclimatic variables, such as radiation, precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, clouds, water vapour, surface water and runoff, vegetation state, albedo and surface temperature, etc. Such measurements are required to further increase our understanding of the global climate and its variability, both spatially and temporally. Additionally, such observations advance our understanding of the coupling between terrestrial and atmospheric branches of the water cycle, and how this coupling may influence climate variability and predictability. To enhance the prediction of variations in the global water cycle, based on improved understanding of hydrological processes and its close linkage with the energy cycle and its sustained monitoring capability, is a key contribution to mitigation of water-related damages and sustainable human development. In many cases, the combination of space-based and high-resolution in situ data provides the essential information for effectively addressing water management issues (GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan - REFERENCE DOCUMENT, GEO 203-1). Recently the European Space Agency (ESA) has initiated, in its Support to Science Element programme, the Water Cycle Multimission Observation Strategy (WACMOS). WACMOS contributes to above described international efforts by supporting scientists in ESA member countries to develop and validate novel and improved multi-mission based products, and to enhance currently available global water datasets, so as to maximize the use of ESA data. In this context, the short term objectives of the project include: • Develop and validate a Product Portfolio of novel and/or improved multi-mission based geoinformation datasets at global and regional scales contributing to the objectives of the GEWEX program. WACMOS is focused on four Thematic Priorities described below

  13. Towards autonomic computing in machine vision applications: techniques and strategies for in-line 3D reconstruction in harsh industrial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molleda, Julio; Usamentiaga, Rubén; García, Daniel F.; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2011-03-01

    Nowadays machine vision applications require skilled users to configure, tune, and maintain. Because such users are scarce, the robustness and reliability of applications are usually significantly affected. Autonomic computing offers a set of principles such as self-monitoring, self-regulation, and self-repair which can be used to partially overcome those problems. Systems which include self-monitoring observe their internal states, and extract features about them. Systems with self-regulation are capable of regulating their internal parameters to provide the best quality of service depending on the operational conditions and environment. Finally, self-repairing systems are able to detect anomalous working behavior and to provide strategies to deal with such conditions. Machine vision applications are the perfect field to apply autonomic computing techniques. This type of application has strong constraints on reliability and robustness, especially when working in industrial environments, and must provide accurate results even under changing conditions such as luminance, or noise. In order to exploit the autonomic approach of a machine vision application, we believe the architecture of the system must be designed using a set of orthogonal modules. In this paper, we describe how autonomic computing techniques can be applied to machine vision systems, using as an example a real application: 3D reconstruction in harsh industrial environments based on laser range finding. The application is based on modules with different responsibilities at three layers: image acquisition and processing (low level), monitoring (middle level) and supervision (high level). High level modules supervise the execution of low-level modules. Based on the information gathered by mid-level modules, they regulate low-level modules in order to optimize the global quality of service, and tune the module parameters based on operational conditions and on the environment. Regulation actions involve

  14. Observations of the snow cover in the southern part of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefedeva, Y. A.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the snow cover, as a function of various natural factors, in sectors of the southern part of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic were examined. The thawing process is also discussed.

  15. Transitioning Submersible Chemical Analyzer Technologies for Sustained, Autonomous Observations from Profiling Moorings, Gliders and other AUVs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    and deploying them on various autonomous underwater vehicle test platforms, such as the ORCAS IOPC profiler (URI), REMUS AUV, and Slocum coastal...ASA) to develop and demonstrate the technology to autonomously acquire and communicate real-time environmental data from the ORCAS profilers...was designed for deployment on URI’s ORCAS IOPC profiler (Figure 1). It was programmed to collect hourly nutrient profiles for a two week time

  16. Subsurface observations of white shark Carcharodon carcharias predatory behaviour using an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    PubMed

    Skomal, G B; Hoyos-Padilla, E M; Kukulya, A; Stokey, R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) was used to test this technology as a viable tool for directly observing the behaviour of marine animals and to investigate the behaviour, habitat use and feeding ecology of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias near Guadalupe Island off the coast of Mexico. During the period 31 October to 7 November 2013, six AUV missions were conducted to track one male and three female C. carcharias, ranging in estimated total length (LT ) from 3·9 to 5·7 m, off the north-east coast of Guadalupe Island. In doing so, the AUV generated over 13 h of behavioural data for C. carcharias at depths down to 90 m. The sharks remained in the area for the duration of each mission and moved through broad depth and temperature ranges from the surface to 163·8 m depth (mean ± S.D. = 112·5 ± 40·3 m) and 7·9-27·1° C (mean ± S.D. = 12·7 ± 2·9° C), respectively. Video footage and AUV sensor data revealed that two of the C. carcharias being tracked and eight other C. carcharias in the area approached (n = 17), bumped (n = 4) and bit (n = 9) the AUV during these tracks. This study demonstrated that an AUV can be used to effectively track and observe the behaviour of a large pelagic animal, C. carcharias. In doing so, the first observations of subsurface predatory behaviour were generated for this species. At its current state of development, this technology clearly offers a new and innovative tool for tracking the fine-scale behaviour of marine animals.

  17. Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations (APAESO) - A pioneering research facility in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Manfred; Teller, Amit; Keleshis, Christos; Ioannou, Stelios; Philimis, Panayiotis; Lelieveld, Jos; Levin, Zev

    2010-05-01

    The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) has increased dramatically in the recent decades. UASs are widely used for different civil applications such as land management, earth sciences, contaminant detection and monitoring and commercial use. The Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations project (APAESO) of the Energy, Environment and Water Research Center (EEWRC) at the Cyprus Institute is aimed at the dual purpose of carrying out atmospheric and earth-surface observations in the Mediterranean. The APAESO UAS platforms will provide the unique ability to produce 3D measurements for determining: physical, chemical and radiative atmospheric properties, aerosol and dust concentrations and atmospheric dynamics as well as 2D investigations into: surface morphology, vegetation and land use patterns, archaeological site reconnaissance, contaminant detection and ocean surface properties (biology, waves, currents) at high spatial resolution. Through a modular design philosophy, APAESO will be very adaptable for a variety of scientific investigations enabling scientific collaborations between the Cyprus Institute and national and international research organizations. The Cyprus Institute is currently procuring the "Cruiser", which is a medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that is capable of carrying a payload of up to 10 kg, fly to altitude of 5000 m AGL with an endurance of up to 10 hours. Within the next phase of the project, the "Cruiser" will be equipped with instruments for atmospheric and earth surface observations. The poster will present the different components of the project: the UAS platform, payload to be integrated and scientific challenges that we are about to tackle and solve.

  18. Orbital Debris Detection and Tracking Strategies for the NASA/AFRL Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulrooney, M.; Hickson, P.; Stansbery, Eugene G.

    2010-01-01

    MCAT (Meter-Class Autonomous Telescope) is a 1.3m f/4 Ritchey-Chr tien on a double horseshoe equatorial mount that will be deployed in early 2011 to the western pacific island of Legan in the Kwajalein Atoll to perform orbital debris observations. MCAT will be capable of tracking earth orbital objects at all inclinations and at altitudes from 200 km to geosynchronous. MCAT s primary objective is the detection of new orbital debris in both low-inclination low-earth orbits (LEO) and at geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). MCAT was thus designed with a fast focal ratio and a large unvignetted image circle able to accommodate a detector sized to yield a large field of view. The selected primary detector is a close-cycle cooled 4Kx4K 15um pixel CCD camera that yields a 0.9 degree diagonal field. For orbital debris detection in widely spaced angular rate regimes, the camera must offer low read-noise performance over a wide range of framing rates. MCAT s 4-port camera operates from 100 kHz to 1.5 MHz per port at 2 e- and 10 e- read noise respectively. This enables low-noise multi-second exposures for GEO observations as well as rapid (several frames per second) exposures for LEO. GEO observations will be performed using a counter-sidereal time delay integration (TDI) technique which NASA has used successfully in the past. For MCAT the GEO survey, detection, and follow-up prediction algorithms will be automated. These algorithms will be detailed herein. For LEO observations two methods will be employed. The first, Orbit Survey Mode (OSM), will scan specific orbital inclination and altitude regimes, detect new orbital debris objects against trailed background stars, and adjust the telescope track to follow the detected object. The second, Stare and Chase Mode (SCM), will perform a stare, then detect and track objects that enter the field of view which satisfy specific rate and brightness criteria. As with GEO, the LEO operational modes will be fully automated and will be

  19. Self-emergence of Lexicon Consensus in a Population of Autonomous Agents by Means of Evolutionary Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravall, Darío; de Lope, Javier; Domínguez, Raúl

    In Multi-agent systems, the study of language and communication is an active field of research. In this paper we present the application of evolutionary strategies to the self-emergence of a common lexicon in a population of agents. By modeling the vocabulary or lexicon of each agent as an association matrix or look-up table that maps the meanings (i.e. the objects encountered by the agents or the states of the environment itself) into symbols or signals we check whether it is possible for the population to converge in an autonomous, decentralized way to a common lexicon, so that the communication efficiency of the entire population is optimal. We have conducted several experiments, from the simplest case of a 2×2 association matrix (i.e. two meanings and two symbols) to a 3×3 lexicon case and in both cases we have attained convergence to the optimal communication system by means of evolutionary strategies. To analyze the convergence of the population of agents we have defined the population's consensus when all the agents (i.e. the 100% of the population) share the same association matrix or lexicon. As a general conclusion we have shown that evolutionary strategies are powerful enough optimizers to guarantee the convergence to lexicon consensus in a population of autonomous agents.

  20. Research on long-term autonomous orbit determination for navigation constellation using inter-satellite orientation observation information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Xu, Bo; Wang, Hai-Hong

    2009-12-01

    Long-term autonomous orbit determination is one of the key techniques of autonomous navigation for navigation constellation. Based only on cross-link range observation, which is not able to overcome the defect of entire constellation rotation and translation relative to inertial reference frame, the accuracy of autonomous orbit determination is reduced with time. In order to solve this problem, the approach of using inter-satellite orientation observation is put forward to estimate the constellation rotation and translation with the benefit of absolute position information provided by stars. In view of the fact that most navigation satellites moving in near circular orbits, and also in order to reduce the calculation burden of onboard computer, nonsingular orbital elements are chosen as state variables and analytical method is used to calculate the transition matrix in this paper. In addition, the extended Kalman filter is designed to fuse information of satellite dynamic model, cross-link range observation and inter-satellite orientation observation to determine the orbit. The simulation results based on the IGS Final Products of GPS constellation indicate that, at the certain error condition of range and orientation measurement, the URE of constellation is better than 2 meters within 120 days.

  1. Mission concept for the remote sensing of the cryosphere using autonomous aerial observation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Roland W.; Hilliard, Larry

    2004-12-01

    Improving the understanding of the Cryosphere and its impact on global hydrology is an important element of NASA"s Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). A Cold Land Processes Working Group (CLPWG) was formed by the NASA Terrestrial Hydrology Program to identify important science objectives necessary to address ESE priorities. These measurement objectives included Snow Water Equivalent (SWE), snow wetness, and freeze/thaw status of underlying soil. The spatial resolution requirement identified by the CLPWG was 100 m to 5000 m. Microwave sensors are well suited to measure these and other properties of interests to the study of the terrestrial cryosphere. It is well known that the EM properties of snow and soil at microwave frequencies are a strong function of the phase of water, i.e. ice/water. Further, both active and passive microwave sensors have demonstrated sensitivity to important properties of snowpack including, depth, density, wetness, crystal size, ice crust layer structure, and surface roughness. These sensors are also sensitive to the underlying soil state (frozen or thawed). Multiple microwave measurements including both active and passive sensors will likely be required to invert the effects of various snowpack characteristics, vegetation, and underlying soil properties to provide the desired characterization of the surface and meet the science needs required by the ESE. A major technology driver with respect to fully meeting these measurement needs is the 100 to 5000 m spatial resolution requirement. Meeting the threshold requirement of 5000 m at microwave frequencies from Low Earth Orbit is a technology challenge. The emerging capabilities of unmanned aircraft and particularly the system perspective of the Autonomous Aerial Observation Systems (AAOS) may provide high-fidelity/high-resolution measurements on regional scales or larger that could greatly improve our measurement capability. This paper explores a vehicle/sensor concept that could augment

  2. Navigation of Autonomous Mobile Robot under Decision-making Strategy tuned by Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Kamano, Takuya; Yasuno, Takashi; Suzuki, Takayuki; Harada, Hironobu

    This paper describes a novel application of genetic algorithm for navigation of an autonomous mobile robot (AMR) under unknown environments. In the navigation system, the AMR is controlled by the decision-making block, which consists of neural network. To achieve both successful navigation to the goal and the suitable obstacle avoidance, the connection weights of the neural network and speed gains for predefined actions are encoded as genotypes and are tuned simultaneously by genetic algorithm so that the static and dynamic danger-degrees, the energy consumption and the distance and direction errors decrease during the navigation. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed navigation system.

  3. A comprehensive data qa/qc strategy for data from autonomous point sensors: design, implementation and examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    There is an exponential increase in the use of autonomous point sensors (sensors which collect and transmit data without any human intervention) across all of geosciences. Point sensors include both physical and chemical sensors. Such data is typically stored in relational databases, from which data is subsequently polled for a range of different purposes. One of the fundamental challenges for end users is to assess the confidence in specific measurements. Historically (when sensor owners, sensor installers, data managers and data users were associated with one research group or institution) there might have been an intuitive (if poorly quantifiable) feel for such confidence. However, in the current environment these roles are often filled by people who are geographically separated and in different organizations. In addition, while historically such data was subject to semi manual review, this is becoming less and less practical. Finally, there is more and more a desire to use data in near real time. Consequently, challenges exist on how to automate all aspects of data qa/qc and validation for autonomous sensors. Data validation can result either in a confidence range and/or a Boolean indicator (good/bad data). We have developed and implemented a comprehensive, multi level data validation strategy. This strategy progresses from analysis of the most recent data received from a sensor (typically one to hundreds of measurements) to an analysis of the recent data in the context of the historic data received from the sensor, to an analysis of data received by other sensors (which compares trends and patterns), to a simple model based analysis. The outcome of this analysis (which is performed as soon as new data arrives) results in a quality indicator which is made available to the user with the data. In this talk I will provide examples of this approach for a number of currently operating monitoring networks as well as a discussion on how to easily implement this

  4. A Behavior-Based Strategy for Single and Multi-Robot Autonomous Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, Jesus S.; Chaimowicz, Luiz; Soto, Rogelio; Gordillo, José L.; Alanís-Reyes, Edén A.; Carrillo-Arce, Luis C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of autonomous exploration of unknown environments with single and multiple robots. This is a challenging task, with several potential applications. We propose a simple yet effective approach that combines a behavior-based navigation with an efficient data structure to store previously visited regions. This allows robots to safely navigate, disperse and efficiently explore the environment. A series of experiments performed using a realistic robotic simulator and a real testbed scenario demonstrate that our technique effectively distributes the robots over the environment and allows them to quickly accomplish their mission in large open spaces, narrow cluttered environments, dead-end corridors, as well as rooms with minimum exits.

  5. Strategies for Promoting Autonomous Reading Motivation: A Multiple Case Study Research in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Naeghel, Jessie; Van Keer, Hilde; Vanderlinde, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    It is important to reveal strategies which foster students' reading motivation in order to break through the declining trend in reading motivation throughout children's educational careers. Consequently, the present study advances an underexposed field in reading motivation research by studying and identifying the strategies of teachers excellent…

  6. Autonomous navigation accuracy using simulated horizon sensor and sun sensor observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, G. E.; Hendrickson, H. T.

    1980-01-01

    A relatively simple autonomous system which would use horizon crossing indicators, a sun sensor, a quartz oscillator, and a microprogrammed computer is discussed. The sensor combination is required only to effectively measure the angle between the centers of the Earth and the Sun. Simulations for a particular orbit indicate that 2 km r.m.s. orbit determination uncertainties may be expected from a system with 0.06 deg measurement uncertainty. A key finding is that knowledge of the satellite orbit plane orientation can be maintained to this level because of the annual motion of the Sun and the predictable effects of Earth oblateness. The basic system described can be updated periodically by transits of the Moon through the IR horizon crossing indicator fields of view.

  7. First observations of teleseismic P-waves with autonomous underwater robots: towards future global network of mobile seismometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhovich, Alexei; Nolet, Guust; Hello, Yann; Simons, Frederik; Bonnieux, Sébastien

    2013-04-01

    We report here the first successful observations of underwater acoustic signals generated by teleseismic P-waves recorded by autonomous robots MERMAID (short for Mobile Earthquake Recording in Marine Areas by Independent Divers). During 2011-2012 we have conducted three test campaigns for a total duration of about 8 weeks in the Ligurian Sea which have allowed us to record nine teleseismic events (distance more than 60 degree) of magnitudes higher than 6 and one closer event (distance 23 degree) of magnitude 5.5. Our results indicate that no simple relation exists between the magnitude of the source event and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the corresponding acoustic signals. Other factors, such as fault orientation and meteorological conditions, play an important role in the detectability of the seismic events. We also show examples of the events recorded during these test runs and how their frequency characteristics allow them to be recognized automatically by an algorithm based on the wavelet transform. We shall also report on more recent results obtained during the first fully autonomous run (currently ongoing) of the final MERMAID design in the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Approaching Complexity through Planful Play: Kindergarten Children's Strategies in Constructing an Autonomous Robot's Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, S. T.; Mioduser, D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how young children master, construct and understand intelligent rule-based robot behaviors, focusing on their strategies in gradually meeting the tasks' complexity. The wider aim is to provide a comprehensive map of the kinds of transitions and learning that take place in constructing simple emergent behaviors, particularly…

  9. Understanding Electrochemistry Concepts Using the Predict-Observe-Explain Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamustafaoglu, Sevilay; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The current study deals with freshman students who study at the Department of Science at the Faculty of Education. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of teaching electrochemistry concepts using Predict-Observe-Explain (POE) strategy. The study was quasi-experimental design using 20 students each in the experimental group (EG) and…

  10. Autonomous and Autonomic Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    A watershed in systems engineering is represented by the advent of swarm-based systems that accomplish missions through cooperative action by a (large) group of autonomous individuals each having simple capabilities and no global knowledge of the group s objective. Such systems, with individuals capable of surviving in hostile environments, pose unprecedented challenges to system developers. Design and testing and verification at much higher levels will be required, together with the corresponding tools, to bring such systems to fruition. Concepts for possible future NASA space exploration missions include autonomous, autonomic swarms. Engineering swarm-based missions begins with understanding autonomy and autonomicity and how to design, test, and verify systems that have those properties and, simultaneously, the capability to accomplish prescribed mission goals. Formal methods-based technologies, both projected and in development, are described in terms of their potential utility to swarm-based system developers.

  11. Toward the Development of an Integrated Global Observing Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Leslie Bermann

    1998-01-01

    In the current environment of stagnant or shrinking budgets for space research and exploration, nations can no longer afford to develop costly systems in a vacuum. Greater coordination of existing and planned systems, both among space agencies and between the space agencies and user communities, will enable the maximization of global investments in all areas of space-related research. In this manner, a group of space agencies has embarked on an initiative to link their activities in Earth observation with complementary observation programs. The goal of this initiative is to develop a comprehensive strategy for enhanced levels of support to scientific, operational and research communities. The space agencies, through the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), have embraced the concept of an Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS), primarily in fulfillment of their own set of objectives and to derive greater benefit from both operating and planned Earth observing systems. Through working together, CEOS agencies are in a position to plan their Earth observation projects with the minimum of unnecessary overlap and to devise joint strategies for addressing serious gaps in their observation capabilities. Ultimately, an IGOS should be the joint product of all groups involved in the collection and analysis of both space-based and in-situ data. CEOS is actively seeking IGOS -related partnerships with the Global Climate, Global Ocean and Global Terrestrial Observing Systems, their intergovernmental Sponsors, the International Group of Funding Agencies for Global Change Research, and other scientific and user organizations including the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme and the World Climate Research Programme.

  12. Integrated Global Observation Strategy - Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, Ernest; Readings, C. J.; Kaye, J.; Mohnen, V.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The "Long Term Continuity of Stratospheric Ozone Measurements and Atmospheric Chemistry" project was one of six established by the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) in response to the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) initiative. IGOS links satellite and ground based systems for global environmental observations. The strategy of this project is to develop a consensus of user requirements including the scientific (SPARC, IGAC, WCRP) and the applications community (WMO, UNEP) and to develop a long-term international plan for ozone and atmospheric chemistry measurements. The major components of the observing system include operational and research (meeting certain criteria) satellite platforms planned by the space faring nations which are integrated with a well supported and sustained ground, aircraft, and balloon measurements program for directed observations as well satellite validation. Highly integrated and continuous measurements of ozone, validation, and reanalysis efforts are essential to meet the international scientific and applications goals. In order to understand ozone trends, climate change, and air quality, it is essential to conduct long term measurements of certain other atmospheric species. These species include key source, radical, and reservoir constituents.

  13. Sensor Web Dynamic Measurement Techniques and Adaptive Observing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talabac, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Sensor Web observing systems may have the potential to significantly improve our ability to monitor, understand, and predict the evolution of rapidly evolving, transient, or variable environmental features and events. This improvement will come about by integrating novel data collection techniques, new or improved instruments, emerging communications technologies and protocols, sensor mark-up languages, and interoperable planning and scheduling systems. In contrast to today's observing systems, "event-driven" sensor webs will synthesize real- or near-real time measurements and information from other platforms and then react by reconfiguring the platforms and instruments to invoke new measurement modes and adaptive observation strategies. Similarly, "model-driven" sensor webs will utilize environmental prediction models to initiate targeted sensor measurements or to use a new observing strategy. The sensor web concept contrasts with today's data collection techniques and observing system operations concepts where independent measurements are made by remote sensing and in situ platforms that do not share, and therefore cannot act upon, potentially useful complementary sensor measurement data and platform state information. This presentation describes NASA's view of event-driven and model-driven Sensor Webs and highlights several research and development activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center.

  14. The Wave Glider°: A New Autonomous Surface Vehicle to Augment MBARI's Growing Fleet of Ocean Observing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tougher, B. B.

    2011-12-01

    Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) evolving fleet of ocean observing systems has made it possible to collect information and data about a wide variety of ocean parameters, enabling researchers to better understand marine ecosystems. In collaboration with Liquid Robotics Inc, the designer of the Wave Glider autonomous surface vehicle (ASV), MBARI is adding a new capability to its suite of ocean observing tools. This new technology will augment MBARI research programs that use satellites, ships, moorings, drifters, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to improve data collection of temporally and spatially variable oceanographic features. The Wave Glider ASV derives its propulsion from wave energy, while sensors and communications are powered through the use of two solar panels and batteries, enabling it to remain at sea indefinitely. Wave Gliders are remotely controlled via real-time Iridium burst communications, which also permit real-time data telemetry. MBARI has developed Ocean Acidification (OA) moorings to continuously monitor the chemical and physical changes occurring in the ocean as a result of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The moorings are spatially restricted by being anchored to the seafloor, so during the summer of 2011 the ocean acidification sensor suite designed for moorings was integrated into a Wave Glider ASV to increase both temporal and spatial ocean observation capabilities. The OA sensor package enables the measurement of parameters essential to better understanding the changing acidity of the ocean, specifically pCO2, pH, oxygen, salinity and temperature. The Wave Glider will also be equipped with a meteorological sensor suite that will measure air temperature, air pressure, and wind speed and direction. The OA sensor integration into a Wave Glider was part of MBARI's 2011 summer internship program. This project involved designing a new layout for the OA sensors

  15. Autonomous profiling float observations of the high biomass plume downstream of the Kerguelen plateau in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, M.; Della Penna, A.; Trull, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    Natural iron fertilisation from Southern Ocean islands results in high primary production and phytoplankton biomass accumulations readily visible in satellite ocean colour observations. These images reveal great spatial complexity with highly varying concentrations of chlorophyll, presumably reflecting both variations in iron supply and conditions favouring phytoplankton accumulation. To examine the second aspect, in particular the influences of variations in temperature and stratification, we deployed four autonomous profiling floats in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current near the Kerguelen plateau in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. Each "bio-profiler" measured more than 250 profiles of temperature (T), salinity (S), dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence (Chl a), and particle backscatter in the top 300 m of the water column, sampling up to 5 profiles per day along meandering trajectories extending up to 1000 km. Comparison of surface Chl a estimates (top 50 m depth; analogous to values from satellite images) with total water column inventories revealed largely linear relationships, suggesting that dilution of chlorophyll by mixed layer depth variations plays only a minor role in the spatial distributions observed by satellite, and correspondingly that these images provide credible information on total and not just surface biomass accumulations. Regions of very high Chl a accumulation (1.5-10 μg L-1) were associated predominantly with a narrow T-S class of surface waters, which appears to derive from the northern Kerguelen plateau. In contrast, waters with only moderate Chl a enrichments (0.5-1.5 μg L-1) displayed no clear correlation with water properties, including no dependence on mixed layer depth, suggesting a diversity of sources of iron and/or its efficient dispersion across filaments of the plume. The lack of dependence on mixed layer depth also indicates a limited influence on production by light limitation. One float became trapped in a

  16. Autonomous profiling float observations of the high-biomass plume downstream of the Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, M.; Della Penna, A.; Trull, T. W.

    2015-05-01

    Natural iron fertilisation from Southern Ocean islands results in high primary production and phytoplankton biomass accumulations readily visible in satellite ocean colour observations. These images reveal great spatial complexity with highly varying concentrations of chlorophyll, presumably reflecting both variations in iron supply and conditions favouring phytoplankton accumulation. To examine the second aspect, in particular the influences of variations in temperature and mixed layer depth, we deployed four autonomous profiling floats in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current near the Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. Each "bio-profiler" measured more than 250 profiles of temperature (T), salinity (S), dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence, and particulate backscattering (bbp) in the top 300 m of the water column, sampling up to 5 profiles per day along meandering trajectories extending up to 1000 km. Comparison of surface Chl a estimates (analogous to values from satellite images) with total water column inventories revealed largely linear relationships, suggesting that these images provide credible information on total and not just surface biomass spatial distributions. However, they also showed that physical mixed layer depths are often not a reliable guide to biomass distributions. Regions of very high Chl a accumulation (1.5-10 μg L-1) were associated predominantly with a narrow T-S class of surface waters. In contrast, waters with only moderate Chl a enrichments (0.5-1.5 μg L-1) displayed no clear correlation with specific water properties, including no dependence on mixed layer depth or the intensity of stratification. Geostrophic trajectory analysis suggests that both these observations can be explained if the main determinant of biomass in a given water parcel is the time since leaving the Kerguelen Plateau. One float became trapped in a cyclonic eddy, allowing temporal evaluation of the water column in early

  17. Autonomous Observing and Control Systems for PAIRITEL, a 1.3m Infrared Imaging Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, J. S.; Starr, D. L.; Blake, C. H.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Falco, E. E.

    2006-07-01

    The Peters Automated Infrared Imaging Telescope (PAIRITEL) is the first meter-class telescope operating as a fully robotic IR imaging system. Dedicated in October 2004, PAIRITEL began regular observations in mid-December 2004 as part of a 1.5 year commissioning period. The system was designed to respond without human intervention to new gamma-ray burst transients: this milestone was finally reached on November 9, 2005 but the telescope had a number of semi-automated sub-10 minute responses throughout early commissioning. When not operating in Target of Opportunity mode, PAIRITEL performs a number of queue scheduled transient monitoring campaigns. To achieve this level of automation, we have developed communicating tools to connect the various sub-systems: an intelligent queue scheduling database, run-time configurable observation sequence software, a data reduction pipeline, and a master state machine which monitors and controls all functions within and affecting the observatory.

  18. Autonomous Observing and Planet Discovery with the Automated Planet Finder (APF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Jennifer; Hanson, Russell; Holden, Bradford; Butler, R. Paul; Vogt, Steven S.; Laughlin, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The Automated Planet Finder (APF) is a dedicated, ground-based precision radial velocity facility located at Lick Observatory, operated by University of California Observatories (UCO). The 2.4-m telescope and accompanying high-resolution echelle spectrograph were specifically designed for the purpose of detecting planets in the habitable zone of low-mass stars. The telescope is operated every night (weather permitting) to achieve meaningful signal-to-noise gains from high cadence observing and to avoid the aliasing problems inherent to planets whose periods are close to the lunar month.The APF has been taking science quality data for over a year and has contributed to two planet discovery papers with data at a 1 m/s level of precision. The detection of these planets, especially the Uranus mass planet around GL687, indicates that the APF telescope is well suited to the discovery of low-mass planets orbiting low-mass stars in the as-yet relatively un-surveyed region of the sky near the north celestial pole.To take full advantage of the consistent influx of data it is necessary to analyze each night's results before deciding the next evening's targets. We are in the process of developing a fully automated reduction pipeline that will take data from raw FITS files to final radial velocity values and integrate those values into a master database. The database is then run through the publicly available Systemic console, a publically available software package for the analysis and combined multiparameter fitting of Doppler radial velocity observations. Systemic will re-calculate the possibility of planetary signals in the data and use this value, along with other considerations such as the star's brightness and chromospheric activity level, to assign it a priority rating for future observations.When the telescope is again on sky it uses a suite of stellar and atmospheric calibrations derived from the part year's observations to calculate the expected exposure time for

  19. A Strategy for Integrated Water Cycle Observations from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. F.; Houser, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    The coupling of land surface hydrologic processes to atmospheric processes over a range of spatial and temporal scales is needed for understanding how atmosphere-land surface interactions operate and feed back onto the regional and larger scale climate system. An integral component of NASA's Global Water and Energy Cycle (GWEC) program and the World Climate Research is whether knowledge of land surface hydrologic states results in improved weather and short-term climate predictions. The inherent research strategy for NASA/GWEC and WCRP/GEWEX for investigating this is through the merging (assimilation) of remotely sensed observations of the surface hydrospheric state with process-based, terrestrial water and energy balance models. NASA assumes that remote sensing observations using current (TRMM, Terra, and Aqua) and planned (e.g. Global Precipitation Mission, HYDROS for surface soil moisture and freeze-thaw state, and possibly snow and surface water) platforms will provide sufficient estimates of surface hydrologic state variables. The extent to which this assumption can be realized remains an open question. The unmet needs facing the community in fully exploiting space-borne observations include: (i) having sufficiently accurate retrieval of physical surface states, including validation programs that can estimate retrieval error characteristics; (ii) overcoming satellite sensor programs that primarily focus on a single physical parameter; and (iii) having consistency between satellite observations and land surface models in terms of consistency in the retrieved variables as they relate to the spatial and temporal variability of the terrestrial hydrosphere. This presentation will offer a new vision for water cycle observation and modeling that has, at its core, the concept of integrated observations as opposed to isolated observations, and consistency between models and observations. By integrated observations, we mean the simultaneous retrieval of related water

  20. Swift Multi-wavelength Observing Campaigns: Strategies and Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krimm, Hans A.

    2007-01-01

    The Swift gamma-ray burst explorer has been operating since December 2004 as both a gamma-ray burst (GRB) monitor and telescope and a multi-wavelength observatory, covering the energy range from V band and near UV to hard X rays above 150 keV. It is designed to rapidly repoint to observe newly discovered GRBs, and this maneuverability, combined with an easily changed observing program, allows Swift to also be an effective multiwavelength observatory for non-GRB targets, both as targets of opportunity and pre-planned multi-wavelength observing campaigns. Blazars are particularly attractive targets for coordinated campaigns with TeV experiments since many blazars are bright in both the hard X-ray and TeV energy ranges. Successful coordinated campaigns have included observations of 3C454.3 during its 2005 outburst. The latest Swift funding cycles allow for non- GRB related observations to be proposed. The Burst Alert Telescope on Swift also serves as a hard X-ray monitor with a public web page that includes light curves for over 400 X-ray sources and is used to alert the astronomical community about increased activity from both known and newly discovered sources. This presentation mill include Swift capabilities, strategies and policies for coordinated multi-wavelength observations as well as discussion of the potential outcomes of such campaigns.

  1. An autonomous drifting buoy system for long term pCO2 observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Y.; Fujiki, T.; Wakita, M.; Azetsu-Scott, K.; Watanabe, S.

    2009-04-01

    Many studies have been carried out around the world to understand what happens to carbon dioxide (CO2) once it is emitted into the atmosphere, and how it relates to long-term climate change. However, the sea surface pCO2 observations on volunteer observation ships and research vessels concentrated in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. To assess the spatial and temporal variations of surface pCO2 in the global ocean, new automated pCO2 sensor which can be used in platform systems such as buoys or moorings is strongly desired. We have been developing the small drifting buoy system (diameter 250-340 mm, length 470 mm, weight 15 kg) for pCO2 measurement, with the support of the Japan EOS Promotion Program (JEPP), the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The objective is to provide simplified, automated measurements of pCO2 over all the world's oceans, an essential factor in understanding how the ocean responds to climate change. The measurement principle for the pCO2 sensor is based on spectrophotometry (e.g. Lefèvre et al., 1993; Degrandpre et al., 1995). The CO2 in the surrounding seawater equilibrates with the indicator solution across the gas permeable membranes. The equilibration process causes a change of pH in the indicator solution, which results in the change of optical absorbance. The pCO2 is calculated from the optical absorbance of the pH indicator solution equilibrated with CO2 in seawater through a gas permeable membrane. In our analytical system, we used an amorphous fluoropolymer tubing form of AF-2400 by DuPontTM for the gas permeable membrane due to its high gas permeability coefficients. The measurement system of the sensor consisted mainly of a LED light source, optical fibers, a CCD detector, and a downsized PC. The measured data were transmitted to the laboratory by satellite communication (Argos system). In the laboratory experiment, we obtained a high response time (less than 2 minutes) and a precision

  2. Mathematical strategies for filtering complex systems: Regularly spaced sparse observations

    SciTech Connect

    Harlim, J. Majda, A.J.

    2008-05-01

    Real time filtering of noisy turbulent signals through sparse observations on a regularly spaced mesh is a notoriously difficult and important prototype filtering problem. Simpler off-line test criteria are proposed here as guidelines for filter performance for these stiff multi-scale filtering problems in the context of linear stochastic partial differential equations with turbulent solutions. Filtering turbulent solutions of the stochastically forced dissipative advection equation through sparse observations is developed as a stringent test bed for filter performance with sparse regular observations. The standard ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) has poor skill on the test bed and even suffers from filter divergence, surprisingly, at observable times with resonant mean forcing and a decaying energy spectrum in the partially observed signal. Systematic alternative filtering strategies are developed here including the Fourier Domain Kalman Filter (FDKF) and various reduced filters called Strongly Damped Approximate Filter (SDAF), Variance Strongly Damped Approximate Filter (VSDAF), and Reduced Fourier Domain Kalman Filter (RFDKF) which operate only on the primary Fourier modes associated with the sparse observation mesh while nevertheless, incorporating into the approximate filter various features of the interaction with the remaining modes. It is shown below that these much cheaper alternative filters have significant skill on the test bed of turbulent solutions which exceeds ETKF and in various regimes often exceeds FDKF, provided that the approximate filters are guided by the off-line test criteria. The skill of the various approximate filters depends on the energy spectrum of the turbulent signal and the observation time relative to the decorrelation time of the turbulence at a given spatial scale in a precise fashion elucidated here.

  3. NX-2G : autonomous BBOBS-NX for a highly mobile broadband seismic observation at the seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, Hajime; Sugioka, Hiroko; Ito, Aki; Shinohara, Masanao

    2016-04-01

    We had developed the broadband ocean bottom seismometer (BBOBS) and its new generation system (BBOBS-NX), and, with them, several practical observations have been performed to create and establish a new category of the ocean floor broadband seismology, since 1999. Now, our BBOBS and BBOBS-NX data is proved to be at acceptable level for broadband seismic analyses. Especially, the BBOBS-NX is able to obtain the low noise horizontal data comparable to the land station in periods longer than 10 s, which is adequate for modern analyses of the mantle structure. Moreover, the BBOBS(T)-NX is under practical evaluation for the mobile tilt observation at the seafloor, which will enable dense geodetic monitoring. The BBOBS-NX system must be a powerful tool, although, the current system has intrinsic limitation in opportunity of observations due to the necessary use of the submersible vehicle for the deployment and recovery. If we can use this system with almost any kind of vessels, like as the BBOBS (self pop-up system), it should lead us a true breakthrough of seafloor observations in geodynamics. Hereafter, we call the new autonomous BBOBS-NX as NX-2G in short. There are two main problems to be cleared to realize the NX-2G system. The first one is a tilt of the sensor unit on landing, which is larger than the acceptable limit of the sensor (±8°) in 47 % after our 15 free-fall deployments of the BBOBS-NX. As we had no evidence at which moment the tilt occurred, so it was observed during the BBOBS-NX deployment in the last year by attaching a video camera and an acceleration logger those were originally developed for this purpose. The only one result shows that the tilt on landing seemed determined by the final posture of the BBOBS-NX system just before the penetration into the sediment. The second problem is a required force to extract the sensor unit from the sticky clay sediment, which was about 80 kgf in maximum with the current BBOBS-NX system from in-situ measurements

  4. Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, George T.; Carey, Robin J.; Kapushion, Blanche M.

    2016-01-01

    "Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book" includes activities and strategies to support the development of autonomous learners. More than 40 activities are included, all geared to the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development of students. Teachers may use these activities and strategies with the entire class, small groups, or…

  5. Autonomous Undersea Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    from the outside world . The outside world would be either an adjacent node (e.g., a Seaweb node) or a surface buoy. The focus of this effort has...data snippets being sent to the outside world via acoustic telemetry. We have teamed with Webb Research to use their Slocum Glider as a data truck to

  6. Vagus nerve stimulation: state of the art of stimulation and recording strategies to address autonomic function neuromodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiraud, David; Andreu, David; Bonnet, Stéphane; Carrault, Guy; Couderc, Pascal; Hagège, Albert; Henry, Christine; Hernandez, Alfredo; Karam, Nicole; Le Rolle, Virginie; Mabo, Philippe; Maciejasz, Paweł; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Marijon, Eloi; Maubert, Sandrine; Picq, Chloé; Rossel, Olivier; Bonnet, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Neural signals along the vagus nerve (VN) drive many somatic and autonomic functions. The clinical interest of VN stimulation (VNS) is thus potentially huge and has already been demonstrated in epilepsy. However, side effects are often elicited, in addition to the targeted neuromodulation. Approach. This review examines the state of the art of VNS applied to two emerging modulations of autonomic function: heart failure and obesity, especially morbid obesity. Main results. We report that VNS may benefit from improved stimulation delivery using very advanced technologies. However, most of the results from fundamental animal studies still need to be demonstrated in humans.

  7. Unraveling Tropical Mountain Hydroclimatology by Coupling Autonomous Sensor Observations and Climate Modeling: Llanganuco Valley, Cordillera Blanca, Peru.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellstrom, R. A.; Fernandez, A.; Mark, B. G.; Covert, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Northern Peru will face critical water resource issues in the near future as permanent ice retreats. Much of current global and regional climate research neglects the meteorological forcing of lapse rates and valley wind dynamics on critical components of the Peruvian Andes' water-cycle. In 2004 and 2005 we installed an autonomous sensor network (ASN) within the glacierized Llanganuco Valley, Cordillera Blanca (9°S), consisting of discrete, cost-effective, automatic temperature loggers located along the valley axis and anchored by two automatic weather stations. Comparisons of these embedded atmospheric measurements from the ASN and climate modeling (CM) by dynamical downscaling using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model elucidate distinct diurnal and seasonal characteristics of the mountain valley winds and lapse rates. Wind, temperature, humidity, and cloud simulations by WRF suggest that thermally driven valley winds converging with easterly flow aloft enhance late afternoon and evening cloud development which helps explain detected nocturnal precipitation maxima measured by the ASN. We attribute sustained evapotranspiration (ET), as estimated by the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith model, to an abundance of glacial melt-water during the dry season and strong pre-noon solar heating during the wet season. Furthermore, the extreme diurnal variability of along-valley-axis lapse rates and valley wind detected from ground observations and confirmed by dynamical downscaling demonstrate the importance of realistic scale parameterizations of the boundary layer to improve regional CM projections in mountainous regions. Our findings portray ET as an integral yet poorly represented process in Andean hydroclimatology. We show that coupling ASN and CM can improve understanding of multi-scale atmospheric and associated hydrological processes in mountain valleys.

  8. Intelligent Observation Strategies for Geosynchronous Remote Sensing for Natural Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Karen; Cappleare, Patrice; Frye, Stuart; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Mandl, Daniel; Flatley, Thomas; Geist, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Geosynchronous satellites offer a unique perspective for monitoring environmental factors important to understanding natural hazards and supporting the disasters management life cycle, namely forecast, detection, response, recovery and mitigation. In the NASA decadal survey for Earth science, the GEO-CAPE mission was proposed to address coastal and air pollution events in geosynchronous orbit, complementing similar initiatives in Asia by the South Koreans and by ESA in Europe, thereby covering the northern hemisphere. In addition to analyzing the challenges of identifying instrument capabilities to meet the science requirements, and the implications of hosting the instrument payloads on commercial geosynchronous satellites, the GEO-CAPE mission design team conducted a short study to explore strategies to optimize the science return for the coastal imaging instrument. The study focused on intelligent scheduling strategies that took into account cloud avoidance techniques as well as onboard processing methods to reduce the data storage and transmission loads. This paper expands the findings of that study to address the use of intelligent scheduling techniques and near-real time data product acquisition of both the coastal water and air pollution events. The topics include the use of onboard processing to refine and execute schedules, to detect cloud contamination in observations, and to reduce data handling operations. Analysis of state of the art flight computing capabilities will be presented, along with an assessment of cloud detection algorithms and their performance characteristics. Tools developed to illustrate operational concepts will be described, including their applicability to environmental monitoring domains with an eye to the future. In the geostationary configuration, the payload becomes a networked thing with enough connectivity to exchange data seamlessly with users. This allows the full field of view to be sensed at very high rate under the control

  9. Intelligent Observation Strategies for Geosynchronous Remote Sensing for Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K.; Cappelaere, P. G.; Frye, S. W.; LeMoigne, J.; Mandl, D.; Flatley, T.; Geist, A.

    2015-12-01

    Geosynchronous satellites offer a unique perspective for monitoring environmental factors important to understanding natural hazards and supporting the disasters management life cycle, namely forecast, detection, response, recovery and mitigation. In the NASA decadal survey for Earth science, the GEO-CAPE mission was proposed to address coastal and air pollution events in geosynchronous orbit, complementing similar initiatives in Asia by the South Koreans and by ESA in Europe, thereby covering the northern hemisphere. In addition to analyzing the challenges of identifying instrument capabilities to meet the science requirements, and the implications of hosting the instrument payloads on commercial geosynchronous satellites, the GEO-CAPE mission design team conducted a short study to explore strategies to optimize the science return for the coastal imaging instrument. The study focused on intelligent scheduling strategies that took into account cloud avoidance techniques as well as onboard processing methods to reduce the data storage and transmission loads. This paper expands the findings of that study to address the use of intelligent scheduling techniques and near-real time data product acquisition of both the coastal water and air pollution events. The topics include the use of onboard processing to refine and execute schedules, to detect cloud contamination in observations, and to reduce data handling operations. Analysis of state of the art flight computing capabilities will be presented, along with an assessment of cloud detection algorithms and their performance characteristics. Tools developed to illustrate operational concepts will be described, including their applicability to environmental monitoring domains with an eye to the future. In the geostationary configuration, the payload becomes a networked "thing" with enough connectivity to exchange data seamlessly with users. This allows the full field of view to be sensed at very high rate under the

  10. Autonomic neuropathies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    A limited autonomic neuropathy may underlie some unusual clinical syndromes, including the postural tachycardia syndrome, pseudo-obstruction syndrome, heat intolerance, and perhaps chronic fatigue syndrome. Antibodies to autonomic structures are common in diabetes, but their specificity is unknown. The presence of autonomic failure worsens prognosis in the diabetic state. Some autonomic neuropathies are treatable. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy may respond to liver transplantation. There are anecdotal reports of acute panautonomic neuropathy responding to intravenous gamma globulin. Orthostatic hypotension may respond to erythropoietin or midodrine.

  11. Cooperative Communication Strategies: Observations in a Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Thurmon

    1983-01-01

    Examines two strategies which Blacks use to bring about cooperation in the Black community: (1) "indirection," which makes use of humorous messages, avoidance, and signifying to reduce conflicts, and (2) "neutralization," which involves the use of verbal justifications and excuses to stabilize situations in which disagreements may arise over…

  12. Developing Autonomous Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Defines the concept of autonomous learning. Presents the Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking (SPELT), including its underlying assumptions, instructional model, teacher training procedures, research findings, and anticipated future development. Research results include implications for learning-disabled and gifted students. (KS)

  13. Autonomous Optical Lunar Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato; Crouse, Brian; D'souza, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The performance of optical autonomous navigation is investigated for low lunar orbits and for high elliptical lunar orbits. Various options for employing the camera measurements are presented and compared. Strategies for improving navigation performance are developed and applied to the Orion vehicle lunar mission

  14. Autonomic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Autonomic neuropathy is a group of symptoms that occur when there is damage to the nerves that manage every day body functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, sweating, bowel and bladder emptying, and ...

  15. Biogeography-based combinatorial strategy for efficient autonomous underwater vehicle motion planning and task-time management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadeh, S. M.; Powers, D. M. W.; Sammut, K.; Yazdani, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are capable of spending long periods of time for carrying out various underwater missions and marine tasks. In this paper, a novel conflict-free motion planning framework is introduced to enhance underwater vehicle's mission performance by completing maximum number of highest priority tasks in a limited time through a large scale waypoint cluttered operating field, and ensuring safe deployment during the mission. The proposed combinatorial route-path planner model takes the advantages of the Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO) algorithm toward satisfying objectives of both higher-lower level motion planners and guarantees maximization of the mission productivity for a single vehicle operation. The performance of the model is investigated under different scenarios including the particular cost constraints in time-varying operating fields. To show the reliability of the proposed model, performance of each motion planner assessed separately and then statistical analysis is undertaken to evaluate the total performance of the entire model. The simulation results indicate the stability of the contributed model and its feasible application for real experiments.

  16. LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Implementation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson Jr., WI; Vogelmann, AM

    2015-09-01

    This document illustrates the design of the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) workflow to provide a routine, high-resolution modeling capability to augment the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s high-density observations. LASSO will create a powerful new capability for furthering ARM’s mission to advance understanding of cloud, radiation, aerosol, and land-surface processes. The combined observational and modeling elements will enable a new level of scientific inquiry by connecting processes and context to observations and providing needed statistics for details that cannot be measured. The result will be improved process understanding that facilitates concomitant improvements in climate model parameterizations. The initial LASSO implementation will be for ARM’s Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma and will focus on shallow convection, which is poorly simulated by climate models due in part to clouds’ typically small spatial scale compared to model grid spacing, and because the convection involves complicated interactions of microphysical and boundary layer processes.

  17. Strategies GeoCape Intelligent Observation Studies @ GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappelaere, Pat; Frye, Stu; Moe, Karen; Mandl, Dan; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Flatley, Tom; Geist, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides information a summary of the tradeoff studies conducted for GeoCape by the GSFC team in terms of how to optimize GeoCape observation efficiency. Tradeoffs include total ground scheduling with simple priorities, ground scheduling with cloud forecast, ground scheduling with sub-area forecast, onboard scheduling with onboard cloud detection and smart onboard scheduling and onboard image processing. The tradeoffs considered optimzing cost, downlink bandwidth and total number of images acquired.

  18. A Teaching Strategy for Developing the Power of Observation in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguz-Unver, Ayse; Yurumezoglu, Kemal

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of observation in knowledge building, it has received less attention than experimental forms of inquiry in science education. Therefore, the aims of this study are to use observation strategies for developing the power of observation in science education and to develop student teachers' skills of observation process. The…

  19. Concurrent Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale for Elementary School--Observer Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Dudek, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is an initial investigation of the concurrent validity of a new assessment, the Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS version 2.0) for Elementary School--Observer Form. The CSS assesses teachers' use of instructional and behavioral management strategies. In the present study, the CSS is compared to the Classroom Assessment Scoring…

  20. Factors Associated with South Korean Early Childhood Educators' Observed Behavior Support Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yeon Ha; Stormont, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study was an exploratory study of 34 South Korean early childhood educators' strategies for addressing behavior problems in natural settings. Factors related to teachers' strategy implementation were also explored. Four specific teacher behaviors were observed: precorrection, behavioral-specific praise, redirection, and reprimand/punishment.…

  1. Autonomous Soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Victor P.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the autonomous soaring flight of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). It reviews energy sources for UAVs, and two examples of UAV's that used alternative energy sources, and thermal currents for soaring. Examples of flight tests, plans, and results are given. Ultimately, the concept of a UAV harvesting energy from the atmosphere has been shown to be feasible with existing technology.

  2. Autonomous software: Myth or magic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.; Naylor, T.; Saunders, E. S.

    2008-03-01

    We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

  3. Autonomous Observations of the Upper Ocean Stratification and Velocity Fields About the Seasonally-Retreating Marginal Ice Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Unit and Attitude Heading Reference System (IMU/AHRS). The former was motivated by analysis of prototype data that suggested that vortex shedding from...the standard MAVS transducer supports introduced noise into the velocity observations. The new design is optimized for a profiler that orients

  4. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pintér, Alexandra; Cseh, Domonkos; Sárközi, Adrienn; Illigens, Ben M.; Siepmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26213927

  5. Optimal strategies for observation of active galactic nuclei variability with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giomi, Matteo; Gerard, Lucie; Maier, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Variable emission is one of the defining characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGN). While providing precious information on the nature and physics of the sources, variability is often challenging to observe with time- and field-of-view-limited astronomical observatories such as Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). In this work, we address two questions relevant for the observation of sources characterized by AGN-like variability: what is the most time-efficient way to detect such sources, and what is the observational bias that can be introduced by the choice of the observing strategy when conducting blind surveys of the sky. Different observing strategies are evaluated using simulated light curves and realistic instrument response functions of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a future gamma-ray observatory. We show that strategies that makes use of very small observing windows, spread over large periods of time, allows for a faster detection of the source, and are less influenced by the variability properties of the sources, as compared to strategies that concentrate the observing time in a small number of large observing windows. Although derived using CTA as an example, our conclusions are conceptually valid for any IACTs facility, and in general, to all observatories with small field of view and limited duty cycle.

  6. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Strategies Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Most everyday child and adolescent psychotherapy does not follow manuals that document the procedures. Consequently, usual clinical care has remained poorly understood and rarely studied. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) is an observational measure of youth psychotherapy procedures…

  7. Determining best practices in reconnoitering sites for habitability potential on Mars using a semi-autonomous rover: A GeoHeuristic Operational Strategies Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Berger, J.; Cohen, B. A.; Hynek, B.; Schmidt, M. E.

    2017-03-01

    We tested science operations strategies developed for use in remote mobile spacecraft missions, to determine whether reconnoitering a site of potential habitability prior to in-depth study (a walkabout-first strategy) can be a more efficient use of time and resources than the linear approach commonly used by planetary rover missions. Two field teams studied a sedimentary sequence in Utah to assess habitability potential. At each site one team commanded a human "rover" to execute observations and conducted data analysis and made follow-on decisions based solely on those observations. Another team followed the same traverse using traditional terrestrial field methods, and the results of the two teams were compared. Test results indicate that for a mission with goals similar to our field case, the walkabout-first strategy may save time and other mission resources, while improving science return. The approach enabled more informed choices and higher team confidence in choosing where to spend time and other consumable resources. The walkabout strategy may prove most efficient when many close sites must be triaged to a smaller subset for detailed study or sampling. This situation would arise when mission goals include finding, identifying, characterizing or sampling a specific material, feature or type of environment within a certain area.

  8. Autonomous control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    KSC has been developing the Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE), which is a tool for performing automated monitoring, diagnosis, and control of electromechanical devices. KATE employs artificial intelligence computing techniques to perform these functions. The KATE system consists of a generic shell and a knowledge base. The KATE shell is the portion of the system which performs the monitoring, diagnosis, and control functions. It is generic in the sense that it is application independent. This means that the monitoring activity, for instance, will be performed with the same algorithms regardless of the particular physical device being used. The knowledge base is the portion of the system which contains specific functional and behavorial information about the physical device KATE is working with. Work is nearing completion on a project at KSC to interface a Texas Instruments Explorer running a LISP version of KATE with a Generic Checkout System (GCS) test-bed to control a physical simulation of a shuttle tanking system (humorously called the Red Wagon because of its color and mobility). The Autonomous Control System (ACS) project supplements and extends the KATE/GCS project by adding three other major activities. The activities include: porting KATE from the Texas Instruments Explorer machine to an Intel 80386-based UNIX workstation in the LISP language; rewriting KATE as necessary to run on the same 80386 workstation but in the Ada language; and investigating software and techniques to translate ANSI Standard Common LISP to Mil Standard Ada. Primary goals of this task are as follows: (1) establish the advantages of using expert systems to provide intelligent autonomous software for Space Station Freedom applications; (2) determine the feasibility of using Ada as the run-time environment for model-based expert systems; (3) provide insight into the advantages and disadvantagesof using LISP or Ada in the run-time environment for expert systems; and (4

  9. Autonomous-Control Concept For Instrument Pointing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Edward; Milman, Mark H.; Bayard, David S.

    1990-01-01

    Integrated payload articulation and identification system (IPAIDS) is conceptual system to control aiming of instruments aboard spacecraft of proposed Earth Observation System (EOS). Principal features of concept include advanced control strategies intended to assure robustness of performance over wide range of uncertainties in characteristics of spacecraft and instrument system. Intended originally for application to spacecraft system, has potential utility on Earth for automatic control of autonomous (robotic) vehicles or of remote sensing systems.

  10. INL Autonomous Navigation System

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Autonomous Navigation System provides instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The system permits high-speed autonomous navigation including obstacle avoidance, waypoing navigation and path planning in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  11. Pharmacotherapy of autonomic failure

    PubMed Central

    Shibao, Cyndya; Okamoto, Luis; Biaggioni, Italo

    2012-01-01

    The clinical picture of autonomic failure is characterized by severe and disabling orthostatic hypotension. These disorders can develop as a result of damage of central neural pathways or peripheral autonomic nerves, caused either by a primary autonomic neurodegenerative disorder or secondary to systemic illness. Treatment should be focused on decreasing presyncopal symptoms instead of achieving blood pressure goals. Non-pharmacologic strategies such as physical counter-maneuvers, dietary changes (i.e. high salt diet, rapid water drinking or compression garments) are the first line therapy. Affected patients should be screened for co-morbid conditions such as post-prandial hypotension and supine hypertension that can worsen orthostatic hypotension if not treated. If symptoms are not controlled with these conservative measures the next step is to start pharmacological agents; these interventions should be aimed at increasing intravascular volume either by promoting water and salt retention (fludrocortisone) or by increasing red blood cell mass when anemia is present (recombinant erythropoietin). When pressor agents are needed, direct pressor agents (midodrine) or agents that potentiate sympathetic activity (atomoxetine, yohimbine, pyridostigmine) can be used. It is preferable to use short-acting pressor agents that can be taken on as needed basis in preparation for upright activities. PMID:21664375

  12. Cost-efficient measurement strategies for posture observations based on video recordings.

    PubMed

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Liv, Per; Wahlström, Jens

    2013-07-01

    Assessment of working postures by observation is a common practice in ergonomics. The present study investigated whether monetary resources invested in a video-based posture observation study should preferably be spent in collecting many video recordings of the work and have them observed once by one observer, or in having multiple observers rate postures repeatedly from fewer videos. The study addressed this question from a practitioner's perspective by focusing two plausible scenarios: documenting the mean exposure of one individual, and of a specific occupational group. Using a data set of observed working postures among hairdressers, empirical values of posture variability, observer variability, and costs for recording and observing one video were entered into equations expressing the total cost of data collection and the information (defined as 1/SD) provided by the resulting estimates of two variables: percentage time with the arm elevated <15° and >90°. Sixteen measurement strategies involving 1-4 observers repeating their posture ratings 1-4 times were examined for budgets up to €2000. For both posture variables and in both the individual and group scenario, the most cost-efficient strategy at any specific budget was to engage 3-4 observers and/or having observer(s) rate postures multiple times each. Between 17% and 34% less information was produced when using the commonly practiced approach of having one observer rate a number of video recordings one time each. We therefore recommend observational posture assessment to be based on video recordings of work, since this allows for multiple observations; and to allocate monetary resources to repeated observations rather than many video recordings.

  13. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of an autonomic neuropathy in the developed world. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy causes a constellation of symptoms and signs affecting cardiovascular, urogenital, gastrointestinal, pupillomotor, thermoregulatory, and sudomotor systems. Several discrete syndromes associated with diabetes cause autonomic dysfunction. The most prevalent of these are: generalized diabetic autonomic neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy associated with the prediabetic state, treatment-induced painful and autonomic neuropathy, and transient hypoglycemia-associated autonomic neuropathy. These autonomic manifestations of diabetes are responsible for the most troublesome and disabling features of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and result in a significant proportion of the mortality and morbidity associated with the disease.

  14. Observing System Simulation Experiments for the assessment of temperature sampling strategies in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicich, F.; Rampazzo, A.

    2003-01-01

    For the first time in the Mediterranean Sea various temperature sampling strategies are studied and compared to each other by means of the Observing System Simulation Experiment technique. Their usefulness in the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) is assessed by quantifying their impact in a Mediterranean General Circulation Model in numerical twin experiments via univariate data assimilation of temperature profiles in summer and winter conditions. Data assimilation is performed by means of the optimal interpolation algorithm implemented in the SOFA (System for Ocean Forecasting and Analysis) code. The sampling strategies studied here include various combinations of eXpendable BathyThermograph (XBT) profiles collected along Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) tracks, Airborne XBTs (AXBTs) and sea surface temperatures. The actual sampling strategy adopted in the MFS Pilot Project during the Targeted Operational Period (TOP, winter-spring 2000) is also studied.

  15. Research on space-based optical surveillance's observation strategy of geostationary-orbit's pitch point region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-ying; An, Wei; Wu, Yu-hao; Li, Jun

    2015-03-01

    In order to surveillance the geostationary (GEO) objects, including man-made satellites and space debris, more efficiently, a space-based optical surveillance system was designed in this paper. A strategy to observe the pinch point region was selected because of the GEO objects' dynamics features. That strategy affects the surveillance satellites orbital type and sensor pointing strategy. In order to minimize total surveillance satellites and the revisit time for GEO objects, a equation was set. More than 700 GEO objects' TLE from NASA's website are used for simulation. Results indicate that the revisit time of the surveillance system designed in this paper is less than 24 hours, more than 95% GEO objects can be observed by the designed system.

  16. Development and Construct Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M.; Hsu, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical…

  17. Learning the Rules: Observation and Imitation of a Sorting Strategy by 36-Month-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Rebecca A.; Jaswal, Vikram K.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were used to investigate the scope of imitation by testing whether 36-month-olds can learn to produce a categorization strategy through observation. After witnessing an adult sort a set of objects by a visible property (their color; Experiment 1) or a nonvisible property (the particular sounds produced when the objects were shaken;…

  18. A global logrank test for adaptive treatment strategies based on observational studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiguo; Valenstein, Marcia; Pfeiffer, Paul; Ganoczy, Dara

    2014-02-28

    In studying adaptive treatment strategies, a natural question that is of paramount interest is whether there is any significant difference among all possible treatment strategies. When the outcome variable of interest is time-to-event, we propose an inverse probability weighted logrank test for testing the equivalence of a fixed set of pre-specified adaptive treatment strategies based on data from an observational study. The weights take into account both the possible selection bias in an observational study and the fact that the same subject may be consistent with more than one treatment strategy. The asymptotic distribution of the weighted logrank statistic under the null hypothesis is obtained. We show that, in an observational study where the treatment selection probabilities need to be estimated, the estimation of these probabilities does not have an effect on the asymptotic distribution of the weighted logrank statistic, as long as the estimation of the parameters in the models for these probabilities is n-consistent. Finite sample performance of the test is assessed via a simulation study. We also show in the simulation that the test can be pretty robust to misspecification of the models for the probabilities of treatment selection. The method is applied to analyze data on antidepressant adherence time from an observational database maintained at the Department of Veterans Affairs' Serious Mental Illness Treatment Research and Evaluation Center.

  19. VIII. The observational strategy: What are the issues; What must be done?

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-03-01

    Throughout its development, the observational strategy of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and its precursor programs has been consistent with that of the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) to detect and quantify climate change, document natural climate variability, understand variation and change, determine the causes and impacts of stratospheric ozone depletion, determine the impact of change on ecosystems and mitigate them. Space based observation can contribute significantly to each of these objectives, although its contribution will have to be carefully integrated with aircraft, in situ, international and other contributions and carefully transitioned to long-term operational observations to achieve its maximum potential impact. The interaction between space ad in situ can be in calibration, in interpretation, or in suggesting ways to make important new measurements from space. In atmospheric chemistry is largely involves calibration and global surveys. In ecosystems it involves calibration of EOS and improved sensors. In seasonal to interannual change it involves the testing and calibration of new sensors. In decadal to century change it requires the invention of new sensors. These roles are complementary and reinforcing. Taking full advantage of the synergisms and tradeoffs between space- and ground-based measurements is a potential vehicle for major savings in what is effectively a constant resource program. This paper presents a discussion of the principles guiding the space-based observational strategy, and the interplay between spaced-based and in situ measurements. The paper then discusses international issues, how they might be addressed, and integrated space-based observational strategy.

  20. Using an autonomous passive acoustic observational system to monitor the environmental impact of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill on deep-diving marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorovskaia, N.; Ackleh, A.; Ma, B.; Tiemann, C.; Ioup, J. W.; Ioup, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) is a consortium of scientists from four universities and the U.S. Navy, which performs acoustic measurements and analysis in littoral waters. For the present work, six passive autonomous broadband acoustic sensors were deployed by LADC in the vicinity of the Deep Water Horizon oil spill site in the Northern Gulf of Mexico in fall 2010. The objective of the project is to assess long-term impact of the spill on the deep-diving residential population of marine mammals, particularly, sperm and beaked whales. Collected data were processed to detect, extract, and count acoustic signals produced by different types of marine mammals. As a next step, a statistical model which uses acoustic inputs was developed to estimate residential populations of different types of marine mammals at different distances from the spill site. The estimates were compared to population estimates from years prior to the spill, using pre-spill collected data in the area by LADC from 2001, 2002, and 2007. The results indicate different responses from sperm and beaked whales in the first months following the spill. A recently published article by our research group (Ackleh et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 2306-2314) provides a comparison of 2007 and 2010 estimates showing a decrease in acoustic activity and abundance of sperm whales at the 9-mile distant site, whereas acoustic activity and abundance at the 25-mile distant site has clearly increased. This may indicate that some sperm whales have relocated farther away from the spill subject to food source availability. The beaked whale population appears to return to 2007 numbers after the spill even at the closest 9-mile distant site. Several acoustically observed changes in the animals' habitat associated with the spill, such as anthropogenic noise level, prey presence, etc., can be connected with the observed population trends. Preliminary results for interpreting observed population trends will

  1. General autonomic components of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Suter, Steve; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Naifeh, Karen

    1986-01-01

    This report refers to a body of investigations directed toward the examination of autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness. Heart rate, respiration rate, finger pulse volume, and basal skin resistance were measured on 127 men and women before, during, and after exposure to a nauseogenic rotating chair test. Significant changes in all autonomic responses were observed across the tests (p less than .05). Significant differences in autonomic responses among groups divided according to motion sickness susceptibility were also observed (p less than .05). Results suggest that the examination of autonomic responses as an objective indicator of motion sickness malaise is warranted and may contribute to the overall understanding of the syndrome.

  2. Cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and arrhythmia☆

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quan; Chen, Dongmei; Wang, Yonggang; Zhao, Xin; Zheng, Yang

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the distribution characteristics of cardiac autonomic nerves and to explore the correlation between cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and arrhythmia. DATA RETRIEVAL: A computer-based retrieval was performed for papers examining the distribution of cardiac autonomic nerves, using heart, autonomic nerve, sympathetic nerve, vagus nerve, nerve distribution, rhythm and atrial fibrillation as the key words. SELECTION CRITERIA: A total of 165 studies examining the distribution of cardiac autonomic nerve were screened, and 46 of them were eventually included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The distribution and characteristics of cardiac autonomic nerves were observed, and immunohistochemical staining was applied to determine the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholine transferase (main markers of cardiac autonomic nerve distribution). In addition, the correlation between cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and cardiac arrhythmia was investigated. RESULTS: Cardiac autonomic nerves were reported to exhibit a disordered distribution in different sites, mainly at the surface of the cardiac atrium and pulmonary vein, forming a ganglia plexus. The distribution of the pulmonary vein autonomic nerve was prominent at the proximal end rather than the distal end, at the upper left rather than the lower right, at the epicardial membrane rather than the endocardial membrane, at the left atrium rather than the right atrium, and at the posterior wall rather than the anterior wall. The main markers used for cardiac autonomic nerves were tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholine transferase. Protein gene product 9.5 was used to label the immunoreactive nerve distribution, and the distribution density of autonomic nerves was determined using a computer-aided morphometric analysis system. CONCLUSION: The uneven distribution of the cardiac autonomic nerves is the leading cause of the occurrence of arrhythmia, and the cardiac autonomic nerves play an important role in

  3. Sampling strategies on Mars: Remote and not-so-remote observations from a surface rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, R. B.

    1988-01-01

    The mobility and speed of a semi-autonomous Mars rover are of necessity limited by the need to think and stay out of trouble. This consideration makes it essential that the rover's travels be carefully directed to likely targets of interest for sampling and in situ study. Short range remote sensing conducted from the rover, based on existing technology, can provide significant information about the chemistry and mineralogy of surrounding rocks and soils in support of sampling efforts. These observations are of course of direct scientific importance as well. Because of the small number of samples actually to be returned to Earth, it is also important that candidate samples be analyzed aboard the rover so that diversity can be maximized. It is essential to perform certain types of analyses, such as those involving volatiles, prior to the thermal and physical shocks of the return trip to Earth. In addition, whatever measurements can be made of nonreturned samples will be important to enlarge the context of the detailed analyses to be performed later on the few returned samples. Some considerations related to these objectives are discussed.

  4. A Dynamic Scheduling Method of Earth-Observing Satellites by Employing Rolling Horizon Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

    2013-01-01

    Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments. PMID:23690742

  5. A dynamic scheduling method of Earth-observing satellites by employing rolling horizon strategy.

    PubMed

    Dishan, Qiu; Chuan, He; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

    2013-01-01

    Focused on the dynamic scheduling problem for earth-observing satellites (EOS), an integer programming model is constructed after analyzing the main constraints. The rolling horizon (RH) strategy is proposed according to the independent arriving time and deadline of the imaging tasks. This strategy is designed with a mixed triggering mode composed of periodical triggering and event triggering, and the scheduling horizon is decomposed into a series of static scheduling intervals. By optimizing the scheduling schemes in each interval, the dynamic scheduling of EOS is realized. We also propose three dynamic scheduling algorithms by the combination of the RH strategy and various heuristic algorithms. Finally, the scheduling results of different algorithms are compared and the presented methods in this paper are demonstrated to be efficient by extensive experiments.

  6. The EO-1 Autonomous Science Agent Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Lee, Rachel; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Hengemihle, Jerry; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Ungar, Stephen; Brakke, Thomas; Boyer, Darrell; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Greeley, Ronald; Doggett, Thomas; Baker, Victor; Dohm, James; Ip, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    An Autonomous Science Agent is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because of the deployment to a remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent constraints of autonomy, reliability, and limited computing resources. We describe these constraints and how they are reflected in our agent architecture.

  7. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  8. Scientific Implications of the Modified Observing Strategy of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnery, Julie E.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration; Fermi-GBM Team

    2014-01-01

    Near the end of 2013 the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission plans to change to a modified observing strategy designed to favor the Galactic center while maintaining full sky-survey capabilities. This change would have important implications for the science of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). In particular, this change will 1) substantially increase the Fermi-LAT sensitivity to young pulsars in the inner Galaxy, 2) provide simultaneous observations of the Galactic center with a suite of other instruments that have extended observing campaigns of the expected disruption of the G2 gas cloud complex (see https://wiki.mpe.mpg.de/gascloud/ProposalList) , 3) double the rate of improvement of statistical power for of searches for spectral lines from the Galactic center. In this contribution we discuss these topics. We also investigate ways in which the modified observing strategy can induce systematic biases, and discuss how those biases can be studied and mitigated with studies of control samples of LAT data.

  9. The effect of learner's control of self-observation strategies on learning of front crawl.

    PubMed

    Marques, Priscila Garcia; Corrêa, Umberto Cesar

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of learner's control of self-observation strategies on motor skill learning. For this purpose, beginner and intermediate learner swimmers practised the front crawl. Seventy college students took part in this experiment. They comprised 40 novice learners, both male (n=19) and female (n=21), with an average age of 20.7 years (±0.44), and 30 intermediate learners, both male (n=17) and female (n=13), with an average age of 21.1 years (±0.86). The design involved a pretest (one day), four acquisition sessions (four days), and a retention test (one day). They were divided into three groups: (1) choice, which could choose to watch a video with their best or overall performance during practise; (2) yoked, which were paired to those of the choice group; and (3) control (did not watch any video). The measures included the performance of front crawl and self-efficacy. The results showed that: (1) beginners who chose a type of observation strategy had superior motor skill learning; (2) for intermediate learners, self-observation promoted better motor learning, regardless of the control of choices; (3) self-observation improved self-efficacy beliefs.

  10. The Gars Programme And The Integrated Global Observing Strategy For Geohazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, S.; Paganini, M.; Missotten, R.; Palazzo, F.

    UNESCO and the IUGS have funded the Geological Applications of Remote Sensing Programme (GARS) since 1984. Its aim is to assess the value and utility of remotely sensed data for geoscience, whilst at the same time building capacity in developing countries. It has run projects in Africa on geological mapping, in Latin America on landslide hazards and in Asia on volcanic hazards. It is a main sponsor of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) for Geohazards. The societal impact of geological and related geophysical hazards is enormous. Every year volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides and subsidence claim thousands of lives, injure thousands more, devastate homes and destroy livelihoods. Damaged infrastructure and insurance premiums increase these costs. As population increases, more people live in hazardous areas and the impact grows. The World Summit on Sustainable Development recognised that systematic, joint international observations under initiatives like the Integrated Global Observing Strategy form the basis for an integrated approach to hazard mitigation and preparedness. In this context, the IGOS Partners developed this geohazards theme. Its goal is to integrate disparate, multidisciplinary, applied research into global, operational systems by filling gaps in organisation, observation and knowledge. It has four strategic objectives; building global capacity to mitigate geohazards; improving mapping, monitoring and forecasting, based on satellite and ground-based observations; increasing preparedness, using integrated geohazards information products and improved geohazards models; and promoting global take-up of local best practice in geohazards management. Gaps remain between what is known and the knowledge required to answer citizen's questions, what is observed and what must be observed to provide the necessary information for hazard mitigation and current data integration and the integration needed to make useful geohazard information products. An

  11. A Topology Control Strategy with Reliability Assurance for Satellite Cluster Networks in Earth Observation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Zhang, Jinxiu; Hu, Ze

    2017-02-23

    This article investigates the dynamic topology control problemof satellite cluster networks (SCNs) in Earth observation (EO) missions by applying a novel metric of stability for inter-satellite links (ISLs). The properties of the periodicity and predictability of satellites' relative position are involved in the link cost metric which is to give a selection criterion for choosing the most reliable data routing paths. Also, a cooperative work model with reliability is proposed for the situation of emergency EO missions. Based on the link cost metric and the proposed reliability model, a reliability assurance topology control algorithm and its corresponding dynamic topology control (RAT) strategy are established to maximize the stability of data transmission in the SCNs. The SCNs scenario is tested through some numeric simulations of the topology stability of average topology lifetime and average packet loss rate. Simulation results show that the proposed reliable strategy applied in SCNs significantly improves the data transmission performance and prolongs the average topology lifetime.

  12. Apoptosis and Self-Destruct: A Contribution to Autonomic Agents?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward in designing reliable systems. Agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomicity in systems, both in terms of retrofitting autonomicity into legacy systems and designing new systems. The AC initiative provides an opportunity to consider other biological systems and principles in seeking new design strategies. This paper reports on one such investigation; utilizing the apoptosis metaphor of biological systems to provide a dynamic health indicator signal between autonomic agents.

  13. Autonomous In-Situ Resources Prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dissly, R. W.; Buehler, M. G.; Schaap, M. G.; Nicks, D.; Taylor, G. J.; Castano, R.; Suarez, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will describe the concept of an autonomous, intelligent, rover-based rapid surveying system to identify and map several key lunar resources to optimize their ISRU (In Situ Resource Utilization) extraction potential. Prior to an extraction phase for any target resource, ground-based surveys are needed to provide confirmation of remote observation, to quantify and map their 3-D distribution, and to locate optimal extraction sites (e.g. ore bodies) with precision to maximize their economic benefit. The system will search for and quantify optimal minerals for oxygen production feedstock, water ice, and high glass-content regolith that can be used for building materials. These are targeted because of their utility and because they are, or are likely to be, variable in quantity over spatial scales accessible to a rover (i.e., few km). Oxygen has benefits for life support systems and as an oxidizer for propellants. Water is a key resource for sustainable exploration, with utility for life support, propellants, and other industrial processes. High glass-content regolith has utility as a feedstock for building materials as it readily sinters upon heating into a cohesive matrix more readily than other regolith materials or crystalline basalts. Lunar glasses are also a potential feedstock for oxygen production, as many are rich in iron and titanium oxides that are optimal for oxygen extraction. To accomplish this task, a system of sensors and decision-making algorithms for an autonomous prospecting rover is described. One set of sensors will be located in the wheel tread of the robotic search vehicle providing contact sensor data on regolith composition. Another set of instruments will be housed on the platform of the rover, including VIS-NIR imagers and spectrometers, both for far-field context and near-field characterization of the regolith in the immediate vicinity of the rover. Also included in the sensor suite are a neutron spectrometer, ground

  14. Autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and goal progress.

    PubMed

    Koestner, Richard; Otis, Nancy; Powers, Theodore A; Pelletier, Luc; Gagnon, Hugo

    2008-10-01

    Although the self-concordance of goals has been repeatedly shown to predict better goal progress, recent research suggests potential problems with aggregating autonomous and controlled motivations to form a summary index of self-concordance (Judge, Bono, Erez, & Locke, 2005). The purpose of the present investigation was to further examine the relations among autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and goal progress to determine the relative importance of autonomous motivation and controlled motivation in the pursuit of personal goals. The results of three studies and a meta-analysis indicated that autonomous motivation was substantially related to goal progress whereas controlled motivation was not. Additionally, the relation of autonomous motivation to goal progress was shown to involve implementation planning. Together, the three studies highlight the importance for goal setters of having autonomous motivation and developing implementation plans, especially ones formulated in terms of approach strategies rather than avoidance strategies. The present research suggests that individuals pursuing goals should focus relatively greater attention on enhancing their autonomous motivation rather than reducing their controlled motivation.

  15. Multi-scale hydrometeorological observation and modelling strategy for flash-flood understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braud, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    Flash floods are a major natural hazard, especially in the Mediterranean region, but their predictability remains low due to high non-linearity in the hydrological response related to threshold effects and structured-heterogeneity at all scales. In this paper, we propose a coupled observation and modelling strategy aiming at improving the understanding of processes triggering flash floods. This strategy is illustrated for the Mediterranean area using two French catchments (Gard and Ardèche) larger than 2000 km². The experimental approach is based on the monitoring of nested spatial scales: 1/ the hillslope scale, where processes influencing the runoff generation and its concentration can be tackled; 2/ the small to medium catchment scale (1-100 km²) where the impact of the network structure and of the spatial variability of rainfall, landscape and initial soil moisture can be quantified; 3/ the larger scale (100-1000 km²) where the river routing and flooding processes become important. These observations are part of the HyMeX (Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment) Enhanced Observation Period (EOP) and lasts four years (2012-2015). In terms of hydrological modelling the objective is to set up models at the regional scale, while addressing small and generally ungauged catchments, which is the scale of interest for flooding risk assessment. Top-down and bottom-up approaches are combined and the models are used as "hypothesis testing" tools by coupling model development with data analyses, in order to incrementally evaluate the validity of model hypotheses. The paper focuses on the presentation of the experimental strategy and the instrumentation, with first results obtained during the first years of the experiment. The perspectives in terms of modelling are also presented.

  16. Supporting Greenhouse Gas Management Strategies with Observations and Analysis - Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change challenges facing society in the 21st century require an improved understanding of the global carbon-cycle and of the impacts and feedbacks of past, present, and future emissions of carbon-cycle gases. Global society faces a major challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to virtually zero, most notably those of CO2, while at the same time facing variable and potentially overwhelming Earth System feedbacks. How it goes about this will depend upon the nature of impending international agreements, national laws, regional strategies, and social and economic forces. The challenge to those making observations to support, inform, or verify these reduction efforts, or to address potential Earth System feedbacks, lies in harmonizing a diverse array of observations and observing systems. Doing so is not trivial. Providing coherent, regional-scale information from these observations also requires improved modelling and ensemble reanalysis, but in the end such information must be relevant and reasonably certain. The challenge to us is to ensure a globally coherent observing and analysis system to supply the information that society will need to succeed. Policy-makers, scientists, government agencies, and businesses will need the best information available for decision-making and any observing and analysis system ultimately must be able to provide a coherent story over decades.

  17. Self-selected conscious strategies do not modulate motor cortical output during action observation

    PubMed Central

    Obhi, Sukhvinder S.

    2015-01-01

    The human motor system is active not only when actions are performed but also when they are observed. Experimenters often manipulate aspects of the action or context to examine factors that influence this “mirror” response. However, little is known about the role of the observer's own top-down intentions and motivation. In this exploratory study, we investigated whether observers are able to exert conscious control over their mirror response, when they are explicitly instructed to either increase or decrease mirroring. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in a thumb abductor muscle as participants (n = 13) watched a video of a hand squeezing a rubber ball. The size of these MEPs, relative to the size of MEPs elicited during fixation cross observation, was taken as an index of mirroring. In an initial block of trials, participants were instructed to merely observe the actions presented. After the first block, the concept of mirroring was explained to the participants, and in the second and third blocks participants were instructed to either increase or decrease their mirror response. We did not instruct them about how to achieve this increase or decrease. Our results showed no difference in either facilitation or absolute motor excitability (i.e., nonnormalized MEP size) between the three blocks, indicating that individuals do not seem to be able to exert control over motor excitability during action observation, at least in the absence of a specific and maintained strategy. PMID:26311182

  18. Mid-Cretaceous charred fossil flowers reveal direct observation of arthropod feeding strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hartkopf-Fröder, Christoph; Rust, Jes; Wappler, Torsten; Friis, Else Marie; Viehofen, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    Although plant–arthropod relationships underpin the dramatic rise in diversity and ecological dominance of flowering plants and their associated arthropods, direct observations of such interactions in the fossil record are rare, as these ephemeral moments are difficult to preserve. Three-dimensionally preserved charred remains of Chloranthistemon flowers from the Late Albian to Early Cenomanian of Germany preserve scales of mosquitoes and an oribatid mite with mouthparts inserted into the pollen sac. Mosquitoes, which today are frequent nectar feeders, and the mite were feeding on pollen at the time wildfire consumed the flowers. These findings document directly arthropod feeding strategies and their role in decomposition. PMID:21900310

  19. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  20. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  1. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  2. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  3. [Feeding strategies of mothers of malnourished and eutrophic children: a qualitative study through videotaped observations].

    PubMed

    Perosa, Gimol Benzaquen; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Silveira, Flávia Cristina Pereira

    2011-11-01

    The scope of this study was to identify and compare maternal feeding strategies and characteristics of the interaction between mothers of malnourished and eutrophic children. Eight pairs of mother/malnourished child and eight pairs of mother/eutrophic child (aged between 9 to 24 months) living in poor inner areas, were videotaped during meals, at home. Through analysis of the videos, the strategies were identified and episodes qualitatively analyzed, according to the peculiar characteristics of the interaction, especially maternal responsivity. There were no significant differences in strategies used by the mothers of both groups. The observations of the episodes have shown that feeding a child is a highly interactive process, dependent upon the abilities and characteristics of both partners. The success of feeding appears to be associated with contextual conditions, maternal responsivity and also to the appetite and flexibility of the child. It is suggested that, in projects geared to malnourished children, besides supplements and feeding orientation, special attention be given to maternal self esteem and in helping mothers to deal with children suffering from loss of appetite.

  4. Solution of nonlinear finite difference ocean models by optimization methods with sensitivity and observational strategy analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeter, Jens; Wunsch, Carl

    1986-01-01

    The paper studies with finite difference nonlinear circulation models the uncertainties in interesting flow properties, such as western boundary current transport, potential and kinetic energy, owing to the uncertainty in the driving surface boundary condition. The procedure is based upon nonlinear optimization methods. The same calculations permit quantitative study of the importance of new information as a function of type, region of measurement and accuracy, providing a method to study various observing strategies. Uncertainty in a model parameter, the bottom friction coefficient, is studied in conjunction with uncertain measurements. The model is free to adjust the bottom friction coefficient such that an objective function is minimized while fitting a set of data to within prescribed bounds. The relative importance of the accuracy of the knowledge about the friction coefficient with respect to various kinds of observations is then quantified, and the possible range of the friction coefficients is calculated.

  5. Development and construct validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) evidenced overall good reliability estimates including internal consistency, interrater reliability, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, years of teaching experience). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of CSS data from 317 classrooms were carried out to assess the level of empirical support for (a) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' instructional practices, and (b) a 4 first-order factor theory concerning teachers' behavior management practice. Several fit indices indicated acceptable fit of the (a) and (b) CFA models to the data, as well as acceptable fit of less parsimonious alternative CFA models that included 1 or 2 second-order factors. Information-theory-based indices generally suggested that the (a) and (b) CFA models fit better than some more parsimonious alternative CFA models that included constraints on relations of first-order factors. Overall, CFA first-order and higher order factor results support the CSS-Observer Total, Composite, and subscales. Suggestions for future measurement development efforts are outlined.

  6. Miniaturized autonomous robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Hidenori; Fukuda, Toshio

    1998-01-01

    Many projects developing the miniaturized autonomous robot have been carried out in the whole world. This paper deals with our challenges developing a miniaturized autonomous robot. The miniaturized autonomous robot is defined as the miniaturized closed-loop system with micro processor, microactuators and microsensors. We have developed the micro autonomous robotic system (MARS) consisting of the microprocessor, microsensors, microactuators, communication units and batteries. The MARS controls itself by the downloaded program supplied through the IR communication system. In this paper, we demonstrate several performance of the MARS, and discuss the properties of the miniaturized autonomous robot.

  7. NASA's NI-SAR Observing Strategy and Data Availability for Agricultural Monitoring and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, P.; Dubayah, R.; Kellndorfer, J. M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Chapman, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    The monitoring and characterization of global crop development by remote sensing is a complex task, in part, because of the time varying nature of the target and the diversity of crop types and agricultural practices that vary worldwide. While some of these difficulties are overcome with the availability of national and market-derived resources (e.g. publication of crop statistics by the USDA and FAO), monitoring by remote sensing has the ability of augmenting those resources to better identify changes over time, and to provide timely assessments for the current year's production. Of the remote sensing techniques that are used for agricultural applications, optical observations of NDVI from Landsat, AVHRR, MODIS and similar sensors have historically provided the majority of data that is used by the community. In addition, radiometer and radar sensors, are often used for estimating soil moisture and structural information for these agricultural regions. The combination of these remote sensing datasets and national resources constitutes the state of the art for crop monitoring and yield forecasts. To help improve these crop monitoring efforts in the future, the joint NASA-ISRO SAR mission known as NI-SAR is being planned for launch in 2020, and will have L- and S-band fully polarimetric radar systems, a fourteen day repeat period, and a swath width on the order of several hundred kilometers. To address the needs of the science and applications communities that NI-SAR will support, the systems observing strategy is currently being planned such that data rate and the system configuration will address the needs of the community. In this presentation, a description of the NI-SAR system will be given along with the currently planned observing strategy and derived products that will be relevant to the overall GEOGLAM initiative.

  8. The CEOS Global Observation Strategy for Disaster Risk Management: An Enterprise Architect's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K.; Evans, J. D.; Frye, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS), on behalf of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), is defining an enterprise architecture (known as GA.4.D) for the use of satellite observations in international disaster management. This architecture defines the scope and structure of the disaster management enterprise (based on disaster types and phases); its processes (expressed via use cases / system functions); and its core values (in particular, free and open data sharing via standard interfaces). The architecture also details how a disaster management enterprise describes, obtains, and handles earth observations and data products for decision-support; and how it draws on distributed computational services for streamlined operational capability. We have begun to apply this architecture to a new CEOS initiative, the Global Observation Strategy for Disaster Risk Management (DRM). CEOS is defining this Strategy based on the outcomes of three pilot projects focused on seismic hazards, volcanoes, and floods. These pilots offer a unique opportunity to characterize and assess the impacts (benefits / costs) of the GA.4.D architecture in practice. In particular, the DRM Floods Pilot is applying satellite-based optical and radar data to flood mitigation, warning, and response, including monitoring and modeling at regional to global scales. It is focused on serving user needs and building local institutional / technical capacity in the Caribbean, Southern Africa, and Southeast Asia. In the context of these CEOS DRM Pilots, we are characterizing where and how the GA.4D architecture helps participants to: - Understand the scope and nature of hazard events quickly and accurately - Assure timely delivery of observations into analysis, modeling, and decision-making - Streamline user access to products - Lower barriers to entry for users or suppliers - Streamline or focus field operations in

  9. The autonomic laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system can now be studied quantitatively, noninvasively, and reproducibly in a clinical autonomic laboratory. The approach at the Mayo Clinic is to study the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers of peripheral nerve (using the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]), the parasympathetic nerves to the heart (cardiovagal tests), and the regulation of blood pressure by the baroreflexes (adrenergic tests). Patient preparation is extremely important, since the state of the patient influences the results of autonomic function tests. The autonomic technologist in this evolving field needs to have a solid core of knowledge of autonomic physiology and autonomic function tests, followed by training in the performance of these tests in a standardized fashion. The range and utilization of tests of autonomic function will likely continue to evolve.

  10. A Study of the Relationships Between Perceived and Observed Science Teaching Strategies and Selected Classroom and Teacher Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeany, Russell H., Jr.; Cosgriff, Stephen J.

    Described is a study to determine the degree of relationship between selected classroom and teacher variables and science teaching strategies. The perceived strategies were recorded and measured by the Class Activity Checklist (CAC) which is a modification of the Science Class Activities Checklist (SCAC), (Yeany, 1974). The observed teacher…

  11. [Surgical therapy of the autonomous thyroid nodule].

    PubMed

    Zanella, E

    1993-12-01

    Indications for the surgical removal of autonomous nodule are mainly based upon the failure of therapeutical options. The histological definition may be advantageous for detecting the rare but possible association between autonomous goiter and carcinoma of the thyroid. In personal experience, based on 176 hyperfunctioning goiter (among which there were 40 cases of autonomous nodules) 6 carcinomas of the gland were observed, 2 of these were associated with autonomous nodules. The extension of thyroidectomy is related to the size of the adenomas considering the incidence of postoperative complications, very low for this type of surgery. Surgical treatment of autonomous nodules of the thyroid is a low risk surgery and is therefore suitable for the treatment of this disease.

  12. The Baker Observatory Robotic Autonomous Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Mike D.; Thompson, Matthew A.; Hicks, L. L.; Baran, A. S.

    2011-03-01

    The objective of our project is to have an autonomous observatory to obtain long duration time-series observations of pulsating stars. Budget constraints dictate an inexpensive facility. In this paper, we discuss our solution.

  13. A Topology Control Strategy with Reliability Assurance for Satellite Cluster Networks in Earth Observation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing; Zhang, Jinxiu; Hu, Ze

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the dynamic topology control problem of satellite cluster networks (SCNs) in Earth observation (EO) missions by applying a novel metric of stability for inter-satellite links (ISLs). The properties of the periodicity and predictability of satellites’ relative position are involved in the link cost metric which is to give a selection criterion for choosing the most reliable data routing paths. Also, a cooperative work model with reliability is proposed for the situation of emergency EO missions. Based on the link cost metric and the proposed reliability model, a reliability assurance topology control algorithm and its corresponding dynamic topology control (RAT) strategy are established to maximize the stability of data transmission in the SCNs. The SCNs scenario is tested through some numeric simulations of the topology stability of average topology lifetime and average packet loss rate. Simulation results show that the proposed reliable strategy applied in SCNs significantly improves the data transmission performance and prolongs the average topology lifetime. PMID:28241474

  14. Directly observed treatment, short-course strategy and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: are any modifications required?

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, I.; Rigouts, L.; Van Deun, A.; Portaels, F.

    2000-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) should be defined as tuberculosis with resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin because these drugs are the cornerstone of short-course chemotherapy, and combined isoniazid and rifampicin resistance requires prolonged treatment with second-line agents. Short-course chemotherapy is a key ingredient in the tuberculosis control strategy known as directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS). For populations in which multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is endemic, the outcome of the standard short-course chemotherapy regimen remains uncertain. Unacceptable failure rates have been reported and resistance to additional agents may be induced. As a consequence there have been calls for well-functioning DOTS programmes to provide additional services in areas with high rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. These "DOTS-plus for MDRTB programmes" may need to modify all five elements of the DOTS strategy: the treatment may need to be individualized rather than standardized; laboratory services may need to provide facilities for on-site culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing; reliable supplies of a wide range of expensive second-line agents would have to be supplied; operational studies would be required to determine the indications for and format of the expanded programmes; financial and technical support from international organizations and Western governments would be needed in addition to that obtained from local governments. PMID:10743297

  15. Autonomic nervous system activities during motor imagery in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Kazuo; Maeshima, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI), a mental simulation of voluntary motor actions, has been used as a training method for athletes for many years. It is possible that MI techniques might similarly be useful as part of rehabilitative strategies to help people regain skills lost as a consequence of diseases or stroke. Mental activity and stress induce several different autonomic responses as part of the behavioral response to movement (e.g., motor anticipation) and as part of the central planning and preprogramming of movement. However, the interrelationships between MI, the autonomic responses, and the motor system have not yet been worked out. The authors compare a number of autonomic responses (respiration, heart rate, electro skin resistance) and motoneuron excitability (soleus H-reflex) in elite and nonelite speed skaters during MI. In contrast to the nonelite athletes, MI of elite speed skaters is characterized by larger changes in heart rate and respiration, a greater reliance on an internal perspective for MI, a more vivid MI, a more accurate correspondence between the MI and actual race times, and decreased motoneuron excitability. Two observations suggest that the changes in the autonomic responses and motoneuron excitability for the elite speed skaters are related to the effects of central motor programming: (1) there was no correlation between the autonomic responses for MI and those recorded during mental arithmetic; and (2) mental arithmetic did not significantly alter motoneuron activity. It is suggested that in elite speed skaters, the descending neural mechanisms that reduce motoneuron excitability are activated even when full, vivid MI is performed internally. These inhibitory responses of the motor system may enhance actual motor performance under conditions of remarkably high mental stress, such as that which occurs in the Olympic games.

  16. Predictive Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form on Statewide Testing Scores: An Initial Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Dudek, Christopher M.; Hsu, Louis

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management…

  17. Optimization of Observation Strategy to Improve Re-entry Prediction of Objects in HEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasotto, M.; Di Mauro, G.; Massari, M.; Di Lizia, P.; Armellin, R.; Funke, Q.; Flohrer, T.

    2016-09-01

    During the last decade the number of space debris moving on high elliptical orbit (HEO) has grown fast. Many of these resident space objects (RSO) consist of medium and large spent upper stages of launch vehicles, whose atmosphere re-entry might violate on-ground casualty risk constraints. Increasing the accuracy of re-entry predictions for this class of RSO is therefore a key issue to limit the hazards on the Earth assets. Traditional computational methods are mainly based on the exploitation of Two Line Elements (TLEs), provided by the United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) and currently the only public data source available for these kind of analyses. TLE data however, are characterized by low accuracies, and in general come without any uncertainty information, thus limiting the achievable precision of the re-entry estimates. Better results on the other hand, can be obtained through the exploitation of observational data provided by one or more Earth sensors. Despite the benefits, this approach introduces a whole new set of complexities, mainly related with the design of proper observation campaigns. This paper presents a method based on evolutionary algorithms, for the optimization of observation strategies. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through dedicated examples, in which re-entry predictions, attainable with existing and ideal sensor architectures, are compared with corresponding results derived from TLE data.

  18. Self-calibration strategy for a LOFAR solar radio burst observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocks, C.; Mann, G.; Breitling, F.

    2016-11-01

    The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a novel radio interferometer consisting of a central core near Exloo in the Netherlands, remote stations in the Netherlands, and international stations. It observes in two frequency bands, the low band of 10-90 MHz and the high band of 110-250 MHz. The key science project ``Solar Physics and Space Weather with LOFAR'' aims at studying the solar activity and its influence on interplanetary space. Solar radio radiation in the low and high band emanates from the upper and middle corona, respectively. We present early commissioning observations of the Sun, that serendipitously include a weak radio burst. Since no external calibrator was observed, a self-calibration approach has to be used. This works well for the quiet Sun, but not for the burst data. We develop a self-calibration strategy for radio bursts, and discuss the general properties of such a self-calibration method. Our results lead to the conclusion that external calibrators with known source structure should generally be preferred.

  19. Observations of ozone formation in power plant plumes and implications for ozone control strategies.

    PubMed

    Ryerson, T B; Trainer, M; Holloway, J S; Parrish, D D; Huey, L G; Sueper, D T; Frost, G J; Donnelly, S G; Schauffler, S; Atlas, E L; Kuster, W C; Goldan, P D; Hubler, G; Meagher, J F; Fehsenfeld, F C

    2001-04-27

    Data taken in aircraft transects of emissions plumes from rural U.S. coal-fired power plants were used to confirm and quantify the nonlinear dependence of tropospheric ozone formation on plume NO(x) (NO plus NO(2)) concentration, which is determined by plant NO(x) emission rate and atmospheric dispersion. The ambient availability of reactive volatile organic compounds, principally biogenic isoprene, was also found to modulate ozone production rate and yield in these rural plumes. Differences of a factor of 2 or greater in plume ozone formation rates and yields as a function of NO(x) and volatile organic compound concentrations were consistently observed. These large differences suggest that consideration of power plant NO(x) emission rates and geographic locations in current and future U.S. ozone control strategies could substantially enhance the efficacy of NO(x) reductions from these sources.

  20. Autonomic and EEG correlates of emotional imagery in subjects with different hypnotic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Sebastiani, L; Simoni, A; Gemignani, A; Ghelarducci, B; Santarcangelo, E L

    2003-04-15

    The autonomic and EEG correlates of the response to a cognitive unpleasant stimulation (US) verbally administered to awake hypnotizable and non hypnotizable subjects were studied. They were compared with the values obtained during a resting condition immediately preceding the stimulus and with those produced by a cognitive neutral stimulation (NS), also administered after a basal resting period. Results showed hypnotic trait effects on skin resistance, heart and respiratory rate as well as on EEG theta, alpha, beta and gamma relative power changes. The autonomic and EEG patterns observed indicated different strategies in the task execution for hypnotizable and non hypnotizable subjects and a discrepancy between the autonomic and EEG changes associated to the US in susceptible subjects. Results support dissociation theories of hypnosis and suggest for hypnotizable persons an active mechanism of protection against cardiac hazard.

  1. Consistently modeling the same movement strategy is more important than model skill level in observational learning contexts.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, John J; Dean, Noah

    2014-02-01

    The experiment undertaken was designed to elucidate the impact of model skill level on observational learning processes. The task was bimanual circle tracing with a 90° relative phase lead of one hand over the other hand. Observer groups watched videos of either an instruction model, a discovery model, or a skilled model. The instruction and skilled model always performed the task with the same movement strategy, the right-arm traced clockwise and the left-arm counterclockwise around circle templates with the right-arm leading. The discovery model used several movement strategies (tracing-direction/hand-lead) during practice. Observation of the instruction and skilled model provided a significant benefit compared to the discovery model when performing the 90° relative phase pattern in a post-observation test. The observers of the discovery model had significant room for improvement and benefited from post-observation practice of the 90° pattern. The benefit of a model is found in the consistency with which that model uses the same movement strategy, and not within the skill level of the model. It is the consistency in strategy modeled that allows observers to develop an abstract perceptual representation of the task that can be implemented into a coordinated action. Theoretically, the results show that movement strategy information (relative motion direction, hand lead) and relative phase information can be detected through visual perception processes and be successfully mapped to outgoing motor commands within an observational learning context.

  2. A novel space-based observation strategy for GEO objects based on daily pointing adjustment of multi-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yun-peng; Li, Ke-bo; Xu, Wei; Chen, Lei; Huang, Jian-yu

    2016-08-01

    Space-based visible (SBV) program has been proved to be with a large advantage to observe geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) objects. With the development of SBV observation started from 1996, many strategies have come out for the purpose of observing GEO objects more efficiently. However it is a big challenge to visit all the GEO objects in a relatively short time because of the distribution characteristics of GEO belt and limited field of view (FOV) of sensor. And it's also difficult to keep a high coverage of the GEO belt every day in a whole year. In this paper, a space-based observation strategy for GEO objects is designed based on the characteristics of the GEO belt. The mathematical formula of GEO belt is deduced and the evolvement of GEO objects is illustrated. There are basically two kinds of orientation strategies for most observation satellites, i.e., earth-oriented and inertia-directional. Influences of both strategies to their own observation regions are analyzed and compared with each other. A passive optical instrument with daily attitude-adjusting strategies is proposed to increase the daily coverage rate of GEO objects in a whole year. Furthermore, in order to observe more GEO objects in a relatively short time, the strategy of a satellite with multi-sensors is proposed. The installation parameters between different sensors are optimized, more than 98% of GEO satellites can be observed every day and almost all the GEO satellites can be observed every two days with 3 sensors (FOV: 6° × 6°) on the satellite under the strategy of daily pointing adjustment in a whole year.

  3. Coronagraph Focal-Plane Phase Masks Based on Photonic Crystal Technology: Recent Progress and Observational Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, Naoshi; Nishikawa, Jun; Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Ise, Akitoshi; Oka, Kazuhiko; Baba, Naoshi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Tamura, Motohide; Traub, Wesley A.; Mawet, Dimitri; Moody, Dwight C.; Kern, Brian D.; Trauger, John T.; Serabyn, Eugene; Hamaguchi, Shoki; Oshiyama, Fumika

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal, an artificial periodic nanostructure of refractive indices, is one of the attractive technologies for coronagraph focal-plane masks aiming at direct imaging and characterization of terrestrial extrasolar planets. We manufactured the eight-octant phase mask (8OPM) and the vector vortex mask (VVM) very precisely using the photonic crystal technology. Fully achromatic phase-mask coronagraphs can be realized by applying appropriate polarization filters to the masks. We carried out laboratory experiments of the polarization-filtered 8OPM coronagraph using the High-Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), a state-of-the-art coronagraph simulator at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). We report the experimental results of 10-8-level contrast across several wavelengths over 10% bandwidth around 800nm. In addition, we present future prospects and observational strategy for the photonic-crystal mask coronagraphs combined with differential imaging techniques to reach higher contrast. We proposed to apply a polarization-differential imaging (PDI) technique to the VVM coronagraph, in which we built a two-channel coronagraph using polarizing beam splitters to avoid a loss of intensity due to the polarization filters. We also proposed to apply an angular-differential imaging (ADI) technique to the 8OPM coronagraph. The 8OPM/ADI mode avoids an intensity loss due to a phase transition of the mask and provides a full field of view around central stars. We present results of preliminary laboratory demonstrations of the PDI and ADI observational modes with the phase-mask coronagraphs.

  4. Observational Strategy of ACROSS towards the Time-evolving Natures in the Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumazawa, M.; Fujii, N.; Kasahara, J.

    2005-12-01

    ACROSS (Accurately Controlled, Routinely Operated Signal System) is aiming at the detection of very small changes in physical states in the lithosphere, particularly for the focal region of the anticipated huge earthquakes as demanded socially. Our technical challenge is to device an ideal methodology to enable us to acquire the ideal observation data towards the real understanding of the EarthOs interiors even under the inherent noise and physical limitations. We need light to illuminate the dark EarthOs interiors, eyes to observe them and a brain to interpret the result: The light should be designed well to be really coherent, the eyes with high fidelity should be accurately synchronized to the light transmission and the brain should be smart enough to evolve by itself. In order for the whole system to be robust against noise, we have to devise all that can be done. In addition, a significant demand is imposed onto us; non-destructiveness against our environment. The recent progress of technology makes it possible what was impossible several years, so that we try to find out the ideal way to go. We have spent about 10 years for developmental works, which started a moment before the disastrous Kobe earthquake of 1995. Now we believe that the background theory has been known in addition to some of the basic technology elements, whereas the user-friendly hardware and other auxiliary tools including practical theory and software have not been acquired yet. The examples of the field observation have started to accumulate for demonstration as reported by companion papers. The data acquired by ACROSS in seismology is not seismogram but tensor transfer function (Green function) in frequency domain. The data carry substantially new information with high quality and rigorous estimate of reliability. The availability of ACROSS would change the strategy for underground study in the coming years. We would like to call for your attention and discussion to the next way to go

  5. Intelligent Mobile Autonomous System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    jerk application. (c) Negative jerk application. Group (a). Application of positve jerk. Force is increased from initial value to force of resistance...fundamentals of the new emerging area of autonomous robotics . The goal of this research is to develop a theory of design and functioning of Intelligent...scientific research. This report contributes to a new rapidly developing area of autonomous robotics . Actual experience of dealing with autonomous robots (or

  6. Building up Autonomy through Reading Strategies (Formación en autonomía a través de estrategias de lectura)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izquierdo Castillo, Alexander; Jiménez Bonilla, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an action research project conducted with six ninth grade students in a rural public school in Colombia. The purpose of the study was to determine how the implementation of three reading strategies (skimming, scanning, and making predictions), when reading topics selected by learners, helps them to improve their reading…

  7. ESA's STSE WACMOS Project: Towards a Water Cycle Multimission Observation Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Prieto, Diego; Su, Bob

    2010-05-01

    synergic manner; • Develop robust methodologies to integrate and assimilate space observations and in situ measurements into advance coupled models being able to describe biophysical processes and interactions between ocean, land and atmosphere describing the water cycle and hydrological processes; In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with the Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) launched the project Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) early in 2009. The project, funded under the ESA's Support To Science Element, address the first of the above objectives. In particular, the project objective is twofold: • On the one hand, developing and validating a Product Portfolio of novel geo-information products responding to the GEWEX scientific priorities and exploiting the synergic capabilities between ESA EO data and other non-ESA missions. • Exploring and assessing different methodologies to exploit in a synergic manner different observations towards the development of long-term consistent datasets of key (essential) variables describing the water cycle. In this context, WACMOS is focused on four components of the above cycle that are also thematic priorities identified in close collaboration with the GEWEX scientific community: Evapotranspiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour. The product portfolio comprises: 1) AATSR-MERIS based evapotranspiration modelling approach; 2) Merged passive and active microwave first multi-decade soil moisture data set; 3) Novel MSG SEVIRI-SCIAMACHY cloud products and 4) Synergic SEVIRI-IASI and SEVIRI-MERIS water vapour products. In this paper, the methodologies and preliminary results of WACMOS are introduced. In the next phase of the project, consolidated methods, data products and validation results will be generated, so that a global water cycle product of evapotranpiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour with quantified

  8. Preparing for the WFIRST Microlensing Survey: Simulations, Requirements, Survey Strategies, and Precursor Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudi, Bernard

    -fidelity estimates of the science yield of bound planets, free floating planets, and potentially habitable planets. Goal 3: We will perform trade studies to determine the effect of different mission architectures on the yield, and optimization studies to determine the effect of different survey strategies on the yield within a given mission architecture. These studies will include considerations of the field location, number of fields and cadences, and filter properties and filter cadence choices. Goal 4: We will determine the precision with which the parameters of the detected planetary systems can be determined using all available constraints, and in particular provide the survey strategies and instrument requirements to enable the measurement host star masses and distances. Goal 5: We will determine the hardware, software, and calibration requirements needed to achieve our primary science goals. Goal 6: We will identify and carry out (where possible) precursor observations needed to inform our survey strategy and data reduction methodologies, verify our science output, and maximize the WFIRST scientific return. Goal 7: Where applicable, we will begin development of data reduction and analysis tools, and work with members of the WFIRST Science Centers to ensure that these tools are applicable to microlensing. We will issue data challenges, both to verify our methodologies, but also to draw people to the microlensing field.

  9. Observing microscopic structures of a relativistic object using a time-stretch strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, E.; Evain, C.; Le Parquier, M.; Szwaj, C.; Bielawski, S.; Manceron, L.; Brubach, J.-B.; Tordeux, M.-A.; Ricaud, J.-P.; Cassinari, L.; Labat, M.; Couprie, M.-E.; Roy, P.

    2015-05-01

    Emission of light by a single electron moving on a curved trajectory (synchrotron radiation) is one of the most well-known fundamental radiation phenomena. However experimental situations are more complex as they involve many electrons, each being exposed to the radiation of its neighbors. This interaction has dramatic consequences, one of the most spectacular being the spontaneous formation of spatial structures inside electrons bunches. This fundamental effect is actively studied as it represents one of the most fundamental limitations in electron accelerators, and at the same time a source of intense terahertz radiation (Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, or CSR). Here we demonstrate the possibility to directly observe the electron bunch microstructures with subpicosecond resolution, in a storage ring accelerator. The principle is to monitor the terahertz pulses emitted by the structures, using a strategy from photonics, time-stretch, consisting in slowing-down the phenomena before recording. This opens the way to unpreceeded possibilities for analyzing and mastering new generation high power coherent synchrotron sources.

  10. Observing microscopic structures of a relativistic object using a time-stretch strategy

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, E.; Evain, C.; Le Parquier, M.; Szwaj, C.; Bielawski, S.; Manceron, L.; Brubach, J.-B.; Tordeux, M.-A.; Ricaud, J.-P.; Cassinari, L.; Labat, M.; Couprie, M.-E; Roy, P.

    2015-01-01

    Emission of light by a single electron moving on a curved trajectory (synchrotron radiation) is one of the most well-known fundamental radiation phenomena. However experimental situations are more complex as they involve many electrons, each being exposed to the radiation of its neighbors. This interaction has dramatic consequences, one of the most spectacular being the spontaneous formation of spatial structures inside electrons bunches. This fundamental effect is actively studied as it represents one of the most fundamental limitations in electron accelerators, and at the same time a source of intense terahertz radiation (Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, or CSR). Here we demonstrate the possibility to directly observe the electron bunch microstructures with subpicosecond resolution, in a storage ring accelerator. The principle is to monitor the terahertz pulses emitted by the structures, using a strategy from photonics, time-stretch, consisting in slowing-down the phenomena before recording. This opens the way to unpreceeded possibilities for analyzing and mastering new generation high power coherent synchrotron sources. PMID:26020859

  11. The MDS autonomous control architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, E.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the autonomous control architecture for the JPL Mission Data System (MDS). MDS is a comprehensive new software infrastructure for supporting unmanned space exploration. The autonomous control architecture is one component of MDS designed to enable autonomous operations.

  12. Autonomous Science on the EO-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.; Sherwood, R.; Tran, D.; Castano, R.; Cichy, B.; Davies, A.; Rabideau, G.; Tang, N.; Burl, M.; Mandl, D.; Frye, S.; Hengemihle, J.; Agostino, J. D.; Bote, R.; Trout, B.; Shulman, S.; Ungar, S.; Gaasbeck, J. Van; Boyer, D.; Griffin, M.; Burke, H.; Greeley, R.; Doggett, T.; Williams, K.; Baker, V.

    2003-01-01

    In mid-2003, we will fly software to detect science events that will drive autonomous scene selectionon board the New Millennium Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This software will demonstrate the potential for future space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect science events and respond autonomously to capture short-lived science events and to downlink only the highest value science data.

  13. Multi-organ autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Both pathologic and clinical studies of autonomic pathways have expanded the concept of Parkinson disease (PD) from a movement disorder to a multi-level widespread neurodegenerative process with non-motor features spanning several organ systems. This review integrates neuropathologic findings and autonomic physiology in PD as it relates to end organ autonomic function. Symptoms, pathology and physiology of the cardiovascular, skin/sweat gland, urinary, gastrointestinal, pupillary and neuroendocrine systems can be probed by autopsy, biopsy and non-invasive electrophysiological techniques in vivo which assess autonomic anatomy and function. There is mounting evidence that PD affects a chain of neurons in autonomic pathways. Consequently, autonomic physiology may serve as a window into non-motor PD progression and allow the development of mechanistically based treatment strategies for several non-motor features of PD. End-organ physiologic markers may be used to inform a model of PD pathophysiology and non-motor progression. PMID:20851033

  14. Adverse Reactions Due to Directly Observed Treatment Strategy Therapy in Chinese Tuberculosis Patients: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaozhen; Tang, Shaowen; Xia, Yinyin; Wang, Xiaomeng; Yuan, Yanli; Hu, Daiyu; Liu, Feiying; Wu, Shanshan; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Zhirong; Tu, Dehua; Chen, Yixin; Deng, Peiyuan; Ma, Yu; Chen, Ru; Zhan, Siyan

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 1 million tuberculosis (TB) patients are receiving directly observed treatment strategy (DOTS) therapy in China every year. As to the profile of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) due to DOTS therapy, no consensus has been reached. There is no report regarding ADRs due to DOTS therapy with a large Chinese TB population. This study aimed to determine the incidence and prognosis of ADRs due to DOTS therapy, and to evaluate their impact on anti-TB treatment in China. Methods A prospective population-based cohort study was performed during 2007–2008. Sputum smear positive pulmonary TB patients who received DOTS therapy were included and followed up for six to nine months in 52 counties of four regions in China. The suspected ADRs were recorded and reviewed by Chinese State Food and Drug Administration. Results A total of 4304 TB patients were included in this study. 649 patients (15.08%) showed at least one ADR and 766 cases in total were detected. The incidence (count) of ADR based on affected organ was: liver dysfunction 6.34% (273), gastrointestinal disorders 3.74% (161), arthralgia 2.51% (108), allergic reactions 2.35% (101), neurological system disorders 2.04% (88), renal impairment 0.07% (3) and others 0.05% (2). Most cases of ADRs (95%) had a good clinical outcome, while two with hepatotoxicity and one with renal impairment died. Compared with patients without ADRs, patients with ADRs were more likely to have positive smear test results at the end of the intensive phase (adjusted OR, 2.00; 95%CI, 1.44–2.78) and unsuccessful anti-TB outcomes (adjusted OR, 2.58; 95%CI, 1.43–4.68). Conclusions The incidence of ADRs due to DOTS therapy was 15.08%. Those ADRs had a substantial impact on TB control in China. This highlighted the importance of developing strategies to ameliorate ADRs both to improve the quality of patient care and to control TB safely. PMID:23750225

  15. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Dickey, John

    2015-04-15

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  16. Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-04-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  17. A Case for "Acquisitional Strategies": Some Methodological Observations on Investigation into Second Language Learners' Initial State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polomska, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory application of the "acquisitional strategies" framework investigated English-speaking language learners' acquisition of preposition stranding in Dutch. Interesting syntactic and morphological contrasts in both English and Dutch render the framework a valuable empirical tool for evaluating language acquisition strategies. (Author/CB)

  18. Predictive validity of the classroom strategies scale-observer form on statewide testing scores: an initial investigation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale--Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management practices in elementary school. A series of two-level hierarchical generalized linear models were fitted to data of a sample of 662 third- through fifth-grade students to assess whether CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy and Behavioral Management Strategy scale discrepancy scores (i.e., ∑ |recommended frequency--frequency ratings|) predicted statewide mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores when percentage of minority students in schools was controlled. Results indicated that the Instructional Strategy scale discrepancy scores significantly predicted mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores: Relatively larger discrepancies on observer ratings of what teachers did versus what should have been done were associated with lower proficiency scores. Results offer initial evidence of the predictive validity of the CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy discrepancy scores on student academic outcomes.

  19. An expansion of glider observation strategies to systematically transmit and analyze preferred waypoints of underwater gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedstad, Lucy F.; Barron, Charlie N.; Bourg, Rachel N.; Brooking, Michael W.; Bryant, Danielle A.; Carr, Robert J.; Heaney, Kevin D.; Holmberg, Edward A.; Mask, Andrea C.; Mensi, Bryan L.

    2015-05-01

    The Glider Observation STrategies (GOST) system provides real-time assistance to ocean glider pilots by suggesting preferred ocean glider waypoints based on ocean forecasts and their uncertainties. Restrictions on waterspace, preferred operational areas, and other glider trajectories are also taken into account. Using existing operational regional Navy Coastal Ocean Model (RNCOM) output, demonstrations of glider waypoint calculation are ongoing in Navy operational areas. After the ocean forecast models and GOST components run at the Navy DoD Supercomputing Resource Center (Navy DSRC), GOST-suggested glider paths are transferred to the Glider Operations Center (GOC). The glider pilots at the GOC import this information into their Unmanned Systems Interface (USI), developed at the University of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory (APL-UW) to evaluate the suggested glider paths, make adjustments, and update waypoints for the gliders. The waypoints being sent are visualized and analyzed using graphic capabilities to convey guidance uncertainty developed under a grant to the University of New Orleans (UNO) and added under the Environmental Measurements Path Planner (EMPath) system within GOST. USI forwards automatic messages from the gliders with recent glider location, speed, and depth to GOST for the next cycle. Over the course of these demonstrations, capabilities were added or modified including use of initial glider bearing, preferred path, refinement of glider turn frequency, correction of glider speed, and introduction of glider rendezvous locations. Automation has been added with help from the modeling group at the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO). GOST supports NAVOCEANO's ongoing efforts to direct and recover gliders, to safely navigate in changing ocean conditions, and to provide feedback to improve ocean model prediction.

  20. Autonomous multifunctional nanobrushes-autonomous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.; Tius, Marcus A.

    2007-04-01

    In this work, taking advantage of carbon nanotubes' small size, and exceptional mechanical, chemical and electrical properties, we report on a series of nano-synthesis procedures that combine conventional chemical vapor deposition and selective substrate area growth followed by chemical functionalizations to fabricate functionalized nano-brushes from aligned carbon nanotube arrays and chemically selective functional groups. The high aspect ratio and small dimension, mechanical stability and flexibility, surface chemical and adhesive characteristics of carbon nanotubes provide opportunities to create nano-brushes with selected chemical functionalities. The nano-brushes are made from aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube bristles grafted onto long SiC fiber handles in various configurations and functionalized with various chemical functional groups. These nano-brushes can easily be manipulated physically, either manually or with the aid of motors. Here, we explain the autonomous characteristics of the functionalized nano-brushes employing functional chemical groups such that the nano-brush can potentially collect various metal particles, ions, and contaminants from liquid solutions and the air environment, autonomously. These functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube based nano-brushes can work swiftly in both liquid and air environments. With surface modification and functionalization, the nanotube nano-brushes can potentially become a versatile nano-devices in many chemical and biological applications, where they can autonomously pick up the particles they encounter since they can be chemically programmed to function as Autonomous Chemical Nano Robots (ACNR).

  1. Evaluation of different processing strategies of Continuous GPS (CGPS) observations for landslide monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferhat, Gilbert; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Ulrich, Patrice

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate several processing strategies of satellite navigation systems observations for the near-real time characterization of landslide displacement from continuous dual-frequency and mono-frequency GPS receivers. By tracking the electromagnetic waves that the satellites are sending continuously, the navigation system can provide the antenna position (longitude, latitude, and height, or X, Y, Z coordinates). The use of the phase measurements allows determining the relative positions of points located as far as several hundred kilometres apart with an accuracy of 2-5 mm in horizontal and 5-10 mm in vertical. This accuracy allows the fast detection of small displacements and, thus the survey of the temporal evolution of crustal deformation and natural hazards (volcanoes, tectonic faults, ice glaciers, landslides). Since a few years, several CGPS (Continuous Global Positioning System) receivers have been installed on active landslides in France (e.g. La Clapière rockslide, Avignonet and Villerville rotational slides, Super-Sauze and La Valette mudslides). These landslides show very different displacement rates (ranging from a few centimetres to several meters per year) and different kinematic regimes (e.g. continuous displacement of nearly constant rate or succession of periods of acceleration/deceleration). All landslides are part of the French 'Observatory of Landslides' (OMIV), a collaborative structure aiming at collecting the same type of kinematic, hydrologic and seismic observations on landslides and at disseminating the data to the scientific community. For the monitoring of landslides where the required degree of accuracy in position is about a few mm, GPS has been mainly used for repeated measurements, as a complement to conventional geodetic methods. Permanent monitoring is still not usually performed operationally on landslides mostly because of the cost of the receivers compared to conventional deformation monitoring

  2. Autonomous Multi-sensor Coordination: The Science Goal Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Jung, John; Geiger, Jenny; Grosvenor, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    Next-generation science and exploration systems will employ new observation strategies that will use multiple sensors in a dynamic environment to provide high quality monitoring, self-consistent analyses and informed decision making. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) is a prototype software tool being developed to explore the nature of automation necessary to enable dynamic observing of earth phenomenon. The tools being developed in SGM improve our ability to autonomously monitor multiple independent sensors and coordinate reactions to better observe the dynamic phenomena. The SGM system enables users to specify events of interest and how to react when an event is detected. The system monitors streams of data to identify occurrences of the key events previously specified by the scientist/user. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the users desired reactions between different sensors. The information can be used to rapidly respond to a variety of fast temporal events. Investigators will no longer have to rely on after-the-fact data analysis to determine what happened. Our paper describes a series of prototype demonstrations that we have developed using SGM and NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite and Earth Observing Systems Aqua/Terra spacecrafts MODIS instrument. Our demonstrations show the promise of coordinating data from different sources, analyzing the data for a relevant event, autonomously updating and rapidly obtaining a follow-on relevant image. SGM is being used to investigate forest fires, floods and volcanic eruptions. We are now identifying new earth science scenarios that will have more complex SGM reasoning. By developing and testing a prototype in an operational environment, we are also establishing and gathering metrics to gauge the success of automating science campaigns.

  3. Can application and transfer of strategy be observed in low visibility condition?

    PubMed Central

    El Karoui, Imen; Christoforidis, Kalliopi

    2017-01-01

    It has been long assumed that cognitive control processes can only be applied on consciously visible stimuli, but empirical evidence is contradictory. In the present study, we investigated strategic adaptation to conflict both in unmasked and in low-visibility masked trials. Using a paradigm derived from the Stroop task, we studied the application of strategies, but also the transfer of a strategy developed in unmasked trials to masked trials, and the trial-to-trial dynamics of strategic processing. In unmasked trials, we found evidence of strategic adaptation to conflict, both in reaction times and in ERPs (N2 and P300). In masked trials we found no evidence of behavioral adaptation to conflict, but a modulation of the P300 was present in masked trials included in unmasked blocks, suggesting the existence of a transfer of strategy. Finally, trial-to-trial analyses in unmasked trials revealed a pattern suggestive of dynamic subjective adherence to the instructed strategy. PMID:28288178

  4. Subversion of Cell-Autonomous Host Defense by Chlamydia Infection.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Annette; Rudel, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    Obligate intracellular bacteria entirely depend on the metabolites of their host cell for survival and generation of progeny. Due to their lifestyle inside a eukaryotic cell and the lack of any extracellular niche, they have to perfectly adapt to compartmentalized intracellular environment of the host cell and counteract the numerous defense strategies intrinsically present in all eukaryotic cells. This so-called cell-autonomous defense is present in all cell types encountering Chlamydia infection and is in addition closely linked to the cellular innate immune defense of the mammalian host. Cell type and chlamydial species-restricted mechanisms point a long-term evolutionary adaptation that builds the basis of the currently observed host and cell-type tropism among different Chlamydia species. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the strategies pathogenic Chlamydia species have developed to subvert and overcome the multiple mechanisms by which eukaryotic cells defend themselves against intracellular pathogens.

  5. Autonomous spacecraft design methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Divita, E.L.; Turner, P.R.

    1984-08-01

    A methodology for autonomous spacecraft design blends autonomy requirements with traditional mission requirements and assesses the impact of autonomy upon the total system resources available to support faulttolerance and automation. A baseline functional design can be examined for autonomy implementation impacts, and the costs, risk, and benefits of various options can be assessed. The result of the process is a baseline design that includes autonomous control functions.

  6. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  7. Drug Control: Observations on Elements of the Federal Drug Control Strategy. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

    Although the United States government invests vast sums of money in the war on drugs, the availability of drugs and the number of persons using illegal drugs are still serious problems. Information that Congress can use in improving drug control strategies is provided here. Some of the report's highlights include current research on promising…

  8. Teaching Classroom Videorecording Analysis to Graduate Students: Strategies for Observation and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahalan, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Videorecording analysis can help improve the teaching of college literature and other subjects. Here, I concentrate on specific analytical strategies that I have been teaching my graduate students since 1994, and I cite my students (including their graphical charts) to illustrate what important lessons they have learned through careful study of…

  9. Observational learning by individuals with autism: a review of teaching strategies.

    PubMed

    Plavnick, Joshua B; Hume, Kara A

    2014-05-01

    Observational learning is the process used to explain the acquisition of novel behaviors or performance of previously acquired behaviors under novel conditions after observing the behavior of another person and the consequences that follow the behavior. Many learners with autism do not attend to environmental stimuli at a level sufficient to learn a range of prosocial behaviors through observation of others. Modeling, group or dyadic instruction, and explicit observation training can improve the extent to which individuals with autism learn through observation. This article reviews previous research that involved observational learning by individuals with autism and outlines future research that could benefit instructional practices.

  10. Toward an Autonomous Telescope Network: the TBT Scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racero, E.; Ibarra, A.; Ocaña, F.; de Lis, S. B.; Ponz, J. D.; Castillo, M.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2015-09-01

    Within the ESA SSA program, it is foreseen to deploy several robotic telescopes to provide surveillance and tracking services for hazardous objects. The TBT project will procure a validation platform for an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario, consisting of two telescopes located in Spain and Australia, to collect representative test data for precursor SSA services. In this context, the planning and scheduling of the night consists of two software modules, the TBT Scheduler, that will allow the manual and autonomous planning of the night, and the control of the real-time response of the system, done by the RTS2 internal scheduler. The TBT Scheduler allocates tasks for both telescopes without human intervention. Every night it takes all the inputs needed and prepares the schedule following some predefined rules. The main purpose of the scheduler is the distribution of the time for follow-up of recently discovered targets and surveys. The TBT Scheduler considers the overall performance of the system, and combine follow-up with a priori survey strategies for both kind of objects. The strategy is defined according to the expected combined performance for both systems the upcoming night (weather, sky brightness, object accessibility and priority). Therefore, TBT Scheduler defines the global approach for the network and relies on the RTS2 internal scheduler for the final detailed distribution of tasks at each sensor.

  11. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Aaron I; Erbas, Tomris

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic neuropathy, once considered to be the Cinderella of diabetes complications, has come of age. The autonomic nervous system innervates the entire human body, and is involved in the regulation of every single organ in the body. Thus, perturbations in autonomic function account for everything from abnormalities in pupillary function to gastroparesis, intestinal dysmotility, diabetic diarrhea, genitourinary dysfunction, amongst others. "Know autonomic function and one knows the whole of medicine!" It is now becoming apparent that before the advent of severe pathological damage to the autonomic nervous system there may be an imbalance between the two major arms, namely the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers that innervate the heart and blood vessels, resulting in abnormalities in heart rate control and vascular dynamics. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) has been linked to resting tachycardia, postural hypotension, orthostatic bradycardia and orthostatic tachycardia (POTTS), exercise intolerance, decreased hypoxia-induced respiratory drive, loss of baroreceptor sensitivity, enhanced intraoperative or perioperative cardiovascular lability, increased incidence of asymptomatic ischemia, myocardial infarction, and decreased rate of survival after myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. Autonomic dysfunction can affect daily activities of individuals with diabetes and may invoke potentially life-threatening outcomes. Intensification of glycemic control in the presence of autonomic dysfunction (more so if combined with peripheral neuropathy) increases the likelihood of sudden death and is a caveat for aggressive glycemic control. Advances in technology, built on decades of research and clinical testing, now make it possible to objectively identify early stages of CAN with the use of careful measurement of time and frequency domain analyses of autonomic function. Fifteen studies using different end points report prevalence rates of 1% to 90

  12. Artificial Intelligence in Autonomous Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, William; Thanjavur, Karun

    2011-03-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is key to the natural evolution of today's automated telescopes to fully autonomous systems. Based on its rapid development over the past five decades, AI offers numerous, well-tested techniques for knowledge based decision making essential for real-time telescope monitoring and control, with minimal - and eventually no - human intervention. We present three applications of AI developed at CFHT for monitoring instantaneous sky conditions, assessing quality of imaging data, and a prototype for scheduling observations in real-time. Closely complementing the current remote operations at CFHT, we foresee further development of these methods and full integration in the near future.

  13. Autonomic regulation in Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heilman, Keri J.; Harden, Emily R.; Zageris, Danielle M.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Porges, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    Autonomic reactivity was studied in individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS), a genetic disorder partially characterized by abnormal social behavior. Relative to age-matched controls, the FXS group had faster baseline heart rate and lower amplitude respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). In contrast to the typically developing controls, there was a decrease in RSA with age within the FXS group. Moreover, within the FXS group heart rate did not slow with age. The FXS group also responded with an atypical increase in RSA to the social challenge, while the control group reduced RSA. In a subset of the FXS group, the autonomic profile did not change following 2 months and 1 year of lithium treatment. The observed indices of atypical autonomic regulation, consistent with the Polyvagal Theory, may contribute to the deficits in social behavior and social communication observed in FXS. PMID:21547900

  14. Autonomic disturbances in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Plazzi, Giuseppe; Moghadam, Keivan Kaveh; Maggi, Leonardo Serra; Donadio, Vincenzo; Vetrugno, Roberto; Liguori, Rocco; Zoccoli, Giovanna; Poli, Francesca; Pizza, Fabio; Pagotto, Uberto; Ferri, Raffaele

    2011-06-01

    Narcolepsy is a clinical condition characterized mainly by excessive sleepiness and cataplexy. Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis complete the narcoleptic tetrad; disrupted night sleep, automatic behaviors and weight gain are also usual complaints. Different studies focus on autonomic changes or dysfunctions among narcoleptic patients, such as pupillary abnormalities, fainting spells, erectile dysfunction, night sweats, gastric problems, low body temperature, systemic hypotension, dry mouth, heart palpitations, headache and extremities dysthermia. Even if many studies lack sufficient standardization or their results have not been replicated, a non-secondary involvement of the autonomic nervous system in narcolepsy is strongly suggested, mainly by metabolic and cardiovascular findings. Furthermore, the recent discovery of a high risk for overweight and for metabolic syndrome in narcoleptic patients represents an important warning for clinicians in order to monitor and follow them up for their autonomic functions. We review here studies on autonomic functions and clinical disturbances in narcoleptic patients, trying to shed light on the possible contribute of alterations of the hypocretin system in autonomic pathophysiology.

  15. Observational Learning by Individuals with Autism: A Review of Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plavnick, Joshua B.; Hume, Kara A.

    2014-01-01

    Observational learning is the process used to explain the acquisition of novel behaviors or performance of previously acquired behaviors under novel conditions after observing the behavior of another person and the consequences that follow the behavior. Many learners with autism do not attend to environmental stimuli at a level sufficient to learn…

  16. Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Racosta, Juan Manuel; Kimpinski, Kurt; Morrow, Sarah Anne; Kremenchutzky, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is a prevalent and significant cause of disability among patients with multiple sclerosis. Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis is usually explained by lesions within central nervous system regions responsible for autonomic regulation, but novel evidence suggests that other factors may be involved as well. Additionally, the interactions between the autonomic nervous system and the immune system have generated increased interest about the role of autonomic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In this paper we analyze systematically the most relevant signs and symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in MS, considering separately their potential causes and implications.

  17. Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Helfrich addresses two perspectives from which to think about observation in the classroom: that of the teacher observing her classroom, her group, and its needs, and that of the outside observer coming into the classroom. Offering advice from her own experience, she encourages and defends both. Do not be afraid of the disruption of outside…

  18. Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosten, Albert Max

    2016-01-01

    Joosten begins his article by telling us that love and knowledge together are the foundation for our work with children. This combination is at the heart of our observation. With this as the foundation, he goes on to offer practical advice to aid our practice of observation. He offers a "List of Objects of Observation" to help guide our…

  19. Autonomous Vehicles: Disengagements, Accidents and Reaction Times

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Vinayak V.; Chand, Sai; Nair, Divya J.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems. PMID:27997566

  20. Autonomous Vehicles: Disengagements, Accidents and Reaction Times.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Vinayak V; Chand, Sai; Nair, Divya J

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its development is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengagement was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled. We believe that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic management officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems.

  1. Autonomous Locator of Thermals (ALOFT) Autonomous Soaring Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-03

    could exploit naturally occurring convective thermal updrafts for extending the endurance of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Essentially, the...1 AUTONOMOUS LOCATOR OF THERMALS (ALOFT) AUTONOMOUS SOARING ALGORITHM INTRODUCTION The increasing use of unmanned aerial

  2. Field observations and management strategy for hot spring wastewater in Wulai area, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, J Y; Chen, C F; Lei, F R; Hsieh, C D

    2010-01-01

    Hot springs are important centers for recreation and tourism. However, the pollution that may potentially be caused by hot spring wastewater has rarely been discussed. More than half of Taiwan's hot springs are located in areas where the water quality of water bodies is to be protected, and untreated wastewater could pollute the receiving water bodies. In this study, we investigate hot spring wastewater in the Wulai area, one of Taiwan's famous hot spring resorts. Used water from five hot spring hotels was sampled and ten sampling events were carried out to evaluate the changes in the quality of used water in different seasons, at different periods of the week, and from different types of hotels. The concentrations of different pollutants in hot spring wastewater were found to exhibit wide variations, as follows: COD, 10-250 mg/L; SS, N.D.-93 mg/L; NH(3)-N, 0.01-1.93 mg/L; TP, 0.01-0.45 mg/L; and E. coli, 10-27,500 CFU/100 mL. The quality of hot spring wastewater depends on the operation of public pools, because this affects the frequency of supplementary fresh water and the outflow volume. Two management strategies, namely, onsite treatment systems and individually packaged treatment equipment, are considered, and a multi-objective optimization model is used to determine the optimal strategy.

  3. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  4. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  5. E-Predict: a computational strategy for species identification based on observed DNA microarray hybridization patterns.

    PubMed

    Urisman, Anatoly; Fischer, Kael F; Chiu, Charles Y; Kistler, Amy L; Beck, Shoshannah; Wang, David; DeRisi, Joseph L

    2005-01-01

    DNA microarrays may be used to identify microbial species present in environmental and clinical samples. However, automated tools for reliable species identification based on observed microarray hybridization patterns are lacking. We present an algorithm, E-Predict, for microarray-based species identification. E-Predict compares observed hybridization patterns with theoretical energy profiles representing different species. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm to viral detection in a set of clinical samples and discuss its relevance to other metagenomic applications.

  6. Simple Autonomous Chaotic Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, Jessica; Sprott, J.

    2010-03-01

    Over the last several decades, numerous electronic circuits exhibiting chaos have been proposed. Non-autonomous circuits with as few as two components have been developed. However, the operation of such circuits relies on the non-ideal behavior of the devices used, and therefore the circuit equations can be quite complex. In this paper, we present two simple autonomous chaotic circuits using only opamps and linear passive components. The circuits each use one opamp as a comparator, to provide a signum nonlinearity. The chaotic behavior is robust, and independent of nonlinearities in the passive components. Moreover, the circuit equations are among the algebraically simplest chaotic systems yet constructed.

  7. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  8. Impact of ventilation strategies during chest compression. An experimental study with clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Cordioli, Ricardo L; Lyazidi, Aissam; Rey, Nathalie; Granier, Jean-Max; Savary, Dominique; Brochard, Laurent; Richard, Jean-Christophe M

    2016-01-15

    The optimal ventilation strategy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is unknown. Chest compression (CC) generates circulation, while during decompression, thoracic recoil generates negative pressure and venous return. Continuous flow insufflation of oxygen (CFI) allows noninterrupted CC and generates positive airway pressure (Paw). The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of positive Paw compared with the current recommended ventilation strategy on intrathoracic pressure (P(IT)) variations, ventilation, and lung volume. In a mechanical model, allowing compression of the thorax below an equilibrium volume mimicking functional residual capacity (FRC), CC alone or with manual bag ventilation were compared with two levels of Paw with CFI. Lung volume change below FRC at the end of decompression and P(IT), as well as estimated alveolar ventilation, were measured during the bench study. Recordings were obtained in five cardiac arrest patients to confirm the bench findings. Lung volume was continuously below FRC, and as a consequence P(IT) remained negative during decompression in all situations, including with positive Paw. Compared with manual bag or CC alone, CFI with positive Paw limited the fall in lung volume and resulted in larger positive and negative P(IT) variations. Positive Paw with CFI significantly augmented ventilation induced by CC. Recordings in patients confirmed a major loss of lung volume below FRC during CPR, even with positive Paw. Compared with manual bag ventilation, positive Paw associated with CFI limits the loss in lung volume, enhances CC-induced positive P(IT), maintains negative P(IT) during decompression, and generates more alveolar ventilation.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Water science strategy--observing, understanding, predicting, and delivering water science to the nation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evenson, Eric J.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Blome, Charles D.; Böhlke, John Karl; Hershberger, Paul K.; Langenheim, V.E.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Morlock, Scott E.; Reeves, Howard W.; Verdin, James P.; Weyers, Holly S.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2013-01-01

    This report expands the Water Science Strategy that began with the USGS Science Strategy, “Facing Tomorrow’s Challenges—U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007–2017” (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007). This report looks at the relevant issues facing society and develops a strategy built around observing, understanding, predicting, and delivering water science for the next 5 to 10 years by building new capabilities, tools, and delivery systems to meet the Nation’s water-resource needs. This report begins by presenting the vision of water science for the USGS and the societal issues that are influenced by, and in turn influence, the water resources of our Nation. The essence of the Water Science Strategy is built on the concept of “water availability,” defined as spatial and temporal distribution of water quantity and quality, as related to human and ecosystem needs, as affected by human and natural influences. The report also describes the core capabilities of the USGS in water science—the strengths, partnerships, and science integrity that the USGS has built over its 134-year history. Nine priority actions are presented in the report, which combine and elevate the numerous specific strategic actions listed throughout the report. Priority actions were developed as a means of providing the audience of this report with a list for focused attention, even if resources and time limit the ability of managers to address all of the strategic actions in the report.

  10. Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kripalani, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    The adult who is inexperienced in the art of observation may, even with the best intentions, react to a child's behavior in a way that hinders instead of helping the child's development. Kripalani outlines the need for training and practice in observation in order to "understand the needs of the children and...to understand how to remove…

  11. The Asian Dust and Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (AD-NET): Strategy and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Matsui, Ichiro; Shimizu, Atsushi; Higurashi, Akiko; Jin, Yoshitaka

    2016-06-01

    We have operated a ground-based lidar network AD-Net using dual wavelength (532, 1064nm) depolarization Mie lidar continuously and observed movement of Asian dust and air pollution aerosols in East Asia since 2001. This lidar network observation contributed to understanding of the occurrence and transport mechanisms of Asian dust, validation of chemical transport models, data assimilation and epidemiologic studies. To better understand the optical and microphysical properties, externally and internally mixing states, and the movements of Asian dust and airpollution aerosols, we go forward with introducing a multi-wavelength Raman lidar to the AD-Net and developing a multi-wavelength technique of HSRL in order to evaluate optical concentrations of more aerosol components. We will use this evolving AD-Net for validation of Earth-CARE satellite observation and data assimilation to evaluate emissions of air pollution and dust aerosols in East Asia. We go forward with deploying an in-situ instrument polarization optical particle counter (POPC), which can measure size distributions and non-sphericity of aerosols, to several main AD-Net sites and conducting simultaneous observation of POPC and lidar to clarify internally mixed state of Asian dust and air pollution aerosols transported from the Asian continent to Japan.

  12. Observing Strategies for Focused Orbital Debris Surveys Using the Magellan Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frith, James; Seitzer, Patrick; Anz-Meador, Phillip; Cowardin, Heather; Lederer, Susan; Matney, Mark; Buckalew, Brent; Barker, Ed

    2017-01-01

    A breakup of the Titan 3C-17 Transtage rocket body was reported to have occurred on June 4th, 2014 at 02:38 UT by the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). Five objects were associated with this breakup and this is the fourth breakup known for this class of object. There are likely many more objects associated with this event that are not within the Space Surveillance Network's ability to detect and have not been catalogued. Several months after the breakup, observing time was obtained on the Magellan Baade 6.5 meter telescope to be used for observations of geosynchronous (GEO) space debris targets. Using the NASA Standard Satellite Breakup Model (SSBM), a simulated debris cloud of the recent Transtage breakup was produced and propagated forward in time. This provided right ascension, declination, and tracking rate predictions for where debris associated with this breakup may be more likely to be found in the sky over Magellan for our observing run. Magellan observations were then optimized using the angles and tracking rates from the model predictions to focus the search for Transtage debris. Data were collected and analysed and preliminary comparisons made between the number of objects detected and the number expected from the model. We present our results here.

  13. Autonomous navigation of USAF spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J. R., Jr.

    1983-12-01

    The U. S. Air Force is developing satellite-borne sensors to enable autonomous navigation of spacecraft in the near future. This study compares the observations from several medium-accuracy space sensors, such as the existing telescopic space sextant, with those of future matrix-type sensors. The large field of view of matrix sensors will allow them to determine the Earth horizon to approximately an order of magnitude better than current infrared sensors by observing atmospheric refraction of stellar light. This horizon determination will give the matrix sensors an accuracy of less than 1 km. The limiting factor in Earth-horizon determination is the modeling of atmospheric refraction effects. For high-accuracy requirements (100 meters or less), the Global Positioning System (GPS) offers the only near-term solution. A relative navigation technique using range and Doppler data is proposed for autonomous navigation of the GPS satellites. The navigation accuracy of this technique is evaluated by consider covariance analysis and by processing corrupted data through a reduced-order onboard Sequentially Partitioned Algorithm. The algorithm is stable and for the GPS system produces in-plane accuracy of 40 meters over twenty days. However, out-of-plane motion is shown to be unobservable in the GPS-to-GPS tracking mode, and errors of up to 1.5 km over 60 days are experienced. For this reason, a supplemental transmitter on the ground or in a different orbit is recommended.

  14. Observing the Interstellar Neutral He Gas Flow with a Variable IBEX Pointing Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, T.; Moebius, E.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Heirtzler, D.; Kubiak, M. A.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N.; Wurz, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Interstellar Neutral (ISN) gas flow can be observed at Earth's orbit due to the motion of the solar system relative to the surrounding interstellar gas. Since He is minimally influenced by ionization and charge exchange, the ISN He flow provides a sample of the pristine interstellar environment. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has observed the ISN gas flow over the past 7 years from a highly elliptical orbit around the Earth. IBEX is a Sun-pointing spinning spacecraft with energetic neutral atom (ENA) detectors observing perpendicular to the spacecraft spin axis. Due to the Earth's orbital motion around the Sun, it is necessary for IBEX to perform spin axis pointing maneuvers every few days to maintain a sunward pointed spin axis. The IBEX operations team has successfully pointed the spin axis in a variety of latitude orientations during the mission, including in the ecliptic during the 2012 and 2013 seasons, about 5 degrees below the ecliptic during the 2014 season, and recently about 5 degrees above the ecliptic during the 2015 season, as well as optimizing observations with the spin axis pointed along the Earth-Sun line. These observations include a growing number of measurements near the perihelion of the interstellar atom trajectories, which allow for an improved determination of the ISN He bulk flow longitude at Earth orbit. Combining these bulk flow measurements with an analytical model (Lee et al. 2012 ApJS, 198, 10) based upon orbital mechanics improves the knowledge of the narrow ISN parameter tube, obtained with IBEX, which couples the interstellar inflow longitude, latitude, speed, and temperature.

  15. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  16. Micro autonomous robotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Hidenori; Fukuda, Toshio

    1995-12-01

    This paper deals with the structural proposal of the micro autonomous robotic system, and shows the design of the prototype. We aim at developing the micro robot, which autonomously acts based on its detection, in order to propose a solution to constitute the micro autonomous robotic system. However, as miniaturizing the size, the number of the sensors gets restricted and the information from them becomes lack. Lack of the information makes it difficult to realize an intelligence of quality. Because of that, the micro robotic system needs to develop the simple algorithm. In this paper, we propose the simply logical algorithms to control the actuator, and show the performance of the micro robot controlled by them, and design the Micro Line Trace Robot, which dimension is about 1 cm cube and which moves along the black line on the white-colored ground, and the programmable micro autonomous robot, which dimension is about 2 cm cube and which performs according to the program optionally.

  17. Autonomous Robot Skill Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Research. ix ABSTRACT AUTONOMOUS ROBOT SKILL ACQUISITION MAY 2011 GEORGE DIMITRI KONIDARIS B.Sc., UNIVERSITY OF THE WITWATERSRAND B.Sc. Hons., UNIVERSITY...OF THE WITWATERSRAND M.Sc., UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH Ph.D., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST Directed by: Professor Andrew G. Barto Among the most

  18. Learning for autonomous navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Autonomous off-road navigation of robotic ground vehicles has important applications on Earth and in space exploration. Progress in this domain has been retarded by the limited lookahead range of 3-D sensors and by the difficulty of preprogramming systems to understand the traversability of the wide variety of terrain they can encounter.

  19. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Aaron I; Maser, Raelene E; Mitchell, Braxton D; Freeman, Roy

    2003-05-01

    Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes. Despite its relationship to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and its association with multiple symptoms and impairments, the significance of DAN has not been fully appreciated. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on the cohort studied and the methods of assessment. In randomly selected cohorts of asymptomatic individuals with diabetes, approximately 20% had abnormal cardiovascular autonomic function. DAN frequently coexists with other peripheral neuropathies and other diabetic complications, but DAN may be isolated, frequently preceding the detection of other complications. Major clinical manifestations of DAN include resting tachycardia, exercise intolerance, orthostatic hypotension, constipation, gastroparesis, erectile dysfunction, sudomotor dysfunction, impaired neurovascular function, "brittle diabetes," and hypoglycemic autonomic failure. DAN may affect many organ systems throughout the body (e.g., gastrointestinal [GI], genitourinary, and cardiovascular). GI disturbances (e.g., esophageal enteropathy, gastroparesis, constipation, diarrhea, and fecal incontinence) are common, and any section of the GI tract may be affected. Gastroparesis should be suspected in individuals with erratic glucose control. Upper-GI symptoms should lead to consideration of all possible causes, including autonomic dysfunction. Whereas a radiographic gastric emptying study can definitively establish the diagnosis of gastroparesis, a reasonable approach is to exclude autonomic dysfunction and other known causes of these upper-GI symptoms. Constipation is the most common lower-GI symptom but can alternate with episodes of diarrhea. Diagnostic approaches should rule out autonomic dysfunction and the well-known causes such as neoplasia. Occasionally, anorectal manometry and other specialized tests typically performed by the gastroenterologist may be helpful. DAN is also

  20. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  1. Observations of asexual reproductive strategies in Antarctic hexactinellid sponges from ROV video records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixidó, Núria; Gili, Josep-Maria; Uriz, María-J.; Gutt, Julian; Arntz, Wolf E.

    2006-04-01

    Hexactinellid sponges are one of the structuring taxa of benthic communities on the Weddell Sea shelf (Antarctica). However, little is known about their reproduction patterns (larval development, release, settlement, and recruitment), particularly in relation to sexual and asexual processes in sponge populations. Video stations obtained during several expeditions covering a wide depth range and different areas recorded a high frequency of asexual reproductive strategies (ARS) (bipartition and budding) among hexactinellids. Analysis of seabed video strips between 108 and 256 m depth, representing an area of 1400 m 2, showed that about 28% of these sponges exhibited ARS. The Rossella nuda type dominated most of the video stations and exhibited the highest proportion of budding (35%). This proportion increased with the size class. Size class >20 cm exhibited in all the stations a mean value of 8.3±0.7 (SE) for primary and of 2.5±0.2 (SE) for secondary propagules per sponge, respectively. Results from a shallow station (Stn 059, 117 m depth) showed the highest relative abundance of R. nuda type and budding (>20 cm ˜72%, 10-20 cm ˜60%, 5-10 cm ˜12%, and <5 cm ˜3%). A potential influence of iceberg scouring disturbance on the occurrence of budding and number of propagules also was investigated. We conclude that asexual reproduction in hexactinellid sponges may be more frequent than has been thought before and it may greatly influence the genetic structure of populations.

  2. Impact of Different Data Assimilation Strategies for SMOS Observations on Flood Forecasting Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauwels, V. R. N.; Verhoest, N.; Lievens, H.; Martens, B.; van Den Berg, M. J.; Al-Bitar, A.; Merlin, O.; Kumar Tomer, S.; Cabot, F.; Kerr, Y. H.; Pan, M.; Wood, E. F.; Drusch, M.; Hendricks Franssen, H. J.; Vereecken, H.; De Lannoy, G. J. M.; Dumedah, G.; Walker, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    During the last decade, significant efforts have been directed towards establishing and improving flood forecasting systems for large river basins. Examples include the European Flood Alert System, and the Bureau of Meteorology Flood Warning Systems in Australia. A number of attempts have also been made to increase the accuracy of the forecasted flood volumes from these systems. One attractive way in which this can be achieved is to use remotely sensed surface soil moisture contents to constrain the hydrologic model predictions. Satellite missions such as SMOS can provide very useful information on the wetness conditions of these basins, which in many cases is an important initial condition for discharge generation. Assimilation of these satellite data is thus a logical way to proceed. We will present results from two different assimilation strategies for the Murray-Darling basin in Australia using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. Firstly, the SMOS soil moisture data are assimilated into the hydrologic model at their original spatial resolution. As the spatial resolution of the remote sensing data (25 km) is coarser than the spatial resolution of the model (10 km), a multiscale data assimilation algorithm needs to be implemented. Secondly, the SMOS data are downscaled to the model resolution, prior to their assimilation. In this presentation, the impact of the assimilation of both products on the accuracy of the forecasted flood volumes is assessed.

  3. A Proposed Strategy for the U.S. to Develop and Maintain a Mainstream Capability Suite ("Warehouse") for Automated/Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking in Low Earth Orbit and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S.; Stillwater, Ryan A.; Babula, Maria; Moreau, Michael C.; Riedel, J. Ed; Mrozinski, Richard B.; Bradley, Arthur; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    The ability of space assets to rendezvous and dock/capture/berth is a fundamental enabler for numerous classes of NASA fs missions, and is therefore an essential capability for the future of NASA. Mission classes include: ISS crew rotation, crewed exploration beyond low-Earth-orbit (LEO), on-orbit assembly, ISS cargo supply, crewed satellite servicing, robotic satellite servicing / debris mitigation, robotic sample return, and robotic small body (e.g. near-Earth object, NEO) proximity operations. For a variety of reasons to be described, NASA programs requiring Automated/Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking/Capture/Berthing (AR&D) capabilities are currently spending an order-of-magnitude more than necessary and taking twice as long as necessary to achieve their AR&D capability, "reinventing the wheel" for each program, and have fallen behind all of our foreign counterparts in AR&D technology (especially autonomy) in the process. To ensure future missions' reliability and crew safety (when applicable), to achieve the noted cost and schedule savings by eliminate costs of continually "reinventing the wheel ", the NASA AR&D Community of Practice (CoP) recommends NASA develop an AR&D Warehouse, detailed herein, which does not exist today. The term "warehouse" is used herein to refer to a toolbox or capability suite that has pre-integrated selectable supply-chain hardware and reusable software components that are considered ready-to-fly, low-risk, reliable, versatile, scalable, cost-effective, architecture and destination independent, that can be confidently utilized operationally on human spaceflight and robotic vehicles over a variety of mission classes and design reference missions, especially beyond LEO. The CoP also believes that it is imperative that NASA coordinate and integrate all current and proposed technology development activities into a cohesive cross-Agency strategy to produce and utilize this AR&D warehouse. An initial estimate indicates that if NASA

  4. The impact of aircraft digital weather data in an adaptive observation strategy to improve the ensemble prediction of hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensman, Edward Leroy

    Modern meteorological data assimilation techniques and ensemble weather prediction methods involve the minimization of error variance. Both of these techniques are used here to assess the impact of assimilating digital aircraft weather data, in an adaptive observation strategy, to improve hurricane forecasting. Many operational and research centers utilize ensemble prediction systems to improve their weather forecasts. This study utilizes a Monte Carlo technique to randomly generate a series of 50 separate perturbed model states. These ``random'' perturbations are scaled to the typical error values observed daily in meteorology. From the family of 50 ensemble members a field of sea level pressure variance, at the 48-hour forecast point, is calculated using deviations of the 50 members from the control (unperturbed state). The bull's eye of maximum error variance is then backward correlated to various meteorological fields such as temperature, wind and humidity at the 24-hour point of the forecast. The areas of highest correlation represent model sensitivity to random error growth and thus targets for intensive observations. In August and September of 1998, a team of scientists participated in a NASA-sponsored field campaign termed the Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3). The purpose was to conduct an intensive study of Atlantic hurricanes. The CAMEX-3 data were utilized in this research to assess the impact of targeted observations on subsequent forecasts. Specifically, a series of experiments were conducted utilizing: all of the CAMEX-3 data, a portion just over the model-sensitive target areas, and from a random selection of data throughout the near-storm environment. These data were assimilated using both a multivariate optimal interpolation technique and a 4-dimensional variational assimilation method. Results from these experiments showed that these data, once assimilated into the model's initial state, improved subsequent hurricane forecasts

  5. Strategies to design and place towers for long-term ecological observations at continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.; Loescher, H. W.; Ayres, E.; Clement, R.

    2010-12-01

    There are numerous tower-based measurements applied in ecological science worldwide. National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is designing a tower-based method at 60 sites continental wide to measure abiotic drivers of ecological change, carbon and energy fluxes, and to specifically provide ecological connectively to measurements of organism ecology and connectively to remote sensed data products. Several issues come to bear when designing an infrastructure that has to accommodate different suites of measurements that have various requirements, i.e., micrometeorological, scalar flux measurements, atmospheric chemistry and boundary layer properties, and have to be objectively placed across the entire range of climate and ecosystem structures found in North America. Here, we present a comprehensive strategy that combines wind roses, footprint models, ecosystem structure, vegetation and soil maps, as well as ‘eyes on’ site visits to design and place a tower. This methodology is being used to examine the 60 preliminary tower designs in the largest ecological observatory in the world today to optimize the long-term representative measurements over the ecosystems of interests. We found that some preliminary site designs do not meet our tower science requirements due to an inadequate fetch for prevailing wind directions, extent of ecosystems boundaries, or concerns of edge effects. In these cases, the tower location shall be either micro-sited at the current locale, or moved and relocated to a different site altogether. After site specific characterization, we also found that some designed tower heights could not access the well mixed surface layer above canopy and had to be extended in design. Because wind comes from all direction at some sites, presents a particular challenge to orient a square tower. In all cases, we optimized the tower orientation to acquire the most amounts of valid data. To avoid the effects of flow distortion on measurements, the boom

  6. Strategies for Human Tumor Virus Discoveries: From Microscopic Observation to Digital Transcriptome Subtraction

    PubMed Central

    Mirvish, Ezra D.; Shuda, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Over 20% of human cancers worldwide are associated with infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Various methods have been used to identify human tumor viruses, including electron microscopic observations of viral particles, immunologic screening, cDNA library screening, nucleic acid hybridization, consensus PCR, viral DNA array chip, and representational difference analysis. With the Human Genome Project, a large amount of genetic information from humans and other organisms has accumulated over the last decade. Utilizing the available genetic databases, Feng et al. (2007) developed digital transcriptome subtraction (DTS), an in silico method to sequentially subtract human sequences from tissue or cellular transcriptome, and discovered Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) from Merkel cell carcinoma. Here, we review the background and methods underlying the human tumor virus discoveries and explain how DTS was developed and used for the discovery of MCV. PMID:27242703

  7. Nest guarding from observation blinds: strategy for improving Puerto Rican parrot nest success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of 17 yr of nestguarding from observation blinds for increasing reproductive success of the endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) is described. As personnel and time allowed, active nests were guarded part-time during the nest site exploration and selection s stage of the breeding cycle, and part-time to full-time when a nest contained eggs or chicks. Biologists identified nine categories of threat to the success of parrot nests. Since 1973, a minimum of 20 nests, which otherwise would have failed, successfully produced fledglings as a direct result of nest guarding and intervention. Nest success averaged 66% with nest guarding compared to an estimated 38% without guarding. Nest guarding from blinds can help maintain a wild population of a critically endangered species while other management techniques are being developed to stimulate population growth.

  8. Space-based Doppler lidar sampling strategies: Algorithm development and simulated observation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmitt, G. D.; Wood, S. A.; Morris, M.

    1990-01-01

    Lidar Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) Simulation Models (LSM) were developed to evaluate the potential impact of global wind observations on the basic understanding of the Earth's atmosphere and on the predictive skills of current forecast models (GCM and regional scale). Fully integrated top to bottom LAWS Simulation Models for global and regional scale simulations were developed. The algorithm development incorporated the effects of aerosols, water vapor, clouds, terrain, and atmospheric turbulence into the models. Other additions include a new satellite orbiter, signal processor, line of sight uncertainty model, new Multi-Paired Algorithm and wind error analysis code. An atmospheric wind field library containing control fields, meteorological fields, phenomena fields, and new European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) data was also added. The LSM was used to address some key LAWS issues and trades such as accuracy and interpretation of LAWS information, data density, signal strength, cloud obscuration, and temporal data resolution.

  9. The development of teleological versus mentalizing observational learning strategies in infancy.

    PubMed

    Gergely, György

    2003-01-01

    The author introduces the concept of mentalization as a central interpretative mechanism of social reality testing. It is argued that developmentally the emergence of this mentalizing capacity to interpret other people's actions in terms of their causal intentional mind states (such as beliefs, desires, intentions, and emotions) is preceded by an earlier, nonmentalistic, teleological action interpretational system that represents others' actions in terms of their concrete and visible outcomes. Then the early psychosocial determinants of the developmental unfolding of our mentalizing capacity are considered from the points of view of attachment theory and developmental psychopathology. It is argued that, in severely dysfunctional (neglecting, abusive, and/or dissociative) caregiving environments, the development of mentalization becomes inhibited and results in a predominantly teleological, nonmentalistic interpretation of intimate attachment relationships that is a core feature of certain developmental psychopathologies such as borderline personality disorder. The normal developmental shift from a teleological to a mentalistic mode of action interpretation is illustrated in terms of recently discovered qualitative changes in imitative and observational learning styles during infancy. It is hypothesized that these changes are related to the infant's developing capacity to interpret the communicative-referential behavioral cues that frame the caregiver's infant-directed actions as signaling a cooperative and benevolent mentalistic attitude toward the baby. In closing, it is proposed that the hypothesized role of severely dysfunctional attachment environments in inhibiting the establishment of mentalization skills could be directly tested in early development in the domain of observational learning. It is predicted that differential patterns of "teleological emulation" versus "mentalistic imitative learning" will be found in infants raised in severely dysfunctional

  10. Strategies for the implementation of a European Volcano Observations Research Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Active volcanic areas in Europe constitute a direct threat to millions of people on both the continent and adjacent islands. Furthermore, eruptions of "European" volcanoes in overseas territories, such as in the West Indies, an in the Indian and Pacific oceans, can have a much broader impacts, outside Europe. Volcano Observatories (VO), which undertake volcano monitoring under governmental mandate and Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.) manage networks on European volcanoes consisting of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are either continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), including prototype deployment. VOs and VRIs also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), near-real time analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres; all providing high-quality information on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. This large and high-quality deployment of monitoring systems, focused on a specific geophysical target (volcanoes), together with the wide volcanological phenomena of European volcanoes (which cover all the known volcano types) represent a unique opportunity to fundamentally improve the knowledge base of volcano behaviour. The existing arrangement of national infrastructures (i.e. VO and VRI) appears to be too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort planned in the framework of the EPOS-PP proposal is focused on the creation of services aimed at providing an improved and more efficient access to the volcanological facilities

  11. Field geologic observation and sample collection strategies for planetary surface exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS geologist crewmembers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, José M.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W.

    2013-10-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  12. Postures, typing strategies, and gender differences in mobile device usage: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Gold, J E; Driban, J B; Thomas, N; Chakravarty, T; Channell, V; Komaroff, E

    2012-03-01

    Mobile device text messaging and other typing is rapidly increasing worldwide. A checklist was utilized to characterize joint postures and typing styles in individuals appearing to be of college age (n = 859) while typing on their mobile devices in public. Gender differences were also ascertained. Almost universally, observed subjects had a flexed neck (91.0%, n = 782), and a non-neutral typing-side wrist (90.3%, n = 776). A greater proportion of males had protracted shoulders (p < 0.01, χ(2) test), while a greater proportion of females had a typing-side inner elbow angle of <90°, particularly while standing (p = 0.03, χ(2) test). 46.1% of subjects typed with both thumbs (two hands holding the mobile device). Just over one-third typed with their right thumb (right hand holding the mobile device). No difference in typing styles between genders was found. Future research should determine whether the non-neutral postures identified may be associated with musculoskeletal disorders.

  13. Some Statistical Strategies for DAE-seq Data Analysis: Variable Selection and Modeling Dependencies among Observations.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Naim U; Sun, Wei; Ibrahim, Joseph G

    2014-01-01

    In DAE (DNA After Enrichment)-seq experiments, genomic regions related with certain biological processes are enriched/isolated by an assay and are then sequenced on a high-throughput sequencing platform to determine their genomic positions. Statistical analysis of DAE-seq data aims to detect genomic regions with significant aggregations of isolated DNA fragments ("enriched regions") versus all the other regions ("background"). However, many confounding factors may influence DAE-seq signals. In addition, the signals in adjacent genomic regions may exhibit strong correlations, which invalidate the independence assumption employed by many existing methods. To mitigate these issues, we develop a novel Autoregressive Hidden Markov Model (AR-HMM) to account for covariates effects and violations of the independence assumption. We demonstrate that our AR-HMM leads to improved performance in identifying enriched regions in both simulated and real datasets, especially in those in epigenetic datasets with broader regions of DAE-seq signal enrichment. We also introduce a variable selection procedure in the context of the HMM/AR-HMM where the observations are not independent and the mean value of each state-specific emission distribution is modeled by some covariates. We study the theoretical properties of this variable selection procedure and demonstrate its efficacy in simulated and real DAE-seq data. In summary, we develop several practical approaches for DAE-seq data analysis that are also applicable to more general problems in statistics.

  14. A New Design Strategy for Observing Lithium Oxide Growth-Evolution Interactions Using Geometric Catalyst Positioning.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Won-Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S; Li, Jinyang; Tong, Xiao; Taylor, André D

    2016-08-10

    Understanding the catalyzed formation and evolution of lithium-oxide products in Li-O2 batteries is central to the development of next-generation energy storage technology. Catalytic sites, while effective in lowering reaction barriers, often become deactivated when placed on the surface of an oxygen electrode due to passivation by solid products. Here we investigate a mechanism for alleviating catalyst deactivation by dispersing Pd catalytic sites away from the oxygen electrode surface in a well-structured anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) porous membrane interlayer. We observe the cross-sectional product growth and evolution in Li-O2 cells by characterizing products that grow from the electrode surface. Morphological and structural details of the products in both catalyzed and uncatalyzed cells are investigated independently from the influence of the oxygen electrode. We find that the geometric decoration of catalysts far from the conductive electrode surface significantly improves the reaction reversibility by chemically facilitating the oxidation reaction through local coordination with PdO surfaces. The influence of the catalyst position on product composition is further verified by ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy in addition to morphological studies.

  15. Observations on different resin strategies for affinity purification mass spectrometry of a tagged protein.

    PubMed

    Mali, Sujina; Moree, Wilna J; Mitchell, Morgan; Widger, William; Bark, Steven J

    2016-12-15

    Co-affinity purification mass spectrometry (CoAP-MS) is a highly effective method for identifying protein complexes from a biological sample and inferring important interactions, but the impact of the solid support is usually not considered in design of such experiments. Affinity purification (AP) experiments typically utilize a bait protein expressing a peptide tag such as FLAG, c-Myc, HA or V5 and high affinity antibodies to these peptide sequences to facilitate isolation of a bait protein to co-purify interacting proteins. We observed significant variability for isolation of tagged bait proteins between Protein A/G Agarose, Protein G Dynabeads, and AminoLink resins. While previous research identified the importance of tag sequence and their location, crosslinking procedures, reagents, dilution, and detergent concentrations, the effect of the resin itself has not been considered. Our data suggest the type of solid support is important and, under the conditions of our experiments, AminoLink resin provided a more robust solid-support platform for AP-MS.

  16. A new design strategy for observing lithium oxide growth-evolution interactions using geometric catalyst positioning

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Won -Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Li, Jinyang; Tong, Xiao; Taylor, Andre D.

    2016-06-21

    Understanding the catalyzed formation and evolution of lithium-oxide products in Li-O2 batteries is central to the development of next-generation energy storage technology. Catalytic sites, while effective in lowering reaction barriers, often become deactivated when placed on the surface of an oxygen electrode due to passivation by solid products. Here we investigate a mechanism for alleviating catalyst deactivation by dispersing Pd catalytic sites away from the oxygen electrode surface in a well-structured anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) porous membrane interlayer. We observe the cross-sectional product growth and evolution in Li-O2 cells by characterizing products that grow from the electrode surface. Morphological and structural details of the products in both catalyzed and uncatalyzed cells are investigated independently from the influence of the oxygen electrode. We find that the geometric decoration of catalysts far from the conductive electrode surface significantly improves the reaction reversibility by chemically facilitating the oxidation reaction through local coordination with PdO surfaces. Lastly, the influence of the catalyst position on product composition is further verified by ex situ Xray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy in addition to morphological studies.

  17. A new design strategy for observing lithium oxide growth-evolution interactions using geometric catalyst positioning

    DOE PAGES

    Ryu, Won -Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Li, Jinyang; ...

    2016-06-21

    Understanding the catalyzed formation and evolution of lithium-oxide products in Li-O2 batteries is central to the development of next-generation energy storage technology. Catalytic sites, while effective in lowering reaction barriers, often become deactivated when placed on the surface of an oxygen electrode due to passivation by solid products. Here we investigate a mechanism for alleviating catalyst deactivation by dispersing Pd catalytic sites away from the oxygen electrode surface in a well-structured anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) porous membrane interlayer. We observe the cross-sectional product growth and evolution in Li-O2 cells by characterizing products that grow from the electrode surface. Morphological andmore » structural details of the products in both catalyzed and uncatalyzed cells are investigated independently from the influence of the oxygen electrode. We find that the geometric decoration of catalysts far from the conductive electrode surface significantly improves the reaction reversibility by chemically facilitating the oxidation reaction through local coordination with PdO surfaces. Lastly, the influence of the catalyst position on product composition is further verified by ex situ Xray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy in addition to morphological studies.« less

  18. Spontaneous Resolution of Chronic Subdural Hematoma : Close Observation as a Treatment Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Chan; Yoo, Dong Soo; Lee, Sang-Koo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is common condition in neurosurgical field. It is difficult to select the treatment modality between the surgical method and the conservative method when patients have no or mild symptoms. The purpose of this study is to provide a suggestion that the patients could be cured with conservative treatment modality. Methods We enrolled 16 patients who had received conservative treatment for cSDH without special medications which could affect hematoma resolution such as mannitol, steroids, tranexamic acid and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The patients were classified according to the Markwalder's Grading Scale. Results Among these 16 patients, 13 (81.3%) patients showed spontaneously resolved cSDH and 3 (18.7%) patients received surgery due to symptom aggravation and growing hematoma. They were categorized into two groups based on whether they were cured with conservative treatment or not. The first group was the spontaneous resolution group. The second group was the progression-surgery group. The mean hematoma volume in the spontaneous resolution group was 43.1 mL. The mean degree of midline shift in the spontaneous resolution group was 5.3 mm. The mean hematoma volume in the progression-surgery group was 62.0 mL. The mean degree of midline shift in the second group was 6 mm. Conclusion We suggest that the treatment modality should be determined according to the patient's symptoms and clinical condition and close observation could be performed in patients who do not have any symptoms or in patients who have mild to moderate headache without neurological deterioration. PMID:27847578

  19. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary points 1. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TACs) are headaches/facial pains classified together based on:a suspected common pathophysiology involving the trigeminovascular system, the trigeminoparasympathetic reflex and centres controlling circadian rhythms;a similar clinical presentation of trigeminal pain, and autonomic activation. 2. There is much overlap in the diagnostic features of individual TACs. 3. In contrast, treatment response is relatively specific and aids in establishing a definitive diagnosis. 4. TACs are often presentations of underlying pathology; all patients should be imaged. 5. The aim of the article is to provide the reader with a broad introduction to, and an overview of, TACs. The reading list is extensive for the interested reader. PMID:26516482

  20. The autonomous sciencecraft constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, R. L.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.; Rabideau, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. In this paper we discuss how these AI technologies are synergistically integrated in a hybrid multi-layer control architecture to enable a virtual spacecraft science agent. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreachable without this technology.

  1. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  2. Knowledge-based and integrated monitoring and diagnosis in autonomous power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, J. A.; Zhang, Z. Z.

    1990-01-01

    A new technique of knowledge-based and integrated monitoring and diagnosis (KBIMD) to deal with abnormalities and incipient or potential failures in autonomous power systems is presented. The KBIMD conception is discussed as a new function of autonomous power system automation. Available diagnostic modelling, system structure, principles and strategies are suggested. In order to verify the feasibility of the KBIMD, a preliminary prototype expert system is designed to simulate the KBIMD function in a main electric network of the autonomous power system.

  3. Modelling progressive autonomic failure in MSA: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Stemberger, Sylvia; Wenning, Gregor K

    2011-05-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal late-onset α-synucleinopathy that presents with features of ataxia, Parkinsonism, and pyramidal dysfunction in any combination. Over the last decade, efforts have been made to develop preclinical MSA testbeds for novel interventional strategies. The main focus has been on murine analogues of MSA-linked motor features and their underlying brainstem, cerebellar and basal ganglia pathology. Although progressive autonomic failure (AF) is a prominent clinical feature of patients with MSA, reflecting a disruption of both central and peripheral autonomic networks controlling cardiovascular, respiratory, urogenital, gastrointestinal and sudomotor functions, attempts of modelling this aspect of the human disease have been limited. However, emerging evidence suggests that AF-like features may occur in transgenic MSA models reflecting α-synucleinopathy lesions in distributed autonomic networks. Further research is needed to fully characterize both autonomic and motor features in optimized preclinical MSA models.

  4. Autonomous assistance navigation for robotic wheelchairs in confined spaces.

    PubMed

    Cheein, Fernando Auat; Carelli, Ricardo; De la Cruz, Celso; Muller, Sandra; Bastos Filho, Teodiano F

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a visual interface for the assistance of a robotic wheelchair's navigation is presented. The visual interface is developed for the navigation in confined spaces such as narrows corridors or corridor-ends. The interface performs two navigation modus: non-autonomous and autonomous. The non-autonomous driving of the robotic wheelchair is made by means of a hand-joystick. The joystick directs the motion of the vehicle within the environment. The autonomous driving is performed when the user of the wheelchair has to turn (90, 90 or 180 degrees) within the environment. The turning strategy is performed by a maneuverability algorithm compatible with the kinematics of the wheelchair and by the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) algorithm. The SLAM algorithm provides the interface with the information concerning the environment disposition and the pose -position and orientation-of the wheelchair within the environment. Experimental and statistical results of the interface are also shown in this work.

  5. Field Geologic Observation and Sample Collection Strategies for Planetary Surface Exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic field- work, the Desert RATS(Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crew members who participated in the 2010 field test.We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies relatedtoduplicationofsamplesandobservations;logisticalconstraintson the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to flexibly execute their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  6. Autonomous Control and Diagnostics of Space Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Xu, X.; Perillo, S.R.P.; Na, M.G.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes three key features of the development of an autonomous control strategy for space reactor systems. These include the development of a reactor simulation model for transient analysis, development of model-predictive control as part of the autonomous control strategy, and a fault detection and isolation module. The latter is interfaced with the control supervisor as part of a hierarchical control system. The approach has been applied to the nodal model of the SP-100 reactor with a thermo-electric generator. The results of application demonstrate the effectiveness of the control approach and its ability to reconfigure the control mode under fault conditions. (authors)

  7. When continuous observations just won't do: developing accurate and efficient sampling strategies for the laying hen.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Courtney L; Siegford, Janice M

    2014-03-01

    Continuous observation is the most accurate way to determine animals' actual time budget and can provide a 'gold standard' representation of resource use, behavior frequency, and duration. Continuous observation is useful for capturing behaviors that are of short duration or occur infrequently. However, collecting continuous data is labor intensive and time consuming, making multiple individual or long-term data collection difficult. Six non-cage laying hens were video recorded for 15 h and behavioral data collected every 2 s were compared with data collected using scan sampling intervals of 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and subsamples of 2 second observations performed for 10 min every 30 min, 15 min every 1 h, 30 min every 1.5 h, and 15 min every 2 h. Three statistical approaches were used to provide a comprehensive analysis to examine the quality of the data obtained via different sampling methods. General linear mixed models identified how the time budget from the sampling techniques differed from continuous observation. Correlation analysis identified how strongly results from the sampling techniques were associated with those from continuous observation. Regression analysis identified how well the results from the sampling techniques were associated with those from continuous observation, changes in magnitude, and whether a sampling technique had bias. Static behaviors were well represented with scan and time sampling techniques, while dynamic behaviors were best represented with time sampling techniques. Methods for identifying an appropriate sampling strategy based upon the type of behavior of interest are outlined and results for non-caged laying hens are presented.

  8. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  9. Satisfaction of patients with directly observed treatment strategy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Getahun, Belete; Nkosi, Zethu Zerish

    2017-01-01

    Background Directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) strategy has been a cornerstone for Tuberculosis (TB) control programs in developing countries. However, in Ethiopia satisfaction level of patients’ with TB with the this strategy is not well understood. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the satisfaction level of patients with TB with the DOTS. Method Explanatory sequential mixed method design was carried out in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Interviewer-administered questionnaire with 601 patients with TB who were on follow-up was employed in the quantitative approach. In the qualitative approach telephonic-interview with 25 persons lost to follow-up and focus group discussions with 23 TB experts were conducted. Result Sixty seven percent of respondent was satisfied with the DOTS. Rural residency (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.6, 7.6), having TB symptoms (AOR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.4, 0.94) and treatment supporter (AOR = 4.3, 95%CI 2.7, 6.8) were associated with satisfaction with DOTS. In qualitative finding, all persons lost to follow-up were dissatisfied while TB experts enlightened lack of evidence to affirm the satisfaction level of patients with DOTS. Explored factors contributing to satisfaction include: on time availability of health care providers, DOTS service delivery process, general condition of health care facilities, nutritional support and transportation. Conclusion DOTS is limited to satisfy patients with TB and lacks a consistent system that determines the satisfaction level of patients with TB. Therefore, DOTS strategy needs to have a system to captures patients’ satisfaction level to respond on areas that need progress to improve DOTS service quality. PMID:28182754

  10. Some observations on overwintering sites of adult Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and strategies followed under natural and seminatural conditions.

    PubMed

    Thareja, V; Singh, Rangoli; Singha Naorem, Anjana

    2016-01-01

    Field population of adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say, landed in December, congregated and overwintered in indoor artificial sites in Delhi. Repeated sampling strategy by individually collecting the adults was adopted to study their overwintering strategies for 4 years (December to April). They remained vagile and readily repopulated the resting sites after the removal of samples. A large percentage of females was fertile, unfed and nulliparous indicating that reproduction ceased in them. Adult survival was significantly prolonged to a maximum of 3 months under natural conditions. Gonotrophic cycle also got prolonged. Close to quitting, they became gravid and left in April without oviposition. No adults were observed on the sites for the rest of the year. Oviposition was induced in the blood-engorged females when provided with food, water and outdoor conditions. Oviposition might have been induced directly by water and food provided them energy under seminatural conditions. Eggs were laid singly or in the form of rafts, and the number in both the cases was low. Singly laid eggs did not hatch, and in rafts, hatching was ~80 %. Winter conditions seemed to strongly impact fertility, blood feeding, fecundity, oviposition behaviour, egg hatchability and longevity. Use of the overwintering sites as biological tool, as a part of environmental control in IPM, is suggested for organising antivector measures during winter. There is a need of exploring and creating more sites of this kind.

  11. A two-stage strategy to accommodate general patterns of confounding in the design of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Haneuse, Sebastien; Schildcrout, Jonathan; Gillen, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    Accommodating general patterns of confounding in sample size/power calculations for observational studies is extremely challenging, both technically and scientifically. While employing previously implemented sample size/power tools is appealing, they typically ignore important aspects of the design/data structure. In this paper, we show that sample size/power calculations that ignore confounding can be much more unreliable than is conventionally thought; using real data from the US state of North Carolina, naive calculations yield sample size estimates that are half those obtained when confounding is appropriately acknowledged. Unfortunately, eliciting realistic design parameters for confounding mechanisms is difficult. To overcome this, we propose a novel two-stage strategy for observational study design that can accommodate arbitrary patterns of confounding. At the first stage, researchers establish bounds for power that facilitate the decision of whether or not to initiate the study. At the second stage, internal pilot data are used to estimate key scientific inputs that can be used to obtain realistic sample size/power. Our results indicate that the strategy is effective at replicating gold standard calculations based on knowing the true confounding mechanism. Finally, we show that consideration of the nature of confounding is a crucial aspect of the elicitation process; depending on whether the confounder is positively or negatively associated with the exposure of interest and outcome, naive power calculations can either under or overestimate the required sample size. Throughout, simulation is advocated as the only general means to obtain realistic estimates of statistical power; we describe, and provide in an R package, a simple algorithm for estimating power for a case-control study.

  12. Linking tree size distribution to active remote sensing parameters: consequences for observation strategies and impacts on biomass retrieval (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, N.; Simard, M.; Behrman, K. D.; Keitt, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetation 3D structure measurements from active remote sensing (i.e. lidar and radar) are usually averaged and reported at the regional level. However, environmental gradients and disturbance can structure vegetation patterns at multiple scales. Thus, a critical challenge in designing global observation strategies is to obtain confidence intervals on vegetation parameters as a function of biome, sensor, and resolution of observation. We present strategies to gain knowledge on forest spatial heterogeneity that can be translated into confidence intervals for above ground biomass and canopy height measurements. We use data from two airborne systems: the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) and the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) acquired over sites in the US (NH and ME), Canada (Quebec) and Costa Rica. We first describe two parameters (alpha and beta) that summarize tree size distribution for individual patches, thereby capturing forest successional stage. In this scenario, the uncertainty in predicting above ground biomass stems from: (1) the ability to estimate alpha and beta with the lidar/radar signals, and (2) the error in deriving above ground biomass from tree size distribution statistics. The processes of competition and self-thinning create skewed tree size distributions where smaller individuals are common and large individuals are rare. Using a global dataset of spaceborne lidar points from the sensor ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite), we show the importance of sampling extreme values when using spatially sparse data. This raises the need to obtain expectations for the second-order properties of forest stands. To this end, we employed wavelet transforms to quantify variation in lidar-derived canopy height metrics across >20 Km transects and asked whether environmental gradients such as elevation can constrain the spatial autocorrelation among large trees.

  13. Spirituality and Autonomic Cardiac Control

    PubMed Central

    Berntson, Gary G.; Norman, Greg J.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Spirituality has been suggested to be associated with positive health, but potential biological mediators have not been well characterized. Purpose and Methods The present study examined, in a population based sample of middle-aged and older adults, the potential relationship between spirituality and patterns of cardiac autonomic control, which may have health significance. Measures of parasympathetic (high-frequency heart rate variability) and sympathetic (pre-ejection period) cardiac control were obtained from a representative sample of 229 participants. Participants completed questionnaires to assess spirituality (closeness to and satisfactory relation with God). Personality, demographic, anthropometric, health behavior, and health status information was also obtained. A series of multivariate regression models was used to examine the relations between spirituality, the autonomic measures, and two derived indexes-- cardiac autonomic balance (CAB, reflecting parasympathetic to sympathetic balance) and cardiac autonomic regulation (CAR, reflecting total autonomic control). Results Spirituality, net of demographics or other variables, was found to be associated with enhanced parasympathetic as well as sympathetic cardiac control (yielding a higher CAR); but was not associated with CAB. Although the number of cases was small (N=11), both spirituality and CAR were significant negative predictors of the prior occurrence of a myocardial infarction. Conclusions In a population based sample, spirituality appears to be associated with a specific pattern of cardiac autonomic regulation, characterized by a high level of cardiac autonomic control, irrespective of the relative contribution of the two autonomic branches. This pattern of autonomic control may have health significance. PMID:18357497

  14. Cardiovascular manifestations of autonomic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Roy

    2006-02-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic manifestations of seizures occur frequently in the epileptic population. Common manifestations include alterations in heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure, ECG changes and chest pain. The neuroanatomical and neurophysiological underpinnings of these autonomic manifestations are not been fully elucidated. Diagnostic confusion may arise when ictal symptoms are confined to the autonomic nervous system; conversely, such symptoms in association with convulsions or altered consciousness are more readily recognized as concomitant ictal features. Awareness of the diverse autonomic manifestations of epilepsy will enhance diagnosis and lead to more effective therapy of these patients.

  15. Cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous toxicity in polyglutamine diseases.

    PubMed

    Sambataro, Fabio; Pennuto, Maria

    2012-05-01

    Polyglutamine diseases are neurodegenerative disorders caused by expansion of polyglutamine tracts in the coding regions of specific genes. One of the most important features of polyglutamine diseases is that, despite the widespread and in some cases ubiquitous expression of the polyglutamine proteins, specific populations of neurons degenerate in each disease. This finding has led to the idea that polyglutamine diseases are cell-autonomous diseases, in which selective neuronal dysfunction and death result from damage caused by the mutant protein within the targeted neuronal population itself. Development of animal models for conditional expression of polyglutamine proteins, along with new pharmacologic manipulation of polyglutamine protein expression and toxicity, has led to a remarkable change of the current view of polyglutamine diseases as cell-autonomous disorders. It is becoming evident that toxicity in the neighboring non-neuronal cells contributes to selective neuronal damage. This observation implies non-cell-autonomous mechanisms of neurodegeneration in polyglutamine diseases. Here, we describe cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms of polyglutamine disease pathogenesis, including toxicity in neurons, skeletal muscle, glia, germinal cells, and other cell types.

  16. Collaborating with Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous agent must be at a level that the operator needs and the agents can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous agent which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.

  17. Autonomous Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siders, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    The continued assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) is the cornerstone within NASA's overall Strategic P an. As indicated in NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), the International Space Station requires Shuttle to fly through at least the middle of the next decade to complete assembly of the Station, provide crew transport, and to provide heavy lift up and down mass capability. The ISTP reflects a tight coupling among the Station, Shuttle, and OSP programs to support our Nation's space goal . While the Shuttle is a critical component of this ISTP, there is a new emphasis for the need to achieve greater efficiency and safety in transporting crews to and from the Space Station. This need is being addressed through the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program. However, the OSP is being designed to "complement" the Shuttle as the primary means for crew transfer, and will not replace all the Shuttle's capabilities. The unique heavy lift capabilities of the Space Shuttle is essential for both ISS, as well as other potential missions extending beyond low Earth orbit. One concept under discussion to better fulfill this role of a heavy lift carrier, is the transformation of the Shuttle to an "un-piloted" autonomous system. This concept would eliminate the loss of crew risk, while providing a substantial increase in payload to orbit capability. Using the guidelines reflected in the NASA ISTP, the autonomous Shuttle a simplified concept of operations can be described as; "a re-supply of cargo to the ISS through the use of an un-piloted Shuttle vehicle from launch through landing". Although this is the primary mission profile, the other major consideration in developing an autonomous Shuttle is maintaining a crew transportation capability to ISS as an assured human access to space capability.

  18. Toward autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.

  19. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  20. Experiments in autonomous robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) is performing basic research in autonomous robotics for energy-related applications in hazardous environments. The CESAR research agenda includes a strong experimental component to assure practical evaluation of new concepts and theories. An evolutionary sequence of mobile research robots has been planned to support research in robot navigation, world sensing, and object manipulation. A number of experiments have been performed in studying robot navigation and path planning with planar sonar sensing. Future experiments will address more complex tasks involving three-dimensional sensing, dexterous manipulation, and human-scale operations.

  1. Unmanned air vehicle: autonomous takeoff and landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, K. L.; Gitano-Briggs, Horizon Walker

    2009-12-01

    UAVs are increasing in popularity and sophistication due to the demonstrated performance which cannot be attained by manned aircraft1. These developments have been made possible by development of sensors, instrumentation, telemetry and controls during the last few decades. UAVs are now common in areas such as aerial observation and as communication relays3. Most UAVs, however, are still flown by a human pilot via remote control from a ground station. Even the existing autonomous UAVs often require a human pilot to handle the most difficult tasks of take off and landing2 (TOL). This is mainly because the navigation of the airplane requires observation, constant situational assessment and hours of experience from the pilot himself4. Therefore, an autonomous takeoff and landing system (TLS) for UAVs using a few practical design rules with various sensors, instrumentation, etc has been developed. This paper details the design and modeling of the UAV TLS. The model indicates that the UAV's TLS shows promising stability.

  2. Unmanned air vehicle: autonomous takeoff and landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, K. L.; Gitano-Briggs, Horizon Walker

    2010-03-01

    UAVs are increasing in popularity and sophistication due to the demonstrated performance which cannot be attained by manned aircraft1. These developments have been made possible by development of sensors, instrumentation, telemetry and controls during the last few decades. UAVs are now common in areas such as aerial observation and as communication relays3. Most UAVs, however, are still flown by a human pilot via remote control from a ground station. Even the existing autonomous UAVs often require a human pilot to handle the most difficult tasks of take off and landing2 (TOL). This is mainly because the navigation of the airplane requires observation, constant situational assessment and hours of experience from the pilot himself4. Therefore, an autonomous takeoff and landing system (TLS) for UAVs using a few practical design rules with various sensors, instrumentation, etc has been developed. This paper details the design and modeling of the UAV TLS. The model indicates that the UAV's TLS shows promising stability.

  3. Awareness and Responsibility in Autonomous Weapons Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuta, Nehal; Rotolo, Antonino; Sartor, Giovanni

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Why Computational Awareness is Important in Autonomous Weapons * Flying Drones and Other Autonomous Weapons * The Impact of Autonomous Weapons Systems * From Autonomy to Awareness: A Perspective from Science Fiction * Summary and Conclusions

  4. Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  5. Nemesis Autonomous Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

  6. Autonomic Responses to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.; Miller, N. E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe how changes in autonomic nervous system responses may be used as an index of individual differences in adaptational capacity to space flight. During two separate Spacelab missions, six crewmembers wore an ambulatory monitoring system which enabled continuous recording of their physiological responses for up to twelve hours a day for 3 to 5 mission days. The responses recorded were electrocardiography, respiration wave form, skin conductance level, hand temperature, blood flow to the hands and triaxial accelerations of the head and upper body. Three of these subjects had been given training, before the mission, in voluntary control of these autonomic responses as a means of facilitating adaptation to space. Three of these subjects served as Controls, i.e., did not receive this training but took anti-motion sickness medication. Nearly 300 hours of flight data are summarized. These data were examined using time-series analyses, spectral analyses of heart rate variability, and analyses of variance. Information was obtained on responses to space motion sickness, inflight medications, circadian rhythm, workload and fatigue. Preliminary assessment was made on the effectiveness of self-regulation training as a means of facilitating adaptation, with recommendations for future flights.

  7. Autonomous mobile communication relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Everett, Hobart R.; Manouk, Narek; Verma, Ambrish

    2002-07-01

    Maintaining a solid radio communication link between a mobile robot entering a building and an external base station is a well-recognized problem. Modern digital radios, while affording high bandwidth and Internet-protocol-based automatic routing capabilities, tend to operate on line-of-sight links. The communication link degrades quickly as a robot penetrates deeper into the interior of a building. This project investigates the use of mobile autonomous communication relay nodes to extend the effective range of a mobile robot exploring a complex interior environment. Each relay node is a small mobile slave robot equipped with sonar, ladar, and 802.11b radio repeater. For demonstration purposes, four Pioneer 2-DX robots are used as autonomous mobile relays, with SSC-San Diego's ROBART III acting as the lead robot. The relay robots follow the lead robot into a building and are automatically deployed at various locations to maintain a networked communication link back to the remote operator. With their on-board external sensors, they also act as rearguards to secure areas already explored by the lead robot. As the lead robot advances and RF shortcuts are detected, relay nodes that become unnecessary will be reclaimed and reused, all transparent to the operator. This project takes advantage of recent research results from several DARPA-funded tasks at various institutions in the areas of robotic simulation, ad hoc wireless networking, route planning, and navigation. This paper describes the progress of the first six months of the project.

  8. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  9. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  10. Automatic learning by an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    de Saussure, G.; Spelt, P.F.; Killough, S.M.; Pin, F.G.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes recent research in automatic learning by the autonomous mobile robot HERMIES-IIB at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR). By acting on the environment and observing the consequences during a set of training examples, the robot learns a sequence of successful manipulations on a simulated control panel. The robot learns to classify panel configurations in order to deal with new configurations that are not part of the original training set. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Passive and Self-Powered Autonomous Sensors for Remote Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Sardini, Emilio; Serpelloni, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Autonomous sensors play a very important role in the environmental, structural, and medical fields. The use of this kind of systems can be expanded for several applications, for example in implantable devices inside the human body where it is impossible to use wires. Furthermore, they enable measurements in harsh or hermetic environments, such as under extreme heat, cold, humidity or corrosive conditions. The use of batteries as a power supply for these devices represents one solution, but the size, and sometimes the cost and unwanted maintenance burdens of replacement are important drawbacks. In this paper passive and self-powered autonomous sensors for harsh or hermetical environments without batteries are discussed. Their general architectures are presented. Sensing strategies, communication techniques and power management are analyzed. Then, general building blocks of an autonomous sensor are presented and the design guidelines that such a system must follow are given. Furthermore, this paper reports different proposed applications of autonomous sensors applied in harsh or hermetic environments: two examples of passive autonomous sensors that use telemetric communication are proposed, the first one for humidity measurements and the second for high temperatures. Other examples of self-powered autonomous sensors that use a power harvesting system from electromagnetic fields are proposed for temperature measurements and for airflow speeds. PMID:22399949

  12. Asteroid Exploration with Autonomic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Christopher; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. The prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission comprises autonomous agents including worker agents (small spacecra3) designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration under the overall authoriq of at least one ruler agent (a larger spacecraft) whose goal is to cause science data to be returned to Earth. The ANTS team (ruler plus workers and messenger agents), but not necessarily any individual on the team, will exhibit behaviors that qualify it as an autonomic system, where an autonomic system is defined as a system that self-reconfigures, self-optimizes, self-heals, and self-protects. Autonomic system concepts lead naturally to realistic, scalable architectures rich in capabilities and behaviors. In-depth consideration of a major mission like ANTS in terms of autonomic systems brings new insights into alternative definitions of autonomic behavior. This paper gives an overview of the ANTS mission and discusses the autonomic properties of the mission.

  13. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  14. Symmetries and solutions of the non-autonomous von Bertalanffy equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Maureen P.; Anderssen, Robert S.

    2015-05-01

    For growth in a closed environment, which is indicative of the situation in laboratory experiments, autonomous ODE models do not necessarily capture the dynamics under investigation. The importance and impact of a closed environment arise when the question under examination relates, for example, to the number of the surviving microbes, such as in a study of the spoilage and contamination of food, the gene silencing activity of fungi or the production of a chemical compound by bacteria or fungi. Autonomous ODE models are inappropriate as they assume that only the current size of the population controls the growth-decay dynamics. This is reflected in the fact that, asymptotically, their solutions can only grow or decay monotonically or asymptote. Non-autonomous ODE models are not so constrained. A natural strategy for the choice of non-autonomous ODEs is to take appropriate autonomous ones and change them to be non-autonomous through the introduction of relevant non-autonomous terms. This is the approach in this paper with the focus being the von Bertalanffy equation. Since this equation has independent importance in relation to practical applications in growth modelling, it is natural to explore the deeper relationships between the introduced non-autonomous terms through a symmetry analysis, which is the purpose and goal of the current paper. Infinitesimals are derived which allow particular forms of the non-autonomous von Bertalanffy equation to be transformed into autonomous forms for which some new analytic solutions have been found.

  15. Autonomous Mars ascent and orbit rendezvous for earth return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, H. C.; Balmanno, W. F.; Cruz, Manuel I.; Ilgen, Marc R.

    1991-01-01

    The details of tha assessment of autonomous Mars ascent and orbit rendezvous for earth return missions are presented. Analyses addressing navigation system assessments, trajectory planning, targeting approaches, flight control guidance strategies, and performance sensitivities are included. Tradeoffs in the analysis and design process are discussed.

  16. Pure autonomic failure without synucleinopathy.

    PubMed

    Isonaka, Risa; Holmes, Courtney; Cook, Glen A; Sullivan, Patti; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Goldstein, David S

    2017-04-01

    Pure autonomic failure is a rare form of chronic autonomic failure manifesting with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and evidence of sympathetic noradrenergic denervation unaccompanied by signs of central neurodegeneration. It has been proposed that pure autonomic failure is a Lewy body disease characterized by intra-neuronal deposition of the protein alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies and neurites. A middle-aged man with previously diagnosed pure autonomic failure experienced a sudden, fatal cardiac arrest. He was autopsied, and tissues were harvested for neurochemical and immunofluorescence studies. Post-mortem microscopic neuropathology showed no Lewy bodies, Lewy neurites, or alpha-synuclein deposition by immunohistochemistry anywhere in the brain. The patient had markedly decreased immunofluorescent tyrosine hydroxylase in sympathetic ganglion tissue without detectable alpha-synuclein even in rare residual nests of tyrosine hydroxylase-containing ganglionic fibers. In pure autonomic failure, sympathetic noradrenergic denervation can occur without concurrent Lewy bodies or alpha-synuclein deposition in the brain or sympathetic ganglion tissue.

  17. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  18. Autonomous docking ground demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamkin, Steve L.; Le, Thomas Quan; Othon, L. T.; Prather, Joseph L.; Eick, Richard E.; Baxter, Jim M.; Boyd, M. G.; Clark, Fred D.; Spehar, Peter T.; Teters, Rebecca T.

    1991-01-01

    The Autonomous Docking Ground Demonstration is an evaluation of the laser sensor system to support the docking phase (12 ft to contact) when operated in conjunction with the guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) software. The docking mechanism being used was developed for the Apollo/Soyuz Test Program. This demonstration will be conducted using the 6-DOF Dynamic Test System (DTS). The DTS simulates the Space Station Freedom as the stationary or target vehicle and the Orbiter as the active or chase vehicle. For this demonstration, the laser sensor will be mounted on the target vehicle and the retroflectors will be on the chase vehicle. This arrangement was chosen to prevent potential damage to the laser. The laser sensor system, GN&C, and 6-DOF DTS will be operated closed-loop. Initial conditions to simulate vehicle misalignments, translational and rotational, will be introduced within the constraints of the systems involved.

  19. What visual illusions tell us about underlying neural mechanisms and observer strategies for tackling the inverse problem of achromatic perception

    PubMed Central

    Blakeslee, Barbara; McCourt, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Research in lightness perception centers on understanding the prior assumptions and processing strategies the visual system uses to parse the retinal intensity distribution (the proximal stimulus) into the surface reflectance and illumination components of the scene (the distal stimulus—ground truth). It is agreed that the visual system must compare different regions of the visual image to solve this inverse problem; however, the nature of the comparisons and the mechanisms underlying them are topics of intense debate. Perceptual illusions are of value because they reveal important information about these visual processing mechanisms. We propose a framework for lightness research that resolves confusions and paradoxes in the literature, and provides insight into the mechanisms the visual system employs to tackle the inverse problem. The main idea is that much of the debate and confusion in the literature stems from the fact that lightness, defined as apparent reflectance, is underspecified and refers to three different types of judgments that are not comparable. Under stimulus conditions containing a visible illumination component, such as a shadow boundary, observers can distinguish and match three independent dimensions of achromatic experience: apparent intensity (brightness), apparent local intensity ratio (brightness-contrast), and apparent reflectance (lightness). In the absence of a visible illumination boundary, however, achromatic vision reduces to two dimensions and, depending on stimulus conditions and observer instructions, judgments of lightness are identical to judgments of brightness or brightness-contrast. Furthermore, because lightness judgments are based on different information under different conditions, they can differ greatly in their degree of difficulty and in their accuracy. This may, in part, explain the large variability in lightness constancy across studies. PMID:25954181

  20. Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bornstein, Benjamin J.; Castano, Rebecca; Estlin, Tara A.; Gaines, Daniel M.; Anderson, Robert C.; Thompson, David R.; DeGranville, Charles K.; Chien, Steve A.; Tang, Benyang; Burl, Michael C.; Judd, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science System (AEGIS) provides automated targeting for remote sensing instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, which at the time of this reporting has had two rovers exploring the surface of Mars (see figure). Currently, targets for rover remote-sensing instruments must be selected manually based on imagery already on the ground with the operations team. AEGIS enables the rover flight software to analyze imagery onboard in order to autonomously select and sequence targeted remote-sensing observations in an opportunistic fashion. In particular, this technology will be used to automatically acquire sub-framed, high-resolution, targeted images taken with the MER panoramic cameras. This software provides: 1) Automatic detection of terrain features in rover camera images, 2) Feature extraction for detected terrain targets, 3) Prioritization of terrain targets based on a scientist target feature set, and 4) Automated re-targeting of rover remote-sensing instruments at the highest priority target.

  1. Neuromodulation and plasticity in an autonomous robot.

    PubMed

    Sporns, Olaf; Alexander, William H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we implement a computational model of a neuromodulatory system in an autonomous robot. The output of the neuromodulatory system acts as a value signal, modulating widely distributed synaptic changes. The model is based on anatomical and physiological properties of midbrain diffuse ascending systems, in particular parts of the dopamine and noradrenaline systems. During reward conditioning, the model learns to generate tonic and phasic signals that represent predictions and prediction errors, including precisely timed negative signals if expected rewards are omitted or delayed. We test the robot's learning and behavior in different environmental contexts and observe changes in the development of the neuromodulatory system that depend upon environmental factors. Simulation of a computational model incorporating both reward-related and aversive stimuli leads to the emergence of conditioned reward and aversive behaviors. These studies represent a step towards investigating computational aspects of neuromodulatory systems in autonomous robots.

  2. Autonomous navigation of USAF spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J. R., Jr.

    Observations from several medium-accuracy space sensors, such as the existing telescopic space sextant are compared with those of future matrix-type sensors. The large field of view of matrix sensors should permit determining the Earth horizon to approximately an order of magnitude better than current infrared sensors by observing atmospheric refraction of stellar light. This horizon determination will give the matrix sensors an accuracy of less than 1 km. The limiting factor in Earth-horizon determination is the modeling of atmospheric refraction effects. For high-accuracy requirements (100 meters or less), the Global Positioning System (GPS) offers the only near-term solution. A relative navigation technique using range and Doppler data is proposed for autonomous navigation of the GPS satellites. The navigation accuracy of this technique is evaluated by considering covariance analysis and by processing corrupted data through a reduced-order onboard sequentially partitioned algorithm. The algorithm is stable and for the GPS system produces in-plane accuracy of 40 meters over twenty days. However, out-of-plane motion is shown to be unobservable in the GPS-to-GPS tracking mode, and errors of up to 1.5 km over 60 days are experienced. For this reason, a supplemental transmitter on the ground or in a different orbit is recommended.

  3. Do cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous effects drive the structure of tumor ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Tissot, Tazzio; Ujvari, Beata; Solary, Eric; Lassus, Patrice; Roche, Benjamin; Thomas, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    By definition, a driver mutation confers a growth advantage to the cancer cell in which it occurs, while a passenger mutation does not: the former is usually considered as the engine of cancer progression, while the latter is not. Actually, the effects of a given mutation depend on the genetic background of the cell in which it appears, thus can differ in the subclones that form a tumor. In addition to cell-autonomous effects generated by the mutations, non-cell-autonomous effects shape the phenotype of a cancer cell. Here, we review the evidence that a network of biological interactions between subclones drives cancer cell adaptation and amplifies intra-tumor heterogeneity. Integrating the role of mutations in tumor ecosystems generates innovative strategies targeting the tumor ecosystem's weaknesses to improve cancer treatment.

  4. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  5. Understanding and improving mitigation strategies for reducing catchment scale nutrient loads using high resolution observations and uncertainty analysis approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, A.; Lloyd, C.; Freer, J. E.; Johnes, P.; Stirling, M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the biggest challenges in catchment water quality management is tackling the problem of reducing water pollution from agriculture whilst ensuring food security nationally. Improvements to catchment management plans are needed if we are to enhance biodiversity and maintain good ecological status in freshwater ecosystems, while producing enough food to support a growing global population. In order to plan for a more sustainable and secure future, research needs to quantify the uncertainties and understand the complexities in the source-mobilisation-delivery-impact continuum of pollution and nutrients at all scales. In the UK the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) project has been set up to improve water quality specifically from diffuse pollution from agriculture by enhanced high resolution monitoring and targeted mitigation experiments. The DTC project aims to detect shifts in the baseline trend of the most ecologically-significant pollutants resulting from targeted on-farm measures at field to farm scales and assessing their effects on ecosystem function. The DTC programme involves three catchments across the UK that are indicative of three different typologies and land uses. This paper will focus on the Hampshire Avon DTC, where a total of 12 parameters are monitored by bank-side stations at two sampling sites, including flow, turbidity, phosphate and nitrate concentrations at 30 min resolution. This monitoring is supported by daily resolution sampling at 5 other sites and storm sampling at all locations. Part of the DTC project aims to understand how observations of water quality within river systems at different temporal resolutions and types of monitoring strategies enable us to understand and detect changes over and above the natural variability. Baseline monitoring is currently underway and early results show that high-resolution data is essential at this sub-catchment scale to understand important process dynamics. This is critical if we are to design

  6. Mapping planetary caves with an autonomous, heterogeneous robot team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.

    Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.

  7. New Interview and Observation Measures of the Broader Autism Phenotype: Description of Strategy and Reliability Findings for the Interview Measures.

    PubMed

    Parr, Jeremy R; De Jonge, Maretha V; Wallace, Simon; Pickles, Andrew; Rutter, Michael L; Le Couteur, Ann S; van Engeland, Herman; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; McConachie, Helen; Roge, Bernadette; Mantoulan, Carine; Pedersen, Lennart; Isager, Torben; Poustka, Fritz; Bolte, Sven; Bolton, Patrick; Weisblatt, Emma; Green, Jonathan; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Baird, Gillian; Bailey, Anthony J

    2015-10-01

    Clinical genetic studies confirm the broader autism phenotype (BAP) in some relatives of individuals with autism, but there are few standardized assessment measures. We developed three BAP measures (informant interview, self-report interview, and impression of interviewee observational scale) and describe the development strategy and findings from the interviews. International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium data were collected from families containing at least two individuals with autism. Comparison of the informant and self-report interviews was restricted to samples in which the interviews were undertaken by different researchers from that site (251 UK informants, 119 from the Netherlands). Researchers produced vignettes that were rated blind by others. Retest reliability was assessed in 45 participants. Agreement between live scoring and vignette ratings was very high. Retest stability for the interviews was high. Factor analysis indicated a first factor comprising social-communication items and rigidity (but not other repetitive domain items), and a second factor comprised mainly of reading and spelling impairments. Whole scale Cronbach's alphas were high for both interviews. The correlation between interviews for factor 1 was moderate (adult items 0.50; childhood items 0.43); Kappa values for between-interview agreement on individual items were mainly low. The correlations between individual items and total score were moderate. The inclusion of several factor 2 items lowered the overall Cronbach's alpha for the total set. Both interview measures showed good reliability and substantial stability over time, but the findings were better for factor 1 than factor 2. We recommend factor 1 scores be used for characterising the BAP.

  8. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the

  9. Physics Simulation Software for Autonomous Propellant Loading and Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regalado Reyes, Bjorn Constant

    2015-01-01

    1. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a mobile launching system with autonomous propellant loading capabilities for liquid-fueled rockets. An autonomous system will be responsible for monitoring and controlling the storage, loading and transferring of cryogenic propellants. The Physics Simulation Software will reproduce the sensor data seen during the delivery of cryogenic fluids including valve positions, pressures, temperatures and flow rates. The simulator will provide insight into the functionality of the propellant systems and demonstrate the effects of potential faults. This will provide verification of the communications protocols and the autonomous system control. 2. The High Pressure Gas Facility (HPGF) stores and distributes hydrogen, nitrogen, helium and high pressure air. The hydrogen and nitrogen are stored in cryogenic liquid state. The cryogenic fluids pose several hazards to operators and the storage and transfer equipment. Constant monitoring of pressures, temperatures and flow rates are required in order to maintain the safety of personnel and equipment during the handling and storage of these commodities. The Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring software will be responsible for constantly observing and recording sensor data, identifying and predicting faults and relaying hazard and operational information to the operators.

  10. ISS Update: Autonomous Mission Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Jeff Mauldin, Simulation Supervisor for Autonomous Mission Operations at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson a...

  11. Autonomous Operations Mission Development Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toro Medina, Jaime A.

    2016-01-01

    This is a presentation related to the development of Autonomous Operations Systems at NASA Kennedy Space Center. It covers a high level description of the work of FY14, FY15, FY16 for the AES IGODU and APL projects.

  12. Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future NASA space crafts will be able to safely land on the Moon, Marsand even an asteroid, in potentially hazardous terrain areas, allautonomously. And NASA’s Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidan...

  13. Compact Autonomous Hemispheric Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Walch, Marc J.; Staehle, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Solar System Exploration camera implementations to date have involved either single cameras with wide field-of-view (FOV) and consequently coarser spatial resolution, cameras on a movable mast, or single cameras necessitating rotation of the host vehicle to afford visibility outside a relatively narrow FOV. These cameras require detailed commanding from the ground or separate onboard computers to operate properly, and are incapable of making decisions based on image content that control pointing and downlink strategy. For color, a filter wheel having selectable positions was often added, which added moving parts, size, mass, power, and reduced reliability. A system was developed based on a general-purpose miniature visible-light camera using advanced CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imager technology. The baseline camera has a 92 FOV and six cameras are arranged in an angled-up carousel fashion, with FOV overlaps such that the system has a 360 FOV (azimuth). A seventh camera, also with a FOV of 92 , is installed normal to the plane of the other 6 cameras giving the system a > 90 FOV in elevation and completing the hemispheric vision system. A central unit houses the common electronics box (CEB) controlling the system (power conversion, data processing, memory, and control software). Stereo is achieved by adding a second system on a baseline, and color is achieved by stacking two more systems (for a total of three, each system equipped with its own filter.) Two connectors on the bottom of the CEB provide a connection to a carrier (rover, spacecraft, balloon, etc.) for telemetry, commands, and power. This system has no moving parts. The system's onboard software (SW) supports autonomous operations such as pattern recognition and tracking.

  14. Genetic engineering and autonomous agency.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Linda

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the genetic manipulation of sexual orientation at the embryo stage could have a detrimental effect on the subsequent person's later capacity for autonomous agency. By focussing on an example of sexist oppression I show that the norms and expectations expressed with this type of genetic manipulation can threaten the development of autonomous agency and the kind of social environment that makes its exercise likely.

  15. Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Reconnaissance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-06

    REPORT Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Reconnaissance 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Collaborating mobile robots equipped with WiFi ...Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Reconnaissance Report Title ABSTRACT Collaborating mobile robots equipped with WiFi transceivers are configured as a mobile...equipped with WiFi transceivers are configured as a mobile ad-hoc network. Algorithms are developed to take advantage of the distributed processing

  16. [Therapy of autonomic disorders by xanax (alprazolam)].

    PubMed

    Solov'eva, A D; Filatova, E G; Averkina, N A

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an open noncomparative investigation of 36 patients with different manifestations of the syndrome of autonomic dystonia. 20 patients (group 1) had permanent autonomic disorder in context of generalyzed anxious disorders, 16 patients (group 2) had panic attacks. The examination was performed before and 4 weeks after monotherapy with xanax (1.5-2.5 mg/day). Clinical-neurologic study estimated both presence and a degree of manifestations of the syndrome of autonomic dysfunction, hyperventilatory syndrome and sleep disorders. Psychologic investigation included estimation of anxiety according to Spilberg's test, depression according to Beck's scale; SCL Scale was also used. Algesic syndrome was estimated by complex algesic questionnaire. Neurophysiologic study determined a contingent negative deviation and nociceptive flexory reflex. A positive therapeutic activity of xanax was established. The highest therapeutic effect was achieved in group 1 (83%) using lower doses (1.5 mg/day). In group 2 higher doses were needed (2.5 mg/day). In this case the effect was achieved in 83% of the cases, but full absence of panic attacks was observed only in 25% of the patients. Predictors of the drug's efficiency appeared to be short duration of the disease, slight manifestation of depression and absence of the algesic syndrome.

  17. Observing with FIFI-LS on SOFIA: time estimates and strategies to use a field imaging spectrometer on an airborne observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Christian; Bryant, Aaron; Beckmann, Siman; Colditz, Sebastian; Fumi, Fabio; Geis, Norbert; Henning, Thomas; Hönle, Rainer; Iserlohe, Christof; Klein, Randolf; Krabbe, Alfred; Looney, Leslie W.; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Raab, Walfried; Rebell, Felix; Trinh, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Observing on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) requires a strategy that takes the specific circumstances of an airborne platform into account. Observations of a source cannot be extended or shortened on the spot due to flight path constraints. Still, no exact prediction of the time on source is available since there are always wind and weather conditions, and sometimes technical issues. Observations have to be planned to maximize the observing efficiency while maintaining full flexibility for changes during the observation. The complex nature of observations with FIFI-LS - such as the interlocking cycles of the mechanical gratings, telescope nodding and dithering - is considered in the observing strategy as well. Since SOFIA Cycle 3 FIFI-LS is available to general investigators. Therefore general investigators must be able to define the necessary parameters simply, without being familiar with the instrument, still resulting in efficient and flexible observations. We describe the observing process with FIFI-LS including the integration time estimate, the mapping and dithering setup and aspects of the scripting for the actual observations performed in flight. We also give an overview of the observing scenarios, which have proven to be useful for FIFI-LS.

  18. Space-based visible observation strategy for beyond-LEO objects based on an equatorial LEO satellite with multi-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yun-peng; Huang, Jian-yu; Chen, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Many space-based visible observation strategies based on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites for observing Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) objects were proposed previously. However, there were few studies about other beyond-LEO objects (Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) objects, Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) objects, and Molniya objects). In this paper, a space-based visible observation strategy is proposed for observing GEO objects, GTO objects, MEO objects (especially global navigation satellites), and Molniya objects simultaneously to get more orbital data, using an earth-oriented equatorial LEO satellite with three sensors. This work is focused on the pointing geometry. Brightness of observed objects and sensitivity of sensors are assumed under the relative ideal conditions. First, the distribution characteristics of these beyond-LEO objects are discussed. And in order to observe global navigation satellites efficiently, joint regions formed by the track superposition of two adjacent orbits in a constellation are proposed. To offset the influence of the earth shadow and constraint of sun-target-observer angle, two sensors pointing inside of the equatorial plane are used to observe GEO and GTO objects. The installation angle of the third sensor is optimized to obtain a relative high coverage rate for observing global navigation satellites and Molniya objects based on joint regions. Finally, the coverage rate, the number of observations, and observation duration under different sensors with different field of views (FOVs) are compared and analyzed respectively.

  19. Autonomous mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

  20. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  1. The autonomous ocean profiler

    SciTech Connect

    Echert, D.C.; White, G.B.; Geller, E.W.; Morison, J.H.

    1989-04-01

    This paper describes the development and initial field test results of the Autonomous Ocean Profiler (AOP). The AOP is an oceanographic instrument platform for measuring profiles of physical, thermodynamic, and biological properties in the ocean. The profiler employs a hydrodynamic lift device to ''fly'' the instrument package up and down the water column along a taut vertical cable. Because the local currents drive the platform's vertical motion, power requirements are low, and therefore long, unattended deployments are possible. By using ARGOS or GOES satellite retrieval networks, the system can supply near real-time data. The system provides profile data at very high vertical resolution in contrast to conventional buoys, which gather data at only fixed sensor depths. Because only a single set of sensors is required to cover the vertical range desired, the system is low cost and, for many applications, expendable. The initial deployment configuration is as an Arctic drifting buoy. A satellite retransmission buoy is placed on the sea-ice surface with the cable suspended below the ice. Conductivity, temperature, and depth information are gathered over a depth range of 0 to 300 m. Data are internally recorded and relayed to the surface buoy through an inductive communications link for transmission via satellite.

  2. Autonomous landing guidance program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, John A.

    1996-05-01

    The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

  3. Evaluation of autonomic functions in subclinical hypothyroid and hypothyroid patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Aarti S.; Lal, Ram; Dhanwal, Dinesh K.; Jain, Ajay K.; Chowdhury, Veena

    2013-01-01

    Background: Autonomic dysfunction may contribute to cardiovascular morbidity in subclinical hypothyroid patients. It is controversial whether the abnormality exists in sympathetic or the parasympathetic function. It is also not known whether the severity of autonomic dysfunction is related to the degree of thyroid deficiency. Design of Study: Prospective case control. Materials and Methods: Autonomic functions based on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses to various maneuvers were evaluated and scored in twenty two subclinical hypothyroid patients, 30-50 years and compared with twenty hypothyroid patients. Biochemical estimation of TSH, fT3, fT4, TPO antibody was done. Result: Sympathetic function abnormalities were seen in 82% subclinical hypothyroid patients and 85%hypothyroid patients when one test was abnormal. Parasympathetic dysfunction was also recorded in eight patients in both groups. When two abnormal tests were used as the selection criteria sympathetic function abnormality was observed in about 41% subclinical hypothyroid and 65% hypothyroid patients. There were no intergroup differences in autonomic functions, score and TPO levels. The TSH levels were not related to type or degree of autonomic dysfunction. Systolic BP in both groups and diastolic BP in hypothyroid patients were higher with lower thyroxine levels but the patients were normotensive. Conclusion: Autonomic dysfunction of comparable degree was seen in subclinical hypothyroid and hypothyroid patients. Sympathetic function abnormality was more common although decreased parasympathetic function reactivity was also present. These abnormalities were unrelated to TSH levels. PMID:23869303

  4. Flocking algorithm for autonomous flying robots.

    PubMed

    Virágh, Csaba; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Tarcai, Norbert; Szörényi, Tamás; Somorjai, Gergő; Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás

    2014-06-01

    Animal swarms displaying a variety of typical flocking patterns would not exist without the underlying safe, optimal and stable dynamics of the individuals. The emergence of these universal patterns can be efficiently reconstructed with agent-based models. If we want to reproduce these patterns with artificial systems, such as autonomous aerial robots, agent-based models can also be used in their control algorithms. However, finding the proper algorithms and thus understanding the essential characteristics of the emergent collective behaviour requires thorough and realistic modeling of the robot and also the environment. In this paper, we first present an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot. The model takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects. We present two decentralized control algorithms. One is based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion, the other is a collective target tracking algorithm. Both algorithms contain a viscous friction-like term, which aligns the velocities of neighbouring agents parallel to each other. We show that this term can be essential for reducing the inherent instabilities of such a noisy and delayed realistic system. We discuss simulation results on the stability of the control algorithms, and perform real experiments to show the applicability of the algorithms on a group of autonomous quadcopters. In our case, bio-inspiration works in two ways. On the one hand, the whole idea of trying to build and control a swarm of robots comes from the observation that birds tend to flock to optimize their behaviour as a group. On the other hand, by using a realistic simulation framework and studying the group behaviour of autonomous robots we can learn about the major factors influencing the flight of bird flocks.

  5. The precise autonomous orbit keeping experiment on the PRISMA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Florio, Sergio; D'Amico, Simone

    2008-12-01

    This paper analyzes the problem of autonomous control of the longitude of the ascending node (LAN) for a satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO) by means of along-track and anti-alongtrack velocity increments which adjust the semimajor axis. The problems related to the possibility of generating the reference orbit (RO) on-board and with the estimation of the atmospheric drag are considered. The Autonomous Orbit Keeping (AOK) experiment of the PRISMA formation flying mission will be the test platform of the control strategy here exposed. The AOK on-board software shall demonstrate autonomous orbit control using a guidance law for the orbit's LAN and shall implement a deterministic control algorithm using along-track and anti-along-track velocity increments. Using GPS-based absolute navigation data, AOK shall command thruster activations in the orbital frame to autonomously control the orbit within a predefined window. The AOK experiment paves the way to the accurate and autonomous orbit control of LEO satellites on a routine basis. The main requirement of the experiment is to demonstrate an orbit control accuracy of the osculating ascending node of 10 m (1σ). The paper shows results from real-world software simulations where the accuracy of the reference orbit is limited and GPS sensors and hydrazine actuators are accurately modeled. The fundamental approach on which the software design, validation and testing is based, is also explained.

  6. Visual identification and similarity measures used for on-line motion planning of autonomous robots in unknown environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Fredy; Martínez, Fernando; Jacinto, Edwar

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we propose an on-line motion planning strategy for autonomous robots in dynamic and locally observable environments. In this approach, we first visually identify geometric shapes in the environment by filtering images. Then, an ART-2 network is used to establish the similarity between patterns. The proposed algorithm allows that a robot establish its relative location in the environment, and define its navigation path based on images of the environment and its similarity to reference images. This is an efficient and minimalist method that uses the similarity of landmark view patterns to navigate to the desired destination. Laboratory tests on real prototypes demonstrate the performance of the algorithm.

  7. On the design of neuro-controllers for individual and social learning behaviour in autonomous robots: an evolutionary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, Giovanni; Tuci, Elio

    2008-06-01

    In biology/psychology, the capability of natural organisms to learn from the observation/interaction with conspecifics is referred to as social learning. Roboticists have recently developed an interest in social learning, since it might represent an effective strategy to enhance the adaptivity of a team of autonomous robots. In this study, we show that a methodological approach based on artifcial neural networks shaped by evolutionary computation techniques can be successfully employed to synthesise the individual and social learning mechanisms for robots required to learn a desired action (i.e. phototaxis or antiphototaxis).

  8. Unusual Structural Autonomic Disorders Presenting in Pediatrics: Disorders Associated with Hypoventilation and Autonomic Neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Chelimsky, Gisela; Chelimsky, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Structural autonomic disorders (producing structural damage to the autonomic nervous system or autonomic centers) are far less common than functional autonomic disorders (reflected in abnormal function of a fundamentally normal autonomic nervous system) in children and teenagers. This article focuses on this uncommon first group in the pediatric clinic. These disorders are grouped into 2 main categories: those characterized by hypoventilation and those that feature an autonomic neuropathy.

  9. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  10. Sensing, Control, and System Integration for Autonomous Vehicles: A Series of Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgüner, Ümit; Redmill, Keith

    One of the important examples of mechatronic systems can be found in autonomous ground vehicles. Autonomous ground vehicles provide a series of challenges in sensing, control and system integration. In this paper we consider off-road autonomous vehicles, automated highway systems and urban autonomous driving and indicate the unifying aspects. We specifically consider our own experience during the last twelve years in various demonstrations and challenges in attempting to identify unifying themes. Such unifying themes can be observed in basic hierarchies, hybrid system control approaches and sensor fusion techniques.

  11. Turning a remotely controllable observatory into a fully autonomous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindell, Scott; Johnson, Chris; Gabor, Paul; Zareba, Grzegorz; Kubánek, Petr; Prouza, Michael

    2014-08-01

    We describe a complex process needed to turn an existing, old, operational observatory - The Steward Observatory's 61" Kuiper Telescope - into a fully autonomous system, which observers without an observer. For this purpose, we employed RTS2,1 an open sourced, Linux based observatory control system, together with other open sourced programs and tools (GNU compilers, Python language for scripting, JQuery UI for Web user interface). This presentation provides a guide with time estimates needed for a newcomers to the field to handle such challenging tasks, as fully autonomous observatory operations.

  12. [The relationship between autonomous motivation and academic adjustment in junior high school students].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takuma; Sakurai, Shigeo

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between autonomous motivation and academic adjustment based on the perspective of self-determination theory. It also examined motivational profiles to reveal individual differences and the characteristic of these profiles for groups with varying levels of autonomous and controlled regulation (autonomous, controlled, high motivation, and low motivation). Data were collected from 442 junior high school students for academic motivation, academic performance, academic competence, meta-cognitive strategy, academic anxiety, apathy, and stress experience. Correlation analyses generally supported the basic hypothesis of self-determination theory that a more autonomous regulation style was strongly related to academic adjustment. The results also showed that persons with a high autonomous regulation and a low controlled regulation style were the most adaptive.

  13. Lead toxicity promotes autonomic dysfunction with increased chemoreceptor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Geraldes, Vera; Carvalho, Mafalda; Goncalves-Rosa, Nataniel; Tavares, Cristiano; Laranjo, Sérgio; Rocha, Isabel

    2016-05-01

    Mortality and morbidity by toxic metals is an important issue of occupational health. Lead is an ubiquitous heavy metal in our environment despite having no physiological role in biological systems. Being an homeostatic controller is expected that the autonomic nervous system would show a degree of impairment in lead toxicity. In fact, sympathoexcitation associated to high blood pressure and tachypnea has been described together with baroreflex dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying the autonomic dysfunction and the interplay between baro- and chemoreflex are not yet fully clarified. The angiotensinogenic PVN-NTS axis (paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus - nucleus tractus solitarius axis) is a particularly important neuronal pathway that could be responsible for the autonomic dysfunction and the cardiorespiratory impairment in lead toxicity. Within the current work, we addressed in vivo, baro- and chemoreceptor reflex behaviour, before and after central angiotensin inhibition, in order to better understand the cardiorespiratory autonomic mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of long-term lead exposure. For that, arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, sympathetic and parasympathetic activity and baro- and chemoreceptor reflex profiles of anaesthetized young adult rats exposed to lead, from foetal period to adulthood, were evaluated. Results showed increased chemosensitivity together with baroreceptor reflex impairment, sympathetic over-excitation, hypertension and tachypnea. Chemosensitivity and sympathetic overexcitation were reversed towards normality values by NTS treatment with A-779, an angiotensin (1-7) antagonist. No parasympathetic changes were observed before and after A-799 treatment. In conclusion, angiotensin (1-7) at NTS level is involved in the autonomic dysfunction observed in lead toxicity. The increased sensitivity of chemoreceptor reflex expresses the clear impairment of autonomic outflow to the cardiovascular and

  14. Towards an Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) with Reflex Autonomicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Hinchey, Mike; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of providing a fault-tolerant environment and achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications. However, the task of manually managing and configuring a cluster quickly becomes daunting as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing, with its vision to provide self-management, can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management and its evolution to include reflex reactions via pulse monitoring.

  15. Autonomic function in manganese alloy workers.

    PubMed

    Barrington, W W; Angle, C R; Willcockson, N K; Padula, M A; Korn, T

    1998-07-01

    The observation of orthostatic hypotension in an index case of manganese toxicity lead to this prospective attempt to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function and cognitive and emotional neurotoxicity in eight manganese alloy welders and machinists. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample consisting of an index case of manganese dementia, his four co-workers in a "frog shop" for gouging, welding, and grinding repair of high manganese railway track and a convenience sample of three mild steel welders with lesser manganese exposure also referred because of cognitive or autonomic symptoms. Frog shop air manganese samples 9.6-10 years before and 1.2-3.4 years after the diagnosis of the index case exceeded 1.0 mg/m3 in 29% and 0.2 mg/m3 in 62%. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring was used to determine the temporal variability of the heartrate (RR' interval) and the rates of change at low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.40 Hz). MMPI and MCMI personality assessment and short-term memory, figure copy, controlled oral word association, and symbol digit tests were used. The five frog shop workers had abnormal sympathovagal balance with decreased high frequency variability (increased ln LF/ln HF). Seven of the eight workers had symptoms of autonomic dysfunction and significantly decreased heart rate variability (rMSSD) but these did not distinguish the relative exposure. Mood or affect was disturbed in all with associated changes in short-term memory and attention in four of the subjects. There were no significant correlations with serum or urine manganese. Power spectrum analysis of 24-h ambulatory ECG indicating a decrease in parasympathetic high frequency activation of heart rate variability may provide a sensitive index of central autonomic dysfunction reflecting increased exposure to manganese, although the contribution of exposures to solvents and other metals cannot be excluded. Neurotoxicity due to the gouging

  16. Autonomic control of the eye

    PubMed Central

    McDougal, David H.; Gamlin, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system influences numerous ocular functions. It does this by way of parasympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia, and by way of sympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the superior cervical ganglion. Ciliary ganglion neurons project to the ciliary body and the sphincter pupillae muscle of the iris to control ocular accommodation and pupil constriction, respectively. Superior cervical ganglion neurons project to the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris to control pupil dilation. Ocular blood flow is controlled both via direct autonomic influences on the vasculature of the optic nerve, choroid, ciliary body, and iris, as well as via indirect influences on retinal blood flow. In mammals, this vasculature is innervated by vasodilatory fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion, and by vasoconstrictive fibers from the superior cervical ganglion. Intraocular pressure is regulated primarily through the balance of aqueous humor formation and outflow. Autonomic regulation of ciliary body blood vessels and the ciliary epithelium is an important determinant of aqueous humor formation; autonomic regulation of the trabecular meshwork and episcleral blood vessels is an important determinant of aqueous humor outflow. These tissues are all innervated by fibers from the pterygopalatine and superior cervical ganglia. In addition to these classical autonomic pathways, trigeminal sensory fibers exert local, intrinsic influences on many of these regions of the eye, as well as on some neurons within the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia. PMID:25589275

  17. Autonomic control of the eye.

    PubMed

    McDougal, David H; Gamlin, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system influences numerous ocular functions. It does this by way of parasympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia, and by way of sympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the superior cervical ganglion. Ciliary ganglion neurons project to the ciliary body and the sphincter pupillae muscle of the iris to control ocular accommodation and pupil constriction, respectively. Superior cervical ganglion neurons project to the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris to control pupil dilation. Ocular blood flow is controlled both via direct autonomic influences on the vasculature of the optic nerve, choroid, ciliary body, and iris, as well as via indirect influences on retinal blood flow. In mammals, this vasculature is innervated by vasodilatory fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion, and by vasoconstrictive fibers from the superior cervical ganglion. Intraocular pressure is regulated primarily through the balance of aqueous humor formation and outflow. Autonomic regulation of ciliary body blood vessels and the ciliary epithelium is an important determinant of aqueous humor formation; autonomic regulation of the trabecular meshwork and episcleral blood vessels is an important determinant of aqueous humor outflow. These tissues are all innervated by fibers from the pterygopalatine and superior cervical ganglia. In addition to these classical autonomic pathways, trigeminal sensory fibers exert local, intrinsic influences on many of these regions of the eye, as well as on some neurons within the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia.

  18. A Case Based Analysis Preparation Strategy for Use in a Classroom Management for Inclusive Settings Course: Preliminary Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, William J.; Cohen, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Case based instruction (CBI) is a pedagogical option in teacher preparation growing in application but short on practical means to implement the method. This paper presents an analysis strategy and questions developed to help teacher trainees focus on classroom management issues embedded in a set of "real" cases. An analysis of teacher candidate…

  19. Autonomous mobile robots: Vehicles with cognitive control

    SciTech Connect

    Meystel, A.

    1987-01-01

    This book explores a new rapidly developing area of robotics. It describes the state-of-the-art intelligence control, applied machine intelligence, and research and initial stages of manufacturing of autonomous mobile robots. A complete account of the theoretical and experimental results obtained during the last two decades together with some generalizations on Autonomous Mobile Systems are included in this book. Contents: Introduction; Requirements and Specifications; State-of-the-art in Autonomous Mobile Robots Area; Structure of Intelligent Mobile Autonomous System; Planner, Navigator; Pilot; Cartographer; Actuation Control; Computer Simulation of Autonomous Operation; Testing the Autonomous Mobile Robot; Conclusions; Bibliography.

  20. Exploratory Research on the Effect of Autonomous Learners to Team Learning within Healthcare Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Patricia R.; Chalofsky, Neal

    2005-01-01

    How does individual learning impact team learning? Through an exploratory case study, data was collected from questionnaires, documentation review, observations, and interviews. Three themes emerged describing how an autonomous learner affected team learning. The results indicated that the autonomous learner influenced team learning through…

  1. Vestibular influences on autonomic cardiovascular control in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaggioni, I.; Costa, F.; Kaufmann, H.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that anatomical connections exist between vestibular and autonomic nuclei. Animal studies have shown functional interactions between the vestibular and autonomic systems. The nature of these interactions, however, is complex and has not been fully defined. Vestibular stimulation has been consistently found to reduce blood pressure in animals. Given the potential interaction between vestibular and autonomic pathways this finding could be explained by a reduction in sympathetic activity. However, rather than sympathetic inhibition, vestibular stimulation has consistently been shown to increase sympathetic outflow in cardiac and splanchnic vascular beds in most experimental models. Several clinical observations suggest that a link between vestibular and autonomic systems may also exist in humans. However, direct evidence for vestibular/autonomic interactions in humans is sparse. Motion sickness has been found to induce forearm vasodilation and reduce baroreflex gain, and head down neck flexion induces transient forearm and calf vasoconstriction. On the other hand, studies using optokinetic stimulation have found either very small, variable, or inconsistent changes in heart rate and blood pressure, despite substantial symptoms of motion sickness. Furthermore, caloric stimulation severe enough to produce nystagmus, dizziness, and nausea had no effect on sympathetic nerve activity measured directly with microneurography. No effect was observed on heart rate, blood pressure, or plasma norepinephrine. Several factors may explain the apparent discordance of these results, but more research is needed before we can define the potential importance of vestibular input to cardiovascular regulation and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  2. Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-01-01

    During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

  3. Cardiac Autonomic Functions in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Taşçılar, Mehmet Emre; Yokuşoğlu, Mehmet; Boyraz, Mehmet; Baysan, Oben; Köz, Cem; Dündaröz, Ruşen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The autonomic nervous system is assumed to have a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. In this study, we evaluated the autonomic system by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) in obese children. Methods: Thirty-two obese and 30 healthy children (mean ages: 11.6±2.0 years and 11.0±2.9 years, respectively) were enrolled in the study. Obesity was defined as a body mass index higher than 97th percentile for age- and gender-specific reference values. All participants were free of any disease and none of them was receiving any medication. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings were obtained and the time-domain and frequency-domain indices of HRV were analyzed. The study group was evaluated with respect to insulin resistance by HOMA-IR values. Results: A significant decrease in calculated HRV variables was observed in obese children as compared to controls. The HRV alteration was found in both time-domain and frequency-domain parameters. The subgroup analysis of the study group revealed a significant decrease in all investigated HRV parameters in the insulin-resistant obese children compared to the non-insulin-resistant obese ones. Conclusions: Our results indicate that HRV is decreased in obese children, which implies parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic predominance. A marked decrease in HRV was observed in insulin-resistant obese children compared to their non-insulin-resistant counterparts. We propose that autonomic imbalance pertaining especially to insulin resistance may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity in pediatric patients Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21750633

  4. Autonomic Dysfunctions in Parkinsonian Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyo-Jin; Cheon, Sang-Myung; Kim, Jae Woo

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Symptoms of autonomic dysfunctions are common in the patients with parkinsonian disorders. Because clinical features of autonomic dysfunctions are diverse, the comprehensive evaluation is essential for the appropriate management. For the appreciation of autonomic dysfunctions and the identification of differences, patients with degenerative parkinsonisms are evaluated using structured questionnaire for autonomic dysfunction (ADQ). Methods: Total 259 patients, including 192 patients with [idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD, age 64.6 ± 9.6 years)], 37 with [multiple system atrophy (MSA, 62.8 ± 9.1)], 9 with [dementia with Lewy body (DLB, 73.9 ± 4.3)], and 21 with [progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, 69.4 ± 9.6)]. The ADQ was structured for evaluation of the presence of symptoms and its severity due to autonomic dysfunction, covering gastrointestinal, urinary, sexual, cardiovascular and thermoregulatory domains. Patients were also evaluated for the orthostatic hypotension. Results: Although dementia with Lewy body (DLB) patients were oldest and duration of disease was longest in IPD, total ADQ scores of MSA and PSP (23.9 ± 12.6 and 21.1 ± 7.8) were significantly increased than that of IPD (15.1 ± 10.6). Urinary and cardiovascular symptom scores of MSA and gastrointestinal symptom score of PSP were significantly worse than those of IPD. The ratio of patient with orthostatic hypotension in IPD was 31.2% and not differed between groups (35.1% in MSA, 33.3% in DLB and 33.3% in PSP). But the systolic blood pressure dropped drastically after standing in patients with MSA and DLB than in patients with IPD and PSP. Conclusions: Patients with degenerative parkinsonism showed widespread symptoms of autonomic dysfunctions. The severity of those symptoms in patients with PSP were comparing to that of MSA patients and worse than that of IPD. PMID:24868361

  5. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2014-09-01

    Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale-from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems-their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous the

  6. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of contingency software for autonomous systems. Autonomous vehicles currently have a limited capacity to diagnose and mitigate failures. There is a need to be able to handle a broader range of contingencies. The goals of the project are: 1. Speed up diagnosis and mitigation of anomalous situations.2.Automatically handle contingencies, not just failures.3.Enable projects to select a degree of autonomy consistent with their needs and to incrementally introduce more autonomy.4.Augment on-board fault protection with verified contingency scripts

  7. Autonomous DNA-Molecule Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, Ken; Rose, John A.; Yamamura, Masayuki

    DNA molecules autonomously change their forms from the single strand to the double helix by specific binding between complementary sequences according to the Watson-Crick base pairing rule. This paring rule allows us to control connections among molecules and to construct various structures by sequence design. Further, the motion of constructed structures can also be designed by considering sequential bindings. Recently, the feasibility to utilize the programmed DNA structural change for information processing was studied. In the present paper, we report an efficient synthetic chain reaction based on autonomous binding of DNA to realize a computing system, which enable us to implement computational intelligence in vitro.

  8. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  9. Rehabilitation medicine: 1. Autonomic dysreflexia

    PubMed Central

    Blackmer, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    AUTONOMIC DYSREFLEXIA IS AN ACUTE SYNDROME OF EXCESSIVE, UNCONTROLLED SYMPATHETIC OUTPUT that can occur in patients who have had an injury to the spinal cord (generally at or above the sixth thoracic neurologic level). It is caused by spinal reflex mechanisms that remain intact despite the patient's injury, leading to hypertension. This review describes the clinical features of autonomic dysreflexia, its common causes (most frequently stimulation of the lower urinary tract) and a recommended approach to treatment. The condition can nearly always be managed successfully, but prompt recognition is essential — without treatment there may be dire consequences, including death. PMID:14581313

  10. Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

  11. Application-based control of an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Industry response to new technology is governed, almost without exception, by the systems available to meet real world needs, not tools which prove the feasibility of the technology. To this end, SRL is developing robust control strategies and tools for potential autonomous vehicle applications on site. This document describes the work packages developed to perform remote tasks and a integrated control environment which allows rapid vehicle applications development and diagnostic capabilities. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Long-Duration Environmentally-Adaptive Autonomous Rigorous Naval Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    modeling and prediction, meteorology and numerical weather prediction. In particular, smoothing has a critical role to play in reanalysis, target tracking...will start implementing and improving such schemes in realistic codes for physical, biological and acoustic ocean dynamics. We expect to further...realistic ocean fields and/or participate to sea exercises, aiming to couple ocean- acoustic predictions, uncertainty prediction, autonomous strategies for

  13. Acetylene bubble-powered autonomous capsules: towards in situ fuel.

    PubMed

    Moo, James Guo Sheng; Wang, Hong; Pumera, Martin

    2014-12-28

    A fuel-free autonomous self-propelled motor is illustrated. The motor is powered by the chemistry of calcium carbide and utilising water as a co-reactant, through a polymer encapsulation strategy. Expulsion of acetylene bubbles powers the capsule motor. This is an important step, going beyond the toxic hydrogen peroxide fuel used normally, to find alternative propellants for self-propelled machines.

  14. A Robust Compositional Architecture for Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume; Deney, Ewen; Farrell, Kimberley; Giannakopoulos, Dimitra; Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy; Bobby, Mark; Carpenter, Todd; Estlin, Tara

    2006-01-01

    Space exploration applications can benefit greatly from autonomous systems. Great distances, limited communications and high costs make direct operations impossible while mandating operations reliability and efficiency beyond what traditional commanding can provide. Autonomous systems can improve reliability and enhance spacecraft capability significantly. However, there is reluctance to utilizing autonomous systems. In part this is due to general hesitation about new technologies, but a more tangible concern is that of reliability of predictability of autonomous software. In this paper, we describe ongoing work aimed at increasing robustness and predictability of autonomous software, with the ultimate goal of building trust in such systems. The work combines state-of-the-art technologies and capabilities in autonomous systems with advanced validation and synthesis techniques. The focus of this paper is on the autonomous system architecture that has been defined, and on how it enables the application of validation techniques for resulting autonomous systems.

  15. An Observational Coding Strategy for the Socially Reciprocal Interactions of Infants with Severe Disabilities and Their Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Fred; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Computer-assisted observational technology was applied to the measurement and analysis of social reciprocity for infants with severe disabilities and their parents. Discussed are: development of the behavior coding system, computer hardware and software requirements, and observer training and reliability. The interface between computer technology…

  16. The Use of Classroom Walk-Through Observations as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning: A Student Centered Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Thomas R., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increasing pressure of meeting the demands of No Child Left Behind, and reducing the achievement gap between subgroups of school populations, school administrators across the nation have implemented a variety of short classroom walk-through observations. A walk-through is defined as a 3-5 minute observation of the classroom teacher by…

  17. Autonomous Science Instrument Operations: Data Analysis and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offenberg, Joel D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Sengupta, Ratnabali; Nieto-Santisteban, María A.

    An autonomous space observatory offers a new method for efficient data collection. For example, autonomous data analysis allows the system to collect data which meets the required signal-to-noise---if the desired metric is reached early, we can quit and move on instead of continuing an already-completed observation. Similarly, if the observation proves to be harder than anticipated, it can be extended until the desired signal-to-noise is attained; or an obviously hopeless observation can be abandoned. Similarly, a quick-look observation enables the observatory to autonomously select the optimal roll angle to minimize confusion for a multi-object spectrometer. We present a system to perform autonomous data analysis for a large-area imaging array. Cosmic ray mitigation, signal-to-noise tracking, and saturating pixel detection are reliably performed in a ``lights-out'' environment. The software presented is general and can be adapted to many different instruments and goals. The computational requirements are modest and are suitable for use with a flight-configuration computer or in an embedded environment with a DSP.

  18. Linguistic geometry for autonomous navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Stilman, B.

    1995-09-01

    To discover the inner properties of human expert heuristics, which were successful in a certain class of complex control systems, we develop a formal theory, the Linguistic Geometry. This paper reports two examples of application of Linguistic Geometry to autonomous navigation of aerospace vehicles that demonstrate dramatic search reduction.

  19. Biology-Inspired Autonomous Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-31

    understanding the mechanisms of biological flight through collaboration with various experimental biology academic research laboratories around the world ...around the world . The research focus addressed two broad, complementary research areas: autonomous systems concepts inspired by the behavior and...freedom to do so”.2 This definition characterizes the most obvious feature of biological flight: flying organisms exploit real- world aerial

  20. Measures of Autonomic Nervous System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Gastro- intestinal Pupillary Response Respiratory Salivary Amylase Vascular Manipulative Body-Based/ Tension-Release Practices Trauma...Physiological Activities ANS Physiological Activities Cardiac Pupillary Response Catecholamines Respiration Cortisol Salivary Amylase Galvanic Skin...Measures of Autonomic Nervous System Regulation Salivary Amylase Measurement Most measures of salivary amylase

  1. Autonomic dysreflexia: a medical emergency

    PubMed Central

    Bycroft, J; Shergill, I; Choong, E; Arya, N; Shah, P

    2005-01-01

    Autonomic dysreflexia is an important clinical diagnosis that requires prompt treatment to avoid devastating complications. The condition may present itself to all members of medical and surgical specialties, who may not be accustomed to treating it. It is the clinician's responsibility to have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology of the condition and the simple steps required to treat it. PMID:15811886

  2. The Functioning of Autonomous Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, V. Pala Prasada; Rao, Digumarti Bhaskara

    2012-01-01

    The college gets separated from the university, though not completely, when it is an autonomous college, which is practice in India. Academic package will become flexible and the decision-making is internalized, changes and updating could be easily carried out, depending on the need as reflected from the feedback taken from alumni, user sectors,…

  3. AARD - Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewers, Dick

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration program, and NASA Dryden's work in the program. The primary goal of the program is to make one fully automatic probe-to-drogue engagement using the AARD system. There are pictures of the aircraft approaching to the docking.

  4. Designing Assessment for Autonomous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Marie; Mathers, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to disseminate and evaluate an autonomous learning framework developed through collaborative research with first- and second-year undergraduate students at De Montfort University. Central to the framework is the involvement of students in the assessment of their peers and themselves using dialogue about the assessment and feedback…

  5. Computing architecture for autonomous microgrids

    DOEpatents

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-09-29

    A computing architecture that facilitates autonomously controlling operations of a microgrid is described herein. A microgrid network includes numerous computing devices that execute intelligent agents, each of which is assigned to a particular entity (load, source, storage device, or switch) in the microgrid. The intelligent agents can execute in accordance with predefined protocols to collectively perform computations that facilitate uninterrupted control of the .

  6. Strategy for Improving Measurement Uncertainty and Data Quality Information for Observations at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Research Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comstock, J. M.; Sisterson, D.; Kehoe, K.

    2015-12-01

    Quantified uncertainty estimates on measured quantities are required for providing prior information for cloud property retrieval algorithms and constraining model parameterizations and simulations. Methodologies for determining uncertainty can be complex and can include instrument accuracy and precision estimates, and random and systematic errors. Measurement uncertainty is also impacted by environmental and field factors that can be introduced when operating instruments outside the laboratory setting, which impacts both uncertainty and data quality. The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program operates over 100 unique instruments at fixed, mobile, and aerial facilities in diverse climatic regimes around the world. The ARM program is in the process of standardizing how it currently reports measurement uncertainty and developing a new strategy for improving the determination of measurement uncertainty and communicating both the uncertainty and data quality information to users. We will present ARMs plan to standardize the method of reporting measurement uncertainty, as well as share ARMs overall strategies to standardize uncertainty assessment across instrument classes, improving calibration approaches, and providing more consistent data quality assessments to specifically address measurement bias corrections. Our goal is to provide an open forum for discussing the necessary and sufficient elements needed to meet the requirements for retrieval algorithm and model simulation development activities.

  7. From pattern to process: The strategy of the Earth Observing System: Volume 2: EOS Science Steering Committee report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) represents a new approach to the study of the Earth. It consists of remotely sensed and correlative in situ observations designed to address important, interrelated global-scale processes. There is an urgent need to study the Earth as a complete, integrated system in order to understand and predict changes caused by human activities and natural processes. The EOS approach is based on an information system concept and designed to provide a long-term study of the Earth using a variety of measurement methods from both operational and research satellite payloads and continuing ground-based Earth science studies. The EOS concept builds on the foundation of the earlier, single-discipline space missions designed for relatively short observation periods. Continued progress in our understanding of the Earth as a system will come from EOS observations spanning several decades using a variety of contemporaneous measurements.

  8. The Study and Applications of Satellite and Satellite Constellation Autonomous Orbit Determination Using Star Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Q. B.

    2012-07-01

    Autonomous satellite orbit determination is a key technique in autonomous satellite navigation. Many kinds of technologies have been proposed to realize the autonomous satellite navigation, such as the star sensor, the Earth magnetometer, the occultation time survey, and the phase measurement of X-ray pulsar signals. This dissertation studies a method of autonomous satellite orbit determination using star sensor. Moreover, the method is extended to the autonomous navigation of satellite constellation and the space-based surveillance. In chapters 1 and 2, some usual time and reference systems are introduced. Then the principles of several typical autonomous navigation methods, and their merits and shortcomings are analyzed. In chapter 3, the autonomous satellite orbit determination using star sensor and infrared Earth sensor (IRES) is specifically studied, which is based on the status movement simulation, the stellar background observation from star sensor, and the Earth center direction survey from IRES. By simulating the low Earth orbit satellites and pseudo Geostationary Earth orbit (PGEO) satellites, the precision of position and speed with autonomous orbit determination using star sensor is obtained. Besides, the autonomous orbit determination using star sensor with double detectors is studied. According to the observation equation's characters, an optimized type of star sensor and IRES initial assembly model is proposed. In the study of the PGEO autonomous orbit determination, an efficient sampling frequency of measurements is promoted. The simulation results confirm that the autonomous satellite orbit determination using star sensor is feasible for satellites with all kinds of altitudes. In chapter 4, the method of autonomous satellite orbit determination using star sensor is extended to the autonomous navigation of mini-satellite constellation. Combining with the high-accuracy inter satellite links data, the precision of the determined orbit and

  9. Strategies to Make Ramadan Fasting Safer in Type 2 Diabetics: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials and Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Lee, Jun Yang; Tan, Christina San San; Wong, Chee Piau

    2016-01-01

    Ramadan is the holy month for Muslims whereby they fast from predawn to after sunset and is observed by all healthy Muslim adults as well as a large population of type 2 diabetic Muslims.To determine the comparative effectiveness of various strategies that have been used for type 2 diabetic Muslim who fast during Ramadan.A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies (RCT) as well as observational studies for patients with type 2 diabetes who fasted during Ramadan was conducted. Eight databases were searched from January 1980 through October 2015 for relevant studies. Two reviewers independently screened and assessed study for eligibility, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted relevant data. A network meta-analysis for each outcome was fitted separately, combining direct and indirect evidence for each comparison.Twenty-nine studies, 16 RCTs and 13 observational studies each met the inclusion criteria. The most common strategy used was drug changes during the Ramadan period, which found that the use of DPP-4 (Dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitor -4) inhibitors were associated with a reduction in incidence of experiencing hypoglycemia during Ramadan in both RCTs (pooled relative risk: 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.44-0.72) as well as in observational studies (pooled relative risk: 0.27; 0.09-0.75). Ramadan-focused education was shown to be beneficial in reducing hypoglycemia in observational studies but not RCTs (0.25 versus 1.00). Network meta-analyses suggest that incretin mimetics can reduce the risk of hypoglycemia by nearly 1.5 times.The newer antidiabetic agents appear to lower the risk of hypoglycemia and improved glycemic control when compared with sulfonylureas. Ramadan-focused education shows to be a promising strategy but more rigorous examination from RCTs are required.

  10. A Vision-Based Trajectory Controller for Autonomous Cleaning Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstmayr, Lorenz; Röben, Frank; Krzykawski, Martin; Kreft, Sven; Venjakob, Daniel; Möller, Ralf

    Autonomous cleaning robots should completely cover the accessible area with minimal repeated coverage. We present a mostly visionbased navigation strategy for systematical exploration of an area with meandering lanes. The results of the robot experiments show that our approach can guide the robot along parallel lanes while achieving a good coverage with only a small proportion of repeated coverage. The proposed method can be used as a building block for more elaborated navigation strategies which allow the robot to systematically clean rooms with a complex workspace shape.

  11. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

  12. Adaptive nonlinear control for autonomous ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, William S.

    We present the background and motivation for ground vehicle autonomy, and focus on uses for space-exploration. Using a simple design example of an autonomous ground vehicle we derive the equations of motion. After providing the mathematical background for nonlinear systems and control we present two common methods for exactly linearizing nonlinear systems, feedback linearization and backstepping. We use these in combination with three adaptive control methods: model reference adaptive control, adaptive sliding mode control, and extremum-seeking model reference adaptive control. We show the performances of each combination through several simulation results. We then consider disturbances in the system, and design nonlinear disturbance observers for both single-input-single-output and multi-input-multi-output systems. Finally, we show the performance of these observers with simulation results.

  13. Autonomous public organization policy: a case study for the health sector in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rajataramya, B; Fried, B; van der Pütten, M; Pongpanich, S

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes factors affecting autonomous public organization (APO) policy agenda setting and policy formation through comparison of policy processes applied to one educational institute under the Ministry of Education and the other educational institute under the Ministry of Public Health in Thailand. This study employs mixed method including a qualitative approach through documentary research, in-depth interviews, and participant observation. Factors that facilitated the formulation of the APO policy were: (1) awareness of need; (2) clarity of strategies; (3) leadership, advocacy, and strategic partnerships, (4) clear organizational identity; (5) participatory approach to policy formulation, and (6) identification of a policy window. Factors that impeded the formulation of the APO policy were: (1) diverting political priorities; (2) ill-defined organizational identity; (3) fluctuating leadership direction, (4) inadequate participation of stakeholders; and (5) political instability. Although findings cannot be generalized, this case study does offer benchmarking for those in search of ways to enhance processes of policy formulation.

  14. [Characteristics of autonomic regulations in miners working in hard conditions of coal mines].

    PubMed

    Perederiĭ, H S; Ivanov, V V

    2004-01-01

    72 miners aged from 30 till 40 years have been surveyed. It was established that to achieve socially acceptable results the miners use corresponding strategy doing their job. Under the influence of the work the functional states mediated not only by conditions of working environment but also by resistivity of the organism are developed. It is shown that highly productive, reliable and effective work is possible under adequate interactions of central and autonomic mechanisms of regulation. Alteration in these interactions, particularly, non-adequate centralization of management processes decreases physical capacity for work. Enhancement of sympathetic effects on periphery that leads to development of hypertensive reactions has been observed. Such alterations are accompanied by an increase in physiological cost of work and decreased productivity of labor.

  15. Quantifying Emergent Behavior of Autonomous Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martius, Georg; Olbrich, Eckehard

    2015-10-01

    Quantifying behaviors of robots which were generated autonomously from task-independent objective functions is an important prerequisite for objective comparisons of algorithms and movements of animals. The temporal sequence of such a behavior can be considered as a time series and hence complexity measures developed for time series are natural candidates for its quantification. The predictive information and the excess entropy are such complexity measures. They measure the amount of information the past contains about the future and thus quantify the nonrandom structure in the temporal sequence. However, when using these measures for systems with continuous states one has to deal with the fact that their values will depend on the resolution with which the systems states are observed. For deterministic systems both measures will diverge with increasing resolution. We therefore propose a new decomposition of the excess entropy in resolution dependent and resolution independent parts and discuss how they depend on the dimensionality of the dynamics, correlations and the noise level. For the practical estimation we propose to use estimates based on the correlation integral instead of the direct estimation of the mutual information using the algorithm by Kraskov et al. (2004) which is based on next neighbor statistics because the latter allows less control of the scale dependencies. Using our algorithm we are able to show how autonomous learning generates behavior of increasing complexity with increasing learning duration.

  16. Mobile autonomous robot for radiological surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Dudar, A.M.; Wagner, D.G.; Teese, G.D. )

    1992-01-01

    The robotics development group at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is developing a mobile autonomous robot that performs radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot is called SIMON, which stands for Semi-Intelligent Mobile Observing Navigator. Certain areas of SRL are classified as radiologically controlled areas (RCAs). In an RCA, radioactive materials are frequently handled by workers, and thus, the potential for contamination is ever present. Current methods used for floor radiological surveying includes labor-intensive manual scanning or random smearing of certain floor locations. An autonomous robot such as SIMON performs the surveying task in a much more efficient manner and will track down contamination before it is contacted by humans. SIMON scans floors at a speed of 1 in./s and stops and alarms upon encountering contamination. Its environment is well defined, consisting of smooth building floors with wide corridors. The kind of contaminations that SIMON is capable of detecting are alpha and beta-gamma. The contamination levels of interest are low to moderate.

  17. Autonomous Retroflexion of a Magnetic Flexible Endoscope.

    PubMed

    Slawinski, Piotr R; Taddese, Addisu Z; Musto, Kyle B; Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2017-07-01

    Retroflexion during colonoscopy is typically only practiced in the wider proximal and distal ends of the large intestine owing to the stiff nature of the colonoscope. This inability to examine the proximal side of the majority of colon folds contributes to today's suboptimal colorectal cancer detection rates. We have developed an algorithm for autonomous retroflexion of a flexible endoscope that is actuated magnetically from the tip. The magnetic wrench applied on the tip of the endoscope is optimized in real-time with data from pose detection to compute motions of the actuating magnet. This is the first example of a completely autonomous maneuver by a magnetic endoscope for exploration of the gastrointestinal tract. The proposed approach was validated in plastic tubes of various diameters with a success rate of 98.8% for separation distances up to 50 mm. Additionally, a set of trials was conducted in an excised porcine colon observing a success rate of 100% with a mean time of 19.7 s. In terms of clinical safety, the maximum stress that is applied on the colon wall with our methodology is an order of magnitude below what would damage tissue.

  18. Autonomic function in manganese alloy workers

    SciTech Connect

    Barrington, W.W.; Angle, C.R.; Willcockson, N.K.; Padula, M.A.; Korn, T.

    1998-07-01

    The observation of orthostatic hypotension in an index case of manganese toxicity lead to this prospective attempt to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function and cognitive and emotional neurotoxicity in eight manganese alloy welders and machinists. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample consisting of an index case of manganese dementia, his four co-workers in a frog shop for gouging, welding, and grinding repair of high manganese railway track and a convenience sample of three mild steel welders with lesser manganese exposure also referred because of cognitive or autonomic symptoms. Frog shop air manganese samples 9.6--10 years before and 1.2--3.4 years after the diagnosis of the index case exceeded 1.0 mg/m{sup 3} in 29% and 0.2 mg/m{sup 3} in 62%. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring was used to determine the temporal variability of the heartrate (RR{prime} interval) and the rates of change at low frequency and high frequency. MMPI and MCMI personality assessment and short-term memory, figure copy, controlled oral word association, and symbol digit tests were used.

  19. Intrinsic adaptation in autonomous recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Marković, Dimitrije; Gros, Claudius

    2012-02-01

    A massively recurrent neural network responds on one side to input stimuli and is autonomously active, on the other side, in the absence of sensory inputs. Stimuli and information processing depend crucially on the quality of the autonomous-state dynamics of the ongoing neural activity. This default neural activity may be dynamically structured in time and space, showing regular, synchronized, bursting, or chaotic activity patterns. We study the influence of nonsynaptic plasticity on the default dynamical state of recurrent neural networks. The nonsynaptic adaption considered acts on intrinsic neural parameters, such as the threshold and the gain, and is driven by the optimization of the information entropy. We observe, in the presence of the intrinsic adaptation processes, three distinct and globally attracting dynamical regimes: a regular synchronized, an overall chaotic, and an intermittent bursting regime. The intermittent bursting regime is characterized by intervals of regular flows, which are quite insensitive to external stimuli, interceded by chaotic bursts that respond sensitively to input signals. We discuss these findings in the context of self-organized information processing and critical brain dynamics.

  20. Deploying the NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, S. M.; Pace, L.; Hickson, P.; Cowardin, H. M.; Frith, J.; Buckalew, B.; Glesne, T.; Maeda, R.; Douglas, D.; Nishimoto, D.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has successfully constructed the 1.3m Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) facility on Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. MCAT is an optical telescope designed specifically to collect ground-based data for the statistical characterization of orbital debris ranging from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) through Middle Earth Orbits (MEO) and beyond to Geo Transfer and Geosynchronous Orbits (GTO/GEO). The location of Ascension Island has two distinct advantages. First, the near-equatorial location fills a significant longitudinal gap in the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) network of telescopes, and second, it allows access to objects in Low Inclination Low-Earth Orbits (LILO). The MCAT facility will be controlled by a sophisticated software suite that operates the dome and telescope, assesses sky and weather conditions, conducts all necessary calibrations, defines an observing strategy (as dictated by weather, sky conditions and the observing plan for the night), and carries out the observations. It then reduces the collected data via four primary observing modes ranging from tracking previously cataloged objects to conducting general surveys for detecting uncorrelated debris. Nightly observing plans, as well as the resulting text file of reduced data, will be transferred to and from Ascension, respectively, via a satellite connection. Post-processing occurs at NASA Johnson Space Center. Construction began in September, 2014 with dome and telescope installation occurring in April through early June, 2015. First light was achieved in June, 2015. Acceptance testing, full commissioning, and calibration of this soon-to-be fully autonomous system commenced in summer 2015. The initial characterization of the system from these tests is presented herein.

  1. Deploying the NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, S.; Pace, L. F.; Hickson, P.; Glesne, T.; Cowardin, H. M.; Frith, J. M.; Buckalew, B.; Maeda, R.; Douglas, D.; Nishimoto, D.

    NASA has successfully constructed the 1.3m Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) facility on Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. MCAT is an optical telescope designed specifically to collect ground-based data for the statistical characterization of orbital debris ranging from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) through Middle Earth Orbits (MEO) and beyond to Geo Transfer and Geosynchronous Orbits (GTO/GEO). The location of Ascension Island has two distinct advantages. First, the near-equatorial location fills a significant longitudinal gap in the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) network of telescopes, and second, it allows access to objects in Low Inclination Low-Earth Orbits (LILO). The MCAT facility will be controlled by a sophisticated software suite that operates the dome and telescope, assesses sky and weather conditions, conducts all necessary calibrations, defines an observing strategy (as dictated by weather, sky conditions, and the observing plan for the night), and carries out the observations. It then reduces the collected data via four primary observing modes ranging from tracking previously cataloged objects to conducting general surveys for detecting uncorrelated debris. Nightly observing plans, as well as the resulting text file of reduced data, will be transferred to and from Ascension, respectively, via a satellite connection. Post-processing occurs at NASA Johnson Space Center. Construction began in September, 2014 with dome and telescope installation occurring in April through early June, 2015. First light was achieved in June, 2015. Acceptance testing, full commissioning, and calibration of this soon-to-be fully autonomous system commenced in summer 2015. The initial characterization of the system from these tests is presented herein.

  2. Integrating Terrain Maps Into a Reactive Navigation Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna; Werger, Barry; Seraji, Homayoun

    2006-01-01

    An improved method of processing information for autonomous navigation of a robotic vehicle across rough terrain involves the integration of terrain maps into a reactive navigation strategy. Somewhat more precisely, the method involves the incorporation, into navigation logic, of data equivalent to regional traversability maps. The terrain characteristic is mapped using a fuzzy-logic representation of the difficulty of traversing the terrain. The method is robust in that it integrates a global path-planning strategy with sensor-based regional and local navigation strategies to ensure a high probability of success in reaching a destination and avoiding obstacles along the way. The sensor-based strategies use cameras aboard the vehicle to observe the regional terrain, defined as the area of the terrain that covers the immediate vicinity near the vehicle to a specified distance a few meters away.

  3. Animating Autonomous Pedestrians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    turning speed, etc., but also includes his observable intention in the next move, as pointed out by Goffman [1971]. The latter can help others estimate the...traffic would be a shambles without them.” (E. Goffman . Relations in public: microstudies of the public order, Page 6.) Reactive behaviors appropriately...moving in a similar direction to H and are situated within a parabolic region [ Goffman 1971] in front of H defined by y = − 4 R x2 +R, (4.1) 52 where R

  4. Effects of a radiation dose reduction strategy for computed tomography in severely injured trauma patients in the emergency department: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Severely injured trauma patients are exposed to clinically significant radiation doses from computed tomography (CT) imaging in the emergency department. Moreover, this radiation exposure is associated with an increased risk of cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine some effects of a radiation dose reduction strategy for CT in severely injured trauma patients in the emergency department. Methods We implemented the radiation dose reduction strategy in May 2009. A prospective observational study design was used to collect data from patients who met the inclusion criteria during this one year study (intervention group) from May 2009 to April 2010. The prospective data were compared with data collected retrospectively for one year prior to the implementation of the radiation dose reduction strategy (control group). By comparison of the cumulative effective dose and the number of CT examinations in the two groups, we evaluated effects of a radiation dose reduction strategy. All the patients met the institutional adult trauma team activation criteria. The radiation doses calculated by the CT scanner were converted to effective doses by multiplication by a conversion coefficient. Results A total of 118 patients were included in this study. Among them, 33 were admitted before May 2009 (control group), and 85 were admitted after May 2009 (intervention group). There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding baseline characteristics, such as injury severity and mortality. Additionally, there was no difference between the two groups in the mean number of total CT examinations per patient (4.8 vs. 4.5, respectively; p = 0.227). However, the mean effective dose of the total CT examinations per patient significantly decreased from 78.71 mSv to 29.50 mSv (p < 0.001). Conclusions The radiation dose reduction strategy for CT in severely injured trauma patients effectively decreased the cumulative effective dose of the total CT

  5. Autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using “PNEUMOCARD”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baevsky, R. M.; Funtova, I. I.; Diedrich, A.; Chernikova, A. G.; Drescher, J.; Baranov, V. M.; Tank, J.

    2009-10-01

    Investigations of blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) during long term space flights on board the "ISS" have shown characteristic changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Therefore, alterations of the autonomic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for in- and post-flight disturbances. The device "Pneumocard" was developed to further investigate autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory function aboard the ISS. The hard-software diagnostic complex "Pneumocard" was used during in-flight experiment aboard ISS for autonomic function testing. ECG, photoplethysmography, respiration, transthoracic bioimpedance and seismocardiography were assessed in one male cosmonaut (flight lengths six month). Recordings were made prior to the flight, late during flight, and post-flight during spontaneous respiration and controlled respiration at different rates. HR remained stable during flight. The values were comparable to supine measurements on earth. Respiratory frequency and blood pressure decreased during flight. Post flight HR and BP values increased compared to in-flight data exceeding pre-flight values. Cardiac time intervals did not change dramatically during flight. Pulse wave transit time decreased during flight. The maximum of the first time derivative of the impedance cardiogram, which is highly correlated with stroke volume was not reduced in-flight. Our results demonstrate that autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using "Pneumocard" is feasible and generates data of good quality. Despite the decrease in BP, pulse wave transit time was found reduced in space as shown earlier. However, cardiac output did not decrease profoundly in the investigated cosmonaut. Autonomic testing during space flight detects individual changes in cardiovascular control and may add important information to standard medical control. The recent plans to support a flight to Mars, makes these kinds of observations all the more relevant

  6. A New Observational Strategy for Monitoring the Tropical Cyclone Outflow Layer and its Relationship to Intensity and Structure Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    generation of dropsonde, the Yankee, Inc HDSS and XDD sonde was intercompared during CIRPAS Twin Otter test flights on 24-25 June, 2011 with NCAR-EOL...maxima found in the air- sea boundary layer. Figure 6. 150 mb outflow jet observed by AV-6 Global Hawk dropsondes (left) during flight over...data from over 200 km away. 10 Figure 10. Comparison of smoothed XDD infrared SST profile with smoothed Twin Otter Infrared Radiation

  7. Chaotic neurodynamics for autonomous agents.

    PubMed

    Harter, Derek; Kozma, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Mesoscopic level neurodynamics study the collective dynamical behavior of neural populations. Such models are becoming increasingly important in understanding large-scale brain processes. Brains exhibit aperiodic oscillations with a much more rich dynamical behavior than fixed-point and limit-cycle approximation allow. Here we present a discretized model inspired by Freeman's K-set mesoscopic level population model. We show that this version is capable of replicating the important principles of aperiodic/chaotic neurodynamics while being fast enough for use in real-time autonomous agent applications. This simplification of the K model provides many advantages not only in terms of efficiency but in simplicity and its ability to be analyzed in terms of its dynamical properties. We study the discrete version using a multilayer, highly recurrent model of the neural architecture of perceptual brain areas. We use this architecture to develop example action selection mechanisms in an autonomous agent.

  8. Autonomous spacecraft maintenance study group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, M. H.; Low, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    A plan to incorporate autonomous spacecraft maintenance (ASM) capabilities into Air Force spacecraft by 1989 is outlined. It includes the successful operation of the spacecraft without ground operator intervention for extended periods of time. Mechanisms, along with a fault tolerant data processing system (including a nonvolatile backup memory) and an autonomous navigation capability, are needed to replace the routine servicing that is presently performed by the ground system. The state of the art fault handling capabilities of various spacecraft and computers are described, and a set conceptual design requirements needed to achieve ASM is established. Implementations for near term technology development needed for an ASM proof of concept demonstration by 1985, and a research agenda addressing long range academic research for an advanced ASM system for 1990s are established.

  9. Autonomous path-planning navigation system for site characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Crane, Carl D., III; Armstrong, David G., II; Nease, Allen D.; Brown, H. Edward

    1996-05-01

    The location and removal of buried munitions is an important yet hazardous task. Current development is aimed at performing both the ordnance location and removal tasks autonomously. An autonomous survey vehicle (ASV) named the Gator has been developed at the Center for Intelligent Machines and Robotics, under the direction of Wright Laboratory, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and the Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division, Indian Head, Maryland. The primary task of the survey vehicle is to autonomously traverse an off-road site, towing behind it a trailer containing a sensor package capable of characterizing the sub-surface contents. Achieving 00 percent coverage of the site is critical to fully characterizing the site. This paper presents a strategy for planning efficient paths for the survey vehicle that guarantees near-complete coverage of a site. A small library of three in-house developed path planners are reviewed. A strategy is also presented to keep the trailer on-path and to calculate the percent of coverage of a site with a resolution of 0.01 m2. All of the algorithms discussed in this paper were initially developed in simulation on a Silicon Graphics computer and subsequently implemented on the survey vehicle.

  10. Sensory architectures for biologically inspired autonomous robotics.

    PubMed

    Higgins, C M

    2001-04-01

    Engineers have a lot to gain from studying biology. The study of biological neural systems alone provides numerous examples of computational systems that are far more complex than any man-made system and perform real-time sensory and motor tasks in a manner that humbles the most advanced artificial systems. Despite the evolutionary genesis of these systems and the vast apparent differences between species, there are common design strategies employed by biological systems that span taxa, and engineers would do well to emulate these strategies. However, biologically-inspired computational architectures, which are continuous-time and parallel in nature, do not map well onto conventional processors, which are discrete-time and serial in operation. Rather, an implementation technology that is capable of directly realizing the layered parallel structure and nonlinear elements employed by neurobiology is required for power- and space-efficient implementation. Custom neuromorphic hardware meets these criteria and yields low-power dedicated sensory systems that are small, light, and ideal for autonomous robot applications. As examples of how this technology is applied, this article describes both a low-level neuromorphic hardware emulation of an elementary visual motion detector, and a large-scale, system-level spatial motion integration system.

  11. Evaluating Autonomous Ground-Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-14

    executed o Time taken for computation of hazard detection (did robots ‘stop to think ’) o Number and nature of obstacles detected, avoided, etc o...Evaluating Autonomous Ground- Robots Anthony Finn 1 , Adam Jacoff 2 , Mike Del Rose 3 , Bob Kania 3 , Udam Silva 4 and Jon Bornstein 5...Abstract The robotics community benefits from common test methods and metrics of performance to focus their research. As a result, many performance

  12. Autonomous Observations of the Upper Ocean Stratification and Velocity Fields About the Seasonally-Retreating Marginal Ice Zone. Acquisition of Ice-Tethered Profilers with Velocity (ITP-V) Instruments as a Contribution to the Marginal Ice Zone DRI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    ice -ocean interactions in the polar oceans ( Arctic and Southern Ocean). Particular areas of focus include ice -ocean exchanges of momentum, heat and...the manuscript of Cole et al., 2012 (Ekman veering, internal waves, and turbulent fluxes observed under Arctic sea- ice , J. Phys. Oceanogr., in...Observed ocean velocity was primarily directed to the right of ice velocity and spiraled clockwise while decaying with depth through the surface mixed

  13. Integrated System for Autonomous Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Shulman, Seth; Doggett, Thomas; Ip, Felipe; Greeley, Ron; Baker, Victor; Dohn, James; Boyer, Darrell

    2006-01-01

    The New Millennium Program Space Technology 6 Project Autonomous Sciencecraft software implements an integrated system for autonomous planning and execution of scientific, engineering, and spacecraft-coordination actions. A prior version of this software was reported in "The TechSat 21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment" (NPO-30784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 3 (March 2004), page 33. This software is now in continuous use aboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) spacecraft mission and is being adapted for use in the Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. This software enables EO-1 to detect and respond to such events of scientific interest as volcanic activity, flooding, and freezing and thawing of water. It uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect changes, including events of scientific interest. Detection of such events triggers acquisition of follow-up imagery. The mission-planning component of the software develops a response plan that accounts for visibility of targets and operational constraints. The plan is then executed under control by a task-execution component of the software that is capable of responding to anomalies.

  14. Autonomic Computing: Panacea or Poppycock?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Autonomic Computing arose out of a need for a means to cope with rapidly growing complexity of integrating, managing, and operating computer-based systems as well as a need to reduce the total cost of ownership of today's systems. Autonomic Computing (AC) as a discipline was proposed by IBM in 2001, with the vision to develop self-managing systems. As the name implies, the influence for the new paradigm is the human body's autonomic system, which regulates vital bodily functions such as the control of heart rate, the body's temperature and blood flow-all without conscious effort. The vision is to create selfivare through self-* properties. The initial set of properties, in terms of objectives, were self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protecting, along with attributes of self-awareness, self-monitoring and self-adjusting. This self-* list has grown: self-anticipating, self-critical, self-defining, self-destructing, self-diagnosis, self-governing, self-organized, self-reflecting, and self-simulation, for instance.

  15. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Few, Doug; Versteeg, Roelof; Herman, Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude - from an autonomous robotic perspective - the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  16. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  17. Autonomous Volcanic Activity Detection with ASE on EO-1 Hyperion: Applications for Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. G.; Baker, V.; Castano, R.; Chien, S.; Cichy, B.; Doggett, T.; Dohm, J.; Greeley, R.; Rabideau, G.; Sherwood, R.; Williams, K.; ASE Project Team

    2003-05-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) Space Technology 6 (ST-6) Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly two scene classifiers on the Earth Orbiting 1 (EO-1) spacecraft in the fall of 2003, and will demonstrate autonomous, onboard processing of Hyperion imager 0.4-2.4 micron hyperspectral data, and autonomous, science-driven planning and acquisition of subsequent observations. ASE is an experiment to meet NASA's call for systems with reduced downlink and onboard data processing to enable autonomous missions. ASE software is divided into three classes: (1) spacecraft command and control; (2) an onboard planner (CASPER); and (3) modular science algorithms, which are used to process raw data to search out specific features and spectral signatures. The ASE Science Team has developed scene classifiers to detect thermal emission in both day and nighttime Hyperion data, and are continuing to develop other scene classifiers for ice, snow, water and land for future release and flight on EO-1. Once uploaded, the thermal scene classifier effectively turns the EO-1 spacecraft into an autonomously operating and reacting volcanic activity detector. It is possible to envision such a capability on spacecraft observing volcanism on Io and Triton, autonomously identifying and classifying activity, identifying sites deserving of closer scrutiny, and retasking the spacecraft to observe them, thus fulfilling NASA's goal of fully-autonomous, science-driven spacecraft. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.

  18. Pilot In Command: A Feasibility Assessment of Autonomous Flight Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2004-01-01

    Several years of NASA research have produced the air traffic management operational concept of Autonomous Flight Management with high potential for operational feasibility, significant system and user benefits, and safety. Among the chief potential benefits are demand-adaptive or scalable capacity, user flexibility and autonomy that may finally enable truly successful business strategies, and compatibility with current-day operations such that the implementation rate can be driven from within the user community. A concept summary of Autonomous Flight Management is provided, including a description of how these operations would integrate in shared airspace with existing ground-controlled flight operations. The mechanisms enabling the primary benefits are discussed, and key findings of a feasibility assessment of airborne autonomous operations are summarized. Concept characteristics that impact safety are presented, and the potential for initially implementing Autonomous Flight Management is discussed.

  19. The Neuropharmacology of Cluster Headache and other Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Alfredo; Antonaci, Fabio; Ramusino, Matteo Cotta; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of primary headaches including cluster headache (CH), paroxysmal hemicrania (PH) and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT). Another form, hemicrania continua (HC), is also included this group due to its clinical and pathophysiological similarities. CH is the most common of these syndromes, the others being infrequent in the general population. The pathophysiology of the TACs has been partly elucidated by a number of recent neuroimaging studies, which implicate brain regions associated with nociception (pain matrix). In addition, the hypothalamic activation observed in the course of TAC attacks and the observed efficacy of hypothalamic neurostimulation in CH patients suggest that the hypothalamus is another key structure. Hypothalamic activation may indeed be involved in attack initiation, but it may also lead to a condition of central facilitation underlying the recurrence of pain episodes. The TACs share many pathophysiological features, but are characterised by differences in attack duration and frequency, and to some extent treatment response. Although alternative strategies for the TACs, especially CH, are now emerging (such as neurostimulation techniques), this review focuses on the available pharmacological treatments complying with the most recent guidelines. We discuss the clinical efficacy and tolerability of the currently used drugs. Due to the low frequency of most TACs, few randomised controlled trials have been conducted. The therapies of choice in CH continue to be the triptans and oxygen for acute treatment, and verapamil and lithium for prevention, but promising results have recently been obtained with novel modes of administration of the triptans and other agents, and several other treatments are currently under study. Indomethacin is extremely effective in PH and HC, while antiepileptic drugs (especially lamotrigine) appear to be

  20. The Neuropharmacology of Cluster Headache and other Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alfredo; Antonaci, Fabio; Ramusino, Matteo Cotta; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of primary headaches including cluster headache (CH), paroxysmal hemicrania (PH) and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT). Another form, hemicrania continua (HC), is also included this group due to its clinical and pathophysiological similarities. CH is the most common of these syndromes, the others being infrequent in the general population. The pathophysiology of the TACs has been partly elucidated by a number of recent neuroimaging studies, which implicate brain regions associated with nociception (pain matrix). In addition, the hypothalamic activation observed in the course of TAC attacks and the observed efficacy of hypothalamic neurostimulation in CH patients suggest that the hypothalamus is another key structure. Hypothalamic activation may indeed be involved in attack initiation, but it may also lead to a condition of central facilitation underlying the recurrence of pain episodes. The TACs share many pathophysiological features, but are characterised by differences in attack duration and frequency, and to some extent treatment response. Although alternative strategies for the TACs, especially CH, are now emerging (such as neurostimulation techniques), this review focuses on the available pharmacological treatments complying with the most recent guidelines. We discuss the clinical efficacy and tolerability of the currently used drugs. Due to the low frequency of most TACs, few randomised controlled trials have been conducted. The therapies of choice in CH continue to be the triptans and oxygen for acute treatment, and verapamil and lithium for prevention, but promising results have recently been obtained with novel modes of administration of the triptans and other agents, and several other treatments are currently under study. Indomethacin is extremely effective in PH and HC, while antiepileptic drugs (especially lamotrigine) appear to be

  1. HIGH-EFFICIENCY AUTONOMOUS LASER ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Tendulkar, Shriharsh; Hogstrom, Kristina; Bui, Khanh; Dekany, Richard; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Law, Nicholas M.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Burse, Mahesh; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol; Punnadi, Sujit

    2014-07-20

    As new large-scale astronomical surveys greatly increase the number of objects targeted and discoveries made, the requirement for efficient follow-up observations is crucial. Adaptive optics imaging, which compensates for the image-blurring effects of Earth's turbulent atmosphere, is essential for these surveys, but the scarcity, complexity and high demand of current systems limit their availability for following up large numbers of targets. To address this need, we have engineered and implemented Robo-AO, a fully autonomous laser adaptive optics and imaging system that routinely images over 200 objects per night with an acuity 10 times sharper at visible wavelengths than typically possible from the ground. By greatly improving the angular resolution, sensitivity, and efficiency of 1-3 m class telescopes, we have eliminated a major obstacle in the follow-up of the discoveries from current and future large astronomical surveys.

  2. Intranuclear rods myopathy with autonomic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chou, Po-Ching; Liang, Wen-Chen; Nonaka, Ikuya; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Nishino, Ichizo; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2013-08-01

    Intranuclear rods myopathy (IRM), a variant of nemaline myopathy (NM), is characterized by rod structure in the myonuclei. Patients with IRM present with similar symptoms to those of severe infantile-type NM but have worse outcome. Several extramuscular manifestations have been reported in NM but no dysautonomia. We herein report a 2-year-old girl with IRM and a heterozygous mutation, c.430C>T (p.L144F) in ACTA1. During the infancy, the patient showed severe diaphoresis and facial flushing. Arrhythmia and hypertension with the precipitating factors of feeding, defecation, and urination were observed. Sympathetic antagonist was prescribed and showed some effectiveness. Our report may widen the clinical spectrum of IRM. It also reminds clinicians that autonomic dysfunction may occur in patients with IRM or other actinopathies and appropriate treatment may be necessary.

  3. High-efficiency Autonomous Laser Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh; Hogstrom, Kristina; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol; Dekany, Richard; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Punnadi, Sujit

    2014-07-01

    As new large-scale astronomical surveys greatly increase the number of objects targeted and discoveries made, the requirement for efficient follow-up observations is crucial. Adaptive optics imaging, which compensates for the image-blurring effects of Earth's turbulent atmosphere, is essential for these surveys, but the scarcity, complexity and high demand of current systems limit their availability for following up large numbers of targets. To address this need, we have engineered and implemented Robo-AO, a fully autonomous laser adaptive optics and imaging system that routinely images over 200 objects per night with an acuity 10 times sharper at visible wavelengths than typically possible from the ground. By greatly improving the angular resolution, sensitivity, and efficiency of 1-3 m class telescopes, we have eliminated a major obstacle in the follow-up of the discoveries from current and future large astronomical surveys.

  4. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  5. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrading, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  6. Strategies, insights, and the recent advances in volcanic monitoring and mapping with data from NASA's Earth Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Michael S.; Flynn, Luke P.

    2004-07-01

    In 1991, the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched a comprehensive program to study the Earth as one environmental system. Now called the Earth Science Enterprise (ESE), this coordinated monitoring effort was initially comprised of free-flying satellites and Space Shuttle missions, as well as airborne and ground-based studies. The satellite component of the ESE is known as the Earth Observing System (EOS), which has now entered a planned long-term global monitoring phase. The first EOS satellite, Terra, was launched in December of 1999 and offers integrated measurements of numerous solid earth and atmospheric processes, including volcanic activity. There are currently 10 NASA EOS-designated satellites carrying over thirty instruments, all of which are providing integrated measurements of the interactions between the Earth's global cycles. Included in this effort are science investigations that examine the solid earth cycle and the natural hazards that are an inevitable result of that cycle. For volcanologists, the new higher spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution EOS data have spawned a variety of new algorithms and methodologies to monitor changes in volcanic activity, map volcanic surfaces, and investigate volcanic processes. Thermal anomaly detection, plume chemistry and mass flux, lava composition and textural properties, interaction of ash with the natural and human environment, and mitigation of hazards are but a few of the topics being addressed with these data sets. In this paper, we summarize the current state of volcanic remote sensing in the new EOS era and introduce the more detailed papers that follow in this special issue. This work stems from a special session at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting that was convened to showcase the current research in volcanic systems and processes using the new EOS satellite data sets. That session was also intended to provide a forum for field, aircraft, and other

  7. High-resolution monitoring of marine protists based on an observation strategy integrating automated on-board filtration and molecular analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metfies, Katja; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Hessel, Johanna; Wollschläger, Jochen; Micheller, Sebastian; Wolf, Christian; Kilias, Estelle; Sprong, Pim; Neuhaus, Stefan; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Petersen, Wilhelm

    2016-11-01

    Information on recent biomass distribution and biogeography of photosynthetic marine protists with adequate temporal and spatial resolution is urgently needed to better understand the consequences of environmental change for marine ecosystems. Here we introduce and review a molecular-based observation strategy for high-resolution assessment of these protists in space and time. It is the result of extensive technology developments, adaptations and evaluations which are documented in a number of different publications, and the results of the recently completed field testing which are introduced in this paper. The observation strategy is organized at four different levels. At level 1, samples are collected at high spatiotemporal resolution using the remotely controlled automated filtration system AUTOFIM. Resulting samples can either be preserved for later laboratory analyses, or directly subjected to molecular surveillance of key species aboard the ship via an automated biosensor system or quantitative polymerase chain reaction (level 2). Preserved samples are analyzed at the next observational levels in the laboratory (levels 3 and 4). At level 3 this involves molecular fingerprinting methods for a quick and reliable overview of differences in protist community composition. Finally, selected samples can be used to generate a detailed analysis of taxonomic protist composition via the latest next generation sequencing technology (NGS) at level 4. An overall integrated dataset of the results based on the different analyses provides comprehensive information on the diversity and biogeography of protists, including all related size classes. At the same time the cost of the observation is optimized with respect to analysis effort and time.

  8. Autonomic modification of intestinal smooth muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Laura E A; Tansey, Etain A; Johnson, Chris D; Roe, Sean M; Quinn, Joe G

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe this spontaneous activity and its modification by agents associated with parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activity. A section of the rabbit small intestine is suspended in an organ bath, and the use of a pressure transducer and data-acquisition software allows the measurement of tension generated by the smooth muscle of intestinal walls. The application of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter ACh at varying concentrations allows students to observe an increase in intestinal smooth muscle tone with increasing concentrations of this muscarinic receptor agonist. Construction of a concentration-effect curve allows students to calculate an EC50 value for ACh and consider some basic concepts surrounding receptor occupancy and activation. Application of the hormone epinephrine to the precontracted intestine allows students to observe the inhibitory effects associated with sympathetic nerve activation. Introduction of the drug atropine to the preparation before a maximal concentration of ACh is applied allows students to observe the inhibitory effect of a competitive antagonist on the physiological response to a receptor agonist. The final experiment involves the observation of the depolarizing effect of K(+) on smooth muscle. Students are also invited to consider why the drugs atropine, codeine, loperamide, and botulinum toxin have medicinal uses in the management of gastrointestinal problems.

  9. Lethality and Autonomous Robots: An Ethical Stance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Lethality and Autonomous Robots : An Ethical Stance Ronald C. Arkin and Lilia Moshkina College of Computing Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta... autonomous robots that maintain an ethical infrastructure to govern their behavior will be referred to as humane-oids. 2. Understanding the Ethical...2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lethality and Autonomous Robots : An Ethical Stance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  10. Tele/Autonomous Robot For Nuclear Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.; Tso, Kam S.

    1994-01-01

    Fail-safe tele/autonomous robotic system makes it unnecessary for human technicians to enter nuclear-fuel-reprocessing facilities and other high-radiation or otherwise hazardous industrial environments. Used to carry out experiments as exchanging equipment modules, turning bolts, cleaning surfaces, and grappling turning objects by use of mixture of autonomous actions and teleoperation with either single arm or two cooperating arms. System capable of fully autonomous operation, teleoperation or shared control.

  11. Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

  12. Autonomic nervous system testing may not distinguish multiple system atrophy from Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Riley, D; Chelimsky, T

    2003-01-01

    Background: Formal laboratory testing of autonomic function is reported to distinguish between patients with Parkinson's disease and those with multiple system atrophy (MSA), but such studies segregate patients according to clinical criteria that select those with autonomic dysfunction for the MSA category. Objective: To characterise the profiles of autonomic disturbances in patients in whom the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease or MSA used criteria other than autonomic dysfunction. Methods: 47 patients with parkinsonism and autonomic symptoms who had undergone autonomic laboratory testing were identified and their case records reviewed for non-autonomic features. They were classified clinically into three diagnostic groups: Parkinson's disease (19), MSA (14), and uncertain (14). The performance of the patients with Parkinson's disease was compared with that of the MSA patients on five autonomic tests: RR variation on deep breathing, heart rate changes with the Valsalva manoeuvre, tilt table testing, the sudomotor axon reflex test, and thermoregulatory sweat testing. Results: None of the tests distinguished one group from the other with any statistical significance, alone or in combination. Parkinson's disease and MSA patients showed similar patterns of autonomic dysfunction on formal testing of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic, vasomotor, and central and peripheral sudomotor functions. Conclusions: This study supports the clinical observation that Parkinson's disease is often indistinguishable from MSA when it involves the autonomic nervous system. The clinical combination of parkinsonism and dysautonomia is as likely to be caused by Parkinson's disease as by MSA. Current clinical criteria for Parkinson's disease and MSA that direct patients with dysautonomia into the MSA group may be inappropriate. PMID:12486267

  13. [Cardiovascular autonomic reflexes on the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome].

    PubMed

    Benjelloun, Ho; Benjelloun, Ha; Aboudrar, S; Coghlan, L; Benomar, M

    2009-02-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is an inadequately understood pathology because its diagnosis is not based on the conventional methods of investigation. The orthostatic test allows to make the diagnosis easily. The objective of this study is to determine cardiovascular autonomic reflexes of 70 patients having POTS. The tests of exploration of the autonomic nervous system practised are: deep breathing, hand grip, mental stress and orthostatic test. The analysis of orthostatic test showed that the increase of the cardiac frequency, relative to the state of "beta" peripheral sympathetic hyperactivity occurred before the 2nd minute in 80% of patients. The POTS was considered "florid" in 43% of patients and had complicated of a rough and severe fall of systolic blood pressure inferior to 70 mmHg in four patients, after the fifth minute of the test. The analysis of the different tests had shown vagal hyperactivity in 63% of patients on deep breathing, in 93% of patients on hand grip and in 100% on orthostatic test. The "alpha" central sympathetic activity was increased in 76% of the cases and "beta" central sympathetic activity was high in 83% of cases. The "alpha" peripheral hyperactivity was observed in 63% of patients on hand grip, and in 44% on orthostatic test. The analysis of cardiovascular autonomic reflexes in patients affected by POTS allowing the determination of their autonomic profile, will contribute probably to a better understanding of this pathology and to a better orientation of its care.

  14. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Fleetwood, Janet

    2017-04-01

    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles.

  15. Autonomic Computing for Spacecraft Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Jones, Lori

    2007-01-01

    Autonomic computing for spacecraft ground systems increases the system reliability and reduces the cost of spacecraft operations and software maintenance. In this paper, we present an autonomic computing solution for spacecraft ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which consists of an open standard for a message oriented architecture referred to as the GMSEC architecture (Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center), and an autonomic computing tool, the Criteria Action Table (CAT). This solution has been used in many upgraded ground systems for NASA 's missions, and provides a framework for developing solutions with higher autonomic maturity.

  16. Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    With the potential to save nearly 30 000 lives per year in the United States, autonomous vehicles portend the most significant advance in auto safety history by shifting the focus from minimization of postcrash injury to collision prevention. I have delineated the important public health implications of autonomous vehicles and provided a brief analysis of a critically important ethical issue inherent in autonomous vehicle design. The broad expertise, ethical principles, and values of public health should be brought to bear on a wide range of issues pertaining to autonomous vehicles. PMID:28207327

  17. Information for Successful Interaction with Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Johnson, Kathy A.

    2003-01-01

    Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information agent and information management tool suite for managing information from many sources, including autonomous agents. We present an integrated model of levels of complexity of agent and human behavior, which shows types of information processing and points of potential error in agent activities. We discuss the types of information needed for diagnosing problems and planning interactions with an autonomous system. We discuss types of coordination for which designs are needed for autonomous system functions.

  18. How to Develop College Students' Autonomous English Learning Skills--Take Reading Course in Joint-Program in HCFT as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jihui

    2010-01-01

    The studies on autonomous learning based on the theories of constructivism and the advantages of technology propose valuable ideas for modern teaching theories and practices. In this paper, we put forward ways and methods in developing learner awareness, learning strategies and habits of autonomous learning in Henan College of Finance and Taxation…

  19. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George I.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto-Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner- TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  20. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  1. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  2. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  3. Autonomous Spacecraft Maintenance Study Group.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    ADOAIOO 318 JETOPROPULSION LAB PASADENA CA F/G 9/2 AUTONOMOUS SPACECRAFT MAINTENANCE STUDY GROUP(U) FEB 81 M H MARSHALL, G D LOW NAS7-100...for pUblio release AW AIR 1912a(T) D1etribution 13 Umlalt~ d , (7b). A. D . BLOSE -7 The research described in this pubi’cation was carried out by the Jet...Rettriek (Jill I Academic Assessment Committee iKDAMac (~jf.IIht~i~srtt D I I I I1. ), ’I ,lil I. I 1 i i t: c; Jill I h-0 K IfItt,1 fIIlkc I IV

  4. Autonomous Optimization of Targeted Stimulation of Neuronal Networks.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sreedhar S; Wülfing, Jan; Okujeni, Samora; Boedecker, Joschka; Riedmiller, Martin; Egert, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    Driven by clinical needs and progress in neurotechnology, targeted interaction with neuronal networks is of increasing importance. Yet, the dynamics of interaction between intrinsic ongoing activity in neuronal networks and their response to stimulation is unknown. Nonetheless, electrical stimulation of the brain is increasingly explored as a therapeutic strategy and as a means to artificially inject information into neural circuits. Strategies using regular or event-triggered fixed stimuli discount the influence of ongoing neuronal activity on the stimulation outcome and are therefore not optimal to induce specific responses reliably. Yet, without suitable mechanistic models, it is hardly possible to optimize such interactions, in particular when desired response features are network-dependent and are initially unknown. In this proof-of-principle study, we present an experimental paradigm using reinforcement-learning (RL) to optimize stimulus settings autonomously and evaluate the learned control strategy using phenomenological models. We asked how to (1) capture the interaction of ongoing network activity, electrical stimulation and evoked responses in a quantifiable 'state' to formulate a well-posed control problem, (2) find the optimal state for stimulation, and (3) evaluate the quality of the solution found. Electrical stimulation of generic neuronal networks grown from rat cortical tissue in vitro evoked bursts of action potentials (responses). We show that the dynamic interplay of their magnitudes and the probability to be intercepted by spontaneous events defines a trade-off scenario with a network-specific unique optimal latency maximizing stimulus efficacy. An RL controller was set to find this optimum autonomously. Across networks, stimulation efficacy increased in 90% of the sessions after learning and learned latencies strongly agreed with those predicted from open-loop experiments. Our results show that autonomous techniques can exploit quantitative

  5. Autonomous Optimization of Targeted Stimulation of Neuronal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sreedhar S.; Wülfing, Jan; Okujeni, Samora; Boedecker, Joschka; Riedmiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Driven by clinical needs and progress in neurotechnology, targeted interaction with neuronal networks is of increasing importance. Yet, the dynamics of interaction between intrinsic ongoing activity in neuronal networks and their response to stimulation is unknown. Nonetheless, electrical stimulation of the brain is increasingly explored as a therapeutic strategy and as a means to artificially inject information into neural circuits. Strategies using regular or event-triggered fixed stimuli discount the influence of ongoing neuronal activity on the stimulation outcome and are therefore not optimal to induce specific responses reliably. Yet, without suitable mechanistic models, it is hardly possible to optimize such interactions, in particular when desired response features are network-dependent and are initially unknown. In this proof-of-principle study, we present an experimental paradigm using reinforcement-learning (RL) to optimize stimulus settings autonomously and evaluate the learned control strategy using phenomenological models. We asked how to (1) capture the interaction of ongoing network activity, electrical stimulation and evoked responses in a quantifiable ‘state’ to formulate a well-posed control problem, (2) find the optimal state for stimulation, and (3) evaluate the quality of the solution found. Electrical stimulation of generic neuronal networks grown from rat cortical tissue in vitro evoked bursts of action potentials (responses). We show that the dynamic interplay of their magnitudes and the probability to be intercepted by spontaneous events defines a trade-off scenario with a network-specific unique optimal latency maximizing stimulus efficacy. An RL controller was set to find this optimum autonomously. Across networks, stimulation efficacy increased in 90% of the sessions after learning and learned latencies strongly agreed with those predicted from open-loop experiments. Our results show that autonomous techniques can exploit

  6. Multi-agent autonomous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  7. Autonomous Robotic Inspection in Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopapadakis, E.; Stentoumis, C.; Doulamis, N.; Doulamis, A.; Loupos, K.; Makantasis, K.; Kopsiaftis, G.; Amditis, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an automatic robotic inspector for tunnel assessment is presented. The proposed platform is able to autonomously navigate within the civil infrastructures, grab stereo images and process/analyse them, in order to identify defect types. At first, there is the crack detection via deep learning approaches. Then, a detailed 3D model of the cracked area is created, utilizing photogrammetric methods. Finally, a laser profiling of the tunnel's lining, for a narrow region close to detected crack is performed; allowing for the deduction of potential deformations. The robotic platform consists of an autonomous mobile vehicle; a crane arm, guided by the computer vision-based crack detector, carrying ultrasound sensors, the stereo cameras and the laser scanner. Visual inspection is based on convolutional neural networks, which support the creation of high-level discriminative features for complex non-linear pattern classification. Then, real-time 3D information is accurately calculated and the crack position and orientation is passed to the robotic platform. The entire system has been evaluated in railway and road tunnels, i.e. in Egnatia Highway and London underground infrastructure.

  8. Autonomic reflexes in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Lagercrantz, H; Edwards, D; Henderson-Smart, D; Hertzberg, T; Jeffery, H

    1990-01-01

    Some autonomic nervous reflexes often tested in adult medicine have been studied in 21 preterm infants (25-37 gestational weeks). The aim was to develop such tests for preterm infants and see if there were any differences in babies with recurrent apnea and bradycardia and babies who had been exposed to sympathicolytic drugs before birth. To test sympathetic nervous activity the peripheral vascular resistance was measured before and during 45 degrees of head-up tilting. To test parasympathetic nervous activity the degree of bradycardia was measured in response to cold face test (application of an ice-cube on the fore-head) and laryngeal stimulation with saline. Finally the heart rate changes after a sudden noise (85 dB) were studied as an indicator of both sympathetic and vagal activity. The peripheral resistance was found to be relatively low in these preterm infants, particularly in some infants tested at the postnatal age of about two months. Heart rate and mean blood pressure did not change during tilting, while the peripheral resistance increased significantly mainly due to lowered limb blood flow. The median decrease of the heart rate during the cold face test was 20.0% and during laryngeal receptor stimulation 23.7%. The sudden noise usually caused a biphasic heart rate response. An autonomic nervous reflex score was calculated and found to be negative (parasympathetic) in infants with recurrent prolonged apnea and bradycardia and positive in infants with clinical signs of increased sympathetic nervous activity.

  9. Autonomous Lawnmower using FPGA implementation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nabihah; Lokman, Nabill bin; Helmy Abd Wahab, Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, there are various types of robot have been invented for multiple purposes. The robots have the special characteristic that surpass the human ability and could operate in extreme environment which human cannot endure. In this paper, an autonomous robot is built to imitate the characteristic of a human cutting grass. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the movements where all data and information would be processed. Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is used to describe the hardware using Quartus II software. This robot has the ability of avoiding obstacle using ultrasonic sensor. This robot used two DC motors for its movement. It could include moving forward, backward, and turning left and right. The movement or the path of the automatic lawn mower is based on a path planning technique. Four Global Positioning System (GPS) plot are set to create a boundary. This to ensure that the lawn mower operates within the area given by user. Every action of the lawn mower is controlled by the FPGA DE' Board Cyclone II with the help of the sensor. Furthermore, Sketch Up software was used to design the structure of the lawn mower. The autonomous lawn mower was able to operate efficiently and smoothly return to coordinated paths after passing the obstacle. It uses 25% of total pins available on the board and 31% of total Digital Signal Processing (DSP) blocks.

  10. Structured control for autonomous robots

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, R.G. . School of Computer Science)

    1994-02-01

    To operate in rich, dynamic environments, autonomous robots must be able to effectively utilize and coordinate their limited physical and occupational resources. As complexity increases, it becomes necessary to impose explicit constraints on the control of planning, perception, and action to ensure that unwanted interactions between behaviors do not occur. This paper advocates developing complex robot systems by layering reactive behaviors onto deliberative components. In this structured control approach, the deliberative components handle normal situations and the reactive behaviors, which are explicitly constrained as to when and how they are activated, handle exceptional situations. The Task Control Architecture (TCA) has been developed to support this approach. TCA provides an integrated set of control constructs useful for implementing deliberative and reactive behaviors. The control constructs facilitate modular and evolutionary system development: they are used to integrate and coordinate planning, perception, and execution, and to incrementally improve the efficiency and robustness of the robot systems. To date, TCA has been used in implementing a half-dozen mobile robot systems, including an autonomous six-legged rover and indoor mobile manipulator.

  11. Autonomous pathogen detection system 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, R G; Wang, A; Colston, B; Masquelier, D; Jones, L; Venkateswaran, K S; Nasarabadi, S; Brown, S; Ramponi, A; Milanovich, F P

    2001-01-09

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field-demonstrate a fully Autonomous Pathogen Detector (identifier) System (APDS). This will be accomplished by integrating a proven flow cytometer and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detector with sample collection, sample preparation and fluidics to provide a compact, autonomously operating instrument capable of simultaneously detecting multiple pathogens and/or toxins. The APDS will be designed to operate in fixed locations, where it continuously monitors air samples and automatically reports the presence of specific biological agents. The APDS will utilize both multiplex immuno and nucleic acid assays to provide ''quasi-orthogonal'', multiple agent detection approaches to minimize false positives and increase the reliability of identification. Technical advancements across several fronts must first be made in order to realize the full extent of the APDS. Commercialization will be accomplished through three progressive generations of instruments. The APDS is targeted for domestic applications in which (1) the public is at high risk of exposure to covert releases of bioagent such as in major subway systems and other transportation terminals, large office complexes, and convention centers; and (2) as part of a monitoring network of sensors integrated with command and control systems for wide area monitoring of urban areas and major gatherings (e.g., inaugurations, Olympics, etc.). In this latter application there is potential that a fully developed APDS could add value to Defense Department monitoring architectures.

  12. [A severe case of acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Adachi, H; Mukai, E; Okuda, S; Kawada, T

    1998-07-01

    Acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy (AASN) is a rare neuropathy characterized by acute autonomic dysfunction and objective sensory disturbances. A 26-year-old pregnant woman with severe autonomic and sensory dysfunction is reported. This patient suddenly developed marked nausea and vomitting in about 2 days after having a sore throat. She then developed signs of autonomic dysfunction including dilated non-reactive pupils, dryness of the eyes and oral mucous membranes, generalized anhidrosis, paralytic ileus, orthostatic hypotension, and continuous tachycardia. She also had severe generalized sensory impairments of all modalities, and all deep tendon reflexes were absent. Sensation was almost totally lost for all modalities below the neck. There was marked pseudoathetosis and sensory ataxia in all extremities. Motor examination was normal. She had inability to urinate. At this time she was 38 weeks pregnant, and when she showed signs of fetal distress, a Caesarean section was performed. Albumino-cytological dissociation was seen in the CSF. Serum noradrenaline was reduced, no sensory nerve action potentials could be elicited, and reduced coefficient of variation of the R-R interval on electrocardiography was observed. Plasma exchange was performed every other day for 3 days for about 3 weeks after the onset of the illness, but no favorable effects. Seven months after the onset, her autonomic dysfunction slightly improved, but there was no recovery from the sensory disturbances. Many symptoms and signs that characterize AASN occurred in this patient, and each was severe. The patient developed SIADH, sleep apnea, personality change, and amenorrhea in the course of the disease. We suggest that AASN patients might have both peripheral and central nervous system manifestations including seizures and personality changes.

  13. An autonomous adaptive scheduling agent for period searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, E. S.; Naylor, T.; Allan, A.

    2008-03-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an autonomous adaptive software agent that addresses the practical problem of observing undersampled, periodic, time-varying phenomena using a network of HTN-compliant robotic telescopes. The algorithm governing the behaviour of the agent uses an optimal geometric sampling technique to cover the period range of interest, but additionally implements proactive behaviour that maximises the optimality of the dataset in the face of an uncertain and changing operating environment.

  14. Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy and Early Progressive Renal Decline in Patients with Nonmacroalbuminuric Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Orlov, Steven; Cherney, David Z.I.; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Lovblom, Leif E.; Ficociello, Linda H.; Smiles, Adam M.; Warram, James H.; Krolewski, Andrzej S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Cardiac autonomic neuropathy predicts future adverse renal outcomes in the general population. This study sought to determine its relationship with early progressive renal decline in type 1 diabetes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A subset of participants with normoalbuminuria (n=204) or microalbuminuria (n=166) from the First Joslin Kidney Study underwent assessment for cardiac autonomic neuropathy using heart rate variability during baseline visits performed from January 1991 to April 1992. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy was defined as an R-R variation (mean circular resultant) <20. Participants also had baseline and follow-up measurement of eGFR. Early progressive renal decline was evaluated according to two definitions: early GFR loss (slope of eGFR estimated by cystatin C <−3.3%/year) and incident advanced CKD (stage ≥3, defined by eGFR [calculated by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease method] <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Association with baseline cardiac autonomic neuropathy was assessed by adjusted logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards. Results Among the 370 participants, 47 (13%) had baseline cardiac autonomic neuropathy, 51 (14%) had early GFR loss, and 68 (18%) had incident advanced CKD over a median 14-year follow-up. Early GFR loss occurred in 15 (32%) of the 47 patients with baseline autonomic neuropathy and in 32 (10%) of the 323 without baseline autonomic neuropathy (P<0.001). Baseline autonomic neuropathy was strongly associated with odds of early GFR loss (adjusted odds ratio, 4.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.65 to 10.12; P=0.002). Incident advanced CKD was observed in 22 (47%) of those with baseline autonomic neuropathy and 46 (14%) of those without baseline autonomic neuropathy (P<0.001). Autonomic neuropathy was independently associated with incident advanced CKD (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.44 to 5.30; P=0.002). Conclusions Cardiac autonomic neuropathy was a strong

  15. Baroreflex sensitivity and power spectral analysis during autonomic testing in different extrapyramidal syndromes.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Constanze; Rüdiger, Heinz; Schmidt, Claudia; Herting, Birgit; Prieur, Silke; Junghanns, Susann; Schweitzer, Katherine; Globas, Christoph; Schöls, Ludger; Berg, Daniela; Reichmann, Heinz; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2010-02-15

    Autonomic dysfunction has been frequently demonstrated in patients with extrapyramidal diseases by cardiovascular autonomic testing. In addition to classical testing, we applied the more detailed baroreflex and spectral analysis on three traditional cardiovascular tests in this study to get additional information on autonomic outflow. We recorded continuously blood pressure, electrocardiogram, and respiration in 35 patients with multiple system atrophy, 32 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, 46 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and in 27 corresponding healthy subjects during cardiovascular autonomic testing (metronomic breathing, Valsalva manoeuvre, head-up tilt). Baroreflex and spectral analyses were performed by using trigonometric regressive spectral analysis between and during the manoeuvres. Consistent with previous interpretations, our data showed an increase of sympathetic activity in head-up tilt and Valsalva test in healthy controls. This sympathetic activity was significantly decreased in patients with typical and atypical Parkinson syndromes. Significant modulation of baroreflex activity could be observed especially during metronomic breathing; again it was significantly lower in all patient groups. Baroreflex and spectral parameters could not only differentiate between patients and healthy controls, but also differentiate between clinically symptomatic (with autonomic dysfunction as eg. orthostatic hypotension) and asymptomatic patients. In conclusion, our approach allows the evaluation of autonomic variability during short and nonstationary periods of time and may constitute a useful advance in the assessment of autonomic function in both physiological and pathological conditions.

  16. Planning Flight Paths of Autonomous Aerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Sharma, Shivanjli

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms for planning flight paths of autonomous aerobots (robotic blimps) to be deployed in scientific exploration of remote planets are undergoing development. These algorithms are also adaptable to terrestrial applications involving robotic submarines as well as aerobots and other autonomous aircraft used to acquire scientific data or to perform surveying or monitoring functions.

  17. Safe and Autonomous Drones for Urban Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles are no longer futuristic technology; in fact, there are already cars with self-driving features on the road. Over the next five years, the connected vehicles will disrupt the entire automotive and UAS ecosystems. The industry will undergo fundamental change as semi-autonomous driving and flying emerges, followed by an eventual shift to full autonomy.

  18. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-11-30

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

  19. Emergent Aerospace Designs Using Negotiating Autonomous Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO10521 TITLE: Emergent Aerospace Designs Using Negotiating Autonomous ...Optimisation of Flight Vehicles in a Concurrent Multi-Disciplinary Environment [la Conception et l’optimisation aerodynamiques des vehicules eriens dans un...ADP010499 thru AI W3SSIFIED 25-1 Emergent Aerospace Designs Using Negotiating Autonomous Agents Abhijit Deshmukh, Timothy Middelkoop University of

  20. Autonomic Physiological Response Patterns Related to Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Cor; van Boxtel, Anton

    2007-01-01

    We examined autonomic physiological responses induced by six different cognitive ability tasks, varying in complexity, that were selected on the basis of on Guilford's Structure of Intellect model. In a group of 52 participants, task performance was measured together with nine different autonomic response measures and respiration rate. Weighted…

  1. Marriage Counseling: Definition of an Autonomous Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Steve

    Before a new autonomous profession can be established a national definition of marriage counseling must be recognized. This report is an attempt to define "marriage counseling" by presenting a brief history and by describing four sources of definitions of this profession. These sources define marriage counseling as an autonomous profession, as a…

  2. Improved LTVMPC design for steering control of autonomous vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velhal, Shridhar; Thomas, Susy

    2017-01-01

    An improved linear time varying model predictive control for steering control of autonomous vehicle running on slippery road is presented. Control strategy is designed such that the vehicle will follow the predefined trajectory with highest possible entry speed. In linear time varying model predictive control, nonlinear vehicle model is successively linearized at each sampling instant. This linear time varying model is used to design MPC which will predict the future horizon. By incorporating predicted input horizon in each successive linearization the effectiveness of controller has been improved. The tracking performance using steering with front wheel and braking at four wheels are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Mode-based navigation for autonomous mine vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Banta, L.E.; Nutter, R.S.; Xia, Y. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes research at West Virginia University that develops an autonomous mobile robot for use in underground mines. The navigation scheme combines elements of both hierarchical control and reactive or subsumptive-type control. The robot navigates by sensing the environment and selecting a navigational mode that is appropriate to the circumstances and to the robot's mission. examples of navigational modes are wall following, collision avoidance, and homing. The modes are implemented in modules formed by combinations of neural network processors and conventional control algorithms. This paper describes the overall control system architecture and the navigational strategies of the experimental robot vehicle.

  4. Appropriate strategies.

    PubMed

    Halty, M

    1979-01-01

    Technology strategies are concerned with the production, distribution, and consumption of technology. Observation of less developed countries (LDCs) and international organizations shows that little attention is given to the development of a technology strategy. LDCs need to formulate a strategy of self-reliant technological development for the next decade. They should no longer be content to stand in a technologically dependent relationship to the developed countries. Such strategies must balance the ratio between investment in indigenous technologies and expenditure for foreign technology. The strategies change according to the level of industrialization achieved. The following considerations come into development of technology strategies: 1) determination of an appropriate balance among the accumulation, consumption, and distribution of technology; 2) the amount and level of government support; and 3) the balance between depth and breadth of technology to be encouraged.

  5. Autonomous power system intelligent diagnosis and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. Knowledge-based software provides a robust method of control for highly complex space-based power systems that conventional methods do not allow. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis and control, the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space based power system. The operation of the Autonomous Power System as a whole is described and the responsibilities of the three elements - APEX, AIPS, and Brassboard - are characterized. A discussion of the methodologies used in each element is provided. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Power System.

  6. Fibrogenic Lung Injury Induces Non-Cell-Autonomous Fibroblast Invasion.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Neil; Grasberger, Paula E; Mugo, Brian M; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés; Lagares, David; Tager, Andrew M

    2016-06-01

    Pathologic accumulation of fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis appears to depend on their invasion through basement membranes and extracellular matrices. Fibroblasts from the fibrotic lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have been demonstrated to acquire a phenotype characterized by increased cell-autonomous invasion. Here, we investigated whether fibroblast invasion is further stimulated by soluble mediators induced by lung injury. We found that bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from bleomycin-challenged mice or patients with IPF contain mediators that dramatically increase the matrix invasion of primary lung fibroblasts. Further characterization of this non-cell-autonomous fibroblast invasion suggested that the mediators driving this process are produced locally after lung injury and are preferentially produced by fibrogenic (e.g., bleomycin-induced) rather than nonfibrogenic (e.g., LPS-induced) lung injury. Comparison of invasion and migration induced by a series of fibroblast-active mediators indicated that these two forms of fibroblast movement are directed by distinct sets of stimuli. Finally, knockdown of multiple different membrane receptors, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β, lysophosphatidic acid 1, epidermal growth factor receptor, and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, mitigated the non-cell-autonomous fibroblast invasion induced by bronchoalveolar lavage from bleomycin-injured mice, suggesting that multiple different mediators drive fibroblast invasion in pulmonary fibrosis. The magnitude of this mediator-driven fibroblast invasion suggests that its inhibition could be a novel therapeutic strategy for pulmonary fibrosis. Further elaboration of the molecular mechanisms that drive non-cell-autonomous fibroblast invasion consequently may provide a rich set of novel drug targets for the treatment of IPF and other fibrotic lung diseases.

  7. Mission operations with autonomy: a preliminary report for Earth Observing-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Shulman, Seth; Bote, Robert; Szwaczkowski, Joseph; Boyer, Darrell; Vab Gaasbeck, Jim

    2004-01-01

    We describe the current mission operations flow for the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft as well as the more autonomous operations to which we are transitioning as part of the Autonomous Sciencecrat Experiment (ASE).

  8. An Autonomous Star Identification Algorithm Based on One-Dimensional Vector Pattern for Star Sensors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liyan; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua

    2015-07-07

    In order to enhance the robustness and accelerate the recognition speed of star identification, an autonomous star identification algorithm for star sensors is proposed based on the one-dimensional vector pattern (one_DVP). In the proposed algorithm, the space geometry information of the observed stars is used to form the one-dimensional vector pattern of the observed star. The one-dimensional vector pattern of the same observed star remains unchanged when the stellar image rotates, so the problem of star identification is simplified as the comparison of the two feature vectors. The one-dimensional vector pattern is adopted to build the feature vector of the star pattern, which makes it possible to identify the observed stars robustly. The characteristics of the feature vector and the proposed search strategy for the matching pattern make it possible to achieve the recognition result as quickly as possible. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition accuracy and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the pyramid algorithm, the modified grid algorithm, and the LPT algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other three star identification algorithms.

  9. Dysréflexie autonome

    PubMed Central

    Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph; McMillan, Colleen; Klassen, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Sensibiliser davantage les médecins de famille à la dysréflexie autonome (DA) chez les patients victimes d’une lésion médullaire (LM) et proposer certaines interventions. Sources de l’information On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE de 1970 à juillet 2011 à l’aide des expressions en anglais autonomic dysreflexia et spinal cord injury, ainsi que family medicine ou primary care. On a aussi passé en revue et utilisé d’autres ressources et guides de pratique pertinents. Message principal Il arrive souvent que les médecins de famille ne se sentent pas confiants de traiter des patients ayant une LM dont les problèmes sont complexes et exigent beaucoup de temps. Les médecins de famille ont l’impression de n’avoir pas la formation nécessaire pour répondre à leurs besoins. Pourtant, ils offrent une composante essentielle des soins à de tels patients et il est important qu’ils comprennent les problèmes médicaux particuliers aux LM. La dysréflexie autonome est un important et fréquent problème potentiellement sérieux que connaissent mal de nombreux médecins de famille. Cet article passe en revue les signes et les symptômes de la DA et présente certaines options de prise en charge aiguë, ainsi que des stratégies de prévention à l’intention des médecins de famille. Conclusion Les médecins de famille devraient savoir quels patients traumatisés médullaires sont susceptibles d’avoir une DA et surveiller ceux qui sont touchés par ce problème. Une explication est donnée dans cet article quant à l’approche à suivre pour la prise en charge aiguë. Les médecins de famille jouent un rôle essentiel dans la prévention de la DA, notamment par l’éducation (du patient et des autres professionnels de la santé) et la consignation dans le dossier médical de stratégies comme les soins appropriés de la vessie, de l’intestin et de la peau, d’avertissements et de plans de prise en charge.

  10. Feasibility of Turing-Style Tests for Autonomous Aerial Vehicle "Intelligence"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    A new approach is suggested to define and evaluate key metrics as to autonomous aerial vehicle performance. This approach entails the conceptual definition of a "Turing Test" for UAVs. Such a "UAV Turing test" would be conducted by means of mission simulations and/or tailored flight demonstrations of vehicles under the guidance of their autonomous system software. These autonomous vehicle mission simulations and flight demonstrations would also have to be benchmarked against missions "flown" with pilots/human-operators in the loop. In turn, scoring criteria for such testing could be based upon both quantitative mission success metrics (unique to each mission) and by turning to analog "handling quality" metrics similar to the well-known Cooper-Harper pilot ratings used for manned aircraft. Autonomous aerial vehicles would be considered to have successfully passed this "UAV Turing Test" if the aggregate mission success metrics and handling qualities for the autonomous aerial vehicle matched or exceeded the equivalent metrics for missions conducted with pilots/human-operators in the loop. Alternatively, an independent, knowledgeable observer could provide the "UAV Turing Test" ratings of whether a vehicle is autonomous or "piloted." This observer ideally would, in the more sophisticated mission simulations, also have the enhanced capability of being able to override the scripted mission scenario and instigate failure modes and change of flight profile/plans. If a majority of mission tasks are rated as "piloted" by the observer, when in reality the vehicle/simulation is fully- or semi- autonomously controlled, then the vehicle/simulation "passes" the "UAV Turing Test." In this regards, this second "UAV Turing Test" approach is more consistent with Turing s original "imitation game" proposal. The overall feasibility, and important considerations and limitations, of such an approach for judging/evaluating autonomous aerial vehicle "intelligence" will be discussed from a

  11. Biologically Inspired Behavioral Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Explorers on Mars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-11

    Behavior E . Coli Bacteria Foraging Random walk movement Moths Reproduction/ Seeking Mate Following a chemical gradient indicating increasing...RandomWalk(…) Random two- dimensional way -point control; altitude is proscribed and constant E . Coli Bacteria [1] RandomWalk(direction) Random two...gradient (such as sulfates for indication of volcanic activity); etc. φ= Flight heading relative to local gradient vector E . Coli Bacteria [1

  12. Strategy in the Robotic Age: A Case for Autonomous Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Nikola Tesla demonstrated the first remotely piloted vehicle. The device was small and offered limited capability, but it was a precursor to the...MCDP-1, 67. 90 Nikola Tesla , My Inventions: The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla (Williston, VT: Hart Bros., 1919; reprinted 1982), Kindle edition, 61...www.defense.gov/pubs/DOD-USRM-2013.pdf. 152 Ray Kurzweil, interviewed December 7, 2006 and published in Singer, Wired for War, 102. 59 Nikola Tesla when

  13. Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordano, A. J.; Mcswain, G. G.; Fernandes, S. T.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Bridging program is reviewed to demonstrate the program plan and GN&C systems for the Space Shuttle. The ascent CN&C system is described in terms of elements such as the general-purpose digital computers, sensors for the navigation subsystem, the guidance-system software, and the flight-control subsystem. Balloon-based and lidar wind soundings are used for operations assessment on the day of launch, and the guidance software is based on dedicated units for atmospheric powered flight, vacuum powered flight, and abort-specific situations. Optimization of the flight trajectories is discussed, and flight-control responses are illustrated for wavelengths of 500-6000 m. Alternate sensors are used for load relief, and adaptive GN&C systems based on alternate gain synthesis are used for systems failures.

  14. Digital autonomous terminal access communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novacki, S.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem for the Bus Monitor Unit is to identify the source of a given transmission. This problem arises from the fact that the label which identifies the source of the transmission as it is put into the bus is intercepted by the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) terminal and removed from the transmission. Thus, a given subsystem will see only data associated with a label and never the identifying label itself. The Bus Monitor must identify the source of the transmission so as to be able to provide some type of error identification/location in the event that some problem with the data transmission occurs. Steps taken to alleviate this problem by modifications to the DATAC terminal are discussed.

  15. Next generation autonomous wheelchair control.

    PubMed

    Benson, John; Barrett, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Often times the physically challenged, limited to a wheelchair, also have difficulty with vision. In order to help, something must "see" for them. Therefore there must be some way for a wheelchair to know its environment, sense where it is, and where it must go. It also must be able to avoid any obstacles which are not normally part of the environment. An autonomous wheelchair will serve an important role by allowing users more freedom and independence. This design challenge is broken into four major steps: wheelchair control, environment recognition, route planning, and obstacle avoidance. The first step is to reverse engineer a wheelchair and rebuild the controls, which will be the main topic of discussion for this paper. Two big challenges with this step are high power motor control and joystick control. An H-bridge motor interface, controlled by a microprocessor, was designed for the motors. The joystick control is handled with the same microprocessor.

  16. Autonomous Medical Care for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Polk, J. D.; Hines, John W.; Nall, Marsha M.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of Autonomous Medical Care (AMC) is to ensure a healthy, well-performing crew which is a primary need for exploration. The end result of this effort will be the requirements and design for medical systems for the CEV, lunar operations, and Martian operations as well as a ground-based crew health optimization plan. Without such systems, we increase the risk of medical events occurring during a mission and we risk being unable to deal with contingencies of illness and injury, potentially threatening mission success. AMC has two major components: 1) pre-flight crew health optimization and 2) in-flight medical care. The goal of pre-flight crew health optimization is to reduce the risk of illness occurring during a mission by primary prevention and prophylactic measures. In-flight autonomous medical care is the capability to provide medical care during a mission with little or no real-time support from Earth. Crew medical officers or other crew members provide routine medical care as well as medical care to ill or injured crew members using resources available in their location. Ground support becomes telemedical consultation on-board systems/people collect relevant data for ground support to review. The AMC system provides capabilities to incorporate new procedures and training and advice as required. The on-board resources in an autonomous system should be as intelligent and integrated as is feasible, but autonomous does not mean that no human will be involved. The medical field is changing rapidly, and so a challenge is to determine which items to pursue now, which to leverage other efforts (e.g. military), and which to wait for commercial forces to mature. Given that what is used for the CEV or the Moon will likely be updated before going to Mars, a critical piece of the system design will be an architecture that provides for easy incorporation of new technologies into the system. Another challenge is to determine the level of care to provide for each

  17. Testbed for an autonomous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok K.; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    In previous works we have defined a general architectural model for autonomous systems, which can easily be mapped to describe the functions of any automated system (SDAG-86-01), and we illustrated that model by applying it to the thermal management system of a space station (SDAG-87-01). In this note, we will further develop that application and design the detail of the implementation of such a model. First we present the environment of our application by describing the thermal management problem and an abstraction, which was called TESTBED, that includes a specific function for each module in the architecture, and the nature of the interfaces between each pair of blocks.

  18. Autonomous Biological System (ABS) experiments.

    PubMed

    MacCallum, T K; Anderson, G A; Poynter, J E; Stodieck, L S; Klaus, D M

    1998-12-01

    Three space flight experiments have been conducted to test and demonstrate the use of a passively controlled, materially closed, bioregenerative life support system in space. The Autonomous Biological System (ABS) provides an experimental environment for long term growth and breeding of aquatic plants and animals. The ABS is completely materially closed, isolated from human life support systems and cabin atmosphere contaminants, and requires little need for astronaut intervention. Testing of the ABS marked several firsts: the first aquatic angiosperms to be grown in space; the first higher organisms (aquatic invertebrate animals) to complete their life cycles in space; the first completely bioregenerative life support system in space; and, among the first gravitational ecology experiments. As an introduction this paper describes the ABS, its flight performance, advantages and disadvantages.

  19. Autonomous navigation system and method

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-08

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

  20. Machine intelligence for autonomous manipulation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1973-01-01

    Survey of the present technological development status of machine intelligence for autonomous manipulation in the U.S., Japan, USSR, and England. The extent of task-performance autonomy is examined that machine intelligence gives the manipulator by eliminating the need for a human operator to close continuously the control loop, or to rewrite control programs for each different task. Surveyed research projects show that the development of some advanced automation systems for manipulator control are within the state of the art. Yet, many more realistic breadboard systems and experimental work are needed before further progress can be made in the design of advanced automation systems for manipulator control suitable for new major practical applications. Specific research areas of promise are pointed out.

  1. APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

    2002-02-14

    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

  2. An Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, James B.; Lanzi, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) being developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center s Wallops Flight Facility and Kennedy Space Center has completed two successful developmental flights and is preparing for a third. AFSS has been demonstrated to be a viable architecture for implementation of a completely vehicle based system capable of protecting life and property in event of an errant vehicle by terminating the flight or initiating other actions. It is capable of replacing current human-in-the-loop systems or acting in parallel with them. AFSS is configured prior to flight in accordance with a specific rule set agreed upon by the range safety authority and the user to protect the public and assure mission success. This paper discusses the motivation for the project, describes the method of development, and presents an overview of the evolving architecture and the current status.

  3. Wireless autonomous device data transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammel, Jr., David W. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Mi, Minhong (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of communicating information from a wireless autonomous device (WAD) to a base station. The WAD has a data element having a predetermined profile having a total number of sequenced possible data element combinations. The method includes receiving at the WAD an RF profile transmitted by the base station that includes a triggering portion having a number of pulses, wherein the number is at least equal to the total number of possible data element combinations. The method further includes keeping a count of received pulses and wirelessly transmitting a piece of data, preferably one bit, to the base station when the count reaches a value equal to the stored data element's particular number in the sequence. Finally, the method includes receiving the piece of data at the base station and using the receipt thereof to determine which of the possible data element combinations the stored data element is.

  4. Autonomous caregiver following robotic wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, E. Venkata; Sivaramalingam, Sethurajan; Vignesh, A. Sri; Vasanth, Elanthendral; Joans, S. Mary

    2011-12-01

    In the last decade, a variety of robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed to meet the need in aging society. Their main research topics are autonomous functions such as moving toward some goals while avoiding obstacles, or user-friendly interfaces. Although it is desirable for wheelchair users to go out alone, caregivers often accompany them. Therefore we have to consider not only autonomous functions and user interfaces but also how to reduce caregivers' load and support their activities in a communication aspect. From this point of view, we have proposed a robotic wheelchair moving with a caregiver side by side based on the MATLAB process. In this project we discussing about robotic wheel chair to follow a caregiver by using a microcontroller, Ultrasonic sensor, keypad, Motor drivers to operate robot. Using camera interfaced with the DM6437 (Davinci Code Processor) image is captured. The captured image are then processed by using image processing technique, the processed image are then converted into voltage levels through MAX 232 level converter and given it to the microcontroller unit serially and ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle in front of robot. In this robot we have mode selection switch Automatic and Manual control of robot, we use ultrasonic sensor in automatic mode to find obstacle, in Manual mode to use the keypad to operate wheel chair. In the microcontroller unit, c language coding is predefined, according to this coding the robot which connected to it was controlled. Robot which has several motors is activated by using the motor drivers. Motor drivers are nothing but a switch which ON/OFF the motor according to the control given by the microcontroller unit.

  5. Radar based autonomous sensor module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styles, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Most surveillance systems combine camera sensors with other detection sensors that trigger an alert to a human operator when an object is detected. The detection sensors typically require careful installation and configuration for each application and there is a significant burden on the operator to react to each alert by viewing camera video feeds. A demonstration system known as Sensing for Asset Protection with Integrated Electronic Networked Technology (SAPIENT) has been developed to address these issues using Autonomous Sensor Modules (ASM) and a central High Level Decision Making Module (HLDMM) that can fuse the detections from multiple sensors. This paper describes the 24 GHz radar based ASM, which provides an all-weather, low power and license exempt solution to the problem of wide area surveillance. The radar module autonomously configures itself in response to tasks provided by the HLDMM, steering the transmit beam and setting range resolution and power levels for optimum performance. The results show the detection and classification performance for pedestrians and vehicles in an area of interest, which can be modified by the HLDMM without physical adjustment. The module uses range-Doppler processing for reliable detection of moving objects and combines Radar Cross Section and micro-Doppler characteristics for object classification. Objects are classified as pedestrian or vehicle, with vehicle sub classes based on size. Detections are reported only if the object is detected in a task coverage area and it is classified as an object of interest. The system was shown in a perimeter protection scenario using multiple radar ASMs, laser scanners, thermal cameras and visible band cameras. This combination of sensors enabled the HLDMM to generate reliable alerts with improved discrimination of objects and behaviours of interest.

  6. Tangent-linear and ensemble-based four-dimensional data assimilation strategies applied for assimilating conventional data and field observations for Hurricane Karl (2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poterjoy, J.; Zhang, F.

    2014-12-01

    Two advanced four-dimensional ensemble data assimilation systems are applied for studying the genesis of Hurricane Karl (2010) using conventional observations and measurements collected during the Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) field campaign. Both methods combine strategies from four-dimensional variational (4DVar) and Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation techniques that have been developed for the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The first method, denoted E4DVar, operates in a manner similar to the traditional 4DVar data assimilation system, but with hybrid climate/ensemble background errors. The second method, denoted 4DEnVar, uses an ensemble of nonlinear model trajectories to replace the function of tangent linear and adjoint model operators in 4DVar, thus improving the parallelization of the data assimilation. Simulations initialized from E4DVar and 4DEnVar analyses provide track, genesis and intensity forecasts for Karl that are more accurate than an ensemble hybrid data assimilation method based on 3DVar (E3DVar). The two 4-D data assimilation methods are applied for studying Karl's genesis, while comparing their theoretical advantages and disadvantages for an application where the system dynamics evolve quickly in time, and are constrained by an unusually high number of in situ observations.

  7. A Test-Bed Configuration: Toward an Autonomous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, F.; Castillo, M.; Uranga, E.; Ponz, J. D.; TBT Consortium

    2015-09-01

    In the context of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program of ESA, it is foreseen to deploy several large robotic telescopes in remote locations to provide surveillance and tracking services for man-made as well as natural near-Earth objects (NEOs). The present project, termed Telescope Test Bed (TBT) is being developed under ESA's General Studies and Technology Programme, and shall implement a test-bed for the validation of an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario, consisting of two telescopes located in Spain and Australia, to collect representative test data for precursor NEO services. In order to fulfill all the security requirements for the TBT project, the use of a autonomous emergency system (AES) is foreseen to monitor the control system. The AES will monitor remotely the health of the observing system and the internal and external environment. It will incorporate both autonomous and interactive actuators to force the protection of the system (i.e., emergency dome close out).

  8. 1/f scaling in heart rate requires antagonistic autonomic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Hayano, Junichiro; Sakata, Seiichiro; Kwak, Shin; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2004-11-01

    We present systematic evidence for the origins of 1/f -type temporal scaling in human heart rate. The heart rate is regulated by the activity of two branches of the autonomic nervous system: the parasympathetic (PNS) and the sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems. We examine alterations in the scaling property when the balance between PNS and SNS activity is modified, and find that the relative PNS suppression by congestive heart failure results in a substantial increase in the Hurst exponent H towards random-walk scaling 1/f2 and a similar breakdown is observed with relative SNS suppression by primary autonomic failure. These results suggest that 1/f scaling in heart rate requires the intricate balance between the antagonistic activity of PNS and SNS.

  9. The Autonomic Symptom Profile: a new instrument to assess autonomic symptoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, G. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Offord, K. P.; Atkinson, E. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Low, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a new specific instrument called the Autonomic Symptom Profile to measure autonomic symptoms and test its validity. BACKGROUND: Measuring symptoms is important in the evaluation of quality of life outcomes. There is no validated, self-completed questionnaire on the symptoms of patients with autonomic disorders. METHODS: The questionnaire is 169 items concerning different aspects of autonomic symptoms. The Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale (COMPASS) with item-weighting was established; higher scores indicate more or worse symptoms. Autonomic function tests were performed to generate the Composite Autonomic Scoring Scale (CASS) and to quantify autonomic deficits. We compared the results of the COMPASS with the CASS derived from the Autonomic Reflex Screen to evaluate validity. RESULTS: The instrument was tested in 41 healthy controls (mean age 46.6 years), 33 patients with nonautonomic peripheral neuropathies (mean age 59.5 years), and 39 patients with autonomic failure (mean age 61.1 years). COMPASS scores correlated well with the CASS, demonstrating an acceptable level of content and criterion validity. The mean (+/-SD) overall COMPASS score was 9.8 (+/-9) in controls, 25.9 (+/-17.9) in the patients with nonautonomic peripheral neuropathies, and 52.3 (+/-24.2) in the autonomic failure group. Scores of symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and secretomotor dysfunction best predicted the CASS on multiple stepwise regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a questionnaire that measures autonomic symptoms and present evidence for its validity. The instrument shows promise in assessing autonomic symptoms in clinical trials and epidemiologic studies.

  10. Intelligent agents: adaptation of autonomous bimodal microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Patrice; Terry, Theodore B.

    2014-03-01

    Autonomous bimodal microsystems exhibiting survivability behaviors and characteristics are able to adapt dynamically in any given environment. Equipped with a background blending exoskeleton it will have the capability to stealthily detect and observe a self-chosen viewing area while exercising some measurable form of selfpreservation by either flying or crawling away from a potential adversary. The robotic agent in this capacity activates a walk-fly algorithm, which uses a built in multi-sensor processing and navigation subsystem or algorithm for visual guidance and best walk-fly path trajectory to evade capture or annihilation. The research detailed in this paper describes the theoretical walk-fly algorithm, which broadens the scope of spatial and temporal learning, locomotion, and navigational performances based on optical flow signals necessary for flight dynamics and walking stabilities. By observing a fly's travel and avoidance behaviors; and, understanding the reverse bioengineering research efforts of others, we were able to conceptualize an algorithm, which works in conjunction with decisionmaking functions, sensory processing, and sensorimotor integration. Our findings suggest that this highly complex decentralized algorithm promotes inflight or terrain travel mobile stability which is highly suitable for nonaggressive micro platforms supporting search and rescue (SAR), and chemical and explosive detection (CED) purposes; a necessity in turbulent, non-violent structured or unstructured environments.

  11. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  12. Management Approaches to Hypertension in Autonomic Failure

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Amy C.; Biaggioni, Italo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review Supine hypertension is a common finding in autonomic failure that can worsen orthostatic hypotension and predispose to end-organ damage. This review focuses on non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to manage hypertension in these patients, in the face of disabling orthostatic hypotension. Recent Findings The hypertension of autonomic failure can be driven by sympathetic dependent or independent mechanisms, depending on the site of autonomic lesions. Management of supine hypertension should include simple non-pharmacologic approaches including avoiding the supine position during the daytime and head-up tilt at night. Most patients, however, require pharmacologic treatment. Several antihypertensive therapies lower night-time pressure in autonomic failure, but none improve nocturnal volume depletion or morning orthostatic tolerance. Regardless, treatment may still be beneficial in some patients but must be determined on an individual basis, considering disease type and overnight monitoring. Further, doses must be carefully titrated as these patients are hypersensitive to depressor agents due to loss of baroreceptor reflexes. Summary Autonomic failure provides a unique opportunity to study blood pressure regulation independent of autonomic influences. Understanding mechanisms driving supine hypertension will have important implications for the treatment of autonomic failure and will improve our knowledge of cardiovascular regulation in other populations, including essential hypertension and elderly hypertensives with comorbid orthostatic hypotension. PMID:22801444

  13. Supervised autonomous robotic soft tissue surgery.

    PubMed

    Shademan, Azad; Decker, Ryan S; Opfermann, Justin D; Leonard, Simon; Krieger, Axel; Kim, Peter C W

    2016-05-04

    The current paradigm of robot-assisted surgeries (RASs) depends entirely on an individual surgeon's manual capability. Autonomous robotic surgery-removing the surgeon's hands-promises enhanced efficacy, safety, and improved access to optimized surgical techniques. Surgeries involving soft tissue have not been performed autonomously because of technological limitations, including lack of vision systems that can distinguish and track the target tissues in dynamic surgical environments and lack of intelligent algorithms that can execute complex surgical tasks. We demonstrate in vivo supervised autonomous soft tissue surgery in an open surgical setting, enabled by a plenoptic three-dimensional and near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging system and an autonomous suturing algorithm. Inspired by the best human surgical practices, a computer program generates a plan to complete complex surgical tasks on deformable soft tissue, such as suturing and intestinal anastomosis. We compared metrics of anastomosis-including the consistency of suturing informed by the average suture spacing, the pressure at which the anastomosis leaked, the number of mistakes that required removing the needle from the tissue, completion time, and lumen reduction in intestinal anastomoses-between our supervised autonomous system, manual laparoscopic surgery, and clinically used RAS approaches. Despite dynamic scene changes and tissue movement during surgery, we demonstrate that the outcome of supervised autonomous procedures is superior to surgery performed by expert surgeons and RAS techniques in ex vivo porcine tissues and in living pigs. These results demonstrate the potential for autonomous robots to improve the efficacy, consistency, functional outcome, and accessibility of surgical techniques.

  14. Non-autonomous cell proliferation in the mammary gland and cancer.

    PubMed

    Weber, Robert J; Desai, Tejal A; Gartner, Zev J

    2017-03-14

    Cells decide whether to grow and divide by integrating internal and external signals. Non-autonomous cell growth and proliferation occurs when microenvironmental signals from neighboring cells, both physical and secreted, license this decision. Understanding these processes is vital to developing an accurate framework for cell-cell interactions and cellular decision-making, and is useful for advancing new therapeutic strategies to prevent dysregulated growth. Here, we review some recent examples of non-autonomous cell growth in the mammary gland and tumor cell proliferation.

  15. Cardioprotection afforded by exercise training prior to myocardial infarction is associated with autonomic function improvement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that exercise training (ET) protects against the pathological remodeling and ventricular dysfunction induced by myocardial infarction (MI). However, it remains unclear whether the positive adjustments on baroreflex and cardiac autonomic modulations promoted by ET may afford a cardioprotective mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic ET, prior to MI, on cardiac remodeling and function, as well as on baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary rats submitted to Sham surgery (C); trained rats submitted to Sham surgery (TC); sedentary rats submitted to MI (I), trained rats submitted to MI (TI). Sham and MI were performed after ET period. After surgeries, echocardiographic, hemodynamic and autonomic (baroreflex sensitivity, cardiovascular autonomic modulation) evaluations were conducted. Results Prior ET prevented an additional decline in exercise capacity in TI group in comparison with I. MI area was not modified by previous ET. ET was able to increase the survival and prevent additional left ventricle dysfunction in TI rats. Although changes in hemodynamic evaluations were not observed, ET prevented the decrease of baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic dysfunction in TI animals when compared with I animals. Importantly, cardiac improvement was associated with the prevention of cardiac autonomic impairment in studied groups. Conclusions Prior ET was effective in changing aerobic capacity, left ventricular morphology and function in rats undergoing MI. Furthermore, these cardioprotective effects were associated with attenuated cardiac autonomic dysfunction observed in trained rats. Although these cause-effect relationships can only be inferred, rather than confirmed, our study suggests that positive adaptations of autonomic function by ET can play a vital role in preventing changes associated with cardiovascular disease

  16. Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

    2014-06-01

    This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

  17. The NASA/Army Autonomous Rotorcraft Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalley, M.; Freed, M.; Takahashi, M.; Christian, D.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Schulein, G.; Harris, R.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Ames Research Center Autonomous Rotorcraft Project (ARP) is presented. The project brings together several technologies to address NASA and US Army autonomous vehicle needs, including a reactive planner for mission planning and execution, control system design incorporating a detailed understanding of the platform dynamics, and health monitoring and diagnostics. A candidate reconnaissance and surveillance mission is described. The autonomous agent architecture and its application to the candidate mission are presented. Details of the vehicle hardware and software development are provided.

  18. Development of Autonomous Aerobraking (Phase 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Powell, Richard W.; Prince, Jill L.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center received a request from Mr. Daniel Murri (NASA Technical Fellow for Flight Mechanics) to develop an autonomous aerobraking capability. An initial evaluation for all phases of this assessment was approved to proceed at the NESC Review Board meeting. The purpose of phase 1 of this study was to provide an assessment of the feasibility of autonomous aerobraking. During this phase, atmospheric, aerodynamic, and thermal models for a representative spacecraft were developed for both the onboard algorithm known as Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software, and a ground-based "truth" simulation developed for testing purposes. The results of the phase 1 assessment are included in this report.

  19. Development of Autonomous Aerobraking - Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Phase 1 of the Development of Autonomous Aerobraking (AA) Assessment investigated the technical capability of transferring the processes of aerobraking maneuver (ABM) decision-making (currently performed on the ground by an extensive workforce and communicated to the spacecraft via the deep space network) to an efficient flight software algorithm onboard the spacecraft. This document describes Phase 2 of this study, which was a 12-month effort to improve and rigorously test the AA Development Software developed in Phase 1. Aerobraking maneuver; Autonomous Aerobraking; Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software; Deep Space Network; NASA Engineering and Safety Center

  20. PHM Enabled Autonomous Propellant Loading Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The utility of Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) software capability applied to Autonomous Operations (AO) remains an active research area within aerospace applications. The ability to gain insight into which assets and subsystems are functioning properly, along with the derivation of confident predictions concerning future ability, reliability, and availability, are important enablers for making sound mission planning decisions. When coupled with software that fully supports mission planning and execution, an integrated solution can be developed that leverages state assessment and estimation for the purposes of delivering autonomous operations. The authors have been applying this integrated, model-based approach to the autonomous loading of cryogenic spacecraft propellants at Kennedy Space Center.

  1. Autonomous Demand Response for Primary Frequency Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, Matt; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mattix, S.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-02-28

    The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.

  2. Multiagent collaboration for experimental calibration of an autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachon, Bertrand; Berge-Cherfaoui, Veronique

    1991-03-01

    This paper presents an action in mission SOCRATES whose aim is the development of a self-calibration method for an autonomous mobile robot. The robot has to determine the precise location of the coordinate system shared by its sensors. Knowledge of this system is a sine qua non condition for efficient multisensor fusion and autonomous navigation in an unknown environment. But, as perceptions and motions are not accurate, this knowledge can only be achieved by multisensor fusion. The application described highlights this kind of problem. Multisensor fusion is used here especially in its symbolic aspect. Useful knowledge includes both numerous data coming from various sensors and suitable ways to process these data. A blackboard architecture has been chosen to manage useful information. Knowledge sources are called agents and the implement physical sensors (perceptors or actuators) as well as logical sensors (high level data processors). The problem to solve is self- calibration which includes the determination of the coordinate system R of the robot and the transformations necessary to convert data from sensor reference to R. The origin of R has been chosen to be O, the rotation center of the robot. As its genuine location may vary due to robot or ground characteristics, an experimental determination of O is attempted. A strategy for measuring distances in approximate positions is proposed. This strategy must take into account the fact that motions of the robot as well as perceptions may be inaccurate. Results obtained during experiments and future extensions of the system are discussed.

  3. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  4. Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry Todd

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce operations cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing operations cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies.

  5. An introduction to autonomous control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antsaklis, Panos J.; Passino, Kevin M.; Wang, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The functions, characteristics, and benefits of autonomous control are outlined. An autonomous control functional architecture for future space vehicles that incorporates the concepts and characteristics described is presented. The controller is hierarchical, with an execution level (the lowest level), coordination level (middle level), and management and organization level (highest level). The general characteristics of the overall architecture, including those of the three levels, are explained, and an example to illustrate their functions is given. Mathematical models for autonomous systems, including 'logical' discrete event system models, are discussed. An approach to the quantitative, systematic modeling, analysis, and design of autonomous controllers is also discussed. It is a hybrid approach since it uses conventional analysis techniques based on difference and differential equations and new techniques for the analysis of the systems described with a symbolic formalism such as finite automata. Some recent results from the areas of planning and expert systems, machine learning, artificial neural networks, and the area restructurable controls are briefly outlined.

  6. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    PubMed Central

    Coppejans, Hugo H. G.; Myburgh, Herman C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  7. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    PubMed

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-12-02

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  8. Autonomic Closure for Large Eddy Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ryan; Hamlington, Peter; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    2015-11-01

    A new autonomic subgrid-scale closure has been developed for large eddy simulation (LES). The approach poses a supervised learning problem that captures nonlinear, nonlocal, and nonequilibrium turbulence effects without specifying a predefined turbulence model. By solving a regularized optimization problem on test filter scale quantities, the autonomic approach identifies a nonparametric function that represents the best local relation between subgrid stresses and resolved state variables. The optimized function is then applied at the grid scale to determine unknown LES subgrid stresses by invoking scale similarity in the inertial range. A priori tests of the autonomic approach on homogeneous isotropic turbulence show that the new approach is amenable to powerful optimization and machine learning methods and is successful for a wide range of filter scales in the inertial range. In these a priori tests, the autonomic closure substantially improves upon the dynamic Smagorinsky model in capturing the instantaneous, statistical, and energy transfer properties of the subgrid stress field.

  9. Autonomic arousal in cognitive conflict resolution.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Nobuhisa; Yoshino, Aihide; Takahashi, Yoshitomo; Nomura, Soichiro

    2007-03-30

    Although cognitive efforts were reported to elicit global autonomic arousal, which cognitive processes associate with autonomic arousal has not been clear. We investigated autonomic arousal using event-related skin conductance responses (SCRs) during the Stroop color-word task. After baseline SCR deflections were determined in each trial block, SCRs were compared between cognitive conflict conditions (incongruent vs. congruent stimuli), between tasks assigned (word reading vs. color naming), and between erroneous and correct responses. Baseline SCRs were significantly greater at the beginning of each trial block. SCRs were significantly greater with incongruent than congruent stimuli while SCRs differed little between word reading and color naming. SCRs were greater when responses were incorrect. The results suggested that autonomic arousal occurs during cognitive conflict resolution in addition to mental set adoption for a task and in error awareness.

  10. Autonomous Operations System: Development and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toro Medina, Jaime A.; Wilkins, Kim N.; Walker, Mark; Stahl, Gerald M.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous control systems provides the ability of self-governance beyond the conventional control system. As the complexity of mechanical and electrical systems increases, there develops a natural drive for developing robust control systems to manage complicated operations. By closing the bridge between conventional automated systems to knowledge based self-awareness systems, nominal control of operations can evolve into relying on safe critical mitigation processes to support any off-nominal behavior. Current research and development efforts lead by the Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) group at NASA Kennedy Space Center aims to improve cryogenic propellant transfer operations by developing an automated control and health monitoring system. As an integrated systems, the center aims to produce an Autonomous Operations System (AOS) capable of integrating health management operations with automated control to produce a fully autonomous system.

  11. Autonomic Recovery after Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couckuyt, Kurt; Verheyden, Bart; Liu, Jiexin; Aubert, Andre E.

    2008-06-01

    In this study, the recovery of cardiovascular autonomic modulation after long-duration spaceflight (6 months) is evaluated over a period of 30 days. Results from long-duration spaceflight were compared with the results obtained in astronauts who spent about 10 days in space. It is expected that cardiovascular recovery after spaceflight takes longer when the time spent in weightlessness is extended. Six male astronauts who spent 6 months in space in the ISS participated in the study. It was found that after long duration spaceflight, there is a sympathetic autonomic dominance resulting in post-flight orthostatic tachycardia. Surprisingly, no differences were found in autonomic changes and post-flight recovery after long-duration spaceflight compared to post-flight autonomic control after short-duration spaceflight.

  12. System Engineering of Autonomous Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Trevino, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system requires fully autonomous systems when travelling more than 5 light minutes from Earth. This autonomy is necessary to manage a large, complex spacecraft with limited crew members and skills available. The communication latency requires the vehicle to deal with events with only limited crew interaction in most cases. The engineering of these systems requires an extensive knowledge of the spacecraft systems, information theory, and autonomous algorithm characteristics. The characteristics of the spacecraft systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm characteristics to reliably monitor and control the system. This presents a large system engineering problem. Recent work on product-focused, elegant system engineering will be applied to this application, looking at the full autonomy stack, the matching of autonomous systems to spacecraft systems, and the integration of different types of algorithms. Each of these areas will be outlined and a general approach defined for system engineering to provide the optimal solution to the given application context.

  13. Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies

  14. Comparative anatomy of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Stefan

    2011-11-16

    This short review aims to point out the general anatomical features of the autonomic nervous systems of non-mammalian vertebrates. In addition it attempts to outline the similarities and also the increased complexity of the autonomic nervous patterns from fish to tetrapods. With the possible exception of the cyclostomes, perhaps the most striking feature of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system is the similarity between the vertebrate classes. An evolution of the complexity of the system can be seen, with the segmental ganglia of elasmobranchs incompletely connected longitudinally, while well developed paired sympathetic chains are present in teleosts and the tetrapods. In some groups the sympathetic chains may be reduced (dipnoans and caecilians), and have yet to be properly described in snakes. Cranial autonomic pathways are present in the oculomotor (III) and vagus (X) nerves of gnathostome fish and the tetrapods, and with the evolution of salivary and lachrymal glands in the tetrapods, also in the facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves.

  15. Facilitating Preschoolers' Scientific Knowledge Construction via Computer Games Regarding Light and Shadow: The Effect of the Prediction-Observation-Explanation (POE) Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Liang, Jyh-Chong

    2011-10-01

    Educational researchers have suggested that computer games have a profound influence on students' motivation, knowledge construction, and learning performance, but little empirical research has targeted preschoolers. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of implementing a computer game that integrates the prediction-observation-explanation (POE) strategy (White and Gunstone in Probing understanding. Routledge, New York, 1992) on facilitating preschoolers' acquisition of scientific concepts regarding light and shadow. The children's alternative conceptions were explored as well. Fifty participants were randomly assigned into either an experimental group that played a computer game integrating the POE model or a control group that played a non-POE computer game. By assessing the students' conceptual understanding through interviews, this study revealed that the students in the experimental group significantly outperformed their counterparts in the concepts regarding "shadow formation in daylight" and "shadow orientation." However, children in both groups, after playing the games, still expressed some alternative conceptions such as "Shadows always appear behind a person" and "Shadows should be on the same side as the sun."

  16. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in MSA and Parkinson's disease: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Iodice, Valeria; Low, David A; Vichayanrat, Ekawat; Mathias, Christopher J

    2011-11-15

    In Parkinsons disease and multiple system atrophy (MSA), cardiovascular dysfunction may occur for a variety of reasons and may manifest itself through inappropriate changes and/or levels in blood pressure, heart rate and/or regional vascular perfusion in a range of situations. The early occurrence of orthostatic hypotension often leads to consideration of MSA, especially in the presence of other features of autonomic failure. Orthostatic hypotension, however, is increasingly recognised in PD, and especially with increasing age, severity of disease and as a result of drug therapy, sometimes for associated disorders. Investigation of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in Parkinsonism is therefore important for a variety of reasons, that include determining the precise diagnosis and in predicting prognosis. In Parkinsonian disorders, understanding the pathophysiological basis of the cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction aids targeting of therapy, improves management strategies and provides benefit for such patients.

  17. Environmental monitoring using autonomous vehicles: a survey of recent searching techniques.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Behzad; Crasta, Naveena; Crespi, Alessandro; Pascoal, António M; Ijspeert, Auke

    2017-02-27

    Autonomous vehicles are becoming an essential tool in a wide range of environmental applications that include ambient data acquisition, remote sensing, and mapping of the spatial extent of pollutant spills. Among these applications, pollution source localization has drawn increasing interest due to its scientific and commercial interest and the emergence of a new breed of robotic vehicles capable of operating in harsh environments without human supervision. The aim is to find the location of a region that is the source of a given substance of interest (e.g. a chemical pollutant at sea or a gas leakage in air) using a group of cooperative autonomous vehicles. Motivated by fast paced advances in this challenging area, this paper surveys recent advances in searching techniques that are at the core of environmental monitoring strategies using autonomous vehicles.

  18. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology of Autonomic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E.

    2012-01-01

    Autonomic drugs are used clinically to either imitate or inhibit the normal functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. A large number of additional drug classes also interact with these systems to produce a stunning number of possible side effects. This article reviews the basic function of the autonomic nervous system and the various drug classes that act within these neural synapses. PMID:23241039

  19. Precision Autonomous Landing Adaptive Control Experiment (PALACE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    auto -land system requiring specially prepared and instrumented landing sites. These technologies often preclude UAVs from landing autonomously or...approach developed to achieve autonomous landing capabilities first uses passive stereo ranging to build a 3D terrain profile of the potential...landing site. The stereo ranging algorithm uses a pair of images from digital cameras mounted on the helicopter to build the 3D profile of the terrain

  20. Optimizing Safe Motion for Autonomous Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    k of the vehicle motion (dk/ds) as the only control variable for the vehicle where s is the length along the vehicle trajectory. Previous motion...function for vehicle motion control is demonstrated by algorithmic simulation and by usc on the autonomous mobile robot Yamabico 11I at the Naval...only control variable for the vehicle, where s is the length along the vehicle trajectory. Previous motion planning of the autonomous mobile robot

  1. The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.W.; Hassberger, J.A.; Smith, C.; Carelli, M.; Greenspan, E.; Peddicord, K.L.; Stroh, K.; Wade, D.C.; Hill, R.N.

    1999-05-27

    The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor (STAR) system is a development architecture for implementing a small nuclear power system, specifically aimed at meeting the growing energy needs of much of the developing world. It simultaneously provides very high standards for safety, proliferation resistance, ease and economy of installation, operation, and ultimate disposition. The STAR system accomplishes these objectives through a combination of modular design, factory manufacture, long lifetime without refueling, autonomous control, and high reliability.

  2. Tele-robotic/autonomous control using controlshell

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, K.C.; Hurd, R.L.; Couture, S.

    1996-12-10

    A tele-robotic and autonomous controller architecture for waste handling and sorting has been developed which uses tele-robotics, autonomous grasping and image processing. As a starting point, prior work from LLNL and ORNL was restructured and ported to a special real-time development environment. Significant improvements in collision avoidance, force compliance, and shared control aspects were then developed. Several orders of magnitude improvement were made in some areas to meet the speed and robustness requirements of the application.

  3. Intelligent control system of autonomous objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E. A.; Kovalev, I. V.; Engel, N. E.; Brezitskaya, V. V.; Prohorovich, G. A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an intelligent control system of autonomous objects as framework. The intelligent control framework includes two different layers: a reflexive layer and a reactive layer. The proposed multiagent adaptive fuzzy neuronet combines low-level reaction with high-level reasoning in an intelligent control framework. The formed as the multiagent adaptive fuzzy neuronet the intelligent control system on the base of autonomous object’s state, creates the effective control signal under random perturbations.

  4. Implementation of Deconfliction in Multivehicle Autonomous Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    two fin -actuated vehicles was replaced with a remote control toy shark controlled by a human operator. The human operator drove the toy shark directly...Fig. 4 Vehicle Swarm Technology Laboratory (VSTL) developed by the Boeing Research and Technology group. 3.2 University of Washington Fin -Actuated...Autonomous Underwater Vehicles The UW testbed is composed of a set of three fin -actuated autonomous underwater vehi- cles (Fig. 6) operating in a

  5. JOMAR: Joint Operations with Mobile Autonomous Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-21

    improvements in GPS- aided navigation. * A data-association algorithm with applications to target tracking and computer vision applications, named the...A characterization of Global Positioning System (GPS) noise models in the MaxMixture framework, allowing significant improvements in GPS- aided ...autonomous tractor operations,” Autonomous Robots, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 87–104, 2002. [11] J. Kim and S. Sukkarieh, “SLAM aided GPS/INS navigation in GPS

  6. Autonomous Navigation of Small Uavs Based on Vehicle Dynamic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaghani, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to autonomous navigation for small UAVs, in which the vehicle dynamic model (VDM) serves as the main process model within the navigation filter. The proposed method significantly increases the accuracy and reliability of autonomous navigation, especially for small UAVs with low-cost IMUs on-board. This is achieved with no extra sensor added to the conventional INS/GNSS setup. This improvement is of special interest in case of GNSS outages, where inertial coasting drifts very quickly. In the proposed architecture, the solution to VDM equations provides the estimate of position, velocity, and attitude, which is updated within the navigation filter based on available observations, such as IMU data or GNSS measurements. The VDM is also fed with the control input to the UAV, which is available within the control/autopilot system. The filter is capable of estimating wind velocity and dynamic model parameters, in addition to navigation states and IMU sensor errors. Monte Carlo simulations reveal major improvements in navigation accuracy compared to conventional INS/GNSS navigation system during the autonomous phase, when satellite signals are not available due to physical obstruction or electromagnetic interference for example. In case of GNSS outages of a few minutes, position and attitude accuracy experiences improvements of orders of magnitude compared to inertial coasting. It means that during such scenario, the position-velocity-attitude (PVA) determination is sufficiently accurate to navigate the UAV to a home position without any signal that depends on vehicle environment.

  7. The TechSat 21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Robert; Knight, Russell; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Castano, Rebecca; Stough, Timothy; Davies, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    Software has been developed to perform a number of functions essential to autonomous operation in the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), which is scheduled to be demonstrated aboard a constellation of three spacecraft, denoted TechSat 21, to be launched by the Air Force into orbit around the Earth in January 2006. A prior version of this software was reported in Software for an Autonomous Constellation of Satellites (NPO-30355), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 44. The software includes the following components: Algorithms to analyze image data, generate scientific data products, and detect conditions, features, and events of potential scientific interest; A program that uses component-based computational models of hardware to analyze anomalous situations and to generate novel command sequences, including (when possible) commands to repair components diagnosed as faulty; A robust-execution-management component that uses the Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) software to enable event-driven processing and low-level autonomy; and The Continuous Activity Scheduling, Planning, Execution, and Replanning (CASPER) program for replanning activities, including downlink sessions, on the basis of scientific observations performed during previous orbit cycles.

  8. Autonomic dysfunction in childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dimario, Francis J; Edwards, Carrie

    2012-05-01

    This investigation correlated incidence and degree of autonomic dysfunction with the degree of motor impairment in children hospitalized with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Motor weakness varies, as does the effect on autonomic function including heart rate, vasomotor stability, sweating, continence, and blood pressure. After Institutional Review Board approval, hospitalized patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome <19 years were included for retrospective chart review. There were 26 patients (12 boys), with a mean age of 11.3 years (range, 6-17 years). The average hospital stay was 10.6 days. Twenty-four (92%) recovered by 2 to 6 months without functional disability. Bradycardia and sweating disturbances were not observed. Hypertension occurred in 18 of 26 (69%) and tachycardia in 20 of 26 (77%) patients. The proportion of children with hypertension and/or tachycardia increased, as did the motor disability grade (P < .043 and P < .018, respectively). Hypertension occurred 9 to 15 days from symptom onset and within 24 to 48 hours of maximum motor disability in 89%. Multiple autonomic disturbances compound the course of childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  9. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Orbit Design and Autonomous Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Mendelsohn, Chad

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission will meet a challenge of measuring worldwide precipitation every three hours. The GPM spacecraft, part of a constellation, will be required to maintain a circular orbit in a high drag environment to accomplish this challenge. Analysis by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch has shown that the prime orbit altitude of 40% is necessary to prevent ground track repeating. Combined with goals to minimize maneuver impacts to science data collection and enabling reasonable long-term orbit predictions, the GPM project has decided to fly an autonomous maneuver system. This system is a derivative of the successful New Millennium Program technology flown onboard the Earth Observing-1 mission. This paper presents the driving science requirements and goals of the mission and shows how they will be met. Analysis of the orbit optimization and the AV requirements for several ballistic properties are presented. The architecture of the autonomous maneuvering system to meet the goals and requirements is presented along with simulations using a GPM prototype. Additionally, the use of the GPM autonomous system to mitigate possible collision avoidance and to aid other spacecraft systems during navigation outages is explored.

  10. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Orbit Design and Autonomous Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Mendelsohn, Chad; Mailhe, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission must meet the challenge of measuring worldwide precipitation every three hours. The GPM core spacecraft, part of a constellation, will be required to maintain a circular orbit in a high drag environment at a near-critical inclination. Analysis shows that a mean orbit altitude of 407 km is necessary to prevent ground track repeating. Combined with goals to minimize maneuver operation impacts to science data collection and to enable reasonable long-term orbit predictions, the GPM project has decided to fly the GSFC autonomous maneuver system, AutoCon(TM). This system is a follow-up version of the highly successful New Millennium Program technology flown onboard the Earth Observing-1 formation flying mission. This paper presents the driving science requirements and goals of the GPM mission and shows how they will be met. Selection of the mean semi-major axis, eccentricity, and the AV budget for several ballistic properties are presented. The architecture of the autonomous maneuvering system to meet the goals and requirements is presented along with simulations using GPM parameters. Additionally, the use of the GPM autonomous system to mitigate possible collision avoidance and to aid other spacecraft systems during navigation outages is explored.

  11. Cell Autonomous Shape Changes in Germband Retraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Holley; Kim, Elliott; Gish, Robert; Hutson, M. Shane

    2012-02-01

    Germband retraction involves the cohesive movement and regulated cellular mechanics of two tissues on the surface of fruit fly embryos, the germband and the amnioserosa. The germband initially forms a `U' shape, curling from the ventral surface, around the posterior of the embryo, and onto the dorsal surface; the amnioserosa lies between the arms of this `U'. Retraction straightens the germband and leaves it only on the ventral side. During retraction, the germband becomes clearly segmented with deep furrows between segments, and its cells elongate towards the amnioserosa, along what becomes the dorsal-ventral axis. To determine the importance of these changes for the overall movement of the tissues, we observed embryos that did not complete germband retraction due to targeted laser ablation of half the amnioserosa. Without the chemical and mechanical influence of the amnioserosa, germband furrows still formed and germband cells still elongated; however, this elongation was misaligned compared to unablated embryos. Thus, furrow formation and cell elongation in the germband are autonomous, but insufficient to drive proper tissue motion. These results suggest that part of the necessary role of the amnioserosa is proper orientation of germband cell elongation.

  12. Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software: Phase 2 Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Maddock, Robert W.; Prince, Jill L.; Bowes, Angela; Powell, Richard W.; White, Joseph P.; Tolson, Robert; O'Shaughnessy, Daniel; Carrelli, David

    2013-01-01

    NASA has used aerobraking at Mars and Venus to reduce the fuel required to deliver a spacecraft into a desired orbit compared to an all-propulsive solution. Although aerobraking reduces the propellant, it does so at the expense of mission duration, large staff, and DSN coverage. These factors make aerobraking a significant cost element in the mission design. By moving on-board the current ground-based tasks of ephemeris determination, atmospheric density estimation, and maneuver sizing and execution, a flight project would realize significant cost savings. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) sponsored Phase 1 and 2 of the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software (AADS) study, which demonstrated the initial feasibility of moving these current ground-based functions to the spacecraft. This paper highlights key state-of-the-art advancements made in the Phase 2 effort to verify that the AADS algorithms are accurate, robust and ready to be considered for application on future missions that utilize aerobraking. The advancements discussed herein include both model updates and simulation and benchmark testing. Rigorous testing using observed flight atmospheres, operational environments and statistical analysis characterized the AADS operability in a perturbed environment.

  13. The Autonomous Glycosylation of Large DNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Piacente, Francesco; Gaglianone, Matteo; Laugieri, Maria Elena; Tonetti, Michela G.

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation of surface molecules is a key feature of several eukaryotic viruses, which use the host endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi apparatus to add carbohydrates to their nascent glycoproteins. In recent years, a newly discovered group of eukaryotic viruses, belonging to the Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Virus (NCLDV) group, was shown to have several features that are typical of cellular organisms, including the presence of components of the glycosylation machinery. Starting from initial observations with the chlorovirus PBCV-1, enzymes for glycan biosynthesis have been later identified in other viruses; in particular in members of the Mimiviridae family. They include both the glycosyltransferases and other carbohydrate-modifying enzymes and the pathways for the biosynthesis of the rare monosaccharides that are found in the viral glycan structures. These findings, together with genome analysis of the newly-identified giant DNA viruses, indicate that the presence of glycogenes is widespread in several NCLDV families. The identification of autonomous viral glycosylation machinery leads to many questions about the origin of these pathways, the mechanisms of glycan production, and eventually their function in the viral replication cycle. The scope of this review is to highlight some of the recent results that have been obtained on the glycosylation systems of the large DNA viruses, with a special focus on the enzymes involved in nucleotide-sugar production. PMID:26690138

  14. An autonomous vision-based mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Eric Thomas

    This dissertation describes estimation and control methods for use in the development of an autonomous mobile robot for structured environments. The navigation of the mobile robot is based on precise estimates of the position and orientation of the robot within its environment. The extended Kalman filter algorithm is used to combine information from the robot's drive wheels with periodic observations of small, wall-mounted, visual cues to produce the precise position and orientation estimates. The visual cues are reliably detected by at least one video camera mounted on the mobile robot. Typical position estimates are accurate to within one inch. A path tracking algorithm is also developed to follow desired reference paths which are taught by a human operator. Because of the time-independence of the tracking algorithm, the speed that the vehicle travels along the reference path is specified independent from the tracking algorithm. The estimation and control methods have been applied successfully to two experimental vehicle systems. Finally, an analysis of the linearized closed-loop control system is performed to study the behavior and the stability of the system as a function of various control parameters.

  15. The Emerging Infrastructure of Autonomous Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, R.; Allan, A.; Axelrod, T.; Cook, K.; White, R.; Williams, R.

    2007-10-01

    Advances in the understanding of cosmic processes demand that sky transient events be confronted with statistical techniques honed on static phenomena. Time domain data sets require vast surveys such as LSST {http://www.lsst.org/lsst_home.shtml} and Pan-STARRS {http://www.pan-starrs.ifa.hawaii.edu}. A new autonomous infrastructure must close the loop from the scheduling of survey observations, through data archiving and pipeline processing, to the publication of transient event alerts and automated follow-up, and to the easy analysis of resulting data. The IVOA VOEvent {http://voevent.org} working group leads efforts to characterize sky transient alerts published through VOEventNet {http://voeventnet.org}. The Heterogeneous Telescope Networks (HTN {http://www.telescope-networks.org}) consortium are observatories and robotic telescope projects seeking interoperability with a long-term goal of creating an e-market for telescope time. Two projects relying on VOEvent and HTN are eSTAR {http://www.estar.org.uk} and the Thinking Telescope {http://www.thinkingtelescopes.lanl.gov} Project.

  16. Canadian Autonomous Landing and Lunar Exploration Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, R.; Tripp, J.; Mukherji, R.; Ghafoor, N.; Sallaberger, C.

    In coming decades planetary exploration will change its focus from remote observation to robotic in situ exploration sample-return missions and eventually human missions Two Canadian companies have combined 30 years of heritage in terrestrial and space technologies to provide new capabilities in space including autonomous landing and exploration technologies for lunar exploration MDA is the world leader in space robotics a key element of the Canadian Space Program for the last two decades with over 2-billion CDN of total investment Robotic arms designed and built by MDA are used on virtually all flights of the Space Shuttle and the three robotic systems comprising the Mobile Servicing System - SSRMS MBS and SPDM - have been designed and built for the International Space Station Optech is the world leader in terrestrial lidar systems with 30 years of technology heritage A strategic partnership of MDA and Optech was formed in 2002 to provide unique space lidar solutions for space operations and planetary exploration Now as robotic exploration moves in earnest beyond Earth orbit strategic technologies are being developed by Optech and MDA that will allow Canada to expand its world leading position in space sensors and robotics to become a dominant provider of robotic exploration systems and missions targeted at the Moon Mars asteroids and beyond The key requirements for successful planetary exploration in topographically diverse areas include a spacecraft capable of precision landing and hazard avoidance Since 2001 Optech and MDA

  17. Towards Autonomous Operation of Robonaut 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, Julia M.; Hart, Stephen W.; Yamokoski, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    The Robonaut 2 (R2) platform, as shown in Figure 1, was designed through a collaboration between NASA and General Motors to be a capable robotic assistant with the dexterity similar to a suited astronaut [1]. An R2 robot was sent to the International Space Station (ISS) in February 2011 and, in doing so, became the first humanoid robot in space. Its capabilities are presently being tested and expanded to increase its usefulness to the crew. Current work on R2 includes the addition of a mobility platform to allow the robot to complete tasks (such as cleaning, maintenance, or simple construction activities) both inside and outside of the ISS. To support these new activities, R2's software architecture is being developed to provide efficient ways of programming robust and autonomous behavior. In particular, a multi-tiered software architecture is proposed that combines principles of low-level feedback control with higher-level planners that accomplish behavioral goals at the task level given the run-time context, user constraints, the health of the system, and so on. The proposed architecture is shown in Figure 2. At the lowest-level, the resource level, there exists the various sensory and motor signals available to the system. The sensory signals for a robot such as R2 include multiple channels of force/torque data, joint or Cartesian positions calculated through the robot's proprioception, and signals derived from objects observable by its cameras.

  18. Autonomic healing of polymer composites.

    PubMed

    White, S R; Sottos, N R; Geubelle, P H; Moore, J S; Kessler, M R; Sriram, S R; Brown, E N; Viswanathan, S

    2001-02-15

    Structural polymers are susceptible to damage in the form of cracks, which form deep within the structure where detection is difficult and repair is almost impossible. Cracking leads to mechanical degradation of fibre-reinforced polymer composites; in microelectronic polymeric components it can also lead to electrical failure. Microcracking induced by thermal and mechanical fatigue is also a long-standing problem in polymer adhesives. Regardless of the application, once cracks have formed within polymeric materials, the integrity of the structure is significantly compromised. Experiments exploring the concept of self-repair have been previously reported, but the only successful crack-healing methods that have been reported so far require some form of manual intervention. Here we report a structural polymeric material with the ability to autonomically heal cracks. The material incorporates a microencapsulated healing agent that is released upon crack intrusion. Polymerization of the healing agent is then triggered by contact with an embedded catalyst, bonding the crack faces. Our fracture experiments yield as much as 75% recovery in toughness, and we expect that our approach will be applicable to other brittle materials systems (including ceramics and glasses).

  19. Autonomic and Coevolutionary Sensor Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonma, Pruet; Suzuki, Junichi

    (WSNs) applications are often required to balance the tradeoffs among conflicting operational objectives (e.g., latency and power consumption) and operate at an optimal tradeoff. This chapter proposes and evaluates a architecture, called BiSNET/e, which allows WSN applications to overcome this issue. BiSNET/e is designed to support three major types of WSN applications: , and hybrid applications. Each application is implemented as a decentralized group of, which is analogous to a bee colony (application) consisting of bees (agents). Agents collect sensor data or detect an event (a significant change in sensor reading) on individual nodes, and carry sensor data to base stations. They perform these data collection and event detection functionalities by sensing their surrounding network conditions and adaptively invoking behaviors such as pheromone emission, reproduction, migration, swarming and death. Each agent has its own behavior policy, as a set of genes, which defines how to invoke its behaviors. BiSNET/e allows agents to evolve their behavior policies (genes) across generations and autonomously adapt their performance to given objectives. Simulation results demonstrate that, in all three types of applications, agents evolve to find optimal tradeoffs among conflicting objectives and adapt to dynamic network conditions such as traffic fluctuations and node failures/additions. Simulation results also illustrate that, in hybrid applications, data collection agents and event detection agents coevolve to augment their adaptability and performance.

  20. Mechanical Autonomous Stochastic Heat Engine.

    PubMed

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, André; Molerón, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-07-01

    Stochastic heat engines are devices that generate work from random thermal motion using a small number of highly fluctuating degrees of freedom. Proposals for such devices have existed for more than a century and include the Maxwell demon and the Feynman ratchet. Only recently have they been demonstrated experimentally, using, e.g., thermal cycles implemented in optical traps. However, recent experimental demonstrations of classical stochastic heat engines are nonautonomous, since they require an external control system that prescribes a heating and cooling cycle and consume more energy than they produce. We present a heat engine consisting of three coupled mechanical resonators (two ribbons and a cantilever) subject to a stochastic drive. The engine uses geometric nonlinearities in the resonating ribbons to autonomously convert a random excitation into a low-entropy, nonpassive oscillation of the cantilever. The engine presents the anomalous heat transport property of negative thermal conductivity, consisting in the ability to passively transfer energy from a cold reservoir to a hot reservoir.