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Sample records for autosomal dominant hypomagnesemia

  1. Autosomal dominant

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether the trait is dominant or recessive. A single abnormal gene on one of the first 22 nonsex ( autosomal ) chromosomes from either parent can cause an autosomal disorder. Dominant inheritance means ...

  2. [Congenital hypomagnesemia].

    PubMed

    Montaigne, David; Perimenis, Pierrette; Douillard, Claire; Wemeau, Jean-Louis; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2004-11-06

    MORE PRECISE IDENTIFICATION: The progress in molecular genetics has led to better understanding of primitive magnesium deficiency. Transporters of this cation have been identified in the intestines and kidneys. The majority of congential hypomanesemia phenotypes have been correlated with a defect in magnesium transport. The primary deficiency of intestinal absorption of magnesium is responsible for hypomagnesemia and subsequent hypocalcemia. DEPENDING ON THE MECHANISM: Magnesium absorption defects in Henle's loop induce hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis, autosomal dominant hypocalcemia or Bartter syndrome. In isolated dominant hypomagnesemia and Gitelman syndrome, an abnormality in the distal convoluted tubule explains the primitive hypomagnesemia, through renal leaking. Conversely, the mechanisms of recessive isolated hypomagnesemia remains unknown. ORIENTING GENETIC DIAGNOSIS: In a context of primitive hypomagnesemia, the clinical and biological presentation will orient genetic research leading to correct diagnosis. However, there are many border-line phenotypes and the pheno-genotype correlation is still imperfect.

  3. Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC).

    PubMed Central

    Blair, N P; Goldberg, M F; Fishman, G A; Salzano, T

    1984-01-01

    We report the second family recognised to have autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy. The clinical features were (1) autosomal dominant inheritance; (2) peripheral, coarse pigmentary degeneration of the fundus for 360 degrees, with a relatively discrete posterior border in the equatorial region (this finding may be pathognomonic); (3) superficial punctate yellowish-white opacities in the retina; (4) various vascular abnormalities; (5) breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier; (6) retinal neovascularisation; (7) vitreous abnormalities; and (8) choroidal atrophy. Visual reduction was mainly due to macular oedema or vitreous haemorrhage. Images PMID:6689931

  4. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant hypocalcemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the blood as well, including too much phosphate (hyperphosphatemia) or too little magnesium (hypomagnesemia). Some people ... the normal regulation of other molecules, such as phosphate and magnesium, leading to other signs of autosomal ...

  5. [Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney].

    PubMed

    Jorge Adad, S; Estevão Barbosa, M; Fácio Luíz, J M; Furlan Rodrigues, M C; Iwamoto, S

    1996-01-01

    A 48-year-old male had autosomic dominant polycystic kidneys with dimensions, to the best of our knowledge, never previously reported; the right kidney weighed 15,100 g and measured 53 x 33 x 9cm and the left one 10.200 g and 46 x 21 x 7cm, with cysts measuring up to 14cm in diameter. Nephrectomy was done to control persistent hematuria and to relief disconfort caused by the large kidneys. The renal function is stable four years after transplantation.

  6. Autosomal dominant genes (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease. One of the parents will have the disease (since it is dominant) in this mode of inheritance and that person is called the CARRIER. Only one parent must be a carrier in order for the child to inherit the disease.

  7. Autosomal dominant juvenile recurrent parotitis.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, E; Douglas, F; Crow, Y; Hollman, A; Gibson, J

    1998-01-01

    Juvenile recurrent parotitis is a common cause of inflammatory salivary gland swelling in children. A variety of aetiological factors has been proposed for the condition. Here we present a family where four members had juvenile recurrent parotitis and where two other family members may have had an atypical form of the condition. The segregation pattern in the family is consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance and this suggests that, at least in some cases, genetic factors may be implicated in juvenile recurrent parotitis. PMID:9610807

  8. A new form of autosomal dominant arthrogryposis.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, M M; Tettenborn, M A; Hall, J G; Smith, L J; Berry, A C

    1991-01-01

    We report a man and his son with congenital limb contractures, limitation of ocular movements, and an electroretinal abnormality. They appear to have an autosomal dominant form of arthrogryposis, distinguishable from other previously classified forms of this disorder. Images PMID:1941966

  9. Autosomal Dominant Transmission of Accessory Navicular

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, Matthew B; Walton, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The accessory navicular bone is one of the most symptomatic bones of the foot. Although it has been reported to be present in various members of the same family, there is a lack of knowledge about its inheritance pattern. We report two large pedigrees in which accessory navicular is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion with incomplete penetrance. PMID:15296212

  10. Autosomal dominant transmission of accessory navicular.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, Matthew B; Walton, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The accessory navicular bone is one of the most symptomatic bones of the foot. Although it has been reported to be present in various members of the same family, there is a lack of knowledge about its inheritance pattern. We report two large pedigrees in which accessory navicular is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion with incomplete penetrance.

  11. A new autosomal dominant craniofacial deafness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kassutto, S; Kassutto, Z; Ben-Ami, T; Goodman, R M

    1987-11-01

    A Jewish family is reported in which the proband and her father had congenital hearing loss and unusual facies consisting of facial asymmetry, temporal alopecia with frontal bossing, a broad nasal root and small nasal alae. In addition, both were born with a short frenulum of the tongue. We believe these findings represent a new autosomal dominant deafness syndrome with distinct craniofacial features.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... stationary night blindness autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... collapse boxes. Description Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions ADPEAF autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features Enable Javascript to view the ... Open All Close All Description Autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features ( ADPEAF ) is an uncommon form ...

  14. Autosomal recessive and dominant polycystic kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Sessa, A; Righetti, M; Battini, G

    2004-12-01

    It is possible to identify renal cysts in several subjects by ultrasonography imaging techniques. Among the inherited polycystic kidney diseases we include autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) and autosomal dominant polycystic diseases such as von Hippel-Lindau disease, tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC1 and TSC2), and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). ARPKD is a rare disease, related to PKHD1 gene, located on chromosome 6p21, that encodes a protein named polyductin/fibrocystin. Pathoanatomical features are bilateral kidney involvement with multiple microcysts, and invariably liver involvement with portal and interlobular fibrosis. A single genetic defect leads to different degrees of renal and hepatic involvement with very different phenotypes and different clinical outcome, in the same family too. ARPKD clinically may show 4 different forms: perinatal, neonatal, infantile, and juvenile. ADPKD is much more frequent (1: 400-1000 live births), and can arise from mutations in 2 different genes, named PKD1 located on chromosome 16p13.3, and PKD2 located on chromosome 4q21-23. The proteins encoded by the PKD1 and PKD2 genes are named polycystins which play crucial roles in several biologic processes. To explain the focal lesions that affected different organs and tissues the "double hit" theory has been proposed (germinal mutation plus somatic mutation on PKD1 or PKD2). Recently, biologic evidence documented the crucial role of the renal primary cilia on the formation of polycystins to induce cystogenesis. ADPKD may be clinically characterized by abdominal pain, hypertension, episodes of gross hematuria, headache, renal stones, aortic and cerebral aneurysms, mitral valve prolapse, and polycystic liver disease. ADPKD is slowly progressive disease responsible for up 10% of end stage renal failure (ESRF) in every country of the world. Male sex, PKD1 gene, episodes of gross hematuria, and the precocity and severity of hypertension play an

  15. Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia deafness and narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Melberg, A; Hetta, J; Dahl, N; Nennesmo, I; Bengtsson, M; Wibom, R; Grant, C; Gustavson, K H; Lundberg, P O

    1995-12-01

    A new autosomal dominant syndrome in a Swedish pedigree is described. Five patients were affected with cerebellar ataxia and sensorineural deafness. Four of these patients had symptoms of narcolepsy. Optic atrophy, other neurological abnormalities and psychiatric symptoms developed with increasing disease duration. Three patients had non-neurological disease in addition, including diabetes mellitus in two and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in one. Autopsy with neuropathological examination was performed in one case. Molecular studies focused on the short arm of chromosome 6, including the HLA DR2 locus associated with narcolepsy and the (CAG)n repeat at the spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) locus. Biochemical investigation of muscle biopsy of one case indicated mitochondrial dysfunction with selective decrease in ATP production for substrates that normally give the highest rates. The activity of glutamate dehydrogenase was reduced, indicating a low mitochondrial density. We postulate an autosomal dominant genetic factor responsible for this syndrome. Linkage was excluded to HLA DR2, and a normal sized SCA1 repeat was observed. We conclude that a locus predisposing to ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy exists outside this region of chromosome 6.

  16. [Treatment of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Torra, Roser

    2014-01-21

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most frequent hereditary kidney disease. However it lacks a specific treatment. Its prevalence is 1/800 and causes the need for renal replacement therapy in 8-10% of patients on dialysis or kidney transplant. It is caused by mutations in the PKD1 and PKD2 genes, which cause a series of alterations in the polycystic cells, which have become therapeutic targets. There are many molecules that are being tested to counteract the alterations of these therapeutic targets. There are studies in all phases of research, from phase i to phase iv. Some of the molecules being tested are tolvaptan, mTOR inhibitors and, among many other, somatostatin analogues. These drugs are extensively reviewed in this article. Based on the accumulated experience the primary objective of the trials is the slowing of the increase in renal volume. Yet other renal end points such as renal function and hypertension are necessary. It is expected that in the coming years we can have specific, well tolerated, effective and affordable drugs for the treatment of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

  17. Non-syndromic autosomal-dominant deafness.

    PubMed

    Petersen, M B

    2002-07-01

    Non-syndromic deafness is a paradigm of genetic heterogeneity. More than 70 loci have been mapped, and 25 of the nuclear genes responsible for non-syndromic deafness have been identified. Autosomal-dominant genes are responsible for about 20% of the cases of hereditary non-syndromic deafness, with 16 different genes identified to date. In the present article we review these 16 genes, their function and their contribution to deafness in different populations. The complexity is underlined by the fact that several of the genes are involved in both dominant and recessive non-syndromic deafness or in both non-syndromic and syndromic deafness. Mutations in eight of the genes have so far been detected in only single dominant deafness families, and their contribution to deafness on a population base might therefore be limited, or is currently unknown. Identification of all genes involved in hereditary hearing loss will help in the understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying normal hearing, will facilitate early diagnosis and intervention and might offer opportunities for rational therapy.

  18. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in children

    PubMed Central

    Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary renal disease, affecting one in 500 individuals. The cardinal manifestation of ADPKD is progressive cystic dilatation of renal tubules with kidney enlargement and progression to end-stage renal disease in approximately half of cases by 60 years of age. Although previously considered a condition of adults, it is clear that children and young adults are subject to the complications of ADPKD. Recent findings It has been increasingly recognized that interventions early in life are necessary in order to confer the best long-term outcome in this common condition. Therefore, it is imperative for pediatricians to recognize the manifestations and complications of this disease. Until recently ADPKD management focused on general principles of chronic kidney disease. However, several recent clinical trials in children and adults with ADPKD have focused on disease-specific therapies. Summary This review will highlight the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and appropriate management of ADPKD in childhood and will review recent relevant clinical trials in children and adults with this condition. PMID:25635587

  19. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in children.

    PubMed

    Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa A

    2015-04-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary renal disease, affecting one in 500 individuals. The cardinal manifestation of ADPKD is progressive cystic dilatation of renal tubules with kidney enlargement and progression to end-stage renal disease in approximately half of cases by 60 years of age. Although previously considered a condition of adults, it is clear that children and young adults are subject to the complications of ADPKD. It has been increasingly recognized that interventions early in life are necessary in order to confer the best long-term outcome in this common condition. Therefore, it is imperative for pediatricians to recognize the manifestations and complications of this disease. Until recently ADPKD management focused on general principles of chronic kidney disease. However, several recent clinical trials in children and adults with ADPKD have focused on disease-specific therapies. This review will highlight the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and appropriate management of ADPKD in childhood and will review recent relevant clinical trials in children and adults with this condition.

  20. Autosomal dominant sensory ataxia: a neuroaxonal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Jeremy J; Macaulay, Robert J B; Valdmanis, Paul N; Weston, Lyle E; Rouleau, Guy A; Dupré, Nicolas

    2008-09-01

    Autosomal dominant sensory ataxia (ADSA), a rare hereditary ataxia, is characterized by progressive dysfunction of central sensory pathways. Its pathological features have not been previously documented. We report a case of a 61-year-old man with ADSA who died of congestive heart failure. Autopsy specimens of brain, thoracolumbar spinal cord, peripheral nerve and skeletal muscle were examined. There was no abnormality on gross examination. Microscopically, there were occasional swollen axons within the cerebral cortex and deep nuclei, particularly the subthalamic nucleus, with no neuronal loss, gliosis or microglial activation. There were many axonal spheroids within the medulla, particularly in the dorsal column nuclei. Axonal spheroids were also seen in the dorsal columns and ventral horns in the thoracolumbar spinal cord, but there was no Wallerian degeneration or demyelination. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) immunostaining of some of the spheroids suggested continuing dysfunction of axoplasmic flow in some regions. There was mild inflammation of peripheral nerve roots but no spheroid, and patchy chronic inflammation of skeletal muscle. In summary, the major pathological process in ADSA is a neuroaxonal dystrophy most prominent in the dorsal columns and dorsal column nuclei, consistent with the clinical pattern of central sensory pathway degeneration.

  1. Symptom onset in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Aisen, Paul S.; Bird, Thomas; Danek, Adrian; Fox, Nick C.; Goate, Alison; Frommelt, Peter; Ghetti, Bernardino; Langbaum, Jessica B.S.; Lopera, Francisco; Martins, Ralph; Masters, Colin L.; Mayeux, Richard P.; McDade, Eric; Moreno, Sonia; Reiman, Eric M.; Ringman, John M.; Salloway, Steve; Schofield, Peter R.; Sperling, Reisa; Tariot, Pierre N.; Xiong, Chengjie; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors influencing age at symptom onset and disease course in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD), and develop evidence-based criteria for predicting symptom onset in ADAD. Methods: We have collected individual-level data on ages at symptom onset and death from 387 ADAD pedigrees, compiled from 137 peer-reviewed publications, the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) database, and 2 large kindreds of Colombian (PSEN1 E280A) and Volga German (PSEN2 N141I) ancestry. Our combined dataset includes 3,275 individuals, of whom 1,307 were affected by ADAD with known age at symptom onset. We assessed the relative contributions of several factors in influencing age at onset, including parental age at onset, age at onset by mutation type and family, and APOE genotype and sex. We additionally performed survival analysis using data on symptom onset collected from 183 ADAD mutation carriers followed longitudinally in the DIAN Study. Results: We report summary statistics on age at onset and disease course for 174 ADAD mutations, and discover strong and highly significant (p < 10−16, r2 > 0.38) correlations between individual age at symptom onset and predicted values based on parental age at onset and mean ages at onset by mutation type and family, which persist after controlling for APOE genotype and sex. Conclusions: Significant proportions of the observed variance in age at symptom onset in ADAD can be explained by family history and mutation type, providing empirical support for use of these data to estimate onset in clinical research. PMID:24928124

  2. Hypertension in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Arlene B.; Stepniakowski, Konrad; Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension is common and occurs in a majority of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients prior to loss of kidney function. Hypertension relates to progressive kidney enlargement, and is a significant independent risk factor for progression to end stage renal disease. The pathogenesis of hypertension in ADPKD is complex and dependent on many factors that influence each other. Pkd1 and Pkd2 expression levels are highest in the major vessels and are present in the cilia of endothelial cells and in vascular smooth muscle cells. Decreased or absent polycystin 1 or 2 expression is associated with abnormal vascular structure and function. Pkd1/Pkd2 deficiency results in reduced nitric oxide (NO) levels, altered endothelial response to shear stress with attenuation in vascular relaxation. 10–20% of ADPKD children demonstrate hypertension and the majority of adults are hypertensive before any loss of kidney function. Cardiac abnormalities such as left ventricular hypertrophy and carotid intimal wall thickening are present prior to the development of hypertension in ADPKD. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system occurs in ADPKD due to decreased NO production as well as bilateral cyst expansion and intra-renal ischemia. With increasing cyst size, further activation of the RAAS occurs, blood pressure increases and a vicious cycle ensues with enhanced cyst growth and hypertension ultimately leading to ESRD. Inhibition of the angiotensin aldosterone system is possible with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. However, interventional studies have not yet demonstrated benefit in slowing progression to renal failure in ADPKD. Currently, large multicenter studies are being performed to determine the beneficial effects of RAAS inhibition both early and late in ADPKD. PMID:20219618

  3. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease diagnosed in utero. Review.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Magdalena; Huras, Hubert; Wiecheć, Marcin; Jach, Robert; Radoń-Pokracka, Małgorzata; Górecka, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of most common inherited renal diseases. It is estimated that very early onset ADPKD affects even 2% patients. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of genetics, prenatal diagnosis and prognosis in very early onset autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant leukodystrophy with autonomic disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... need a cane, walker, or wheelchair for assistance. Intelligence is usually unaffected; however, people who have had ... Hobson G, Brusco A, Brussino A, Padiath QS. Analysis of LMNB1 duplications in autosomal dominant leukodystrophy provides ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome ...

  6. Autosomal dominant inheritance of Brachmann-de Lange syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kozma, C.

    1996-12-30

    A mother with mild phenotype and her severely affected son, both with classic manifestations of Brachmann-de Lange syndrome (BDLS), are described. This documented mother-to-child transmission supports the hypothesis of autosomal dominant transmission with intrafamilial variability. Known cases of BDLS with autosomal dominant inheritance are reviewed. Although most cases of BDLS are sporadic, a careful evaluation of parents of affected children is important for appropriate genetic counseling. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Autosomal Dominant Centronuclear Myopathy with Unique Clinical Presentations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee-Young; Min, Ju-Hong; Hong, Yoon-Ho; Sung, Jung-Joon; Park, Sung-Hye; Park, Seong-Ho; Lee, Kwang-Woo

    2007-01-01

    Centronuclear myopathies are clinically and genetically heterogenous diseases with common histological findings, namely, centrally located nuclei in muscle fibers with a predominance and hypotrophy of type 1 fibers. We describe two cases from one family with autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy with unusual clinical features that had initially suggested distal myopathy. Clinically, the patients presented with muscle weakness and atrophy localized mainly to the posterior compartment of the distal lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed predominant atrophy and fatty changes of bilateral gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. This report demonstrates the expanding clinical heterogeneity of autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy. PMID:18162732

  8. Autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy with unique clinical presentations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee Young; Min, Ju Hong; Hong, Yoon Ho; Sung, Jung Joon; Park, Sung Hye; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Kwang Woo; Park, Kyung Seok

    2007-12-01

    Centronuclear myopathies are clinically and genetically heterogenous diseases with common histological findings, namely, centrally located nuclei in muscle fibers with a predominance and hypotrophy of type 1 fibers. We describe two cases from one family with autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy with unusual clinical features that had initially suggested distal myopathy. Clinically, the patients presented with muscle weakness and atrophy localized mainly to the posterior compartment of the distal lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed predominant atrophy and fatty changes of bilateral gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. This report demonstrates the expanding clinical heterogeneity of autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy.

  9. Evidence for further genetic heterogeneity in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar-Singh, R.; Kenna, P.F.; Farrar, G.J.; Humphries, P. )

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the possible involvement of further genetic heterogeneity in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa using a previously unreported large Irish family with the disease. We have utilized polymorphic microsatellite markers to exclude the disease gene segregating in this family from 3q, 6p, and the pericentric region of 8, that is, each of the three chromosomal regions to which adRP loci are known to map. Hence, we provide definitive evidence for the involvement of a fourth locus in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Gene therapy in animal models of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Rossmiller, Brian; Mao, Haoyu; Lewin, Alfred S

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy for dominantly inherited genetic disease is more difficult than gene-based therapy for recessive disorders, which can be treated with gene supplementation. Treatment of dominant disease may require gene supplementation partnered with suppression of the expression of the mutant gene either at the DNA level, by gene repair, or at the RNA level by RNA interference or transcriptional repression. In this review, we examine some of the gene delivery approaches used to treat animal models of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, focusing on those models associated with mutations in the gene for rhodopsin. We conclude that combinatorial approaches have the greatest promise for success.

  11. Gene therapy in animal models of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Rossmiller, Brian; Mao, Haoyu

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy for dominantly inherited genetic disease is more difficult than gene-based therapy for recessive disorders, which can be treated with gene supplementation. Treatment of dominant disease may require gene supplementation partnered with suppression of the expression of the mutant gene either at the DNA level, by gene repair, or at the RNA level by RNA interference or transcriptional repression. In this review, we examine some of the gene delivery approaches used to treat animal models of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, focusing on those models associated with mutations in the gene for rhodopsin. We conclude that combinatorial approaches have the greatest promise for success. PMID:23077406

  12. Autosomal dominant syndrome of camptodactyly, clinodactyly, syndactyly, and bifid toes.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sajid; Afzal, Muhammad; Gul, Sumera; Wahab, Abdul; Ahmad, Mahmud

    2010-09-01

    We report on a 25-year follow-up of a Pakistani kindred with a unique combination of camptodactyly and clinodactyly of 5th fingers, mesoaxial camptodactyly of toes, and ulnar deviation of 3rd fingers. The less common anomalies in the affected subjects include syndactyly involving all digits, and bifid toes. This condition is grossly bilateral, symmetrical, and affects upper and lower limbs of the 26 affected subjects in the kindred. The comparable number of affected male and female subjects (chi(2) = 0.154, P < 0.1), disease allele transmission by mother and father, and the malformation segregation in four consecutive generations are strongly suggestive of autosomal dominant inheritance. Differential diagnosis considered syndactyly types II, III, and V. Only type II syndactyly manifests noticeable phenotypic overlap with the clinical presentation in this family; however, the typical type II syndactyly changes are absent. To the best of our knowledge, this autosomal dominant limb phenotype has not been reported previously.

  13. [Polycystic liver disease without autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; González, P; Venegas, J L

    2003-01-01

    Polycystic liver disease is characterized by the presence of multiple bile duct-derived epithelial cysts scattered in the liver parenchyma. The natural history and clinical manifestations of polycystic liver disease are based on the disease as it manifests in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The occurrence of polycystic liver disease independently from polycystic kidney disease has been known for a long time. More recently, a gene for autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease has been identified on chromosome 19p 13.2-13.1. Isolated polycystic liver disease is underdiagnosed and genetically distinct from polycystic liver disease associated with ADPKD but with similar pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. We report here two men with polycystic liver disease no associated with ADPKD. Ultrasound and computed tomography imaging were effective in documenting the underlying lesions non-invasively.

  14. Sacral radicular cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Peces, Ramón; Peces, Carlos; Pérez-Dueñas, Virginia; Vega-Cabrera, Cristina; Campos, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    This is the first report of a case of sacral radicular cysts in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). A 46-year-old woman with ADPKD was found to have bilateral sacral radicular cysts discovered incidentally by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cysts arising from arachnoid or spinal meningeal sac should be considered one of the manifestations of a more widespread connective tissue disorder associated with ADPKD. PMID:25949342

  15. Hypertension in children with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).

    PubMed

    Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa A

    2013-02-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary renal disease, affecting 1 in 1000 individuals. Previously termed "adult polycystic kidney disease", ADPKD is now known to have important clinical manifestations beginning early in life and even in utero. Hypertension is an important risk factor for progressive renal and cardiovascular disease in children with ADPKD and may signify irremediable organ injury. The purpose of this article is to review current knowledge and treatment strategies in hypertension associated with pediatric ADPKD.

  16. Autosomal dominant congenital Horner's syndrome in a Dutch family.

    PubMed Central

    Hageman, G; Ippel, P F; te Nijenhuis, F C

    1992-01-01

    A Dutch family is reported with congenital Horner's syndrome in five cases spanning five generations, with symptoms of varying degree but mainly ptosis and meiosis. Heterochromia iridium, anhidrosis, and enophthalmos were not present. The site of the lesion may be in the region between Gasser's ganglion and the short vertical segment of the internal carotid artery near the siphon. There are only four previous reports showing autosomal dominant inheritance of congenital Horner's syndrome. Images PMID:1548493

  17. Autosomal dominant congenital Horner's syndrome in a Dutch family.

    PubMed

    Hageman, G; Ippel, P F; te Nijenhuis, F C

    1992-01-01

    A Dutch family is reported with congenital Horner's syndrome in five cases spanning five generations, with symptoms of varying degree but mainly ptosis and meiosis. Heterochromia iridium, anhidrosis, and enophthalmos were not present. The site of the lesion may be in the region between Gasser's ganglion and the short vertical segment of the internal carotid artery near the siphon. There are only four previous reports showing autosomal dominant inheritance of congenital Horner's syndrome.

  18. Sacral radicular cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Peces, Ramón; Peces, Carlos; Pérez-Dueñas, Virginia; Vega-Cabrera, Cristina; Campos, Isabel

    2009-10-01

    This is the first report of a case of sacral radicular cysts in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). A 46-year-old woman with ADPKD was found to have bilateral sacral radicular cysts discovered incidentally by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cysts arising from arachnoid or spinal meningeal sac should be considered one of the manifestations of a more widespread connective tissue disorder associated with ADPKD.

  19. Familial pulmonary hypertension. Evidence of autosomal dominant inheritance.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, P; McRae, C

    1970-01-01

    A patient with primary pulmonary hypertension is the fourth member of a family proven to have the disease. The patient's father married twice; the disease appeared in both families, and was transmitted through two generations. Multiple genetic and environmental factors may result in pulmonary hypertension, but the distribution of cases in this family and in others reported is consistent with the autosomal dominant inheritance of a single genetic trait. PMID:5212347

  20. Predictors of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease progression.

    PubMed

    Schrier, Robert W; Brosnahan, Godela; Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa A; Chonchol, Michel; Friend, Keith; Gitomer, Berenice; Rossetti, Sandro

    2014-11-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder associated with substantial variability in its natural course within and between affected families. Understanding predictors for rapid progression of this disease has become increasingly important with the emergence of potential new treatments. This systematic review of the literature since 1988 evaluates factors that may predict and/or effect autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease progression. Predicting factors associated with early adverse structural and/or functional outcomes are considered. These factors include PKD1 mutation (particularly truncating mutation), men, early onset of hypertension, early and frequent gross hematuria, and among women, three or more pregnancies. Increases in total kidney volume and decreases in GFR and renal blood flow greater than expected for a given age also signify rapid disease progression. Concerning laboratory markers include overt proteinuria, macroalbuminuria, and perhaps, elevated serum copeptin levels in affected adults. These factors and others may help to identify patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease who are most likely to benefit from early intervention with novel treatments.

  1. Nonallelic heterogeneity in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with incomplete penetrance

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.K.; Berson, E.L.; Dryja, T.P.

    1994-08-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of retinal diseases in which photoreceptor cells throughout the retina degenerate. Although there is considerable genetic heterogeneity (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked forms exist), there is a possibility that some clinically defined subtypes of the disease may be the result of mutations at the same locus. One possible clinically defined subtype is that of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) with incomplete penetrance. Whereas in most families with ADRP, carriers can be clearly identified because of visual loss, ophthalmological findings, or abnormal electroretinograms (ERGs), in occasional families some obligate carriers are asymptomatic and have normal or nearly normal ERGs even late in life. A recent paper reported the mapping of the diseases locus in one pedigree (designated adRP7) with ADRP with incomplete penetrance to chromosome 7p. To test the idea that ADRP with incomplete penetrance may be genetically homogeneous, we have evaluated whether a different family with incomplete penetrance also has a disease gene linked to the same region. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: the last 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Vicente E.; Harris, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most prevalent, potentially lethal monogenic disorder. It has large inter- and intra-familial variability explained to a large extent by its genetic heterogeneity and modifier genes. An increased understanding of its underlying genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms and a better appreciation of its progression and systemic manifestations have laid out the foundation for the development of clinical trials and potentially effective therapies. The purpose of this review is to update the core of knowledge in this area with recent publications that have appeared during 2006–2009. PMID:19455193

  3. Autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features: Defining the phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Winawer, Melodie R.; Hauser, W. Allen; Pedley, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors previously reported linkage to chromosome 10q22-24 for autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features. This study describes seizure semiology in the original linkage family in further detail. Auditory hallucinations were most common, but other sensory symptoms (visual, olfactory, vertiginous, and cephalic) were also reported. Autonomic, psychic, and motor symptoms were less common. The clinical semiology points to a lateral temporal seizure origin. Auditory hallucinations, the most striking clinical feature, are useful for identifying new families with this synome. PMID:10851389

  4. Nutraceutical for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Therapy.

    PubMed

    Yuajit, Chaowalit; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited renal disorder caused by mutations of either PKD1 or PKD2 gene. Cyst formation initiates from a combination of abnormal cell proliferation along with enhanced fluid secretion. ADPKD is characterized by the progressive enlargement of cysts which destroy the renal parenchymal cells, resulting in renal failure. Currently, there is no effective treatment for this disease. Interestingly, several relevant therapeutic effects of herbal medicine relevant to pathogenic process of ADPKD have urged the researchers to search for potential candidate herb as nutraceutical for ADPKD therapy. Up to now, several natural compounds, such as triptolide, curcumin, ginkolide B, and steviol (stevia extract) have been shown to be able to retard cyst progression in ADPKD. The detailed mechanism of these compounds showed that triptolide enhanced calcium restoration, curcumin inhibited ERK & p-STAT3 pathways, ginkolide B inhibited Ras/MAPK pathway, and steviol activated AMPK, which inhibited CFTR channel and mTOR pathway in cell and mouse models of PKD. In addition, they are currently inpreclinical and clinical studies, respectively. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of ADPKD and the recent therapeutic approaches, especially a potential use of nutraceutical for the treatment of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

  5. Homozygotes for the autosomal dominant neoplasia syndrome (MEN1)

    SciTech Connect

    Brandi, M.L.; Falchetti, A.; Tonelli, F. ); Weber, G.; Svensson, A.; Larsson, C. ); Castello, R.; Furlani, L.; Scappaticci, S.; Fraccaro, M.

    1993-12-01

    Families in which both parents are heterozygotes for the same autosomal dominant neoplasia syndrome are extremely unusual. Recently, the authors had the unique opportunity to evaluate three symptomatic siblings from the union between two unrelated individuals affected by multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). When the three siblings and their parents and relatives were genotyped for 12 markers tightly linked to the MEN1 locus, at 11q13, two of the siblings were found to be homozygotes, and one a heterozygote, for MEN1. With regard to the MEN1 syndrome, no phenotypic differences were observed between the two homozygotes and the heterozygotes. However, the two homozygotes showed unexplained infertility, which was not the case for any of the heterozygotes. Thus, MEN1 appears to be a disease with complete dominance, and the presence of two MEN1 alleles with mutations of the type that occur constitutionally may be insufficient for tumor development. 28 refs., 2 figs.

  6. LAMB3 mutations causing autosomal-dominant amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Kim, J W; Seymen, F; Lee, K E; Ko, J; Yildirim, M; Tuna, E B; Gencay, K; Shin, T J; Kyun, H K; Simmer, J P; Hu, J C-C

    2013-10-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) can be either isolated or part of a larger syndrome. Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a collection of autosomal-recessive disorders featuring AI associated with skin fragility and other symptoms. JEB is a recessive syndrome usually caused by mutations in both alleles of COL17A1, LAMA3, LAMB3, or LAMC2. In rare cases, heterozygous carriers in JEB kindreds display enamel malformations in the absence of skin fragility (isolated AI). We recruited two kindreds with autosomal-dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (ADAI) characterized by generalized severe enamel hypoplasia with deep linear grooves and pits. Whole-exome sequencing of both probands identified novel heterozygous mutations in the last exon of LAMB3 that likely truncated the protein. The mutations perfectly segregated with the enamel defects in both families. In Family 1, an 8-bp deletion (c.3446_3453del GACTGGAG) shifted the reading frame (p.Gly 1149Glufs*8). In Family 2, a single nucleotide substitution (c.C3431A) generated an in-frame translation termination codon (p.Ser1144*). We conclude that enamel formation is particularly sensitive to defects in hemidesmosome/basement-membrane complexes and that syndromic and non-syndromic forms of AI can be etiologically related.

  7. Autosomal dominant epidermodysplasia verruciformis: a clinicotherapeutic experience in two cases.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Surbhi; Sharma, Nand Lal; Shanker, Vinay; Mahajan, Vikram K; Jindal, Nidhi

    2010-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a unique susceptibility to cutaneous infection by a group of phylogenetically related human papilloma viruses (HPVs). These patients show a defect in cell-mediated immunity specific toward the causative HPVs that lead to lifelong disease. The defect is usually inherited as autosomal recessive trait and presents clinically with plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions and reddish verrucous plaques. Dysplastic and malignant changes in the form of actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are common but metastasis occurs rarely. A totally effective treatment against EV is as yet highly desirable. Two siblings having autosomal dominant EV presented with multiple actinic keratoses in addition to classic lesions. One of them had also developed well-differentiated SCC over forehead with metastases to regional lymph nodes. They were treated with combination of excision of small malignant/premalignant lesions, topical 5-flurouracil and sun protection. Additionally, elective excision/grafting of large SCC was performed after chemotherapy/radiotherapy in patient with metastatic SCC. Oral acitretin (25 mg/day) was of benefit in the other patient. Overall clinicotherapeutic experience in both the patients is discussed here.

  8. Autosomal dominant distal myopathy: Linkage to chromosome 14

    SciTech Connect

    Laing, N.G.; Laing, B.A.; Wilton, S.D.; Dorosz, S.; Mastaglia, F.L.; Kakulas, B.A.; Robbins, P.; Meredith, C.; Honeyman, K.; Kozman, H.

    1995-02-01

    We have studied a family segregating a form of autosomal dominant distal myopathy (MIM 160500) and containing nine living affected individuals. The myopathy in this family is closest in clinical phenotype to that first described by Gowers in 1902. A search for linkage was conducted using microsatellite, VNTR, and RFLP markers. In total, 92 markers on all 22 autosomes were run. Positive linkage was obtained with 14 of 15 markers tested on chromosome 14, with little indication of linkage elsewhere in the genome. Maximum two-point LOD scores of 2.60 at recombination fraction .00 were obtained for the markers MYH7 and D14S64 - the family structure precludes a two-point LOD score {ge} 3. Recombinations with D14S72 and D14S49 indicate that this distal myopathy locus, MPD1, should lie between these markers. A multipoint analysis assuming 100% penetrance and using the markers D14S72, D14S50, MYH7, D14S64, D14S54, and D14S49 gave a LOD score of exactly 3 at MYH7. Analysis at a penetrance of 80% gave a LOD score of 2.8 at this marker. This probable localization of a gene for distal myopathy, MPD1, on chromosome 14 should allow other investigators studying distal myopathy families to test this region for linkage in other types of the disease, to confirm linkage or to demonstrate the likely genetic heterogeneity. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Mitochondrial anomalies in a Swiss family with autosomal dominant myoglobinuria

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-du Pan, R.C.; Favre, H.; Junod, A.

    1997-04-14

    We report on a Swiss family in which 10 individuals of both sexes in 4 successive generations suffered from myoglobinuria, precipitated by febrile illness. It is the second family described with autosomal dominant inheritance of myoglobinuria. Four individuals suffered acute renal failure, which in two was reversible only after dialysis. In a recent case, a mitochondrial disorder was suspected because of an abnormal increase in lactate levels during an exercise test and because of a subsarcolemmal accumulation of mitochondria in a muscle biopsy, associated with a lack of cytochrome C oxidase in some muscle fibers. No mutation in the mitochondrial DNA was identified. Along with the inheritance pattern, these findings suggest that the myoglobinuria in this family is caused by a nuclear-encoded mutation affecting the respiratory chain. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, D M; Martín, R S; Fraga, A; Virginillo, M; Kornblihtt, A R; Arrizurieta, E; Viribay, M; San Millán, J L; Herrera, M; Bernath, V

    1997-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited disorder with genetic heterogeneity. Up to three loci are involved in this disease, PKD1 on chromosome 16p13.3, PKD2 on 4q21, and a third locus of unknown location. Here we report the existence of locus heterogeneity for this disease in the Argentinian population by performing linkage analysis on 12 families of Caucasian origin. Eleven families showed linkage to PKD 1 and one family showed linkage to PKD2. Two recombinants in the latter family placed the locus PKD2 proximal to D4S1563, in agreement with data recently published on the cloning of this gene. Analysis of clinical data suggests a milder ADPKD phenotype for the PKD2 family. PMID:9350815

  11. [Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Chung; Hsiao, Cheng-Tsung; Soong, Bing-Wen; Lee, Yi-Chung

    2014-06-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most prevalent monogenic cerebral small vessel diseases caused by a mutation in the NOTCH3 gene. The clinical manifestations of CADASIL range from single or multiple lacunar infarcts, transient ischemic attacks, dementia, migraine with aura to psychiatric disorders. The features of brain MRI of CADASIL include multiple lacunar infarcts and diffuse leukoencephalopathy, which frequently involves external capsules and anterior temporal regions. Almost all patients with CADASIL harbor cysteine-involving mutations in NOTCH3. In Taiwan, two thirds of CADASIL patients carry NOTCH3 p.R544C mutations, and only approximately 56% of patients with CADASIL have leukoencephalopathy with anterior temporal regions involvement.

  12. A review on autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ayasreh Fierro, Nadia; Miquel Rodríguez, Rosa; Matamala Gastón, Ana; Ars Criach, Elisabet; Torra Balcells, Roser

    In recent years there has been a reclassification of hereditary tubulointerstitial renal diseases. The old concepts of nephronoptisis or medullary cystic disease have been reordered based on the discovery of new genes. The 2015 KDIGO guidelines proposed a unification of terminology, diagnostic criteria and monitoring. So far 4genes causing autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease have been described: MUC1, UMOD, HNF1B and REN. Although the mutation in each of them causes distinctive features in how they present, all have in common the progressive tubulointerstitial damage and renal fibrosis. In this article, we present a review of the guidelines and the literature, and some practical recommendations for dealing with this disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Autosomal Dominant Inherited Cowden's Disease in a Family.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jun-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Cowden's disease, also known as a kind of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) hamartoma tumor syndrome, is an uncommon autosomal dominant inherited complex disorder with various hamartomatous growths of multiple organs involving all three germ cell layers. It usually manifests with polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract, ranging anywhere from 30% to 85%, and more common extra intestinal findings. Mucocutaneous lesions like facial trichilemmomas, acral keratoses, papillomatous papules and macrocephaly, and malignancies including breast, thyroid and endometrial carcinoma are the hallmark of the disease. Here we report on familial Cowden's diseases case of a 52-year-old male proband with mucocutaneous lesions and mutation on the PTEN gene obtained by extrapolating from gastrointestinal polyposis as a starter and his daughter who developed thyroid cancer.

  14. Frontonasal dysplasia: a family presenting autosomal dominant inheritance pattern.

    PubMed

    Koçak, H; Ceylaner, G

    2009-01-01

    Frontonasal dysplasia (FND, also called frontonasal dysostosis or median cleft face syndrome) includes a spectrum of abnormalities affecting the eyes, forehead and nose, and resulting from midfacial dysraphia. The clinical picture is highly variable, but major findings in FND include ocular hypertelorism, a broad nasal root, median cleft affecting nose or both the nose and upper lip, and widow's peak. It is usually a sporadic disorder, although a few familial cases have been reported. We report here a three-generation family with multiple affected members with frontonasal dysplasia. This observation suggests autosomal dominant inheritance. Furthermore, some of the features e.g. over-riding toes, nail changes, vertical crease on plantar region of the feet in the index patient were not reported up to now.

  15. Clinical Trials in Pediatric Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa A.

    2017-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disease and is associated with concerning long-term implications for kidney function and cardiovascular health. Early intervention is needed in order to mitigate these long-term complications. Herein, we review important findings from recent clinical trials in ADPKD and their relevance to affected children and young adults and consider future directions for intervention. Recent clinical trials support aggressive control of blood pressure with blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system as well as potential benefit of pravastatin therapy in children and young adults with ADPKD. There are several other candidate therapies, some of which have shown benefit in adult ADPKD, which require further investigation in affected children. PMID:28386535

  16. [Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: is the treatment for tomorrow?].

    PubMed

    Cornec-Le Gall, Emilie; Le Meur, Yannick

    2014-11-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent Mendelian inherited disorder. It covers 6.1% of incident ESRD patients in France in 2011. Long left untreated, this disease will soon benefit from targeted therapies currently under evaluation. Several molecules have already reached the stage of clinical trials: the evaluation of mTOR inhibitors yielded deceiving results and, more recently, 2 different molecules demonstrated a slight impact on the progression of total kidney volume (TKV): tolvaptan, vasopressin receptor-V2 inhibitor and somatostatin analogues; both of these molecules acting throughout the decrease of intracellular AMPc. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe the signaling pathways involved, then to present both the published and ongoing clinical trials and the promising molecules evaluated in murine models.

  17. A Japanese Family With Autosomal Dominant Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 4.

    PubMed

    Oki, Ryoko; Yamada, Kisaburo; Nakano, Satoko; Kimoto, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Ken; Kondo, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Toshiaki

    2017-02-01

    We report the clinical characteristics of a Japanese family with autosomal dominant oculocutaneous albinism and a SLC45A2 gene mutation. A total of 16 members of a Japanese family with general hypopigmentation and foveal hypoplasia underwent detailed clinical examinations. We evaluated the severity of foveal hypoplasia using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and graded it according to the criteria of Thomas et al. DNA was extracted from 17 family members and used for genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and linkage analysis. Mutational search was performed for the SLC45A2 gene responsible for oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4). All 16 patients exhibited hypopigmentation of their hair and/or iris. They showed foveal hypoplasia, including 3 patients with grade 1 foveal hypoplasia, 7 with grade 2, and 6 with grade 3. No patient had grade 4 foveal hypoplasia. Optical coherence tomography showed macular ganglion cell complex thinning in the temporal area, and a slight reduction of visual field sensitivity in the centrotemporal area. A maximum multipoint parametric logarithm of the odds (LOD) score of approximately 2.00 to 3.56 was obtained on chromosome 5, spanning approximately 7.2 Mb between rs13187570 and rs395967 that included the SLC45A2 gene. All affected members showed a novel heterozygous variant, c.208T>C (p.Y70H), in the SLC45A2 gene, which supported a diagnosis of OCA4. The present study reports a very rare family with autosomal dominant OCA4 whose diagnosis was confirmed by a mutational analysis. Most family members exhibited mild general hypopigmentation and low-grade foveal hypoplasia.

  18. Autosomal Dominant Diabetes Arising From a Wolfram Syndrome 1 Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Chines, Peter S.; Hara, Takashi; Huyghe, Jeroen R.; Swift, Amy J.; Heikinheimo, Pirkko; Mahadevan, Jana; Peltonen, Sirkku; Huopio, Hanna; Nuutila, Pirjo; Narisu, Narisu; Goldfeder, Rachel L.; Stitzel, Michael L.; Lu, Simin; Boehnke, Michael; Urano, Fumihiko; Collins, Francis S.; Laakso, Markku

    2013-01-01

    We used an unbiased genome-wide approach to identify exonic variants segregating with diabetes in a multigenerational Finnish family. At least eight members of this family presented with diabetes with age of diagnosis ranging from 18 to 51 years and a pattern suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance. We sequenced the exomes of four affected members of this family and performed follow-up genotyping of additional affected and unaffected family members. We uncovered a novel nonsynonymous variant (p.Trp314Arg) in the Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) gene that segregates completely with the diabetic phenotype. Multipoint parametric linkage analysis with 13 members of this family identified a single linkage signal with maximum logarithm of odds score 3.01 at 4p16.2-p16.1, corresponding to a region harboring the WFS1 locus. Functional studies demonstrate a role for this variant in endoplasmic reticulum stress, which is consistent with the β-cell failure phenotype seen in mutation carriers. This represents the first compelling report of a mutation in WFS1 associated with dominantly inherited nonsyndromic adult-onset diabetes. PMID:23903355

  19. SPP2 Mutations Cause Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Chen, Xue; Xu, Qihua; Gao, Xiang; Tam, Pancy O. S.; Zhao, Kanxing; Zhang, Xiumei; Chen, Li Jia; Jia, Wenshuang; Zhao, Qingshun; Vollrath, Douglas; Pang, Chi Pui; Zhao, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) shows progressive loss of photoreceptors involved with heterogeneous genetic background. Here, by exome sequencing and linkage analysis on a Chinese family with autosomal dominant RP, we identified a putative pathogenic variant, p.Gly97Arg, in the gene SPP2, of which expression was detected in multiple tissues including retina. The p.Gly97Arg was absent in 800 ethnically matched chromosomes and 1400 in-house exome dataset, and was located in the first of the two highly conserved disulfide bonded loop of secreted phosphoprotein 2 (Spp-24) encoded by SPP2. Overexpression of p.Gly97Arg and another signal peptide mutation, p.Gly29Asp, caused cellular retention of both endogenous wild type and exogenous mutants in vitro, and primarily affected rod photoreceptors in zebrafish mimicking cardinal feature of RP. Taken together, our data indicate that the two mutations of SPP2 have dominant negative effects and cellular accumulation of Spp-24 might be particularly toxic to photoreceptors and/or retinal pigment epithelium. SPP2 has a new role in retinal degeneration. PMID:26459573

  20. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and intelligence quotient in autosomal dominant Segawa disease.

    PubMed

    López-Laso, Eduardo; Sánchez-Raya, Araceli; Moriana, Juan Antonio; Martínez-Gual, Eduardo; Camino-León, Rafael; Mateos-González, María Elena; Pérez-Navero, Juan Luis; Ochoa-Sepúlveda, Juan José; Ormazabal, Aida; Opladen, Thomas; Klein, Christine; Lao-Villadóniga, José Ignacio; Beyer, Katrin; Artuch, Rafael

    2011-12-01

    Segawa disease is a rare dystonia due to autosomal dominant guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (adGTPCH) deficiency, affecting dopamine and serotonin biosynthesis. Recently, the clinical phenotype was expanded to include psychiatric manifestations, such as depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and sleep disturbances. Although cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms may be attributable to dopamine deficiency in the prefrontal cortex and frontostriatal circuitry, intelligence is considered normal in Segawa disease. Our aim was to investigate neuropsychiatric symptoms and intelligence quotients (IQ) in a series of individuals with adGTPCH deficiency. The assessment included a structured clinical interview following the DSM-IV-TR's guidelines, Beck's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition. Equivalent tests were applied to pediatric patients as appropriate for their age group. Fourteen patients with adGTPCH deficiency were evaluated (seven adult and seven pediatric patients). Depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were not more common than expected in the general population. However, the seven adults showed impulsivity in the BIS-11; nine individuals had an IQ in the range of borderline intellectual functioning to mild mental retardation, and sleep disturbances were found in four individuals. We found no differences between these results and the motor impairment. In conclusion, our findings would suggest that cognitive impairment, and impulsivity in adults, may be associated with Segawa disease.

  1. [Infectious complications in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Pirson, Yves; Kanaan, Nada

    2015-04-01

    Despite advances in the management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease over the past two decades, infection of liver and kidney cysts remains a serious and potentially threatening complication. Kidney cyst infection is the most frequent complication. It is differentiated from hemorrhage by the clinical presentation (mainly the severity and duration of fever), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells levels, and the density of the suspected cyst on computed tomography. Liver cyst infection occurs more frequently in patients with large cysts volumes. It can be life threatening and has a tendency to recur. In both infections, the best radiological imaging technique is positron emission tomography after intravenous injection of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose combined with computed tomography. Treatment with a fluoroquinolone should be continued for 6 weeks. Cyst aspiration is necessary only when cysts are very large and/or when infection is resistant to antibiotic treatment. In patients who are candidates to kidney transplantation, a history of recurrent kidney cyst infection justifies pre-transplant nephrectomy, while a past history of recurrent liver cyst infection or angiocholitis leads to consider liver transplantation. Among extrarenal and extrahepatic complications of polycystic disease, colic diverticulosis is reported to be associated with increased risk of infection in patients on hemodialysis and after kidney transplantation. However, this observation needs to be confirmed.

  2. Ethical considerations in presymptomatic diagnosis of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Gutiérrez, M H; Cervantes-Aragón, I; García-Cruz, D

    2017-09-01

    Information on achieving presymptomatic diagnosis of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is limited. The advent of molecular diagnosis makes it possible to identify the carriers of different diseases and has also introduced the prospect of detecting diseases even before their onset. This has drawn attention to the ethical implications that must be considered in these subjects with a view to preserving their physical and psychological well-being. SCA is composed of a group of neurodegenerative disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance. Only a few publications have described the genetic counselling processes and guidelines to be followed during the process of presymptomatic diagnosis (PSD). The size of the multidisciplinary teams, their areas of expertise, and the number of counselling sessions are different for each of the studies analysed here. However, the basis of presymptomatic diagnosis originates in common guidelines to which members of our team have contributed recently. Presymptomatic diagnosis should be performed according to guidelines that safeguard the subjects' welfare. The diagnostic process is only recommended for patients over 18 years old with symptoms suggesting SCA, and a minimum risk of 50%. Genetic counselling programmes must be available in all centres that offer presymptomatic diagnosis of SCA. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Caffeine intake by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Vendramini, L.C.; Nishiura, J.L.; Baxmann, A.C.; Heilberg, I.P.

    2012-01-01

    Because caffeine may induce cyst and kidney enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we evaluated caffeine intake and renal volume using renal ultrasound in ADPKD patients. Caffeine intake was estimated by the average of 24-h dietary recalls obtained on 3 nonconsecutive days in 102 ADPKD patients (68 females, 34 males; 39 ± 12 years) and compared to that of 102 healthy volunteers (74 females, 28 males; 38 ± 14 years). The awareness of the need for caffeine restriction was assessed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Mean caffeine intake was significantly lower in ADPKD patients versus controls (86 vs 134 mg/day), and 63% of the ADPKD patients had been previously aware of caffeine restriction. Caffeine intake did not correlate with renal volume in ADPKD patients. There were no significant differences between the renal volumes of patients in the highest and lowest tertiles of caffeine consumption. Finally, age-adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that renal volume was associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage 3 and the time since diagnosis, but not with caffeine intake. The present small cross-sectional study indicated a low level of caffeine consumption by ADPKD patients when compared to healthy volunteers, which was most likely due to prior awareness of the need for caffeine restriction. Within the range of caffeine intake observed by ADPKD patients in this study (0-471 mg/day), the renal volume was not directly associated with caffeine intake. PMID:22801417

  4. Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis: Genetics, phenotype, and natural history

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.E.; Stephens, K.; Dale, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis (ADCH; cyclic neutropenia) is a rare disorder manifested by transient neutropenia that recurs every three weeks. To facilitate mapping the ADCH gene by genetic linkage analysis, we studied 9 ADCH families with 42 affected individuals. Pedigrees revealed AD inheritance with no evidence for decreased penetrance. Similar intra- and interfamilial variable expression was observed, with no evidence to support heterogeneity. At least 3 families displayed apparent new mutations. Many adults developed chronic neutropenia, while offspring always cycled during childhood. Children displayed recurrent oral ulcers, gingivitis, lymphadenopathy, fever, and skin and other infections with additional symptoms. Interestingly, there were no cases of neonatal infection. Some children required multiple hospitalizations for treatment. Four males under age 18 died of Clostridium sepsis following necrotizing enterocolitis; all had affected mothers. No other deaths due to ADCH were found; most had improvement of symptoms and infections as adults. Adults experienced increased tooth loss prior to age 30 (16 out of 27 adults, with 9 edentulous). No increase in myelodysplasia, malignancy, or congenital anomalies was observed. Recombinant G-CSF treatment resulted in dramatic improvement of symptoms and infections. The results suggest that ADCH is not a benign disorder, especially in childhood, and abdominal pain requires immediate evaluation. Diagnosis of ADCH requires serial blood counts in the proband and at least one CBC in relatives to exclude similar disorders. Genetic counseling requires specific histories as well as CBCs of each family member at risk to determine status regardless of symptom history, especially to assess apparent new mutations.

  5. Genes and Mutations Causing Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Daiger, Stephen P.; Bowne, Sara J.; Sullivan, Lori S.

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) has a prevalence of approximately one in 4000; 25%–30% of these cases are autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). Like other forms of inherited retinal disease, adRP is exceptionally heterogeneous. Mutations in more than 25 genes are known to cause adRP, more than 1000 mutations have been reported in these genes, clinical findings are highly variable, and there is considerable overlap with other types of inherited disease. Currently, it is possible to detect disease-causing mutations in 50%–75% of adRP families in select populations. Genetic diagnosis of adRP has advantages over other forms of RP because segregation of disease in families is a useful tool for identifying and confirming potentially pathogenic variants, but there are disadvantages too. In addition to identifying the cause of disease in the remaining 25% of adRP families, a central challenge is reconciling clinical diagnosis, family history, and molecular findings in patients and families. PMID:25304133

  6. Imaging-Based Diagnosis of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Young-Hwan; Conklin, John; Sundsbak, Jamie L.; Heyer, Christina M.; Chan, Winnie; Wang, Kairong; He, Ning; Rattansingh, Anand; Atri, Mostafa; Harris, Peter C.; Haider, Masoom A.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical use of conventional ultrasonography (US) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is currently limited by reduced diagnostic sensitivity, especially in at-risk subjects younger than 30 years of age. In this single-center prospective study, we compared the diagnostic performance of MRI with that of high-resolution (HR) US in 126 subjects ages 16–40 years born with a 50% risk of ADPKD who underwent both these renal imaging studies and comprehensive PKD1 and PKD2 mutation screening. Concurrently, 45 healthy control subjects without a family history of ADPKD completed the same imaging protocol. We analyzed 110 at-risk subjects whose disease status was unequivocally defined by molecular testing and 45 unaffected healthy control subjects. Using a total of >10 cysts as a test criterion in subjects younger than 30 years of age, we found that MRI provided both a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Comparison of our results from HR US with those from a previous study of conventional US using the test criterion of a total of three or more cysts found a higher diagnostic sensitivity (approximately 97% versus approximately 82%) with a slightly decreased specificity (approximately 98% versus 100%) in this study. Similar results were obtained in test subjects between the ages of 30 and 40 years old. These results suggest that MRI is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosis of ADPKD. HR US has the potential to rival the diagnostic performance of MRI but is both center- and operator-dependent. PMID:25074509

  7. Repeat expansion and autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorders: consensus and controversy.

    PubMed

    Rudnicki, Dobrila D; Margolis, Russell L

    2003-08-22

    Repeat-expansion mutations cause 13 autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorders falling into three groups. Huntington's disease (HD), dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), and spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) types 1, 2, 3, 7 and 17 are each caused by a CAG repeat expansion that encodes polyglutamine. Convergent lines of evidence demonstrate that neurodegeneration in these diseases is a consequence of the neurotoxic effects of abnormally long stretches of glutamines. How polyglutamine induces neurodegeneration, and why neurodegeneration occurs in only select neuronal populations, remains a matter of intense investigation. SCA6 is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in CACNA1A, a gene that encodes a subunit of the P/Q-type calcium channel. The threshold length at which the repeat causes disease is much shorter than in the other polyglutamine diseases, and neurodegeneration may arise from expansion-induced change of function in the calcium channel. Huntington's disease-like 2 (HDL2) and SCAs 8, 10 and 12 are rare disorders in which the repeats (CAG, CTG or ATTCT) are not in protein-coding regions. Investigation into these diseases is still at an early stage, but it is now reasonable to hypothesise that the net effect of each expansion is to alter gene expression. The different pathogenic mechanisms in these three groups of diseases have important implications for the development of rational therapeutics.

  8. [Clinical diagnosis of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease].

    PubMed

    Magistroni, Riccardo; Izzi, Claudia; Scolari, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common genetic disorder related to kidney. ADPKD is usually easy to diagnose in people who have a family history of ADPKDs developing typical symptoms, including flank, abdominal pain or macroscopic hematuria. In this setting, diagnosis in adults at risk for ADPKD is commonly performed by ultrasonography, which reveals two enlarged kidneys with multiple bilateral cysts. ADPKD may be more difficult to diagnose in the absence of family history or in subjects with atypical presentation, including asymmetric or focal renal imaging findings, discordant disease within family, early onset of ADPKD and development of ESRD before 30 yr of age. The presence of a total of three or more renal cysts for at-risk subjects aged 15-39 years and two cysts or more in each kidney for at-risk subjects aged 40-59 years are sufficient for the diagnosis of ADPKD. The absence of any renal cyst is sufficient for disease exclusion only for at-risk subjects aged 40 years or older. If the family history is negative, the diagnosis of ADPKD can be made in a patient with enlarged kidneys, numerous cysts, presence of liver cysts and absence of findings suggesting a different cystic disease. If the imaging diagnosis is not clear or showing atypical manifestations in subjects, molecular genetic testing should be performed.

  9. New treatments for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming-Yang; Ong, Albert C M

    2013-10-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited kidney disease and results from mutations in PKD1 or PKD2. Cyst initiation and expansion arise from a combination of abnormal cell proliferation, fluid secretion and extracellular matrix defects and results in kidney enlargement and interstitial fibrosis. Since its first description over 200 years ago, ADPKD has been considered an untreatable condition and its management is limited to blood pressure reduction and symptomatic treatment of disease complications. Results of the recently reported TEMPO 3/4 trial thus represent a paradigm shift in demonstrating for the first time that cystic disease and loss of renal function can be slowed in humans. In this paper, we review the major therapeutic strategies currently being explored in ADPKD including a range of novel approaches in preclinical models. It is anticipated that the clinical management of ADPKD will undergo a revolution in the next decade with the translation of new treatments into routine clinical use. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Subjective memory complaints in preclinical autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Norton, Daniel J; Amariglio, Rebecca; Protas, Hillary; Chen, Kewei; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel C; Pulsifer, Brendan; Castrillon, Gabriel; Tirado, Victoria; Munoz, Claudia; Tariot, Pierre; Langbaum, Jessica B; Reiman, Eric M; Lopera, Francisco; Sperling, Reisa A; Quiroz, Yakeel T

    2017-10-03

    To cross-sectionally study subjective memory complaints (SMC) in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). We examined self-reported and study partner-based SMC in 52 young, cognitively unimpaired individuals from a Colombian kindred with early-onset ADAD. Twenty-six carried the PSEN-1 E280A mutation, averaging 7 years of age younger than the kindred's expected clinical onset. Twenty-six were age-matched noncarriers. Participants also underwent structural MRI and cognitive testing. Self-reported SMC were greater in carriers than noncarriers (p = 0.02). Study partner-based SMC did not differ between groups (p = 0.21), but in carriers increased with age (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) and decreased with hippocampal volume (r = -0.35, p = 0.08). Cognitively unimpaired PSEN-1 carriers have elevated SMC. Self-reported SMC may be a relatively early indicator of preclinical AD, while partner- reported SMC increases later in preclinical AD, closer to clinical onset. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Cardiovascular abnormalities in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Ecder, Tevfik; Schrier, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Hypertension is a common early symptom of ADPKD, and occurs in approximately 60% of patients before renal function has become impaired. Hypertension is associated with an increased rate of progression to end-stage renal disease and is the most important potentially treatable variable in ADPKD. Left ventricular hypertrophy, which is a powerful, independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, also occurs frequently in patients with ADPKD. Both hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy have important roles in cardiovascular complications in these individuals. Moreover, biventricular diastolic dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, increased carotid intima-media thickness, and impaired coronary flow velocity reserve are present even in young patients with ADPKD who have normal blood pressure and well-preserved renal function. These findings suggest that cardiovascular involvement starts very early in the course of ADPKD. Intracranial and extracranial aneurysms and cardiac valvular defects are other potential cardiovascular problems in patients with ADPKD. Early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, with drugs that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, has the potential to decrease the cardiovascular complications and slow the progression of renal disease in ADPKD. PMID:19322187

  12. Why kidneys fail in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Grantham, Jared J; Mulamalla, Sumanth; Swenson-Fields, Katherine I

    2011-08-23

    The weight of evidence gathered from studies in humans with hereditary polycystic kidney disease (PKD)1 and PKD2 disorders, as well as from experimental animal models, indicates that cysts are primarily responsible for the decline in glomerular filtration rate that occurs fairly late in the course of the disease. The processes underlying this decline include anatomic disruption of glomerular filtration and urinary concentration mechanisms on a massive scale, coupled with compression and obstruction by cysts of adjacent nephrons in the cortex, medulla and papilla. Cysts prevent the drainage of urine from upstream tributaries, which leads to tubule atrophy and loss of functioning kidney parenchyma by mechanisms similar to those found in ureteral obstruction. Cyst-derived chemokines, cytokines and growth factors result in a progression to fibrosis that is comparable with the development of other progressive end-stage renal diseases. Treatment of renal cystic disorders early enough to prevent or reduce cyst formation or slow cyst growth, before the secondary changes become widespread, is a reasonable strategy to prolong the useful function of kidneys in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

  13. [Related reproductive issues on male autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Cai, Hong-cai; Shang, Xue-jun; Huang, Yu-feng

    2015-11-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a most common inherited renal disease, about 50% with a family history, although the exact etiology not yet clear. To date, ADPKD, a multisystem disorder without effective preventive and therapeutic means, has been shown to be detrimental to human health. Recent studies show that severe oligoasthenozoospermia, necrospermia, immotile sperm, azoospermia, epididymal cyst, seminal vesicle cyst, and ejaculatory duct cyst found in male ADPKD patients may lead to male infertility, though the specific mechanisms remain unknown. Structural anomaly of spermatozoa, defect of polycystin, mutation of PKD genes, and micro-deletion of the AZF gene could be the reasons for the higher incidence of abnormal semen quality in male ADPKD patients. Assisted reproductive techniques can increase the chances of pregnancy, whereas the health of the offspring should be taken into consideration. This article presents an overview of reproductive issues concerning infertile male ADPKD patients from the perspective of the morbidity, pathophysiological mechanism, diagnosis, and management of the disease.

  14. Vestibular function in families with inherited autosomal dominant hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Street, Valerie A; Kallman, Jeremy C; Strombom, Paul D; Bramhall, Naomi F; Phillips, James O

    2008-01-01

    The inner ear contains the developmentally related cochlea and peripheral vestibular labyrinth. Given the similar physiology between these two organs, hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction may be expected to occur simultaneously in individuals segregating mutations in inner ear genes. Twenty-two different genes have been discovered that when mutated lead to non-syndromic autosomal dominant hearing loss. A review of the literature indicates that families segregating mutations in 13 of these 22 genes have undergone formal clinical vestibular testing. Formal assessment revealed vestibular dysfunction in families with mutations in ten of these 13 genes. Remarkably, only families with mutations in the COCH and MYO7A genes self-report considerable vestibular challenges. Families segregating mutations in the other eight genes do not self-report significant balance problems and appear to compensate well in everyday life for vestibular deficits discovered during formal clinical vestibular assessment. An example of a family (referred to as the HL1 family) with progressive hearing loss and clinically-detected vestibular hypofunction that does not report vestibular symptoms is described in this review. Notably, one member of the HL1 family with clinically-detected vestibular hypofunction reached the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro.

  15. Caffeine intake by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Vendramini, L C; Nishiura, J L; Baxmann, A C; Heilberg, I P

    2012-09-01

    Because caffeine may induce cyst and kidney enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we evaluated caffeine intake and renal volume using renal ultrasound in ADPKD patients. Caffeine intake was estimated by the average of 24-h dietary recalls obtained on 3 nonconsecutive days in 102 ADPKD patients (68 females, 34 males; 39 ± 12 years) and compared to that of 102 healthy volunteers (74 females, 28 males; 38 ± 14 years). The awareness of the need for caffeine restriction was assessed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Mean caffeine intake was significantly lower in ADPKD patients versus controls (86 vs 134 mg/day), and 63% of the ADPKD patients had been previously aware of caffeine restriction. Caffeine intake did not correlate with renal volume in ADPKD patients. There were no significant differences between the renal volumes of patients in the highest and lowest tertiles of caffeine consumption. Finally, age-adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that renal volume was associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage 3 and the time since diagnosis, but not with caffeine intake. The present small cross-sectional study indicated a low level of caffeine consumption by ADPKD patients when compared to healthy volunteers, which was most likely due to prior awareness of the need for caffeine restriction. Within the range of caffeine intake observed by ADPKD patients in this study (0-471 mg/day), the renal volume was not directly associated with caffeine intake.

  16. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Path Forward.

    PubMed

    Rangan, Gopala K; Lopez-Vargas, Pamela; Nankivell, Brian J; Tchan, Michel; Tong, Allison; Tunnicliffe, David J; Savige, Judy

    2015-11-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the commonest inherited cause of renal failure in adults, and is due to loss-of-function mutations in either the PKD1 or PKD2 genes, which encode polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, respectively. These proteins have an essential role in maintaining the geometric structure of the distal collecting duct in the kidney in adult life, and their dysfunction predisposes to renal cyst formation. The typical renal phenotype of ADPKD is the insidious development of hundreds of renal cysts, which form in childhood and grow progressively through life, causing end-stage kidney failure in the fifth decade in about half affected by the mutation. Over the past 2 decades, major advances in genetics and disease pathogenesis have led to well-conducted randomized controlled trials, and observational studies that have resulted in an accumulation of evidence-based data, and raise hope that the lifetime risk of kidney failure due to ADPKD will be progressively curtailed during this century. This review will provide a contemporary summary of the current state of the field in disease pathogenesis and therapeutics, and also briefly highlights the importance of clinical practice guidelines, patient perspectives, patient-reported outcomes, uniform trial reporting, and health-economics in ADPKD.

  17. Developments in the management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi, Amirali; Reed-Gitomer, Berenice; Kelleher, Catherine; Bekheirnia, Mir Reza; Schrier, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent life- threatening, hereditary disease. ADPKD is more common than sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, Down’s syndrome, and Huntington’s disease combined. ADPKD is a multisystemic disorder characterized by the progressive development of renal cysts and marked renal enlargement. Structural and functional renal deterioration occurs in ADPKD patients and is the fourth leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in adults. Aside from the renal manifestations, extrarenal structural abnormalities, such as liver cysts, cardiovascular abnormalities, and intracranial aneurysms may lead to morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have identified prognostic factors for progressive renal impairment including gender, race, age, proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension and increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Early diagnosis and better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease provides the opportunity to aggressivly treat hypertension with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and thereby potentially reduce LVMI, prevent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and slow progression of the renal disease. PMID:18728845

  18. Impaired default network functional connectivity in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Chhatwal, Jasmeer P.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Johnson, Keith; Benzinger, Tammie L.S.; Jack, Clifford; Ances, Beau M.; Sullivan, Caroline A.; Salloway, Stephen P.; Ringman, John M.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Marcus, Daniel S.; Thompson, Paul; Saykin, Andrew J.; Correia, Stephen; Schofield, Peter R.; Rowe, Christopher C.; Fox, Nick C.; Brickman, Adam M.; Mayeux, Richard; McDade, Eric; Bateman, Randall; Fagan, Anne M.; Goate, Allison M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Buckles, Virginia D.; Morris, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) in a large cross-sectional cohort of subjects from families harboring pathogenic presenilin-1 (PSEN1), presenilin-2 (PSEN2), and amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutations participating in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network. Methods: Eighty-three mutation carriers and 37 asymptomatic noncarriers from the same families underwent fMRI during resting state at 8 centers in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. Using group-independent component analysis, fcMRI was compared using mutation status and Clinical Dementia Rating to stratify groups, and related to each participant's estimated years from expected symptom onset (eYO). Results: We observed significantly decreased DMN fcMRI in mutation carriers with increasing Clinical Dementia Rating, most evident in the precuneus/posterior cingulate and parietal cortices (p < 0.001). Comparison of asymptomatic mutation carriers with noncarriers demonstrated decreased fcMRI in the precuneus/posterior cingulate (p = 0.014) and right parietal cortex (p = 0.0016). We observed a significant interaction between mutation carrier status and eYO, with decreases in DMN fcMRI observed as mutation carriers approached and surpassed their eYO. Conclusion: Functional disruption of the DMN occurs early in the course of autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease, beginning before clinically evident symptoms, and worsening with increased impairment. These findings suggest that DMN fcMRI may prove useful as a biomarker across a wide spectrum of disease, and support the feasibility of DMN fcMRI as a secondary endpoint in upcoming multicenter clinical trials in Alzheimer disease. PMID:23884042

  19. Genetics, phenotype, and natural history of autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.E. |; Dale, D.C.

    1996-12-30

    Cyclic hematopoiesis (CH, or cyclic neutropenia) is a rare disease manifested by transient severe neutropenia that recurs approximately every 21 days. The hematologic profile of families with the autosomal dominant form (ADCH) has not been well characterized, and it is unknown if the phenotype is distinct from the more common sporadic congenital or acquired forms of CH. We studied nine ADCH families whose children displayed typical CH blood patterns. Pedigrees confirmed dominant inheritance without evidence of heterogeneity or decreased penetrance; three pedigrees suggested new mutations. Families were Caucasian with exception of one with a Cherokee Native American founder. A wide spectrum of symptom severity, ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening illness, was observed within families. The phenotype changed with age. Children displayed typical neutrophil cycles with symptoms of mucosal ulceration, lymphadenopathy, and infections. Adults often had fewer and milder symptoms, sometimes accompanied by mild chronic neutropenia without distinct cycles. While CH is commonly described as {open_quotes}benign{close_quotes}, four children in three of the nine families died of Clostridium or E. coli colitis, documenting the need for urgent evaluation of abdominal pain. Misdiagnosis with other neutropenias was common but can be avoided by serial blood counts in index cases. Genetic counseling requires specific histories and complete blood counts in relatives at risk to assess status regardless of symptoms, especially to determine individuals with new mutations. We propose diagnostic criteria for ADCH in affected children and adults. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment resulted in dramatic improvement of neutropenia and morbidity. The differential diagnosis from other forms of familial neutropenia is reviewed. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: clinical and genetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Sessa, A; Ghiggeri, G M; Turco, A E

    1997-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited systemic disease caused by at least three different genes. The renal and extrarenal clinical manifestations, and the systemic complications due to cystic and non-cystic abnormalities in ADPKD patients have been widely investigated. Cellular and molecular aspects of cystogenetic mechanisms concern epithelial tubular cell proliferation, remodelling of extracellular matrix, fluid secretion and accumulation, and relations between cell proliferation and apoptosis. In vitro studies on cystogenesis suggest a key role of cell-to-cell or cell-to-matrix interactions. Surface proteins mediating cell-to-cell contact, such as E-cadherin (polycystin?), integrin interactions, growth factors, receptor expression, are involved in the process of differentiation of the cellular condition and of the extracellular matrix. Blocking any one of these complex mechanisms should influence the orientation and polarization of epithelial tubular cells and should mediate the inversion of fluid secretion which ends in renal cystogenesis. ADPKD comprises at least three phenotypically indistinguishable but genetically distinct entities, caused by mutations in three autosomal genes: PKD1 (chromosome 16p13.3) is present in about 85% of patients; PKD2 (chromosome 4q13q23) in 10%; PKD3 (unknown chromosome) in a few families. PCR-based mutation detection methods, automated DNA sequencing, and other "functional" methods are used to screen and analyse ADPKD patients. It is not yet known whether the mutations identified so far in PKD1 and PKD2 inactivate the genes or generate an aberrant product. The products of PKD1 and PKD2 genes have been called polycystin 1 and 2. Polycystins are members of a family of interactive proteins involved in complex adhesive cell-cell, cell-matrix, protein-protein, and protein-carbohydrate interactions in the extracellular compartment, and are involved in the same pathway (ion channel regulator? ion channel

  1. Messenger RNA processing is altered in autosomal dominant leukodystrophy†

    PubMed Central

    Bartoletti-Stella, Anna; Gasparini, Laura; Giacomini, Caterina; Corrado, Patrizia; Terlizzi, Rossana; Giorgio, Elisa; Magini, Pamela; Seri, Marco; Baruzzi, Agostino; Parchi, Piero; Brusco, Alfredo; Cortelli, Pietro; Capellari, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Adult-onset autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterized by autonomic dysfunction, followed by cerebellar and pyramidal features. ADLD is caused by duplication of the lamin B1 gene (LMNB1), which leads to its increased expression. The molecular pathways involved in the disease are still poorly understood. Hence, we analyzed global gene expression in fibroblasts and whole blood of LMNB1 duplication carriers and used Gene Set Enrichment Analysis to explore their gene signatures. We found that LMNB1 duplication is associated with dysregulation of genes involved in the immune system, neuronal and skeletal development. Genes with an altered transcriptional profile clustered in specific genomic regions. Among the dysregulated genes, we further studied the role of RAVER2, which we found to be overexpressed at mRNA and protein level. RAVER2 encodes a putative trans regulator of the splicing repressor polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) and is likely implicated in alternative splicing regulation. Functional studies demonstrated an abnormal splicing pattern of several PTB-target genes and of the myelin protein gene PLP1, previously demonstrated to be involved in ADLD. Mutant mice with different lamin B1 expression levels confirmed that Raver2 expression is dependent on lamin B1 in neural tissue and determines an altered splicing pattern of PTB-target genes and Plp1. Overall our results demonstrate that deregulation of lamin B1 expression induces modified splicing of several genes, likely driven by raver-2 overexpression, and suggest that an alteration of mRNA processing could be a pathogenic mechanism in ADLD. PMID:25637521

  2. Multigenerational autosomal dominant inheritance of 5p chromosomal deletions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Willing, Marcia; Grange, Dorothy K; Shinawi, Marwan; Manwaring, Linda; Vineyard, Marisa; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Cottrell, Catherine E

    2016-03-01

    Deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-) is associated with phenotypic features including a cat-like cry in infancy, dysmorphic facial features, microcephaly, and intellectual disability, and when encompassing a minimal critical region, may be defined as Cri-du-Chat syndrome (CdCS). Most 5p deletions are de novo in origin, and familial cases are often associated with translocation and inversion. Herein, we report three multigenerational families carrying 5p terminal deletions of different size transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner causing variable clinical findings. Terminal 5p deletions and the mode of inheritance were clinically characterized and molecularly analyzed by a combination of microarray and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses. Shared phenotypic features documented in this cohort included neuropsychiatric findings, poor growth, and dysmorphic facial features. This study supports newly recognized effects of aberrant SEMA5A and CTNND2 dosage on severity of autistic and cognitive phenotypes. Comparative analysis of the breakpoints narrows the critical region for the cat-like cry down to an interval less than 1 Mb encompassing a candidate gene ICE1, which regulates small nuclear RNA transcription. This study also indicates that familial terminal 5p deletion is a rare presentation displaying intra- and inter-familial phenotypic variability, the latter of which may be attributed to size and gene content of the deletion. The observed intra-familial phenotypic heterogeneity suggests that additional modifying elements including genetic and environmental factors may have an impact on the clinical manifestations observed in 5p deletion carriers, and in time, further high resolution studies of 5p deletion breakpoints will continue to aid in defining genotype-phenotype correlations.

  3. Heterozygous Reelin Mutations Cause Autosomal-Dominant Lateral Temporal Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dazzo, Emanuela; Fanciulli, Manuela; Serioli, Elena; Minervini, Giovanni; Pulitano, Patrizia; Binelli, Simona; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Luisi, Concetta; Pasini, Elena; Striano, Salvatore; Striano, Pasquale; Coppola, Giangennaro; Chiavegato, Angela; Radovic, Slobodanka; Spadotto, Alessandro; Uzzau, Sergio; La Neve, Angela; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Mecarelli, Oriano; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.; Ottman, Ruth; Michelucci, Roberto; Nobile, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) is a genetic epilepsy syndrome clinically characterized by focal seizures with prominent auditory symptoms. ADLTE is genetically heterogeneous, and mutations in LGI1 account for fewer than 50% of affected families. Here, we report the identification of causal mutations in reelin (RELN) in seven ADLTE-affected families without LGI1 mutations. We initially investigated 13 ADLTE-affected families by performing SNP-array linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing and identified three heterozygous missense mutations co-segregating with the syndrome. Subsequent analysis of 15 small ADLTE-affected families revealed four additional missense mutations. 3D modeling predicted that all mutations have structural effects on protein-domain folding. Overall, RELN mutations occurred in 7/40 (17.5%) ADLTE-affected families. RELN encodes a secreted protein, Reelin, which has important functions in both the developing and adult brain and is also found in the blood serum. We show that ADLTE-related mutations significantly decrease serum levels of Reelin, suggesting an inhibitory effect of mutations on protein secretion. We also show that Reelin and LGI1 co-localize in a subset of rat brain neurons, supporting an involvement of both proteins in a common molecular pathway underlying ADLTE. Homozygous RELN mutations are known to cause lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia. Our findings extend the spectrum of neurological disorders associated with RELN mutations and establish a link between RELN and LGI1, which play key regulatory roles in both the developing and adult brain. PMID:26046367

  4. Bosutinib versus Placebo for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Tesar, Vladimir; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz; Pei, York; Barash, Irina; Shannon, Megan; Li, Ray; Williams, Jason H; Levisetti, Matteo; Arkin, Steven; Serra, Andreas

    2017-08-24

    Overactivation of Src has been linked to the pathogenesis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). This phase 2, multisite study assessed the efficacy and safety of bosutinib, an oral dual Src/Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with ADPKD. Patients with ADPKD, eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and total kidney volume ≥750 ml were randomized 1:1:1 to bosutinib 200 mg/d, bosutinib 400 mg/d, or placebo for ≤24 months. The primary endpoint was annualized rate of kidney enlargement in patients treated for ≥2 weeks who had at least one postbaseline magnetic resonance imaging scan that was preceded by a 30-day washout (modified intent-to-treat population). Of 172 enrolled patients, 169 received at least one study dose. Per protocol amendment, doses for 24 patients who initially received bosutinib at 400 mg/d were later reduced to 200 mg/d. The annual rate of kidney enlargement was reduced by 66% for bosutinib 200 mg/d versus placebo (1.63% versus 4.74%, respectively; P=0.01) and by 82% for pooled bosutinib versus placebo (0.84% versus 4.74%, respectively; P<0.001). Over the treatment period, patients receiving placebo or bosutinib had similar annualized eGFR decline. Gastrointestinal and liver-related adverse events were the most frequent toxicities. In conclusion, compared with placebo, bosutinib at 200 mg/d reduced kidney growth in patients with ADPKD. The overall gastrointestinal and liver toxicity profile was consistent with the profile in prior studies of bosutinib; no new toxicities were identified. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01233869). Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia (Hypoparathyroidism) Types 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Roszko, Kelly L.; Bi, Ruiye D.; Mannstadt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular calcium is essential for life and its concentration in the blood is maintained within a narrow range. This is achieved by a feedback loop that receives input from the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), expressed on the surface of parathyroid cells. In response to low ionized calcium, the parathyroids increase secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) which increases serum calcium. The CASR is also highly expressed in the kidneys, where it regulates the reabsorption of calcium from the primary filtrate. Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) type 1 is caused by heterozygous activating mutations in the CASR which increase the sensitivity of the CASR to extracellular ionized calcium. Consequently, PTH synthesis and secretion are suppressed at normal ionized calcium concentrations. Patients present with hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, low magnesium levels, and low or low-normal levels of PTH. Urinary calcium excretion is typically increased due to the decrease in circulating PTH concentrations and by the activation of the renal tubular CASR. Therapeutic attempts using CASR antagonists (calcilytics) to treat ADH are currently under investigation. Recently, heterozygous mutations in the alpha subunit of the G protein G11 (Gα11) have been identified in patients with ADH, and this has been classified as ADH type 2. ADH2 mutations lead to a gain-of-function of Gα11, a key mediator of CASR signaling. Therefore, the mechanism of hypocalcemia appears similar to that of activating mutations in the CASR, namely an increase in the sensitivity of parathyroid cells to extracellular ionized calcium. Studies of activating mutations in the CASR and gain-of-function mutations in Gα11 can help define new drug targets and improve medical management of patients with ADH types 1 and 2. PMID:27803672

  6. Current management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most frequent cause of genetic renal disease affecting approximately 4 to 7 million individuals worldwide and accounting for 7%-15% of patients on renal replacement therapy, is a systemic disorder mainly involving the kidney but cysts can also occur in other organs such as the liver, pancreas, arachnoid membrane and seminal vesicles. Though computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were similar in evaluating 81% of cystic lesions of the kidney, MRI may depict septa, wall thickening or enhancement leading to upgrade in cyst classification that can affect management. A screening strategy for intracranial aneurysms would provide 1.0 additional year of life without neurological disability to a 20-year-old patient with ADPKD and reduce the financial impact on society of the disease. Current treatment strategies include reducing: cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, cell proliferation and fluid secretion. Several randomised clinical trials (RCT) including mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, somatostatin analogues and a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist have been performed to study the effect of diverse drugs on growth of renal and hepatic cysts, and on deterioration of renal function. Prophylactic native nephrectomy is indicated in patients with a history of cyst infection or recurrent haemorrhage or to those in whom space must be made to implant the graft. The absence of large RCT on various aspects of the disease and its treatment leaves considerable uncertainty and ambiguity in many aspects of ADPKD patient care as it relates to end stage renal disease (ESRD). The outlook of patients with ADPKD is improving and is in fact much better than that for patients in ESRD due to other causes. This review highlights the need for well-structured RCTs as a first step towards trying newer interventions so as to develop updated clinical management guidelines. PMID:26380198

  7. Treatment of hypomagnesemia.

    PubMed

    Ayuk, John; Gittoes, Neil J L

    2014-04-01

    Serum magnesium concentration is determined by the interplay of intestinal absorption and renal excretion. Hypomagnesemia can occur as a result of insufficient magnesium intake, increased gastrointestinal or renal loss, or redistribution from extracellular to intracellular compartments. A number of drugs are known to cause hypomagnesemia, including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). We report the case of a patient with symptomatic hypomagnesemia due to short bowel syndrome and PPI therapy. Investigations revealed low 24-hour urinary magnesium excretion and secondary hypocalcemia. PPI treatment was withdrawn and the patient was managed with intravenous and oral magnesium and calcium replacement. This teaching case provides an evidence-based discussion of the treatment of hypomagnesemia.

  8. Tolvaptan in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Vicente E.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Devuyst, Olivier; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Grantham, Jared J.; Higashihara, Eiji; Perrone, Ronald D.; Krasa, Holly B.; Ouyang, John; Czerwiec, Frank S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The course of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is often associated with pain, hypertension, and kidney failure. Preclinical studies indicated that vasopressin V2-receptor antagonists inhibit cyst growth and slow the decline of kidney function. METHODS In this phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-year trial, we randomly assigned 1445 patients, 18 to 50 years of age, who had ADPKD with a total kidney volume of 750 ml or more and an estimated creatinine clearance of 60 ml per minute or more, in a 2:1 ratio to receive tolvaptan, a V2-receptor antagonist, at the highest of three twice-daily dose regimens that the patient found tolerable, or placebo. The primary outcome was the annual rate of change in the total kidney volume. Sequential secondary end points included a composite of time to clinical progression (defined as worsening kidney function, kidney pain, hypertension, and albuminuria) and rate of kidney-function decline. RESULTS Over a 3-year period, the increase in total kidney volume in the tolvaptan group was 2.8% per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 3.1), versus 5.5% per year in the placebo group (95% CI, 5.1 to 6.0; P<0.001). The composite end point favored tolvaptan over placebo (44 vs. 50 events per 100 follow-up-years, P = 0.01), with lower rates of worsening kidney function (2 vs. 5 events per 100 person-years of follow-up, P<0.001) and kidney pain (5 vs. 7 events per 100 person-years of follow-up, P = 0.007). Tolvaptan was associated with a slower decline in kidney function (reciprocal of the serum creatinine level, −2.61 [mg per milliliter]−1 per year vs. −3.81 [mg per milliliter]−1 per year; P<0.001). There were fewer ADPKD-related adverse events in the tolvaptan group but more events related to aquaresis (excretion of electrolyte-free water) and hepatic adverse events unrelated to ADPKD, contributing to a higher discontinuation rate (23%, vs. 14% in the placebo group). CONCLUSIONS

  9. Angiotensin blockade in late autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Torres, Vicente E; Abebe, Kaleab Z; Chapman, Arlene B; Schrier, Robert W; Braun, William E; Steinman, Theodore I; Winklhofer, Franz T; Brosnahan, Godela; Czarnecki, Peter G; Hogan, Marie C; Miskulin, Dana C; Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic F; Grantham, Jared J; Harris, Peter C; Flessner, Michael F; Moore, Charity G; Perrone, Ronald D

    2014-12-11

    Hypertension develops early in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with disease progression. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with ADPKD. Dual blockade of the RAAS may circumvent compensatory mechanisms that limit the efficacy of monotherapy with an angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin II-receptor blocker (ARB). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 486 patients, 18 to 64 years of age, with ADPKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR], 25 to 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area) to receive an ACE inhibitor (lisinopril) and placebo or lisinopril and an ARB (telmisartan), with the doses adjusted to achieve a blood pressure of 110/70 to 130/80 mm Hg. The composite primary outcome was the time to death, end-stage renal disease, or a 50% reduction from the baseline estimated GFR. Secondary outcomes included the rates of change in urinary aldosterone and albumin excretion, frequency of hospitalizations for any cause and for cardiovascular causes, incidence of pain, frequency of ADPKD-related symptoms, quality of life, and adverse study-medication effects. Patients were followed for 5 to 8 years. There was no significant difference between the study groups in the incidence of the composite primary outcome (hazard ratio with lisinopril-telmisartan, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.42). The two treatments controlled blood pressure and lowered urinary aldosterone excretion similarly. The rates of decline in the estimated GFR, urinary albumin excretion, and other secondary outcomes and adverse events, including hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury, were also similar in the two groups. Monotherapy with an ACE inhibitor was associated with blood-pressure control in most patients with ADPKD and stage 3 chronic kidney disease. The addition of an ARB did not alter the decline

  10. Blood pressure in early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Schrier, Robert W; Abebe, Kaleab Z; Perrone, Ronald D; Torres, Vicente E; Braun, William E; Steinman, Theodore I; Winklhofer, Franz T; Brosnahan, Godela; Czarnecki, Peter G; Hogan, Marie C; Miskulin, Dana C; Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic F; Grantham, Jared J; Harris, Peter C; Flessner, Michael F; Bae, Kyongtae T; Moore, Charity G; Chapman, Arlene B

    2014-12-11

    Hypertension is common in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with increased total kidney volume, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and progression of kidney disease. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 558 hypertensive participants with ADPKD (15 to 49 years of age, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR] >60 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area) to either a standard blood-pressure target (120/70 to 130/80 mm Hg) or a low blood-pressure target (95/60 to 110/75 mm Hg) and to either an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril) plus an angiotensin-receptor blocker (telmisartan) or lisinopril plus placebo. The primary outcome was the annual percentage change in the total kidney volume. The annual percentage increase in total kidney volume was significantly lower in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (5.6% vs. 6.6%, P=0.006), without significant differences between the lisinopril-telmisartan group and the lisinopril-placebo group. The rate of change in estimated GFR was similar in the two medication groups, with a negative slope difference in the short term in the low-blood-pressure group as compared with the standard-blood-pressure group (P<0.001) and a marginally positive slope difference in the long term (P=0.05). The left-ventricular-mass index decreased more in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (-1.17 vs. -0.57 g per square meter per year, P<0.001); urinary albumin excretion was reduced by 3.77% with the low-pressure target and increased by 2.43% with the standard target (P<0.001). Dizziness and light-headedness were more common in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (80.7% vs. 69.4%, P=0.002). In early ADPKD, the combination of lisinopril and telmisartan did not significantly alter the rate of increase in total kidney volume. As

  11. Angiotensin Blockade in Late Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Vicente E.; Abebe, Kaleab Z.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Schrier, Robert W.; Braun, William E.; Steinman, Theodore I.; Winklhofer, Franz T.; Brosnahan, Godela; Czarnecki, Peter G.; Hogan, Marie C.; Miskulin, Dana C.; Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic F.; Grantham, Jared J.; Harris, Peter C.; Flessner, Michael F.; Moore, Charity G.; Perrone, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hypertension develops early in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with disease progression. The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with ADPKD. Dual blockade of the RAAS may circumvent compensatory mechanisms that limit the efficacy of monotherapy with an angiotensin-converting–enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin II–receptor blocker (ARB). METHODS In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 486 patients, 18 to 64 years of age, with ADPKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR], 25 to 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area) to receive an ACE inhibitor (lisinopril) and placebo or lisinopril and an ARB (telmisartan), with the doses adjusted to achieve a blood pressure of 110/70 to 130/80 mm Hg. The composite primary outcome was the time to death, end-stage renal disease, or a 50% reduction from the baseline estimated GFR. Secondary outcomes included the rates of change in urinary aldosterone and albumin excretion, frequency of hospitalizations for any cause and for cardiovascular causes, incidence of pain, frequency of ADPKD-related symptoms, quality of life, and adverse study-medication effects. Patients were followed for 5 to 8 years. RESULTS There was no significant difference between the study groups in the incidence of the composite primary outcome (hazard ratio with lisinopril–telmisartan, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.42). The two treatments controlled blood pressure and lowered urinary aldosterone excretion similarly. The rates of decline in the estimated GFR, urinary albumin excretion, and other secondary outcomes and adverse events, including hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury, were also similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Monotherapy with an ACE inhibitor was associated with blood-pressure control in most patients with ADPKD and stage 3 chronic kidney disease

  12. Blood Pressure in Early Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schrier, Robert W.; Abebe, Kaleab Z.; Perrone, Ronald D.; Torres, Vicente E.; Braun, William E.; Steinman, Theodore I.; Winklhofer, Franz T.; Brosnahan, Godela; Czarnecki, Peter G.; Hogan, Marie C.; Miskulin, Dana C.; Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic F.; Grantham, Jared J.; Harris, Peter C.; Flessner, Michael F.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Moore, Charity G.; Chapman, Arlene B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hypertension is common in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with increased total kidney volume, activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, and progression of kidney disease. METHODS In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 558 hypertensive participants with ADPKD (15 to 49 years of age, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR] >60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area) to either a standard blood-pressure target (120/70 to 130/80 mm Hg) or a low blood-pressure target (95/60 to 110/75 mm Hg) and to either an angiotensin-converting–enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril) plus an angiotensin-receptor blocker (telmisartan) or lisinopril plus placebo. The primary outcome was the annual percentage change in the total kidney volume. RESULTS The annual percentage increase in total kidney volume was significantly lower in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (5.6% vs. 6.6%, P = 0.006), without significant differences between the lisinopril–telmisartan group and the lisinopril–placebo group. The rate of change in estimated GFR was similar in the two medication groups, with a negative slope difference in the short term in the low-blood-pressure group as compared with the standard-blood-pressure group (P<0.001) and a marginally positive slope difference in the long term (P = 0.05). The left-ventricular-mass index decreased more in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (−1.17 vs. −0.57 g per square meter per year, P<0.001); urinary albumin excretion was reduced by 3.77% with the low-pressure target and increased by 2.43% with the standard target (P<0.001). Dizziness and light-headedness were more common in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (80.7% vs. 69.4%, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS In early ADPKD, the combination of lisinopril and telmisartan did not significantly

  13. Tolvaptan in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Torres, Vicente E; Chapman, Arlene B; Devuyst, Olivier; Gansevoort, Ron T; Grantham, Jared J; Higashihara, Eiji; Perrone, Ronald D; Krasa, Holly B; Ouyang, John; Czerwiec, Frank S

    2012-12-20

    The course of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is often associated with pain, hypertension, and kidney failure. Preclinical studies indicated that vasopressin V(2)-receptor antagonists inhibit cyst growth and slow the decline of kidney function. In this phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-year trial, we randomly assigned 1445 patients, 18 to 50 years of age, who had ADPKD with a total kidney volume of 750 ml or more and an estimated creatinine clearance of 60 ml per minute or more, in a 2:1 ratio to receive tolvaptan, a V(2)-receptor antagonist, at the highest of three twice-daily dose regimens that the patient found tolerable, or placebo. The primary outcome was the annual rate of change in the total kidney volume. Sequential secondary end points included a composite of time to clinical progression (defined as worsening kidney function, kidney pain, hypertension, and albuminuria) and rate of kidney-function decline. Over a 3-year period, the increase in total kidney volume in the tolvaptan group was 2.8% per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 3.1), versus 5.5% per year in the placebo group (95% CI, 5.1 to 6.0; P<0.001). The composite end point favored tolvaptan over placebo (44 vs. 50 events per 100 follow-up-years, P=0.01), with lower rates of worsening kidney function (2 vs. 5 events per 100 person-years of follow-up, P<0.001) and kidney pain (5 vs. 7 events per 100 person-years of follow-up, P=0.007). Tolvaptan was associated with a slower decline in kidney function (reciprocal of the serum creatinine level, -2.61 [mg per milliliter](-1) per year vs. -3.81 [mg per milliliter](-1) per year; P<0.001). There were fewer ADPKD-related adverse events in the tolvaptan group but more events related to aquaresis (excretion of electrolyte-free water) and hepatic adverse events unrelated to ADPKD, contributing to a higher discontinuation rate (23%, vs. 14% in the placebo group). Tolvaptan, as compared with placebo, slowed

  14. Bilateral Nephrectomy for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease and Timing of Kidney Transplant: A Review of the Technical Advances in Surgical Management of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Disease.

    PubMed

    Dengu, Fungai; Azhar, Bilal; Patel, Shaneel; Hakim, Nadey

    2015-06-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic disease is a multisystem inherited condition affecting the kidneys and is an important cause of end-stage renal disease. Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic disease experience symptoms related to size and cystic nature of their kidneys, which can be difficult to manage. Traditionally, the only surgical option for management was open bilateral/unilateral native nephrectomy, which carried with it significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it was deemed unsafe and rarely performed. However, surgery for autosomal dominant polycystic disease has evolved rapidly with the advent of minimally invasive surgery and improved medical management of end-stage renal failure patients. Laparoscopic and hand-assisted laparoscopic techniques have been adopted and have demonstrated reduced morbidity. The timing of this intervention in relation to transplant is controversial and presents a major challenge in managing this patient population.

  15. Seizures Related to Hypomagnesemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Becky Biqi; Prasad, Chitra; Kobrzynski, Marta; Campbell, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Childhood seizures have various nonneurological etiologies. The patient’s magnesium levels should be measured when evaluating afebrile seizures. The purpose of the current case series is to describe a systematic approach for diagnosing hypomagnesemia using 3 recent patient cases. Methods: This case series describes 3 patients with unprovoked hypomagnesemia-associated seizures. The authors describe the differential diagnosis, pathophysiology, and the workup of hypomagnesemia-associated seizures. Results: Hypomagnesemia contributed to the cause of the seizures in all 3 cases. Various causes of hypomagnesemia were investigated, including genetic etiologies. All 3 patients were maintained at a magnesium level >0.65 mmol/L, which improved or eliminated the seizures. Significance: Magnesium levels should always be measured when trying to determine the etiology of seizures. Hypomagnesemia and afebrile seizures should be treated with the goal of maintaining a magnesium concentration >0.65 mmol/L. Although rare, genetic causes of hypomagnesemia should be considered, once common causes of hypomagnesemia are ruled out. PMID:28503619

  16. Genetics Home Reference: cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions CADASIL cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy ...

  17. Renal relevant radiology: radiologic imaging in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic; Mittal, Ankush; Mittal, Pardeep; Chapman, Arlene

    2014-02-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease is a systemic disorder and the most common hereditary renal disease, which is characterized by cyst growth, progressive renal enlargement, and development of renal failure. The cystic nature of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and its renal and extrarenal complications (kidney stones, cyst hemorrhage, intracerebral aneurysm, liver cysts, cardiac valve abnormalities, etc.) give radiologic imaging studies a central role in the management of these patients. This article reviews the indications, comparative use, and limitation of various imaging modalities (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography scan, Positron emission tomography scan, and renal scintigraphy) for the diagnosis and management of complications in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Finally, this work provides evidence for the value of total kidney volume to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

  18. Renal Relevant Radiology: Radiologic Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic; Mittal, Ankush; Mittal, Pardeep

    2014-01-01

    Summary Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease is a systemic disorder and the most common hereditary renal disease, which is characterized by cyst growth, progressive renal enlargement, and development of renal failure. The cystic nature of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and its renal and extrarenal complications (kidney stones, cyst hemorrhage, intracerebral aneurysm, liver cysts, cardiac valve abnormalities, etc.) give radiologic imaging studies a central role in the management of these patients. This article reviews the indications, comparative use, and limitation of various imaging modalities (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography scan, Positron emission tomography scan, and renal scintigraphy) for the diagnosis and management of complications in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Finally, this work provides evidence for the value of total kidney volume to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:24370765

  19. Autosomal dominant chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and primary hypothyroidism complicated by oesophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koch, D; Lilic, D; Carmichael, A J

    2009-12-01

    We describe three generations of a white family with autosomal dominant chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMCC) and primary hypothyroidism, which was complicated by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oesophagus in the index case. We report this family to increase awareness of this rare autosomal dominant variant of CMCC endocrinopathy syndrome associated with primary hypothyroidism without evidence of autoimmune endocrinopathy, and to highlight the risk of developing oesophageal SCC at a young age as a fatal complication of CMCC.

  20. Renin-Angiotensin-aldosterone system in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Tkachenko, Oleksandra; Helal, Imed; Shchekochikhin, Dmitry; Schrier, Robert W

    2013-02-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most frequent life-threatening hereditary disease. Prognostic factors for progressive renal impairment have been identified such as gender, race, age, proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension. Hypertension is the only risk factor for renal dysfunction in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, which is presently treatable. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of hypertension will help in defining appropriate interventions. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system is the pivotal factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Basic research and clinical studies in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease implicated activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system. Therapy of hypertension in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blocker has the potential to prevent cardiovascular complications and slow the progression of renal disease. The results of two large multicenter double-blind placebo controlled randomized clinical trials (the HALT-PKD trials) possibly will elucidate the beneficial effects of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system inhibition in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

  1. Hypomagnesemia: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Pham, Phuong-Chi T; Pham, Phuong-Anh T; Pham, Son V; Pham, Phuong-Truc T; Pham, Phuong-Mai T; Pham, Phuong-Thu T

    2014-01-01

    Although magnesium is involved in a wide spectrum of vital functions in normal human physiology, the significance of hypomagnesemia and necessity for its treatment are under-recognized and underappreciated in clinical practice. In the current review, we first present an overview of the clinical significance of hypomagnesemia and normal magnesium metabolism, with a focus on renal magnesium handling. Subsequently, we review the literature for both congenital and acquired hypomagnesemic conditions that affect the various steps in normal magnesium metabolism. Finally, we present an approach to the routine evaluation and suggested management of hypomagnesemia.

  2. A gene for autosomal dominant congenital nystagmus localizes to 6p12

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrison, J.B.; Arnould, V.J.; Koenekoop, R.K.

    1996-05-01

    Congenital nystagmus is an idiopathic disorder characterized by bilateral ocular oscillations usually manifest during infancy. Vision is typically decreased due to slippage of images across the fovea. As such, visual acuity correlates with nystagmus intensity, which is the amplitude and frequency of eye movements at a given position of gaze. X-linked, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive pedigrees have been described, but no mapping studies have been published. We recently described a large pedigree with autosomal dominant congenital nystagmus. A genome-wide search resulted in six markers on 6p linked by two-point analysis at {theta} = 0 (D6S459, D6S452, D6S465, FTHP1, D6S257, D6S430). Haplotype analysis localizes the gene for autosomal dominant congenital motor mystagmus to an 18-cM region between D6S271 and D6S455. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. High serum soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Sari, Funda; Inci, Ayca; Dolu, Suleyman; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Cetinkaya, Ramazan; Ersoy, Fettah Fevzi

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to determine fibroblast growth factor-23 and soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. A total of 76 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and 32 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23 and soluble α-Klotho levels were measured with ELISA kits. Parathyroid hormone, phosphate, calcium, creatinine, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels, urinary protein to creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate were also measured or calculated. Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease had significantly higher serum parathyroid hormone (p<0.001), fibroblast growth factor-23 (p<0.001), soluble α-Klotho levels (p=0.001) and lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels (p<0.001) as compared with healthy volunteers. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23, soluble α-Klotho and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were similar in all five chronic kidney disease stages of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (p>0.05). Fibroblast growth factor-23 (r=-0.251, p=0.034) and soluble α-Klotho levels (r=-0.251, p=0.034) were found to be negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. This study shows increased fibroblast growth factor-23 levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease which is in harmony with the general trend in patients with chronic kidney disease of other aetiologies, but, unlike them, also a significant increase in serum soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease suggesting an aberrant production or a decreased clearance of α-Klotho molecule. Considering the unique increases in erythropoietin levels due to erythropoietin production in renal cysts, we assume, patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease may potentially have different soluble α-Klotho production/clearance characteristics than the patients with other parenchymal renal diseases.

  4. Pontobulbar palsy and neurosensory deafness (Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome) with possible autosomal dominant inheritance.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, S A; Nevin, N C; Harding, A E

    1990-01-01

    A female with the Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is described. The patient's father, a paternal uncle, and possibly a paternal first cousin had neurosensory deafness and a paternal aunt had clinical symptoms indicative of the syndrome. This family raises the possibility that the disorder is genetically heterogeneous with autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant forms. Alternatively, it could be caused by a mutant gene on the X chromosome. Images PMID:2325091

  5. Amyloidosis in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and tuberculosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sar, Fuat; Taylan, Ismail; Kutlu, Cigdem; Caymaz, Muazzez Sezer; Tatli, Emel; Kazancioglu, Rumeyza

    2007-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disorder characterized by the development and growth of cysts in the kidneys. Urinary protein excretion is generally less than 1 g/day, and the association of the nephrotic syndrome with this condition is considered rare. A 39-year-old man with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease and nephrotic-range proteiuria is described. During admission, he had general edema and a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. The patient had hyperlipidemia, hypoalbuminemia, and 11.8 g/day proteinuria. The gingiva and rectum biopsies were performed in order to evaluate the etiology of nephrotic syndrome, and revealed AA amyloidosis thought to be secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. We maintained the antituberculous treatment and began colchicine at a dose of 2 g/day and candesartan 8 mg/day. To our knowledge, this is the first autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease case with nephrotic syndrome due to amyloidosis secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis.

  6. Genetics advances in autosomal dominant focal epilepsies: focus on DEPDC5.

    PubMed

    Baulac, Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    Rare multiplex families with autosomal dominant focal epilepsies have been described with specific age-related and electroclinical syndromes: autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE), familial temporal lobe epilepsy (FTLE), and familial focal epilepsy with variable foci (FFEVF). Molecular genetic advances in inherited focal epilepsies have pinpointed their genetic heterogeneity and the fact that they are mediated by different biological pathways: ion channel subunit genes have been linked to ADNFLE (CHRNA4, CHRNA2, CHRNB2, and KCNT1, encoding, respectively, the α4, α2, and β2 subunits of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, and a potassium channel subunit); neuronal secreted protein (LGI1-encoding epitempin) has been linked to autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features; and mTORC1-repressor DEPDC5 (DEP domain-containing protein 5) gene has recently been reported in a broad spectrum of inherited focal epilepsies (ADNFLE, FTLE, FFEVF). This chapter focuses on DEPDC5, a newly identified gene.

  7. Autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia: Tight linkage to chromosome 15q

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.; Wu, C.B.; Jones, S.M.; Lesicki, A.; Reinglass, T.; Sharp, G.B.; Lange, B.M.; Varvil, T.; Otterud, B.; Leppert, M.

    1995-01-01

    Autosomal dominant, uncomplicated familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by insidiously progressive lower-extremity spasticity. Recently, a locus on chromosome 14q was shown to be tightly linked with the disorder in one of three families. We performed linkage analysis in a kindred with autosomal dominant uncomplicated FSP. After excluding the chromosome 14q locus, we observed tight linkage of the disorder to a group of markers on chromosome 15q (maximum two-point lod score 9.70; {theta} = .05). Our results clearly establish the existence of a locus for autosomal dominant FSP in the centromeric region of chromosome 15q. Comparing clinical and genetic features in FSP families linked to chromosome 14q with those linked to chromosome 15q may provide insight into the pathophysiology of this disorder. 34 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Clinical and Radiological Findings of Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis Type II: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Priyanka; Sharda, Neelkamal; Bhowate, Rahul R.

    2013-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited genetic disease characterized by sclerosis of the skeleton caused by the absence or malfunction of osteoclasts. Three distinct forms of the disease have been recognized, autosomal dominant osteopetrosis being the most common. Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis exhibits a heterogeneous trait with milder symptoms, often at later childhood or adulthood. The aim of this case report is to present the clinical and radiographic features of a 35-year-old female patient with autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II who exhibited features of chronic generalised periodontitis, and the radiographs revealed generalised osteosclerosis and hallmark radiographic features of ADO type II, that is, “bone-within-bone appearance” and “Erlenmeyer-flask deformity.” PMID:24260721

  9. Gene therapy for autosomal dominant disorders of keratin.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Alfred S; Glazer, Peter M; Milstone, Leonard M

    2005-10-01

    Dominant mutations that interfere with the assembly of keratin filaments cause painful and disfiguring epidermal diseases like pachyonychia congenita and epidermolysis bullosa simplex. Genetic therapies for such diseases must either suppress the production of the toxic proteins or correct the genetic defect in the chromosome. Because epidermal skin cells may be genetically modified in tissue culture or in situ, gene correction is a legitimate goal for keratin diseases. In addition, recent innovations, such as RNA interference in animals, make an RNA knockdown approach plausible in the near future. Although agents of RNA reduction (small interfering RNA, ribozymes, triplex oligonucleotides, or antisense DNA) can be delivered as nucleotides, the impermeability of the skin to large charged molecules presents a serious impediment. Using viral vectors to deliver genes for selective inhibitors of gene expression presents an attractive alternative for long-term treatment of genetic disease in the skin.

  10. Loss of transcriptional activation of the potassium channel Kir5.1 by HNF1β drives autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kompatscher, Andreas; de Baaij, Jeroen H F; Aboudehen, Karam; Hoefnagels, Anke P W M; Igarashi, Peter; Bindels, René J M; Veenstra, Gertjan J C; Hoenderop, Joost G J

    2017-05-31

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF1β) is an essential transcription factor for the development and functioning of the kidney. Mutations in HNF1β cause autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease characterized by renal cysts and maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Moreover, these patients suffer from a severe electrolyte phenotype consisting of hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia. Until now, genes that are regulated by HNF1β are only partially known and do not fully explain the phenotype of the patients. Therefore, we performed chIP-seq in the immortalized mouse kidney cell line mpkDCT to identify HNF1β binding sites on a genome-wide scale. In total 7,421 HNF1β-binding sites were identified, including several genes involved in electrolyte transport and diabetes. A highly specific and conserved HNF1β site was identified in the promoter of Kcnj16 that encodes the potassium channel Kir5.1. Luciferase-promoter assays showed a 2.2-fold increase in Kcnj16 expression when HNF1β was present. Expression of the Hnf1β p.Lys156Glu mutant, previously identified in a patient with autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease, did not activate Kcnj16 expression. Knockdown of Hnf1β in mpkDCT cells significantly reduced the appearance of Kcnj16 (Kir5.1) and Kcnj10 (Kir4.1) by 38% and 37%, respectively. These results were confirmed in a HNF1β renal knockout mouse which exhibited downregulation of Kcnj16, Kcnj10 and Slc12a3 transcripts in the kidney by 78%, 83% and 76%, respectively, compared to HNF1β wild-type mice. Thus, HNF1β is a transcriptional activator of Kcnj16. Hence, patients with HNF1β mutations may have reduced Kir5.1 activity in the kidney, resulting in hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Management of pain in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and anatomy of renal innervation.

    PubMed

    Tellman, Matthew W; Bahler, Clinton D; Shumate, Ashley M; Bacallao, Robert L; Sundaram, Chandru P

    2015-05-01

    Chronic pain is a prominent feature of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease that is difficult to treat and manage, often resulting in a decrease in quality of life. Understanding the underlying anatomy of renal innervation and the various etiologies of pain that occur in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease can help guide proper treatments to manage pain. Reviewing previously studied treatments for pain in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease can help characterize treatment in a stepwise fashion. We performed a literature search of the etiology and management of pain in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and the anatomy of renal innervation using PubMed® and Embase® from January 1985 to April 2014 with limitations to human studies and English language. Pain occurs in the majority of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease due to renal, hepatic and mechanical origins. Patients may experience different types of pain which can make it difficult to clinically confirm its etiology. An anatomical and histological evaluation of the complex renal innervation helps in understanding the mechanisms that can lead to renal pain. Understanding the complex nature of renal innervation is essential for surgeons to perform renal denervation. The management of pain in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease should be approached in a stepwise fashion. Acute causes of renal pain must first be ruled out due to the high incidence in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. For chronic pain, nonopioid analgesics and conservative interventions can be used first, before opioid analgesics are considered. If pain continues there are surgical interventions such as renal cyst decortication, renal denervation and nephrectomy that can target pain produced by renal or hepatic cysts. Chronic pain in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is often refractory to conservative, medical and other noninvasive treatments

  12. Bovine Polledness – An Autosomal Dominant Trait with Allelic Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Medugorac, Ivica; Seichter, Doris; Graf, Alexander; Russ, Ingolf; Blum, Helmut; Göpel, Karl Heinrich; Rothammer, Sophie; Förster, Martin; Krebs, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The persistent horns are an important trait of speciation for the family Bovidae with complex morphogenesis taking place briefly after birth. The polledness is highly favourable in modern cattle breeding systems but serious animal welfare issues urge for a solution in the production of hornless cattle other than dehorning. Although the dominant inhibition of horn morphogenesis was discovered more than 70 years ago, and the causative mutation was mapped almost 20 years ago, its molecular nature remained unknown. Here, we report allelic heterogeneity of the POLLED locus. First, we mapped the POLLED locus to a ∼381-kb interval in a multi-breed case-control design. Targeted re-sequencing of an enlarged candidate interval (547 kb) in 16 sires with known POLLED genotype did not detect a common allele associated with polled status. In eight sires of Alpine and Scottish origin (four polled versus four horned), we identified a single candidate mutation, a complex 202 bp insertion-deletion event that showed perfect association to the polled phenotype in various European cattle breeds, except Holstein-Friesian. The analysis of the same candidate interval in eight Holsteins identified five candidate variants which segregate as a 260 kb haplotype also perfectly associated with the POLLED gene without recombination or interference with the 202 bp insertion-deletion. We further identified bulls which are progeny tested as homozygous polled but bearing both, 202 bp insertion-deletion and Friesian haplotype. The distribution of genotypes of the two putative POLLED alleles in large semi-random sample (1,261 animals) supports the hypothesis of two independent mutations. PMID:22737241

  13. Evidence of autosomal dominant mutations in childhood-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnik-Schoeneborn, S.; Wirth, B.; Zerres, K. )

    1994-07-01

    Autosomal recessive and dominant inheritance of proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are well documented. Several genetic studies found a significant deviation from the assumption of recessive inheritance in SMA, with affected children in one generation. The existence of new autosomal dominant mutations has been assumed as the most suitable explanation, which is supported by three observations of this study: (1) The segregation ratio calculated in 333 families showed a significant deviation from autosomal recessive inheritance in the milder forms of SMA (= .09[+-].06 for onset at 10-36 mo and .13[+-].07 for onset at >36 mo; and P = .09[+-]0.7 for SMA IIIa and .12[+-].07 for SMA IIIb). (2) Three families with affected subjects in two generations are reported, in whom the disease could have started as an autosomal dominant mutation. (3) Linkage studies with chromosome 5q markers showed that in 5 (5.4%) of 93 informative families the patient shared identical haplotypes with at least one healthy sib. Other mechanisms, such as the existence of phenocopies, pseudodominance, or a second autosomal recessive gene locus, cannot be excluded in single families. The postulation of spontaneous mutations, however, is a suitable explanation for all three observations. Estimated risk figures for genetic counseling are given. 29 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Evidence of autosomal dominant mutations in childhood-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Rudnik-Schöneborn, S.; Wirth, B.; Zerres, K.

    1994-01-01

    Autosomal recessive and dominant inheritance of proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are well documented. Several genetic studies found a significant deviation from the assumption of recessive inheritance in SMA, with affected children in one generation. The existence of new autosomal dominant mutations has been assumed as the most suitable explantation, which is supported by three observations of this study: (1) The segregation ratio calculated in 333 families showed a significant deviation from autosomal recessive inheritance in the milder forms of SMA (P = .09 +/- .06 for onset at 10-36 mo and .13 +/- .07 for onset at > 36 mo; and P = .09 +/- .07 for SMA IIIa and .12 +/- .07 for SMA IIIb). (2) Three families with affected subjects in two generations are reported, in whom the disease could have started as an autosomal dominant mutation. (3) Linkage studies with chromosome 5q markers showed that in 5 (5.4%) of 93 informative families the patient shared identical haplotypes with at least one healthy sib. Other mechanisms, such as the existence of phenocopies, pseudodominance, or a second autosomal recessive gene locus, cannot be excluded in single families. The postulation of spontaneous mutations, however, is a suitable explanation for all three observations. Estimated risk figures for genetic counseling are given. PMID:8023839

  15. Autosomal dominant epidermodysplasia verruciformis lacking a known EVER1 or EVER2 mutation.

    PubMed

    McDermott, David F; Gammon, Bryan; Snijders, Peter J; Mbata, Ihunanya; Phifer, Beth; Howland Hartley, A; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Murphy, Philip M; Hwang, Sam T

    2009-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a rare genodermatosis characterized by abnormal susceptibility to infection with specific human papillomavirus serotypes. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a genetically heterogeneous disease, and autosomal recessive and X-linked inheritance patterns have been reported. Nonsense mutations in the genes EVER1 and EVER2 have been identified in over 75% of cases. We present epidermodysplasia verruciformis in a father and a son with typical histologic and clinical findings that occur in the absence of mutations in EVER1 or EVER2. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis in this father/son pair in a nonconsanguinous pedigree is consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. This is the first report of autosomal dominant transmission of epidermodysplasia verruciformis, providing further evidence of the genetic heterogeneity of epidermodysplasia verruciformis.

  16. Multiple thoracic paraspinal meningeal cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Coche, Emmanuel; Persu, Alexandre; Cosnard, Guy; Quoidbach, Albert; Pirson, Yves

    2003-02-01

    Spinal meningeal cysts have been reported in 3 patients as an extrarenal manifestation of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The authors report on a fourth patient with ADPKD who was found to harbor 7 thoracic meningeal cysts, appearing as paraspinal masses on plain films. The authors provide a comprehensive radiologic description of this abnormality.

  17. Familial Paroxysmal Exercise-Induced Dystonia: Atypical Presentation of Autosomal Dominant GTP-Cyclohydrolase 1 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Russell C.; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S. C.; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John

    2010-01-01

    Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced…

  18. Evaluation and Management of Pain in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Marie C.; Norby, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Transient episodes of pain are common in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). A small fraction of patients have disabling chronic pain. In this review, we discuss the etiologies of pain in ADPKD; review how ADPKD patients should be assessed; and discuss medical, surgical, and other management options. PMID:20439087

  19. Familial Paroxysmal Exercise-Induced Dystonia: Atypical Presentation of Autosomal Dominant GTP-Cyclohydrolase 1 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Russell C.; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S. C.; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John

    2010-01-01

    Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced…

  20. Recurrent Cholangitis in a Patient with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) and Caroli's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Eiko; Sawa, Naoki; Hoshino, Junichi; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Hayami, Noriko; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Sekine, Akinari; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Imafuku, Aya; Kawada, Masahiro; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Tsunao; Takaichi, Kenmei

    We herein present a rare case of an autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patient with Caroli's disease, a congenital embryonic biliary tree ductal plate abnormality often associated with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. A 76-year-old woman with ADPKD on hemodialysis was admitted to our hospital with recurrent cholangitis and hepatobiliary stones. Caroli's disease was diagnosed according to typical imaging findings of cystic intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and the central dot sign. Hepatobiliary system abnormalities such as Caroli's disease should be considered in febrile ADPKD patients, even in the absence of typical clinical signs or symptoms.

  1. Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis associated with renal tubular acidosis is due to a CLCN7 mutation.

    PubMed

    Piret, Sian E; Gorvin, Caroline M; Trinh, Anne; Taylor, John; Lise, Stefano; Taylor, Jenny C; Ebeling, Peter R; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the causative mutation in a family with an unusual presentation of autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (OPT), proximal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), renal stones, epilepsy, and blindness, a combination of features not previously reported. We undertook exome sequencing of one affected and one unaffected family member, followed by targeted analysis of known candidate genes to identify the causative mutation. This identified a missense mutation (c.643G>A; p.Gly215Arg) in the gene encoding the chloride/proton antiporter 7 (gene CLCN7, protein CLC-7), which was confirmed by amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR, and to be present in the three available patients. CLC-7 mutations are known to cause autosomal dominant OPT type 2, also called Albers-Schonberg disease, which is characterized by osteosclerosis, predominantly of the spine, pelvis and skull base, resulting in bone fragility and fractures. Albers-Schonberg disease is not reported to be associated with RTA, but autosomal recessive OPT type 3 (OPTB3) with RTA is associated with carbonic anhydrase type 2 (CA2) mutations. No mutations were detected in CA2 or any other genes known to cause proximal RTA. Neither CLCN7 nor CA2 mutations have previously been reported to be associated with renal stones or epilepsy. Thus, we identified a CLCN7 mutation in a family with autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, RTA, renal stones, epilepsy, and blindness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A novel heterozygous mutation in cardiac calsequestrin causes autosomal dominant catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Belinda; Bagnall, Richard D.; Lam, Lien; Ingles, Jodie; Turner, Christian; Haan, Eric; Davis, Andrew; Yang, Pei-Chi; Clancy, Colleen E.; Sy, Raymond W.; Semsarian, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Background Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a lethal inherited arrhythmia syndrome characterized by adrenergically stimulated ventricular tachycardia. Mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor gene (RYR2) cause an autosomal dominant form of CPVT, while mutations in the cardiac calsequestrin 2 gene (CASQ2) cause an autosomal recessive form. Objective The aim of this study was to clinically and genetically evaluate a large family with severe autosomal dominant CPVT. Methods Clinical evaluation of family members was performed, including detailed history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, exercise stress test, and autopsy review of decedents. We performed genome-wide linkage analysis in 12 family members and exome sequencing in 2 affected family members. In silico models of mouse and rabbit myocyte electrophysiology were used to predict potential disease mechanisms. Results Severe CPVT with dominant inheritance in 6 members was diagnosed in a large family with 2 sudden deaths, 2 resuscitated cardiac arrests, and multiple appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks. A comprehensive analysis of cardiac arrhythmia genes did not reveal a pathogenic variant. Exome sequencing identified a novel heterozygous missense variant in CASQ2 (Lys180Arg) affecting a highly conserved residue, which cosegregated with disease and was absent in unaffected family members. Genome-wide linkage analysis confirmed a single linkage peak at the CASQ2 locus (logarithm of odds ratio score 3.01; θ = 0). Computer simulations predicted that haploinsufficiency was unlikely to cause the severe CPVT phenotype and suggested a dominant negative mechanism. Conclusion We show for the first time that a variant in CASQ2 causes autosomal dominant CPVT. Genetic testing in dominant CPVT should include screening for heterozygous CASQ2 variants. PMID:27157848

  3. A new locus for autosomal dominant stargardt-like disease maps to chromosome 4.

    PubMed Central

    Kniazeva, M; Chiang, M F; Morgan, B; Anduze, A L; Zack, D J; Han, M; Zhang, K

    1999-01-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD) is the most common hereditary macular dystrophy and is characterized by decreased central vision, atrophy of the macula and underlying retinal-pigment epithelium, and frequent presence of prominent flecks in the posterior pole of the retina. STGD is most commonly inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, but many families have been described in which features of the disease are transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner. A recessive locus has been identified on chromosome 1p (STGD1), and dominant loci have been mapped to both chromosome 13q (STGD2) and chromosome 6q (STGD3). In this study, we describe a kindred with an autosomal dominant Stargardt-like phenotype. A genomewide search demonstrated linkage to a locus on chromosome 4p, with a maximum LOD score of 5.12 at a recombination fraction of.00, for marker D4S403. Analysis of extended haplotypes localized the disease gene to an approximately 12-cM interval between loci D4S1582 and D4S2397. Therefore, this kindred establishes a new dominant Stargardt-like locus, STGD4. PMID:10205271

  4. A new locus for autosomal dominant stargardt-like disease maps to chromosome 4.

    PubMed

    Kniazeva, M; Chiang, M F; Morgan, B; Anduze, A L; Zack, D J; Han, M; Zhang, K

    1999-05-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD) is the most common hereditary macular dystrophy and is characterized by decreased central vision, atrophy of the macula and underlying retinal-pigment epithelium, and frequent presence of prominent flecks in the posterior pole of the retina. STGD is most commonly inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, but many families have been described in which features of the disease are transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner. A recessive locus has been identified on chromosome 1p (STGD1), and dominant loci have been mapped to both chromosome 13q (STGD2) and chromosome 6q (STGD3). In this study, we describe a kindred with an autosomal dominant Stargardt-like phenotype. A genomewide search demonstrated linkage to a locus on chromosome 4p, with a maximum LOD score of 5.12 at a recombination fraction of.00, for marker D4S403. Analysis of extended haplotypes localized the disease gene to an approximately 12-cM interval between loci D4S1582 and D4S2397. Therefore, this kindred establishes a new dominant Stargardt-like locus, STGD4.

  5. A New Locus for Autosomal Dominant Pure Spastic Paraplegia, on Chromosome 2q24-q34

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Bertrand; Davoine, Claire-Sophie; Dürr, Alexandra; Paternotte, Caroline; Feki, Imed; Weissenbach, Jean; Hazan, Jamilé; Brice, Alexis

    2000-01-01

    Summary Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) comprises a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders causing progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs. We report a large family of French descent with autosomal dominant pure HSP. We excluded genetic linkage to the known loci causing HSP and performed a genomewide search. We found evidence for linkage of the disorder to polymorphic markers on chromosome 2q24-q34: a maximum LOD score of 3.03 was obtained for marker D2S2318. By comparison with families having linkage to the major locus of pure autosomal dominant HSP (SPG4 on chromosome 2p), there were significantly more patients without Babinski signs, with increased reflexes in the upper limbs, and with severe functional handicaps. PMID:10677329

  6. Molecular analysis and genetic mapping of the rhodopsin gene in families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Bunge, S.; Wedemann, H.; Samanns, C.; Horn, M.; Schwinger, E.; Gal, A. ); David, D. ); Terwilliger, D.J.; Ott, J. ); Born, L.I. van den )

    1993-07-01

    Eighty-eight patients/families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP) were screened for rhodopsin mutations. Direct sequencing revealed 13 different mutations in a total of 14 (i.e., 16%) unrelated patients. Five of these mutations (T4K, Q28H, R135G, F220C, and C222R) have not been reported so far. In addition, multipoint linkage analysis was performed on two large families with autosomal dominant RP due to rhodopsin mutations by using five DNA probes from 3q21-q24. No tight linkage was found between the rhodopsin locus (RHO) and D3S47 ([theta][sub max] = 0.08). By six-point analysis, RHO was localized in the region between D3S21 and D3S47, with a maximum lod score of 13.447 directly at D3S20. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Imaging characteristics of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

    PubMed Central

    Stojanov, Dragan; Aracki-Trenkic, Aleksandra; Vojinovic, Slobodan; Ljubisavljevic, Srdjan; Benedeto-Stojanov, Daniela; Tasic, Aleksandar; Vujnovic, Sasa

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder. Diagnosis and follow-up in patients with CADASIL are based mainly on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI shows white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), lacunar infarcts and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). WMHs lesions tend to be symmetrical and bilateral, distributed in the periventricular and deep white matter. The anterior temporal lobe and external capsules are predilection sites for WMHs, with higher specificity and sensitivity of anterior temporal lobe involvement compared to an external capsule involvement. Lacunar infarcts are presented by an imaging signal that has intensity of cerebrospinal fluid in all MRI sequences. They are localized within the semioval center, thalamus, basal ganglia and pons. CMBs are depicted as focal areas of signal loss on T2 images which increases in size on the T2*-weighted gradient echo planar images (“blooming effect”). PMID:25725137

  8. A Locus for Autosomal Dominant Hereditary Spastic Ataxia, SAX1, Maps to Chromosome 12p13

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, I. A.; Hand, C. K.; Grewal, K. K.; Stefanelli, M. G.; Ives, E. J.; Rouleau, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    The hereditary spastic ataxias (HSA) are a group of clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders characterized by lower-limb spasticity and generalized ataxia. HSA was diagnosed in three unrelated autosomal dominant families from Newfoundland, who presented mainly with severe leg spasticity, dysarthria, dysphagia, and ocular-movement abnormalities. A genomewide scan was performed on one family, and linkage to a novel locus for HSA on chromosome 12p13, which contains the as-yet-unidentified gene locus SAX1, was identified. Fine mapping confirmed linkage in the two large families, and the third, smaller family showed LOD scores suggestive of linkage. Haplotype construction by use of 13 polymorphic markers revealed that all three families share a disease haplotype, which key recombinants and overlapping haplotypes refine to ∼5 cM, flanked by markers D12S93 and GATA151H05. SAX1 is the first locus mapped for autosomal dominant HSA. PMID:11774073

  9. Progressive Cone Dysfunction and Geographic Atrophy of the Macula in Late Stage Autosomal Dominant Vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC).

    PubMed

    Chen, Connie June; Goldberg, Morton F

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC) is a rare inherited ocular disease associated with distinct mutations in the BEST1 gene. Typically, patients have only mild visual impairment, and rarely do patients have moderate or severe visual impairment, often as a result of vitreous hemorrhage. We now describe progressive central macular atrophy and cone dysfunction leading to visual loss in an elderly ADVIRC patient 33 years after initial presentation.

  10. Autosomal-dominant nystagmus, foveal hypoplasia and presenile cataract associated with a novel PAX6 mutation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shery; Thomas, Mervyn G; Andrews, Caroline; Chan, Wai-Man; Proudlock, Frank A; McLean, Rebecca J; Pradeep, Archana; Engle, Elizabeth C; Gottlob, Irene

    2014-03-01

    Autosomal-dominant idiopathic infantile nystagmus has been linked to 6p12 (OMIM 164100), 7p11.2 (OMIM 608345) and 13q31-q33 (OMIM 193003). PAX6 (11p13, OMIM 607108) mutations can also cause autosomal-dominant nystagmus, typically in association with aniridia or iris hypoplasia. We studied a large multigenerational white British family with autosomal-dominant nystagmus, normal irides and presenile cataracts. An SNP-based genome-wide analysis revealed a linkage to a 13.4-MB region on chromosome 11p13 with a maximum lod score of 2.93. A mutation analysis of the entire coding region and splice junctions of the PAX6 gene revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.227C>G) that segregated with the phenotype and is predicted to result in the amino-acid substitution of proline by arginine at codon 76 p.(P76R). The amino-acid variation p.(P76R) within the paired box domain is likely to destabilise the protein due to steric hindrance as a result of the introduction of a polar and larger amino acid. Eye movement recordings showed a significant intrafamilial variability of horizontal, vertical and torsional nystagmus. High-resolution in vivo imaging of the retina using optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed features of foveal hypoplasia, including rudimentary foveal pit, incursion of inner retinal layers, short photoreceptor outer segments and optic nerve hypoplasia. Thus, this study presents a family that segregates a PAX6 mutation with nystagmus and foveal hypoplasia in the absence of iris abnormalities. Moreover, it is the first study showing detailed characteristics using eye movement recordings of autosomal-dominant nystagmus in a multigenerational family with a novel PAX6 mutation.

  11. The KBG syndrome: confirmation of autosomal dominant inheritance and further delineation of the phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Mustafa; Kavaz, Asli; Berberoğlu, Merih; Fitoz, Suat; Ekim, Mesiha; Ocal, Gönül; Akar, Nejat

    2004-10-15

    We report on a Turkish family in which the father and his two sons were diagnosed as having the KBG syndrome. Large upper central incisors were the diagnostic finding in all three patients along with mental retardation, cryptorchidism, skeletal abnormalities, and short stature. Our report clearly confirms that the inheritance is autosomal dominant in KBG syndrome, although a high male to female ratio has been observed in published cases.

  12. Molecular pathways and therapies in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Saigusa, Takamitsu; Bell, P Darwin

    2015-05-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most prevalent inherited renal disease, characterized by multiple cysts that can eventually lead to kidney failure. Studies investigating the role of primary cilia and polycystins have significantly advanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of PKD. This review will present clinical and basic aspects of ADPKD, review current concepts of PKD pathogenesis, evaluate potential therapeutic targets, and highlight challenges for future clinical studies.

  13. Molecular Pathways and Therapies in Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saigusa, Takamitsu

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most prevalent inherited renal disease, characterized by multiple cysts that can eventually lead to kidney failure. Studies investigating the role of primary cilia and polycystins have significantly advanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of PKD. This review will present clinical and basic aspects of ADPKD, review current concepts of PKD pathogenesis, evaluate potential therapeutic targets, and highlight challenges for future clinical studies. PMID:25933820

  14. Autosomal-dominant nystagmus, foveal hypoplasia and presenile cataract associated with a novel PAX6 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Shery; Thomas, Mervyn G; Andrews, Caroline; Chan, Wai-Man; Proudlock, Frank A; McLean, Rebecca J; Pradeep, Archana; Engle, Elizabeth C; Gottlob, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant idiopathic infantile nystagmus has been linked to 6p12 (OMIM 164100), 7p11.2 (OMIM 608345) and 13q31-q33 (OMIM 193003). PAX6 (11p13, OMIM 607108) mutations can also cause autosomal-dominant nystagmus, typically in association with aniridia or iris hypoplasia. We studied a large multigenerational white British family with autosomal-dominant nystagmus, normal irides and presenile cataracts. An SNP-based genome-wide analysis revealed a linkage to a 13.4-MB region on chromosome 11p13 with a maximum lod score of 2.93. A mutation analysis of the entire coding region and splice junctions of the PAX6 gene revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.227C>G) that segregated with the phenotype and is predicted to result in the amino-acid substitution of proline by arginine at codon 76 p.(P76R). The amino-acid variation p.(P76R) within the paired box domain is likely to destabilise the protein due to steric hindrance as a result of the introduction of a polar and larger amino acid. Eye movement recordings showed a significant intrafamilial variability of horizontal, vertical and torsional nystagmus. High-resolution in vivo imaging of the retina using optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed features of foveal hypoplasia, including rudimentary foveal pit, incursion of inner retinal layers, short photoreceptor outer segments and optic nerve hypoplasia. Thus, this study presents a family that segregates a PAX6 mutation with nystagmus and foveal hypoplasia in the absence of iris abnormalities. Moreover, it is the first study showing detailed characteristics using eye movement recordings of autosomal-dominant nystagmus in a multigenerational family with a novel PAX6 mutation. PMID:23942204

  15. Autosomal dominant spondylocostal dysostosis is caused by mutation in TBX6.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Duncan B; McInerney-Leo, Aideen; Gucev, Zoran S; Gardiner, Brooke; Marshall, Mhairi; Leo, Paul J; Chapman, Deborah L; Tasic, Velibor; Shishko, Abduhadi; Brown, Matthew A; Duncan, Emma L; Dunwoodie, Sally L

    2013-04-15

    In humans, congenital spinal defects occur with an incidence of 0.5-1 per 1000 live births. One of the most severe syndromes with such defects is spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD). Over the past decade, the genetic basis of several forms of autosomal recessive SCD cases has been solved with the identification of four causative genes (DLL3, MESP2, LFNG and HES7). Autosomal dominant forms of SCD have also been reported, but to date no genetic etiology has been described for these. Here, we have used exome capture and next-generation sequencing to identify a stoploss mutation in TBX6 that segregates with disease in two generations of one family. We show that this mutation has a deleterious effect on the transcriptional activation activity of the TBX6 protein, likely due to haploinsufficiency. In mouse, Tbx6 is essential for the patterning of the vertebral precursor tissues, somites; thus, mutation of TBX6 is likely to be causative of SCD in this family. This is the first identification of the genetic cause of an autosomal dominant form of SCD, and also demonstrates the potential of exome sequencing to identify genetic causes of dominant diseases even in small families with few affected individuals.

  16. Autosomal dominant brachyolmia in a large Swedish family: phenotypic spectrum and natural course.

    PubMed

    Grigelioniene, Giedre; Geiberger, Stefan; Horemuzova, Eva; Moström, Eva; Jäntti, Nina; Neumeyer, Lo; Åström, Eva; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Nordgren, Ann; Mäkitie, Outi

    2014-07-01

    Autosomal dominant brachyolmia (Type 3, OMIM #113500) belongs to a group of skeletal dysplasias caused by mutations in the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 4 (TRPV4) gene, encoding a Ca++-permeable, non-selective cation channel. The disorder is characterized by disproportionate short stature with short trunk, scoliosis and platyspondyly. The phenotypic variability and long-term natural course remain inadequately characterized. The purpose of this study was to describe a large Swedish family with brachyolmia type 3 due to a heterozygous TRPV4 mutation c.1847G>A (p.R616Q) in 11 individuals. The mutation has previously been detected in another family with autosomal dominant brachyolmia [Rock et al., 2008]. Review of hospital records and patient assessments indicated that clinical symptoms of brachyolmia became evident by school age with chronic pain in the spine and hips; radiographic changes were evident earlier. Growth was not affected during early childhood but deteriorated with age in some patients due to increasing spinal involvement. Affected individuals had a wide range of subjective symptoms with chronic pain in the extremities and the spine, and paresthesias. Our findings indicate that autosomal dominant brachyolmia may be associated with significant long-term morbidity, as seen in this family.

  17. Increases in kidney volume in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease can be detected within 6 months.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Andreas D; Poster, Diane; Krauer, Fabienne; Weishaupt, Dominik; Raina, Shagun; Senn, Oliver; Binet, Isabelle; Spanaus, Katharina; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Serra, Andreas L

    2009-01-01

    Kidney volume growth is considered the best surrogate marker predicting the decline of renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. To assess the therapeutic benefit of new drugs more rapidly, changes in kidney volume need to be determined over a short time interval. Here we measured renal volume changes by manual segmentation volumetry applied to magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained with an optimized T1-weighted acquisition protocol without gadolinium-based contrast agents. One hundred young patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and preserved renal function had a significant increase in total kidney volume by 2.71+/-4.82% in 6 months. Volume measurements were highly reproducible and accurate, as indicated by correlation coefficients of 1.000 for intra-observer and 0.996 for inter-observer agreement, with acceptable within-subject standard deviations. The change in renal volume correlated with baseline total kidney volume in all age subgroups. Total kidney volume positively correlated with male gender, hypertension, albuminuria and a history of macrohematuria but negatively with creatinine clearance. Albuminuria was associated with accelerated volume progression. Our study shows that increases in kidney volume can be reliably measured over a 6 month period in early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease using unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging sequences.

  18. Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis associated with renal tubular acidosis is due to a CLCN7 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Piret, Sian E.; Gorvin, Caroline M.; Trinh, Anne; Taylor, John; Lise, Stefano; Taylor, Jenny C.; Ebeling, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the causative mutation in a family with an unusual presentation of autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (OPT), proximal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), renal stones, epilepsy, and blindness, a combination of features not previously reported. We undertook exome sequencing of one affected and one unaffected family member, followed by targeted analysis of known candidate genes to identify the causative mutation. This identified a missense mutation (c.643G>A; p.Gly215Arg) in the gene encoding the chloride/proton antiporter 7 (gene CLCN7, protein CLC‐7), which was confirmed by amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)‐PCR, and to be present in the three available patients. CLC‐7 mutations are known to cause autosomal dominant OPT type 2, also called Albers–Schonberg disease, which is characterized by osteosclerosis, predominantly of the spine, pelvis and skull base, resulting in bone fragility and fractures. Albers–Schonberg disease is not reported to be associated with RTA, but autosomal recessive OPT type 3 (OPTB3) with RTA is associated with carbonic anhydrase type 2 (CA2) mutations. No mutations were detected in CA2 or any other genes known to cause proximal RTA. Neither CLCN7 nor CA2 mutations have previously been reported to be associated with renal stones or epilepsy. Thus, we identified a CLCN7 mutation in a family with autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, RTA, renal stones, epilepsy, and blindness. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27540713

  19. Evidence for locus heterogeneity in autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Speer, M.C.; Stajich, J.M.; Gaskell, P.C.

    1995-12-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a diagnostic classification encompassing a broad group of proximal myopathies. A gene for the dominant form of LGMD (LGMD1A) has recently been localized to a 7-cM region of chromosome 5q between D5S178 and IL9. We studied three additional dominant LGMD families for linkage to these two markers and excluded all from localization to this region, providing evidence for locus heterogeneity within the dominant form of LGMD. Although the patterns of muscle weakness were similar in all families studied, the majority of affected family members in the chromosome 5-linked pedigree have a dysarthric speech pattern, which is not present in any of the five unlinked families. The demonstration of heterogeneity within autosomal dominant LGMD is the first step in attempting to subclassify these families with similar clinical phenotypes on a molecular level. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. TBC1D24 Mutation Causes Autosomal Dominant Non-Syndromic Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Azaiez, Hela; Booth, Kevin T.; Bu, Fengxiao; Huygen, Patrick; Shibata, Seiji; Shearer, A. Eliot; Kolbe, Diana; Meyer, Nicole; Black-Ziegelbein, E. Ann; Smith, Richard J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary hearing loss (HHL) is extremely heterogeneous. Over 70 genes have been identified to date, and with the advent of massively parallel sequencing, the pace of novel gene discovery has accelerated. In a family segregating progressive autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) we used OtoSCOPE® to exclude mutations in known deafness genes and then performed segregation mapping and whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify a unique variant, p.Ser178Leu, in TBC1D24 that segregates with the hearing loss phenotype. TBC1D24 encodes a GTPase-activating protein expressed in the cochlea. Ser178 is highly conserved across vertebrates and its change is predicted to be damaging. Other variants in TBC1D24 have been associated with a panoply of clinical symptoms including autosomal recessive NSHL (ARNSHL), syndromic hearing impairment associated with onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation and seizures (DOORS syndrome), and a wide range of epileptic disorders. PMID:24729539

  1. Recessive versus imprinted disorder: consanguinity can impede establishing the diagnosis of autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Serap; Akin, Leyla; Akcay, Teoman; Adal, Erdal; Sarikaya, Sevil; Bastepe, Murat; Jüppner, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia with low/normal parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels can be observed in hypoparathyroidism (HP), a disorder that may follow an autosomal dominant (AD) or autosomal recessive (AR) mode of inheritance. Similar biochemical changes are also observed in pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) type Ia and Ib, but affected patients usually show elevated PTH levels indicative of hormonal resistance. Features of Albright’s hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) are typically not observed in patients affected by familial forms of PHP-Ib, which are most frequently caused by maternally inherited, heterozygous microdeletions within STX16 and are associated with isolated loss of methylation at GNAS exon A/B. We established the molecular defect in two children of consanguineous Turkish parents, who presented with hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and low 25-OH vitamin D levels, but initially normal or only mildly elevated PTH levels, i.e. findings that do not readily exclude HP. After normalizing serum magnesium levels, hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia persisted, and PTH levels increased, suggesting PTH-resistance rather than PTH-deficiency. Because of the absence of AHO and parental consanguinity, an AR form of PHP-Ib appeared plausible, which had previously been suggested for sporadic cases. However, loss of GNAS methylation was restricted to exon A/B, which led to the identification of the 3-kb STX16 microdeletion. The same mutation was also detected in the healthy mother, who did not show any GNAS methylation abnormality, indicating that her deletion resides on the paternal allele. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering a parentally imprinted, autosomal dominant disorder even if consanguinity suggests an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. PMID:20538864

  2. Diverging longitudinal changes in astrocytosis and amyloid PET in autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Aubert, Laure; Carter, Stephen F.; Almkvist, Ove; Farid, Karim; Schöll, Michael; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Thordardottir, Steinunn; Graff, Caroline; Wall, Anders; Långström, Bengt; Nordberg, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    See Schott and Fox (doi:10.1093/brain/awv405) for a scientific commentary on this article. Alzheimer’s disease is a multifactorial dementia disorder characterized by early amyloid-β, tau deposition, glial activation and neurodegeneration, where the interrelationships between the different pathophysiological events are not yet well characterized. In this study, longitudinal multitracer positron emission tomography imaging of individuals with autosomal dominant or sporadic Alzheimer’s disease was used to quantify the changes in regional distribution of brain astrocytosis (tracer 11C-deuterium-L-deprenyl), fibrillar amyloid-β plaque deposition (11C-Pittsburgh compound B), and glucose metabolism (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose) from early presymptomatic stages over an extended period to clinical symptoms. The 52 baseline participants comprised autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease mutation carriers (n = 11; 49.6 ± 10.3 years old) and non-carriers (n = 16; 51.1 ± 14.2 years old; 10 male), and patients with sporadic mild cognitive impairment (n = 17; 61.9 ± 6.4 years old; nine male) and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (n = 8; 63.0 ± 6.5 years old; five male); for confidentiality reasons, the gender of mutation carriers is not revealed. The autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease participants belonged to families with known mutations in either presenilin 1 (PSEN1) or amyloid precursor protein (APPswe or APParc) genes. Sporadic mild cognitive impairment patients were further divided into 11C-Pittsburgh compound B-positive (n = 13; 62.0 ± 6.4; seven male) and 11C-Pittsburgh compound B-negative (n = 4; 61.8 ± 7.5 years old; two male) groups using a neocortical standardized uptake value ratio cut-off value of 1.41, which was calculated with respect to the cerebellar grey matter. All baseline participants underwent multitracer positron emission tomography scans, cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis and neuropsychological assessment. Twenty-six of the participants

  3. Diverging longitudinal changes in astrocytosis and amyloid PET in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Carter, Stephen F; Almkvist, Ove; Farid, Karim; Schöll, Michael; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Thordardottir, Steinunn; Graff, Caroline; Wall, Anders; Långström, Bengt; Nordberg, Agneta

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a multifactorial dementia disorder characterized by early amyloid-β, tau deposition, glial activation and neurodegeneration, where the interrelationships between the different pathophysiological events are not yet well characterized. In this study, longitudinal multitracer positron emission tomography imaging of individuals with autosomal dominant or sporadic Alzheimer's disease was used to quantify the changes in regional distribution of brain astrocytosis (tracer (11)C-deuterium-L-deprenyl), fibrillar amyloid-β plaque deposition ((11)C-Pittsburgh compound B), and glucose metabolism ((18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose) from early presymptomatic stages over an extended period to clinical symptoms. The 52 baseline participants comprised autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutation carriers (n = 11; 49.6 ± 10.3 years old) and non-carriers (n = 16; 51.1 ± 14.2 years old; 10 male), and patients with sporadic mild cognitive impairment (n = 17; 61.9 ± 6.4 years old; nine male) and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (n = 8; 63.0 ± 6.5 years old; five male); for confidentiality reasons, the gender of mutation carriers is not revealed. The autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease participants belonged to families with known mutations in either presenilin 1 (PSEN1) or amyloid precursor protein (APPswe or APParc) genes. Sporadic mild cognitive impairment patients were further divided into (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-positive (n = 13; 62.0 ± 6.4; seven male) and (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-negative (n = 4; 61.8 ± 7.5 years old; two male) groups using a neocortical standardized uptake value ratio cut-off value of 1.41, which was calculated with respect to the cerebellar grey matter. All baseline participants underwent multitracer positron emission tomography scans, cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis and neuropsychological assessment. Twenty-six of the participants underwent clinical and imaging follow-up examinations after 2.8 ± 0.6 years. By using linear

  4. Autosomal Dominant Inheritance of a Predisposition to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections and Intracranial Saccular Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Regalado, Ellen; Medrek, Sarah; Tran-Fadulu, Van; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Golabbakhsh, Hossein; Smart, Suzanne; Chen, Julia H.; Shete, Sanjay; Kim, Dong H.; Stern, Ralph; Braverman, Alan C.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2013-01-01

    A genetic predisposition for thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD) can be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with decreased penetrance and variable expression. Four genes identified to date for familial TAAD account for approximately 20% of the heritable predisposition. In a cohort of 514 families with two or more members with presumed autosomal dominant TAAD, 48 (9.3%) families have one or more members who were at 50% risk to inherit the presumptive gene causing TAAD had an intracranial vascular event. In these families, gender is significantly associated with disease presentation (p <0.001), with intracranial events being more common in women (65.4%) while TAAD events occurred more in men (64.2%,). Twenty-nine of these families had intracranial aneurysms (ICA) that could not be designated as saccular or fusiform due to incomplete data. TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and ACTA2 mutations were found in 4 families with TAAD and predominantly fusiform ICAs. In 15 families, of which 14 tested negative for 3 known TAAD genes, 17 family members who were at risk for inheriting TAAD had saccular ICAs. In 2 families, women who harbored the genetic mutation causing TAAD had ICAs. In 2 additional families, intracranial, thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms were observed. This study documents the autosomal dominant inheritance of TAADs with saccular ICAs, a previously recognized association that has not been adequately characterized as heritable.I these families, routine cerebral and aortic imaging for at risk members could prove beneficial for timely medical and surgical management to prevent a cerebral hemorrhage or aortic dissection. PMID:21815248

  5. The anterior segment disorder autosomal dominant keratitis is linked to the Aniridia/PAX-6 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzayans, F.; Pearce, W.G.; Mah, T.S.

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal dominant keratitis (ADK) is an eye disease characterized by anterior stromal corneal opacification and vascularization in the peripheral cornea. Progression into the central cornea may compromise visual acuity. Other anterior segment features include minimal radial defects of the iris stroma. Posterior segment involvement is characterized by foveal hypoplasia with minimal effect on visual acuity. Aniridia is a second autosomal dominantly inherited ocular disorder defined by structural defects of the iris, frequently severe enough to cause an almost complete absence of iris. This may be accompanied by other anterior segment manifestations, including cataract and keratitis. Posterior segment involvement in aniridia is characterized by foveal hypoplasia resulting in a highly variable impairment of visual acuity, often with nystagmus. Aniridia is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant disease and occurs in 1 in 50,000 to 100,000 people. Aniridia has been shown to result from mutations in PAX-6, a gene thought to regulate fetal eye development. The similar clinical findings in ADK and aniridia, with the similar patterns of inheritance, compelled us to investigate if these two ocular disorders are variants of the same genetic disorder. We have tested for linkage between PAX-6 and ADK within an ADK family with 33 members over four generations, including 11 affected individuals. Linkage studies reveal that D11S914 (located within 3 cM of PAX-6) does not recombine with ADK (LOD score 3.61; {theta} = 0.00), consistent with PAX-6 mutations being responsible for ADK. Direct sequencing of PAX-6 RT-PCR products from ADK patients is underway to identify the mutation within the PAX-6 gene that results in ADK. The linkage of PAX-6 with ADK, along with a recent report that mutations in PAX-6 also underlie Peter`s anomaly, implicates PAX-6 widely in anterior segment malformations.

  6. CSF1R mutations identified in three families with autosomal dominantly inherited leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Jun; Matsukawa, Takashi; Ishiura, Hiroyuki; Higasa, Koichiro; Yoshimura, Jun; Saito, Taro L; Ahsan, Budrul; Takahashi, Yuji; Goto, Jun; Iwata, Atsushi; Niimi, Yuki; Riku, Yuuichi; Goto, Yoji; Mano, Kazuo; Yoshida, Mari; Morishita, Shinichi; Tsuji, Shoji

    2012-12-01

    Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneities are considerably high in adult-onset leukoencephalopathy, in which comprehensive mutational analyses of the candidate genes by conventional methods are too laborious. We applied exome sequencing to conduct a comprehensive mutational analysis of genes for autosomal dominant leukoencephalopathies. Genomic DNA samples from four patients of three families with autosomal dominantly inherited adult-onset leukodystrophy were subjected to exome sequencing. On the basis of the results, 21 patients with adult-onset sporadic leukodystrophy and one patient with pathologically proven HDLS were additionally screened for CSF1R mutations. Exome sequencing identified heterozygous CSF1R mutations (p.I794T and p.R777W) in two families. I794T has recently been reported as a causative mutation for hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS), and R777W is a novel mutation. Although mutational analysis of CSF1R in 21 sporadic cases revealed no mutations, another novel CSF1R mutation, p.C653Y, was identified in one patient with autopsy-proven HDSL. These variants were located in the PTK domain where the causative mutations cluster. Functional prediction of the mutant CSF1R as well as cross-species conservation of the affected amino acids supports the notion that these variants are pathogenic for HDLS. Exome sequencing is useful for a comprehensive mutational analysis of causative genes for hereditary leukoencephalopathies, and CSF1R should be considered a candidate gene for patients with autosomal dominant leukoencephalopathies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Autosomal dominant congenital fibre type disproportion: a clinicopathological and imaging study of a large family.

    PubMed

    Sobrido, M J; Fernández, J M; Fontoira, E; Pérez-Sousa, C; Cabello, A; Castro, M; Teijeira, S; Alvarez, S; Mederer, S; Rivas, E; Seijo-Martínez, M; Navarro, C

    2005-07-01

    Congenital fibre type disproportion (CFTD) is considered a non-progressive or slowly progressive muscle disease with relative smallness of type 1 fibres on pathological examination. Although generally benign, CFTD has a variable natural course and severe progression has been observed in some patients. The pathogenesis of the disorder is unknown and many authors consider CFTD a syndrome with multiple aetiologies rather than a separate clinical entity. A positive family history has been reported in about 40% of cases, but the inheritance pattern is not clear. Both autosomal recessive and dominant modes of inheritance have been suggested. The present paper describes a large, multigenerational kindred that has an inherited myopathy fulfilling the histological criteria of CFTD, with autosomal dominant transmission and high penetrance. The clinical picture, remarkably similar in all affected family members, started in early infancy with mild limb muscle weakness. There was slow progression of symptoms into adulthood, with moderate to severe, mainly proximal, muscle weakness without loss of ambulation. Muscle biopsy from two affected individuals demonstrated predominance of small type 1 muscle fibres without other significant findings. Nerve conduction studies were normal and needle electromyography showed a myopathic pattern. MRI examination performed on three patients from successive generations showed involvement of proximal limb and paraspinal muscles. The clinical and pathological homogeneity in the present family, together with the lack of additional histological abnormalities after decades of disease progression in two affected individuals, supports this being a distinct myopathy with fibre type disproportion. Whether the disease in this family can be regarded as a form of the congenital myopathy known as CFTD or rather a unique condition sharing histological features with CFTD needs further investigation. This is, to our knowledge, the largest kindred with muscle

  8. Prenatal diagnosis of recurrent autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta associated with unaffected parents and paternal gonadal mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Su, Yi-Ning; Chern, Schu-Rern; Su, Jun-Wei; Wang, Wayseen

    2013-03-01

    To present the prenatal diagnosis of recurrent autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) associated with unaffected parents and paternal gonadal mosaicism. A 37-year-old woman was referred for genetic counseling at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age and a family history of OI. The woman had a daughter who was affected with OI type III and carried an insertion frameshift mutation of c.4308_4309insA in exon 52 of the COL1A1 gene. The woman and her husband were non-consanguineous and healthy. Amniocentesis was performed at 18 weeks of gestation. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX. Molecular analysis of the amniocytes revealed a recurrent mutation of c.4308_4309insA in exon 52 of the COL1A1 gene. Mutational analysis of the family revealed no mutation of the COL1A1 gene in the parental bloods. However, mosaicism for the COL1A1 mutation was found in the paternal sperms. Level II ultrasound examination showed a curved right tibia, a narrow chest with irregular ribs and mild frontal bossing in the fetus. The parents decided to terminate the pregnancy, and a female fetus was delivered at 23 weeks of gestation with curved long bones. Recurrent autosomal dominant OI may occur in the offspring of unaffected parents with parental gonadal mosaicism. Genetic counseling of recurrent autosomal dominant OI should include a thorough mutational analysis of the family members, and mutational analysis of the sperm may detect paternal gonadal mosaicism for the mutation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Autosomal-Dominant Multiple Pterygium Syndrome Is Caused by Mutations in MYH3

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Jessica X.; Burrage, Lindsay C.; Beck, Anita E.; Marvin, Colby T.; McMillin, Margaret J.; Shively, Kathryn M.; Harrell, Tanya M.; Buckingham, Kati J.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Jain, Mahim; Alanay, Yasemin; Berry, Susan A.; Carey, John C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lee, Brendan H.; Krakow, Deborah; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Anderson, Peter; Blue, Elizabeth Marchani; Annable, Marcus; Browning, Brian L.; Buckingham, Kati J.; Chen, Christina; Chin, Jennifer; Chong, Jessica X.; Cooper, Gregory M.; Davis, Colleen P.; Frazar, Christopher; Harrell, Tanya M.; He, Zongxiao; Jain, Preti; Jarvik, Gail P.; Jimenez, Guillaume; Johanson, Eric; Jun, Goo; Kircher, Martin; Kolar, Tom; Krauter, Stephanie A.; Krumm, Niklas; Leal, Suzanne M.; Luksic, Daniel; Marvin, Colby T.; McMillin, Margaret J.; McGee, Sean; O’Reilly, Patrick; Paeper, Bryan; Patterson, Karynne; Perez, Marcos; Phillips, Sam W.; Pijoan, Jessica; Poel, Christa; Reinier, Frederic; Robertson, Peggy D.; Santos-Cortez, Regie; Shaffer, Tristan; Shephard, Cindy; Shively, Kathryn M.; Siegel, Deborah L.; Smith, Joshua D.; Staples, Jeffrey C.; Tabor, Holly K.; Tackett, Monica; Underwood, Jason G.; Wegener, Marc; Wang, Gao; Wheeler, Marsha M.; Yi, Qian; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple pterygium syndrome (MPS) is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of rare Mendelian conditions characterized by multiple pterygia, scoliosis, and congenital contractures of the limbs. MPS typically segregates as an autosomal-recessive disorder, but rare instances of autosomal-dominant transmission have been reported. Whereas several mutations causing recessive MPS have been identified, the genetic basis of dominant MPS remains unknown. We identified four families affected by dominantly transmitted MPS characterized by pterygia, camptodactyly of the hands, vertebral fusions, and scoliosis. Exome sequencing identified predicted protein-altering mutations in embryonic myosin heavy chain (MYH3) in three families. MYH3 mutations underlie distal arthrogryposis types 1, 2A, and 2B, but all mutations reported to date occur in the head and neck domains. In contrast, two of the mutations found to cause MPS in this study occurred in the tail domain. The phenotypic overlap among persons with MPS, coupled with physical findings distinct from other conditions caused by mutations in MYH3, suggests that the developmental mechanism underlying MPS differs from that of other conditions and/or that certain functions of embryonic myosin might be perturbed by disruption of specific residues and/or domains. Moreover, the vertebral fusions in persons with MPS, coupled with evidence of MYH3 expression in bone, suggest that embryonic myosin plays a role in skeletal development. PMID:25957469

  10. Habitual exercise levels are associated with cerebral amyloid load in presymptomatic autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, Belinda M; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Taddei, Kevin; Gardener, Samantha L; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Xiong, Chengjie; Fagan, Anne M; Benzinger, Tammie; Buckles, Virginia; Erickson, Kirk I; Clarnette, Roger; Shah, Tejal; Masters, Colin L; Weiner, Michael; Cairns, Nigel; Rossor, Martin; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Salloway, Stephen; Vöglein, Jonathan; Laske, Christoph; Noble, James; Schofield, Peter R; Bateman, Randall J; Morris, John C; Martins, Ralph N

    2017-05-11

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between self-reported exercise levels and Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers, in a cohort of autosomal dominant AD mutation carriers. In 139 presymptomatic mutation carriers from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network, the relationship between self-reported exercise levels and brain amyloid load, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42, and CSF tau levels was evaluated using linear regression. No differences in brain amyloid load, CSF Aβ42, or CSF tau were observed between low and high exercise groups. Nevertheless, when examining only those already accumulating AD pathology (i.e., amyloid positive), low exercisers had higher mean levels of brain amyloid than high exercisers. Furthermore, the interaction between exercise and estimated years from expected symptom onset was a significant predictor of brain amyloid levels. Our findings indicate a relationship exists between self-reported exercise levels and brain amyloid in autosomal dominant AD mutation carriers. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Activation of AMP-activated kinase as a strategy for managing autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco

    2009-12-01

    There is evidence that overactivity of both mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) contributes importantly to the progressive expansion of renal cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Recent research has established that AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) can suppress the activity of each of these proteins. Clinical AMPK activators such as metformin and berberine may thus have potential in the clinical management of ADPKD. The traditional use of berberine in diarrhea associated with bacterial infections may reflect, in part, the inhibitory impact of AMPK on chloride extrusion by small intestinal enterocytes.

  12. Automated Segmentation of Kidneys from MR Images in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngwoo; Ge, Yinghui; Tao, Cheng; Zhu, Jianbing; Chapman, Arlene B.; Torres, Vicente E.; Yu, Alan S.L.; Mrug, Michal; Bennett, William M.; Flessner, Michael F.; Landsittel, Doug P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Our study developed a fully automated method for segmentation and volumetric measurements of kidneys from magnetic resonance images in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and assessed the performance of the automated method with the reference manual segmentation method. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Study patients were selected from the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease. At the enrollment of the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease Study in 2000, patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease were between 15 and 46 years of age with relatively preserved GFRs. Our fully automated segmentation method was on the basis of a spatial prior probability map of the location of kidneys in abdominal magnetic resonance images and regional mapping with total variation regularization and propagated shape constraints that were formulated into a level set framework. T2–weighted magnetic resonance image sets of 120 kidneys were selected from 60 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and divided into the training and test datasets. The performance of the automated method in reference to the manual method was assessed by means of two metrics: Dice similarity coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient of segmented kidney volume. The training and test sets were swapped for crossvalidation and reanalyzed. Results Successful segmentation of kidneys was performed with the automated method in all test patients. The segmented kidney volumes ranged from 177.2 to 2634 ml (mean, 885.4±569.7 ml). The mean Dice similarity coefficient ±SD between the automated and manual methods was 0.88±0.08. The mean correlation coefficient between the two segmentation methods for the segmented volume measurements was 0.97 (P<0.001 for each crossvalidation set). The results from the crossvalidation sets were highly comparable

  13. Automated Segmentation of Kidneys from MR Images in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngwoo; Ge, Yinghui; Tao, Cheng; Zhu, Jianbing; Chapman, Arlene B; Torres, Vicente E; Yu, Alan S L; Mrug, Michal; Bennett, William M; Flessner, Michael F; Landsittel, Doug P; Bae, Kyongtae T

    2016-04-07

    Our study developed a fully automated method for segmentation and volumetric measurements of kidneys from magnetic resonance images in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and assessed the performance of the automated method with the reference manual segmentation method. Study patients were selected from the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease. At the enrollment of the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease Study in 2000, patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease were between 15 and 46 years of age with relatively preserved GFRs. Our fully automated segmentation method was on the basis of a spatial prior probability map of the location of kidneys in abdominal magnetic resonance images and regional mapping with total variation regularization and propagated shape constraints that were formulated into a level set framework. T2-weighted magnetic resonance image sets of 120 kidneys were selected from 60 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and divided into the training and test datasets. The performance of the automated method in reference to the manual method was assessed by means of two metrics: Dice similarity coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient of segmented kidney volume. The training and test sets were swapped for crossvalidation and reanalyzed. Successful segmentation of kidneys was performed with the automated method in all test patients. The segmented kidney volumes ranged from 177.2 to 2634 ml (mean, 885.4±569.7 ml). The mean Dice similarity coefficient ±SD between the automated and manual methods was 0.88±0.08. The mean correlation coefficient between the two segmentation methods for the segmented volume measurements was 0.97 (P<0.001 for each crossvalidation set). The results from the crossvalidation sets were highly comparable. We have developed a fully automated method for segmentation of kidneys from abdominal

  14. Bilateral cysts in the choroid plexus in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Casteleijn, Niek F; Spithoven, Edwin M; Rookmaaker, Maarten B; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2015-05-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a genetic systemic disorder, which is associated with cyst formation in several organs, renal function decline and a higher prevalence of intracranial aneurysms. We report a 52-year-old, otherwise healthy, man with ADPKD who had asymptomatic, bilateral, multiple cysts in the choroid plexus, which is an extremely rare abnormality. Recent evidence suggests that the polycystin proteins, which are dysfunctional in ADPKD, are found in ciliated choroid plexus cells that are involved with regulation of cerebrospinal fluid homeostasis. We hypothesize therefore that choroid plexus cysts may be part of the ADPKD phenotype, which has not been described before.

  15. Seizure semiology in autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features, due to novel LGI1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Sadleir, Lynette G; Agher, Dahbia; Chabrol, Elodie; Elkouby, Léa; Leguern, Eric; Paterson, Sarah J; Harty, Rosie; Bellows, Susannah T; Berkovic, Samuel F; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Baulac, Stéphanie

    2013-12-01

    Mutations in LGI1 are found in 50% of families with autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features (ADEAF). In ADEAF, family members have predominantly lateral temporal lobe seizures but mesial temporal lobe semiology may also occur. We report here three families with novel LGI1 mutations (p.Ile82Thr, p.Glu225*, c.432-2_436del). Seven affected individuals reported an auditory aura and one a visual aura. A 10-year old boy described a cephalic aura followed by an unpleasant taste and oral automatisms without auditory, visual or psychic features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Melorheostosis in a family with autosomal dominant osteopoikilosis: report of a third family.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Philippe; Pykels, E; Lammens, J; Devriendt, K; Fryns, J-P

    2003-06-01

    We describe a three-generation family with clinical and radiological findings of osteopoikilosis in five and melorheostosis in one individual. The co-occurrence of both rare bone disorders suggests that both conditions might be related as suggested previously by Butkus et al. [1997: Am J Med Genet 72:43-46] and Nevin et al. [1999: Am J Med Genet 82:409-414]. The findings in this family strengthen the hypothesis that osteopoikilosis is an autosomal dominant condition and that an early postzygotic second hit mutation in the second allele results in melorheostosis. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Mechanisms and management of hypertension in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic; Williams, Olubunmi; Chapman, Arlene

    2014-12-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most commonly inherited kidney disease, characterized by progressive cyst growth and renal enlargement, resulting in renal failure. Hypertension is common and occurs early, prior to loss of kidney function. Whether hypertension in ADPKD is a primary vasculopathy secondary to mutations in the polycystin genes or secondary to activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by cyst expansion and intrarenal ischemia is unclear. Dysregulation of the primary cilium causing endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction is a component of ADPKD. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical characteristics of hypertension in ADPKD and give specific recommendations for its treatment.

  18. A new deletion in autosomal dominant guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I deficiency gene--Segawa disease.

    PubMed

    Bianca, S; Bianca, M

    2006-02-01

    Hereditary Progressive Dystonia with marked diurnal fluctuation (HPD) is an autosomally dominantly inherited dystonia which is characterized by marked diurnal fluctuation of symptoms and by marked and sustained response to levodopa associated with mutations in guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase (GCH-1) deficiency gene. We report an italian patient with a new 18 bp deletion at 267 in exon 1 in the GCH-1 gene. The peculiarity of our patient is the new mutations never reported and mnemonic disturbances that are also not reported in the classical HPD.A genotype-phenotype relationship may be suggested between different gene mutations and non classical clinical manifestations.

  19. [Massive inferior vena cava thrombosis in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic hepatorenal disease].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Gil, F; Costero, O; Pobes, A

    2002-01-01

    We report a 68-year-old man with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, who developed multiple venous thromboses (inferior vena cava, left renal vein and iliofemoral veins) caused by local compression of the intrahepatic inferior vena cava by hepatic cysts. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of inferior vena cava thrombosis caused by hepatic cysts compression. Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging were effective in documenting the venous thromboses and the underlying lesions non-invasively. Long-term anticoagulation was an efficient and safe treatment.

  20. Octreotide reduces hepatic, renal and breast cystic volume in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Peces, Ramón; Cuesta-López, Emilio; Peces, Carlos; Pérez-Dueñas, Virginia; Vega-Cabrera, Cristina; Selgas, Rafael

    2011-06-01

    A 43-year-old woman with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) received octreotide for 12 months, and this was associated with a 6.3% reduction in liver volume, an 8% reduction in total kidney volume and stabilization of renal function. There was also a reduction of cyst size in fibrocystic disease of breast. These data suggest that the cyst fluid accumulation in different organs from patients with ADPKD is a dynamic process which can be reversed by octreotide. This is the first report of a case of simultaneous reduction in hepatic, renal and breast cystic volume with preservation of renal function in a patient with ADPKD receiving octreotide.

  1. Evidence for locus heterogeneity in human autosomal dominant split hand/split foot malformation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.P.; Palmer, S.E.; Wijsman, E.M.

    1994-09-01

    Split hand/split foot (SHSF, also known as ectrodactyly) is a human developmental disorder characterized by absent central rays and other distal limb malformations. Physical mapping of SHSF-associated chromosomal rearrangements has provided compelling evidence for the location of a causative gene locus (designated SHFD1) on chromosome 7 within q21.3-q22.1. In the present study, marker loci were localized to the SHFD1 critical region through the analysis of somatic cell hybrids derived from individuals with SHSF and cytogenetic abnormalities involving the 7q21.3q22.1 region. Combined genetic and physical data suggest that the order of markers in the SHFD1 critical region is cen - D7S492 - COL1A2 - D7S527 - D7S479 - D7S491 - SHFD1 - D7S554 - ASNS - D7S518 -qter. Dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms at several of these loci were used to test for linkage of SHSF to this region in a large pedigree that demonstrated autosomal dominant inheritance of this disorder. Strong evidence against linkage of SHSF to the SHFD1 critical region was obtained, and the gene responsible for the SHSF phenotype in this pedigree was excluded from a 10 cM interval spanning the entire SHFD1 critical region. Evidence of exclusion to the SHFD1 critical region was also observed in five additional families. Thus, combined molecular and genetic data provide evidence for locus heterogeneity in autosomal dominant SHSF, implying that mutations in at least two separate autosomal genes can result in this distinctive human developmental disorder.

  2. DVL1 frameshift mutations clustering in the penultimate exon cause autosomal-dominant Robinow syndrome.

    PubMed

    White, Janson; Mazzeu, Juliana F; Hoischen, Alexander; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Gambin, Tomasz; Alcino, Michele Calijorne; Penney, Samantha; Saraiva, Jorge M; Hove, Hanne; Skovby, Flemming; Kayserili, Hülya; Estrella, Elicia; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Steehouwer, Marloes; Muzny, Donna M; Sutton, V Reid; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R; Brunner, Han G; van Bon, Bregje W M; Carvalho, Claudia M B

    2015-04-02

    Robinow syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by mesomelic limb shortening, genital hypoplasia, and distinctive facial features and for which both autosomal-recessive and autosomal-dominant inheritance patterns have been described. Causative variants in the non-canonical signaling gene WNT5A underlie a subset of autosomal-dominant Robinow syndrome (DRS) cases, but most individuals with DRS remain without a molecular diagnosis. We performed whole-exome sequencing in four unrelated DRS-affected individuals without coding mutations in WNT5A and found heterozygous DVL1 exon 14 mutations in three of them. Targeted Sanger sequencing in additional subjects with DRS uncovered DVL1 exon 14 mutations in five individuals, including a pair of monozygotic twins. In total, six distinct frameshift mutations were found in eight subjects, and all were heterozygous truncating variants within the penultimate exon of DVL1. In five families in which samples from unaffected parents were available, the variants were demonstrated to represent de novo mutations. All variant alleles are predicted to result in a premature termination codon within the last exon, escape nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), and most likely generate a C-terminally truncated protein with a distinct -1 reading-frame terminus. Study of the transcripts extracted from affected subjects' leukocytes confirmed expression of both wild-type and variant alleles, supporting the hypothesis that mutant mRNA escapes NMD. Genomic variants identified in our study suggest that truncation of the C-terminal domain of DVL1, a protein hypothesized to have a downstream role in the Wnt-5a non-canonical pathway, is a common cause of DRS. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer Disease: A Unique Resource to Study CSF Biomarker Changes in Preclinical AD

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Suzanne Elizabeth; Fagan, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) has been greatly influenced by investigation of rare families with autosomal dominant mutations that cause early onset AD. Mutations in the genes coding for amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN-1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN-2) cause over-production of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) leading to early deposition of Aβ in the brain, which in turn is hypothesized to initiate a cascade of processes, resulting in neuronal death, cognitive decline, and eventual dementia. Studies of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from individuals with the common form of AD, late-onset AD (LOAD), have revealed that low CSF Aβ42 and high CSF tau are associated with AD brain pathology. Herein, we review the literature on CSF biomarkers in autosomal dominant AD (ADAD), which has contributed to a detailed road map of AD pathogenesis, especially during the preclinical period, prior to the appearance of any cognitive symptoms. Current drug trials are also taking advantage of the unique characteristics of ADAD and utilizing CSF biomarkers to accelerate development of effective therapies for AD. PMID:26175713

  4. Autosomal dominant inheritance of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia in black South Africans.

    PubMed

    Dlova, Ncoza C; Jordaan, Francois H; Sarig, Ofer; Sprecher, Eli

    2014-04-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is the commonest type of primary scarring alopecia in women of African descent. Little is currently known about the disease genetics. We sought to investigate patterns of inheritance in CCCA and ascertain the contribution of nongenetic factors such as hair-grooming habits to the pathogenesis of the disease. Affected individuals with at least 1 available family member were recruited from 2005 through 2012 inclusive for pedigree analysis. CCCA was diagnosed on clinical and histopathological grounds. Fourteen index African families with 31 immediate family members participated in the initial screening. The female to male ratio was 29:2 with an average age of 50.4 years. All patients displayed histologic features typical for CCCA. Pedigree analysis suggested an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Hair-grooming habits were found to markedly influence disease expression. Small number of patients is a limitation. CCCA can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, with partial penetrance and a strong modifying effect of hairstyling and gender. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence for locus heterogeneity in human autosomal dominant split hand/split foot malformation

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.E.; Wijsman, E.M.; Stephens, K.; Evans, J.P. ); Scherer, S.W.; Tsui, L.C. ); Kukolich, M. )

    1994-07-01

    Split hand/split foot (SHSF; also known as ectrodactyly) is a human developmental disorder characterized by missing central digits and other distal limb malformations. An association between SHSF and cytogenetically visible rearrangements of chromosome 7 at bands q21-q22 provides compelling evidence for the location of a causative gene at this location, and the locus has been designated SHFD1. In the present study, marker loci were localized to the SHFD1 critical region through the analysis of somatic cell hybrids derived from individuals with SHSF and cytogenetic abnormalities involving the 7q21-q22 region. Combined genetic and physical data suggest that the order of markers in the SHFD1 critical region is cen-D7S492-D7S527-(D7S479-D7S491)-SHFD1-D7S553-D7S518-qter. Dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms at three of these loci were used to test for linkage of SHSF to this region in a large pedigree that demonstrates autosomal dominant SHSF. Evidence against linkage of the SHSF gene to 7q21-q22 was obtained in this pedigree. Therefore, combined molecular and genetic data provide evidence for locus heterogeneity in autosomal dominant SHSF. The authors propose the name SHSF2 for this second locus. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Autosomal dominant and sporadic monocytopenia with susceptibility to mycobacteria, fungi, papillomaviruses, and myelodysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vinh, Donald C.; Patel, Smita Y.; Uzel, Gulbu; Anderson, Victoria L.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Spalding, Christine; Hughes, Stephen; Pittaluga, Stefania; Raffeld, Mark; Sorbara, Lynn R.; Elloumi, Houda Z.; Kuhns, Douglas B.; Turner, Maria L.; Cowen, Edward W.; Fink, Danielle; Long-Priel, Debra; Hsu, Amy P.; Ding, Li; Paulson, Michelle L.; Whitney, Adeline R.; Sampaio, Elizabeth P.; Frucht, David M.; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2010-01-01

    We identified 18 patients with the distinct clinical phenotype of susceptibility to disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, viral infections, especially with human papillomaviruses, and fungal infections, primarily histoplasmosis, and molds. This syndrome typically had its onset in adulthood (age range, 7-60 years; mean, 31.1 years; median, 32 years) and was characterized by profound circulating monocytopenia (mean, 13.3 cells/μL; median, 14.5 cells/μL), B lymphocytopenia (mean, 9.4 cells/μL; median, 4 cells/μL), and NK lymphocytopenia (mean, 16 cells/μL; median, 5.5 cells/μL). T lymphocytes were variably affected. Despite these peripheral cytopenias, all patients had macrophages and plasma cells at sites of inflammation and normal immunoglobulin levels. Ten of these patients developed 1 or more of the following malignancies: 9 myelodysplasia/leukemia, 1 vulvar carcinoma and metastatic melanoma, 1 cervical carcinoma, 1 Bowen disease of the vulva, and 1 multiple Epstein-Barr virus+ leiomyosarcoma. Five patients developed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis without mutations in the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor or anti–granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor autoantibodies. Among these 18 patients, 5 families had 2 generations affected, suggesting autosomal dominant transmission as well as sporadic cases. This novel clinical syndrome links susceptibility to mycobacterial, viral, and fungal infections with malignancy and can be transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern. PMID:20040766

  7. Familial clustering of medullary sponge kidney is autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance and variable expressivity.

    PubMed

    Fabris, Antonia; Lupo, Antonio; Ferraro, Pietro M; Anglani, Franca; Pei, York; Danza, Francesco M; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is a renal malformation typically associated with nephrocalcinosis and recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis. Approximately 12% of recurrent stone formers have MSK, which is generally considered a sporadic disorder. Since its discovery, three pedigrees have been described in which an apparently autosomal dominant inheritance was suggested. Here, family members of 50 patients with MSK were systematically investigated by means of interviews, renal imaging, and biochemical studies in an effort to establish whether MSK is an inheritable disorder. Twenty-seven MSK probands had 59 first- and second-degree relatives of both genders with MSK in all generations. There were progressively lower mean levels of serum calcium, urinary sodium, pH, and volume, combined with higher serum phosphate and potassium from probands to relatives with bilateral, to those with unilateral, and to those unaffected by MSK. This suggests that most affected relatives have a milder form of MSK than the probands, which would explain why they had not been so diagnosed. Thus, our study provides strong evidence that familial clustering of MSK is common, and has an autosomal dominant inheritance, a reduced penetrance, and variable expressivity.

  8. Oculopharyngeal Weakness, Hypophrenia, Deafness, and Impaired Vision: A Novel Autosomal Dominant Myopathy with Rimmed Vacuoles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ting; Lu, Xiang-Hui; Wang, Hui-Fang; Ban, Rui; Liu, Hua-Xu; Shi, Qiang; Wang, Qian; Yin, Xi; Pu, Chuan-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Myopathies with rimmed vacuoles are a heterogeneous group of muscle disorders with progressive muscle weakness and varied clinical manifestations but similar features in muscle biopsies. Here, we describe a novel autosomal dominant myopathy with rimmed vacuoles in a large family with 11 patients of three generations affected. Methods: A clinical study including family history, obstetric, pediatric, and development history was recorded. Clinical examinations including physical examination, electromyography (EMG), serum creatine kinase (CK), bone X-rays, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in this family. Open muscle biopsies were performed on the proband and his mother. To find the causative gene, the whole-exome sequencing was carried out. Results: Disease onset was from adolescence to adulthood, but the affected patients of the third generation presented an earlier onset and more severe clinical manifestations than the older generations. Clinical features were characterized as dysarthria, dysphagia, external ophthalmoplegia, limb weakness, hypophrenia, deafness, and impaired vision. However, not every patient manifested all symptoms. Serum CK was mildly elevated and EMG indicated a myopathic pattern. Brain MRI showed cerebellum and brain stem mildly atrophy. Rimmed vacuoles and inclusion bodies were observed in muscle biopsy. The whole-exome sequencing was performed, but the causative gene has not been found. Conclusions: We reported a novel autosomal dominant myopathy with rimmed vacuoles characterized by dysarthria, dysphagia, external ophthalmoplegia, limb weakness, hypophrenia, deafness, and impaired vision, but the causative gene has not been found and needs further study. PMID:27453229

  9. A mutation in FRIZZLED2 impairs Wnt signaling and causes autosomal dominant omodysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Saal, Howard M.; Prows, Cynthia A.; Guerreiro, Iris; Donlin, Milene; Knudson, Luke; Sund, Kristen L.; Chang, Ching-Fang; Brugmann, Samantha A.; Stottmann, Rolf W.

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant omodysplasia is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by short humeri, radial head dislocation, short first metacarpals, facial dysmorphism and genitourinary anomalies. We performed next-generation whole-exome sequencing and comparative analysis of a proband with omodysplasia, her unaffected parents and her affected daughter. We identified a de novo mutation in FRIZZLED2 (FZD2) in the proband and her daughter that was not found in unaffected family members. The FZD2 mutation (c.1644G>A) changes a tryptophan residue at amino acid 548 to a premature stop (p.Trp548*). This altered protein is still produced in vitro, but we show reduced ability of this mutant form of FZD2 to interact with its downstream target DISHEVELLED. Furthermore, expressing the mutant form of FZD2 in vitro is not able to facilitate the cellular response to canonical Wnt signaling like wild-type FZD2. We therefore conclude that the FRIZZLED2 mutation is a de novo, novel cause for autosomal dominant omodysplasia. PMID:25759469

  10. Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 predicts progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zschiedrich, Stefan; Budde, Klemens; Nürnberger, Jens; Wanner, Christoph; Sommerer, Claudia; Kunzendorf, Ulrich; Banas, Bernhard; Hoerl, Walter H; Obermüller, Nicholas; Arns, Wolfgang; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Gaedeke, Jens; Lindner, Tom H; Faerber, Lothar; Wimmer, Peter; Stork, Roland; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Walz, Gerd

    2016-02-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common autosomal dominant condition associated with renal cysts and development of renal failure. With the availability of potential therapies, one major obstacle remains the lack of readily available parameters that identify patients at risk for disease progression and/or determine the efficacy of therapeutic interventions within short observation periods. Increased total kidney volume (TKV) correlates with disease progression, but it remains unknown how accurate this parameter can predict disease progression at early stages. To identify additional parameters that help to stratify ADPKD patients, we measured secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4) serum concentrations at baseline and over the course of 18 months in 429 ADPKD patients. Serum creatinine and sFRP4 as well as TKV increased over time, and were significantly different from baseline values within 1 year. Elevated sFRP4 levels at baseline predicted a more rapid decline of renal function at 2, 3 and 5 years suggesting that sFRP4 serum levels may provide additional information to identify ADPKD patients at risk for rapid disease progression. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  11. Randomized Clinical Trial of Long-Acting Somatostatin for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney and Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Masyuk, Tetyana V.; Page, Linda J.; Kubly, Vickie J.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Li, Xujian; Kim, Bohyun; King, Bernard F.; Glockner, James; Holmes, David R.; Rossetti, Sandro; Harris, Peter C.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.; Torres, Vicente E.

    2010-01-01

    There are no proven, effective therapies for polycystic kidney disease (PKD) or polycystic liver disease (PLD). We enrolled 42 patients with severe PLD resulting from autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD) or autosomal dominant PLD (ADPLD) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of octreotide, a long-acting somatostatin analogue. We randomly assigned 42 patients in a 2:1 ratio to octreotide LAR depot (up to 40 mg every 28 ± 5 days) or placebo for 1 year. The primary end point was percent change in liver volume from baseline to 1 year, measured by MRI. Secondary end points were changes in total kidney volume, GFR, quality of life, safety, vital signs, and clinical laboratory tests. Thirty-four patients had ADPKD, and eight had ADPLD. Liver volume decreased by 4.95% ± 6.77% in the octreotide group but remained practically unchanged (+0.92% ± 8.33%) in the placebo group (P = 0.048). Among patients with ADPKD, total kidney volume remained practically unchanged (+0.25% ± 7.53%) in the octreotide group but increased by 8.61% ± 10.07% in the placebo group (P = 0.045). Changes in GFR were similar in both groups. Octreotide was well tolerated; treated individuals reported an improved perception of bodily pain and physical activity. In summary, octreotide slowed the progressive increase in liver volume and total kidney volume, improved health perception among patients with PLD, and had an acceptable side effect profile. PMID:20431041

  12. Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease: diagnosis, classification, and management--A KDIGO consensus report.

    PubMed

    Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Alper, Seth L; Antignac, Corinne; Bleyer, Anthony J; Chauveau, Dominique; Dahan, Karin; Deltas, Constantinos; Hosking, Andrew; Kmoch, Stanislav; Rampoldi, Luca; Wiesener, Michael; Wolf, Matthias T; Devuyst, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    Rare autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease is caused by mutations in the genes encoding uromodulin (UMOD), hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF1B), renin (REN), and mucin-1 (MUC1). Multiple names have been proposed for these disorders, including 'Medullary Cystic Kidney Disease (MCKD) type 2', 'Familial Juvenile Hyperuricemic Nephropathy (FJHN)', or 'Uromodulin-Associated Kidney Disease (UAKD)' for UMOD-related diseases and 'MCKD type 1' for the disease caused by MUC1 mutations. The multiplicity of these terms, and the fact that cysts are not pathognomonic, creates confusion. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) proposes adoption of a new terminology for this group of diseases using the term 'Autosomal Dominant Tubulointerstitial Kidney Disease' (ADTKD) appended by a gene-based subclassification, and suggests diagnostic criteria. Implementation of these recommendations is anticipated to facilitate recognition and characterization of these monogenic diseases. A better understanding of these rare disorders may be relevant for the tubulointerstitial fibrosis component in many forms of chronic kidney disease.

  13. Rare variants in GP1BB are responsible for autosomal dominant macrothrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Westbury, Sarah K; Stephens, Jonathan C; Greene, Daniel; Downes, Kate; Kelly, Anne M; Lentaigne, Claire; Astle, William J; Huizinga, Eric G; Nurden, Paquita; Papadia, Sofia; Peerlinck, Kathelijne; Penkett, Christopher J; Perry, David J; Roughley, Catherine; Simeoni, Ilenia; Stirrups, Kathleen; Hart, Daniel P; Tait, R Campbell; Mumford, Andrew D; Laffan, Michael A; Freson, Kathleen; Ouwehand, Willem H; Kunishima, Shinji; Turro, Ernest

    2017-01-26

    The von Willebrand receptor complex, which is composed of the glycoproteins Ibα, Ibβ, GPV, and GPIX, plays an essential role in the earliest steps in hemostasis. During the last 4 decades, it has become apparent that loss of function of any 1 of 3 of the genes encoding these glycoproteins (namely, GP1BA, GP1BB, and GP9) leads to autosomal recessive macrothrombocytopenia complicated by bleeding. A small number of variants in GP1BA have been reported to cause a milder and dominant form of macrothrombocytopenia, but only 2 tentative reports exist of such a variant in GP1BB By analyzing data from a collection of more than 1000 genome-sequenced patients with a rare bleeding and/or platelet disorder, we have identified a significant association between rare monoallelic variants in GP1BB and macrothrombocytopenia. To strengthen our findings, we sought further cases in 2 additional collections in the United Kingdom and Japan. Across 18 families exhibiting phenotypes consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance of macrothrombocytopenia, we report on 27 affected cases carrying 1 of 9 rare variants in GP1BB. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: prevalence, genetic heterogeneity, and mutation spectrum.

    PubMed Central

    Campion, D; Dumanchin, C; Hannequin, D; Dubois, B; Belliard, S; Puel, M; Thomas-Anterion, C; Michon, A; Martin, C; Charbonnier, F; Raux, G; Camuzat, A; Penet, C; Mesnage, V; Martinez, M; Clerget-Darpoux, F; Brice, A; Frebourg, T

    1999-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) and of autosomal dominant forms of EOAD (ADEOAD), we performed a population-based study in the city of Rouen (426,710 residents). EOAD was defined as onset of disease at age <61 years, and ADEOAD was defined as the occurrence of at least three EOAD cases in three generations. Using these stringent criteria, we calculated that the EOAD and ADEOAD prevalences per 100,000 persons at risk were 41.2 and 5.3, respectively. We then performed a mutational analysis of the genes for amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) in 34 families with ADEOAD ascertained in France. In 19 (56%) of these families, we identified 16 distinct PSEN1 missense mutations, including 4 (Thr147Ile, Trp165Cys, Leu173Trp, and Ser390Ile) not reported elsewhere. APP mutations, including a novel mutation located at codon 715, were identified in 5 (15%) of the families. In the 10 remaining ADEOAD families and in 9 additional autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease families that did not fulfill the strict criteria for ADEOAD, no PSEN1, PSEN2, or APP mutation was identified. These results show that (1) PSEN1 and APP mutations account for 71% of ADEOAD families and (2) nonpenetrance at age <61 years is probably infrequent for PSEN1 or APP mutations. PMID:10441572

  15. Comprehensive Genetic Analysis of Japanese Autosomal Dominant Sensorineural Hearing Loss Patients

    PubMed Central

    Iwasa, Yoh-ichiro; Nishio, Shin-ya; Usami, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Background In general, autosomal dominant inherited hearing loss does not have a founder mutation, with the causative mutation different in each family. For this reason, there has been a strong need for efficient diagnosis methods for autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss (ADSNHL) patients. This study sought to verify the effectiveness of our analysis algorithm for the screening of ADSNHL patients as well as the usefulness of the massively parallel DNA sequencing (MPS). Subjects and Methods Seventy-five Japanese ADSNHL patients from 53 ENT departments nationwide participated in this study. We conducted genetic analysis of 75 ADSNHL patients using the Invader assay, TaqMan genotyping assay and MPS-based genetic screening. Results A total of 46 (61.3%) ADSNHL patients were found to have at least one candidate gene variant. Conclusion We were able to achieve a high mutation detection rate through the combination of the Invader assay, TaqMan genotyping assay and MPS. MPS could be used to successfully identify mutations in rare deafness genes. PMID:27911912

  16. A novel mutation in CRYAB associated with autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract in a Chinese family

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiang; Ma, Junjie; Yan, Ming; Mothobi, Maneo Emily; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To identify the genetic defects associated with autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract in a Chinese family. Methods Clinical data were collected, and the phenotypes of the affected members in this family were recorded by slit-lamp photography. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood. Mutations were screened in cataract-associated candidate genes through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses and sequencing. Structural models of the wild-type and mutant αB-crystallin were generated and analyzed by SWISS-MODEL. Results Mutation screening identified only one heterozygous G→A transition at nucleotide 32 in the first exon of αB-crystallin (CRYAB), resulting in an amino acid change from arginine to histidine at codon 11 (R11H). This mutation segregated in all available affected family members but was not observed in any of the unaffected persons of the family. The putative mutation disrupted a restriction site for the enzyme, Fnu4HI, in the affected family members. The disruption, however, was not found in any of the randomly selected ophthalmologically normal individuals or in 40 unrelated senile cataract patients. Computer-assisted prediction suggested that this mutation affected the biochemical properties as well as the structure of αB-crystallin. Conclusions These results supported the idea that the novel R11H mutation was responsible for the autosomal dominant nuclear congenital cataract in this pedigree. PMID:19597569

  17. A nonsense mutation in CRYGC associated with autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract in a Chinese family

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chongfei; Zhu, Ning; Wang, Wei; Wu, Renyi; Jiang, Jin; Shentu, Xingchao

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To identify the genetic defect associated with autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract in a Chinese family. Methods Family history and phenotypic data were recorded, and the phenotypes were documented by slit lamp photography. The genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. All the exons and flanking intronic sequences of CRYGC and CRYGD were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and screened for mutation by direct DNA sequencing. Structural models of the wild type and mutant γC-crystallin were generated and analyzed by SWISS-MODEL. Results Sequencing of the coding regions of CRYGC and CRYGD showed the presence of a heterozygous C>A transversion at c.327 of the coding sequence in exon 3 of CRYGC (c.327C>A), which results in the substitution of a wild type cysteine to a nonsense codon (C109X). One and a half Greek key motifs at the COOH-terminus were found to be absent in the structural model of the mutant truncated γC-crystallin. Conclusions A novel nonsense mutation in CRYGC was detected in a Chinese family with consistent autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract, providing clear evidence of a relationship between the genotype and the corresponding cataract phenotype. PMID:18618005

  18. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: a syndrome inherited with an autosomal dominant trait.

    PubMed

    Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Xaidara, Athina; Papathanasiou-Klontza, Dimitra; Papadimitriou, Alexandros; Velentza, Stavroula; Youroukos, Sotiris

    2003-12-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a rare disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of hemiplegia affecting either side of the body, oculomotor and autonomic disturbances, movement disorders, and progressive cognitive impairment. We report on one family with autosomal dominant alternating hemiplegia. The disorder was first recognized in a 9-year-old child, the third son of the family, who presented with learning disability, tonic-clonic seizures, dystonic attacks, and episodes of alternating hemiplegia starting at the age of 2 1/2 years. His mother and three brothers had similar symptoms. The maternal uncle, who has learning disability, had experienced multiple dystonic attacks. Tests performed on the family, including computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance angiography of the brain as well as metabolic evaluation, were normal. Cytogenetic analysis was normal and mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed no deletions or mutations in the four affected family members and the grandmother. An autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is suggested by the fact that both sexes are affected in two generations.

  19. Lamin B1 overexpression increases nuclear rigidity in autosomal dominant leukodystrophy fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ferrera, Denise; Canale, Claudio; Marotta, Roberto; Mazzaro, Nadia; Gritti, Marta; Mazzanti, Michele; Capellari, Sabina; Cortelli, Pietro; Gasparini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The architecture and structural mechanics of the cell nucleus are defined by the nuclear lamina, which is formed by A- and B-type lamins. Recently, gene duplication and protein overexpression of lamin B1 (LB1) have been reported in pedigrees with autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD). However, how the overexpression of LB1 affects nuclear mechanics and function and how it may result in pathology remain unexplored. Here, we report that in primary human skin fibroblasts derived from ADLD patients, LB1, but not other lamins, is overexpressed at the nuclear lamina and specifically enhances nuclear stiffness. Transient transfection of LB1 in HEK293 and neuronal N2a cells mimics the mechanical phenotype of ADLD nuclei. Notably, in ADLD fibroblasts, reducing LB1 protein levels by shRNA knockdown restores elasticity values to those indistinguishable from control fibroblasts. Moreover, isolated nuclei from ADLD fibroblasts display a reduced nuclear ion channel open probability on voltage-step application, suggesting that biophysical changes induced by LB1 overexpression may alter nuclear signaling cascades in somatic cells. Overall, the overexpression of LB1 in ADLD cells alters nuclear mechanics and is linked to changes in nuclear signaling, which could help explain the pathogenesis of this disease.—Ferrera, D., Canale, C., Marotta, R., Mazzaro, N., Gritti, M., Mazzanti, M., Capellari, S., Cortelli, P., Gasparini, L. Lamin B1 overexpression increases nuclear rigidity in autosomal dominant leukodystrophy fibroblasts. PMID:24858279

  20. Autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataracts caused by a CRYAA gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei-Feng; Yang, Min; Ma, Xu; Zhang, Qiong; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Shu-Zhen; Zhu, Si-Quan

    2010-06-01

    We sought to identify the genetic defect in a four-generation Chinese family with autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataracts, examine the clinical features in detail and demonstrate the functional analysis of a candidate gene in the family. Family history data were recorded. Clinical and ophthalmological examinations were performed on affected and unaffected family members. All the members were genotyped with microsatellite markers at loci considered to be associated with cataracts. Two-point LOD scores were calculated using the LINKAGE program package after genotyping. A mutation was detected by dilff521229rect sequencing and verified by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). Wild-type and mutant proteins were analyzed with online softwares. All affected members of this family had nuclear cataracts. Genetic analysis revealed a heterozygous previously described Arg116Cys mutation in the CRYAA gene in all of the affected members of the family but not in unaffected or 100 normal, unrelated individuals. Data generated with online software revealed that the different amino acid side chain, impact the aa116 interaction with other amino acids, thereby affecting the proteins secondary structure. This study identified a mutation in the CRYAA gene causing autosomal dominant nuclear cataracts and some patients show nystagmus or small blepharophimosis clinical features. These results provide evidence that CRYAA is a pathogenic gene for congenital cataracts, congenital cataracts are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous lens condition; at the same time, demonstrates a possible mechanism of action for the mutant gene.

  1. EPHB4 kinase–inactivating mutations cause autosomal dominant lymphatic-related hydrops fetalis

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Almedina, Silvia; Holdhus, Rita; Vicente, Andres; Fotiou, Elisavet; Lin, Shin; Petersen, Kjell; Simpson, Michael A.; Hoischen, Alexander; Atton, Giles; Karapouliou, Christina; Brice, Glen; Gordon, Kristiana; Wiseman, John W.; Wedin, Marianne; Rockson, Stanley G.; Jeffery, Steve; Mortimer, Peter S.; Snyder, Michael P.; Berland, Siren; Mansour, Sahar; Makinen, Taija

    2016-01-01

    Hydrops fetalis describes fluid accumulation in at least 2 fetal compartments, including abdominal cavities, pleura, and pericardium, or in body tissue. The majority of hydrops fetalis cases are nonimmune conditions that present with generalized edema of the fetus, and approximately 15% of these nonimmune cases result from a lymphatic abnormality. Here, we have identified an autosomal dominant, inherited form of lymphatic-related (nonimmune) hydrops fetalis (LRHF). Independent exome sequencing projects on 2 families with a history of in utero and neonatal deaths associated with nonimmune hydrops fetalis uncovered 2 heterozygous missense variants in the gene encoding Eph receptor B4 (EPHB4). Biochemical analysis determined that the mutant EPHB4 proteins are devoid of tyrosine kinase activity, indicating that loss of EPHB4 signaling contributes to LRHF pathogenesis. Further, inactivation of Ephb4 in lymphatic endothelial cells of developing mouse embryos led to defective lymphovenous valve formation and consequent subcutaneous edema. Together, these findings identify EPHB4 as a critical regulator of early lymphatic vascular development and demonstrate that mutations in the gene can cause an autosomal dominant form of LRHF that is associated with a high mortality rate. PMID:27400125

  2. Autosomal dominant spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance: A recognizable phenotype of BICD2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine; Deden, Florian; Eggermann, Katja; Eggermann, Thomas; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Sellhaus, Bernd; Yamoah, Alfred; Goswami, Anand; Claeys, Kristl G; Weis, Joachim; Zerres, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    Heterozygous BICD2 gene mutations cause a form of autosomal dominant spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance (SMALED). We analyzed the BICD2 gene in a selected group of 25 index patients with neurogenic muscle atrophy. We identified 2 new BICD2 missense mutations, c.2515G>A, p.Gly839Arg, in a family with autosomal dominant inheritance, and c.2202G>T, p.Lys734Asn, as a de novo mutation in an isolated patient with similar phenotype. The patients had congenital foot contractures, muscle atrophy of the legs, and slowly progressive weakness of the shoulder girdle. There was no apparent sensory or brain dysfunction. One patient died of unrelated reasons at age 52 years. Autopsy revealed no upper motor neuron and only moderate lower motor neuron loss, but there was distal corticospinal tract degeneration and marked neurogenic muscular atrophy. These findings give further insight into the clinical and pathoanatomical consequences of BICD2 mutations. Muscle Nerve 54: 496-500, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The myotubular myopathies: differential diagnosis of the X linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive forms and present state of DNA studies.

    PubMed Central

    Wallgren-Pettersson, C; Clarke, A; Samson, F; Fardeau, M; Dubowitz, V; Moser, H; Grimm, T; Barohn, R J; Barth, P G

    1995-01-01

    Clinical differences exist between the three forms of myotubular myopathy. They differ regarding age at onset, severity of the disease, and prognosis, and also regarding some of the clinical characteristics. The autosomal dominant form mostly has a later onset and milder course than the X linked form, and the autosomal recessive form is intermediate in both respects. These differences are, however, quantitative rather than qualitative. Muscle biopsy studies of family members are useful in some cases, and immunohistochemical staining of desmin and vimentin may help distinguish between the X linked and autosomal forms. Determining the mode of inheritance and prognosis in individual families, especially those with a single male patient, still poses a problem. Current molecular genetic results indicate that the gene for the X linked form is located in the proximal Xq28 region. Further molecular genetic studies are needed to examine the existence of genetic heterogeneity in myotubular myopathy and to facilitate diagnosis. Images PMID:8544184

  4. Mutation in CPT1C Associated With Pure Autosomal Dominant Spastic Paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Carlo; Schmidt, Thomas; Situ, Alan J.; Johnson, Janel O.; Lee, Philip R.; Chen, Ke-lian; Bott, Laura C.; Fadó, Rut; Harmison, George H.; Parodi, Sara; Grunseich, Christopher; Renvoisé, Benoît; Biesecker, Leslie G.; De Michele, Giuseppe; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Filla, Alessandro; Stevanin, Giovanni; Dürr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Casals, Núria; Traynor, Bryan J.; Blackstone, Craig; Ulmer, Tobias S.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The family of genes implicated in hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) is quickly expanding, mostly owing to the widespread availability of next-generation DNA sequencing methods. Nevertheless, a genetic diagnosis remains unavailable for many patients. OBJECTIVE To identify the genetic cause for a novel form of pure autosomal dominant HSP. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We examined and followed up with a family presenting to a tertiary referral center for evaluation of HSP for a decade until August 2014. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in 4 patients from the same family and was integrated with linkage analysis. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the presence of the candidate variant in the remaining affected and unaffected members of the family and screen the additional patients with HSP. Five affected and 6 unaffected participants from a 3-generation family with pure adult-onset autosomal dominant HSP of unknown genetic origin were included. Additionally, 163 unrelated participants with pure HSP of unknown genetic cause were screened. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE Mutation in the neuronal isoform of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase (CPT1C) gene. RESULTS We identified the nucleotide substitution c.109C>T in exon 3 of CPT1C, which determined the base substitution of an evolutionarily conserved Cys residue for an Arg in the gene product. This variant strictly cosegregated with the disease phenotype and was absent in online single-nucleotide polymorphism databases and in 712 additional exomes of control participants. We showed that CPT1C, which localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum, is expressed in motor neurons and interacts with atlastin-1, an endoplasmic reticulum protein encoded by the ATL1 gene known to be mutated in pure HSPs. The mutation, as indicated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies, alters the protein conformation and reduces the mean (SD) number (213.0 [46.99] vs 81.9 [14.2]; P < .01) and size (0.29 [0.01] vs 0.26 [0

  5. Linkage of the late onset autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia (DFSPII) to chromosome 2p markers

    SciTech Connect

    Hentati, A.; Wasserman, B.; Siddique, T.

    1994-09-01

    Pure familial spastic paraplegias (FSP) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by spasticity of lower limbs. FSP in inherited as an autosomal dominant (DFSP) or an autosomal recessive (RFSP) trait. DFSP has been classified into early onset (DFSPI) and late onset (DFSPII) based on the mean age of onset in families. A locus for RFSP has been mapped to chromosome 8, while a locus for DFSPI has been mapped to chromosome 14q. Genetic locus heterogeneity was observed in both of these forms. The location of DFSPII locus (or loci) is unknown. We collected DNA samples from 81 individuals including 26 affecteds from three DFSPII families (9998, 840, 581). The mean age of onset of systems was 26.5, 42.5, and 35.2 years, respectively. We first tested 156 DNA markers distributed throughout the human 22 autosomes with family 9998 and positive lod scores were obtained with chromosome 2p markers D2S174 (Z({theta})=2.93 at {theta}=0.00), D2S146 (Z({theta})=1.03 at {theta}=0.00) and D2S177 (Z({theta})=1.04 at {theta}=0.00). Analysis of the 2 additional families confirmed the linkage with a peak lod score of Z({theta})=4.62 at {theta}=0.105 with D2S174. The multipoint linkage analysis using the map D2S175-10cM-D2S174-14cM-D2DS177 suggested that the DFSPII locus most likely maps between D2S174 and D2S177 with Z({theta})=6.11. There was no evidence in our data supporting genetic locus heterogeneity for the DFSPII.

  6. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer's Disease: Results from the DIAN Study Group.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M; Owen, Christopher J; Christensen, Jon J; Friedrichsen, Karl; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wang, Qing; Hornbeck, Russ C; Ances, Beau M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Cash, Lisa A; Koeppe, Robert A; Klunk, William E; Galasko, Douglas; Brickman, Adam M; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M; Thompson, Paul M; Saykin, Andrew J; Ghetti, Bernardino; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A; Salloway, Stephen P; Schofield, Peter R; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Fox, Nick C; Förster, Stefan; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M; Xiong, Chengjie; Marcus, Daniel S; Weiner, Michael W; Morris, John C; Bateman, Randall J; Benzinger, Tammie L S

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid imaging plays an important role in the research and diagnosis of dementing disorders. Substantial variation in quantitative methods to measure brain amyloid burden exists in the field. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of methodological variations to the quantification of amyloid burden using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network (DIAN), an autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging data from the DIAN study were analyzed. Four candidate reference regions were investigated for estimation of brain amyloid burden. A regional spread function based technique was also investigated for the correction of partial volume effects. Cerebellar cortex, brain-stem, and white matter regions all had stable tracer retention during the course of disease. Partial volume correction consistently improves sensitivity to group differences and longitudinal changes over time. White matter referencing improved statistical power in the detecting longitudinal changes in relative tracer retention; however, the reason for this improvement is unclear and requires further investigation. Full dynamic acquisition and kinetic modeling improved statistical power although it may add cost and time. Several technical variations to amyloid burden quantification were examined in this study. Partial volume correction emerged as the strategy that most consistently improved statistical power for the detection of both longitudinal changes and across-group differences. For the autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease population with PiB imaging, utilizing brainstem as a reference region with partial volume correction may be optimal for current interventional trials. Further investigation of technical issues in quantitative amyloid imaging in different study populations using different amyloid imaging tracers is warranted.

  7. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer’s Disease: Results from the DIAN Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M.; Owen, Christopher J.; Christensen, Jon J.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wang, Qing; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Ances, Beau M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Cash, Lisa A.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Klunk, William E.; Galasko, Douglas; Brickman, Adam M.; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M.; Thompson, Paul M.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Salloway, Stephen P.; Schofield, Peter R.; Masters, Colin L.; Villemagne, Victor L.; Fox, Nick C.; Förster, Stefan; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Marcus, Daniel S.; Weiner, Michael W.; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.; Benzinger, Tammie L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid imaging plays an important role in the research and diagnosis of dementing disorders. Substantial variation in quantitative methods to measure brain amyloid burden exists in the field. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of methodological variations to the quantification of amyloid burden using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Network (DIAN), an autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging data from the DIAN study were analyzed. Four candidate reference regions were investigated for estimation of brain amyloid burden. A regional spread function based technique was also investigated for the correction of partial volume effects. Cerebellar cortex, brain-stem, and white matter regions all had stable tracer retention during the course of disease. Partial volume correction consistently improves sensitivity to group differences and longitudinal changes over time. White matter referencing improved statistical power in the detecting longitudinal changes in relative tracer retention; however, the reason for this improvement is unclear and requires further investigation. Full dynamic acquisition and kinetic modeling improved statistical power although it may add cost and time. Several technical variations to amyloid burden quantification were examined in this study. Partial volume correction emerged as the strategy that most consistently improved statistical power for the detection of both longitudinal changes and across-group differences. For the autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population with PiB imaging, utilizing brainstem as a reference region with partial volume correction may be optimal for current interventional trials. Further investigation of technical issues in quantitative amyloid imaging in different study populations using different amyloid imaging tracers is warranted. PMID:27010959

  8. Screening for mutations in rhodopsin and peripherin/RDS in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.A.; Gannon, A.M.; Daiger, S.P.

    1994-09-01

    Mutations in rhodopsin account for approximately 30% of all cases of autosomal dominant retinits pigmentosa (adRP) and mutations in peripherin/RDS account for an additional 5% of cases. Also, mutations in rhodopsin can cause autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa and mutations in peripherin/RDS can cause dominant macular degeneration. Most disease-causing mutations in rhodopsin and peripherin/RDS are unique to one family or, at most, to a few families within a limited geographic region, though a few mutations are found in multiple, unrelated families. To further determine the spectrum of genetic variation in these genes, we screened DNA samples from 134 unrelated patients with retinitis pigmentosa for mutations in both rhodopsin and peripherin/RDS using SSCP followed by genomic sequencing. Of the 134 patients, 86 were from families with apparent adRP and 48 were either isolated cases or were from families with an equivocal mode of inheritance. Among these patients we found 14 distinct rhodopsin mutations which are likely to cause retinal disease. Eleven of these mutations were found in one individual or one family only, whereas the Pro23His mutation was found in 14 {open_quotes}unrelated{close_quotes}individuals. The splice-site mutation produces dominant disease though with highly variable expression. Among the remaining patients were found 6 distinct peripherin/RDS mutations which are likely to cause retinal disease. These mutations were also found in one patient or family only, except the Gly266Asp mutation which was found in two unrelated patients. These results confirm the expected frequency and broad spectrum of mutations causing adRP.

  9. Fine localization of the locus for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa on chromosome 17p

    SciTech Connect

    Goliath, R.; Janssens, P.; Beighton, P.

    1995-10-01

    The term {open_quotes}retintis pigmentosa{close_quotes} (RP) refers to a group of inherited retinal degenerative disorders. Clinical manifestations include night-blindness, with variable age of onset, followed by constriction of the visual field that may progress to total loss of sight in later life. Previous studies have shown that RP is caused by mutations within different genes and may be inherited as an X-linked recessive (XLRRP), autosomal recessive (ARRP), or autosomal dominant (ADRP) trait. The AD form of this group of conditions has been found to be caused by mutations within the rhodopsin gene in some families and the peripherin/RDS gene in others. In addition, some ADRP families have been found to be linked to anonymous markers on 8cen, 7p, 7q,19q, and, more recently, 17p. The ADRP gene locus on the short arm of chromosome 17 was identified in a large South African family (ADRP-SA) of British origin. The phenotypic expression of the disorder, which has been described elsewhere is consistent in the pedigree with an early onset of disease symptoms. In all affected subjects in the family, onset of symptoms commenced before the age of 10 years. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. [Evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance through the maternal line in a case of primary ciliary diskinesia].

    PubMed

    Alvarez González, J; Busto Castañón, L; Nistal Serrano, M

    2006-01-01

    An atypical case of primary ciliary dyskinesia is presented in which the inheritance, rather than the classical autosomal recessive, appears to be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait through the maternal line. The case involves two brothers of 29 and 30 years of age, married without children, with a history of infertility, frequent episodes of sinusitis, and recurrent pulmonary infections. Their mother and sister have chronic bronchopathy of unknown etiology. Their father is healthy without pulmonary problems or sinusitis. At physical exam, both brothers, sister and mother presented with bronchial rhonchi at lung auscultation. Blood analysis and pulmonary function, liver and renal tests were all normal. The ultraestructual study of the sperm flagellum by electron microscopy revealed that both brothers have the same anomaly. Namely, in the majority of the cross-sections, both dynein arms are missing. The nexin filament was present, as well as the radial spokes and the central pair of microtubules. In some sperm, besides the absence of dynein arms, there was also absence of the central pair of microtubules. Neither anomalies of the fibrous sheath nor of the dense fibers were found. In approximately 50% of the spermatozoa, the midpiece had a decreased number of mitochondria and extra non-aligned mitochondria. Other findings included extra peripheral microtubules in the axoneme.

  11. Autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia; Linkage analysis and evidence for linkage to chromosome 2p

    SciTech Connect

    Figlewicz, D.A.; Dube, M.P.; Rouleau, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) is a degenerative disorder of the motor system characterized by progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs. Little is known about the pathophysiology of this disorder. FSP can be inherited as an autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive, or X-linked trait. We have undertaken linkage analysis for a group of 36 AD FSP families from which we have collected blood samples from 427 individuals, including 148 affected individuals. Typing of polymorphic markers has allowed us to exclude more than 50% of the genome. Recently, linkage for AD FSP to a locus on chromosome 14q was reported. Our AD FSP kindreds were tested for linkage to markers spanning the 20 cM region between D14S69 and D14S66; however, we were not able to establish linkage for any of our families to chromosome 14. Lod scores suggestive of linkage for some AD FSP kindreds have been obtained for markers on chromosome 2p. We have tested seven polymorphic markers spanning the region between D2S405 and D2S177. Our highest aggregate lod score, including all families tested, was obtained at the locus D2S352: 2.4 at 20 cM. Results from HOMOG analysis for linkage heterogeneity will be reported.

  12. A stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Casteleijn, Niek F; Visser, Folkert W; Drenth, Joost P H; Gevers, Tom J G; Groen, Gerbrand J; Hogan, Marie C; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2014-09-01

    Chronic pain, defined as pain existing for >4-6 weeks, affects >60% of patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic disease (ADPKD). It can have various causes, indirectly or directly related to the increase in kidney and liver volume in these patients. Chronic pain in ADPKD patients is often severe, impacting physical activity and social relationships, and frequently difficult to manage. This review provides an overview of pathophysiological mechanisms that can lead to pain and discusses the sensory innervation of the kidneys and the upper abdominal organs, including the liver. In addition, the results of a systematic literature search of ADPKD-specific treatment options are presented. Based on pathophysiological knowledge and evidence derived from the literature an argumentative stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in ADPKD is proposed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  13. Familial paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia: atypical presentation of autosomal dominant GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Dale, Russell C; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S C; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John

    2010-06-01

    Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced after many minutes of exercise, and was never present at rest, or on initiation of movements. In addition, family members suffered restless legs syndrome (RLS), depression, and adult-onset Parkinsonism. The index case had low cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters and pterins. The PED and RLS stopped on initiation of L-Dopa therapy. Both live family members were found to have a nonsense mutation (p.E84X) in exon 1 of the GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH-1) gene. We propose that GCH-1 mutations should be considered a genetic cause of familial PED, especially if additional clinical features of monoaminergic deficiency are present in affected individuals.

  14. Autosomal dominant zonular cataract with sutural opacities localized to chromosome 17q11-12

    SciTech Connect

    Padma, T.; Ayyagari, R.; Murty, J.S.

    1995-10-01

    Congenital cataracts constitute a morphologically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases that are a major cause of childhood blindness. Different loci for hereditary congenital cataracts have been mapped to chromosomes 1, 2, 16, and 17q24. We report linkage of a gene causing a unique form of autosomal dominant zonular cataracts with Y-sutural opacities to chromosome 17q11-12 in a three-generation family exhibiting a maximum lod score of 3.9 at D17S805. Multipoint analysis gave a Mod confidence interval of 17 cM. This interval is bounded by the markers D17S799 and D17S798, a region that would encompass a number of candidate genes including that coding for {Beta}A3/A1-crystallin. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with apparent incomplete penetrance: a clinical, electrophysiological, psychophysical, and molecular genetic study.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, A T; Fitzke, F; Jay, M; Arden, G B; Inglehearn, C F; Keen, T J; Bhattacharya, S S; Bird, A C

    1993-01-01

    Twenty five symptomatic individuals and six asymptomatic obligate gene carriers from four families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) showing apparent incomplete penetrance have been studied. Symptomatic individuals from three families showed early onset of night blindness, non-recordable rod electroretinograms, and marked elevation of both rod and cone thresholds in all subjects tested. In the fourth family, there was more variation in the age of onset of night blindness and some symptomatic individuals showed well preserved rod and cone function in some retinal areas. All asymptomatic individuals tested had evidence of mild abnormalities of rod and cone function, indicating that these families show marked variation in expressivity rather than true non-penetrance of the adRP gene. No mutations of the rhodopsin or RDS genes were found in these families and the precise genetic mutation(s) remain to be identified. PMID:8025041

  16. [Cardiac tamponade as first manifestation in Mediterranean fever with autosomal dominant form].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Ferrer, F; Martinez Villar, M; Fernández Bernal, A; Martín de Lara, I; Paya Elorza, I

    2015-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary disease characterized by brief, recurring and self-limited episodes of fever and pain with inflammation, of one or several serous (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium, synovial or vaginal tunic of the testicle). Amyloidosis is its more important complication and the principal reason of death in the cases in which it appears. Diagnosis is based on the clinic and is confirmed by genetic tests. The treatment with Colchicine (0,02-0,03 mg/kg/day) prevents the recurrence of FMF attacks and the development of secondary (AA) amyloidosis. We report a case of a 13-year-old child in which FMF was diagnosed after several coincidental episodes with fever, pericarditis and cardiac tamponade. The genetic confirmation showed an autosomal dominant inheritance that is less frecuent than the recesive form, in this disease.

  17. Longitudinal assessment of neuroimaging and clinical markers in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Tudorascu, Dana L; McDade, Eric M; Ikonomovic, Snezana; James, Jeffrey A; Minhas, Davneet; Mowrey, Wenzhu; Sheu, Lei K; Snitz, Beth E; Weissfeld, Lisa; Gianaros, Peter J; Aizenstein, Howard J; Price, Julie C; Mathis, Chester A; Lopez, Oscar L; Klunk, William E

    2015-08-01

    The biomarker model of Alzheimer's disease postulates a dynamic sequence of amyloidosis, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline as an individual progresses from preclinical Alzheimer's disease to dementia. Despite supportive evidence from cross-sectional studies, verification with long-term within-individual data is needed. For this prospective cohort study, carriers of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutations (aged ≥21 years) were recruited from across the USA through referrals by physicians or from affected families. People with mutations in PSEN1, PSEN2, or APP were assessed at the University of Pittsburgh Alzheimer's Disease Research Center every 1-2 years, between March 23, 2003, and Aug 1, 2014. We measured global cerebral amyloid β (Aβ) load using (11)C-Pittsburgh Compound-B PET, posterior cortical metabolism with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET, hippocampal volume (age and sex corrected) with T1-weighted MRI, verbal memory with the ten-item Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Word List Learning Delayed Recall Test, and general cognition with the Mini Mental State Examination. We estimated overall biomarker trajectories across estimated years from symptom onset using linear mixed models, and compared these estimates with cross-sectional data from cognitively normal control individuals (age 65-89 years) who were negative for amyloidosis, hypometabolism, and hippocampal atrophy. In the mutation carriers who had the longest follow-up, we examined the within-individual progression of amyloidosis, metabolism, hippocampal volume, and cognition to identify progressive within-individual changes (a significant change was defined as an increase or decrease of more than two Z scores standardised to controls). 16 people with mutations in PSEN1, PSEN2, or APP, aged 28-56 years, completed between two and eight assessments (a total of 83 assessments) over 2-11 years. Significant differences in mutation carriers compared with controls (p<0

  18. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: the changing face of clinical management.

    PubMed

    Ong, Albert C M; Devuyst, Olivier; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Walz, Gerd

    2015-05-16

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited kidney disease and accounts for 7-10% of all patients on renal replacement therapy worldwide. Although first reported 500 years ago, this disorder is still regarded as untreatable and its pathogenesis is poorly understood despite much study. During the past 40 years, however, remarkable advances have transformed our understanding of how the disease develops and have led to rapid changes in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, especially during the past decade. This Review will summarise the key findings, highlight recent developments, and look ahead to the changes in clinical practice that will likely arise from the adoption of a new management framework for this major kidney disease.

  19. [Photic sneeze reflex or autosomal dominant compelling helio-ophthalmic outburst syndrome].

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, J M

    2006-01-01

    Sneeze is an ubiquitous phenomenon that happens to everyone. In spite of this, little attention has been paid to it, among medical literature in general, and even less in neurologic texts. A curious entity, called photic sneeze reflex, solar sneeze reflex, light sneeze reflex or autosomal dominant compelling helio-ophthalmic outburst syndrome, known perhaps since ancient Greek, has been scarcely described in the scientific literature, mainly as clinical notes and letters to the editor, but in a detailed way, we can find just a few reports. This reflex appears when subjects are exposed suddenly to intense sunlight and it consists of long incoercible sneeze bursts. It is usually ignored by its sufferers, who report it as a curiosity or a minor complaint, and its importance has been neglected in spite of its hereditary nature and its apparently high prevalence. We review the history, epidemiology, genetics, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and physiopathology of this reflex hereditary response.

  20. Perinatal Management of Pregnancy Complicated by Autosomal Dominant Emery–Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Megumi; Shirasawa, Hiromitsu; Makino, Kenichi; Miura, Hiroshi; Sato, Wataru; Shimizu, Dai; Sato, Naoki; Kumagai, Jin; Sato, Akira; Terada, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Autosomal dominant Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (AD-EDMD) is rare compared with other forms of muscular dystrophy and is characterized by cardiac conduction defects. Here, we present the case of a patient diagnosed with AD-EDMD during the first trimester of pregnancy who developed acute preeclampsia and subsequently, congestive heart failure (CHF) following cesarean section. Case A 36-year-old, gravida 0 para 0 woman was diagnosed with AD-EDMD by genetic testing during the first trimester of pregnancy, and she suddenly developed preeclampsia and partial HELLP (hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets) syndrome at 33 weeks of gestation. The patient subsequently developed CHF following cesarean section. Conclusion CHF can occur as a direct result of the cardiac defects arising due to EDMD, and therefore, careful prenatal and postpartum management is recommended for such cases. PMID:27054045

  1. Disseminated kidney tuberculosis complicating autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Hideki; Amemiya, Morimasa; Chiba, Koji; Urushibara, Masayasu; Satoh, Jun-Ichi; Noro, Akira

    2012-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is rare, and its diagnosis and treatment are difficult because numerous cysts are exposed to infection and antibiotics do not easily penetrate infected cysts. Here, we report the case of a 43-year-old Japanese man with disseminated urogenital tuberculosis (TB) and ADPKD without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Delayed diagnosis and ineffective anti-TB chemotherapy worsened his condition. Finally, he underwent bilateral nephrectomy but experienced postoperative complications. In conclusion, kidney TB should be recognized as a cause of renal infection in ADPKD, and surgical treatment should be instituted without delay. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment cannot be overemphasized to prevent kidney TB deterioration.

  2. Mutational analysis of PKD1 gene in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyan; Li, Lanrong; Liu, Qingmin

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a hereditary disease and common renal disease. Mutations of PKD genes are responsible for this disease. We analyzed a large Chinese family with ADPKD using Sanger sequencing to identify the mutation responsible for this disease. The family comprised 27 individuals including 10 ADPKD patients. These ADPKD patients had severe renal disease and most of them died very young. We analyzed 6 survival patients gene and found they all had C10529T mutation in exon 35 of PKD1 gene. We did not found gene mutation in any unaffected relatives or 300 unrelated controls. These findings suggested that the C10529T mutation in PKD1 gene might be the pathogenic mutation responsible for the disease in this family. PMID:26722532

  3. A stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Casteleijn, Niek F.; Visser, Folkert W.; Drenth, Joost P.H.; Gevers, Tom J.G.; Groen, Gerbrand J.; Hogan, Marie C.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Drenth, J.P.H.; de Fijter, J.W.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Peters, D.J.M.; Wetzels, J.; Zietse, R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain, defined as pain existing for >4–6 weeks, affects >60% of patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic disease (ADPKD). It can have various causes, indirectly or directly related to the increase in kidney and liver volume in these patients. Chronic pain in ADPKD patients is often severe, impacting physical activity and social relationships, and frequently difficult to manage. This review provides an overview of pathophysiological mechanisms that can lead to pain and discusses the sensory innervation of the kidneys and the upper abdominal organs, including the liver. In addition, the results of a systematic literature search of ADPKD-specific treatment options are presented. Based on pathophysiological knowledge and evidence derived from the literature an argumentative stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in ADPKD is proposed. PMID:25165181

  4. High-density renal cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease demonstrated by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.; Grantham, J.J.

    1985-02-01

    Unenhanced abdominal CT scans of 35 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) showed multiple high-density (58-84 HU) renal cysts in 42.9% of patients, occasional high-density cysts in 25.7%, and no high-density cysts in 31.4%. These high-density cysts were usually subcapsular and were more frequent in patients with markedly enlarged kidneys and flank pain at the time of CT. Follow-up CT often showed a reduction in cyst densities, although some cysts developed mural calcification and calcification of their contents. Renal carcinomas occur rarely in ADPKD and may occasionally be hyperdense. However, high-density cysts may usually be distinguished from carcinomas on CT by their smooth contours, sharp interfaces with renal parenchyma, homogeneity, and lack of contrast enhancement.

  5. TNF-receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS): an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Nima

    2006-11-01

    The TNF-receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is an autosomal dominant auto-inflammatory disorder, characterized by recurrent febrile attacks and localized inflammation. TRAPS is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the TNF Receptor Super Family 1A (TNFRSF1A) on chromosome 12p13. However, the incomplete penetrance and genetic heterogeneity have been reported in this syndrome. Although the ethnic diversity and clinical heterogeneity may propose the role of other genes in the pathogenesis of TRAPS, some low-penetrance TNFRSF1A variants contribute to atypical inflammatory responses in other autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, molecular studies on TRAPS and other auto-inflammatory disorders could be suggested to identify additional genes coding the molecules in the TNF signalling process.

  6. Vertebral artery dissection in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Takuma; Yamashiro, Kazuo; Tanaka, Ryota; Hirano, Kazuoki; Shimada, Yoshiaki; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited renal cystic disease, and it is associated with various extrarenal manifestations, including vascular complications, such as intracranial aneurysms, and aortic root dilatation and aneurysms. However, intracranial arterial dissection has rarely been reported. We herein report the cases of 2 patients with ADPKD who developed a vertebral artery (VA) dissection. Dissection was also observed on the other side of the VA and in the internal carotid artery in the first and second patient, respectively. Both patients also had a history of hypertension, which is frequently accompanied by ADPKD, and their serum creatinine levels were normal. Our report supports the importance of considering ADPKD as one of the possible pathogenic factors in arterial dissection.

  7. Mutational analysis of PKD1 gene in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyan; Li, Lanrong; Liu, Qingmin

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a hereditary disease and common renal disease. Mutations of PKD genes are responsible for this disease. We analyzed a large Chinese family with ADPKD using Sanger sequencing to identify the mutation responsible for this disease. The family comprised 27 individuals including 10 ADPKD patients. These ADPKD patients had severe renal disease and most of them died very young. We analyzed 6 survival patients gene and found they all had C10529T mutation in exon 35 of PKD1 gene. We did not found gene mutation in any unaffected relatives or 300 unrelated controls. These findings suggested that the C10529T mutation in PKD1 gene might be the pathogenic mutation responsible for the disease in this family.

  8. Autosomal dominant (Beukes) premature degenerative osteoarthropathy of the hip joint unlinked to COL2A1

    SciTech Connect

    Beighton, P.; Ramesar, R.; Cilliers, H.J.

    1994-12-01

    Molecular investigations have been undertaken in several separate large South African families with autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasias in which premature degenerative osteoarthropathy of the hip joint was the major manifestation. There are sometimes additional minor changes in the spine and these conditions fall into the general spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) nosological category. In some kindreds, linkage between phenotype and the type II collagen gene (COL2A1) has been established, while in others there is no linkage. We have now completed molecular linkage investigations in an Afrikaner family named Beukes, in which 47 members in 6 generations have premature osteoarthropathy of the hip joint. A LOD score of minus infinity indicates that this condition is not the result of a defect of the COL2A1 gene. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. [Seminal vesicle cysts and infertility in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Venegas, J L

    2005-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a systemic hereditary disorder characterized by bilateral diffuse renal cysts. Extrarenal involvement is a well known manifestation of ADPKD. Cysts in the liver, pancreas, lung, spleen, oesophagus, ovary, testis, epididymis, prostate, thyroid, bladder, uterus, brain, paraespinal, and seminal vesicle have also been described. The occurrence of seminal vesicle cysts is often unrecognised. We report here a man with seminal vesicle cysts and azoospermia associated with ADPKD. Seminal vesicle cysts are not uncommon in ADPKD and in some cases it is associated with infertility. Ultrasound and computed tomography imaging were effective in documenting the underlying lesions non-invasively. Studies evaluating fertility in patients with seminal vesicle cysts and ADPKD are needed.

  10. Localization of genes for autosomal dominant congenital cataracts to chromosomes 2 and 17

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyagari, R.; Scott, M.; Wozencraft, L.

    1994-09-01

    Linkage analysis was performed in a seven generation family in which 28 of 52 individuals examined had autosomal dominant congenital pulverulent cataracts and a five generation family in which 10 of 17 individuals examined had autosomal dominant congenital zonular cataracts with sutural opacities. Initial analysis with 21 microsatellite markers in 7 candidate gene regions localized the pulverulent cataract locus to the long arm of chromosome 2 near the {beta}B2-crystallin gene. A lod score of 3.6 was obtained with D2S72 ({theta}=0.12), 3.5 with CRYG ({theta}=0.06), 3.4 with ({theta}=0.05), 2.0 with D2S117 ({theta}=0.22) and 6.6 with D2S128 ({theta}=0.05). Multipoint linkage analysis gave Zmax=4.2 at D2S157 with a one lod confidence interval covering 19 cM. The closest flanking markers showing obligate recombinants are D2S157 and D2S173. The zonular cataract locus was mapped to chromosome 2 near the {gamma}-crystallin gene cluster. A maximum lod score of 3.8 was obtained with D17S805 ({theta}=0.0), 2.1 with D17S798 ({theta}=0.60), and 3.7 with NF1 ({theta}=0.0). Multipoint analysis showed Zmax=3.81 at D17S805 with a one lod confidence interval covering 17 cM based on the Genethon map, localizing cataracts between markers D17S799 and D17S800. Further efforts are being directed at refining the localization of these cataract loci and examining the nearby crystallin genes for possible mutations.

  11. Autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia: Tight linkage to chromosome 15q

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.; Wu, C.T.B.; Jones, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    Familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) (MIM No.18260) constitutes a clinically and genetically diverse group of disorders that share the primary feature of progressive, severe, lower extremity spasticity. FSP is classified according to the mode of inheritance and whether progressive spasticity occurs in isolation ({open_quotes}uncomplicated FSP{close_quotes}) or with other neurologic abnormalities ({open_quotes}complicated FSP{close_quotes}), including optic neuropathy, retinopathy, extrapyramidal disturbance, dementia, ataxia, ichthyosis, mental retardation, or deafness. Recently, autosomal dominant, uncomplicated FSP was shown to be genetically heterogeneous and tightly linked to a group of microsatellite markers on chromosome 14q in one large kindred. We examined 126 members of a non-consanguineous North American kindred of Irish descent. FSP was diagnosed in 31 living subjects who developed insidiously progressive gait disturbance between ages 12 and 35 years. Using genetic linkage analysis to microsatellite DNA polymorphisms, we showed that the FSP locus on chromosome 14q was exluded from linkage with the disorder in our family. Subsequently, we searched for genetic linkage between the disorder and microsatellite DNA polymorphisms spanning approximately 50% of the genome. We observed significantly positive, two-point maximum lod scores (Z) for markers on chromosome 15q: D15S128 (Z=9.70, {theta}=0.05), D15S165 (Z=3.30, {theta}=0.10), and UT511 (Z=3.86, {theta}=0.10). Our data clearly establishes that one locus for autosomal dominant, uncomplicated FSP is mapped to the pericentric region of chromosome 15q. Identifying genes responsible for chromosome 15q-linked and chromosome 14q-linked FSP will greatly advance our understanding of this condition and hopefully other inherited and degenerative brain and spinal cord disorders that are also characterized by axonal degeneration.

  12. A novel nonsense mutation in CRYBB1 associated with autosomal dominant congenital cataract

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juhua; Zhu, Yihua; Gu, Feng; He, Xiang; Cao, Zongfu; Li, Xuexi; Tong, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To identify the molecular defect underlying an autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract in a Chinese family. Methods Twenty-two members of a three-generation pedigree were recruited, clinical examinations were performed, and genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. All members were genotyped with polymorphic microsatellite markers adjacent to each of the known cataract-related genes. Linkage analysis was performed after genotyping. Candidate genes were screened for mutation using direct sequencing. Individuals were screened for presence of a mutation by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Results Linkage analysis identified a maximum LOD score of 3.31 (recombination fraction [θ]=0.0) with marker D22S1167 on chromosome 22, which flanks the β-crystallin gene cluster (CRYBB3, CRYBB2, CRYBB1, and CRYBA4). Sequencing the coding regions and the flanking intronic sequences of these four candidate genes identified a novel, heterozygous C→T transition in exon 6 of CRYBB1 in the affected individuals of the family. This single nucleotide change introduced a novel BfaI site and was predicted to result in a nonsense mutation at codon 223 that changed a phylogenetically conserved amino acid to a stop codon (p.Q223X). RFLP analysis confirmed that this mutation co-segregated with the disease phenotype in all available family members and was not found in 100 normal unrelated individuals from the same ethnic background. Conclusions This study has identified a novel nonsense mutation in CRYBB1 (p.Q223X) associated with autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract. PMID:18432316

  13. Autosomal dominant frontonasal dysplasia (atypical Greig syndrome): Lessons from the Xt mutant mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.L.; Nunes, M.E.

    1994-09-01

    Greig syndrome is the autosomal dominant association of mild hypertelorism, variable polysyndactyly, and normal intelligence. Several families have been found to have translocations or deletions of 7p13 interrupting the normal expression of GLI3 (a zinc finger, DNA binding, transcription repressor). Recently, a mutation in the mouse homologue of GLI3 was found in the extra-toes mutant mouse (Xt). The phenotypic features of this mouse model include mild hypertelorism, postaxial polydactyly of the forelimbs, preaxial polydactyly of the hindlimbs, and variable tibial hemimelia. The homozygous mutant Xt/Xt have severe frontonasal dysplasia (FND), polysyndactyly of fore-and hindlimbs and invariable tibial hemimelia. We have recently evaluated a child with severe (type D) frontonasal dysplasia, fifth finger camptodactyly, preaxial polydactyly of one foot, and ispilateral tibial hemimelia. His father was born with a bifid nose, broad columnella, broad feet, and a two centimeter leg length discrepancy. The paternal grandmother of the proband is phenotypically normal; however, her fraternal twin died at birth with severe facial anomalies. The paternal great-grandmother of the proband is phenotypically normal however her niece was born with moderate ocular hypertelorism. This pedigree is suggestive of an autosomal dominant form of frontonasal dysplasia with variable expressivity. The phenotypic features of our case more closely resemble the Xt mouse than the previously defined features of Greig syndrome in humans. This suggests that a mutation in GLI3 may be responsible for FND in this family. We are currently using polymorphic dinucleotide repeat markers flanking GLI3 in a attempt to demonstrate linkage in this pedigree. Demonstration of a GLI3 mutation in this family would broaden our view of the spectrum of phenotypes possible in Greig syndrome and could provide insight into genotype/phenotype correlation in FND.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Tolvaptan in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kevin F.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the Tolvaptan Efficacy and Safety in Management of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease and its Outcomes (TEMPO) trial, tolvaptan significantly reduced expansion of kidney volume and loss of kidney function. Objective: To determine how benefits observed in the TEMPO trial might relate to longer-term health outcomes such as progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality in addition to its cost-effectiveness. Design: A decision-analytic model. Data Sources: Published literature. Target Population: Persons with early Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). Time Horizon: Lifetime. Perspective: Societal. Interventions: We compared a strategy where patients receive tolvaptan therapy until death, development of ESRD, or liver complications to one where they do not receive tolvaptan. Outcome Measures: Median age at ESRD onset, life expectancy, discounted quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and lifetime costs (in 2010 USD), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results of Base Case Analysis: Tolvaptan prolonged the median age at ESRD onset by 6.5 years and increased life expectancy by 2.6 years. At a drug cost of $5,760 per month, tolvaptan cost $744,100 per QALY gained compared to standard care. Results of Sensitivity Analysis: For patients with ADPKD progressing more slowly, tolvaptan’s cost per QALY gained was even higher. Limitations: Although the TEMPO trial followed patients for 3 years, our main analysis assumed that the clinical benefits of tolvaptan persisted over patients’ lifetimes. Conclusions and Relevance: Assuming that tolvaptan’s benefits persist longer term, the drug may slow progression to ESRD and reduce mortality. However, barring an approximately 95% reduction in the price of tolvaptan, its cost-effectiveness does not compare favorably with many other commonly accepted medical interventions. PMID:24042366

  15. Regional variability of imaging biomarkers in autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Benzinger, Tammie L. S.; Blazey, Tyler; Jack, Clifford R.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Su, Yi; Xiong, Chengjie; Raichle, Marcus E.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Ances, Beau M.; Bateman, Randall J.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Fagan, Anne M.; Goate, Alison; Marcus, Daniel S.; Aisen, Paul S.; Christensen, Jon J.; Ercole, Lindsay; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Farrar, Angela M.; Aldea, Patricia; Jasielec, Mateusz S.; Owen, Christopher J.; Xie, Xianyun; Mayeux, Richard; Brickman, Adam; McDade, Eric; Klunk, William; Mathis, Chester A.; Ringman, John; Thompson, Paul M.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Saykin, Andrew J.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Salloway, Stephen; Correia, Stephen; Schofield, Peter R.; Masters, Colin L.; Rowe, Christopher; Villemagne, Victor L.; Martins, Ralph; Ourselin, Sebastien; Rossor, Martin N.; Fox, Nick C.; Cash, David M.; Weiner, Michael W.; Holtzman, David M.; Buckles, Virginia D.; Moulder, Krista; Morris, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Major imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease include amyloid deposition [imaged with [11C]Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET], altered glucose metabolism (imaged with [18F]fluro-deoxyglucose PET), and structural atrophy (imaged by MRI). Recently we published the initial subset of imaging findings for specific regions in a cohort of individuals with autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease. We now extend this work to include a larger cohort, whole-brain analyses integrating all three imaging modalities, and longitudinal data to examine regional differences in imaging biomarker dynamics. The anatomical distribution of imaging biomarkers is described in relation to estimated years from symptom onset. Autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease mutation carrier individuals have elevated PiB levels in nearly every cortical region 15 y before the estimated age of onset. Reduced cortical glucose metabolism and cortical thinning in the medial and lateral parietal lobe appeared 10 and 5 y, respectively, before estimated age of onset. Importantly, however, a divergent pattern was observed subcortically. All subcortical gray-matter regions exhibited elevated PiB uptake, but despite this, only the hippocampus showed reduced glucose metabolism. Similarly, atrophy was not observed in the caudate and pallidum despite marked amyloid accumulation. Finally, before hypometabolism, a hypermetabolic phase was identified for some cortical regions, including the precuneus and posterior cingulate. Additional analyses of individuals in which longitudinal data were available suggested that an accelerated appearance of volumetric declines approximately coincides with the onset of the symptomatic phase of the disease. PMID:24194552

  16. Autosomal dominant rhegmatogenous retinal detachment--clinical appearance and surgical outcome.

    PubMed

    Theelen, Thomas; Go, Sioe Lie; Tilanus, Maurits A D; Klevering, B Jeroen; Deutman, August F; Cremers, Frans P M; Hoyng, Carel B

    2004-10-01

    To study the clinical appearance and surgical results of autosomal dominantly inherited rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs). After prospective examination of all but two family members, the medical records of 16 affected patients (21 eyes) of two families from the Netherlands with autosomal dominantly inherited RRD were retrospectively evaluated. Special attention was paid to the age at onset, the ocular morphology and the clinical appearance of the RRD. The type and number of the various surgical procedures were analyzed with respect to preoperative appearance of the RRD, postoperative results and final visual acuity. The mean age at onset of RRD of affected individuals in families A and B was 37 +/- 18 years and 19 +/- 10 years, respectively. The mean ocular axial length in the two families was 24.7 mm and 26.7 mm. The mean number of retinal defects preoperatively found was 2.2 in family A and 7.1 in family B. Round, atrophic retinal holes predominated. Two of 21 affected eyes showed significant preoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Pars plana vitrectomy was the primary procedure in 4 cases; extra ocular buckling was the initial procedure in 15 cases. One eye received scleral folding with diathermy as primary surgery. Redetachment following surgery occurred in 5 of 10 cases in family A and 4 of 10 eyes in family B. Anatomical success could be achieved in 9 of 10 and 8 of 10 eyes in families A and B, respectively. In these families the prevalence of RRD is high. Most patients were affected at a relatively young age compared with non-genetically linked forms of RRD. Because of the low success rate of surgical intervention and, subsequently, the high number of operations necessary to achieve reattachment of the retina, the use of diagnostic genetic techniques to identify individuals at risk would be advisable. In these subjects measures to prevent RRD are an option, even when anatomical substrates of precursors of RRD are absent.

  17. Further screening of the rhodopsin gene in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Vaithinathan, R.; Berson, E.L.; Dryja, T.P. )

    1994-05-15

    Here the authors report 8 novel mutations and 8 previously reported mutations found from further analysis of the rhodopsin gene in a large set of additional patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Leukocyte DNA was purified from 122 unrelated patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa who were not included in previous analyses. The coding region and splice donor and acceptor sites of the rhodopsin gene were screened for mutations using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct genomic sequencing. They found 29 patients with varient bands that were due to mutations. Sequence analysis showed that 20 cases each had 1 of 9 previously published mutations: Pro23His, Thr58Arg, Gly89Asp, Pro171Leu, Glu181Lys, Pro347Leu, Phe45Leu, Arg135Trp, and Lys296Glu. In 9 other cases, they found 8 novel mutations. One was a 3-bp deletion (Cys264-del), and the rest were point mutations resulting in an altered amino acid: Gly51Arg (GGC [yields] CGC), Cys110Tyr (TCG [yields] TAC), Gly114Asp (GGC [yields] GAC), Ala164Glu (GCG [yields] GAG), Pro171Ser (CCA [yields] TCA), Val345Leu (GTG [yields] CTG), and Pro347Gln (CCG [yields] CAG). Each of these novel mutations was found in only one family except for Gly51Arg, which was found in two. In every family tested, the mutation cosegregated with the disease. However, in pedigree D865 only one affected member was available for analysis. About two-thirds of the mutations affect amino acids in transmembrane domains, yet only one-half of opsin's residues are in these regions. One-third of the mutations alter residues in the extracellular/intradiscal space, which includes only 25% of the protein.

  18. A novel truncation mutation in CRYBB1 associated with autosomal dominant congenital cataract with nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yan; Dong, Sufang; Li, Zuhua; Yang, Guohua; Peng, Chunyan; Yan, Ming; Zheng, Fang

    2017-01-01

    To identify the potential candidate genes for a large Chinese family with autosomal dominant congenital cataract (ADCC) and nystagmus, and investigate the possible molecular mechanism underlying the role of the candidate genes in cataractogenesis. We combined the linkage analysis and direct sequencing for the candidate genes in the linkage regions to identify the causative mutation. The molecular and bio-functional properties of the proteins encoded by the candidate genes was further explored with biophysical and biochemical studies of the recombinant wild-type and mutant proteins. We identified a c. C749T (p.Q227X) transversion in exon 6 of CRYBB1, a cataract-causative gene. This nonsense mutation changes a phylogenetically conserved glutamine to a stop codon and is predicted to truncate the C-terminus of the wild-type protein by 26 amino acids. Comparison of the biophysical and biochemical properties of the recombinant full-length and truncated βB1-crystallins revealed that the mutation led to the insolubility and the phase separation phenomenon of the truncated protein with a changed conformation. Meanwhile, the thermal stability of the truncated βB1-crystallin was significantly decreased, and the mutation diminished the chaperoning ability of αA-crystallin with the mutant under heating stress. Our findings highlight the importance of the C-terminus in βB1-crystallin in maintaining the crystalline function and stability, and provide a novel insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of human autosomal dominant congenital cataract.

  19. Adult-onset autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy due to BIN1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Johann; Biancalana, Valérie; Malfatti, Edoardo; Dondaine, Nicolas; Koch, Catherine; Vasli, Nasim; Kress, Wolfram; Strittmatter, Matthias; Taratuto, Ana Lia; Gonorazky, Hernan; Laforêt, Pascal; Maisonobe, Thierry; Olivé, Montse; Gonzalez-Mera, Laura; Fardeau, Michel; Carrière, Nathalie; Clavelou, Pierre; Eymard, Bruno; Bitoun, Marc; Rendu, John; Fauré, Julien; Weis, Joachim; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Romero, Norma B; Laporte, Jocelyn

    2014-12-01

    Centronuclear myopathies are congenital muscle disorders characterized by type I myofibre predominance and an increased number of muscle fibres with nuclear centralization. The severe neonatal X-linked form is due to mutations in MTM1, autosomal recessive centronuclear myopathy with neonatal or childhood onset results from mutations in BIN1 (amphiphysin 2), and dominant cases were previously associated to mutations in DNM2 (dynamin 2). Our aim was to determine the genetic basis and physiopathology of patients with mild dominant centronuclear myopathy without mutations in DNM2. We hence established and characterized a homogeneous cohort of nine patients from five families with a progressive adult-onset centronuclear myopathy without facial weakness, including three sporadic cases and two families with dominant disease inheritance. All patients had similar histological and ultrastructural features involving type I fibre predominance and hypotrophy, as well as prominent nuclear centralization and clustering. We identified heterozygous BIN1 mutations in all patients and the molecular diagnosis was complemented by functional analyses. Two mutations in the N-terminal amphipathic helix strongly decreased the membrane-deforming properties of amphiphysin 2 and three stop-loss mutations resulted in a stable protein containing 52 supernumerary amino acids. Immunolabelling experiments revealed abnormal central accumulation of dynamin 2, caveolin-3, and the autophagic marker p62, and general membrane alterations of the triad, the sarcolemma, and the basal lamina as potential pathological mechanisms. In conclusion, we identified BIN1 as the second gene for dominant centronuclear myopathy. Our data provide the evidence that specific BIN1 mutations can cause either recessive or dominant centronuclear myopathy and that both disorders involve different pathomechanisms. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights

  20. Relevance of ultrasound examination in general practice. A case report of a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Cwojdzińska-Jankowska, Izabela; Plewa, Anna

    2013-09-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder which results in the development of multiple cysts in the kidneys and other parenchymal organs. The two genes in which mutations are known to cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease are PKD1 and PKD2. Approximately 50% of individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease will develop end-stage renal disease by the age of 60. Early stages of the disease are usually asymptomatic and at the moment of establishing a definitive diagnosis, complications and associated disorders, including end-stage renal disease, occur frequently. About 95% of individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease have an affected parent and about 5% have a de novo mutation. Each child of an affected individual has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation. The first symptoms of disease usually develop in the third or fourth decades of life. Imaging examinations of relatives at risk allow for an early detection when no clinical symptoms are present as well as enable treatment of complications and associated disorders. Ultrasound examination as a basic and minimally invasive imaging technique can be easily used in general practice. In the majority of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, sonography allows for a certain and reliable diagnosis of this disease. Additionally, it enables to perform follow-up examinations both of the patient and their family. The possibility of ultrasound imaging in general practice broadens clinical examination and facilitates establishing a proper diagnosis. The paper presents a case report of a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Its aim was to present the relevance of ultrasound examination in general practice.

  1. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis - an unusual association: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disorder that is characterized by the development and growth of cysts in the kidneys and other organs. Urinary protein excretion is usually less than 1 g/24 hours in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and an association of nephrotic syndrome with this condition is considered rare. There are only anecdotal case reports of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease associated with nephrotic syndrome, with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis being the most commonly reported histopathological diagnosis. Nephrotic-range proteinuria in the presence of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, with or without an accompanying decline in renal function, should be investigated by open renal biopsy to exclude coexisting glomerular disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with histologically proven diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis presenting with nephrotic-range proteinuria. No other reports of this could be found in a global electronic search of the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 35-year-old Indo-Aryan man with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease associated with nephrotic syndrome and a concomitant decline in his glomerular filtration rate. Open renal biopsy revealed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis. An accurate diagnosis enabled us to manage him conservatively with a successful outcome, without the use of corticosteroid which is the standard treatment and the drug most commonly used to treat nephrotic syndrome empirically. Conclusion Despite the reluctance of physicians to carry out a renal biopsy on patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, our case supports the idea that renal biopsy is needed in patients with polycystic kidney disease with nephrotic-range proteinuria to make an accurate diagnosis. It also illustrates the importance of open renal

  2. Kidney function and plasma copeptin levels in healthy kidney donors and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Zittema, Debbie; van den Berg, Else; Meijer, Esther; Boertien, Wendy E; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; Franssen, Casper F M; de Jong, Paul E; Bakker, Stephan J L; Navis, Gerjan; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2014-09-05

    Plasma copeptin, a marker of arginine vasopressin, is elevated in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and predicts disease progression. It is unknown whether elevated copeptin levels result from decreased kidney clearance or as compensation for impaired concentrating capacity. Data from patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and healthy kidney donors before and after donation were used, because after donation, overall GFR decreases with a functionally normal kidney. Data were obtained between October of 2008 and January of 2012 from healthy kidney donors who visited the institution for routine measurements predonation and postdonation and patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease who visited the institution for kidney function measurement. Plasma copeptin levels were measured using a sandwich immunoassay, GFR was measured as (125)I-iothalamate clearance, and urine concentrating capacity was measured as urine-to-plasma ratio of urea. In patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, total kidney volume was measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (n=122, age=40 years, men=56%) had significantly higher copeptin levels (median=6.8 pmol/L; interquartile range=3.4-15.7 pmol/L) compared with donors (n=134, age=52 years, men=49%) both predonation and postdonation (median=3.8 pmol/L; interquartile range=2.8-6.3 pmol/L; P<0.001; median=4.4 pmol/L; interquartile range=3.6-6.1 pmol/L; P<0.001). In donors, copeptin levels did not change after donation, despite a significant fall in GFR (from 105 ± 17 to 66 ± 10; P<0.001). Copeptin and GFR were significantly associated in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (β=-0.45, P<0.001) but not in donors. In patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, GFR and total kidney volume were both associated significantly with urine-to-plasma ratio of urea (β=0.84, P<0

  3. Prevalence of Disease-Causing Mutations in Families with Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Lori S.; Bowne, Sara J.; Birch, David G.; Hughbanks-Wheaton, Dianna; Heckenlively, John R.; Lewis, Richard Alan; Garcia, Charles A.; Ruiz, Richard S.; Blanton, Susan H.; Northrup, Hope; Gire, Anisa I.; Seaman, Robyn; Duzkale, Hatice; Spellicy, Catherine J.; Zhu, Jingya; Shankar, Suma P.; Daiger, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To survey families with clinical evidence of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) for mutations in genes known to cause adRP. Methods Two hundred adRP families, drawn from a cohort of more than 400 potential families, were selected by analysis of pedigrees. Minimum criteria for inclusion in the adRP cohort included either evidence of at least three generations of affected individuals or two generations with evidence of male-to-male transmission. Probands from each family were screened for mutations in 13 genes known to cause adRP: CA4, CRX, FSCN2, IMPDH1, NRL, PRPF3 (RP18), PRPF8 (RP13), PRPF31 (RP11), RDS, RHO, ROM1, RP1, and RP9. Families without mutations in autosomal genes and in which an X-linked mode of inheritance could not be excluded were tested for mutations in ORF 15 of X-linked RPGR. Potentially pathogenic variants were evaluated based on a variety of genetic and computational criteria, to confirm or exclude pathogenicity. Results A total of 82 distinct, rare (nonpolymorphic) variants were detected among the genes tested. Of these, 57 are clearly pathogenic based on multiple criteria, 10 are probably pathogenic, and 15 are probably benign. In the cohort of 200 families, 94 (47%) have one of the clearly pathogenic variants and 10 (5%) have one of the probably pathogenic variants. One family (0.5%) has digenic RDS-ROM1 mutations. Two families (1%) have a pathogenic RPGR mutation, indicating that families with apparent autosomal transmission of RP may actually have X-linked genetic disease. Thus, 107 families (53.5%) have mutations in known genes, leaving 93 whose underlying cause is still unknown. Conclusions Together, the known adRP genes account for retinal disease in approximately half of the families in this survey, mostly Americans of European origin. Among the adRP genes, IMPDH1, PRPF8, PRPF31, RDS, RHO, and RP1 each accounts for more than 2% of the total; CRX, PRPF3, and RPGR each accounts for roughly 1%. Disease-causing mutations

  4. De Novo GMNN Mutations Cause Autosomal-Dominant Primordial Dwarfism Associated with Meier-Gorlin Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Burrage, Lindsay C; Charng, Wu-Lin; Eldomery, Mohammad K; Willer, Jason R; Davis, Erica E; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Zhu, Wenmiao; Leduc, Magalie S; Akdemir, Zeynep C; Azamian, Mahshid; Zapata, Gladys; Hernandez, Patricia P; Schoots, Jeroen; de Munnik, Sonja A; Roepman, Ronald; Pearring, Jillian N; Jhangiani, Shalini; Katsanis, Nicholas; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Brunner, Han G; Beaudet, Arthur L; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Eng, Christine M; Xia, Fan; Lalani, Seema R; Lupski, James R; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Yang, Yaping

    2015-12-03

    Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a genetically heterogeneous primordial dwarfism syndrome known to be caused by biallelic loss-of-function mutations in one of five genes encoding pre-replication complex proteins: ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6. Mutations in these genes cause disruption of the origin of DNA replication initiation. To date, only an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been described in individuals with this disorder, with a molecular etiology established in about three-fourths of cases. Here, we report three subjects with MGS and de novo heterozygous mutations in the 5' end of GMNN, encoding the DNA replication inhibitor geminin. We identified two truncating mutations in exon 2 (the 1(st) coding exon), c.16A>T (p.Lys6(∗)) and c.35_38delTCAA (p.Ile12Lysfs(∗)4), and one missense mutation, c.50A>G (p.Lys17Arg), affecting the second-to-last nucleotide of exon 2 and possibly RNA splicing. Geminin is present during the S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle and is degraded during the metaphase-anaphase transition by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which recognizes the destruction box sequence near the 5' end of the geminin protein. All three GMNN mutations identified alter sites 5' to residue Met28 of the protein, which is located within the destruction box. We present data supporting a gain-of-function mechanism, in which the GMNN mutations result in proteins lacking the destruction box and hence increased protein stability and prolonged inhibition of replication leading to autosomal-dominant MGS. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. De Novo GMNN Mutations Cause Autosomal-Dominant Primordial Dwarfism Associated with Meier-Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Burrage, Lindsay C.; Charng, Wu-Lin; Eldomery, Mohammad K.; Willer, Jason R.; Davis, Erica E.; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Zhu, Wenmiao; Leduc, Magalie S.; Akdemir, Zeynep C.; Azamian, Mahshid; Zapata, Gladys; Hernandez, Patricia P.; Schoots, Jeroen; de Munnik, Sonja A.; Roepman, Ronald; Pearring, Jillian N.; Jhangiani, Shalini; Katsanis, Nicholas; Vissers, Lisenka E.L.M.; Brunner, Han G.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Eng, Christine M.; Xia, Fan; Lalani, Seema R.; Lupski, James R.; Bongers, Ernie M.H.F.; Yang, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a genetically heterogeneous primordial dwarfism syndrome known to be caused by biallelic loss-of-function mutations in one of five genes encoding pre-replication complex proteins: ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6. Mutations in these genes cause disruption of the origin of DNA replication initiation. To date, only an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been described in individuals with this disorder, with a molecular etiology established in about three-fourths of cases. Here, we report three subjects with MGS and de novo heterozygous mutations in the 5′ end of GMNN, encoding the DNA replication inhibitor geminin. We identified two truncating mutations in exon 2 (the 1st coding exon), c.16A>T (p.Lys6∗) and c.35_38delTCAA (p.Ile12Lysfs∗4), and one missense mutation, c.50A>G (p.Lys17Arg), affecting the second-to-last nucleotide of exon 2 and possibly RNA splicing. Geminin is present during the S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle and is degraded during the metaphase-anaphase transition by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which recognizes the destruction box sequence near the 5′ end of the geminin protein. All three GMNN mutations identified alter sites 5′ to residue Met28 of the protein, which is located within the destruction box. We present data supporting a gain-of-function mechanism, in which the GMNN mutations result in proteins lacking the destruction box and hence increased protein stability and prolonged inhibition of replication leading to autosomal-dominant MGS. PMID:26637980

  6. Herpes simplex encephalitis in children with autosomal recessive and dominant TRIF deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Pérez de Diego, Rebeca; Lorenzo, Lazaro; Halwani, Rabih; Alangari, Abdullah; Israelsson, Elisabeth; Fabrega,, Sylvie; Cardon, Annabelle; Maluenda, Jerome; Tatematsu, Megumi; Mahvelati, Farhad; Herman, Melina; Ciancanelli, Michael; Guo, Yiqi; AlSum, Zobaida; Alkhamis, Nouf; Al-Makadma, Abdulkarim S.; Ghadiri, Ata; Boucherit, Soraya; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Picard, Capucine; Rozenberg, Flore; Tardieu, Marc; Lebon, Pierre; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Rezaei, Nima; Seya, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Misako; Chaussabel, Damien; Puel, Anne; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Abel, Laurent; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common sporadic viral encephalitis of childhood. Autosomal recessive (AR) UNC-93B and TLR3 deficiencies and autosomal dominant (AD) TLR3 and TRAF3 deficiencies underlie HSE in some children. We report here unrelated HSE children with AR or AD TRIF deficiency. The AR form of the disease was found to be due to a homozygous nonsense mutation that resulted in a complete absence of the TRIF protein. Both the TLR3- and the TRIF-dependent TLR4 signaling pathways were abolished. The AD form of disease was found to be due to a heterozygous missense mutation, resulting in a dysfunctional protein. In this form of the disease, the TLR3 signaling pathway was impaired, whereas the TRIF-dependent TLR4 pathway was unaffected. Both patients, however, showed reduced capacity to respond to stimulation of the DExD/H-box helicases pathway. To date, the TRIF-deficient patients with HSE described herein have suffered from no other infections. Moreover, as observed in patients with other genetic etiologies of HSE, clinical penetrance was found to be incomplete, as some HSV-1–infected TRIF-deficient relatives have not developed HSE. Our results provide what we believe to be the first description of human TRIF deficiency and a new genetic etiology for HSE. They suggest that the TRIF-dependent TLR4 and DExD/H-box helicase pathways are largely redundant in host defense. They further demonstrate the importance of TRIF for the TLR3-dependent production of antiviral IFNs in the CNS during primary infection with HSV-1 in childhood. PMID:22105173

  7. Decreased body mass index in the preclinical stage of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, Stephan; Preische, Oliver; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Gräber, Susanne; Jucker, Mathias; Dietzsch, Janko; Ringman, John M; Martins, Ralph N; McDade, Eric; Schofield, Peter R; Ghetti, Bernardino; Rossor, Martin; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Levin, Johannes; Galasko, Douglas; Quaid, Kimberly A; Salloway, Stephen; Xiong, Chengjie; Benzinger, Tammie; Buckles, Virginia; Masters, Colin L; Sperling, Reisa; Bateman, Randall J; Morris, John C; Laske, Christoph

    2017-04-27

    The relationship between body-mass index (BMI) and Alzheimer´s disease (AD) has been extensively investigated. However, BMI alterations in preclinical individuals with autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) have not yet been investigated. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 230 asymptomatic members of families with ADAD participating in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) study including 120 preclinical mutation carriers (MCs) and 110 asymptomatic non-carriers (NCs). Differences in BMI and their relation with cerebral amyloid load and episodic memory as a function of estimated years to symptom onset (EYO) were analyzed. Preclinical MCs showed significantly lower BMIs compared to NCs, starting 11.2 years before expected symptom onset. However, the BMI curves begun to diverge already at 17.8 years before expected symptom onset. Lower BMI in preclinical MCs was significantly associated with less years before estimated symptom onset, higher global Aβ brain burden, and with lower delayed total recall scores in the logical memory test. The study provides cross-sectional evidence that weight loss starts one to two decades before expected symptom onset of ADAD. Our findings point toward a link between the pathophysiology of ADAD and disturbance of weight control mechanisms. Longitudinal follow-up studies are warranted to investigate BMI changes over time.

  8. Preclinical trials in autosomal dominant AD: implementation of the DIAN-TU trial.

    PubMed

    Mills, S M; Mallmann, J; Santacruz, A M; Fuqua, A; Carril, M; Aisen, P S; Althage, M C; Belyew, S; Benzinger, T L; Brooks, W S; Buckles, V D; Cairns, N J; Clifford, D; Danek, A; Fagan, A M; Farlow, M; Fox, N; Ghetti, B; Goate, A M; Heinrichs, D; Hornbeck, R; Jack, C; Jucker, M; Klunk, W E; Marcus, D S; Martins, R N; Masters, C M; Mayeux, R; McDade, E; Morris, J C; Oliver, A; Ringman, J M; Rossor, M N; Salloway, S; Schofield, P R; Snider, J; Snyder, P; Sperling, R A; Stewart, C; Thomas, R G; Xiong, C; Bateman, R J

    2013-10-01

    The Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network Trials Unit (DIAN-TU) was formed to direct the design and management of interventional therapeutic trials of international DIAN and autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) participants. The goal of the DIAN-TU is to implement safe trials that have the highest likelihood of success while advancing scientific understanding of these diseases and clinical effects of proposed therapies. The DIAN-TU has launched a trial design that leverages the existing infrastructure of the ongoing DIAN observational study, takes advantage of a variety of drug targets, incorporates the latest results of biomarker and cognitive data collected during the observational study, and implements biomarkers measuring Alzheimer's disease (AD) biological processes to improve the efficiency of trial design. The DIAN-TU trial design is unique due to the sophisticated design of multiple drugs, multiple pharmaceutical partners, academics servings as sponsor, geographic distribution of a rare population and intensive safety and biomarker assessments. The implementation of the operational aspects such as home health research delivery, safety magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs) at remote locations, monitoring clinical and cognitive measures, and regulatory management involving multiple pharmaceutical sponsors of the complex DIAN-TU trial are described.

  9. Mutations in TOPORS cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with perivascular retinal pigment epithelium atrophy.

    PubMed

    Chakarova, Christina F; Papaioannou, Myrto G; Khanna, Hemant; Lopez, Irma; Waseem, Naushin; Shah, Amna; Theis, Torsten; Friedman, James; Maubaret, Cecilia; Bujakowska, Kinga; Veraitch, Brotati; Abd El-Aziz, Mai M; Prescott, De Quincy; Parapuram, Sunil K; Bickmore, Wendy A; Munro, Peter M G; Gal, Andreas; Hamel, Christian P; Marigo, Valeria; Ponting, Chris P; Wissinger, Bernd; Zrenner, Eberhart; Matter, Karl; Swaroop, Anand; Koenekoop, Robert K; Bhattacharya, Shomi S

    2007-11-01

    We report mutations in the gene for topoisomerase I-binding RS protein (TOPORS) in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) linked to chromosome 9p21.1 (locus RP31). A positional-cloning approach, together with the use of bioinformatics, identified TOPORS (comprising three exons and encoding a protein of 1,045 aa) as the gene responsible for adRP. Mutations that include an insertion and a deletion have been identified in two adRP-affected families--one French Canadian and one German family, respectively. Interestingly, a distinct phenotype is noted at the earlier stages of the disease, with an unusual perivascular cuff of retinal pigment epithelium atrophy, which was found surrounding the superior and inferior arcades in the retina. TOPORS is a RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase and localizes in the nucleus in speckled loci that are associated with promyelocytic leukemia bodies. The ubiquitous nature of TOPORS expression and a lack of mutant protein in patients are highly suggestive of haploinsufficiency, rather than a dominant negative effect, as the molecular mechanism of the disease and make rescue of the clinical phenotype amenable to somatic gene therapy.

  10. Longitudinal change in CSF biomarkers in autosomal-dominant Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Anne M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Jasielec, Mateusz S.; Bateman, Randall J.; Goate, Alison M.; Benzinger, Tammie L.S.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Martins, Ralph N.; Masters, Colin L.; Mayeux, Richard; Ringman, John M.; Rossor, Martin N.; Salloway, Stephen; Schofield, Peter R.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marcus, Daniel; Cairns, Nigel J.; Buckles, Virginia D.; Ladenson, Jack H.; Morris, John C.; Holtzman, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Clinicopathologic evidence suggests the pathology of Alzheimer disease (AD) begins many years prior to cognitive symptoms. Biomarkers are required to identify affected individuals during this asymptomatic (“pre-clinical”) stage to permit intervention with potential disease-modifying therapies designed to preserve normal brain function. Studies of families with autosomal-dominant AD (ADAD) mutations provide a unique and powerful means to investigate AD biomarker changes during the asymptomatic period. In this biomarker study comparing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma and in vivo amyloid imaging, cross-sectional data obtained at baseline in individuals from ADAD families enrolled in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) demonstrate reduced concentrations of CSF amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1–42) associated with the presence of β-amyloid plaques, and elevated concentrations of CSF tau, ptau181 and VILIP-1, markers of neurofibrillary tangles and/or neuronal injury/death, in asymptomatic mutation carriers 10-20 years prior to their estimated age at symptom onset (EAO), and prior to detection of cognitive deficits. When compared longitudinally, however, the concentrations of CSF biomarkers of neuronal injury/death within-individuals decrease after their EAO, suggesting a slowing of acute neurodegenerative processes with symptomatic disease progression. These results emphasize the importance of longitudinal, within-person assessment when modeling biomarker trajectories across the course of the disease. If corroborated, this pattern may influence the definition of a positive neurodegenerative biomarker outcome in clinical trials. PMID:24598588

  11. Functional polycystin-1 dosage governs autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease severity.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Katharina; Ward, Christopher J; Hommerding, Cynthia J; Nasr, Samih H; Tuan, Han-Fang; Gainullin, Vladimir G; Rossetti, Sandro; Torres, Vicente E; Harris, Peter C

    2012-11-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutations to PKD1 or PKD2, triggering progressive cystogenesis and typically leading to end-stage renal disease in midlife. The phenotypic spectrum, however, ranges from in utero onset to adequate renal function at old age. Recent patient data suggest that the disease is dosage dependent, where incompletely penetrant alleles influence disease severity. Here, we have developed a knockin mouse model matching a likely disease variant, PKD1 p.R3277C (RC), and have proved that its functionally hypomorphic nature modifies the ADPKD phenotype. While Pkd1+/null mice are normal, Pkd1RC/null mice have rapidly progressive disease, and Pkd1RC/RC animals develop gradual cystogenesis. These models effectively mimic the pathophysiological features of in utero-onset and typical ADPKD, respectively, correlating the level of functional Pkd1 product with disease severity, highlighting the dosage dependence of cystogenesis. Additionally, molecular analyses identified p.R3277C as a temperature-sensitive folding/trafficking mutant, and length defects in collecting duct primary cilia, the organelle central to PKD pathogenesis, were clearly detected for the first time to our knowledge in PKD1. Altogether, this study highlights the role that in trans variants at the disease locus can play in phenotypic modification of dominant diseases and provides a truly orthologous PKD1 model, optimal for therapeutic testing.

  12. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Kidney Disease Progression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Chonchol, Michel; Gitomer, Berenice; Isakova, Tamara; Cai, Xuan; Salusky, Isidro; Pereira, Renata; Abebe, Kaleab; Torres, Vicente; Steinman, Theodor I; Grantham, Jared J; Chapman, Arlene B; Schrier, Robert W; Wolf, Myles

    2017-09-07

    Increases in fibroblast growth factor 23 precede kidney function decline in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; however, the role of fibroblast growth factor 23 in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease has not been well characterized. We measured intact fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in baseline serum samples from 1002 participants in the HALT-PKD Study A (n=540; mean eGFR =91±17 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and B (n=462; mean eGFR =48±12 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). We used linear mixed and Cox proportional hazards models to test associations between fibroblast growth factor 23 and eGFR decline, percentage change in height-adjusted total kidney volume, and composite of time to 50% reduction in eGFR, onset of ESRD, or death. Median (interquartile range) intact fibroblast growth factor 23 was 44 (33-56) pg/ml in HALT-PKD Study A and 69 (50-93) pg/ml in Study B. In adjusted models, annualized eGFR decline was significantly faster in the upper fibroblast growth factor 23 quartile (Study A: quartile 4, -3.62; 95% confidence interval, -4.12 to -3.12 versus quartile 1, -2.51; 95% confidence interval, -2.71 to -2.30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); P for trend <0.001; Study B: quartile 4, -3.74; 95% confidence interval, -4.14 to -3.34 versus quartile 1, -2.78; 95% confidence interval, -2.92 to -2.63 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); P for trend <0.001). In Study A, higher fibroblast growth factor 23 quartiles were associated with greater longitudinal percentage increase in height-adjusted total kidney volume in adjusted models (quartile 4, 6.76; 95% confidence interval, 5.57 to 7.96 versus quartile 1, 6.04; 95% confidence interval, 5.55 to 6.54; P for trend =0.03). In Study B, compared with the lowest quartile, the highest fibroblast growth factor 23 quartile was associated with elevated risk for the composite outcome (hazard ratio, 3.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.84 to 5.25). Addition of fibroblast growth factor 23 to a model of annualized decline in eGFR≥3.0 ml/min per 1.73 m(2

  13. Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type I: A review of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Type I autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) is a type of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) characterized by ataxia with other neurological signs, including oculomotor disturbances, cognitive deficits, pyramidal and extrapyramidal dysfunction, bulbar, spinal and peripheral nervous system involvement. The global prevalence of this disease is not known. The most common type I ADCA is SCA3 followed by SCA2, SCA1, and SCA8, in descending order. Founder effects no doubt contribute to the variable prevalence between populations. Onset is usually in adulthood but cases of presentation in childhood have been reported. Clinical features vary depending on the SCA subtype but by definition include ataxia associated with other neurological manifestations. The clinical spectrum ranges from pure cerebellar signs to constellations including spinal cord and peripheral nerve disease, cognitive impairment, cerebellar or supranuclear ophthalmologic signs, psychiatric problems, and seizures. Cerebellar ataxia can affect virtually any body part causing movement abnormalities. Gait, truncal, and limb ataxia are often the most obvious cerebellar findings though nystagmus, saccadic abnormalities, and dysarthria are usually associated. To date, 21 subtypes have been identified: SCA1-SCA4, SCA8, SCA10, SCA12-SCA14, SCA15/16, SCA17-SCA23, SCA25, SCA27, SCA28 and dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA). Type I ADCA can be further divided based on the proposed pathogenetic mechanism into 3 subclasses: subclass 1 includes type I ADCA caused by CAG repeat expansions such as SCA1-SCA3, SCA17, and DRPLA, subclass 2 includes trinucleotide repeat expansions that fall outside of the protein-coding regions of the disease gene including SCA8, SCA10 and SCA12. Subclass 3 contains disorders caused by specific gene deletions, missense mutation, and nonsense mutation and includes SCA13, SCA14, SCA15/16, SCA27 and SCA28. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, physical examination, genetic molecular

  14. Heterozygous HTRA1 mutations are associated with autosomal dominant cerebral small vessel disease.

    PubMed

    Verdura, Edgard; Hervé, Dominique; Scharrer, Eva; Amador, Maria Del Mar; Guyant-Maréchal, Lucie; Philippi, Anne; Corlobé, Astrid; Bergametti, Françoise; Gazal, Steven; Prieto-Morin, Carol; Beaufort, Nathalie; Le Bail, Benoit; Viakhireva, Irina; Dichgans, Martin; Chabriat, Hugues; Haffner, Christof; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease represents a heterogeneous group of disorders leading to stroke and cognitive impairment. While most small vessel diseases appear sporadic and related to age and hypertension, several early-onset monogenic forms have also been reported. However, only a minority of patients with familial small vessel disease carry mutations in one of known small vessel disease genes. We used whole exome sequencing to identify candidate genes in an autosomal dominant small vessel disease family in which known small vessel disease genes had been excluded, and subsequently screened all candidate genes in 201 unrelated probands with a familial small vessel disease of unknown aetiology, using high throughput multiplex polymerase chain reaction and next generation sequencing. A heterozygous HTRA1 variant (R166L), absent from 1000 Genomes and Exome Variant Server databases and predicted to be deleterious by in silico tools, was identified in all affected members of the index family. Ten probands of 201 additional unrelated and affected probands (4.97%) harboured a heterozygous HTRA1 mutation predicted to be damaging. There was a highly significant difference in the number of likely deleterious variants in cases compared to controls (P = 4.2 × 10(-6); odds ratio = 15.4; 95% confidence interval = 4.9-45.5), strongly suggesting causality. Seven of these variants were located within or close to the HTRA1 protease domain, three were in the N-terminal domain of unknown function and one in the C-terminal PDZ domain. In vitro activity analysis of HTRA1 mutants demonstrated a loss of function effect. Clinical features of this autosomal dominant small vessel disease differ from those of CARASIL and CADASIL by a later age of onset and the absence of the typical extraneurological features of CARASIL. They are similar to those of sporadic small vessel disease, except for their familial nature. Our data demonstrate that heterozygous HTRA1 mutations are an important cause

  15. BDNF Val66Met moderates memory impairment, hippocampal function and tau in preclinical autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yen Ying; Hassenstab, Jason; Cruchaga, Carlos; Goate, Alison; Fagan, Anne M; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Maruff, Paul; Snyder, Peter J; Masters, Colin L; Allegri, Ricardo; Chhatwal, Jasmeer; Farlow, Martin R; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Laske, Christoph; Levin, Johannes; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M; Rossor, Martin; Salloway, Stephen; Schofield, Peter R; Holtzman, David M; Morris, John C; Bateman, Randall J

    2016-10-01

    SEE ROGAEVA AND SCHMITT-ULMS DOI101093/AWW201 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism is implicated in synaptic excitation and neuronal integrity, and has previously been shown to moderate amyloid-β-related memory decline and hippocampal atrophy in preclinical sporadic Alzheimer's disease. However, the effect of BDNF in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease is unknown. We aimed to determine the effect of BDNF Val66Met on cognitive function, hippocampal function, tau and amyloid-β in preclinical autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. We explored effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 on these relationships. The Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network conducted clinical, neuropsychological, genetic, biomarker and neuroimaging measures at baseline in 131 mutation non-carriers and 143 preclinical autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutation carriers on average 12 years before clinical symptom onset. BDNF genotype data were obtained for mutation carriers (95 Val66 homozygotes, 48 Met66 carriers). Among preclinical mutation carriers, Met66 carriers had worse memory performance, lower hippocampal glucose metabolism and increased levels of cerebrospinal fluid tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) than Val66 homozygotes. Cortical amyloid-β and cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 levels were significantly different from non-carriers but did not differ between preclinical mutation carrier Val66 homozygotes and Met66 carriers. There was an effect of APOE on amyloid-β levels, but not cognitive function, glucose metabolism or tau. As in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, the deleterious effects of amyloid-β on memory, hippocampal function, and tau in preclinical autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutation carriers are greater in Met66 carriers. To date, this is the only genetic factor found to moderate downstream effects of amyloid-β in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Relative Contribution of Mutations in Genes for Autosomal Dominant Distal Hereditary Motor Neuropathies: A Genotype-Phenotype Correlation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierick, Ines; Baets, Jonathan; Irobi, Joy; Jacobs, An; De Vriendt, Els; Deconinck, Tine; Merlini, Luciano; Van den Bergh, Peter; Rasic, Vedrana Milic; Robberecht, Wim; Fischer, Dirk; Morales, Raul Juntas; Mitrovic, Zoran; Seeman, Pavel; Mazanec, Radim; Kochanski, Andrzej; Jordanova, Albena; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Helderman-van den Enden, A. T. J. M.; Wokke, John H. J.; Nelis, Eva; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting spinal alpha-motor neurons. Since 2001, mutations in six different genes have been identified for autosomal dominant distal HMN; "glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS)," "dynactin 1 (DCTN1)," "small heat shock 27 kDa…

  17. Relative Contribution of Mutations in Genes for Autosomal Dominant Distal Hereditary Motor Neuropathies: A Genotype-Phenotype Correlation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierick, Ines; Baets, Jonathan; Irobi, Joy; Jacobs, An; De Vriendt, Els; Deconinck, Tine; Merlini, Luciano; Van den Bergh, Peter; Rasic, Vedrana Milic; Robberecht, Wim; Fischer, Dirk; Morales, Raul Juntas; Mitrovic, Zoran; Seeman, Pavel; Mazanec, Radim; Kochanski, Andrzej; Jordanova, Albena; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Helderman-van den Enden, A. T. J. M.; Wokke, John H. J.; Nelis, Eva; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting spinal alpha-motor neurons. Since 2001, mutations in six different genes have been identified for autosomal dominant distal HMN; "glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS)," "dynactin 1 (DCTN1)," "small heat shock 27 kDa…

  18. Cerebral perfusion alterations and cerebral amyloid in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    McDade, Eric; Kim, Albert; James, Jeffrey; Sheu, Lei K; Kuan, Dora Chieh-Hsin; Minhas, Davneet; Gianaros, Peter J; Ikonomovic, Snezana; Lopez, Oscar; Snitz, Beth; Price, Julie; Becker, Jim; Mathis, Chet; Klunk, William

    2014-08-19

    To evaluate alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) using arterial spin-labeled MRI in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) mutation carriers (MCs) in relation to cerebral amyloid and compared with age-matched healthy controls. Recent work has identified alterations in CBF in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia using MRI. However, similar studies are lacking in ADAD. Subjects with ADAD are generally free of significant vascular disease and offer the opportunity to measure CBF early in the pathologic process before significant symptom onset when unique markers might be identified. Fourteen MCs (presenilin-1 and amyloid beta precursor protein) (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 0 = 9, CDR 0.5 = 4, CDR 1 = 1) and 50 controls underwent 3-tesla pulsed arterial spin-labeled MRI. SPM8 was used to test the effect of MC status at the voxel level on CBF before and after controlling for age and CDR. MCs had decreased perfusion in the caudate and inferior striatum bilaterally even after controlling for age and CDR. In MCs, separate areas of decreased CBF were associated with increasing cerebral amyloid and to decreased performance of attention and executive function. Early CBF changes were identified in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic subjects with ADAD, particularly in the anterior striatum. Furthermore, amyloid deposition was associated with decreased CBF in a number of regions including anterior and posterior cortical areas. Both amyloid and decreased CBF were associated with declines primarily in executive cognitive function. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Functional Connectivity in Autosomal Dominant and Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jewell B; Brier, Matthew R; Bateman, Randall J; Snyder, Abraham Z; Benzinger, Tammie L; Xiong, Chengjie; Raichle, Marcus; Holtzman, David M; Sperling, Reisa A; Mayeux, Richard; Ghetti, Bernardino; Ringman, John M; Salloway, Stephen; McDade, Eric; Rossor, Martin N; Ourselin, Sebastien; Schofield, Peter R; Masters, Colin L; Martins, Ralph N; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M; Fox, Nick C; Koeppe, Robert A; Jack, Clifford R; Mathis, Chester A; Oliver, Angela; Blazey, Tyler M; Moulder, Krista; Buckles, Virginia; Hornbeck, Russ; Chhatwal, Jasmeer; Schultz, Aaron P; Goate, Alison M; Fagan, Anne M; Cairns, Nigel J; Marcus, Daniel S; Morris, John C; Ances, Beau M

    2014-01-01

    Importance Autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) is caused by rare genetic mutations in three specific genes, in contrast to late-onset Alzheimer Disease (LOAD), which has a more polygenetic risk profile. Design, Setting, and Participants We analyzed functional connectivity in multiple brain resting state networks (RSNs) in a cross-sectional cohort of ADAD (N=79) and LOAD (N=444) human participants using resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) at multiple international academic sites. Main Outcomes and Measures For both types of AD, we quantified and compared functional connectivity changes in RSNs as a function of dementia severity as measured by clinical dementia rating (CDR). In ADAD, we qualitatively investigated functional connectivity changes with respect to estimated years from onset of symptoms within five RSNs. Results Functional connectivity decreases with increasing CDR were similar for both LOAD and ADAD in multiple RSNs. Ordinal logistic regression models constructed in each type of AD accurately predicted CDR stage in the other, further demonstrating similarity of functional connectivity loss in each disease type. Among ADAD participants, functional connectivity in multiple RSNs appeared qualitatively lower in asymptomatic mutation carriers near their anticipated age of symptom onset compared to asymptomatic mutation non-carriers. Conclusions and Relevance rs-fcMRI changes with progressing AD severity are similar between ADAD and LOAD. Rs-fcMRI may be a useful endpoint for LOAD and ADAD therapy trials. ADAD disease process may be an effective model for LOAD disease process. PMID:25069482

  20. Cerebral perfusion alterations and cerebral amyloid in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Albert; James, Jeffrey; Sheu, Lei K.; Kuan, Dora Chieh-Hsin; Minhas, Davneet; Gianaros, Peter J.; Ikonomovic, Snezana; Lopez, Oscar; Snitz, Beth; Price, Julie; Becker, Jim; Mathis, Chet; Klunk, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) using arterial spin-labeled MRI in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) mutation carriers (MCs) in relation to cerebral amyloid and compared with age-matched healthy controls. Background: Recent work has identified alterations in CBF in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia using MRI. However, similar studies are lacking in ADAD. Subjects with ADAD are generally free of significant vascular disease and offer the opportunity to measure CBF early in the pathologic process before significant symptom onset when unique markers might be identified. Methods: Fourteen MCs (presenilin-1 and amyloid beta precursor protein) (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 0 = 9, CDR 0.5 = 4, CDR 1 = 1) and 50 controls underwent 3-tesla pulsed arterial spin-labeled MRI. SPM8 was used to test the effect of MC status at the voxel level on CBF before and after controlling for age and CDR. Results: MCs had decreased perfusion in the caudate and inferior striatum bilaterally even after controlling for age and CDR. In MCs, separate areas of decreased CBF were associated with increasing cerebral amyloid and to decreased performance of attention and executive function. Conclusions: Early CBF changes were identified in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic subjects with ADAD, particularly in the anterior striatum. Furthermore, amyloid deposition was associated with decreased CBF in a number of regions including anterior and posterior cortical areas. Both amyloid and decreased CBF were associated with declines primarily in executive cognitive function. PMID:25031286

  1. [Inhibitors of intra-cystic secretion: novel therapies in ADPKD (Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease)].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Nunzia; Miranda, Francesca; Rinaldi, Luca; Stratigis, Spiros; Capasso, Giovambattista

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited human renal disorder. Progressive enlargement of the kidneys is due to aberrant proliferation of the cyst epithelial cells, together with accumulation of fluid within the cyst cavities due to transepithelial fluid secretion. Multiple studies have suggested that fluid secretion across ADPKD cyst-lining cells is driven by the transepithelial secretion of chloride, mediated by the apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel (CFTR) and specific basolateral transporters. Increased levels of cAMP, probably reflecting modifications in intracellular calcium homeostasis and abnormal stimulation of the vasopressin V2 receptor, in mutant renal epithelia, play an important role in the pathogenesis of ADPKD and contribute to both transepithelial secretion of fluid and proliferation of cyst epithelia. For example, cAMP activates the CFTR leading to the stimulation of Cl- secretion into the cyst lumen. This review focuses on the pathophysiology and molecular mechanism of fluid secretion in ADPKD cysts examined during pre-clinical trials of potentially useful drugs for the treatment of this condition.

  2. WHIM syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder: clinical, hematological, and molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, R J; Gelb, B; Diaz, G A; Lofsness, K G; Pittelkow, M R; Fenyk, J R

    2000-04-24

    The acronym WHIM refers to Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, Infections, and Myelokathexis. The latter refers to the retention of white cells in the marrow, which becomes hypercellular. We have found approximately 20 examples of WHIM syndrome in the literature under various designations; the first examples are Zuelzer [1964] and Krill et al. [1964]. Chronic noncyclic neutropenia and hypercellular bone marrow represent defective release of marrow cells into the peripheral stream (myelokathexis). The hypermature neutrophils are bizarre in form. Condensed nuclei connected by long, stringy filaments and vacuolated cytoplasm suggest apoptosis. Fever or other stress increases the release of neutrophils. Hypogammaglobulinemia is marked and associated with recurrent upper respiratory infections (sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, pneumonia). Patients have numerous warts, some venereal, with resultant cervical and vulval premalignant dysplasia. We report on a kindred of 6 affected individuals in 3 generations with autosomal dominant WHIM syndrome. The sex ratio among reported patients and in our kindred is 17 female to 8 male. Because there had been no male-to-male transmssion, search of the entire X-chromosome including the pseudoautosomal area was carried out and no linkage was found. Recently, the propositus has had an unaffected daughter, confirming our finding that the gene is not X-linked. A genome-wide search is being carried out. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Lysophosphatidic Acid is a Modulator of Cyst Growth in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Blazer-Yost, Bonnie L.; Blacklock, Brenda J.; Flaig, Stephanie; Bacallao, Robert L.; Gattone, Vincent H.

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by the slow growth of multiple fluid-filled cysts predominately in the kidney tubules and liver bile ducts. Elucidation of mechanisms that control cyst growth will provide the basis for rational therapeutic intervention. We used electrophysiological methods to identify lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) as a component of cyst fluid and serum that stimulates secretory Cl- transport in the epithelial cell type that lines renal cysts. LPA effects are manifested through receptors located on the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cells resulting in stimulation of channel activity in the apical membrane. Concentrations of LPA measured in human ADPKD cyst fluid and in normal serum are sufficient to maximally stimulate ion transport. Thus, cyst fluid seepage and/or leakage of vascular LPA into the interstitial space are capable of stimulating epithelial cell secretion resulting in cyst enlargement. These observations are particularly relevant to the rapid decline in renal function in late-stage disease and to the “third hit” hypothesis that renal injury exacerbates cyst growth. PMID:22179013

  4. A Novel Nonsense Mutation of POU4F3 Gene Causes Autosomal Dominant Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Wang, Mingming; Zhang, Fengguo; Zhou, Yicui; Li, Jianfeng; Zheng, Qingyin; Bai, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    POU4F3 gene encodes a transcription factor which plays an essential role in the maturation and maintenance of hair cells in cochlea and vestibular system. Several mutations of POU4F3 have been reported to cause autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss in recent years. In this study, we describe a pathogenic nonsense mutation located in POU4F3 in a four-generation Chinese family. Target region capture sequencing was performed to search for the candidate mutations from 81 genes related to nonsyndromic hearing loss in this family. A novel nonsense mutation of POU4F3, c.337C>T (p. Gln113⁎), was identified in a Chinese family characterized by late-onset progressive nonsyndromic hearing loss. The novel mutation cosegregated with hearing loss in this family and was absent in 200 ethnicity-matched controls. The mutation led to a stop codon and thus a truncated protein with no functional domains remained. Transient transfection and immunofluorescence assay revealed that the subcellular localization of the truncated protein differed markedly from normal protein, which could be the underlying reason for complete loss of its normal function. Here, we report the first nonsense mutation of POU4F3 associated with progressive hearing loss and explored the possible underlying mechanism. Routine examination of POU4F3 is necessary for the genetic diagnosis of hereditary hearing loss in the future. PMID:27999687

  5. A recurrent deletion mutation in OPA1 causes autosomal dominant optic atrophy in a Chinese family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liping; Shi, Wei; Song, Liming; Zhang, Xiao; Cheng, Lulu; Wang, Yanfang; Ge, Xianglian; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Min, Qingjie; Jin, Zi-Bing; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is the most frequent form of hereditary optic neuropathy and occurs due to the degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells. To identify the genetic defect in a family with putative ADOA, we performed capture next generation sequencing (CNGS) to screen known retinal disease genes. However, six exons failed to be sequenced by CNGS in optic atrophy 1 gene (OPA1). Sequencing of those exons identified a 4 bp deletion mutation (c.2983-1_2985del) in OPA1. Furthermore, we sequenced the transcripts of OPA1 from the patient skin fibroblasts and found there is six-nucleotide deletion (c.2984-c.2989, AGAAAG). Quantitative-PCR and Western blotting showed that OPA1 mRNA and its protein expression have no obvious difference between patient skin fibroblast and control. The analysis of protein structure by molecular modeling suggests that the mutation may change the structure of OPA1 by formation of an alpha helix protruding into an existing pocket. Taken together, we identified an OPA1 mutation in a family with ADOA by filling the missing CNGS data. We also showed that this mutation affects the structural intactness of OPA1. It provides molecular insights for clinical genetic diagnosis and treatment of optic atrophy.

  6. Sirtuin 1 inhibition delays cyst formation in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xia; Fan, Lucy X.; Sweeney, William E.; Denu, John M.; Avner, Ellis D.; Li, Xiaogang

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutations in either PKD1 or PKD2 and is characterized by the development of multiple bilateral renal cysts that replace normal kidney tissue. Here, we used Pkd1 mutant mouse models to demonstrate that the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide–dependent (NAD-dependent) protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is involved in the pathophysiology of ADPKD. SIRT1 was upregulated through c-MYC in embryonic and postnatal Pkd1-mutant mouse renal epithelial cells and tissues and could be induced by TNF-α, which is present in cyst fluid during cyst development. Double conditional knockouts of Pkd1 and Sirt1 demonstrated delayed renal cyst formation in postnatal mouse kidneys compared with mice with single conditional knockout of Pkd1. Furthermore, treatment with a pan-sirtuin inhibitor (nicotinamide) or a SIRT1-specific inhibitor (EX-527) delayed cyst growth in Pkd1 knockout mouse embryonic kidneys, Pkd1 conditional knockout postnatal kidneys, and Pkd1 hypomorphic kidneys. Increased SIRT1 expression in Pkd1 mutant renal epithelial cells regulated cystic epithelial cell proliferation through deacetylation and phosphorylation of Rb and regulated cystic epithelial cell death through deacetylation of p53. This newly identified role of SIRT1 signaling in cystic renal epithelial cells provides the opportunity to develop unique therapeutic strategies for ADPKD. PMID:23778143

  7. A gene for autosomal dominant hearing loss on the short arm of chromosome 1

    SciTech Connect

    Van Camp, G.; Coucke, P.; Willems, P.J.

    1994-09-01

    Hearing loss is the most common form of sensory impairment and many cases are attributable to genetic causes. The genetic defects underlying several syndromic forms of deafness have been identified, but little is known about the causes of non-syndromic hereditary deafness which accounts for the majority of inherited hearing loss. We report here a large Indonesian family with non-syndromal postlingual hearing loss starting in the high frequencies and showing autosomal dominant inheritance. To locate the gene responsible for the hearing loss in this family, we performed a genome search by genetic linkage analysis with microsatellite markers distributed over the whole genome. We have mapped the gene causing deafness in an extended Indonesian family to chromosome 1p with a multipoint lod score higher than 7. Two other smaller families, showing a similar hereditary hearing loss, were also tested for linkage with chromosome 1p. One family originating from the U.S. was linked to this new locus with a multipoint lod score exceeding 5. In another family from the Netherlands this locus was excluded. The flanking markers D1S255 and D1S211 define a region of 6 cM on chromosome 1p which is likely to contain the deafness gene present in the Indonesian and American family.

  8. Mutations in DNMT1 cause autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Juliane; Lin, Ling; Schormair, Barbara; Kornum, Birgitte R; Faraco, Juliette; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Melberg, Atle; Cornelio, Ferdinando; Urban, Alexander E; Pizza, Fabio; Poli, Francesca; Grubert, Fabian; Wieland, Thomas; Graf, Elisabeth; Hallmayer, Joachim; Strom, Tim M; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2012-05-15

    Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN) is characterized by late onset (30-40 years old) cerebellar ataxia, sensory neuronal deafness, narcolepsy-cataplexy and dementia. We performed exome sequencing in five individuals from three ADCA-DN kindreds and identified DNMT1 as the only gene with mutations found in all five affected individuals. Sanger sequencing confirmed the de novo mutation p.Ala570Val in one family, and showed co-segregation of p.Val606Phe and p.Ala570Val, with the ADCA-DN phenotype, in two other kindreds. An additional ADCA-DN kindred with a p.GLY605Ala mutation was subsequently identified. Narcolepsy and deafness were the first symptoms to appear in all pedigrees, followed by ataxia. DNMT1 is a widely expressed DNA methyltransferase maintaining methylation patterns in development, and mediating transcriptional repression by direct binding to HDAC2. It is also highly expressed in immune cells and required for the differentiation of CD4+ into T regulatory cells. Mutations in exon 20 of this gene were recently reported to cause hereditary sensory neuropathy with dementia and hearing loss (HSAN1). Our mutations are all located in exon 21 and in very close spatial proximity, suggesting distinct phenotypes depending on mutation location within this gene.

  9. Spanish guidelines for the management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ars, Elisabet; Bernis, Carmen; Fraga, Gloria; Martínez, Víctor; Martins, Judith; Ortiz, Alberto; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Carlos; Sans, Laia; Torra, Roser

    2014-09-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent cause of genetic renal disease and accounts for 6-10% of patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT). Very few prospective, randomized trials or clinical studies address the diagnosis and management of this relatively frequent disorder. No clinical guidelines are available to date. This is a consensus statement presenting the recommendations of the Spanish Working Group on Inherited Kidney Diseases, which were agreed to following a literature search and discussions. Levels of evidence found were C and D according to the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (University of Oxford). The recommendations relate to, among other topics, the use of imaging and genetic diagnosis, management of hypertension, pain, cyst infections and bleeding, extra-renal involvement including polycystic liver disease and cranial aneurysms, management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and RRT and management of children with ADPKD. Recommendations on specific ADPKD therapies are not provided since no drug has regulatory approval for this indication.

  10. Molecular Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Patients with Autosomal Dominant Hyper IgE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sastalla, Inka; Williams, Kelli W.; Anderson, Erik D.; Myles, Ian A.; Reckhow, Jensen D.; Espinoza-Moraga, Marlene; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Datta, Sandip K.

    2017-01-01

    Autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3). This immune disorder is clinically characterized by increased susceptibility to cutaneous and sinopulmonary infections, in particular with Candida and Staphylococcus aureus. It has recently been recognized that the skin microbiome of patients with AD-HIES is altered with an overrepresentation of certain Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive staphylococci. However, these alterations have not been characterized at the species- and strain-level. Since S. aureus infections are influenced by strain-specific expression of virulence factors, information on colonizing strain characteristics may provide insights into host-pathogen interactions and help guide management strategies for treatment and prophylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the immunodeficiency of AD-HIES selects for unique strains of colonizing S. aureus. Using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), protein A (spa) typing, and PCR-based detection of toxin genes, we performed a detailed analysis of the S. aureus isolates (n = 13) found on the skin of twenty-one patients with AD-HIES. We found a low diversity of sequence types, and an abundance of strains that expressed methicillin resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), and staphylococcal enterotoxins K and Q (SEK, SEQ). Our results indicate that patients with AD-HIES may often carry antibiotic-resistant strains that harbor key virulence factors. PMID:28587312

  11. Mispolarization of desmosomal proteins and altered intercellular adhesion in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Silberberg, Melina; Charron, Audra J; Bacallao, Robert; Wandinger-Ness, Angela

    2005-06-01

    Polycystin-1, the product of the major gene mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), has been shown to associate with multiple epithelial cell junctions. Our hypothesis is that polycystin-1 is an important protein for the initial establishment of cell-cell junctions and maturation of the cell and that polycystin-1 localization is dependent on the degree of cell polarization. Using laser-scanning confocal microscopy and two models of cell polarization, polycystin-1 and desmosomes were found to colocalize during the initial establishment of cell-cell contact when junctions were forming. However, colocalization was lost in confluent monolayers. Parallel morphological and biochemical evaluations revealed a profound mispolarization of desmosomal components to both the apical and basolateral domains in primary ADPKD cells and tissue. Studies of the intermediate filament network associated with desmosomes showed that there is a decrease in cytokeratin levels and an abnormal expression of the mesenchymal protein vimentin in the disease. Moreover, we show for the first time that the structural alterations seen in adherens and desmosomal junctions have a functional impact, leaving the ADPKD cells with weakened cell-cell adhesion. In conclusion, in this paper we show that polycystin-1 transiently colocalizes with desmosomes and that desmosomal proteins are mislocalized as a consequence of polycystin-1 mutation.

  12. Branched-chain amino acids enhance cyst development in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junya; Nishio, Saori; Hattanda, Fumihiko; Nakazawa, Daigo; Kimura, Toru; Sata, Michio; Makita, Minoru; Ishikawa, Yasunobu; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-03-21

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by the progressive development of kidney and liver cysts. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade is one of the important pathways regulating cyst growth in ADPKD. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine, play a crucial role to activate mTOR pathway. Therefore, we administered BCAA dissolved in the drinking water to Pkd1(flox/flox):Mx1-Cre (cystic) mice from four to 22 weeks of age after polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-induced conditional Pkd1 knockout at two weeks of age. The BCAA group showed significantly greater kidney/body weight ratio and higher cystic index in both the kidney and liver compared to the placebo-treated mice. We found that the L-type amino acid transporter 1 that facilitates BCAA entry into cells is strongly expressed in cells lining the cysts. We also found increased cyst-lining cell proliferation and upregulation of mTOR and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathways in the BCAA group. In vitro, we cultured renal epithelial cell lines from Pkd1 null mice with or without leucine. Leucine was found to stimulate cell proliferation, as well as activate mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways in these cells. Thus, BCAA accelerated disease progression by mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways. Hence, BCAA may be harmful to patients with ADPKD.

  13. Assessing Risk of Disease Progression and Pharmacological Management of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Soroka, Steven; Alam, Ahsan; Bevilacqua, Micheli; Girard, Louis-Philippe; Komenda, Paul; Loertscher, Rolf; McFarlane, Philip; Pandeya, Sanjaya; Tam, Paul; Bichet, Daniel G.

    2017-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited renal disorder worldwide. The disease is characterized by renal cysts and progressive renal failure due to progressive enlargement of cysts and renal fibrosis. An estimated 45% to 70% of patients with ADPKD progress to end-stage renal disease by age 65 years. Although both targeted and nontargeted therapies have been tested in patients with ADPKD, tolvaptan is currently the only pharmacological therapy approved in Canada for the treatment of ADPKD. The purpose of this consensus recommendation is to develop an evidence-informed recommendation for the optimal management of adult patients with ADPKD. This document focuses on the role of genetic testing, the role of renal imaging, predicting the risk of disease progression, and pharmacological treatment options for ADPKD. These areas of focus were derived from 2 national surveys that were disseminated to nephrologists and patients with ADPKD with the aim of identifying unmet needs in the management of ADPKD in Canada. Specific recommendations are provided for the treatment of ADPKD with tolvaptan. PMID:28321325

  14. Real-world costs of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the Nordics.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Daniel; Karlsson, Linda; Eklund, Oskar; Dieperink, Hans; Honkanen, Eero; Melin, Jan; Selvig, Kristian; Lundberg, Johan

    2017-08-15

    There is limited real-world data on the economic burden of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The objective of this study was to estimate the annual direct and indirect costs of patients with ADPKD by severity of the disease: chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 1-3; CKD stages 4-5; transplant recipients; and maintenance dialysis patients. A retrospective study of ADPKD patients was undertaken April-December 2014 in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Data on medical resource utilisation were extracted from medical charts and patients were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 266 patients were contacted, 243 (91%) of whom provided consent to participate in the study. Results showed that the economic burden of ADPKD was substantial at all levels of the disease. Lost wages due to reduced productivity were large in absolute terms across all disease strata. Mean total annual costs were highest in dialysis patients, driven by maintenance dialysis care, while the use of immunosuppressants was the main cost component for transplant care. Costs were twice as high in patients with CKD stages 4-5 compared to CKD stages 1-3. Costs associated with ADPKD are significant and the progression of the disease is associated with an increased frequency and intensity of medical resource utilisation. Interventions that can slow the progression of the disease have the potential to lead to substantial reductions in costs for the treatment of ADPKD.

  15. Fatty Acid Oxidation is Impaired in An Orthologous Mouse Model of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Luis F.; Lin, Cheng-Chao; Zhou, Fang; Germino, Gregory G.

    2016-01-01

    Background The major gene mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease was first identified over 20 years ago, yet its function remains poorly understood. We have used a systems-based approach to examine the effects of acquired loss of Pkd1 in adult mouse kidney as it transitions from normal to cystic state. Methods We performed transcriptional profiling of a large set of male and female kidneys, along with metabolomics and lipidomics analyses of a subset of male kidneys. We also assessed the effects of a modest diet change on cyst progression in young cystic mice. Fatty acid oxidation and glycolytic rates were measured in five control and mutant pairs of epithelial cells. Results We find that females have a significantly less severe kidney phenotype and correlate this protection with differences in lipid metabolism. We show that sex is a major determinant of the transcriptional profile of mouse kidneys and that some of this difference is due to genes involved in lipid metabolism. Pkd1 mutant mice have transcriptional profiles consistent with changes in lipid metabolism and distinct metabolite and complex lipid profiles in kidneys. We also show that cells lacking Pkd1 have an intrinsic fatty acid oxidation defect and that manipulation of lipid content of mouse chow modifies cystic disease. Interpretation Our results suggest PKD could be a disease of altered cellular metabolism. PMID:27077126

  16. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) - literature review apropos an autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Wesołowski, Wojciech; Dziewulska, Dorota; Koziarska, Malwina; Iżycka-Świeszewska, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a non-atherosclerotic, non-amyloid cerebral angiopathy involving small arteries and arterioles. This entity presents vascular changes in the form of smooth muscle degeneration with swollen myocytes and PAS-positive granular deposits, together with vascular fibrosis and hyalinization. In parallel, diffuse white matter destruction with infarcts, tissue rarefaction, spongiosis, lacunes and demyelination are characteristic. Ultrastructurally, vascular granular osmiophilic material (GOM) is pathognomonic for this hereditary disease caused by NOTCH3 mutation. We diagnosed CADASIL in the autopsy examination of a 53-year-old woman with a 9-year history of a progressive neurological disease with complex motor and cognitive deficits, accompanied by non-specific diffuse white matter changes on neuroimaging. Despite several multicentre hospitalizations, the precise diagnosis was not established until the post-mortem examination of the brain was made. CADASIL is a rare entity, but it should be considered by a pathologist in a differential diagnosis of vascular diseases of the brain, especially in cases with atypical clinical presentation and familial history. The prompt diagnosis depends on the quality of the brain autopsy and proper sampling. The post mortem examination, where “Morituri vivos docent”, is still significant.

  17. [Analysis of PKD1 gene mutation in a family affected with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Mei, Jin; Wang, Min; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Lidan; Zhang, Pan

    2017-06-10

    To determine the molecular etiology for a family affected with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and provide prenatal diagnosis for the family. Clinical data of the family was collected. Target region sequencing with monogenetic disorders capture array combined with Sanger sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were performed in turn. SIFT and NCB1 were used to evaluate the conservation of the gene and pathogenicity of the identified mutation. Target region sequencing has identified a novel c.11333C to A (p.T3778N) mutation of the PKD1 gene in the proband and the fetus, which was confirmed by Sanger sequencing in three affected individuals from the family. The same mutation was not detected in healthy members of the pedigree. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the mutation has caused a likely pathogenic amino acid substitution of Threonine by Aspartic acid, and Clustal analysis indicated that the altered amino acid is highly conserved in mammals. A novel mutation of the PKD1 gene has been identified in an affected Chinese family. The mutation is probably responsible for a range of clinical manifestations, for which reliable prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling may be provided.

  18. A new locus for autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta on chromosome 8q24.3.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Gustavo; Pemberton, Trevor J; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel; Mehrian-Shai, Ruty; Gonzalez-Quevedo, Catalina; Ninis, Vasiliki; Hartiala, Jaana; Allayee, Hooman; Snead, Malcolm L; Leal, Suzanne M; Line, Sergio R P; Patel, Pragna I

    2007-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a collective term used to describe phenotypically diverse forms of defective tooth enamel development. AI has been reported to exhibit a variety of inheritance patterns, and several loci have been identified that are associated with AI. We have performed a genome-wide scan in a large Brazilian family segregating an autosomal dominant form of AI and mapped a novel locus to 8q24.3. A maximum multipoint LOD score of 7.5 was obtained at marker D8S2334 (146,101,309 bp). The disease locus lies in a 1.9 cM (2.1 Mb) region according to the Rutgers Combined Linkage-Physical map, between a VNTR marker (at 143,988,705 bp) and the telomere (146,274,826 bp). Ten candidate genes were identified based on gene ontology and microarray-facilitated gene selection using the expression of murine orthologues in dental tissue, and examined for the presence of a mutation. However, no causative mutation was identified.

  19. Myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated crescentic glomerulonephritis in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited disorder that is characterized by the development of cysts in the kidneys and other organs. Urinary protein excretion is usually less than 1 g/day, and ADPKD is rarely associated with nephrotic syndrome or rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN). To date, myeloperoxidase (MPO)-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated crescentic glomerulonephritis (CrGN) has not been reported in a patient with ADPKD. Case presentations We report two cases of MPO-ANCA positive ADPKD. A 60-year-old Japanese woman (case 1) and a 54-year-old Japanese woman (case 2) presented with RPGN featuring severe proteinuria and microscopic hematuria. In both patients percutaneous needle biopsy of the kidney revealed MPO-ANCA-associated CrGN with a paucity of glomerular immunoglobulin staining. Each patient received intravenous methylprednisolone for 3 days, followed by oral prednisolone. Case 1 showed gradual improvement and has not progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but case 2 developed ESRD requiring hemodialysis within one month despite treatment. Conclusion These are the first two reported cases of MPO-ANCA-associated CrGN in patients with ADPKD. Our experience suggests that serial measurement of the ANCA titer and renal biopsy should be considered for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of ADPKD patients who present with proteinuria, hematuria, and rapid decline of renal function. PMID:23617397

  20. Morphological and Functional Features of Hepatic Cyst Epithelium in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, Domenico; Onori, Paolo; Alpini, Gianfranco; Franchitto, Antonio; Jefferson, Douglas M.; Torrice, Alessia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Stefanelli, Fabrizio; Mancino, Maria Grazia; Strazzabosco, Mario; Angelico, Mario; Attili, Adolfo; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the morphological and functional features of hepatic cyst epithelium in adult autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In six ADPKD patients, we investigated the morphology of cyst epithelium apical surface by scanning electron microscopy and the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF1 receptors (IGF1-R), growth hormone receptor, the proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and pAKT by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Proliferation of liver cyst-derived epithelial cells was evaluated by both MTS proliferation assay and [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. The hepatic cyst epithelium displayed heterogeneous features, being normal in small cysts (<1 cm), characterized by rare or shortened cilia in 1- to 3-cm cysts, and exhibiting the absence of both primary cilia and microvilli in large cysts (>3 cm). Cyst epithelium showed marked immunohistochemical expression of ER, growth hormone receptor, IGF1, IGF1-R, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and pAKT. IGF1 was 10-fold more enriched in the hepatic cyst fluid than in serum. Serum-deprived liver cyst-derived epithelial cells proliferated when exposed to 17β-estradiol and IGF1 and when exposed to human cyst fluid. ER or IGF1-R antagonists inhibited the proliferative effect of serum readmission, cyst fluid, 17β-estradiol, and IGF1. Our findings could explain the role of estrogens in accelerating the progression of ADPKD and may suggest a potential benefit of therapeutic strategies based on estrogen antagonism. PMID:18202196

  1. Total Kidney Volume as a Biomarker of Disease Progression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tangri, Navdeep; Hougen, Ingrid; Alam, Ahsan; Perrone, Ronald; McFarlane, Phil; Pei, York

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited disorder characterized by the formation of kidney cysts and kidney enlargement, which progresses to kidney failure by the fifth to seventh decade of life in a majority of patients. Disease progression is evaluated primarily through serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements; however, it is known that serum creatinine and eGFR values typically do not change until the fourth or fifth decade of life. Until recently, therapy only existed to target complications of ADPKD. As therapeutic agents continue to be investigated for use in ADPKD, a suitable biomarker of disease progression in place of serum creatinine is needed. Sources of information: This review summarizes recent research regarding the use of total kidney volume as a biomarker in ADPKD, as presented at the Canadian Society of Nephrology symposium held in April 2015. Findings: Measurement of patients’ total kidney volume made using ultrasound (US) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown by the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP) study to be directly correlated with both increases in cyst volume and change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Additional studies have shown total kidney volume to have an association with complications of ADPKD as well. Limitations: Areas for further study continue to exist in comparison of methods of measuring total kidney volume. Implications: We believe that the evidence suggests that total kidney volume may be an appropriate surrogate marker for ADPKD disease progression. PMID:28321323

  2. Autosomal dominant C1149R von Willebrand disease: phenotypic findings and their implications

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Almudena; García-Rivero, Aranzazu; Lourés, Esther; López-Fernández, Maria Fernanda; Rodríguez-Trillo, Angela; Batlle, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background Mutation C1149R in the von Willebrand factor (VWF) gene has been thought to cause autosomal dominant severe type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD). Design and Methods Eight patients from three unrelated families with this mutation were included in the present study who had distinct VWF abnormalities, not described in earlier studies. Results The patients showed notably low levels of VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo), VWF collagen binding (VWF:CB), and a reduced ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA). VWF:RCo/VWF:Ag and VWF:CB/VWF:Ag ratios were lower than 0.7. At basal conditions, all the VWF multimers were decreased in plasma, with a clearly lower relative proportion of the high molecular weight VWF multimers (HMWM). In high-resolution agarose gels, a large decrease in the relative proportions of the satellite bands was seen. The patients had a brief good response to desmopressin (DDAVP) administration, but the released VWF half-life was shorter than normal, indicating an accelerated clearance of their VWF. Platelet VWF was abnormal. Conclusions We conclude from the results obtained in these patients for plasma phenotypic data that this mutation should be classified as a VWD type 2A (IIE). DDAVP therapy may be somewhat helpful for this mutation, at least for mild to moderate bleeding. These data provide evidence that for VWD classification factors other than basal VWF, such as DDAVP response and platelet VWF, should be considered. PMID:19286880

  3. Short wavelength‐automated perimetry compared with standard achromatic perimetry in autosomal dominant optic atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Walters, J W; Gaume, A; Pate, L

    2006-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA, Kjer‐type) is a heterogeneous, non‐inflammatory degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. The diagnosis of ADOA can be challenging owing to its insidious onset and large variability in phenotypic expression, both within and between individual pedigrees. The earliest literature reports relatively mild centrocaecal scatomas to white targets in ADOA, but extensive and dense peripheral field loss to coloured targets, especially blue, with Bjerrum perimetry. The phrase “inverted peripheral visual fields to coloured targets” has been used to describe this phenomenon. Methods Humphrey standard achromatic perimetry (SAP) and short wavelength‐automated perimetry (SWAP) were carried out on five patients with ADOA. Results Regardless of wide variations in patient age, visual acuity, disc appearance and colour vision, the SWAP mean deviation (MD) was between 10 and 20 times more depressed than the SAP MD. The actual differences ranged from 9.38 to 13.78 dB. Conclusions These data are consistent with the original reports suggesting that, early in this disease process, the blue‐target deficits are typically peripheral and that this difference between SAP and SWAP perimetry may be a robust indicator of ADOA in both early and late stages of this disease. PMID:16837542

  4. Two novel CRX mutant proteins causing autosomal dominant Leber congenital amaurosis interact differently with NRL.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Lorenzo L; Alur, Ramakrishna P; Boobalan, Elangovan; Sergeev, Yuri V; Caruso, Rafael C; Stone, Edwin M; Swaroop, Anand; Johnson, Mary A; Brooks, Brian P

    2010-06-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a congenital retinal dystrophy characterized by severe visual loss in infancy and nystagmus. Although most often inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion, rare individuals with mutations in the cone-rod homeobox gene, CRX, have dominant disease. CRX is critical for photoreceptor development and acts synergistically with the leucine-zipper transcription factor, NRL. We report on the phenotype of two individuals with LCA due to novel, de novo CRX mutations, c.G264T(p.K74N) and c.413delT(p.I138fs48), that reduce transactivation in vitro to 10% and 30% of control values, respectively. Whereas the c.413delT(p.I138fs48) mutant allows co-expressed NRL to transactivate independently at its normal, baseline level, the c.G264T(p.K74N) mutant reduces co-expressed NRL transactivation and reduces steady state levels of both proteins. Although both mutant proteins predominantly localize normally to the nucleus, they also both show variable cytoplasmic localization. These observations suggest that some CRX-mediated LCA may result from effects beyond haploinsufficiency, such as the mutant protein interefering with other transcription factors' function. Such patients would therefore not likely benefit from a simple, gene-replacement strategy for their disease.

  5. Neuropathology of Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer Disease in the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center Database.

    PubMed

    Ringman, John M; Monsell, Sarah; Ng, Denise W; Zhou, Yan; Nguyen, Andy; Coppola, Giovanni; Van Berlo, Victoria; Mendez, Mario F; Tung, Spencer; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Bigio, Eileen H; Gitelman, Darren R; Fisher-Hubbard, Amanda O; Albin, Roger L; Vinters, Harry V

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) represents a genetically heterogeneous entity. To elucidate neuropathologic features of autosomal dominant AD ([ADAD] due to PSEN1, APP, or PSEN2 mutations), we compared hallmark AD pathologic findings in 60 cases of ADAD and 120 cases of sporadic AD matched for sex, race, ethnicity, and disease duration. Greater degrees of neuritic plaque and neurofibrillary tangle formation and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) were found in ADAD (p values < 0.01). Moderate to severe CAA was more prevalent in ADAD (63.3% vs. 39.2%, p = 0.003), and persons with PSEN1 mutations beyond codon 200 had higher average Braak scores and severity and prevalence of CAA than those with mutations before codon 200. Lewy body pathology was less extensive in ADAD but was present in 27.1% of cases. We also describe a novel pathogenic PSEN1 mutation (P267A). The finding of more severe neurofibrillary pathology and CAA in ADAD, particularly in carriers of PSEN1 mutations beyond codon 200, warrants consideration when designing trials to treat or prevent ADAD. The finding of Lewy body pathology in a substantial minority of ADAD cases supports the assertion that development of Lewy bodies may be in part driven by abnormal β-amyloid protein precursor processing.

  6. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Down syndrome and sporadic and autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Iragui, María; Balasa, Mircea; Benejam, Bessy; Alcolea, Daniel; Fernández, Susana; Videla, Laura; Sala, Isabel; Sánchez-Saudinós, María Belén; Morenas-Rodriguez, Estrella; Ribosa-Nogué, Roser; Illán-Gala, Ignacio; Gonzalez-Ortiz, Sofía; Clarimón, Jordi; Schmitt, Frederick; Powell, David K; Bosch, Beatriz; Lladó, Albert; Rafii, Michael S; Head, Elizabeth; Molinuevo, José Luis; Blesa, Rafael; Videla, Sebastián; Lleó, Alberto; Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Fortea, Juan

    2017-04-29

    We aimed to investigate if cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is more frequent in genetically determined than in sporadic early-onset forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (early-onset AD [EOAD]). Neuroimaging features of CAA, apolipoprotein (APOE), and cerebrospinal fluid amyloid β (Aβ) 40 levels were studied in subjects with Down syndrome (DS, n = 117), autosomal-dominant AD (ADAD, n = 29), sporadic EOAD (n = 42), and healthy controls (n = 68). CAA was present in 31%, 38%, and 12% of cognitively impaired DS, symptomatic ADAD, and sporadic EOAD subjects and in 13% and 4% of cognitively unimpaired DS individuals and healthy controls, respectively. APOE ε4 genotype was borderline significantly associated with CAA in sporadic EOAD (P = .06) but not with DS or ADAD. There were no differences in Aβ040 levels between groups or between subjects with and without CAA. CAA is more frequently found in genetically determined AD than in sporadic EOAD. Cerebrospinal fluid Aβ40 levels are not a useful biomarker for CAA in AD. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Percutaneous Treatment of Pyocystis in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Akinci, Devrim Turkbey, Baris; Yilmaz, Rahmi; Akpinar, Erhan; Ozmen, Mustafa N.; Akhan, Okan

    2008-09-15

    The course of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is frequently complicated by infection of a cyst within a polycystic kidney, which is a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma damaging the clinical course of patients. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous drainage in management of infected cysts in ADPKD patients. Between May 2003 and December 2006, percutaneous drainage was performed in 16 infected renal cysts of four kidneys in three patients (two females, one male), with a mean age of 57.3 years. Cyst dimensions, total amount of drained cyst fluid, catheterization duration, isolated microorganisms, and follow-up duration were recorded. Technical, clinical success rates were 100%; the complication rate was 0%. Diameters of cysts ranged between 3 and 8 cm. Average volume of drained fluid and average duration of catheterization for one cyst were 226 ml and 9.8 days. No recurrence was encountered but one patient (no. 3), who had pyocystis in the right kidney and was treated with catheterization, referred with left flank pain due to pyocystis in her left kidney 3 months later. Follow-up durations were 35, 47, and 11 months for patients 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For patient 3, follow-up duration for the second procedure was 7 months. We conclude that percutaneous drainage with antibiotic therapy should be the initial method in management of infected cysts in ADPKD patients, with high success and low complication rates.

  8. Neuropathology of Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer Disease in the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center Database

    PubMed Central

    Monsell, Sarah; Ng, Denise W.; Zhou, Yan; Nguyen, Andy; Coppola, Giovanni; Van Berlo, Victoria; Mendez, Mario F.; Tung, Spencer; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Bigio, Eileen H.; Gitelman, Darren R.; Fisher-Hubbard, Amanda O.; Albin, Roger L.; Vinters, Harry V.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) represents a genetically heterogeneous entity. To elucidate neuropathologic features of autosomal dominant AD ([ADAD] due to PSEN1, APP, or PSEN2 mutations), we compared hallmark AD pathologic findings in 60 cases of ADAD and 120 cases of sporadic AD matched for sex, race, ethnicity, and disease duration. Greater degrees of neuritic plaque and neurofibrillary tangle formation and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) were found in ADAD (p values < 0.01). Moderate to severe CAA was more prevalent in ADAD (63.3% vs. 39.2%, p = 0.003), and persons with PSEN1 mutations beyond codon 200 had higher average Braak scores and severity and prevalence of CAA than those with mutations before codon 200. Lewy body pathology was less extensive in ADAD but was present in 27.1% of cases. We also describe a novel pathogenic PSEN1 mutation (P267A). The finding of more severe neurofibrillary pathology and CAA in ADAD, particularly in carriers of PSEN1 mutations beyond codon 200, warrants consideration when designing trials to treat or prevent ADAD. The finding of Lewy body pathology in a substantial minority of ADAD cases supports the assertion that development of Lewy bodies may be in part driven by abnormal β-amyloid protein precursor processing. PMID:26888304

  9. Novel role of ouabain as a cystogenic factor in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Darren P.

    2013-01-01

    The classic role of the Na-K-ATPase is that of a primary active transporter that utilizes cell energy to establish and maintain transmembrane Na+ and K+ gradients to preserve cell osmotic stability, support cell excitability, and drive secondary active transport. Recent studies have revealed that Na-K-ATPase located within cholesterol-containing lipid rafts serves as a receptor for cardiotonic steroids, including ouabain. Traditionally, ouabain was viewed as a toxin produced only in plants, and it was used in relatively high concentrations to experimentally block the pumping action of the Na-K-ATPase. However, the new and unexpected role of the Na-K-ATPase as a signal transducer revealed a novel facet for ouabain in the regulation of a myriad of cell functions, including cell proliferation, hypertrophy, apoptosis, mobility, and metabolism. The seminal discovery that ouabain is endogenously produced in mammals and circulates in plasma has fueled the interest in this endogenous molecule as a potentially important hormone in normal physiology and disease. In this article, we review the role of the Na-K-ATPase as an ion transporter in the kidney, the experimental evidence for ouabain as a circulating hormone, the function of the Na-K-ATPase as a signal transducer that mediates ouabain's effects, and novel results for ouabain-induced Na-K-ATPase signaling in cystogenesis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:23761677

  10. Fatty Acid Oxidation is Impaired in An Orthologous Mouse Model of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Luis F; Lin, Cheng-Chao; Zhou, Fang; Germino, Gregory G

    2016-03-01

    The major gene mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease was first identified over 20 years ago, yet its function remains poorly understood. We have used a systems-based approach to examine the effects of acquired loss of Pkd1 in adult mouse kidney as it transitions from normal to cystic state. We performed transcriptional profiling of a large set of male and female kidneys, along with metabolomics and lipidomics analyses of a subset of male kidneys. We also assessed the effects of a modest diet change on cyst progression in young cystic mice. Fatty acid oxidation and glycolytic rates were measured in five control and mutant pairs of epithelial cells. We find that females have a significantly less severe kidney phenotype and correlate this protection with differences in lipid metabolism. We show that sex is a major determinant of the transcriptional profile of mouse kidneys and that some of this difference is due to genes involved in lipid metabolism. Pkd1 mutant mice have transcriptional profiles consistent with changes in lipid metabolism and distinct metabolite and complex lipid profiles in kidneys. We also show that cells lacking Pkd1 have an intrinsic fatty acid oxidation defect and that manipulation of lipid content of mouse chow modifies cystic disease. Our results suggest PKD could be a disease of altered cellular metabolism.

  11. A Novel CRYBB2 Stopgain Mutation Causing Congenital Autosomal Dominant Cataract in a Chinese Family

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Zhai, Yaru; Huang, Lulin; Gong, Bo; Li, Jie; Hao, Fang; Wu, Zhengzheng

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is the most common cause of the visual disability and blindness in childhood. This study aimed to identify gene mutations responsible for autosomal dominant congenital cataract (ADCC) in a Chinese family using next-generation sequencing technology. This family included eight unaffected and five affected individuals. After complete ophthalmic examinations, the blood samples of the proband and two available family members were collected. Then the whole exome sequencing was performed on the proband and Sanger sequencing was applied to validate the causal mutation in the two family members and control samples. After the whole exome sequencing data were filtered through a series of existing variation databases, a heterozygous mutation c.499T

  12. Determinants of renal volume in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Grantham, JJ; Cook, LT; Torres, VE; Bost, JE; Chapman, AB; Harris, PC; Guay-Woodford, LM; Bae, KT

    2009-01-01

    The Consortium of Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP) recently showed that renal enlargement in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease mimicked exponential growth. We determined the effects of cyst initiation rate, total number, and growth rate on the time-dependent change of total cyst volume (TCV). Mathematical models with equations integrating cyst surface area, volume, and an invariant growth rate constant were used to compute the time-dependent change in volume of solitary and multiple cysts. Multiple expanding cysts increased TCV in an exponential-like pattern even when individual cysts formed at different rates or exhibited different but constant growth rates. TCV depended on the rate of cyst initiation and on the total number of cysts; however, the compounding effect of exponential-like growth was the most powerful determinant of long-term cyst expansion. Extrapolation of TCV data plots for individual subjects back to an age of 18 predicted TCV values within an established range. We conclude that cysts started early in life were the main contributor to eventual TCV while their growth rate primarily determined renal size; although the rate of formation and the ultimate number of cysts also contributed. The good fit between the exponential models and the extrapolated CRISP data indicates that the TCV growth rate is a defining trait for individual patients and may be used as a prognostic marker. PMID:17960141

  13. Autosomal dominant immune dysregulation syndrome in humans with CTLA4 mutations.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Desirée; Bode, Claudia; Kenefeck, Rupert; Hou, Tie Zheng; Wing, James B; Kennedy, Alan; Bulashevska, Alla; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Grüning, Björn A; Unger, Susanne; Frede, Natalie; Baumann, Ulrich; Witte, Torsten; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Dueckers, Gregor; Niehues, Tim; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Kanariou, Maria; Speckmann, Carsten; Ehl, Stephan; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Warnatz, Klaus; Rakhmanov, Mirzokhid; Thimme, Robert; Hasselblatt, Peter; Emmerich, Florian; Cathomen, Toni; Backofen, Rolf; Fisch, Paul; Seidl, Maximilian; May, Annette; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Ikemizu, Shinji; Salzer, Ulrich; Franke, Andre; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Walker, Lucy S K; Sansom, David M; Grimbacher, Bodo

    2014-12-01

    The protein cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is an essential negative regulator of immune responses, and its loss causes fatal autoimmunity in mice. We studied a large family in which five individuals presented with a complex, autosomal dominant immune dysregulation syndrome characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections and multiple autoimmune clinical features. We identified a heterozygous nonsense mutation in exon 1 of CTLA4. Screening of 71 unrelated patients with comparable clinical phenotypes identified five additional families (nine individuals) with previously undescribed splice site and missense mutations in CTLA4. Clinical penetrance was incomplete (eight adults of a total of 19 genetically proven CTLA4 mutation carriers were considered unaffected). However, CTLA-4 protein expression was decreased in regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in both patients and carriers with CTLA4 mutations. Whereas Treg cells were generally present at elevated numbers in these individuals, their suppressive function, CTLA-4 ligand binding and transendocytosis of CD80 were impaired. Mutations in CTLA4 were also associated with decreased circulating B cell numbers. Taken together, mutations in CTLA4 resulting in CTLA-4 haploinsufficiency or impaired ligand binding result in disrupted T and B cell homeostasis and a complex immune dysregulation syndrome.

  14. Polycystin-1 expression in fetal, adult and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney.

    PubMed

    Chae, Seoung Wan; Cho, Eun-Yoon; Park, Moon Soo; Lee, Kyu-Beck; Kim, Hyunho; Kim, Unkyung

    2006-06-01

    The mutation of the PKD1 gene causes autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and the PKD1 gene encodes polycystin-1 (PC-1). PC-1 is thought to be a cell-cell/matrix adhesion receptor molecule at the cell surface that is widely expressed in the kidney. However, there are controversies about the role of PC-1 protein and its expression when using different antibodies to detect it. We used two PC-1 antibodies; C-20 (Santa Cruz, sc-10372) as the C-terminal antibody, and P-15 (Santa Cruz, sc-10307) as the N-terminal antibody. We evaluated the PC-1 expression by performing immunoblotting on the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and the renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (RPTEC) lysates. We characterized the expression of PC-1 in the fetal, adult and polycystic kidneys tissues by performing immunohistochemistry. We confirmed the PC-1 expression in the HEK 293 cells and the RPTEC lysates, but the expression was very low. The PC-1 proteins were diffusely expressed in the tubular epithelial cells cytoplasm in the fetal and adult kidneys, and the PC-1 expression was more prominent in the proximal tubules of the fetal kidney. In the ADPKD kidney, the PC-1 proteins were heterogenously and weakly expressed in the tubular or cyst lining epithelial cells. Our data suggests that the development of the kidney may regulate the expression of PC-1, and an altered PC-1 expression may contribute to cyst formation in ADPKD.

  15. Polycystin-1 Expression in Fetal, Adult and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Seoung Wan; Cho, Eun-Yoon; Park, Moon Soo; Kim, Hyunho; Kim, Unkyung

    2006-01-01

    The mutation of the PKD1 gene causes autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and the PKD1 gene encodes polycystin-1 (PC-1). PC-1 is thought to be a cell-cell/matrix adhesion receptor molecule at the cell surface that is widely expressed in the kidney. However, there are controversies about the role of PC-1 protein and its expression when using different antibodies to detect it. We used two PC-1 antibodies; C-20 (Santa Cruz, sc-10372) as the C-terminal antibody, and P-15 (Santa Cruz, sc-10307) as the N-terminal antibody. We evaluated the PC-1 expression by performing immunoblotting on the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and the renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (RPTEC) lysates. We characterized the expression of PC-1 in the fetal, adult and polycystic kidneys tissues by performing immunohistochemistry. We confirmed the PC-1 expression in the HEK 293 cells and the RPTEC lysates, but the expression was very low. The PC-1 proteins were diffusely expressed in the tubular epithelial cells cytoplasm in the fetal and adult kidneys, and the PC-1 expression was more prominent in the proximal tubules of the fetal kidney. In the ADPKD kidney, the PC-1 proteins were heterogenously and weakly expressed in the tubular or cyst lining epithelial cells. Our data suggests that the development of the kidney may regulate the expression of PC-1, and an altered PC-1 expression may contribute to cyst formation in ADPKD. PMID:16778383

  16. Identification of a rhodopsin gene mutation in a large family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinping; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Lulu; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Ding; Hu, Xuting; Xu, Jinling; Xu, Limin; Wu, Yaming; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

    2016-01-22

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically highly heterogeneous retinal disease and one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Next-generation sequencing technology has enormous potential for determining the genetic etiology of RP. We sought to identify the underlying genetic defect in a 35-year-old male from an autosomal-dominant RP family with 14 affected individuals. By capturing next-generation sequencing (CNGS) of 144 genes associated with retinal diseases, we identified eight novel DNA variants; however, none of them cosegregated for all the members of the family. Further analysis of the CNGS data led to identification of a recurrent missense mutation (c.403C > T, p.R135W) in the rhodopsin (RHO) gene, which cosegregated with all affected individuals in the family and was not observed in any of the unaffected family members. The p.R135W mutation has a reference single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ID (rs104893775), and it appears to be responsible for the disease in this large family. This study highlights the importance of examining NGS data with reference SNP IDs. Thus, our study is important for data analysis of NGS-based clinical genetic diagnoses.

  17. Familial variable immunodeficiency: autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with variable expression of the defect(s).

    PubMed

    Feldman, G; Koziner, B; Talamo, R; Bloch, K J

    1975-10-01

    In 1963, Rosen and Bougas reported the case of a woman with recurrent infection, marked elevation of 19S, and virtual absence of 7S gamma globulin. Recently, members of her family were found to have similar abnormalities: Ten of the 37 family members tested had elevated levels of serum IgM accompanied by a combined deficiency of IgG and IgA in three, and by a deficiency of either IgG or IgA in two. In five, an increase in IgM was the sole abnormality. Two children had deficiencies of IgG and IgA with normal serum levels of IgM. Ten of the 12 affected individuals had no IgD detectable by radial immunodiffusion and six had a low percentage of IgG-bearing B lymphocytes. A lack of correlation between the immunochemical abnormalities and either the presence or severity of clinical illness was observed. The presence of immunodeficiency in three generations and in both sexes of this family suggests an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with variable penetrance of the defect.

  18. Angiogenic growth factors correlate with disease severity in young patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Berenice; Masoumi, Amirali; Elhassan, Elwaleed; McFann, Kim; Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa; Maahs, David; Snell-Bergeon, Janet; Schrier, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Renal cysts, pain and hematuria are common presentations of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in children. Renal function, however, is typically preserved in these patients despite increased renal volume. Since angiogenesis has been implicated in promotion of renal cyst growth in ADPKD we measured the serum level of various angiogenic factors and early renal structural changes and cardiovascular parameters in 71 patients with ADPKD with a mean age of 16 years. Renal structure and left ventricular mass index were measured by magnetic resonance imaging or by echocardiogram. Renal function was assessed by creatinine clearance, and urinary protein excretion. Serum growth factor levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of skewed distributions, the various parameters are reported as log10. Serum Log10 vascular endothelial growth factor was positively correlated with renal and cardiac structure, but negatively correlated with creatinine clearance. Serum angiopoietin 1 levels significantly correlated with structural change in both the kidney and the heart and with urinary protein. Thus, the correlation between angiogenic growth factors with both renal and cardiac disease severity is compatible with a possible role for angiogenesis in the early progression of disease in ADPKD. PMID:20881939

  19. Clinical and genetic identification of a large chinese family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yezhen; Tian, Di; Lee, Janet; Zeng, Jing; Zhang, Huiming; Chen, Siying; Guo, Hui; Xiong, Zhiming; Xia, Kun; Hu, Zhengmao; Luo, Jing

    2015-03-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited retinal dystrophies characterized by night blindness, progressive peripheral visual field loss, and loss of central vision. Fifty-three RP pathogenic genes are responsible for RP. Pre-mRNA processing factor 31(PRPF31) gene is the third most common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), and so far more than 40 mutations in PRPF31 have been detected. To identify the underlying genetic defect in a five-generation Chinese family affected with adRP and to study the genotype-phenotype relationship of this family. Detailed clinical investigations were undertaken and peripheral blood samples were collected from 25 individuals. Microsatellite (STR) markers tightly linked to genes known to be responsible for adRP were selected for linkage analysis. Exons and adjacent splice junctions of the candidate gene were amplified and sequenced. This adRP family exhibited an incomplete penetrance of the RP phenotype. In affected individuals, age of disease onset was from infancy to 4 years of age. Typical RP features were associated with this mutation. Linkage analysis identified a maximum two-point LOD score of 3.20 with D19S418, which is close to PRPF31. A mutation PRPF31: (c.358-359 del AA) was identified by linkage analysis. A PRPF31 mutation was identified to be responsible for adRP in a large Chinese family. Our findings expand the mutation spectrum of RP in the Chinese population.

  20. Erythropoietin Slows Photoreceptor Cell Death in a Mouse Model of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Rex, Tonia S; Kasmala, Lorraine; Bond, Wesley S; de Lucas Cerrillo, Ana M; Wynn, Kristi; Lewin, Alfred S

    2016-01-01

    To test the efficacy of systemic gene delivery of a mutant form of erythropoietin (EPO-R76E) that has attenuated erythropoietic activity, in a mouse model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Ten-day old mice carrying one copy of human rhodopsin with the P23H mutation and both copies of wild-type mouse rhodopsin (hP23H RHO+/-,mRHO+/+) were injected into the quadriceps with recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) carrying either enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or EpoR76E. Visual function (electroretinogram) and retina structure (optical coherence tomography, histology, and immunohistochemistry) were assessed at 7 and 12 months of age. The outer nuclear layer thickness decreased over time at a slower rate in rAAV.EpoR76E treated as compared to the rAAV.eGFP injected mice. There was a statistically significant preservation of the electroretinogram at 7, but not 12 months of age. Systemic EPO-R76E slows death of the photoreceptors and vision loss in hP23H RHO+/-,mRHO+/+ mice. Treatment with EPO-R76E may widen the therapeutic window for retinal degeneration patients by increasing the number of viable cells. Future studies might investigate if co-treatment with EPO-R76E and gene replacement therapy is more effective than gene replacement therapy alone.

  1. Mutation spectrum of the rhodopsin gene among patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Dryja, T.P.; Han, L.B.; Cowley, G.S.; McGee, T.L.; Berson, E.L. )

    1991-10-15

    The authors searched for point mutations in every exon of the rhodopsin gene in 150 patients from separate families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Including the 4 mutations the authors reported previously, they found a total of 17 different mutations that correlate with the disease. Each of these mutations is a single-base substitution corresponding to a single amino acid substitution. Based on current models for the structure of rhodopsin, 3 of the 17 mutant amino acids are normally located on the cytoplasmic side of the protein, 6 in transmembrane domains, and 8 on the intradiscal side. Forty-three of the 150 patients (29%) carry 1 of these mutations, and no patient has more than 1 mutation. In every family with a mutation so far analyzed, the mutation cosegregates with the disease. They found one instance of a mutation in an affected patient that was absent in both unaffected parents (i.e., a new germ-line mutation), indicating that some isolate cases of retinitis pigmentosa carry a mutation of the rhodopsin gene.

  2. A missense mutation in HK1 leads to autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Yandong; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Li; Lyubasyuk, Vera; Wang, Keqing; Xu, Mingchu; Li, Yumei; Wu, Frances; Wen, Cindy; Bernstein, Paul S; Lin, Danni; Zhu, Susanna; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Rui

    2014-10-14

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous disease with over 60 causative genes known to date. Nevertheless, approximately 40% of RP cases remain genetically unsolved, suggesting that many novel disease-causing genes are yet to be identified. In this study, we aimed to identify the causative mutation for a large autosomal dominant RP (adRP) family with negative results from known retinal disease gene screening. Linkage analysis followed by whole-exome sequencing was performed. Stringent variant filtering and prioritization was carried out to identify the causative mutation. Linkage analysis identified a minimal disease region of 8 Mb on chromosome 10 with a peak parametric logarithm (base 10) of odds (LOD) score of 3.500. Further whole-exome sequencing identified a heterozygous missense mutation (NM_000188.2:c.2539G>A, p.E847K) in hexokinase 1 (HK1) that segregated with the disease phenotype in the family. Biochemical assays showed that the E847K mutation does not affect hexokinase enzymatic activity or the protein stability, suggesting that the mutation may impact other uncharacterized function or result in a gain of function of HK1. Here, we identified HK1 as a novel causative gene for adRP. This is the first report that associates the glucose metabolic pathway with human retinal degenerative disease, suggesting a potential new disease mechanism. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. Further refinement of the location for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa on chromosome 7p (RP9)

    SciTech Connect

    Inglehearn, C.F.; Keen, T.J.; Al-Maghtheh, M.; Gregory, C.Y.; Bhattacharya, S.S.; Jay, M.R.; Moore, A.T.; Bird, A.C. )

    1994-04-01

    A form of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) mapping to chromosome 7p was recently reported by this laboratory, in a single large family from southeastern England. Further sampling of the family and the use a number of genetic markers from 7p have facilitated the construction of a series of multipoint linkage maps of the region with the most likely disease gene location. From this and haplotype data, the locus can now be placed between the markers D7S484 and D7S526, in an interval estimated to be 1.6-4 cM. Genetic distances between the markers previously reported to be linked to this region and those described in the recent whole-genome poly-CA map were estimated from data in this and other families. These data should assist in the construction of a physical map of the region and will help to identify candidate genes for the 7p adRP locus. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. "An evil heritage": interview study of pain and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Heiwe, Susanne; Bjuke, Monica

    2009-09-01

    Pain is a common problem for patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Knowledge about patients' experience of the pain, pain management, and pain's effect on everyday life is, however, limited. In clinical practice there is a need to improve the care of these patients. To be able to do so, information about how the disease and its pain affect the patients is required. This study explores patients' experience of living with ADPKD and its pain. The findings are based on in-depth semistructured interviews. The participants were 22 patients with ADPKD. The data were transcribed and analyzed by using phenomenology. Findings showed that the patients experienced limitations in their everyday life due to inexplicable and unpredictable pain and fatigue. Also, pain management was experienced as suboptimal and pain was seldom discussed at health care appointments. Emotional distress concerning the hereditary nature of the disease was also present. Health care providers need to increase their focus on pain and pain management to reduce the disease's intrusion in patients' everyday life. Also, patients and people in the patients' immediate surroundings need to be given information and education about the disease and its pain as well as the opportunity to talk about their worries concerning heredity. By implementing the findings of the present study when meeting a patient with ADPKD, improved patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life could be accomplished.

  5. Two novel mutations in PRPF3 causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zilin; Yan, Min; Sun, Wan; Wu, Zehua; Han, Liyun; Zhou, Zheng; Zheng, Fang; Chen, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous set of hereditary eye diseases, characterized by selective death of photoreceptor cells in the retina, resulting in progressive visual impairment. Approximately 20–40% of RP cases are autosomal dominant RP (ADRP). In this study, a Chinese ADRP family previously localized to the region between D1S2819 and D1S2635 was sequenced via whole-exome sequencing and a variant c.1345C > G (p.R449G) was identified in PRPF3. The Sanger sequencing was performed in probands of additional 95 Chinese ADRP families to investigate the contribution of PRPF3 to ADRP in Chinese population and another variant c.1532A > C (p.H511P) was detected in one family. These two variants, co-segregate with RP in two families respectively and both variants are predicted to be pathological. This is the first report about the spectrum of PRPF3 mutations in Chinese population, leading to the identification of two novel PRPF3 mutations. Only three clustered mutations in PRPF3 have been identified so far in several populations and all are in exon 11. Our study expands the spectrum of PRPF3 mutations in RP. We also demonstrate that PRPF3 mutations are responsible for 2.08% of ADRP families in this cohort indicating that PRPF3 mutations might be relatively rare in Chinese ADRP patients. PMID:27886254

  6. New insights into the pathogenesis of autosomal dominant cutis laxa with report of five ELN mutations

    PubMed Central

    Callewaert, Bert; Renard, Marjolijn; Hucthagowder, Vishwanathan; Albrecht, Beate; Hausser, Ingrid; Blair, Edward; Dias, Cristina; Albino, Alice; Wachi, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumiaki; Mecham, Robert P.; Loeys, Bart; Coucke, Paul J.; De Paepe, Anne; Urban, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal dominant cutis laxa (ADCL) is characterized by a typical facial appearance and generalized loose skin folds, occasionally associated with aortic root dilatation and emphysema. We sequenced exons 28–34 of the ELN gene in 5 probands with ADCL features and found 5 de novo heterozygous mutations: c.2296_2299dupGCAG (CL-1), c.2333delC (CL-2), c.2137delG (CL-3), c.2262delA (monozygotic twin CL-4 and CL-5) and c.2124del25 (CL-6). Four probands (CL-1, -2, -3, -6) presented with progressive aortic root dilatation. CL-2 and CL-3 also had bicuspid aortic valves. CL-2 presented with severe emphysema. Electron microscopy revealed elastic fiber fragmentation and diminished dermal elastin deposition. RT-PCR studies showed stable mutant mRNA in all patients. Exon 32 skipping explains a milder phenotype in patients with exon 32 mutations. Mutant protein expression in fibroblast cultures impaired deposition of tropoelastin onto microfibril-containing fibers, and enhanced tropoelastin coacervation and globule formation leading to lower amounts of mature, insoluble elastin. Mutation-specific effects also included endoplasmic reticulum stress and increased apoptosis. Increased pSMAD2 staining in ADCL fibroblasts indicated enhanced transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling. We conclude that ADCL is a systemic disease with cardiovascular and pulmonary complications, associated with increased TGFβ signaling and mutation-specific differences in endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis. PMID:21309044

  7. Autosomal Dominant Cortical Tremor, Myoclonus, and Epilepsy Syndrome mimicking Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    AYDIN ÖZEMİR, Zeynep; OĞUZ AKARSU, Emel; MATUR, Zeliha; ÖGE, Ali Emre; BAYKAN, Betül

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus, and epilepsy (ADCME) syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous and under-recognized disease characterized by tremulous movements mimicking essential tremor, myoclonus, and rare generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Here we described the clinical and electrophysiological features of three siblings with ADCME syndrome mimicking juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Methods Three siblings (two females and one male) diagnosed with ADCME were analyzed by electroencephalogram (EEG), somatosensory evoked potentials, and accelerometric recordings. The results were compared with 14 JME patients without tremor and 14 with essential tremor (ET). Results The shared features of the siblings were cortical tremor, myoclonia, epilepsy, migraine, and psychiatric symptoms. In all siblings, tremor had started before myoclonic epilepsy associated with 4–6 Hz generalized spike and wave discharges. The N20-P25 and P25-N35 amplitudes were substantially higher in the three siblings with ADCME. Although tremor frequencies were similar to those of the ET group, the siblings had mild interrupting low-amplitude myoclonus, suggestive of cortical tremor, in the accelerometric analysis. Conclusion We presented a detailed clinical evaluation with electrophysiological confirmation of ADCME syndrome in a Turkish family. This rare clinical picture might be misdiagnosed as JME and should be kept in mind to ensure correct diagnosis and to provide a homogenous group for genetic studies. PMID:28373807

  8. A Novel GJA8 Mutation (p.V44A) Causing Autosomal Dominant Congenital Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yanan; Yu, Hao; Wang, Wei; Gong, Xiaohua; Yao, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the mechanism by which a novel connexin 50 (Cx50) mutation, Cx50 V44A, in a Chinese family causes suture-sparing autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataracts. Methods Family history and clinical data were recorded and direct gene sequencing was used to identify the disease-causing mutation. The Cx50 gene was cloned from a human lens cDNA library. Connexin protein distributions were assessed by fluorescence microscopy. Hemichannel functions were analyzed by dye uptake assay. Formation of functional channels was assessed by dye transfer experiments. Results Direct sequencing of the candidate GJA8 gene revealed a novel c.131T>C transition in exon 2, which cosegregated with the disease in the family and resulted in the substitution of a valine residue with alanine at codon 44 (p. V44A) in the extracellular loop 1 of the Cx50 protein. Both Cx50 and Cx50V44A formed functional gap junctions, as shown by the neurobiotin transfer assay. However, unlike wild-type Cx50, Cx50V44A was unable to form open hemichannels in dye uptake experiments. Conclusion This work identified a unique congenital cataract in the Chinese population, caused by the novel mutation Cx50V44A, and it showed that the V44A mutation specifically impairs the gating of the hemichannels but not the gap junction channels. The dysfunctional hemichannels resulted in the development of human congenital cataracts. PMID:25517998

  9. Amyloid tracers binding sites in autosomal dominant and sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ruiqing; Gillberg, Per-Göran; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Viitanen, Matti; Myllykangas, Liisa; Nennesmo, Inger; Långström, Bengt; Nordberg, Agneta

    2017-04-01

    Amyloid imaging has been integrated into diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD). How amyloid tracers binding differ for different tracer structures and amyloid-β aggregates in autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) and sporadic AD is unclear. Binding properties of different amyloid tracers were examined in brain homogenates from six ADAD with APPswe, PS1 M146V, and PS1 EΔ9 mutations, 13 sporadic AD, and 14 control cases. (3)H-PIB, (3)H-florbetaben, (3)H-AZD2184, and BTA-1 shared a high- and a varying low-affinity binding site in the frontal cortex of sporadic AD. AZD2184 detected another binding site (affinity 33 nM) in the frontal cortex of ADAD. The (3)H-AZD2184 and (3)H-PIB binding were significantly higher in the striatum of ADAD compared to sporadic AD and control. Polyphenol resveratrol showed strongest inhibition on (3)H-AZD84 binding followed by (3)H-florbetaben and minimal on (3)H-PIB. This study implies amyloid tracers of different structures detect different sites on amyloid-β fibrils or conformations. Copyright © 2016 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Localization of a new autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa gene on chromosome 17p screeningof candidate genes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, J.; Goliath, R.; Shugart, Y.Y.

    1994-09-01

    A new gene locus for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) on 17p has been identified in a large South African (SA) family consisting of 28 living affected individuals in 4 successive generations. This is the first ADRP gene to be reported from SA. The human recoverin (RCVN) gene, which codes for a retinal-specific protein important in recovery to the dark state after visual excitation, has been mapped to 17p13.1 and was considered as a prime candidate gene for the disorder in this family. Mutation screening (using 8 different electrophoretic conditions to resolve heteroduplexes and SSCPs) did not produce any evidence of RCVN being involved in the pathogenesis of ADRP in this SA family. In addition, a mobility shift detected within exon 1 of the RCVN gene did not track with the ADRP phenotype. RP patients from 77 SA families and 30 normal individuals are being examined to establish the frequency of this polymorphism in the SA population. Highly polymorphic markers from 17p13 are now being sought in order to establish the minimum region containing this novel ADRP-SA gene. Two additional recently described retinal-expressed cDNAs, guanylyl cyclase and pigment epithelium-derived factor, which map to 17p13.1, will be tested for tight linkage to ADRP-SA.

  11. Effective Small Interfering RNA Therapy to Treat CLCN7-dependent Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Capulli, Mattia; Maurizi, Antonio; Ventura, Luca; Rucci, Nadia; Teti, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In about 70% of patients affected by autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type 2 (ADO2), osteoclast activity is reduced by heterozygous mutations of the CLCN7 gene, encoding the ClC-7 chloride/hydrogen antiporter. CLCN7G215R-, CLCN7R767W-, and CLCN7R286W-specific siRNAs silenced transfected mutant mRNA/EGFP in HEK293 cells, in RAW264.7 cells and in human osteoclasts, with no change of CLCN7WT mRNA and no effect of scrambled siRNA on the mutant transcripts. Osteoclasts from Clcn7G213R ADO2 mice showed reduced bone resorption, a condition rescued by Clcn7G213R-specific siRNA. Treatment of ADO2 mice with Clcn7G213R-specific siRNA induced increase of bone resorption variables and decrease of trabecular bone mass, leading to an overall improvement of the osteopetrotic bone phenotype. Treatment did not induce overt adverse effects and was effective also with siRNAs specific for other mutants. These results demonstrate that a siRNA-based experimental treatment of ADO2 is feasible, and underscore a translational impact for future strategy to cure this therapeutically neglected form of osteopetrosis. PMID:26325626

  12. Arrested maturation of excitatory synapses in autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Dong; Lee, Sanghoon; Jin, Zhe; Wright, Moriah; Smith, Stephen E P; Anderson, Matthew P

    2009-10-01

    A subset of central glutamatergic synapses are coordinately pruned and matured by unresolved mechanisms during postnatal development. We report that the human epilepsy gene LGI1, encoding leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated protein-1 and mutated in autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (ADLTE), mediates this process in hippocampus. We created transgenic mice either expressing a truncated mutant LGI1 (835delC) found in ADLTE or overexpressing a wild-type LGI1. We discovered that the normal postnatal maturation of presynaptic and postsynaptic functions was arrested by the 835delC mutant LGI1, and contrastingly, was magnified by excess wild-type LGI1. Concurrently, mutant LGI1 inhibited dendritic pruning and increased the spine density to markedly increase excitatory synaptic transmission. Inhibitory transmission, by contrast, was unaffected. Furthermore, mutant LGI1 promoted epileptiform discharge in vitro and kindling epileptogenesis in vivo with partial gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptor blockade. Thus, LGI1 represents a human gene mutated to promote epilepsy through impaired postnatal development of glutamatergic circuits.

  13. From bone abnormalities to mineral metabolism dysregulation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mekahli, Djalila; Bacchetta, Justine

    2013-11-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic cause of kidney failure. It is a systemic disorder, not only affecting the kidneys, but also associated with cyst formation in other organs such as the liver, spleen, pancreas, and seminal vesicles. Other extra-renal symptoms may consist of intracranial arterial aneurysms, cardiac valvular defects, abdominal and inguinal hernias and colonic diverticulosis. Very little is known regarding bone involvement in ADPKD; however, recent evidence has revealed the potential role of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). FGF23 is an endocrine fibroblast growth factor acting in the kidney as a phosphaturic hormone and a suppressor of active vitamin D with key effects on the bone/kidney/parathyroid axis, and has been shown to increase in patients with ADPKD, even with normal renal function. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of bone and mineral abnormalities found in experimental models and in patients with ADPKD, and to discuss the possible role of FGF23 in this disease.

  14. Clinicians' attitude towards family planning and timing of diagnosis in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    De Rechter, Stéphanie; Kringen, Jonathan; Janssens, Peter; Liebau, Max Christoph; Devriendt, Koenraad; Levtchenko, Elena; Bergmann, Carsten; Jouret, François; Bammens, Bert; Borry, Pascal; Schaefer, Franz; Mekahli, Djalila

    2017-01-01

    Several ethical aspects in the management of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) are still controversial, including family planning and testing for disease presence in at-risk individuals. We performed an online survey aiming to assess the opinion and current clinical practice of European pediatric and adult nephrologists, as well as geneticists. A total of 410 clinicians (53% male, mean (SD) age of 48 (10) years) responded, including 216 pediatric nephrologists, 151 adult nephrologists, and 43 clinical geneticists. While the 3 groups agreed to encourage clinical testing in asymptomatic ADPKD minors and adults, only geneticists would recommend genetic testing in asymptomatic at-risk adults (P<0.001). Statistically significant disagreement between disciplines was observed regarding the ethical justification of prenatal genetic diagnosis, termination of pregnancy and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for ADPKD. Particularly, PGD is ethically justified according to geneticists (4.48 (1.63)), whereas pediatric (3.08 (1.78); P<0.001) and adult nephrologists (3.66 (1.88); P<0.05) appeared to be less convinced. Our survey suggests that most clinicians support clinical testing of at-risk minors and adults in ADPKD families. However, there is no agreement for genetic testing in asymptomatic offspring and for family planning, including PGD. The present data highlight the need for a consensus among clinicians, to avoid that ADPKD families are being given conflicting information.

  15. Liver cysts in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease: clinical and computed tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.; Cook, L.T.; Grantham, J.J.

    1985-08-01

    Hepatic CT findings were analyzed in 44 patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease and were correlated with liver and renal function tests and liver, splenic, and renal CT volume measurements. CT showed many large liver cysts in 31.8% of patients, small liver cysts in 25%, and no liver cysts in 43.2%. Patients with many large cysts often showed increased liver volumes. There was no correlation between severity of liver involvement and extent of renal cystic disease as determined from urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and renal volumes. Liver function tests were normal except in two patients, one with a cholangiocarcinoma, which may have arisen from a cyst, and the other with an infected liver cyst and chronic active hepatitis. Accordingly, if liver function tests are abnormal, an attempt should be made to identify complications of polycystic liver disease such as tumor cyst infection, and biliary obstruction. CT is a useful method for detecting liver cysts and identifying patients at risk for these complications.

  16. Erythropoietin Slows Photoreceptor Cell Death in a Mouse Model of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Kasmala, Lorraine; Bond, Wesley S.; de Lucas Cerrillo, Ana M.; Wynn, Kristi; Lewin, Alfred S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To test the efficacy of systemic gene delivery of a mutant form of erythropoietin (EPO-R76E) that has attenuated erythropoietic activity, in a mouse model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Methods Ten-day old mice carrying one copy of human rhodopsin with the P23H mutation and both copies of wild-type mouse rhodopsin (hP23H RHO+/-,mRHO+/+) were injected into the quadriceps with recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) carrying either enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or EpoR76E. Visual function (electroretinogram) and retina structure (optical coherence tomography, histology, and immunohistochemistry) were assessed at 7 and 12 months of age. Results The outer nuclear layer thickness decreased over time at a slower rate in rAAV.EpoR76E treated as compared to the rAAV.eGFP injected mice. There was a statistically significant preservation of the electroretinogram at 7, but not 12 months of age. Conclusions Systemic EPO-R76E slows death of the photoreceptors and vision loss in hP23H RHO+/-,mRHO+/+ mice. Treatment with EPO-R76E may widen the therapeutic window for retinal degeneration patients by increasing the number of viable cells. Future studies might investigate if co-treatment with EPO-R76E and gene replacement therapy is more effective than gene replacement therapy alone. PMID:27299810

  17. Genotyping microarray: Mutation screening in Spanish families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    García-Hoyos, María; Cortón, Marta; Ávila-Fernández, Almudena; Riveiro-Álvarez, Rosa; Giménez, Ascensión; Hernan, Inma; Carballo, Miguel; Ayuso, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Presently, 22 genes have been described in association with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP); however, they explain only 50% of all cases, making genetic diagnosis of this disease difficult and costly. The aim of this study was to evaluate a specific genotyping microarray for its application to the molecular diagnosis of adRP in Spanish patients. Methods We analyzed 139 unrelated Spanish families with adRP. Samples were studied by using a genotyping microarray (adRP). All mutations found were further confirmed with automatic sequencing. Rhodopsin (RHO) sequencing was performed in all negative samples for the genotyping microarray. Results The adRP genotyping microarray detected the mutation associated with the disease in 20 of the 139 families with adRP. As in other populations, RHO was found to be the most frequently mutated gene in these families (7.9% of the microarray genotyped families). The rate of false positives (microarray results not confirmed with sequencing) and false negatives (mutations in RHO detected with sequencing but not with the genotyping microarray) were established, and high levels of analytical sensitivity (95%) and specificity (100%) were found. Diagnostic accuracy was 15.1%. Conclusions The adRP genotyping microarray is a quick, cost-efficient first step in the molecular diagnosis of Spanish patients with adRP. PMID:22736939

  18. Comprehensive PKD1 and PKD2 Mutation Analysis in Prenatal Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Corbiere, Christine; Lebbah, Said; Morinière, Vincent; Broux, Françoise; Louillet, Ferielle; Fischbach, Michel; Zaloszyc, Ariane; Cloarec, Sylvie; Merieau, Elodie; Baudouin, Véronique; Deschênes, Georges; Roussey, Gwenaelle; Maestri, Sandrine; Visconti, Chiara; Boyer, Olivia; Abel, Carine; Lahoche, Annie; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Bessenay, Lucie; Mekahli, Djalila; Ouertani, Ines; Decramer, Stéphane; Ryckenwaert, Amélie; Cornec-Le Gall, Emilie; Salomon, Rémi; Ferec, Claude; Heidet, Laurence

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal forms of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are rare but can be recurrent in some families, suggesting a common genetic modifying background. Few patients have been reported carrying, in addition to the familial mutation, variation(s) in polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) or HNF1 homeobox B (HNF1B), inherited from the unaffected parent, or biallelic polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (PKHD1) mutations. To assess the frequency of additional variations in PKD1, PKD2, HNF1B, and PKHD1 associated with the familial PKD mutation in early ADPKD, these four genes were screened in 42 patients with early ADPKD in 41 families. Two patients were associated with de novo PKD1 mutations. Forty patients occurred in 39 families with known ADPKD and were associated with PKD1 mutation in 36 families and with PKD2 mutation in two families (no mutation identified in one family). Additional PKD variation(s) (inherited from the unaffected parent when tested) were identified in 15 of 42 patients (37.2%), whereas these variations were observed in 25 of 174 (14.4%, P=0.001) patients with adult ADPKD. No HNF1B variations or PKHD1 biallelic mutations were identified. These results suggest that, at least in some patients, the severity of the cystic disease is inversely correlated with the level of polycystin 1 function.

  19. The PROPKD Score: A New Algorithm to Predict Renal Survival in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Cornec-Le Gall, Emilie; Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Rousseau, Annick; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Renaudineau, Eric; Charasse, Christophe; Morin, Marie-Pascale; Moal, Marie-Christine; Dantal, Jacques; Wehbe, Bassem; Perrichot, Régine; Frouget, Thierry; Vigneau, Cécile; Potier, Jérôme; Jousset, Philippe; Guillodo, Marie-Paule; Siohan, Pascale; Terki, Nazim; Sawadogo, Théophile; Legrand, Didier; Menoyo-Calonge, Victorio; Benarbia, Seddik; Besnier, Dominique; Longuet, Hélène; Férec, Claude; Le Meur, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The course of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) varies among individuals, with some reaching ESRD before 40 years of age and others never requiring RRT. In this study, we developed a prognostic model to predict renal outcomes in patients with ADPKD on the basis of genetic and clinical data. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1341 patients from the Genkyst cohort and evaluated the influence of clinical and genetic factors on renal survival. Multivariate survival analysis identified four variables that were significantly associated with age at ESRD onset, and a scoring system from 0 to 9 was developed as follows: being male: 1 point; hypertension before 35 years of age: 2 points; first urologic event before 35 years of age: 2 points; PKD2 mutation: 0 points; nontruncating PKD1 mutation: 2 points; and truncating PKD1 mutation: 4 points. Three risk categories were subsequently defined as low risk (0-3 points), intermediate risk (4-6 points), and high risk (7-9 points) of progression to ESRD, with corresponding median ages for ESRD onset of 70.6, 56.9, and 49 years, respectively. Whereas a score ≤3 eliminates evolution to ESRD before 60 years of age with a negative predictive value of 81.4%, a score >6 forecasts ESRD onset before 60 years of age with a positive predictive value of 90.9%. This new prognostic score accurately predicts renal outcomes in patients with ADPKD and may enable the personalization of therapeutic management of ADPKD.

  20. Detection of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease by NMR spectroscopic fingerprinting of urine.

    PubMed

    Gronwald, Wolfram; Klein, Matthias S; Zeltner, Raoul; Schulze, Bernd-Detlef; Reinhold, Stephan W; Deutschmann, Markus; Immervoll, Ann-Kathrin; Böger, Carsten A; Banas, Bernhard; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Oefner, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a frequent cause of kidney failure; however, urinary biomarkers for the disease are lacking. In a step towards identifying such markers, we used multidimensional-multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with support vector machine-based classification and analyzed urine specimens of 54 patients with ADPKD and slightly reduced estimated glomerular filtration rates. Within this cohort, 35 received medication for arterial hypertension and 19 did not. The results were compared with NMR profiles of 46 healthy volunteers, 10 ADPKD patients on hemodialysis with residual renal function, 16 kidney transplant patients, and 52 type 2 diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. Based on the average of 51 out of 701 NMR features, we could reliably discriminate ADPKD patients with moderately advanced disease from ADPKD patients with end-stage renal disease, patients with chronic kidney disease of other etiologies, and healthy probands with an accuracy of >80%. Of the 35 patients with ADPKD receiving medication for hypertension, most showed increased excretion of proteins and also methanol. In contrast, elevated urinary methanol was not found in any of the control and other patient groups. Thus, we found that NMR fingerprinting of urine differentiates ADPKD from several other kidney diseases and individuals with normal kidney function. The diagnostic and prognostic potential of these profiles requires further evaluation.

  1. Familial normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) with an autosomal-dominant inheritance: a novel subgroup of NPH.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshimi; Kawanami, Toru; Nagasawa, Hikaru; Iseki, Chifumi; Hanyu, Haruo; Kato, Takeo

    2011-09-15

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) has two clinical forms: secondary NPH and idiopathic NPH (iNPH). Most patients with NPH occur sporadically: until now, only two families have been reported to have sibling cases of NPH. We here report a large family with 4 patients with elderly-onset NPH in three generations. All of them had cognitive impairment, gait disturbance, and urinary problems, along with normal pressure of cerebrospinal fluid. Their brain MRI showed enlargement of the ventricles and a disproportional narrowing of the subarachnoid space and cortical sulci at the high convexity of the cerebrum, which are the features of iNPH on MRI. The family interview also disclosed additional 4 patients who were suspected as having NPH. The disease seems to be inherited in an autosomal-dominant fashion. No known causes of secondary NPH were found in any of the patients. This is the first report to show a large family with NPH patients in three generations, who had clinical and MRI features indistinguishable from iNPH. This seems to represent a novel subgroup of NPH, familial NPH. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Vertical corneal striae in families with autosomal dominant hearing loss: DFNA9/COCH.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Anne M L C; Pauw, Robert J; Huygen, Patrick L M; Aandekerk, Albert L; Kremer, Hannie; Cremers, Cor W R J; Cruysberg, Johannes R M

    2007-05-01

    Investigation of a possible association between vertical corneal striae and mutations in the COCH gene, observed in four DFNA9 families with autosomal dominant hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. Prospective case series. Ophthalmologic examinations with photography of the cornea after instillation of fluorescein were performed in 98 family members with 61 mutation carriers of four DFNA9 families at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. Families 1 and 2 harbor the Pro51Ser mutation, and families 3 and 4 harbor the Gly88Glu and the Gly87Trp mutation, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed to find an association between the vertical corneal striae and the COCH mutation for each family and to test whether the four families were different in this respect. The vertical corneal striae were exclusively visible after instillation of fluorescein. They caused minor problems, as dry eye symptoms, and were not present in the general Dutch ophthalmologic population. The striae were present from an age of 47 years in 32 individuals, of whom 27 individuals had a COCH mutation. Statistical analysis on the striae and the COCH mutations showed a significant association in families 1, 2, and 3 (P = .0006), but not in family 4 (P = .63). Data analysis demonstrated a significant association between vertical corneal striae and the Pro51Ser and Gly88Glu mutations in the COCH gene in DFNA9 families 1, 2, and 3 with cochleovestibular dysfunction. Our findings suggest that the vertical corneal striae and cochleovestibular dysfunction may be caused by the same COCH mutations.

  3. Autosomal dominant ataxia: Genetic evidence for locus heterogeneity from a cuban founder-effect population

    PubMed Central

    Auburger, Georg; Diaz, Guillermo Orozco; Capote, Raul Ferreira; Sanchez, Suzana Gispert; Perez, Marta Paradoa; del Cueto, Marianela Estrada; Meneses, Mirna Garcia; Farrall, Martin; Williamson, Robert; Chamberlain, Susan; Baute, Luis Heredero

    1990-01-01

    The locus for autosomal dominant ataxia with a diagnosis of olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy at autopsy has been previously assigned to chromosome 6p. However, evidence for two alternative locations has been reported. We have recently described a large potential founder-effect population of such patients in the Holguin province of Cuba. With an estimated 1,000 patients available for analysis, this extensive cluster of families provides a unique opportunity for the definitive localization of the genetic mutation. Linkage analysis between the disease locus in this population and markers within and flanking the HLA region on chromosome 6 were undertaken in 12 families comprising over 100 affected individuals. Despite similarity in the clinical phenotype between those families where the disease locus has been reported to be linked to the HLA locus and the Cuban patients, no evidence of linkage to this region could be demonstrated in the latter. The disease locus was excluded from a 96-cM genetic interval of the short arm of chromosome 6, encompassing the F13A1–HLA–GLO1–MUT/D6S4 loci. These data strongly support the existence of genetic heterogeneity for the disease. PMID:1971152

  4. Mutations in a BTB-Kelch Protein, KLHL7, Cause Autosomal-Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, James S.; Ray, Joseph W.; Waseem, Naushin; Johnson, Kory; Brooks, Matthew J.; Hugosson, Therése; Breuer, Debra; Branham, Kari E.; Krauth, Daniel S.; Bowne, Sara J.; Sullivan, Lori S.; Ponjavic, Vesna; Gränse, Lotta; Khanna, Ritu; Trager, Edward H.; Gieser, Linn M.; Hughbanks-Wheaton, Dianna; Cojocaru, Radu I.; Ghiasvand, Noor M.; Chakarova, Christina F.; Abrahamson, Magnus; Göring, Harald H.H.; Webster, Andrew R.; Birch, David G.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Fann, Yang; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.; Daiger, Stephen P.; Heckenlively, John R.; Andréasson, Sten; Swaroop, Anand

    2009-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) refers to a genetically heterogeneous group of progressive neurodegenerative diseases that result in dysfunction and/or death of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina. So far, 18 genes have been identified for autosomal-dominant (ad) RP. Here, we describe an adRP locus (RP42) at chromosome 7p15 through linkage analysis in a six-generation Scandinavian family and identify a disease-causing mutation, c.449G→A (p.S150N), in exon 6 of the KLHL7 gene. Mutation screening of KLHL7 in 502 retinopathy probands has revealed three different missense mutations in six independent families. KLHL7 is widely expressed, including expression in rod photoreceptors, and encodes a 75 kDa protein of the BTB-Kelch subfamily within the BTB superfamily. BTB-Kelch proteins have been implicated in ubiquitination through Cullin E3 ligases. Notably, all three putative disease-causing KLHL7 mutations are within a conserved BACK domain; homology modeling suggests that mutant amino acid side chains can potentially fill the cleft between two helices, thereby affecting the ubiquitination complexes. Mutations in an identical region of another BTB-Kelch protein, gigaxonin, have previously been associated with giant axonal neuropathy. Our studies suggest an additional role of the ubiquitin-proteasome protein-degradation pathway in maintaining neuronal health and in disease. PMID:19520207

  5. A new autosomal dominant eye and lung syndrome linked to mutations in TIMP3 gene

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Isabelle; Bocquet, Béatrice; Labesse, Gilles; Zeitz, Christina; Defoort-Dhellemmes, Sabine; Lacroux, Annie; Mauget-Faysse, Martine; Drumare, Isabelle; Gamez, Anne-Sophie; Mathieu, Cyril; Marquette, Virginie; Sagot, Lola; Dhaenens, Claire-Marie; Arndt, Carl; Carroll, Patrick; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Cohen, Salomon Yves; Sahel, José-Alain; Puech, Bernard; Audo, Isabelle; Mrejen, Sarah; Hamel, Christian P.

    2016-01-01

    To revisit the autosomal dominant Sorsby fundus dystrophy (SFD) as a syndromic condition including late-onset pulmonary disease. We report clinical and imaging data of ten affected individuals from 2 unrelated families with SFD and carrying heterozygous TIMP3 mutations (c.572A > G, p.Y191C, exon 5, in family 1 and c.113C > G, p.S38C, exon 1, in family 2). In family 1, all SFD patients older than 50 (two generations) had also a severe emphysema, despite no history of smoking or asthma. In the preceding generation, the mother died of pulmonary emphysema and she was blind after the age of 50. Her two great-grandsons (<20 years), had abnormal Bruch Membrane thickness, a sign of eye disease. In family 2, eye and lung diseases were also associated in two generations, both occurred later, and lung disease was moderate (bronchiectasis). This is the first report of a syndromic SFD in line with the mouse model uncovering the role of TIMP3 in human lung morphogenesis and functions. The TIMP3 gene should be screened in familial pulmonary diseases with bronchiectasis, associated with a medical history of visual loss. In addition, SFD patients should be advised to avoid tobacco consumption, to practice sports, and to undergo regular pulmonary examinations. PMID:27601084

  6. Multiple liver cyst infection caused by Salmonella ajiobo in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Himeno, Akihiro; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Suzuki, Yumiko; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Isozaki, Taisuke

    2013-06-01

    Most Salmonella infections are usually self-limited; however, some cases of enteritis result in bacteremia, and there have been reports of extra-intestinal manifestations. Cyst infections are rare, and few cases have been reported. We report a 77-year-old woman with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) complicated with a multiple liver cyst infection caused by Salmonella ajiobo. The patient was hospitalized for fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. The blood culture identified Salmonella sp., but the source of infection was not detected by computed tomography or echography. The patient was initially treated with meropenem followed by fluoroquinolones for 3 weeks; however, her C-reactive protein level was high (10-20 mg/dL) even after the antimicrobial therapy. The patient had a fever again on day 51, and Salmonella sp. was detected again from 2 sets of blood cultures. Despite the antimicrobial treatment, her general condition gradually deteriorated, and she died on day 66. The autopsy revealed that most of the liver had been replaced by cysts. Several cysts filled with pus were detected and Salmonella ajiobo was identified in the pus of the infected cysts.

  7. Hypomagnesemia associated with a proton pump inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Jun; Tsuji, Kunihiro; Doyama, Hisashi; Kim, Fae; Takeda, Yasuhito; Kito, Yosuke; Ito, Renma; Nakanishi, Hiroyoshi; Hayashi, Tomoyuki; Waseda, Yohei; Tsuji, Shigetsugu; Takemura, Kenichi; Yamada, Shinya; Okada, Toshihide; Kanaya, Honin

    2012-01-01

    Severe hypomagnesemia is a serious clinical condition. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) induced hypomagnesemia has been recognized since 2006. In March 2011 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration advised that long-term use of PPI can induce hypomagnesemia. We report the first Japanese case of hypomagnesemia associated with chronic use of PPIs in a 64-year-old man hospitalized for nausea, bilateral ankle arthritis, and tremor of the extremities who had convulsions 3 days after admission. Blood analysis showed severe hypomagnesemia. He had been taking rabeprazole (10 mg/day) for 5 years. After stopping rabeprazole and correcting the electrolytes imbalances, his symptoms improved without recurrence.

  8. Symptom onset in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ryman, Davis C; Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Aisen, Paul S; Bird, Thomas; Danek, Adrian; Fox, Nick C; Goate, Alison; Frommelt, Peter; Ghetti, Bernardino; Langbaum, Jessica B S; Lopera, Francisco; Martins, Ralph; Masters, Colin L; Mayeux, Richard P; McDade, Eric; Moreno, Sonia; Reiman, Eric M; Ringman, John M; Salloway, Steve; Schofield, Peter R; Sperling, Reisa; Tariot, Pierre N; Xiong, Chengjie; Morris, John C; Bateman, Randall J

    2014-07-15

    To identify factors influencing age at symptom onset and disease course in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD), and develop evidence-based criteria for predicting symptom onset in ADAD. We have collected individual-level data on ages at symptom onset and death from 387 ADAD pedigrees, compiled from 137 peer-reviewed publications, the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) database, and 2 large kindreds of Colombian (PSEN1 E280A) and Volga German (PSEN2 N141I) ancestry. Our combined dataset includes 3,275 individuals, of whom 1,307 were affected by ADAD with known age at symptom onset. We assessed the relative contributions of several factors in influencing age at onset, including parental age at onset, age at onset by mutation type and family, and APOE genotype and sex. We additionally performed survival analysis using data on symptom onset collected from 183 ADAD mutation carriers followed longitudinally in the DIAN Study. We report summary statistics on age at onset and disease course for 174 ADAD mutations, and discover strong and highly significant (p < 10(-16), r2 > 0.38) correlations between individual age at symptom onset and predicted values based on parental age at onset and mean ages at onset by mutation type and family, which persist after controlling for APOE genotype and sex. Significant proportions of the observed variance in age at symptom onset in ADAD can be explained by family history and mutation type, providing empirical support for use of these data to estimate onset in clinical research. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. A survey of attitudes toward clinical trials and genetic disclosure in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Grill, Joshua D; Bateman, Randall J; Buckles, Virginia; Oliver, Angela; Morris, John C; Masters, Colin L; Klunk, William E; Ringman, John M

    2015-01-01

    Because of its genetic underpinnings and consistent age of onset within families, autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) provides a unique opportunity to conduct clinical trials of investigational agents as preventative or symptom-delaying treatments. The design of such trials may be complicated by low rates of genetic testing and disclosure among persons at risk of inheriting disease-causing mutations. To better understand the attitudes toward genetic testing and clinical trials of persons at risk for ADAD, we surveyed participants in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network (DIAN), a multisite longitudinal study of clinical and biomarker outcomes in ADAD that does not require learning genetic status to participate. Eighty participants completed a brief anonymous survey by mail or on-line; 40 % reported knowing if they carried a gene mutation, 15 % did not know but expressed a desire to learn their genetic status, and 45 % did not know and did not desire to know their genetic status. Among participants who knew or wished to know their genetic status, 86 % were interested in participating in a clinical trial. Seventy-two percent of participants who did not wish to learn their genetic status reported that they would change their mind, if learning that they carried a mutation gave them the opportunity to participate in a clinical trial. Nearly all participants responded that they would be interested if an open-label extension were offered. These results suggest that the availability of clinical trials to prevent ADAD can affect persons' desire to undergo genetic testing and that consideration can be given to performing studies in which such testing is required.

  10. Autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism caused by germline mutation in GNA11: phenotypic and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Opas, Evan E; Tuluc, Florin; Metzger, Daniel L; Hou, Cuiping; Hakonarson, Hakon; Levine, Michael A

    2014-09-01

    Most cases of autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism (ADH) are caused by gain-of-function mutations in CASR or dominant inhibitor mutations in GCM2 or PTH. Our objectives were to identify the genetic basis for ADH in a multigenerational family and define the underlying disease mechanism. Here we evaluated a multigenerational family with ADH in which affected subjects had normal sequences in these genes and were shorter than unaffected family members. We collected clinical and biochemical data from 6 of 11 affected subjects and performed whole-exome sequence analysis on DNA from two affected sisters and their affected father. Functional studies were performed after expression of wild-type and mutant Gα11 proteins in human embryonic kidney-293-CaR cells that stably express calcium-sensing receptors. Whole-exome-sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing revealed a heterozygous mutation, c.179G>T; p.R60L, in GNA11, which encodes the α-subunit of G11, the principal heterotrimeric G protein that couples calcium-sensing receptors to signal activation in parathyroid cells. Functional studies of Gα11 R60L showed increased accumulation of intracellular concentration of free calcium in response to extracellular concentration of free calcium with a significantly decreased EC50 compared with wild-type Gα11. By contrast, R60L was significantly less effective than the oncogenic Q209L form of Gα11 as an activator of the MAPK pathway. Compared to subjects with CASR mutations, patients with GNA11 mutations lacked hypercalciuria and had normal serum magnesium levels. Our findings indicate that the germline gain-of-function mutation of GNA11 is a cause of ADH and implicate a novel role for GNA11 in skeletal growth.

  11. Autosomal Dominant Hypoparathyroidism Caused by Germline Mutation in GNA11: Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Opas, Evan E.; Tuluc, Florin; Metzger, Daniel L.; Hou, Cuiping; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2014-01-01

    Context: Most cases of autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism (ADH) are caused by gain-of-function mutations in CASR or dominant inhibitor mutations in GCM2 or PTH. Objective: Our objectives were to identify the genetic basis for ADH in a multigenerational family and define the underlying disease mechanism. Subjects: Here we evaluated a multigenerational family with ADH in which affected subjects had normal sequences in these genes and were shorter than unaffected family members. Methods: We collected clinical and biochemical data from 6 of 11 affected subjects and performed whole-exome sequence analysis on DNA from two affected sisters and their affected father. Functional studies were performed after expression of wild-type and mutant Gα11 proteins in human embryonic kidney-293-CaR cells that stably express calcium-sensing receptors. Results: Whole-exome-sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing revealed a heterozygous mutation, c.179G>T; p.R60L, in GNA11, which encodes the α-subunit of G11, the principal heterotrimeric G protein that couples calcium-sensing receptors to signal activation in parathyroid cells. Functional studies of Gα11 R60L showed increased accumulation of intracellular concentration of free calcium in response to extracellular concentration of free calcium with a significantly decreased EC50 compared with wild-type Gα11. By contrast, R60L was significantly less effective than the oncogenic Q209L form of Gα11 as an activator of the MAPK pathway. Compared to subjects with CASR mutations, patients with GNA11 mutations lacked hypercalciuria and had normal serum magnesium levels. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the germline gain-of-function mutation of GNA11 is a cause of ADH and implicate a novel role for GNA11 in skeletal growth. PMID:24823460

  12. Intermediate phenotypes in patients with autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome caused by somatic mosaicism

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Amy P.; Sowerwine, Kathryn J.; Lawrence, Monica G.; Davis, Joie; Henderson, Carolyn J.; Zarember, Kol A.; Garofalo, Mary; Gallin, John I.; Kuhns, Douglas B.; Heller, Theo; Milner, Joshua D.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Holland, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is caused by mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). We describe 2 subjects in whom somatic mosaicism was associated with intermediate phenotypes. Objective Somatic mosaics might shed light on the pathogenesis of dominant STAT3 mutations and the mechanisms behind the immunologic and nonimmunologic features of the disease. Methods Clinical evaluations were conducted. Mutant STAT3 was amplified from different tissues and sequenced, and the percentage of mosaicism in various cell types was calculated. Flow cytometry was performed to determine percentages of IL-171 cells, IL-221 cells, or both. Suction blisters were induced in 1 subject, and exudate fluid was analyzed for whether emigrating neutrophils were STAT3 mutant or wild-type; neutrophils from peripheral blood were simultaneously examined. Results The 2 subjects with STAT3 somatic mosaicism had intermediate phenotypes and were found to have preserved TH17 cell compartments and apparently normal CD8 cells. However, they still had infections, including mucocutaneous candidiasis. The percentage of STAT3 mutant neutrophils migrating into blisters at 16 hours was the same as in peripheral blood, suggesting normal chemotaxis. Conclusion STAT3 mosaicism accounts for a milder phenotype and allows for further investigation into the pathogenesis of AD-HIES. Despite having a preserved TH17 cell compartment, both subjects with mosaicism had chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, suggesting that candidiasis in subjects with AD-HIES is not driven solely by low TH17 cell numbers. The percentage of STAT3 mutant neutrophils emigrating into a suction blister at 16 hours was the same as the percentage in peripheral blood, suggesting that early chemotaxis of STAT3 neutrophils is normal in vivo. PMID:23623265

  13. A recurrent WARS mutation is a novel cause of autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Soong, Bing-Wen; Mademan, Inès; Huang, Yen-Hua; Liu, Chia-Rung; Hsiao, Cheng-Tsung; Wu, Hung-Ta; Liu, Tze-Tze; Liu, Yo-Tsen; Tseng, Yen-Ting; Lin, Kon-Ping; Yang, Ueng-Cheng; Chung, Ki Wha; Choi, Byung-Ok; Nicholson, Garth A; Kennerson, Marina L; Chan, Chih-Chiang; De Jonghe, Peter; Cheng, Tzu-Hao; Liao, Yi-Chu; Züchner, Stephan; Baets, Jonathan; Lee, Yi-Chung

    2017-03-22

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathy is a heterogeneous group of inherited neuropathies characterized by distal limb muscle weakness and atrophy. Although at least 15 genes have been implicated in distal hereditary motor neuropathy, the genetic causes remain elusive in many families. To identify an additional causal gene for distal hereditary motor neuropathy, we performed exome sequencing for two affected individuals and two unaffected members in a Taiwanese family with an autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathy in which mutations in common distal hereditary motor neuropathy-implicated genes had been excluded. The exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous mutation, c.770A > G (p.His257Arg), in the cytoplasmic tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) gene (WARS) that co-segregates with the neuropathy in the family. Further analyses of WARS in an additional 79 Taiwanese pedigrees with inherited neuropathies and 163 index cases from Australian, European, and Korean distal hereditary motor neuropathy families identified the same mutation in another Taiwanese distal hereditary motor neuropathy pedigree with different ancestries and one additional Belgian distal hereditary motor neuropathy family of Caucasian origin. Cell transfection studies demonstrated a dominant-negative effect of the p.His257Arg mutation on aminoacylation activity of TrpRS, which subsequently compromised protein synthesis and reduced cell viability. His257Arg TrpRS also inhibited neurite outgrowth and led to neurite degeneration in the neuronal cell lines and rat motor neurons. Further in vitro analyses showed that the WARS mutation could potentiate the angiostatic activities of TrpRS by enhancing its interaction with vascular endothelial-cadherin. Taken together, these findings establish WARS as a gene whose mutations may cause distal hereditary motor neuropathy and alter canonical and non-canonical functions of TrpRS. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  14. A novel OPA1 mutation in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant optic atrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Juanjuan; Yuan, Yimin; Lin, Bing; Feng, Hao; Li, Yan; Dai, Xianning; Zhou, Huihui; Dong, Xujie; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Guan, Min-Xin

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the characterization of a four-generation large Chinese family with ADOA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find a new heterozygous mutation c.C1198G in OPA1 gene which may be a novel pathogenic mutation in this pedigree. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We do not find any mitochondrial DNA mutations associated with optic atrophy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other factors may also contribute to the phenotypic variability of ADOA in this pedigree. -- Abstract: A large four-generation Chinese family with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) was investigated in the present study. Eight of the family members were affected in this pedigree. The affected family members exhibited early-onset and progressive visual impairment, resulting in mild to profound loss of visual acuity. The average age-at-onset was 15.9 years. A new heterozygous mutation c.C1198G was identified by sequence analysis of the 12th exon of the OPA1 gene. This mutation resulted in a proline to alanine substitution at codon 400, which was located in an evolutionarily conserved region. This missense mutation in the GTPase domain was supposed to result in a loss of function for the encoded protein and act through a dominant negative effect. No other mutations associated with optic atrophy were found in our present study. The c.C1198G heterozygous mutation in the OPA1 gene may be a novel key pathogenic mutation in this pedigree with ADOA. Furthermore, additional nuclear modifier genes, environmental factors, and psychological factors may also contribute to the phenotypic variability of ADOA in this pedigree.

  15. Cerebral amyloidosis associated with cognitive decline in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fen; Gordon, Brian A; Ryman, Davis C; Ma, Shengmei; Xiong, Chengjie; Hassenstab, Jason; Goate, Alison; Fagan, Anne M; Cairns, Nigel J; Marcus, Daniel S; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Ghetti, Bernardino; Farlow, Martin R; Sperling, Reisa; Salloway, Steve; Schofield, Peter R; Masters, Colin L; Martins, Ralph N; Rossor, Martin N; Jucker, Mathias; Danek, Adrian; Förster, Stefan; Lane, Christopher A S; Morris, John C; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Bateman, Randall J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the associations of cerebral amyloidosis with concurrent cognitive performance and with longitudinal cognitive decline in asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). Two hundred sixty-three participants enrolled in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study underwent neuropsychological evaluation as well as PET scans with Pittsburgh compound B. One hundred twenty-one participants completed at least 1 follow-up neuropsychological evaluation. Four composite cognitive measures representing global cognition, episodic memory, language, and working memory were generated using z scores from a battery of 13 standard neuropsychological tests. General linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate the relationship between baseline cerebral amyloidosis and baseline cognitive performance and whether baseline cerebral amyloidosis predicts cognitive change over time (mean follow-up 2.32 years ± 0.92, range 0.89-4.19) after controlling for estimated years from expected symptom onset, APOE ε4 allelic status, and education. In asymptomatic mutation carriers, amyloid burden was not associated with baseline cognitive functioning but was significantly predictive of longitudinal decline in episodic memory. In symptomatic mutation carriers, cerebral amyloidosis was correlated with worse baseline performance in multiple cognitive composites and predicted greater decline over time in global cognition, working memory, and Mini-Mental State Examination. Cerebral amyloidosis predicts longitudinal episodic memory decline in presymptomatic ADAD and multidomain cognitive decline in symptomatic ADAD. These findings imply that amyloidosis in the brain is an indicator of early cognitive decline and provides a useful outcome measure for early assessment and prevention treatment trials. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. A missense mutation in KCTD17 causes autosomal dominant myoclonus-dystonia.

    PubMed

    Mencacci, Niccolo E; Rubio-Agusti, Ignacio; Zdebik, Anselm; Asmus, Friedrich; Ludtmann, Marthe H R; Ryten, Mina; Plagnol, Vincent; Hauser, Ann-Kathrin; Bandres-Ciga, Sara; Bettencourt, Conceição; Forabosco, Paola; Hughes, Deborah; Soutar, Marc M P; Peall, Kathryn; Morris, Huw R; Trabzuni, Daniah; Tekman, Mehmet; Stanescu, Horia C; Kleta, Robert; Carecchio, Miryam; Zorzi, Giovanna; Nardocci, Nardo; Garavaglia, Barbara; Lohmann, Ebba; Weissbach, Anne; Klein, Christine; Hardy, John; Pittman, Alan M; Foltynie, Thomas; Abramov, Andrey Y; Gasser, Thomas; Bhatia, Kailash P; Wood, Nicholas W

    2015-06-04

    Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a rare movement disorder characterized by a combination of non-epileptic myoclonic jerks and dystonia. SGCE mutations represent a major cause for familial M-D being responsible for 30%-50% of cases. After excluding SGCE mutations, we identified through a combination of linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing KCTD17 c.434 G>A p.(Arg145His) as the only segregating variant in a dominant British pedigree with seven subjects affected by M-D. A subsequent screening in a cohort of M-D cases without mutations in SGCE revealed the same KCTD17 variant in a German family. The clinical presentation of the KCTD17-mutated cases was distinct from the phenotype usually observed in M-D due to SGCE mutations. All cases initially presented with mild myoclonus affecting the upper limbs. Dystonia showed a progressive course, with increasing severity of symptoms and spreading from the cranio-cervical region to other sites. KCTD17 is abundantly expressed in all brain regions with the highest expression in the putamen. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis, based on mRNA expression profile of brain samples from neuropathologically healthy individuals, showed that KCTD17 is part of a putamen gene network, which is significantly enriched for dystonia genes. Functional annotation of the network showed an over-representation of genes involved in post-synaptic dopaminergic transmission. Functional studies in mutation bearing fibroblasts demonstrated abnormalities in endoplasmic reticulum-dependent calcium signaling. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the KCTD17 c.434 G>A p.(Arg145His) mutation causes autosomal dominant M-D. Further functional studies are warranted to further characterize the nature of KCTD17 contribution to the molecular pathogenesis of M-D. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A genome-wide search for genes predisposing to manic-depression, assuming autosomal dominant inheritance

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, H.; Jensen, S.; Hoff, M.; Holik, J.; Plaetke, R.; Reimherr, F.; Wender, P.; Leppert, M.; Byerley, W. )

    1993-06-01

    Manic-depressive illness (MDI), also known as [open quotes]bipolar affective disorder[close quotes], is a common and devastating neuropsychiatric illness. Although pivotal biochemical alterations underlying the disease are unknown, results of family, twin, and adoption studies consistently implicate genetic transmission in the pathogenesis of MDI. In order to carry out linkage analysis, the authors ascertained eight moderately sized pedigrees containing multiple cases of the disease. For a four-allele marker mapping at 5 cM from the disease gene, the pedigree sample has >97% power to detect a dominant allele under genetic homogeneity and has >73% power under 20% heterogeneity. To date, the eight pedigrees have been genotyped with 328 polymorphic DNA loci throughout the genome. When autosomal dominant inheritance was assumed, 273 DNA markers gave lod scores <[minus]2.0 at [theta] = .05, and 4 DNA marker loci yielded lod scores >1 (chromosome 5 -- D5S39, D5S43, and D5S62; chromosome 11 -- D11S85). Of the markers giving lod scores >1, only D5S62 continued to show evidence for linkage when the affected-pedigree-member method was used. The D5S62 locus maps to distal 5q, a region containing neurotransmitter-receptor genes for dopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid. Although additional work in this region may be warranted, the linkage results should be interpreted as preliminary data, as 68 unaffected individuals are not past the age of risk. 72 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. A Missense Mutation in KCTD17 Causes Autosomal Dominant Myoclonus-Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Mencacci, Niccolo E.; Rubio-Agusti, Ignacio; Zdebik, Anselm; Asmus, Friedrich; Ludtmann, Marthe H.R.; Ryten, Mina; Plagnol, Vincent; Hauser, Ann-Kathrin; Bandres-Ciga, Sara; Bettencourt, Conceição; Forabosco, Paola; Hughes, Deborah; Soutar, Marc M.P.; Peall, Kathryn; Morris, Huw R.; Trabzuni, Daniah; Tekman, Mehmet; Stanescu, Horia C.; Kleta, Robert; Carecchio, Miryam; Zorzi, Giovanna; Nardocci, Nardo; Garavaglia, Barbara; Lohmann, Ebba; Weissbach, Anne; Klein, Christine; Hardy, John; Pittman, Alan M.; Foltynie, Thomas; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Gasser, Thomas; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Wood, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a rare movement disorder characterized by a combination of non-epileptic myoclonic jerks and dystonia. SGCE mutations represent a major cause for familial M-D being responsible for 30%–50% of cases. After excluding SGCE mutations, we identified through a combination of linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing KCTD17 c.434 G>A p.(Arg145His) as the only segregating variant in a dominant British pedigree with seven subjects affected by M-D. A subsequent screening in a cohort of M-D cases without mutations in SGCE revealed the same KCTD17 variant in a German family. The clinical presentation of the KCTD17-mutated cases was distinct from the phenotype usually observed in M-D due to SGCE mutations. All cases initially presented with mild myoclonus affecting the upper limbs. Dystonia showed a progressive course, with increasing severity of symptoms and spreading from the cranio-cervical region to other sites. KCTD17 is abundantly expressed in all brain regions with the highest expression in the putamen. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis, based on mRNA expression profile of brain samples from neuropathologically healthy individuals, showed that KCTD17 is part of a putamen gene network, which is significantly enriched for dystonia genes. Functional annotation of the network showed an over-representation of genes involved in post-synaptic dopaminergic transmission. Functional studies in mutation bearing fibroblasts demonstrated abnormalities in endoplasmic reticulum-dependent calcium signaling. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the KCTD17 c.434 G>A p.(Arg145His) mutation causes autosomal dominant M-D. Further functional studies are warranted to further characterize the nature of KCTD17 contribution to the molecular pathogenesis of M-D. PMID:25983243

  19. Further evidence for a locus for autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma on chromosome 1q and evidence for genetic heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, J.; Paglinauan, C.; Stawski, S.

    1994-09-01

    Glaucoma is a term used to describe a group of disorders which have in common a characteristic degeneration of the optic nerve associated with typical visual field defects and usually associated with elevated intraocular pressure. Two percent of white Americans and 6-10% of black Americans are affected by the disease. Compelling data indicate that susceptibility to many types of glaucoma is inherited. Hereditary juvenile glaucoma is one form of glaucoma that develops in children and is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance. Using a single large Caucasian pedigree affected with autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma, Sheffield discovered positive linkage to a group of markers that map to a 30 cM region on the long arm of chromosome 1 (1q21-q31). We have subsequently identified three unrelated Caucasian pedigrees affected with autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma that also demonstrate linkage to this region on chromosome 1, with the highest combined lod score of 5.12 at theta = .05 for marker D1S218. The identification of critical recombinant individuals in our three pedigrees has allowed us to further localize the disease gene to a 12 cM region between markers D1S242 and D1S431. In addition, we have identified several pedigrees which do not demonstrate linkage to chromosome 1q, including a black family affected with autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma that is indistinguishable clinically from the disorder affecting the caucasian pedigrees and three pedigrees affected with pigmentary dispersion syndrome, a form of glaucoma that also affects the juvenile population and is also inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. These findings provide evidence for genetic heterogeneity in juvenile glaucoma.

  20. Hereditary spastic paraplegias with autosomal dominant, recessive, X-linked, or maternal trait of inheritance.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Löscher, Wolfgang; Quasthoff, Stefan; Wanschitz, Julia; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Stevanin, Giovanni

    2012-07-15

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders that are clinically characterised by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower-limbs (pure SPG) and, majoritorian, additional more extensive neurological or non-neurological manifestations (complex or complicated SPG). Pure SPG is characterised by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower-limbs, and occasionally sensory disturbances or bladder dysfunction. Complex SPGs additionally include cognitive impairment, dementia, epilepsy, extrapyramidal disturbances, cerebellar involvement, retinopathy, optic atrophy, deafness, polyneuropathy, or skin lesions in the absence of coexisting disorders. Nineteen SPGs follow an autosomal-dominant (AD-SPG), 27 an autosomal-recessive (AR-SPG), 5 X-linked (XL-SPG), and one a maternal trait of inheritance. SPGs are due to mutations in genes encoding for proteins involved in the maintenance of corticospinal tract neurons. Among the AD-SPGs, 40-45% of patients carry mutations in the SPAST-gene (SPG4) and 10% in the ATL1-gene (SPG3), while the other 9 genes are more rarely involved (NIPA1 (SPG6), KIAA0196 (SPG8), KIF5A (SPG10), RNT2 (SPG12), SPGD1 (SPG13), BSCL2 (SPG17), REEP1 (SPG31), ZFYVE27 (SPG33, debated), and SLC33A1 (SPG42, debated)). Among the AR-SPGs, ~20% of the patients carry mutations in the KIAA1840 (SPG11) gene whereas the 15 other genes are rarely mutated and account for SPGs in single families yet (CYP7B1 (SPG5), SPG7 (SPG7), ZFYVE26 (SPG15), ERLIN2 (SPG18), SPG20 (SPG20), ACP33 (SPG21), KIF1A (SPG30), FA2H (SPG35), NTE (SPG39), GJA12/GJC2 (SPG44), KIAA0415 (SPG48) and 4 genes encoding for the AP4-complex (SPG47)). Among the XL-SPGs, 3 causative genes have been identified (L1CAM (SPG1), PLP1 (SPG2), and SLC16A2 (SPG22)). The diagnosis of SPGs is based on clinical, instrumental and genetic investigations. Treatment is exclusively symptomatic.

  1. [Co-inheritance of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and sickle cell trait in African Americans].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Peces, C; Cuesta-López, E; Vega-Cabrera, C; Azorín, S; Pérez-Dueñas, V; Selgas, R

    2011-01-01

    Macroscopic haematuria secondary to renal cyst rupture is a frequent complication in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Sickle-cell disease is an autosomal recessive haemoglobinopathy that involves a qualitative anomaly of haemoglobin due to substitution of valine for the glutamic acid in the sixth position of 3-globin gene on the short arm of chromosome 11. For the full disease to be manifested, this mutation must be present on both inherited alleles. The severity of the disease is proportional to the quantity of haemoglobin S (Hb S) in the red cells; sickle-cell trait (Hb S <50%) and homozygous sickle-cell disease (Hb S >75%). In sickle-cell disease, the abnormal Hb S loses its rheological characteristics and is responsible of the various systemic manifestations including those of the kidney, such as macroscopic haematuria secondary to papilar necrosis. Despite the generally benign nature of the sickle-cell trait, several potentially serious complications have been described. Metabolic or environmental changes such as hypoxia, acidosis, dehydration, hyperosmolality or hyperthermia may transform silent sickle-cell trait into a syndrome resembling sickle-cell disease with vaso-occlusive crisis due to an accumulation of low deformable red blood cells in the microcirculation originating haematuria from papilar necrosis. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated an earlier onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), in blacks with ADPKD and sickle-cell trait when compared with blacks with ADPKD without the trait. We studied 2 african-american families (4 patients) which presented with both ADPKD and sickle-cell trait (Hb S <50%). The diagnosis of sickle-cell trait was confirmed by haemoglobin electrophoresis. The renal volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The proband subject in family 1 presented frequent haematuria episodes, associated to increase of renal volume, developed very early ESRD and was dialyzed at the age of 39 years

  2. White Matter Abnormalities Track Disease Progression in PSEN1 Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Monté, Gemma C; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Bosch, Beatriz; Fortea, Juan; Lladó, Albert; Antonell, Anna; Balasa, Mircea; Bargalló, Nuria; Molinuevo, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    PSEN1 mutations are the most frequent cause of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD), and show nearly full penetrance. There is presently increasing interest in the study of biomarkers that track disease progression in order to test therapeutic interventions in ADAD. We used white mater (WM) volumetric characteristics and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics to investigate correlations with the normalized time to expected symptoms onset (relative age ratio) and group differences in a cohort of 36 subjects from PSEN1 ADAD families: 22 mutation carriers, 10 symptomatic (SMC) and 12 asymptomatic (AMC), and 14 non-carriers (NC). Subjects underwent a 3T MRI. WM morphometric data and DTI metrics were analyzed. We found that PSEN1 MC showed significant negative correlation between fractional anisotropy (FA) and the relative age ratio in the genus and body of corpus callosum and corona radiate (p <  0.05 Family-wise error correction (FWE) at cluster level) and positive correlation with mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AxD), and radial diffusivity (RD) in the splenium of corpus callosum. SMC presented WM volume loss, reduced FA and increased MD, AxD, and RD in the anterior and posterior corona radiate, corpus callosum (p <  0.05 FWE) compared with NC. No significant differences were observed between AMC and NC in WM volume or DTI measures. These findings suggest that the integrity of the WM deteriorates linearly in PSEN1 ADAD from the early phases of the disease; thus DTI metrics might be useful to monitor the disease progression. However, the lack of significant alterations at the preclinical stages suggests that these indexes might not be good candidates for early markers of the disease.

  3. Distinct patterns of APP processing in the CNS in autosomal-dominant and sporadic Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Pera, Marta; Alcolea, Daniel; Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Guardia-Laguarta, Cristina; Colom-Cadena, Martí; Badiola, Nahuai; Suárez-Calvet, Marc; Lladó, Albert; Barrera-Ocampo, Alvaro A; Sepulveda-Falla, Diego; Blesa, Rafael; Molinuevo, José L; Clarimón, Jordi; Ferrer, Isidre; Gelpi, Ellen; Lleó, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    Autosomal-dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) or Presenilin (PSEN) genes. Studies from families with ADAD have been critical to support the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), the basis for the current development of amyloid-based disease-modifying therapies in sporadic AD (SAD). However, whether the pathological changes in APP processing in the CNS in ADAD are similar to those observed in SAD remains unclear. In this study, we measured β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE) protein levels and activity, APP and APP C-terminal fragments in brain samples from subjects with ADAD carrying APP or PSEN1 mutations (n = 18), patients with SAD (n = 27) and age-matched controls (n = 22). We also measured sAPPβ and BACE protein levels, as well as BACE activity, in CSF from individuals carrying PSEN1 mutations (10 mutation carriers and 7 non-carrier controls), patients with SAD (n = 32) and age-matched controls (n = 11). We found that in the brain, the pattern in ADAD was characterized by an increase in APP β-C-terminal fragment (β-CTF) levels despite no changes in BACE protein levels or activity. In contrast, the pattern in SAD in the brain was mainly characterized by an increase in BACE levels and activity, with less APP β-CTF accumulation than ADAD. In the CSF, no differences were found between groups in BACE activity or expression or sAPPβ levels. Taken together, these data suggest that the physiopathological events underlying the chronic Aβ production/clearance imbalance in SAD and ADAD are different. These differences should be considered in the design of intervention trials in AD.

  4. Functional connectivity in autosomal dominant and late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jewell B; Brier, Matthew R; Bateman, Randall J; Snyder, Abraham Z; Benzinger, Tammie L; Xiong, Chengjie; Raichle, Marcus; Holtzman, David M; Sperling, Reisa A; Mayeux, Richard; Ghetti, Bernardino; Ringman, John M; Salloway, Stephen; McDade, Eric; Rossor, Martin N; Ourselin, Sebastien; Schofield, Peter R; Masters, Colin L; Martins, Ralph N; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M; Fox, Nick C; Koeppe, Robert A; Jack, Clifford R; Mathis, Chester A; Oliver, Angela; Blazey, Tyler M; Moulder, Krista; Buckles, Virginia; Hornbeck, Russ; Chhatwal, Jasmeer; Schultz, Aaron P; Goate, Alison M; Fagan, Anne M; Cairns, Nigel J; Marcus, Daniel S; Morris, John C; Ances, Beau M

    2014-09-01

    Autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) is caused by rare genetic mutations in 3 specific genes in contrast to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), which has a more polygenetic risk profile. To assess the similarities and differences in functional connectivity changes owing to ADAD and LOAD. We analyzed functional connectivity in multiple brain resting state networks (RSNs) in a cross-sectional cohort of participants with ADAD (n = 79) and LOAD (n = 444), using resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging at multiple international academic sites. For both types of AD, we quantified and compared functional connectivity changes in RSNs as a function of dementia severity measured by the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. In ADAD, we qualitatively investigated functional connectivity changes with respect to estimated years from onset of symptoms within 5 RSNs. A decrease in functional connectivity with increasing Clinical Dementia Rating scores were similar for both LOAD and ADAD in multiple RSNs. Ordinal logistic regression models constructed in one type of Alzheimer disease accurately predicted clinical dementia rating scores in the other, further demonstrating the similarity of functional connectivity loss in each disease type. Among participants with ADAD, functional connectivity in multiple RSNs appeared qualitatively lower in asymptomatic mutation carriers near their anticipated age of symptom onset compared with asymptomatic mutation noncarriers. Resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging changes with progressing AD severity are similar between ADAD and LOAD. Resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging may be a useful end point for LOAD and ADAD therapy trials. Moreover, the disease process of ADAD may be an effective model for the LOAD disease process.

  5. Impaired growth and intracranial calcifications in autosomal dominant hypocalcemia caused by a GNA11 mutation.

    PubMed

    Tenhola, Sirpa; Voutilainen, Raimo; Reyes, Monica; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Jüppner, Harald; Mäkitie, Outi

    2016-09-01

    Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) is characterized by hypocalcemia and inappropriately low PTH concentrations. ADH type 1 is caused by activating mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), a G-protein-coupled receptor signaling through α11 (Gα11) and αq (Gαq) subunits. Heterozygous activating mutations in GNA11, the gene encoding Gα11, underlie ADH type 2. This study describes disease characteristics in a family with ADH caused by a gain-of-function mutation in GNA11. A three-generation family with seven members (3 adults, 4 children) presenting with ADH. Biochemical parameters of calcium metabolism, clinical, genetic and brain imaging findings were analyzed. Sanger sequencing revealed a heterozygous GNA11 missense mutation (c.1018G>A, p.V340M) in all seven hypocalcemic subjects, but not in the healthy family members (n=4). The adult patients showed clinical symptoms of hypocalcemia, while the children were asymptomatic. Plasma ionized calcium ranged from 0.95 to 1.14mmol/L, yet plasma PTH was inappropriately low for the degree of hypocalcemia. Serum 25OHD was normal. Despite hypocalcemia 1,25(OH)2D and urinary calcium excretion were inappropriately in the reference range. None of the patients had nephrocalcinosis. Two adults and one child (of the two MRI scanned children) had distinct intracranial calcifications. All affected subjects had short stature (height s.d. scores ranging from -3.4 to -2.3 vs -0.5 in the unaffected children). The identified GNA11 mutation results in biochemical abnormalities typical for ADH. Additional features, including short stature and early intracranial calcifications, cosegregated with the mutation. These findings may indicate a wider role for Gα11 signaling besides calcium regulation. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Impaired growth and intracranial calcifications in autosomal dominant hypocalcemia caused by a GNA11 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Tenhola, Sirpa; Voutilainen, Raimo; Reyes, Monica; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Jüppner, Harald; Mäkitie, Outi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) is characterized by hypocalcemia and inappropriately low PTH concentrations. ADH type 1 is caused by activating mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), a G-protein-coupled receptor signaling through α11 (Gα11) and αq (Gαq) subunits. Heterozygous activating mutations in GNA11, the gene encoding Gα11, underlie ADH type 2. This study describes disease characteristics in a family with ADH caused by a presumed gain-of-function mutation in GNA11. Design A three-generation family with seven members (3 adults, 4 children) presenting with ADH. Methods Biochemical parameters of calcium metabolism, clinical, genetic and brain imaging findings were analyzed. Results Sanger sequencing revealed a heterozygous GNA11 missense mutation (c.1018G>A, p.V340M) in all seven hypocalcemic subjects, but not in the healthy family members (n = 4). The adult patients showed clinical symptoms of hypocalcemia, while the children were asymptomatic. Plasma ionized calcium ranged from 0.95 to 1.14 mmol/L, yet plasma PTH was inappropriately low for the degree of hypocalcemia. Serum 25OHD was normal. Despite hypocalcemia 1,25(OH)2D and urinary calcium excretion were inappropriately in the reference range. None of the patients had nephrocalcinosis. Two adults and one child (of the two MRI scanned children) had distinct intracranial calcifications. All affected subjects had short stature (height s.d. scores ranging from −3.4 to −2.3 vs −0.5 in the unaffected children). Conclusions The identified GNA11 mutation results in biochemical abnormalities typical for ADH. Additional features, including short stature and early intracranial calcifications, cosegregated with the mutation. These findings may indicate a wider role for Gα11 signaling besides calcium regulation. PMID:27334330

  7. The relationship between renal volume and renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Shino; Muto, Satoru; China, Toshiyuki; Horie, Shigeo

    2011-08-01

    In patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), renal cysts grow exponentially. Since remaining renal parenchyma has a capacity to compensate for the loss of glomerular filtration, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may be sustained until the disease progresses. The purpose of this study was to determine if renal volumetric indices and clinical parameters are associated with renal function in Japanese patients with ADPKD. In 73 ADPKD patients (28 men, 45 women), the associations of mean systolic blood pressure, mean diastolic blood pressure, estimated GFR (eGFR), the amount of proteinuria and albuminuria, body mass index (BMI), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), ankle-brachial index, and total kidney volume (TKV) were retrospectively analyzed. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that eGFR was significantly and independently inversely correlated with patients' age and BMI. The median change in eGFR per year (ΔeGFR/y) was -2.8 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/year. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that ΔeGFR/y was significantly and independently inversely correlated with the change in TKV per year (ΔTKV/y). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that ΔTKV/y was significantly related to initial TKV and the change in albuminuria per year. This study demonstrated a significant relationship between the change in renal function and the change in renal volume in Japanese ADPKD patients without renal insufficiency. It is possible that the volume measurements can be used as useful markers for disease progression in Japanese ADPKD patients.

  8. A Novel Retinal Oscillation Mechanism in an Autosomal Dominant Photoreceptor Degeneration Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Tu, Hung-Ya; Chen, Yu-Jiun; McQuiston, Adam R; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chen, Ching-Kang

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown in rd1 and rd10 models of photoreceptor degeneration (PD) that inner retinal neurons display spontaneous and rhythmic activities. Furthermore, the rhythmic activity has been shown to require the gap junction protein connexin 36, which is likely located in AII amacrine cells (AII-ACs). In the present study, an autosomal dominant PD model called rhoΔCTA, whose rods overexpress a C-terminally truncated mutant rhodopsin and degenerate with a rate similar to that of rd1, was used to investigate the generality and mechanisms of heightened inner retinal activity following PD. To fluorescently identify cholinergic starburst amacrine cells (SACs), the rhoΔCTA mouse was introduced into a combined ChAT-IRES-Cre and Ai9 background. In this mouse, we observed excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) oscillation and non-rhythmic inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) in both ON- and OFF-SACs. The IPSCs were more noticeable in OFF- than in ON-SACs. Similar to reported retinal ganglion cell (RGC) oscillation in rd1 mice, EPSC oscillation was synaptically driven by glutamate and sensitive to blockade of NaV channels and gap junctions. These data suggest that akin to rd1 mice, AII-AC is a prominent oscillator in rhoΔCTA mice. Surprisingly, OFF-SAC but not ON-SAC EPSC oscillation could readily be enhanced by GABAergic blockade. More importantly, weakening the AII-AC gap junction network by activating retinal dopamine receptors abolished oscillations in ON-SACs but not in OFF-SACs. Furthermore, the latter persisted in the presence of flupirtine, an M-type potassium channel activator recently reported to dampen intrinsic AII-AC bursting. These data suggest the existence of a novel oscillation mechanism in mice with PD.

  9. Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa: no evidence for nonallelic genetic heterogeneity on 3q.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar-Singh, R; Wang, H; Humphries, P; Farrar, G J

    1993-01-01

    Since the initial report of linkage of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) to the long arm of chromosome 3, several mutations in the gene encoding rhodopsin, which also maps to 3q, have been reported in adRP pedigrees. However, there has been some discussion as to the possibility of a second adRP locus on 3q. This suggestion has important diagnostic and research implications and must raise doubts about the usefulness of linked markers for reliable diagnosis of RP patients. In order to address this issue we have performed an admixture test (A-test) on 10 D3S47-linked adRP pedigrees and have found a likelihood ratio of heterogeneity versus homogeneity of 4.90. We performed a second A-test, combining the data from all families with known rhodopsin mutations. In this test we obtained a reduced likelihood ratio of heterogeneity versus homogeneity, of 1.0. On the basis of these statistical analyses we have found no significant support for two adRP loci on chromosome 3q. Furthermore, using 40 CEPH families, we have localized the rhodopsin gene to the D3S47-D3S20 interval, with a maximum lod score (Zm) of 20 and have found that the order qter-D3S47-rhodopsin-D3S20-cen is significantly more likely than any other order. In addition, we have mapped (Zm = 30) the microsatellite marker D3S621 relative to other loci in this region of the genome. PMID:8430695

  10. Hospital-based inpatient resource utilization associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the US.

    PubMed

    Blanchette, Christopher M; Craver, Christopher; Belk, Kathy W; Lubeck, Deborah P; Rossetti, Sandro; Gutierrez, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous class of genetic disorders characterized by development of renal cysts leading to renal failure and end stage renal disease (ESRD). Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) accounts for the majority of PKD cases and is the predominant monogenic cause of ESRD. Limited information on patient characteristics and healthcare resource utilization is available in this population. This study assessed hospital-based inpatient utilization of patients with ADPKD in the US to help further understand the disease, which may lead to treatments that delay progression and reduce healthcare resource utilization. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using MedAssets Health System Data to investigate inpatient resource utilization for a total of 1876 patients hospitalized with ADPKD or chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patient characteristics and inpatient resource utilization were compared between hospitalized patients with ADPKD and CKD, including demographic and clinical characteristics, overall health, rates of complications and surgical interventions, and average length of hospital and intensive care unit stay. Compared with patients with CKD, patients with ADPKD were more likely to have commercial insurance as their primary payer (36.1 vs 17.8%) and were significantly younger (mean age 57.9 vs 69.5 years) and generally healthier (Charlson Comorbidity Score of 2.0 vs 3.3). Patients with ADPKD also had a substantially shorter average length of hospital stay (6.3 vs 10.3 days). However, patients with ADPKD experienced more kidney-related complications and a higher surgical procedure rate (mainly for transplant and complete nephrectomy). Although patients with ADPKD were generally healthier than patients with CKD, specific kidney function complications were more frequent. Patients with ADPKD had a higher rate of major kidney procedures, which may contribute to the high burden of ADPKD

  11. Relationship between intracranial aneurysms and the severity of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroki; Higashihara, Eiji; Maruyama, Keisuke; Nutahara, Kikuo; Nitatori, Toshiaki; Miyazaki, Isao; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2017-09-07

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a hereditary kidney disease characterized by the progressive enlargement of innumerable renal cysts. Although the association of intracranial aneurysms (ICANs) with ADPKD is well known, the relationship between the ICAN and the disease severity including total kidney volume (TKV) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is poorly understood. We screened 265 patients with ADPKD (mean age, 48.8 years; range, 14.9-88.3 years) with MR angiography. The patients with a past history related to ICANs were excluded from the study. The incidence and characteristics of ICAN in patients with ADPKD were evaluated. TKV was measured by volumetric analyses of MR imaging. We detected 65 ICANs in 49 patients (37 women and 12 men, mean age, 52.7 years; range, 20.4-86 years). The incidence of ICANs was 18.5% and female patients had was higher incidence (23.1%) than male patients (11.4%) (p = 0.02). An age of those with ICANs was significantly higher than those without (p = 0.006), and the cumulative risk of diagnosis of ICANs increased with age. TKV was significantly larger in those with ICANs than those without (p = 0.001), but eGFR was not different between two groups (p = 0.07). By multivariate analyses, only TKV was significantly related to the development of ICANs (p = 0.02). The incidence of ICANs increased with age, was higher in females, and correlated with kidney enlargement in patients with ADPKD. Necessity of screening ICANs would be particularly high in elderly women with large kidneys.

  12. Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type III: a review of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Cerebellar Ataxia (ADCA) Type III is a type of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) classically characterized by pure cerebellar ataxia and occasionally by non-cerebellar signs such as pyramidal signs, ophthalmoplegia, and tremor. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in adulthood; however, a minority of patients develop clinical features in adolescence. The incidence of ADCA Type III is unknown. ADCA Type III consists of six subtypes, SCA5, SCA6, SCA11, SCA26, SCA30, and SCA31. The subtype SCA6 is the most common. These subtypes are associated with four causative genes and two loci. The severity of symptoms and age of onset can vary between each SCA subtype and even between families with the same subtype. SCA5 and SCA11 are caused by specific gene mutations such as missense, inframe deletions, and frameshift insertions or deletions. SCA6 is caused by trinucleotide CAG repeat expansions encoding large uninterrupted glutamine tracts. SCA31 is caused by repeat expansions that fall outside of the protein-coding region of the disease gene. Currently, there are no specific gene mutations associated with SCA26 or SCA30, though there is a confirmed locus for each subtype. This disease is mainly diagnosed via genetic testing; however, differential diagnoses include pure cerebellar ataxia and non-cerebellar features in addition to ataxia. Although not fatal, ADCA Type III may cause dysphagia and falls, which reduce the quality of life of the patients and may in turn shorten the lifespan. The therapy for ADCA Type III is supportive and includes occupational and speech modalities. There is no cure for ADCA Type III, but a number of recent studies have highlighted novel therapies, which bring hope for future curative treatments. PMID:23331413

  13. Clinical Correlates of Mass Effect in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunsuk; Park, Hayne Cho; Ryu, Hyunjin; Kim, Kiwon; Kim, Hyo Sang; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Yu, Su Jong; Chung, Jin Wook; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Seung Hyup; Cheong, Hae Il; Lee, Kyubeck; Park, Jong Hoon; Pei, York; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Ahn, Curie

    2015-01-01

    Mass effect from polycystic kidney and liver enlargement can result in significant clinical complications and symptoms in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In this single-center study, we examined the correlation of height-adjusted total liver volume (htTLV) and total kidney volume (htTKV) by CT imaging with hepatic complications (n = 461) and abdominal symptoms (n = 253) in patients with ADPKD. “Mass-effect” complications were assessed by review of medical records and abdominal symptoms, by a standardized research questionnaire. Overall, 91.8% of patients had 4 or more liver cysts on CT scans. Polycystic liver disease (PLD) was classified as none or mild (htTLV < 1,600 mL/m); moderate (1,600 ≤ htTLV <3,200 mL/m); and severe (htTLV ≥ 3,200 mL/m). The prevalence of moderate and severe PLD in our patient cohort was 11.7% (n = 54/461) and 4.8% (n = 22/461), respectively, with a female predominance in both the moderate (61.1%) and severe (95.5%) PLD groups. Pressure-related complications such as leg edema (20.4%), ascites (16.6%), and hernia (3.6%) were common, and patients with moderate to severe PLD exhibited a 6-fold increased risk (compared to no or mild PLD) for these complications in multivariate analysis. Similarly, abdominal symptoms including back pain (58.8%), flank pain (53.1%), abdominal fullness (46.5%), and dyspnea/chest-discomfort (44.3%) were very common, and patients with moderate to severe PLD exhibited a 5-fold increased risk for these symptoms. Moderate to severe PLD is a common and clinically important problem in ~16% of patients with ADPKD who may benefit from referral to specialized centers for further management. PMID:26641645

  14. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Becchetti, Andrea; Aracri, Patrizia; Meneghini, Simone; Brusco, Simone; Amadeo, Alida

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is a focal epilepsy with attacks typically arising in the frontal lobe during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. It is characterized by clusters of complex and stereotyped hypermotor seizures, frequently accompanied by sudden arousals. Cognitive and psychiatric symptoms may be also observed. Approximately 12% of the ADNFLE families carry mutations on genes coding for subunits of the heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). This is consistent with the widespread expression of these receptors, particularly the α4β2(*) subtype, in the neocortex and thalamus. However, understanding how mutant nAChRs lead to partial frontal epilepsy is far from being straightforward because of the complexity of the cholinergic regulation in both developing and mature brains. The relation with the sleep-waking cycle must be also explained. We discuss some possible pathogenetic mechanisms in the light of recent advances about the nAChR role in prefrontal regions as well as the studies carried out in murine models of ADNFLE. Functional evidence points to alterations in prefrontal GABA release, and the synaptic unbalance probably arises during the cortical circuit maturation. Although most of the available functional evidence concerns mutations on nAChR subunit genes, other genes have been recently implicated in the disease, such as KCNT1 (coding for a Na(+)-dependent K(+) channel), DEPD5 (Disheveled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin Domain-containing protein 5), and CRH (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone). Overall, the uncertainties about both the etiology and the pathogenesis of ADNFLE point to the current gaps in our knowledge the regulation of neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex.

  15. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Becchetti, Andrea; Aracri, Patrizia; Meneghini, Simone; Brusco, Simone; Amadeo, Alida

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is a focal epilepsy with attacks typically arising in the frontal lobe during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. It is characterized by clusters of complex and stereotyped hypermotor seizures, frequently accompanied by sudden arousals. Cognitive and psychiatric symptoms may be also observed. Approximately 12% of the ADNFLE families carry mutations on genes coding for subunits of the heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). This is consistent with the widespread expression of these receptors, particularly the α4β2* subtype, in the neocortex and thalamus. However, understanding how mutant nAChRs lead to partial frontal epilepsy is far from being straightforward because of the complexity of the cholinergic regulation in both developing and mature brains. The relation with the sleep-waking cycle must be also explained. We discuss some possible pathogenetic mechanisms in the light of recent advances about the nAChR role in prefrontal regions as well as the studies carried out in murine models of ADNFLE. Functional evidence points to alterations in prefrontal GABA release, and the synaptic unbalance probably arises during the cortical circuit maturation. Although most of the available functional evidence concerns mutations on nAChR subunit genes, other genes have been recently implicated in the disease, such as KCNT1 (coding for a Na+-dependent K+ channel), DEPD5 (Disheveled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin Domain-containing protein 5), and CRH (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone). Overall, the uncertainties about both the etiology and the pathogenesis of ADNFLE point to the current gaps in our knowledge the regulation of neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex. PMID:25717303

  16. Segmentation of Individual Renal Cysts from MR Images in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Kyungsoo; Park, Bumwoo; Sun, Hongliang; Wang, Jinhong; Tao, Cheng; Chapman, Arlene B.; Torres, Vicente E.; Grantham, Jared J.; Mrug, Michal; Bennett, William M.; Flessner, Michael F.; Landsittel, Doug P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective To evaluate the performance of a semi-automated method for the segmentation of individual renal cysts from magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Design, setting, participants, & measurements This semi-automated method was based on a morphologic watershed technique with shape-detection level set for segmentation of renal cysts from MR images. T2-weighted MR image sets of 40 kidneys were selected from 20 patients with mild to moderate renal cyst burden (kidney volume < 1500 ml) in the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP). The performance of the semi-automated method was assessed in terms of two reference metrics in each kidney: the total number of cysts measured by manual counting and the total volume of cysts measured with a region-based thresholding method. The proposed and reference measurements were compared using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis. Results Individual renal cysts were successfully segmented with the semi-automated method in all 20 cases. The total number of cysts in each kidney measured with the two methods correlated well (ICC, 0.99), with a very small relative bias (0.3% increase with the semi-automated method; limits of agreement, 15.2% reduction to 17.2% increase). The total volume of cysts measured using both methods also correlated well (ICC, 1.00), with a small relative bias of <10% (9.0% decrease in the semi-automated method; limits of agreement, 17.1% increase to 43.3% decrease). Conclusion This semi-automated method to segment individual renal cysts in ADPKD kidneys provides a quantitative indicator of severity in early and moderate stages of the disease. PMID:23520042

  17. The Genetics of Vascular Complications in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Sandro; Harris, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    The most important extra-renal manifestation of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in terms of debilitating injury and premature death is the development of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) and other vascular complications, resulting in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). IAs are found at a rate approximately five times higher in ADPKD patients than in the general population and in patients with a family history of SAH/IAs the frequency is elevated further three to five times, indicating the importance of genetic factors in its etiology. Expression of the ADPKD gene products, polycystin-1 (PKD1) and polycystin-2 (PKD2), in vascular smooth muscle and the endothelium, and evidence that reduced levels of these proteins leads to IA development in mouse models, suggests a direct role of these proteins in the vascular disease. PKD1 and PKD2 patients seem equally likely to develop IAs, while patients with mutations to the 5’ half of PKD1 may more likely have vascular complications. Genome wide association and candidate studies of multiplex families with IAs without ADPKD have identified a number of genes/proteins that may be risk factors for the development of IAs. These candidate proteins largely have roles in the maintenance and remodeling of the arterial wall of small brain arteries. The development of the genetic methodologies of massively parallel sequencing mean it is now possible to test these and other candidates in ADPKD families with multiplex and singleton IA cases. Identifying strong modifiers of this phenotype will be important for prioritizing patients for presymptomatic screening and interventions. PMID:23971643

  18. Whole-genome sequencing overcomes pseudogene homology to diagnose autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mallawaarachchi, Amali C; Hort, Yvonne; Cowley, Mark J; McCabe, Mark J; Minoche, André; Dinger, Marcel E; Shine, John; Furlong, Timothy J

    2016-11-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic kidney disorder and is due to disease-causing variants in PKD1 or PKD2. Strong genotype-phenotype correlation exists although diagnostic sequencing is not part of routine clinical practice. This is because PKD1 bears 97.7% sequence similarity with six pseudogenes, requiring laborious and error-prone long-range PCR and Sanger sequencing to overcome. We hypothesised that whole-genome sequencing (WGS) would be able to overcome the problem of this sequence homology, because of 150 bp, paired-end reads and avoidance of capture bias that arises from targeted sequencing. We prospectively recruited a cohort of 28 unique pedigrees with ADPKD phenotype. Standard DNA extraction, library preparation and WGS were performed using Illumina HiSeq X and variants were classified following standard guidelines. Molecular diagnosis was made in 24 patients (86%), with 100% variant confirmation by current gold standard of long-range PCR and Sanger sequencing. We demonstrated unique alignment of sequencing reads over the pseudogene-homologous region. In addition to identifying function-affecting single-nucleotide variants and indels, we identified single- and multi-exon deletions affecting PKD1 and PKD2, which would have been challenging to identify using exome sequencing. We report the first use of WGS to diagnose ADPKD. This method overcomes pseudogene homology, provides uniform coverage, detects all variant types in a single test and is less labour-intensive than current techniques. This technique is translatable to a diagnostic setting, allows clinicians to make better-informed management decisions and has implications for other disease groups that are challenged by regions of confounding sequence homology.

  19. Spectrum of mutations and phenotypic expression in patients with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia identified in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Stefano; Pisciotta, Livia; Rabacchi, Claudio; Cefalù, Angelo B; Noto, Davide; Fasano, Tommaso; Signori, Alessio; Fresa, Raffaele; Averna, Maurizio; Calandra, Sebastiano

    2013-04-01

    To determine the spectrum of gene mutations and the genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with Autosomal Dominant Hypercholesterolemia (ADH) identified in Italy. The resequencing of LDLR, PCSK9 genes and a selected region of APOB gene were conducted in 1018 index subjects clinically heterozygous ADH and in 52 patients clinically homozygous ADH. The analysis was also extended to 1008 family members of mutation positive subjects. Mutations were detected in 832 individuals: 97.4% with LDLR mutations, 2.2% with APOB mutations and 0.36% with PCSK9 mutations. Among the patients with homozygous ADH, 51 were carriers of LDLR mutations and one was an LDLR/PCSK9 double heterozygote. We identified 237 LDLR mutations (45 not previously reported), 4 APOB and 3 PCSK9 mutations. The phenotypic characterization of 1769 LDLR mutation carriers (ADH-1) revealed that in both sexes independent predictors of the presence of tendon xanthomas were age, the quintiles of LDL cholesterol, the presence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and of receptor negative mutations. Independent predictors of CHD were male gender, age, the presence of arterial hypertension, smoking, tendon xanthomas, the scalar increase of LDL cholesterol and the scalar decrease of HDL cholesterol. We identified 13 LDLR mutation clusters, which allowed us to compare the phenotypic impact of different mutations. The LDL cholesterol raising potential of these mutations was found to vary over a wide range. This study confirms the genetic and allelic heterogeneity of ADH and underscores that the variability in phenotypic expression of ADH-1 is greatly affected by the type of LDLR mutation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The PROPKD Score: A New Algorithm to Predict Renal Survival in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cornec-Le Gall, Emilie; Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Rousseau, Annick; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Renaudineau, Eric; Charasse, Christophe; Morin, Marie-Pascale; Moal, Marie-Christine; Dantal, Jacques; Wehbe, Bassem; Perrichot, Régine; Frouget, Thierry; Vigneau, Cécile; Potier, Jérôme; Jousset, Philippe; Guillodo, Marie-Paule; Siohan, Pascale; Terki, Nazim; Sawadogo, Théophile; Legrand, Didier; Menoyo-Calonge, Victorio; Benarbia, Seddik; Besnier, Dominique; Longuet, Hélène; Férec, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The course of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) varies among individuals, with some reaching ESRD before 40 years of age and others never requiring RRT. In this study, we developed a prognostic model to predict renal outcomes in patients with ADPKD on the basis of genetic and clinical data. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1341 patients from the Genkyst cohort and evaluated the influence of clinical and genetic factors on renal survival. Multivariate survival analysis identified four variables that were significantly associated with age at ESRD onset, and a scoring system from 0 to 9 was developed as follows: being male: 1 point; hypertension before 35 years of age: 2 points; first urologic event before 35 years of age: 2 points; PKD2 mutation: 0 points; nontruncating PKD1 mutation: 2 points; and truncating PKD1 mutation: 4 points. Three risk categories were subsequently defined as low risk (0–3 points), intermediate risk (4–6 points), and high risk (7–9 points) of progression to ESRD, with corresponding median ages for ESRD onset of 70.6, 56.9, and 49 years, respectively. Whereas a score ≤3 eliminates evolution to ESRD before 60 years of age with a negative predictive value of 81.4%, a score >6 forecasts ESRD onset before 60 years of age with a positive predictive value of 90.9%. This new prognostic score accurately predicts renal outcomes in patients with ADPKD and may enable the personalization of therapeutic management of ADPKD. PMID:26150605

  1. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Transplant Recipients After Kidney Transplantation: A Single-center Experience.

    PubMed

    Illesy, L; Kovács, D Á; Szabó, R P; Asztalos, A B L; Nemes, B

    2017-09-01

    Kidney transplantation is indicated for end-stage renal disease. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) causes structural degeneration of the kidney and eventually becomes end-stage renal disease. ADPKD patients usually have several renal and nonrenal complications. We analyzed our kidney transplantation activities between 1991 and 2010 regarding ADPKD. We followed up with patients to December 31, 2016. Data were collected as patient and graft survival rates, the prevalence of polycystic manifestation of the gastrointestinal tract and other organs, and the attendance of urinary tract infection. Among the 734 kidney transplantations, 10.9% (n = 80) had an ADPKD. Four patients (5%) had diverticulum perforation. The prevalence of post-transplantation urinary tract infection was higher in ADPKD patients (55.9%) compared to non-ADPKD patients (44.1%). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates in ADPKD recipients versus non-ADPKD patients are 77.5%, 70.0%, and 67.5% versus 86.4%, 83.0%, and 80.1%, respectively. Patients with ADPKD were transplanted at an elder age compared to others (median: 47.5 years vs. 39.9 years). Female patients had longer graft survival times than males. ADPKD implies multiple cystic degeneration of the kidneys; however, it can cause structural degeneration in other organs. It is typical for ADPKD patients to have an acute abdominal-like syndrome. Immunosuppressive drugs can hide the clinical picture, which makes early diagnosis difficult. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased psychosocial risk, depression and reduced quality of life living with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Simms, Roslyn J; Thong, Kah Mean; Dworschak, Gabriel C; Ong, Albert C M

    2016-07-01

    The psychosocial impact of living with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is poorly understood. In this study, we assessed the overall quality of life (QOL), mood, perceived social support and psychosocial risk of having a diagnosis of ADPKD in a patient cohort from a major UK nephrology centre serving a large catchment population. A postal questionnaire was sent to 349 patients registered at the Sheffield Kidney Institute with chronic kidney disease but not on renal replacement therapy (RRT). The questionnaire incorporated three validated forms: kidney disease quality-of-life short form (KDQOL SF1.3) to assess QOL; nine-item patient health questionnaire (PHQ9) to screen for depression; multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) to evaluate perceived social support; as well as a novel genetic psychosocial risk instrument (GPRI-ADPKD) designed to study the specific psychosocial impact of coping with a diagnosis of ADPKD. The overall response rate was 53%. Patients with a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (<30 mL/min) or larger kidneys (mean length on ultrasound ≥17 cm) reported reduced QOL and increased psychosocial risk. Clinically significant depression was reported in 22% and 62% felt guilty about passing ADPKD on to their children. In multivariate analysis, female gender was associated with overall poorer psychosocial well-being, whereas increasing age, lower kidney function, larger kidneys and loss of a first degree relative from ADPKD were additional risk factors for QOL, depression or psychosocial risk, respectively. Our results reveal a significantly poorer QOL and increasing psychosocial risk with markers of disease progression in patients, particularly women, with ADPKD prior to starting RRT. The future management strategy of ADPKD should address these issues and provide for better individual and family support throughout the patient journey. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  3. Mutation analysis of connexin 50 gene among Iranian families with autosomal dominant cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Mohebi, Masoumeh; Chenari, Saeed; Akbari, Abolfazl; Ghassemi, Fariba; Zarei-Ghanavati, Mehran; Fakhraie, Ghasem; Babaie, Nahid; Heidari, Mansour

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Childhood cataract is a genetically heterogeneous eye disorder that results in visual impairment. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic mutations of connexin 50 gene among Iranian families suffered from autosomal dominant congenital cataracts (ADCC). Materials and Methods: Families, having at least two members with bilateral familial congenital cataract, were selected for the study. Probands were evaluated by detailed ophthalmologist’s examination, and the pedigree analysis was performed. PCR amplifications were performed corresponding to coding region and intron-exon boundaries of GJA8, a candidate gene responsible for ADCC. PCR products were subjected to bidirectional sequencing, and the co-segregation of identified mutations was examined and finally, the impact of identified mutations on biological functions of GJA8 was predicted by in silico examination. Results: Three different genetic alterations, including c.130G>A (p.V44M), c.301G>T (p.R101L) and c.134G>T (p.W45L) in GJA8 gene were detected among three probands. Two identified mutations, W45L and V44M have been already reported, while the R101L is a novel mutation and its co-segregation was examined. This mutation was exclusively detected in the ADCC and could not be found among the healthy control group. The result of bioinformatic studies of R101L mutation predicted that this amino acid substitution within GJA8 could be a disease-afflicting mutation due to its potential effect on the protein structure and biological function. Conclusion: Our results suggest that mutations of lens connexin genes such as GJA8 gene could be one of the major mechanisms of cataract development, at least in a significant proportion of Iranian patients with ADCC. PMID:28392901

  4. Differences in allele frequencies of autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia SNPs in the Malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Alex, Livy; Chahil, Jagdish Kaur; Lye, Say Hean; Bagali, Pramod; Ler, Lian Wee

    2012-06-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is caused by different interactions of lifestyle and genetic determinants. At the genetic level, it can be attributed to the interactions of multiple polymorphisms, or as in the example of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), it can be the result of a single mutation. A large number of genetic markers, mostly single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) or mutations in three genes, implicated in autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH), viz APOB (apolipoprotein B), LDLR (low density lipoprotein receptor) and PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9), have been identified and characterized. However, such studies have been insufficiently undertaken specifically in Malaysia and Southeast Asia in general. The main objective of this study was to identify ADH variants, specifically ADH-causing mutations and hypercholesterolemia-associated polymorphisms in multiethnic Malaysian population. We aimed to evaluate published SNPs in ADH causing genes, in this population and to report any unusual trends. We examined a large number of selected SNPs from previous studies of APOB, LDLR, PCSK9 and other genes, in clinically diagnosed ADH patients (n=141) and healthy control subjects (n=111). Selection of SNPs was initiated by searching within genes reported to be associated with ADH from known databases. The important finding was 137 mono-allelic markers (44.1%) and 173 polymorphic markers (55.8%) in both subject groups. By comparing to publicly available data, out of the 137 mono-allelic markers, 23 markers showed significant differences in allele frequency among Malaysians, European Whites, Han Chinese, Yoruba and Gujarati Indians. Our data can serve as reference for others in related fields of study during the planning of their experiments.

  5. Suitability of Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease for Renal Transcatheter Arterial Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Ubara, Yoshifumi; Mise, Koki; Ueno, Toshiharu; Sumida, Keiichi; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Hayami, Noriko; Hoshino, Junichi; Kawada, Masahiro; Imafuku, Aya; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Hasegawa, Eiko; Sawa, Naoki; Takaichi, Kenmei

    2016-01-01

    In patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), massive renal enlargement is a serious problem. Renal transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) can reduce renal volume (RV), but effectiveness varies widely, and the reasons remain unclear. We investigated factors affecting renal volume reduction rate (RVRR) after renal TAE in all 449 patients with ADPKD who received renal TAE at Toranomon Hospital from January of 2006 to July of 2013, including 228 men and 221 women (mean age =57.0±9.1 years old). One year after renal TAE, the RVRR ranged from 3.9% to 84.8%, and the least squares mean RVRR calculated using a linear mixed model was 45.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 44.2% to 46.8%). Multivariate analysis using the linear mixed model revealed that RVRR was affected by the presence of large cysts with wall thickening (regression coefficient [RC], −6.10; 95% CI, −9.04 to −3.16; P<0.001), age (RC, −0.82; 95% CI, −1.03 to −0.60; P<0.001), dialysis duration (RC, −0.10; 95% CI, −0.18 to −0.03; P<0.01), systolic BP (RC, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.59; P<0.001), and the number of microcoils used for renal TAE (RC, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.86; P<0.001). Significantly more microcoils were needed to achieve renal TAE in patients with younger age and shorter dialysis duration. In conclusion, cyst wall thickening had an important effect on cyst volume reduction. Renal TAE was more effective in patients who were younger, had shorter dialysis duration, or had hypertension, parameters that might associate with cyst wall stiffness and renal artery blood flow. PMID:26620095

  6. Screening for Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Survey of 420 Nephrologists

    PubMed Central

    Flahault, Adrien; Trystram, Denis; Fouchard, Marie; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Nataf, François; Joly, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a high prevalence of intracranial aneurysm (ICA) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), rupture events are rare. The current recommendations for ICA screening are based on expert opinions and studies with low levels of evidence. Objectives The aim of our study was to describe the attitudes of practicing nephrologists in Europe towards screening for ICA using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Methods We conducted a web-based survey among 1315 European French-speaking nephrologists and nephrology residents. An anonymous, electronic questionnaire including 24 independent questions related to ICA screening modalities, indications and participant profiles was sent by email between September and December 2014. Four hundred and twenty nephrologists (mostly from France) participated, including 31 nephrology residents; the response rate was 32%. Results Systematic screening for ICA was advocated by 28% of the nephrologists. A family history of ICA rupture, sudden death, stroke and migraine were consensual indications for screening (> 90% of the panel). In other clinical situations largely not covered by the recommendations (pregnancy, nephrectomy, kidney transplantation, cardiac or hepatic surgery, uncontrolled hypertension, lack of familial ADPKD history, at-risk activity, tobacco use), the attitudes towards screening were highly divergent. ICA screening was influenced by nephrologists experience with ADPKD and by their practice setting. The majority of participants (57%) would not repeat a normal ICA screening. Only a few participants (22%) knew that non-contrast MRA was the reference diagnostic tool for ICA screening, whereas most participants thought that contrast enhancement was necessary to screen for ICA. The results from the nephrology residents were analyzed separately and yielded similar results. Conclusion This practice survey revealed that most nephrologists follow the current recommendations for the initial screening of

  7. Identifying and integrating consumer perspectives in clinical practice guidelines on autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Tong, Allison; Tunnicliffe, David J; Lopez-Vargas, Pamela; Mallett, Andrew; Patel, Chirag; Savige, Judy; Campbell, Katrina; Patel, Manish; Tchan, Michel C; Alexander, Stephen I; Lee, Vincent; Craig, Jonathan C; Fassett, Robert; Rangan, Gopala K

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to identify consumer perspectives on topics and outcomes to integrate in the Kidney Health Australia Caring for Australasians with Renal Impairment (KHA-CARI) clinical practice guidelines on autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). A workshop involving three concurrent focus groups with 18 consumers (patients with ADPKD (n = 15), caregivers (n = 3)) was convened. Guideline topics, interventions and outcomes were identified, and integrated into guideline development. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the reasons for their choices. Twenty-two priority topics were identified, with most focussed on non-pharmacological management (diet, fluid intake, physical activity, complementary medicine), pain management and psychosocial care (mental health, counselling, cognitive and behavioural training, education, support groups). They also identified 26 outcomes including quality of life (QoL), progression of kidney disease, kidney function, cyst growth and nephrotoxity. Almost all topics and outcomes suggested were identified by health professionals with the exception of five topics/outcomes. Six themes reflected reasons for their choices: clarifying ambiguities, resolving debilitating pain, concern for family, preparedness for the future, taking control and significance of impact. Although there was considerable concordance between the priority topics and outcomes of health professionals and consumers for guidelines of ADPKD, there was also important discordance with consumers focused on fewer issues, but particularly on lifestyle, psychosocial support, pain, and QoL and renal outcomes. Active consumer engagement in guidelines development can help to ensure the inclusion of patient-centred recommendations, which may lead to better management of disease progression, symptoms, complications, and psychosocial impact. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  8. Molecular Diagnosis of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Adrian Y.; Michaeel, Alber; Liu, Genyan; Elemento, Olivier; Blumenfeld, Jon; Donahue, Stephanie; Parker, Tom; Levine, Daniel; Rennert, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutations in PKD1 and PKD2. However, genetic analysis is complicated by six PKD1 pseudogenes, large gene sizes, and allelic heterogeneity. We developed a new clinical assay for PKD gene analysis using paired-end next-generation sequencing (NGS) by multiplexing individually bar-coded long-range PCR libraries and analyzing them in one Illumina MiSeq flow cell. The data analysis pipeline has been optimized and automated with Unix shell scripts to accommodate variant calls. This approach was validated using a cohort of 25 patients with ADPKD previously analyzed by Sanger sequencing. A total of 250 genetic variants were identified by NGS, spanning the entire exonic and adjacent intronic regions of PKD1 and PKD2, including all 16 pathogenic mutations. In addition, we identified three novel mutations in a mutation-negative cohort of 24 patients with ADPKD previously analyzed by Sanger sequencing. This NGS method achieved sensitivity of 99.2% (95% CI, 96.8%–99.9%) and specificity of 99.9% (95% CI, 99.7%–100.0%), with cost and turnaround time reduced by as much as 70%. Prospective NGS analysis of 25 patients with ADPKD demonstrated a detection rate comparable with Sanger standards. In conclusion, the NGS method was superior to Sanger sequencing for detecting PKD gene mutations, achieving high sensitivity and improved gene coverage. These characteristics suggest that NGS would be an appropriate new standard for clinical genetic testing of ADPKD. PMID:24374109

  9. Urine Fetuin-A is a biomarker of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease progression.

    PubMed

    Piazzon, Nathalie; Bernet, Florian; Guihard, Linda; Leonhard, Wouter N; Urfer, Séverine; Firsov, Dmitri; Chehade, Hassib; Vogt, Bruno; Piergiovanni, Sophia; Peters, Dorien J M; Bonny, Olivier; Constam, Daniel B

    2015-03-30

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by numerous fluid-filled cysts that frequently result in end-stage renal disease. While promising treatment options are in advanced clinical development, early diagnosis and follow-up remain a major challenge. We therefore evaluated the diagnostic value of Fetuin-A as a new biomarker of ADPKD in human urine. We found that renal Fetuin-A levels are upregulated in both Pkd1 and Bicc1 mouse models of ADPKD. Measurement by ELISA revealed that urinary Fetuin-A levels were significantly higher in 66 ADPKD patients (17.5 ± 12.5 μg/mmol creatinine) compared to 17 healthy volunteers (8.5 ± 3.8 μg/mmol creatinine) or 50 control patients with renal diseases of other causes (6.2 ± 2.9 μg/mmol creatinine). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis of urinary Fetuin-A levels for ADPKD rendered an optimum cut-off value of 12.2 μg/mmol creatinine, corresponding to 94% of sensitivity and 60% of specificity (area under the curve 0.74 ; p = 0.0019). Furthermore, urinary Fetuin-A levels in ADPKD patients correlated with the degree of renal insufficiency and showed a significant increase in patients with preserved renal function followed for two years. Our findings establish urinary Fetuin-A as a sensitive biomarker of the progression of ADPKD. Further studies are required to examine the pathogenic mechanisms of elevated renal and urinary Fetuin-A in ADPKD.

  10. Myosin binding protein C1: a novel gene for autosomal dominant distal arthrogryposis type 1

    PubMed Central

    Gurnett, Christina A.; Desruisseau, David M.; McCall, Kevin; Choi, Ryan; Meyer, Zachary I.; Talerico, Michael; Miller, Sara E.; Ju, Jeong-Sun; Pestronk, Alan; Connolly, Anne M.; Druley, Todd E.; Weihl, Conrad C.; Dobbs, Mathew B.

    2010-01-01

    Distal arthrogryposis type I (DA1) is a disorder characterized by congenital contractures of the hands and feet for which few genes have been identified. Here we describe a five-generation family with DA1 segregating as an autosomal dominant disorder with complete penetrance. Genome-wide linkage analysis using Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping 10K data from 12 affected members of this family revealed a multipoint LODmax of 3.27 on chromosome 12q. Sequencing of the slow-twitch skeletal muscle myosin binding protein C1 (MYBPC1), located within the linkage interval, revealed a missense mutation (c.706T>C) that segregated with disease in this family and causes a W236R amino acid substitution. A second MYBPC1 missense mutation was identified (c.2566T>C)(Y856H) in another family with DA1, accounting for an MYBPC1 mutation frequency of 13% (two of 15). Skeletal muscle biopsies from affected patients showed type I (slow-twitch) fibers were smaller than type II fibers. Expression of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged MYBPC1 construct containing WT and DA1 mutations in mouse skeletal muscle revealed robust sarcomeric localization. In contrast, a more diffuse localization was seen when non-fused GFP and MYBPC1 proteins containing corresponding MYBPC3 amino acid substitutions (R326Q, E334K) that cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were expressed. These findings reveal that the MYBPC1 is a novel gene responsible for DA1, though the mechanism of disease may differ from how some cardiac MYBPC3 mutations cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. PMID:20045868

  11. Evidence against a second autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa locus close to rhodopsin on chromosome 3q

    SciTech Connect

    Inglehearn, C.; Bhattacharya, S. ); Farrar, J.; Humphries, P. ); Denton, M. ); Gal, A. )

    1993-08-01

    In 1989 McWilliam et al. reported close linkage of the autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) locus to chromosome 3q marker D3S47 in a large Irish pedigree (McWilliam et al 1989). Subsequent studies confirmed linkage in two other adRP families (Lester et al 1990; Olsson et al. 1990). Shortly afterward, utations in the rhodopsin (RHO) gene, mapping to 3q21-24, were implicated in disease causation, and it is now known that around one-third of adRP results from such mutations (Dryja et al. 1991; Sung et al. 1991; Inglchearn et al. 1992a). At that time, sequencing studies had failed to find rhodopsin mutations in the three families first linked to 3q. Several adRP families in which rhodopsin mutations had been found gave lod scores that, when pooled, had a peak of 4.47 at a theta of .12 (Inglehearn et al. 1992b). The apparent lack of mutations in families TCDM1, adRP3, and 20 together with the linkage data in these and the proved RHO-RP families, led to speculation that two adRP loci existed on chromosome 3q (Olsson et al. 1990; Inglehearn et al. 1992b). However this situation has been reversed by more recent analysis, since rhodopsin mutations have now been found in all three families. There is therefore no longer any evidence to support the hypothesis that a second adRP locus exists close to rhodopsin on chromosome 3q.

  12. Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa: No evidence for nonallelic genetic heterogeneity on 3q

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar-Singh, R.; He Wang; Humphries, P.; Farrar, G.J. )

    1993-02-01

    Since the initial report of linkage of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) to the long arm of chromosome 3, several mutations in the gene encoding rhodopsin, which also maps to 3q, have been reported in adRP pedigrees. However, there has been some discussion as to the possibility of a second adRP locus on 3q. This suggestion has important diagnostic and research implications and must raise doubts about the usefulness of linked markers for reliable diagnosis of RP patients. In order to address this issue the authors have performed an admixture test (A-test) on 10 D3S47-linked adRP pedigrees and have found a likelihood ratio of heterogeneity versus homogeneity of 4.90. They performed a second A-test, combining the data from all families with known rhodopsin mutations. In this test they obtained a reduced likelihood ratio of heterogeneity versus homogeneity, of 1.0. On the basis of these statistical analyses they have found no significant support for two adRP loci on chromosome 3q. Furthermore, using 40 CEPH families, they have localized the rhodopsin gene to the D3S47-D3S20 interval, with a maximum lod score (Z[sub m]) of 20 and have found that the order qter-D3S47-rhodopsin-D3S20-cen is significantly more likely than any other order. In addition, they have mapped (Z[sub m] = 30) the microsatellite marker D3S621 relative to other loci in this region of the genome. 27 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. A YAC contig encompassing the chromosome 7p locus for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Inglehearn, C.F.; Keen, T.J.; Ratel, R.

    1994-09-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is an inherited retinal degeneration characterized by night blindness and loss of peripheral vision, often leading to complete blindness. The autosomal dominant form (adRP) maps to at least six different loci, including the rhodopsin and peripherin/Rds genes and four loci identified only by linkage analysis on chromosomes 7p, 7q, 8cen and 19q. The 7p locus was reported by this laboratory in a large English family, with a lod score of 16.5. Several new genetic markers have been tested in the family and this locus has now been refined to an interval of approximately 1 cM between markers D7S795 and D7S484 in the 7p13-15 region. In order to clone the gene for adRP, we have used microsatellites and STSs from the region to identify over 80 YACs, from four different libraries, which map to this interval. End clones from key YACs were isolated for the generation of additional STSs. Eleven microsatellite markers between D7S435 (distal) and D7S484 (proximal) have been ordered by a combination of both physical and genetic mapping. In this way we have now obtained a YAC contig spanning approximately 3 megabases of chromosome 7p within which the adRP gene must lie. One gene (aquaporin) and one chromosome 7 brain EST have been placed on the contig but both map distal to the region of interest. Sixteen other ESTs and three further known 7p genes mapping in the region have been excluded. We are now attempting to build a cosmid contig in the defined interval and identify further expressed sequences from both YACs and cosmids to test as candidates for the adRP gene.

  14. Disease expression of RP1 mutations causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, S G; Cideciyan, A V; Iannaccone, A; Weleber, R G; Fishman, G A; Maguire, A M; Affatigato, L M; Bennett, J; Pierce, E A; Danciger, M; Farber, D B; Stone, E M

    2000-06-01

    To determine the disease expression in heterozygotes for mutations in the RP1 gene, a newly identified cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). Screening strategies were used to detect disease-causing mutations in the RP1 gene, and detailed studies of phenotype were performed in a subset of the detected RP1 heterozygotes using electroretinography (ERG), psychophysics, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Seventeen adRP families had heterozygous RP1 changes. Thirteen families had the Arg677ter mutation, whereas four others had one of the following: Pro658 (1-bp del), Ser747 (1-bp del), Leu762-763 (5-bp del), and Tyr1053 (1-bp del). In Arg677ter RP1 heterozygotes, there was regional retinal variation in disease, with the far peripheral inferonasal retina being most vulnerable; central and superior temporal retinal regions were better preserved. The earliest manifestation of disease was rod dysfunction, detectable as reduced rod ERG photoresponse maximum amplitude, even in heterozygotes with otherwise normal clinical, functional, and OCT cross-sectional retinal imaging results. At disease stages when cone abnormalities were present, there was greater rod than cone dysfunction. Patients with the RP1 frameshift mutations showed similarities in phenotype to those with the Arg677ter mutation. Earliest disease expression of RP1 gene mutations causing adRP involves primarily rod photoreceptors, and there is a gradient of vulnerability of retinopathy with more pronounced effects in the inferonasal peripheral retina. At other disease stages, cone function is also affected, and severe retina-wide degeneration can occur. The nonpenetrance or minimal disease expression in some Arg677ter mutation-positive heterozygotes suggests important roles for modifier genes or environmental factors in RP1-related disease.

  15. Growth hormone deficiency in monozygotic twins with autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib.

    PubMed

    Sano, Shinichiro; Iwata, Hiromi; Matsubara, Keiko; Fukami, Maki; Kagami, Masayo; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is associated with compromised signal transductions via PTH receptor (PTH-R) and other G-protein-coupled receptors including GHRH-R. To date, while GH deficiency (GHD) has been reported in multiple patients with PHP-Ia caused by mutations on the maternally expressed GNAS coding regions and in two patients with sporadic form of PHP-Ib accompanied by broad methylation defects of maternally derived GNAS differentially methylated regions (DMRs), it has not been identified in a patient with an autosomal dominant form of PHP-Ib (AD-PHP-Ib) accompanied by an STX16 microdeletion and an isolated loss of methylation (LOM) at exon A/B-DMR. We studied 5 4/12-year-old monozygotic twins with short stature (both -3.4 SD) and GHD (peak GH values, <6.0 μg/L after arginine and clonidine stimulations). Molecular studies revealed maternally derived STX16 microdeletions and isolated LOMs at exon A/B-DMR in the twins, confirming the diagnosis of AD-PHP-Ib. GNAS mutation was not identified, and neither mutation nor copy number variation was detected in GH1, POU1F1, PROP1, GHRHR, LHX3, LHX4, and HESX1 in the twins. The results, in conjunction with the previous finding that GNAS shows maternal expression in the pituitary, suggest that GHD of the twins is primarily ascribed to compromised GHRH-R signaling caused by AD-PTH-Ib. Thus, resistance to multiple hormones including GHRH should be considered in AD-PHP-Ib.

  16. Osteosclerosis in two brothers with autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1b: bone histomorphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Sbrocchi, Anne Marie; Rauch, Frank; Lawson, Margaret L; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Lawrence, Sarah; Bastepe, Murat; Jüppner, Harald; Ward, Leanne Marie

    2011-02-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia resulting from selective renal resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH). One autosomal dominant form of PHP type 1b (PHP-Ib) is most frequently caused by a maternally inherited 3-kb deletion within STX16, the gene encoding syntaxin 16. To date, increased bone mineral density (BMD) has been described only in PHP type 1a, and there is a lack of detailed information on bone histomorphometry in PHP-Ib. The objective of this report was to present trans-iliac static and dynamic histomorphometry in two brothers with the 3-kb deletion in the STX16 region and elevated BMD. Observational study of two brothers (age 18.0 and 22.7 years) with the 3-kb STX16 deletion and increased BMD. The brothers had elevated PTH (146 pg/ml (15.6 pmol/l) and 102 pg/ml (10.9 pmol/l); normal: 10-64 pg/ml (1.1-6.8 pmol/l)) and striking osteosclerosis (lumbar spine areal BMD Z-scores: +5.4 and +4.9). Bone histomorphometry showed marked elevations in cortical width for both brothers (241 and 209% of the mean result expected for age), with elevations in the bone formation rate on the endocortical (119 and 260% of the healthy mean) and trabecular (220 and 190% of mean) surfaces. Our findings suggest that PTH in this PHP-Ib genotype can increase cortical thickness due to its anabolic effect on endocortical bone, and underscore the heterogeneity in the skeletal phenotype among patients with PHP-Ib.

  17. Attitudes in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Toward Prenatal Diagnosis and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Swift, Oscar; Vilar, Enric; Rahman, Belinda; Side, Lucy; Gale, Daniel P

    2016-12-01

    No recommendations currently exist regarding implementation of both prenatal diagnosis and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). This study evaluated attitudes in ADPKD patients with either chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages I-IV or end-stage renal failure (ESRF) toward prenatal diagnosis and PGD. Ninety-six ADPKD patients were recruited from an outpatient clinic, wards, and dialysis units. Thirty-eight patients had ESRF and 58 had CKD stages I-IV. Participants were given an information sheet on prenatal diagnosis and PGD and subsequently completed a questionnaire. The median age of participants was 51.5 years. Seventeen percent of ADPKD patients with CKD and 18% of ADPKD patients with ESRF would consider prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy for ADPKD. Fifty percent with CKD would have opted for PGD (or might consider it in the future) were it available and funded by the UK National Health Service, compared to 63% in the ESRF group (p = 0.33). Sixty-nine percent in the CKD group and 68% in the ESRF group believed that PGD should be offered to other patients. There was a spectrum of attitudes among this cohort. A proportion of patients believe that PGD should be made available to prospective parents with this disease. The discrepancy between the low proportion (17% CKD, 18% ESRF) who would consider prenatal diagnosis and termination of pregnancy and the higher number who hypothetically express an intention or wish to access PGD (50% CKD and 63% ESRF) indicates far greater acceptability for diagnostic methods that occur before embryo implantation. It is not known how the development of methods to identify patients whose renal function is likely to decline rapidly and treatments altering the natural history of ADPKD will affect these attitudes.

  18. Mutational analysis of the LDL receptor and APOB genes in Mexican individuals with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Vaca, Gerardo; Vàzquez, Alejandra; Magaña, Marìa Teresa; Ramìrez, Marìa Lourdes; Dàvalos, Ingrid P; Martìnez, Esperanza; Marìn, Bertha; Carrillo, Gabriela

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this project was to identify families with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH) to facilitate early detection and treatment and to provide genetic counselling as well as to approximate the mutational diversity of ADH in Mexico. Mutational analysis of the LDLR and APOB genes in 62 index cases with a clinical and/or biochemical diagnosis of ADH was performed. Twenty-five mutations (24 LDLR, 1 APOB) were identified in 38 index cases. A total of 162 individuals with ADH were identified using familial segregation analysis performed in 269 relatives of the index cases. In addition, a novel PCSK9 mutation, c.1850 C>A (p.Ala617Asp), was detected. The LDLR mutations showed the following characteristics: (1) four mutations are novel: c.695 -1G>T, c.1034_1035insA, c.1586 G>A, c.2264_2273del; (2) the most common mutations were c.682 G>A (FH-Mexico), c.1055 G>A (FH-Mexico 2), and c.1090 T>C (FH-Mexico 3); (3) five mutations were identified in 3 or more apparently unrelated probands; (4) three mutations were observed in a true homozygous state; and (5) four index cases were compound heterozygous, and one was a carrier of two mutations in the same allele. These results suggest that, in Mexico, ADH exhibits allelic heterogeneity with 5 relatively common LDLR mutations and that mutations in the APOB gene are not a common cause of ADH. This knowledge is important for the genotype-phenotype correlation and for optimising both cholesterol lowering therapies and mutational analysis protocols. In addition, these data contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of ADH in Mexico.

  19. PKD1 and PKD2 mutations in Slovenian families with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Vouk, Katja; Strmecki, Lana; Stekrova, Jitka; Reiterova, Jana; Bidovec, Matjaz; Hudler, Petra; Kenig, Anton; Jereb, Simona; Zupanic-Pajnic, Irena; Balazic, Joze; Haarpaintner, Guido; Leskovar, Bostjan; Adamlje, Anton; Skoflic, Antun; Dovc, Reina; Hojs, Radovan; Komel, Radovan

    2006-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by mutations in at least two different loci. Prior to performing mutation screening, if DNA samples of sufficient number of family members are available, it is worthwhile to assign the gene involved in disease progression by the genetic linkage analysis. Methods We collected samples from 36 Slovene ADPKD families and performed linkage analysis in 16 of them. Linkage was assessed by the use of microsatellite polymorphic markers, four in the case of PKD1 (KG8, AC2.5, CW3 and CW2) and five for PKD2 (D4S1534, D4S2929, D4S1542, D4S1563 and D4S423). Partial PKD1 mutation screening was undertaken by analysing exons 23 and 31–46 and PKD2 . Results Lod scores indicated linkage to PKD1 in six families and to PKD2 in two families. One family was linked to none and in seven families linkage to both genes was possible. Partial PKD1 mutation screening was performed in 33 patients (including 20 patients from the families where linkage analysis could not be performed). We analysed PKD2 in 2 patients where lod scores indicated linkage to PKD2 and in 7 families where linkage to both genes was possible. We detected six mutations and eight polymorphisms in PKD1 and one mutation and three polymorphisms in PKD2. Conclusion In our study group of ADPKD patients we detected seven mutations: three frameshift, one missense, two nonsense and one putative splicing mutation. Three have been described previously and 4 are novel. Three newly described framesfift mutations in PKD1 seem to be associated with more severe clinical course of ADPKD. Previously described nonsense mutation in PKD2 seems to be associated with cysts in liver and milder clinical course. PMID:16430766

  20. Psychiatric comorbidities in patients from seven families with autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus, and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Antonietta; Caccavale, Carmela; Santulli, Lia; Balestrini, Simona; Cagnetti, Claudia; Licchetta, Laura; Esposito, Marcello; Bisulli, Francesca; Tinuper, Paolo; Provinciali, Leandro; Minetti, Carlo; Zara, Federico; Striano, Pasquale; Striano, Salvatore

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this report was to assess the psychiatric comorbidity in a group of patients affected by autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus, and epilepsy (ADCME). Reliable and validated psychodiagnostic scales including the BDI (Beck Depression Inventory), STAI-Y1 and 2 (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Y; 1 and 2), MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - 2), and QoLIE-31 (Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory - 31) were administered to 20 patients with ADCME, 20 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), and 20 healthy controls. There was a higher prevalence of mood disorders in patients with ADCME compared to patients with JME and healthy controls, particularly depression (p=0.035 and p=0.017, respectively) and state anxiety (p=0.024 and p=0.019, respectively). Trait anxiety was not different from JME (p=0.102) but higher than healthy controls (p=0.017). The myoclonus score positively correlated with both state (rho: 0.58, p=0.042) and trait anxiety (rho: 0.65, p=0.011). These psychiatric features were also often associated with pathological traits of personality: paranoid (OR: 25.7, p=0.003), psychasthenia (OR: 7.0, p=0.023), schizophrenia (OR: 8.5, p=0.011), and hypomania (OR: 5.5, p=0.022). Finally, in patients with ADCME, decreased quality of life correlated with these psychiatric symptoms. Patients with ADCME show a significant psychiatric burden that impairs their quality of life. A comprehensive psychiatric evaluation should be offered at the time of diagnosis to detect these comorbidities and to treat them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bilineal Disease and Trans-Heterozygotes in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pei, York; Paterson, Andrew D.; Wang, Kai Rong; He, Ning; Hefferton, Donna; Watnick, Terry; Germino, Greg G.; Parfrey, Patrick; Somlo, Stefan; St. George-Hyslop, Peter

    2001-01-01

    In searching for a putative third gene for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we studied the genetic inheritance of a large family (NFL10) previously excluded from linkage to both the PKD1 locus and the PKD2 locus. We screened 48 members of the NFL10 pedigree, by ultrasonography, and genotyped them, with informative markers, at both the PKD1 locus and the PKD2 locus. Twenty-eight of 48 individuals assessed were affected with ADPKD. Inspection of the haplotypes of these individuals suggested the possibility of bilineal disease from independently segregating PKD1 and PKD2 mutations. Using single-stranded conformational analysis, we screened for and found a PKD2 mutation (i.e., 2152delA; L736X) in 12 affected pedigree members. Additionally, when the disease status of these individuals was coded as “unknown” in linkage analysis, we also found, with markers at the PKD1 locus, significant LOD scores (i.e., >3.0). These findings strongly support the presence of a PKD1 mutation in 15 other affected pedigree members, who lack the PKD2 mutation. Two additional affected individuals had trans-heterozygous mutations involving both genes, and they had renal disease that was more severe than that in affected individuals who had either mutation alone. This is the first documentation of bilineal disease in ADPKD. In humans, trans-heterozygous mutations involving both PKD1 and PKD2 are not necessarily embryonically lethal. However, the disease associated with the presence of both mutations appears to be more severe than the disease associated with either mutation alone. The presence of bilineal disease as a confounder needs to be considered seriously in the search for the elusive PKD3 locus. PMID:11156533

  2. Natural history of intracranial aneurysms in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Niemczyk, Mariusz; Gradzik, Monika; Fliszkiewicz, Magda; Kulesza, Andrzej; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pączek, Leszek

    2017-08-18

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a relatively frequent genetic disorder that is associated with increased prevalence of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). However, evidence on the natural history of IAs in ADPKD is suboptimal. That leads to difficulties in development of recommendations on surveillance on patients with IAs in their medical history, or the need for repeat imaging for IAs in those with a negative result of the initial screening. The aim of the article is to present our experience on the natural history of IAs in ADPKD patients. Thirty-four ADPKD patients, managed at our outpatient department, with imaging for intracranial aneurysms performed at least twice, were included into present retrospective analysis. Among 8 patients with an IA in their medical history, no new IA was observed during 93 patient-years of follow-up. In 6 patients with untreated, unruptured IAs, IA growth was observed in 2 cases during 32 patient-years of follow-up. Finally, among 20 patients with a negative result of initial screening, 2 new IAs were noticed during 115 patient-years of follow-up, including 1 patient with a positive family history for an IA, and 1 patient without a family history. Our observations support repeat imaging for IAs in patients with ADPKD, positive family history of IA, and negative result of initial screening. Additionally, efforts should be made to develop clinical and/or laboratory risk factors for IAs development in ADPKD patients without family history of IA, which enable to identify patients who should undergo repeat imaging for IAs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  3. Clinical Correlates of Mass Effect in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsuk; Park, Hayne Cho; Ryu, Hyunjin; Kim, Kiwon; Kim, Hyo Sang; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Yu, Su Jong; Chung, Jin Wook; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Seung Hyup; Cheong, Hae Il; Lee, Kyubeck; Park, Jong Hoon; Pei, York; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Ahn, Curie

    2015-01-01

    Mass effect from polycystic kidney and liver enlargement can result in significant clinical complications and symptoms in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In this single-center study, we examined the correlation of height-adjusted total liver volume (htTLV) and total kidney volume (htTKV) by CT imaging with hepatic complications (n = 461) and abdominal symptoms (n = 253) in patients with ADPKD. "Mass-effect" complications were assessed by review of medical records and abdominal symptoms, by a standardized research questionnaire. Overall, 91.8% of patients had 4 or more liver cysts on CT scans. Polycystic liver disease (PLD) was classified as none or mild (htTLV < 1,600 mL/m); moderate (1,600 ≤ htTLV <3,200 mL/m); and severe (htTLV ≥ 3,200 mL/m). The prevalence of moderate and severe PLD in our patient cohort was 11.7% (n = 54/461) and 4.8% (n = 22/461), respectively, with a female predominance in both the moderate (61.1%) and severe (95.5%) PLD groups. Pressure-related complications such as leg edema (20.4%), ascites (16.6%), and hernia (3.6%) were common, and patients with moderate to severe PLD exhibited a 6-fold increased risk (compared to no or mild PLD) for these complications in multivariate analysis. Similarly, abdominal symptoms including back pain (58.8%), flank pain (53.1%), abdominal fullness (46.5%), and dyspnea/chest-discomfort (44.3%) were very common, and patients with moderate to severe PLD exhibited a 5-fold increased risk for these symptoms. Moderate to severe PLD is a common and clinically important problem in ~16% of patients with ADPKD who may benefit from referral to specialized centers for further management.

  4. Predictors of rapid disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Valentina; Gastaldon, Fiorella; Caprara, Carlotta; Giuliani, Anna; Martino, Francesca; Ferrari, Fiorenza; Ronco, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases with a reported prevalence of 1:400 to 1:1000. Since the intact kidneys can compensate for the loss of glomerular filtration in ADPKD patients, renal insufficiency usually remains undetected until almost the fourth decade of life. Hereafter, reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to identify ADPKD progression are urgently needed. Several studies and systematic reviews tried to identify markers or predictors of rapid disease progression of ADPKD. The aim of this study is to review predictors of rapid disease progression of ADPKD that can be useful to the clinician. We will describe several factors associated with rapid progression of ADPKD derived from retrospective or cross-sectional studies, suggesting the best and most useful predictors that may help to patients management in clinical practice. We will attempt to identify the most useful predictors of rapid disease progression of ADPKD: established TKV growth rate >5% per year, annual estimated glomerular filtration rate decline >5 mL/min/1.73 m2, truncating PKD1 mutations and elevated plasma copeptin level. The combination of several factors that can predict the rapid ADPKD progression is more accurate than a single-marker strategy. The "PRO-PKD" risk scoring system combined with TKV, can be useful in order to evaluate the ADPKD patients and they appear to be appropriate predictors of progression disease. Moreover levels of copeptin and some urinary markers can be matched to these factors for improved patient assessment in rapid progression.

  5. [Pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment options for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Noël, Natacha; Rieu, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the leading genetic cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Its prevalence is evaluated according to studies and population between 1/1000 and 1/4000 live births and it accounts for 6 to 8% of incident ESRD patients in developed countries. ADPKD is characterized by numerous cysts in both kidneys and various extrarenal manifestations that are detailed in this review. Clinico-radiological and genetic diagnosis are also discussed. Mutations in the PKD1 and PKD2 codifying for polycystin-1 (PC-1) and polycystin-2 (PC-2) are responsible for the 85 and 15% of ADPKD cases, respectively. In primary cilia of normal kidney epithelial cells, PC-1 and PC-2 interact forming a complex involved in flow- and cilia-dependant signalling pathways where intracellular calcium and cAMP play a central role. Alteration of these multiple signal transduction pathways leads to cystogenesis accompanied by dysregulated planar cell polarity, excessive cell proliferation and fluid secretion, and pathogenic interactions of epithelial cells with an abnormal extracellular matrix. The mass effect of expanding cyst is responsible for the decline in glomerular filtration rate that occurs late in the course of the disease. For many decades, the treatment for ADPKD aims to lessen the condition's symptoms, limit kidney damage, and prevent complications. Recently, the development of promising specific treatment raises the hope to slow the growth of cysts and delay the disease. Treatment strategies targeting cAMP signalling such as vasopressin receptor antagonists or somatostatin analogs have been tested successfully in clinical trials with relative safety. Newer treatments supported by preclinical trials will become available in the next future. Recognizing early markers of renal progression (clinical, imaging, and genetic markers) to identify high-risk patients and multidrug approaches with synergistic effects may provide new opportunities

  6. A new mutation in BFSP2 (G1091A) causes autosomal dominant congenital lamellar cataracts.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xu; Li, Fei-Feng; Wang, Shu-Zhen; Gao, Chang; Zhang, Meng; Zhu, Si-Quan

    2008-01-01

    We sought to identify the genetic defect in a four-generation Chinese family with autosomal dominant congenital lamellar cataracts and demonstrate the functional analysis with biosoftware of a candidate gene in the family. Family history data were recorded. Clinical and ophthalmologic examinations were performed on family members. All the members were genotyped with microsatellite markers at loci considered to be associated with cataracts. Two-point LOD scores were calculated by using the Linkage Software after genotyping. A mutation was detected by using gene-specific primers in direct sequencing. Wild type and mutant proteins were analyzed with Online Bio-Software. Affected members of this family had lamellar cataracts. Linkage analysis was obtained at markers D3S2322 (LOD score [Z]=7.22, recombination fraction [theta]=0.0) and D3S1541 (Z=5.42, theta=0.0). Haplotype analysis indicated that the cataract gene was closely linked to these two markers. Sequencing the beaded filament structural protein 2 (BFSP2) gene revealed a G>A transversion in exon 5, which caused a conservative substitution of Arg to His at codon 339 (P.R339H). This mutation cosegregated with the disease phenotype in all affected individuals and was not observed in the unaffected family members or in 100 normal, unrelated individuals. Bioinformatic analyses showed that a highly conserved region was located around Arg339. Data generated with Online Bio-Software revealed that the mutation altered the protein's hydrophobicity, hydrophobic moment, and chaperone and regulation activities. This is the first reported case of a congenital lamellar cataract phenotype associated with the mutation of Arg339His (P.R339H) in BFSP2. It highlights the physiologic importance of the beaded filament protein and demonstrates a possible mechanism of action for the mutant gene.

  7. Mutation G61C in the CRYGD gene causing autosomal dominant congenital coralliform cataracts.

    PubMed

    Li, Feifeng; Wang, Shuzhen; Gao, Chang; Liu, Shiguo; Zhao, Baojian; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Shangzhi; Zhu, Siquan; Ma, Xu

    2008-03-04

    We sought to identify the genetic defect in a four-generation Chinese family with autosomal dominant congenital coralliform cataracts and demonstrate the functional analysis of a candidate gene in the family. Family history data were recorded. Clinical and ophthalmologic examinations were performed on affected and unaffected family members. All the members were genotyped with microsatellite markers at loci considered to be associated with cataracts. Two-point LOD scores were calculated using the Linkage software after genotyping. A mutation was detected by direct sequencing, using gene-specific primers. Wild-type and mutant proteins were analyzed with online software. Affected members of this family had coralliform cataracts. Linkage analysis was obtained at markers, D2S72 (LOD score [Z]=3.31, recombination fraction [theta]=0.0) and D2S1782 (Z=3.01, theta=0.0). Haplotype analysis indicated that the cataract gene was closely linked to these two markers. Sequencing the gammaD-crystallin gene (CRYGD) revealed a G>T transversion in exon 2, which caused a conservative substitution of Gly to Cys at codon 61 (P.G61C). This mutation co-segregated with the disease phenotype in all affected individuals and was not observed in any of the unaffected or 100 normal, unrelated individuals. Bioinformatic analyses showed that a highly conserved region was located around Gly61. Data generated with online software revealed that the mutation altered the protein's stability, solvent-accessibility, and interactions with other proteins. This is the first reported case of a congenital coralliform cataract phenotype associated with the mutation of Gly61Cys (P.G61C) in the CRYGD gene; it demonstrates a possible mechanism of action for the mutant gene.

  8. Nephrotic syndrome and idiopathic membranous nephropathy associated with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Peces, Ramón; Martínez-Ara, Jorge; Peces, Carlos; Picazo, Mariluz; Cuesta-López, Emilio; Vega, Cristina; Azorín, Sebastián; Selgas, Rafael

    2011-05-05

    We report the case of a 38-year-old male with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and concomitant nephrotic syndrome secondary to membranous nephropathy (MN). A 3-month course of prednisone 60 mg daily and losartan 100 mg daily resulted in resistance. Treatment with chlorambucil 0.2 mg/kg daily, low-dose prednisone, plus an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) for 6 weeks resulted in partial remission of his nephrotic syndrome for a duration of 10 months. After relapse of the nephrotic syndrome, a 13-month course of mycophenolate mofetil (MFM) 2 g daily and low-dose prednisone produced complete remission for 44 months. After a new relapse, a second 24-month course of MFM and low-dose prednisone produced partial to complete remission of proteinuria with preservation of renal function. Thirty-six months after MFM withdrawal, complete remission of nephrotic-range proteinuria was maintained and renal function was preserved. This case supports the idea that renal biopsy is needed for ADPKD patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria in order to exclude coexisting glomerular disease and for appropriate treatment/prevention of renal function deterioration. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of nephrotic syndrome due to MN in a patient with ADPKD treated with MFM, with remission of proteinuria and preservation of renal function after more than 10 years. Findings in this patient also suggest that MFM might reduce cystic cell proliferation and fibrosis, preventing progressive renal scarring with preservation of renal function.

  9. Frequency of Nerve Root Sleeve Cysts in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aşık, Murat; Tufan, Fatih; Akpınar, Timur Selçuk; Akalın, Nilgül; Ceyhan, Elvan; Tunç, Necmeddin; Hasıloğlu, Zehra Işık; Altıparmak, Mehmet Rıza; Ecder, Tevfik; Albayram, Sait

    2016-01-01

    Background There is sporadic data about the occurrence of spinal meningeal cysts in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We suggest that there is a relationship with the frequency and size of spinal meningeal cysts and headache, intracranial aneurysms, and cerebrospinal fluid leakage in patients with ADPKD. Aim To investigate the relationship with spinal meningeal cyst, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and headache in patients with ADPKD. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Methods We enrolled 50 patients with ADPKD and 37 healthy volunteers. This cross-sectional study included patients with ADPKD and matched healthy volunteers. Magnetic resonance imaging myelography was performed using the 3D-T2 HASTE technique in an MRI scanner. We questioned our subjects regarding presence of headache and evaluated headache severity using a visual analog scale. The relationship between the number and size of spinal meningeal cysts with headache, intracranial aneurysms, and liver cysts was also investigated. Results Spinal meningeal cysts were more numerous and larger in patients than in controls (14.8±11.6 vs. 6.4±4.6 cysts respectively, p<0.001, 68.3±49.3 vs. 25.4±20.1 mm, p<0.001, respectively). Spinal cyst number and size were similar in APDKD patients with or without intracranial aneurysms. Headache score was correlated with the size and number of spinal meningeal cysts. This was valid only in patients with ADPKD. Conclusion Abnormality involving the vessel wall in ADPKD may explain the increased number of spinal meningeal cysts in ADPKD. Moreover, leakage of cerebrospinal fluid secondary to spinal meningeal cyst may be responsible for recurrent severe headache by causing spontaneous intracranial hypotension in these patients. PMID:27994919

  10. Refining Genotype-Phenotype Correlation in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young-Hwan; Conklin, John; Chan, Winnie; Roslin, Nicole M; Liu, Jannel; He, Ning; Wang, Kairong; Sundsbak, Jamie L; Heyer, Christina M; Haider, Masoom; Paterson, Andrew D; Harris, Peter C; Pei, York

    2016-06-01

    Renal disease variability in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is strongly influenced by the gene locus (PKD1 versus PKD2). Recent studies identified nontruncating PKD1 mutations in approximately 30% of patients who underwent comprehensive mutation screening, but the clinical significance of these mutations is not well defined. We examined the genotype-renal function correlation in a prospective cohort of 220 unrelated ADPKD families ascertained through probands with serum creatinine ≤1.4 mg/dl at recruitment. We screened these families for PKD1 and PKD2 mutations and reviewed the clinical outcomes of the probands and affected family members. Height-adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) was obtained in 161 affected subjects. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling for renal and patient survival was performed in 707 affected probands and family members. Overall, we identified pathogenic mutations in 84.5% of our families, in which the prevalence of PKD1 truncating, PKD1 in-frame insertion/deletion, PKD1 nontruncating, and PKD2 mutations was 38.3%, 4.3%, 27.1%, and 30.3%, respectively. Compared with patients with PKD1 truncating mutations, patients with PKD1 in-frame insertion/deletion, PKD1 nontruncating, or PKD2 mutations have smaller htTKV and reduced risks (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]) of ESRD (0.35 [0.14 to 0.91], 0.10 [0.05 to 0.18], and 0.03 [0.01 to 0.05], respectively) and death (0.31 [0.11 to 0.87], 0.20 [0.11 to 0.38], and 0.18 [0.11 to 0.31], respectively). Refined genotype-renal disease correlation coupled with targeted next generation sequencing of PKD1 and PKD2 may provide useful clinical prognostication for ADPKD. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria, and recurrent tetany: Gitelman syndrome in a Chinese pedigree and literature review.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ming-Feng; Bian, Hua; Liu, Hong; Wu, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Lu, Zhi-Qiang; Gao, Xin

    2017-05-01

    Gitelman syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease mostly associated with loss-of-function mutations of the SLC12A3 gene and featured by clinical hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria, and histologically hypertrophy of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. A novel homozygous mutation (p.Arg399Pro) at the extracellular domain of SLC12A3 was found and correlated with the severe clinical manifestations.

  12. Tinea imbricata: autosomal dominant pattern of susceptibility in a polygamous indigenous family of the Nahuatl zone in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, A; Araiza, J; Koffman-Alfaro, Susana; Paredes-Solis, Vanessa; Cuevas-Covarrubias, S; Rivera, M R

    2004-08-01

    We report on 9 confirmed cases of tinea imbricata (Tokelau, infection due to Trichophyton concentricum) out of 16 family members. They had a common mother with three different fathers. The genetic analysis of the family suggests an autosomal dominant pattern of susceptibility. Most cases (8/9) were presented as concentric and lamellar forms. One patient also had onychomycosis due to T. concentricum. Only two out of nine cases had a positive response to trichophytin.

  13. Simultaneous Native Nephrectomy and Kidney Transplantation in Patients With Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Veroux, Massimiliano; Zerbo, Domenico; Basile, Giusi; Gozzo, Cecilia; Sinagra, Nunziata; Giaquinta, Alessia; Sanfiorenzo, Angelo; Veroux, Pierfrancesco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous unilateral nephrectomy with kidney transplantation and to determine the effect of this procedure on perioperative morbidity and mortality and graft and patient survival. Methods Between January 2000 and May 2015, 145 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) underwent kidney transplantation. Of those, 40 (27.5%) underwent concurrent ipsilateral native nephrectomy (group NT). Patients in group NT were compared with patients with ADPKD not undergoing concurrent nephrectomy (group NT-) and asymptomatic patients undergoing pretransplant nephrectomy (group PNT). Results The average follow-up was 66 months. The graft survival rate at 1 and 5 years was 95% and 87.5% versus 93% and 76.2% in the NT and NT- groups, respectively (P = .903 and P = .544, respectively); 1-year patient survival was 100% for NT and 97% for NT- patients (P = .288), whereas 5-year patient survival was 100% and 92% for NT and NT- groups, respectively (P = .128). After propensity score matching (34 patients per group) no significant differences were observed in 1-year (97.1% in NT and 94.1%; P = 1) and 5-year (88.2% in NT and 91.2% in NT-; P = 1) graft survival, and in 1-year (100% for both groups; P = 1) and 5-year (100% in NT and 94.1% in NT-; P = 1) patient survival. Perioperative mortality was 0% among NT and 1.2% among NT- patients, whereas perioperative surgical complications were similar in both groups. One- and 5-year graft and patient survival were similar between the NT and PNT groups, but patients in the PNT group had significantly lower levels of hemoglobin and residual diuresis volumes at the time of transplant. Moreover, PNT patients had a longer pretransplant dialysis and a longer time on the waiting list. Conclusions Simultaneous unilateral nephrectomy does not have a negative effect on patient and graft survival in patients with ADPKD and is associated with low morbidity. Pretransplant nephrectomy should

  14. Hyperaldosteronism and cardiovascular risk in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Lai, Silvia; Petramala, Luigi; Mastroluca, Daniela; Petraglia, Emanuela; Di Gaeta, Alessandro; Indino, Elena; Panebianco, Valeria; Ciccariello, Mauro; Shahabadi, Hossein H; Galani, Alessandro; Letizia, Claudio; D'Angelo, Anna Rita

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension is commonly associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), often discovered before the onset of renal failure, albeit the pathogenetic mechanisms are not well elucidated. Hyperaldosteronism in ADPKD may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction, and progression of cardiorenal disease. The aim of study was to evaluate the prevalence of primary aldosteronism (PA) in ADPKD patients and identify some surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.We have enrolled 27 hypertensive ADPKD patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/min, evaluating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), inflammatory indexes, nutritional status, homocysteine (Hcy), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), mineral metabolism, microalbuminuria, and surrogate markers of atherosclerosis [carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), ankle/brachial index (ABI), flow mediated dilation (FMD), renal resistive index (RRI) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI)]. Furthermore, we have carried out the morpho-functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with high-field 3 T Magnetom Avanto.We have divided patients into group A, with normal plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and group B with PA, present in 9 (33%) of overall ADPKD patients. Respect to group A, group B showed a significant higher mean value of LVMI, HOMA-IR and Hcy (P = 0.001, P = 0.004, P = 0.018; respectively), and a lower value of FMD and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-VitD) (P = 0.037, P = 0.019; respectively) with a higher prevalence of non-dipper pattern at Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) (65% vs 40%, P < 0.05) at an early stage of the disease.In this study, we showed a high prevalence of PA in ADPKD patients, associated to higher LVMI, HOMA-IR, Hcy, lower FMD, and 25-OH-VitD, considered as surrogate markers of atherosclerosis, compared to ADPKD patients with normal PAC values. Our

  15. Hyperaldosteronism and cardiovascular risk in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Silvia; Petramala, Luigi; Mastroluca, Daniela; Petraglia, Emanuela; Di Gaeta, Alessandro; Indino, Elena; Panebianco, Valeria; Ciccariello, Mauro; Shahabadi, Hossein H.; Galani, Alessandro; Letizia, Claudio; D’Angelo, Anna Rita

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension is commonly associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), often discovered before the onset of renal failure, albeit the pathogenetic mechanisms are not well elucidated. Hyperaldosteronism in ADPKD may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction, and progression of cardiorenal disease. The aim of study was to evaluate the prevalence of primary aldosteronism (PA) in ADPKD patients and identify some surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. We have enrolled 27 hypertensive ADPKD patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/min, evaluating the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), inflammatory indexes, nutritional status, homocysteine (Hcy), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), mineral metabolism, microalbuminuria, and surrogate markers of atherosclerosis [carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), ankle/brachial index (ABI), flow mediated dilation (FMD), renal resistive index (RRI) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI)]. Furthermore, we have carried out the morpho-functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with high-field 3 T Magnetom Avanto. We have divided patients into group A, with normal plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and group B with PA, present in 9 (33%) of overall ADPKD patients. Respect to group A, group B showed a significant higher mean value of LVMI, HOMA-IR and Hcy (P = 0.001, P = 0.004, P = 0.018; respectively), and a lower value of FMD and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-VitD) (P = 0.037, P = 0.019; respectively) with a higher prevalence of non-dipper pattern at Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) (65% vs 40%, P < 0.05) at an early stage of the disease. In this study, we showed a high prevalence of PA in ADPKD patients, associated to higher LVMI, HOMA-IR, Hcy, lower FMD, and 25-OH-VitD, considered as surrogate markers of atherosclerosis, compared to ADPKD patients with normal

  16. Dietary salt restriction is beneficial to the management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Torres, Vicente E; Abebe, Kaleab Z; Schrier, Robert W; Perrone, Ronald D; Chapman, Arlene B; Yu, Alan S; Braun, William E; Steinman, Theodore I; Brosnahan, Godela; Hogan, Marie C; Rahbari, Frederic F; Grantham, Jared J; Bae, Kyongtae T; Moore, Charity G; Flessner, Michael F

    2017-02-01

    The CRISP study of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) found that urinary sodium excretion associated with the rate of total kidney volume increase. Whether sodium restriction slows the progression of Autosomal Dominant PKD (ADPKD) is not known. To evaluate this we conducted a post hoc analysis of the HALT-PKD clinical trials of renin-angiotensin blockade in patients with ADPKD. Linear mixed models examined whether dietary sodium affected rates of total kidney volume or change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with an eGFR over 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (Study A) or the risk for a composite endpoint of 50% reduction in eGFR, end-stage renal disease or death, or the rate of eGFR decline in patients with an eGFR 25-60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (Study B) all in patients initiated on an under100 mEq sodium diet. During the trial urinary sodium excretion significantly declined by an average of 0.25 and 0.41 mEq/24 hour per month in studies A and B, respectively. In Study A, averaged and time varying urinary sodium excretions were significantly associated with kidney growth (0.43%/year and 0.09%/year, respectively, for each 18 mEq urinary sodium excretion). Averaged urinary sodium excretion was not significantly associated with faster eGFR decline (-0.07 ml/min/1.73m(2)/year for each 18 mEq urinary sodium excretion). In Study B, the averaged but not time-varying urinary sodium excretion significantly associated with increased risk for the composite endpoint (hazard ratio 1.08 for each 18 mEq urinary sodium excretion) and a significantly faster eGFR decline (-0.09 ml/min/1.73m(2)/year for each mEq 18 mEq urinary sodium excretion). Thus, sodium restriction is beneficial in the management of ADPKD. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. All rights reserved.

  17. Two novel mutations of CLCN7 gene in Chinese families with autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (type II).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui; Shao, Chong; Zheng, Yan; He, Jin-Wei; Fu, Wen-Zhen; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Zhen-Lin

    2016-07-01

    Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II (ADO-II) is a heritable bone disorder characterized by osteosclerosis, predominantly involving the spine (vertebral end-plate thickening, or rugger-jersey spine), the pelvis ("bone-within-bone" structures) and the skull base. Chloride channel 7 (CLCN7) has been reported to be the causative gene. In this study, we aimed to identify the pathogenic mutation in four Chinese families with ADO-II. All 25 exons of the CLCN7 gene, including the exon-intron boundaries, were amplified and sequenced directly in four probands from the Chinese families with ADO-II. The mutation site was then identified in other family members and 250 healthy controls. In family 1, a known missense mutation c.296A>G in exon 4 of CLCN7 was identified in the proband, resulting in a tyrosine (UAU) to cysteine (UGU) substitution at p.99 (Y99C); the mutation was also identified in his affected father. In family 2, a novel missense mutation c.865G>C in exon 10 was identified in the proband, resulting in a valine (GUC) to leucine (CUC) substitution at p.289 (V289L); the mutation was also identified in her healthy mother and sister. In family 3, a novel missense mutation c.1625C>T in exon 17 of CLCN7 was identified in the proband, resulting in an alanine (GCG) to valine (GUG) substitution at p.542 (A542V); the mutation was also identified in her father. In family 4, a hot spot, R767W (c.2299C>T, CGG>TGG), in exon 24 was found in the proband which once again proved the susceptibility of the site or the similar genetic background in different races. Moreover, two novel mutations, V289L and A542V, occurred at a highly conserved position, found by a comparison of the protein sequences from eight vertebrates, and were predicted to have a pathogenic effect by PolyPhen-2 software, which showed "probably damaging" with a score of approximately 1. These mutation sites were not identified in 250 healthy controls. Our present findings suggest that the novel missense

  18. Retinal histopathology in eyes from patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa caused by rhodopsin mutations.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Vera L; Rayborn, Mary E; Bell, Brent A; Marino, Meghan J; Beight, Craig D; Pauer, Gayle J; Traboulsi, Elias I; Hollyfield, Joe G; Hagstrom, Stephanie A

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the histopathology in donor eyes from patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) caused by p.P23H, p.P347T and p.P347L rhodopsin ( RHO ) gene mutations. Eyes from a 72-year-old male (donor 1), an 83-year-old female (donor 2), an 80-year-old female (donor 3), and three age-similar normal eyes were examined macroscopically, by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography imaging. Perifoveal and peripheral pieces were processed for microscopy and immunocytochemistry with markers for photoreceptor cells. DNA analysis revealed RHO mutations c.68C>A (p.P23H) in donor 1, c.1040C>T (p.P347L) in donor 2 and c.1039C>A (p.P347T) in donor 3. Histology of the ADRP eyes showed retinas with little evidence of stratified nuclear layers in the periphery and a prominent inner nuclear layer present in the perifoveal region in the p.P23H and p.P347T eyes, while it was severely atrophic in the p.P347L eye. The p.P23H and p.P347T mutations cause a profound loss of rods in both the periphery and perifovea, while the p.P347L mutation displays near complete absence of rods in both regions. All three rhodopsin mutations caused a profound loss of cones in the periphery. The p.P23H and p.P347T mutations led to the presence of highly disorganized cones in the perifovea. However, the p.P347L mutation led to near complete absence of cones also in the perifovea. Our results support clinical findings indicating that mutations affecting residue P347 develop more severe phenotypes than those affecting P23. Furthermore, our results indicate a more severe phenotype in the p.P347L retina as compared to the p.P347T retina.

  19. PKD2-Related Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, Mutation Spectrum, and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Emilie Cornec-Le; Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Renaudineau, Eric; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Charasse, Christophe; Michez, Eric; Frouget, Thierry; Vigneau, Cécile; Dantal, Jacques; Siohan, Pascale; Longuet, Hélène; Gatault, Philippe; Ecotière, Laure; Bridoux, Frank; Mandart, Lise; Hanrotel-Saliou, Catherine; Stanescu, Corina; Depraetre, Pascale; Gie, Sophie; Massad, Michiel; Kersalé, Aude; Séret, Guillaume; Augusto, Jean-François; Saliou, Philippe; Maestri, Sandrine; Chen, Jian-Min; Harris, Peter C.; Férec, Claude; Le Meur, Yannick

    2017-01-01

    Background PKD2-related autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is widely acknowledged to be of milder severity than PKD1-related disease, but population-based studies depicting the exact burden of the disease are lacking. We aimed to revisit PKD2 prevalence, clinical presentation, mutation spectrum, and prognosis through the Genkyst cohort. Study Design Case series, January 2010 to March 2016. Settings & Participants Genkyst study participants are individuals older than 18 years from 22 nephrology centers from western France with a diagnosis of ADPKD based on Pei criteria or at least 10 bilateral kidney cysts in the absence of a familial history. Publicly available whole-exome sequencing data from the ExAC database were used to provide an estimate of the genetic prevalence of the disease. Outcomes Molecular analysis of PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Renal survival, age- and sex-adjusted estimated glomerular filtration rate. Results The Genkyst cohort included 293 patients with PKD2 mutations (203 pedigrees). PKD2 patients with a nephrology follow-up corresponded to 0.63 (95% CI, 0.54–0.72)/10,000 in Brittany, while PKD2 genetic prevalence was calculated at 1.64 (95% CI, 1.10–3.51)/10,000 inhabitants in the European population. Median age at diagnosis was 42 years. Flank pain was reported in 38.9%; macroscopic hematuria, in 31.1%; and cyst infections, in 15.3% of patients. At age 60 years, the cumulative probability of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was 9.8% (95% CI, 5.2%–14.4%), whereas the probability of hypertension was 75.2% (95% CI, 68.5%–81.9%). Although there was no sex influence on renal survival, men had lower kidney function than women. Nontruncating mutations (n = 36) were associated with higher age-adjusted estimated glomerular filtration rates. Among the 18 patients with more severe outcomes (ESRD before age 60), 44% had associated conditions or nephropathies likely to account for the early progression to ESRD. Limitations Younger patients

  20. Renal volume and cardiovascular risk assessment in normotensive autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Sans, Laia; Pascual, Julio; Radosevic, Aleksandar; Quintian, Claudia; Ble, Mireia; Molina, Lluís; Mojal, Sergi; Ballarin, José A.; Torra, Roser; Fernández-Llama, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease, closely related to an early appearance of hypertension, is the most common mortality cause among autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients (ADPKD). The development of hypertension is related to an increase in renal volume. Whether the increasing in the renal volume before the onset of hypertension leads to a major cardiovascular risk in ADPKD patients remains unknown. Observational and cross-sectional study of 62 normotensive ADPKD patients with normal renal function and a group of 28 healthy controls. Renal volume, blood pressure, and renal (urinary albumin excretion), blood vessels (carotid intima media thickness and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity), and cardiac (left ventricular mass index and diastolic dysfunction parameters) asymptomatic organ damage were determined and were considered as continuous variables. Correlations between renal volume and the other parameters were studied in the ADPKD population, and results were compared with the control group. Blood pressure values and asymptomatic organ damage were used to assess the cardiovascular risk according to renal volume tertiles. Even though in the normotensive range, ADPKD patients show higher blood pressure and major asymptomatic organ damage than healthy controls. Asymptomatic organ damage is not only related to blood pressure level but also to renal volume. Multivariate regression analysis shows that microalbuminuria is only associated with height adjusted renal volume (htTKV). An htTKV above 480 mL/m represents a 10 times higher prevalence of microalbuminuria (4.8% vs 50%, P < 0.001). Normotensive ADPKD patients from the 2nd tertile renal volume group (htTKV > 336 mL/m) show higher urinary albumin excretion, but the 3rd tertile htTKV (htTKV > 469 mL/m) group shows the worst cardiovascular risk profile. Normotensive ADPKD patients show in the early stages of the disease with slight increase in renal volume, higher cardiovascular risk

  1. Medical therapy with tranexamic acid in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients with severe haematuria.

    PubMed

    Peces, Ramón; Aguilar, Ana; Vega, Cristina; Cuesta, Emilio; Peces, Carlos; Selgas, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Gross haematuria is a common manifestation of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). It can be spontaneous or the result of trauma, renal calculi, tumour, or infection. Spontaneous cyst bleeding is important in this particular group of patients, since it can be prolonged by local activation of fibrinolysis by urokinase. The management of haematuria in ADPKD is usually conservative, including bed rest, blood transfusion, correction of blood disorders, and use of vasopressin and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. In some patients, the management of gross or life-threatening haematuria may require embolisation and/or nephrectomy. Nonetheless, other methods have been tried to avoid prolonged hospitalisation and nephrectomy and preserve kidney function, such as the use of anti-fibrinolytics. Tranexamic acid was recently suggested as a tool to treat gross haematuria in ADPKD in isolated cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the response to tranexamic acid in a group of 8 patients with ADPKD and gross haematuria unresponsive to conventional treatment. The massive bleeding stopped within 2 to 5 days in all patients. The haemoglobin level and renal function subsequently stabilised. There were no side effects or thromboembolic events. In this case series, the largest prospective study so far published and the only one including different degrees of renal function, tranexamic acid is confirmed as a promising tool for treating haematuria due to intracystic bleeding in ADPKD. In summary, tranexamic acid can be used safely in ADPKD patients with chronic renal impairment or preserved renal function to treat severe haematuria poorly responsive to conventional therapy. Tranexamic acid can be administered orally or IV; and dose adjustment for renal impairment is important. Tranexamic acid therapy may preserve renal function in ADPKD directly, by stopping haematuria episodes, or indirectly, by preventing embolisation and/or nephrectomy. The major

  2. Novel mutation in the γ-S crystallin gene causing autosomal dominant cataract

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jai Rup; Singh, Daljit; Varon, Raymonda; Sperling, Karl

    2009-01-01

    exceptional member of the β-/γ-crystallin superfamily and further substantiates the genetic and clinical heterogeneity of autosomal dominant cataract. PMID:19262743

  3. Renal volume and cardiovascular risk assessment in normotensive autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Sans, Laia; Pascual, Julio; Radosevic, Aleksandar; Quintian, Claudia; Ble, Mireia; Molina, Lluís; Mojal, Sergi; Ballarin, José A; Torra, Roser; Fernández-Llama, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease, closely related to an early appearance of hypertension, is the most common mortality cause among autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients (ADPKD). The development of hypertension is related to an increase in renal volume. Whether the increasing in the renal volume before the onset of hypertension leads to a major cardiovascular risk in ADPKD patients remains unknown.Observational and cross-sectional study of 62 normotensive ADPKD patients with normal renal function and a group of 28 healthy controls. Renal volume, blood pressure, and renal (urinary albumin excretion), blood vessels (carotid intima media thickness and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity), and cardiac (left ventricular mass index and diastolic dysfunction parameters) asymptomatic organ damage were determined and were considered as continuous variables. Correlations between renal volume and the other parameters were studied in the ADPKD population, and results were compared with the control group. Blood pressure values and asymptomatic organ damage were used to assess the cardiovascular risk according to renal volume tertiles.Even though in the normotensive range, ADPKD patients show higher blood pressure and major asymptomatic organ damage than healthy controls. Asymptomatic organ damage is not only related to blood pressure level but also to renal volume. Multivariate regression analysis shows that microalbuminuria is only associated with height adjusted renal volume (htTKV). An htTKV above 480 mL/m represents a 10 times higher prevalence of microalbuminuria (4.8% vs 50%, P < 0.001). Normotensive ADPKD patients from the 2nd tertile renal volume group (htTKV > 336 mL/m) show higher urinary albumin excretion, but the 3rd tertile htTKV (htTKV > 469 mL/m) group shows the worst cardiovascular risk profile.Normotensive ADPKD patients show in the early stages of the disease with slight increase in renal volume, higher cardiovascular risk than healthy

  4. Pancreatic Cysts in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Prevalence and Association with PKD2 Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Jon D.; Chhabra, Shalini; Dutruel, Silvina P.; Thimmappa, Nanda Deepa; Bobb, Warren O.; Donahue, Stephanie; Rennert, Hanna E.; Tan, Adrian Y.; Giambrone, Ashley E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To define the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging prevalence of pancreatic cysts in a cohort of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) compared with a control group without ADPKD that was matched for age, sex, and renal function. Materials and Methods In this HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board–approved study, all patients with ADPKD provided informed consent; for control subjects, informed consent was waived. Patients with ADPKD (n = 110) with mutations identified in PKD1 or PKD2 and control subjects without ADPKD or known pancreatic disease (n = 110) who were matched for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and date of MR imaging examination were evaluated for pancreatic cysts by using axial and coronal single-shot fast spin-echo T2-weighted images obtained at 1.5 T. Total kidney volume and liver volume were measured. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate potential associations between collected variables and presence of pancreatic cysts among patients with ADPKD. The number, size, location, and imaging characteristics of the cysts were recorded. Results Patients with ADPKD were significantly more likely than control subjects to have at least one pancreatic cyst (40 of 110 patients [36%] vs 25 of 110 control subjects [23%]; P = .027). In a univariate analysis, pancreatic cysts were more prevalent in patients with ADPKD with mutations in PKD2 than in PKD1 (21 of 34 patients [62%] vs 19 of 76 patients [25%]; P = .0002). In a multivariable logistic regression model, PKD2 mutation locus was significantly associated with the presence of pancreatic cysts (P = .0004) and with liver volume (P = .038). Patients with ADPKD and a pancreatic cyst were 5.9 times more likely to have a PKD2 mutation than a PKD1 mutation after adjusting for age, race, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, liver volume, and total kidney volume. Conclusion Pancreatic cysts were more prevalent

  5. Berberine slows cell growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonon, Anna; Mangolini, Alessandra; Pinton, Paolo; Senno, Laura del; Aguiari, Gianluca

    2013-11-22

    Highlights: •Berberine at appropriate doses slows cell proliferation in ADPKD cystic cells. •Reduction of cell growth by berberine occurs by inhibition of ERK and p70-S6 kinase. •Higher doses of berberine cause an overall cytotoxic effect. •Berberine overdose induces apoptotic bodies formation and DNA fragmentation. •Antiproliferative properties of this drug make it a new candidate for ADPKD therapy. -- Abstract: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary monogenic disorder characterized by development and enlargement of kidney cysts that lead to loss of renal function. It is caused by mutations in two genes (PKD1 and PKD2) encoding for polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 proteins which regulate different signals including cAMP, mTOR and EGFR pathways. Abnormal activation of these signals following PC1 or PC2 loss of function causes an increased cell proliferation which is a typical hallmark of this disease. Despite the promising findings obtained in animal models with targeted inhibitors able to reduce cystic cell growth, currently, no specific approved therapy for ADPKD is available. Therefore, the research of new more effective molecules could be crucial for the treatment of this severe pathology. In this regard, we have studied the effect of berberine, an isoquinoline quaternary alkaloid, on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human and mouse ADPKD cystic cell lines. Berberine treatment slows cell proliferation of ADPKD cystic cells in a dose-dependent manner and at high doses (100 μg/mL) it induces cell death in cystic cells as well as in normal kidney tubule cells. However, at 10 μg/mL, berberine reduces cell growth in ADPKD cystic cells only enhancing G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase of cell cycle and inhibiting ERK and p70-S6 kinases. Our results indicate that berberine shows a selected antiproliferative activity in cellular models for ADPKD, suggesting that this molecule and similar natural compounds could open new

  6. A novel frameshift mutation of POU4F3 gene associated with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hee Keun; Park, Hong-Joon; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Park, Rekil; Kim, Un-Kyung

    2010-06-04

    Autosomal dominant mutations in the transcription factor POU4F3 gene are associated with non-syndromic hearing loss in humans; however, there have been few reports of mutations in this gene worldwide. We performed a mutation analysis of the POU4F3 gene in 42 unrelated Koreans with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss, identifying a novel 14-bp deletion mutation in exon 2 (c.662del14) in one patient. Audiometric examination revealed severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in this patient. The novel mutation led to a truncated protein that lacked both functional POU domains. We further investigated the functional distinction between wild-type and mutant POU4F3 proteins using in vitro assays. The wild-type protein was completely localized in the nucleus, while the truncation of protein seriously affected its nuclear localization. In addition, the mutant failed to activate reporter gene expression. This is the first report of a POU4F3 mutation in Asia, and moreover our data suggest that further investigation will need to delineate ethnicity-specific genetic background for autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss within Asian populations.

  7. Weill-Marchesani syndrome - possible linkage of the autosomal dominant form to 15q21.1

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtz, M.K.; Samples, J.R.; Rust, K.

    1996-10-02

    Weill-Marchesani syndrome comprises short stature, brachydactyly, microspherophakia, glaucoma, and ectopia lentis is regarded as an autosomal recessive trait. We present two families each with affected individuals in 3 generations demonstrating autosomal dominant inheritance of Weill-Marchesani syndrome. Linkage analysis in these 2 families suggests a gene for Weill-Marchesani syndrome maps to 15q21.1. The dislocated lenses and connective tissue disorder in these families suggests that fibrillin-1 and microfibril-associated protein 1, which both map to 15q21.1, are candidate genes for Weill-Marchesani syndrome. Immunohistochemistry staining of skin sections from family 1 showed an apparent decrease in fibrillin staining compared to control individuals. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Cognitive Decline in a Colombian Kindred With Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel C; Lopera, Francisco; Henao, Eliana; Tirado, Victoria; Muñoz, Claudia; Giraldo, Margarita; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Reiman, Eric M; Tariot, Pierre N; Langbaum, Jessica B; Quiroz, Yakeel T; Jaimes, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Data from an autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) kindred were used to track the longitudinal trajectory of cognitive decline associated with preclinical ADAD and explore factors that may modify the rate of cognitive decline. To evaluate the onset and rate of cognitive decline during preclinical ADAD and the effect of socioeconomic, vascular, and genetic factors on the cognitive decline. We performed a retrospective cohort study from January 1, 1995, through June 31, 2012, of individuals from Antioquia, Colombia, who tested positive for the ADAD-associated PSEN1 E280A mutation. Data analysis was performed from August 20, 2014, through November 30, 2015. A mixed-effects model was used to estimate annual rates of change in cognitive test scores and to mark the onset of cognitive decline. Memory, language, praxis, and total scores from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer Disease test battery. Chronologic age was used as a time scale in the models. We explore the effects of sex; educational level; socioeconomic status; residence area; occupation type; marital status; history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia; tobacco and alcohol use; and APOE ε4 on the rates of cognitive decline. A total of 493 carriers met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. A total of 256 carriers had 2 or more assessments. At the time of the initial assessment, participants had a mean (SD) age of 33.4 (11.7) years and a mean (SD) educational level of 7.2 (4.2) years. They were predominantly female (270 [54.8%]), married (293 [59.4%]), and of low socioeconomic status (322 [65.3%]). Word list recall scores provided the earliest indicator of preclinical cognitive decline at 32 years of age, 12 and 17 years before the kindred's respective median ages at mild cognitive impairment and dementia onset. After the change point, carriers had a statistically significant cognitive decline with a loss of 0.24 (95% CI, -0.26 to -0.22) points per year for the word

  9. Cognitive Decline in a Colombian Kindred With Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel C.; Lopera, Francisco; Henao, Eliana; Tirado, Victoria; Muñoz, Claudia; Giraldo, Margarita; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.; Reiman, Eric M.; Tariot, Pierre N.; Langbaum, Jessica B.; Quiroz, Yakeel T.; Jaimes, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Data from an autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) kindred were used to track the longitudinal trajectory of cognitive decline associated with preclinical ADAD and explore factors that may modify the rate of cognitive decline. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the onset and rate of cognitive decline during preclinical ADAD and the effect of socioeconomic, vascular, and genetic factors on the cognitive decline. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We performed a retrospective cohort study from January 1, 1995, through June 31, 2012, of individuals from Antioquia, Colombia, who tested positive for the ADAD-associated PSEN1 E280A mutation. Data analysis was performed from August 20, 2014, through November 30, 2015. A mixed-effects model was used to estimate annual rates of change in cognitive test scores and to mark the onset of cognitive decline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Memory, language, praxis, and total scores from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer Disease test battery. Chronologic age was used as a time scale in the models. We explore the effects of sex; educational level; socioeconomic status; residence area; occupation type; marital status; history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia; tobacco and alcohol use; and APOE ε4 on the rates of cognitive decline. RESULTS A total of 493 carriers met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. A total of 256 carriers had 2 or more assessments. At the time of the initial assessment, participants had a mean (SD) age of 33.4 (11.7) years and a mean (SD) educational level of 7.2 (4.2) years. They were predominantly female (270 [54.8%]), married (293 [59.4%]), and of low socioeconomic status (322 [65.3%]). Word list recall scores provided the earliest indicator of preclinical cognitive decline at 32 years of age, 12 and 17 years before the kindred’s respective median ages at mild cognitive impairment and dementia onset. After the change point, carriers had a statistically significant

  10. Renal failure in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and coexisting dermato-polymyositis: first report in the literature.

    PubMed

    Bahceci, Funda; Sari, Ramazan; Sarikaya, Metin; Atik, Esin; Karincaoglu, Yelda; Sevinc, Alper

    2004-06-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a multisystem disorder characterized by multiple, bilateral renal cysts and is also associated with cysts in other organs, such as the liver, pancreas, and arachnoid membranes. Dermatomyositis is a disease which mainly involves the skin and muscles, although occasionally other organs are affected. In this report, a 56-year-old male patient with a four-year history of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease was presented. Renal failure was exacerbated by a coexisting dermato-polymyositis. Prednisone treatment with hemodialysis improved the situation. This is the first report renal failure in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and dermato-polymyositis.

  11. Achalasia familiar: report of a family with an autosomal dominant pattern of inherence.

    PubMed

    Gordillo-González, G; Guatibonza, Y P; Zarante, I; Roa, P; Jacome, L A; Hani, A

    2011-01-01

    Esophageal achalasia is a well-known pathology with an autosomal recessive pattern of inherence described in the familiar cases. Its principal symptom is dysphagia, secondary to the poor relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. Chagas disease is one of the many causes involved in the development of this disease, being of great importance in our country because of the high prevalence of the vector. Various syndromes include achalasia in their symptomatology, such as the triple A syndrome or Allgrove syndrome (Addisonianism, achalasia, and alacrimia). We reported a family with a classical autosomal pattern of inherence with six affected members, four men and two women, with achalasia diagnosis as well as esophagus cancer in two of them, secondary to the disease, and no other findings. © 2010 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  12. The Application of Next-Generation Sequencing for Mutation Detection in Autosomal-Dominant Hereditary Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Gürtler, Nicolas; Röthlisberger, Benno; Ludin, Katja; Schlegel, Christoph; Lalwani, Anil K

    2017-07-01

    Identification of the causative mutation using next-generation sequencing in autosomal-dominant hereditary hearing impairment, as mutation analysis in hereditary hearing impairment by classic genetic methods, is hindered by the high heterogeneity of the disease. Two Swiss families with autosomal-dominant hereditary hearing impairment. Amplified DNA libraries for next-generation sequencing were constructed from extracted genomic DNA, derived from peripheral blood, and enriched by a custom-made sequence capture library. Validated, pooled libraries were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq instrument, 300 cycles and paired-end sequencing. Technical data analysis was performed with SeqMonk, variant analysis with GeneTalk or VariantStudio. The detection of mutations in genes related to hearing loss by next-generation sequencing was subsequently confirmed using specific polymerase-chain-reaction and Sanger sequencing. Mutation detection in hearing-loss-related genes. The first family harbored the mutation c.5383+5delGTGA in the TECTA-gene. In the second family, a novel mutation c.2614-2625delCATGGCGCCGTG in the WFS1-gene and a second mutation TCOF1-c.1028G>A were identified. Next-generation sequencing successfully identified the causative mutation in families with autosomal-dominant hereditary hearing impairment. The results helped to clarify the pathogenic role of a known mutation and led to the detection of a novel one. NGS represents a feasible approach with great potential future in the diagnostics of hereditary hearing impairment, even in smaller labs.

  13. Immunological loss-of-function due to genetic gain-of-function in humans: autosomal dominance of the third kind

    PubMed Central

    Quartier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    All the human primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) recognized as such in the 1950s were Mendelian traits and, whether autosomal or X-linked, displayed recessive inheritance. The first autosomal dominant (AD) PID, hereditary angioedema, was recognized in 1963. However, since the first identification of autosomal recessive (AR), X-linked recessive (XR) and AD PID-causing genes in 1985 (ADA; severe combined immunodeficiency), 1986 (CYBB, chronic granulomatous disease) and 1989 (SERPING1; hereditary angioedema), respectively, the number of genetically defined AD PIDs has increased more rapidly than that of any other type of PID. AD PIDs now account for 61 of the 260 known conditions (23%). All known AR PIDs are caused by alleles with some loss-of-function (LOF). A single XR PID is caused by gain-of-function (GOF) mutations (WASP-related neutropenia, 2001). In contrast, only 44 of 61 AD defects are caused by LOF alleles, which exert dominance by haploinsufficiency or negative dominance. Since 2003, up to 17 AD disorders of the third kind, due to GOF alleles, have been described. Remarkably, six of the 17 genes concerned also harbor monoallelic (STAT3), biallelic (C3, CFB, CARD11, PIK3R1) or both monoallelic and biallelic (STAT1) LOF alleles in patients with other clinical phenotypes. Most heterozygous GOF alleles result in auto-inflammation, auto-immunity, or both, with a wide range of immunological and clinical forms. Some also underlie infections and, fewer, allergies, by impairing or enhancing immunity to non-self. Malignancies are also rare. The enormous diversity of immunological and clinical phenotypes is thought provoking and mirrors the diversity and pleiotropy of the underlying genotypes. These experiments of nature provide a unique insight into the quantitative regulation of human immunity. PMID:25645939

  14. Missense mutations in the sodium-gated potassium channel gene KCNT1 cause severe autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Heron, Sarah E; Smith, Katherine R; Bahlo, Melanie; Nobili, Lino; Kahana, Esther; Licchetta, Laura; Oliver, Karen L; Mazarib, Aziz; Afawi, Zaid; Korczyn, Amos; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Petrou, Steven; Berkovic, Samuel F; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Dibbens, Leanne M

    2012-11-01

    We performed genomic mapping of a family with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) and intellectual and psychiatric problems, identifying a disease-associated region on chromosome 9q34.3. Whole-exome sequencing identified a mutation in KCNT1, encoding a sodium-gated potassium channel subunit. KCNT1 mutations were identified in two additional families and a sporadic case with severe ADNFLE and psychiatric features. These findings implicate the sodium-gated potassium channel complex in ADNFLE and, more broadly, in the pathogenesis of focal epilepsies.

  15. Early structural anomalies observed by high-resolution imaging in two related cases of autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Pyo; Lee, Winston; Bae, Eun Jin; Greenstein, Vivianne; Sin, Bum Ho; Chang, Stanley; Tsang, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    The authors report the use of adaptive-optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) to investigate RHO, D190N autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa in two siblings (11 and 16 years old, respectively). Each patient exhibited distinct hyperautofluorescence patterns in which the outer borders corresponded to inner segment ellipsoid band disruption. Areas within the hyperautofluorescence patterns exhibited normal photoreceptor outer segments and retinal pigment epithelium. However, AO-SLO imaging revealed noticeable spacing irregularities in the cone mosaic. AO-SLO allows researchers to characterize retinal structural abnormalities with precision so that early structural changes in retinitis pigmentosa can be identified and reconciled with genetic findings.

  16. Early Structural Anomalies Observed by High-Resolution Imaging in Two Related Cases of Autosomal-Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Pyo; Lee, Winston; Bae, Eun Jin; Greenstein, Vivianne; Sin, Bum Ho; Chang, Stanley; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the use of adaptive-optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) to investigate RHO, D190N autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa in two siblings (11 and 16 years old, respectively). Each patient exhibited distinct hyperautofluorescence patterns in which the outer borders corresponded to inner segment ellipsoid band disruption. Areas within the hyperautofluorescence patterns exhibited normal photoreceptor outer segments and retinal pigment epithelium. However, AO-SLO imaging revealed noticeable spacing irregularities in the cone mosaic. AO-SLO allows researchers to characterize retinal structural abnormalities with precision so that early structural changes in retinitis pigmentosa can be identified and reconciled with genetic findings. PMID:25215869

  17. Autosomal dominant aplasia cutis in three generations and one case with preaxial polydactyly in the last generation.

    PubMed

    Yağci-Küpeli, B; Çağlar, K; Büyük, S; Balci, S

    2011-01-01

    Aplasia Cutis Congenita (ACC), characterized by the focal absence of the skin and skin adnexia resulting from a developmental failure, may occur as part of Adams-Oliver Syndrome (AOS) which can be defined as a congenital inherited disorder, consisting of terminal transverse limb defects and vascular anomalies in addition to ACC. Coexistence of isolated preaxial polydactyly without terminal extremity defect and ACC is extremely rare. Furthermore, ACC and preaxial polydactyly has not been reported previously. Here we report a three-generation family with autosomal dominant aplasia cutis congenita and preaxial polydactyly in the last generation and discuss whether it is a coincidence or not.

  18. Craniosynostosis, ectopia lentis, and congenital heart defects: further delineation of an autosomal dominant syndrome with incomplete penetrance.

    PubMed

    Quercia, Nada L; Teebi, Ahmad S

    2002-01-01

    The association of craniosynostosis with ectopia lentis is extremely rare. This was recently reported in monozygotic twin sisters, supporting a genetic etiology for this syndromic association. We report on female first cousins once removed who were born with unilateral coronal synostosis. One cousin also had peripheral pulmonic branch stenosis at birth and was later found to have ectopia lentis and severe myopia. The other cousin had an atrial septal defect, mitral valve prolapse, and only mild myopia. Their intelligence is normal. The inheritance is likely autosomal dominant with variable expression and incomplete penetrance and further defines this syndrome to include congenital heart defects. These findings will have important implications for genetic counseling.

  19. Coexistence of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and amyloidosis in a patient with nephrotic-range proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Yenigun, Ezgi Coskun; Dede, Fatih; Ozkayar, Nihal; Turgut, Didem; Piskinpasa, Serhan Vahit; Ozturk, Ramazan; Koc, Eyup; Odabas, Ali Riza

    2014-05-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited disorder characterized by the development and growth of cysts in the kidneys. Non-nephritic-range proteinuria is a common presentation in ADPKD patients; however, nephrotic syndrome is a rare coincidence. A 52-year-old man is described who was diagnosed with secondary amyloidosis with ADPKD. To our knowledge, this is the first case of amyloidosis associated with frequently infected renal cysts. Patients with ADPKD who show massive proteinuria should be investigated in terms of concomitant glomerular disease.

  20. The effect of piracetam on ataxia: clinical observations in a group of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia patients.

    PubMed

    Ince Gunal, D; Agan, K; Afsar, N; Borucu, D; Us, O

    2008-04-01

    Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias are clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders. There is no known treatment to prevent neuronal cell death in these disorders. Current treatment is purely symptomatic; ataxia is one of the most disabling symptoms and represents the main therapeutic challenge. A previous case report suggesting benefit from administration of high dose piracetam inspired the present study of the efficacy of this agent in patients with cerebellar ataxia. Piracetam is a low molecular weight derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid. Although little is known of its mode of action, its efficacy has been documented in a wide range of clinical indications, such as cognitive disorders, dementia, vertigo and dyslexia, as well as cortical myoclonus. The present report investigated the role of high dose piracetam in patients with cerebellar ataxia. Eight patients with autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia were given intravenous piracetam 60 g/day by a structured protocol for 14 days. The baseline and end-of-the study evaluations were based on the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant improvement in the patients' total score (P = 0.018) and a subscale analysis showed statistical significance for only the posture and gait disturbances item (P = 0.018). This study is providing good clinical observation in favour of high dose piracetam infusion to reduce the disability of the patients by improving their gait ataxia.

  1. A de novo mutation of the MYH7 gene in a large Chinese family with autosomal dominant myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Tetsuya; Xiong, Hui; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Wang, Shuo; Satake, Wataru; Jiao, Hui; Yang, Yanling; Cha, Pei-Chieng; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Nishino, Ichizo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Wu, Xiru; Toda, Tatsushi

    2015-01-01

    Laing distal myopathy (LDM) is an autosomal dominant myopathy that is caused by mutations in the slow/beta cardiac myosin heavy-chain (MYH7) gene. It has been recently reported that LDM presents with a wide range of clinical manifestations. We herein report a large Chinese family with autosomal dominant myopathy. The affected individuals in the family presented with foot drop in early childhood, along with progressive distal and proximal limb weakness. Their characteristic symptoms include scapular winging and scoliosis in the early disease phase and impairment of ambulation in the advanced phase. Although limb-girdle muscle dystrophy (LGMD) was suspected initially, a definite diagnosis could not be reached. As such, we performed linkage analysis and detected four linkage regions, namely 1q23.2-24.1, 14q11.2-12, 15q26.2-26.3 and 17q24.3. Through subsequent whole exome sequencing, we found a de novo p.K1617del causative mutation in the MYH7 gene and diagnosed the disease as LDM. This is the first LDM case in China. Our patients have severe clinical manifestations that mimic LGMD in comparison with the patients with the same mutation reported elsewhere. PMID:27081534

  2. Whole Exome Sequencing Identified MCM2 as a Novel Causative Gene for Autosomal Dominant Nonsyndromic Deafness in a Chinese Family

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Cheng; Chen, Siqi; Qi, Yu; Liu, Yuhe

    2015-01-01

    We report the genetic analysis of autosomal dominant, nonsyndromic, progressive sensorineural hearing loss in a Chinese family. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified a missense variant (c.130C>T, p.R44C) in the MCM2 gene, which has a pro-apoptosis effect and is involved in the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. This missense variant is very likely to be the disease causing variant. It segregated with hearing loss in this pedigree, and was not found in the dbSNP database or databases of genomes and SNP in the Chinese population, in 76 patients with sporadic hearing loss, or in 145 normal individuals. We performed western blot and immunofluorescence to test the MCM2 protein expression in the cochlea of rats and guinea pigs, demonstrating that MCM2 was widely expressed in the cochlea and was also surprisingly expressed in the cytoplasm of terminally differentiated hair cells. We then transiently expressed the variant MCM2 cDNA in HEK293 cells, and found that these cells displayed a slight increase in apoptosis without any changes in proliferation or cell cycle, supporting the view that this variant is pathogenic. In summary, we have identified MCM2 as a novel gene responsible for nonsyndromic hearing loss of autosomal dominant inheritance in a Chinese family. PMID:26196677

  3. Autosomal Dominant Retinal Degeneration and Bone Loss in Patients with a 12-bp Deletion in the CRX Gene

    PubMed Central

    Tzekov, Radouil T.; Liu, Yuhui; Sohocki, Melanie M.; Zack, Donald J.; Daiger, Stephen P.; Heckenlively, John R.; Birch, David G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To define the phenotypic expression of a deletion in the gene encoding the transcription factor CRX in a large, seven-generation, white family. Methods Fourteen affected individuals, all heterozygous for the Leu146del12 mutation in the cone-rod homeobox gene (CRX), and four nonaffected relatives from the same family were examined with visual function tests, and 10 underwent bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Results The ability of the mutated CRX protein to transactivate rhodopsin promoter was decreased by approximately 25%, and its ability to react synergistically with neural retinal leucine zipper (NRL) was reduced by more than 30%. The affected members of the family had an autosomal dominant ocular condition most closely resembling Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) with severe visual impairment at an early age. Depending on age, affected members showed varying degrees of significant visual acuity loss, elevated dark-adaptation thresholds, significantly reduced cone and rod electroretinogram (ERG) amplitudes, and progressive constriction of the visual fields, in most cases leading to complete blindness. Six affected members had reduced levels of BMD in the spine and the hip (osteopenia). Four affected female members who were receiving long-term hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) demonstrated normal values of BMD. Conclusions This large deletion of the CRX gene is associated with a severe form of autosomal dominant retinal degeneration. Affected members not receiving HRT showed reduced BMD (osteopenia). This phenotype may reflect the abnormal influence of mutant CRX on both retinal and pineal development. PMID:11328746

  4. An unusual case of cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy with occipital lobe involvement

    PubMed Central

    Trikamji, Bhavesh; Thomas, Mariam; Hathout, Gasser; Mishra, Shrikant

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an autosomal dominant angiopathy caused by a mutation in the notch 3 gene on chromosome 19. Clinically, patients may be asymptomatic or can present with recurrent ischemic episodes and strokes leading to dementia, depression, pseudobulbar palsy, and hemi- or quadraplegia. Additional manifestations that have been described include migraine (mostly with aura), psychiatric disturbances, and epileptic seizures. Neuroimaging is essential to the diagnosis of CADASIL. On imaging CADASIL is characterized by symmetric involvement by confluent lesions located subcortically in the frontal and temporal lobes as well as in the insula, periventricularly, in the centrum semiovale, in the internal and external capsule, basal ganglia, and brain stem; with relative sparing of the fronto-orbital and the occipital subcortical regions. We describe a 49 year old male with CADASIL with absence of temporal lobe findings on MRI but predominant lesions within the periventricular white matter, occipital lobes with extension into the subcortical frontal lobes, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter. Although CADASIL characteristically presents with anterior temporal lobe involvement, these findings may be absent and our case addresses the atypical imaging findings in CADASIL. PMID:27293347

  5. Renal hemodynamic effects of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zand, Ladan; Torres, Vicente E; Larson, Timothy S; King, Bernard F; Sethi, Sanjeev; Bergstralh, Eric J; Angioi, Andrea; Fervenza, Fernando C

    2016-08-01

    To determine the effect of statins on renal hemodynamics in normal volunteers and those with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease either with mild or moderate renal dysfunction. Thirty-two study subjects were enrolled in this study: 11 normal volunteers, 11 study subjects with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and mild kidney disease and 10 study subjects with ADPKD and moderate kidney disease. Subjects in each group received simvastatin 40 mg once daily for a period of 4 weeks. Renal blood flow was measured based on para-amino-hippurate (PAH) clearance and with the use of a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner at the beginning and following 4 weeks of therapy with statins. At the end of the study, except for the lipid profile, which was significantly lower in all groups, other laboratory results showed no change. Four weeks of therapy with simvastatin resulted in no change in serum creatinine, 24-h urinary protein, sodium, iothalamate clearance, PAH clearance or renal blood flow as measured by MRI or based on PAH clearance. Four weeks of therapy with simvastatin did not change renal blood flow in the study subjects with ADPKD with mild-to-moderate renal dysfunction or in healthy volunteers. NCT02511418. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  6. Autosomal Dominant Avascular Necrosis of Femoral Head in Two Taiwanese Pedigrees and Linkage to Chromosome 12q13

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ming; Liu, Yu-Fen; Lin, Ming-Wei; Chen, I-Chun; Lin, Pei-Yu; Lin, Guan-Lu; Jou, Yuh-Shan; Lin, Yang-Te; Fann, Cathy S. J.; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Hsiao, Kwang-Jen; Tsai, Shih-Feng

    2004-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) is a debilitating disease that commonly leads to destruction of the hip joint in adults. The etiology of ANFH is unknown, but previous studies have indicated that heritable thrombophilia (increased tendency to form thrombi) and hypofibrinolysis (reduced ability to lyse thrombi), alcohol intake, and steroid use are risk factors for ANFH. We recently identified two families with ANFH showing autosomal dominant inheritance. By applying linkage analysis to a four-generation pedigree, we excluded linkage between the family and three genes related to thrombophilia and hypofibrinolysis: protein C, protein S, and plasminogen activator inhibitor. Furthermore, by a genomewide scan, a significant two-point LOD score of 3.45 (recombination fraction [θ]=0) was obtained between the family with ANFH and marker D12S85 on chromosome 12. High-resolution mapping was conducted in a second family with ANFH and replicated the linkage to D12S368 (pedigree I: LOD score 2.47, θ=0.05; pedigree II: LOD score 2.81, θ=0.10). When an age-dependent–penetrance model was applied, the combined multipoint LOD score was 6.43 between D12S1663 and D12S85. Thus, we mapped the candidate gene for autosomal dominant ANFH to a 15-cM region between D12S1663 and D12S1632 on chromosome 12q13. PMID:15179599

  7. DGAT2 Mutation in a Family with Autosomal-Dominant Early-Onset Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young Bin; Kang, Junghee; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jinho; Kwak, Geon; Hyun, Young Se; Nam, Soo Hyun; Hong, Hyun Dae; Choi, Yu-Ri; Jung, Sung-Chul; Koo, Heasoo; Lee, Ji Eun; Choi, Byung-Ok; Chung, Ki Wha

    2016-05-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy and is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. We examined a Korean family in which two individuals had an autosomal-dominant axonal CMT with early-onset, sensory ataxia, tremor, and slow disease progression. Pedigree analysis and exome sequencing identified a de novo missense mutation (p.Y223H) in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) gene. DGAT2 encodes an endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial-associated membrane protein, acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, which catalyzes the final step of the triglyceride (TG) biosynthesis pathway. The patient showed consistently decreased serum TG levels, and overexpression of the mutant DGAT2 significantly inhibited the proliferation of mouse motor neuron cells. Moreover, the variant form of human DGAT2 inhibited the axonal branching in the peripheral nervous system of zebrafish. We suggest that mutation of DGAT2 is the novel underlying cause of an autosomal-dominant axonal CMT2 neuropathy. This study will help provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of axonal CMT and contribute to the molecular diagnostics of peripheral neuropathies.

  8. Identification of a De Novo 3bp Deletion in CRYBA1/A3 Gene in Autosomal Dominant Congenital Cataract.

    PubMed

    Mohebi, Masoumeh; Akbari, Abolfazl; Babaei, Nahid; Sadeghi, Abdolrahim; Heidari, Mansour

    2016-12-01

    Autosomal dominant congenital cataract (ADCC) is the most common form of inherited cataracts and accounts for one-third of congenital cataracts. Heterozygous null mutations in the crystallin genes are the major cause of the ADCC. This study aims to detect the mutational spectrum of four crystallin genes, CRYBA1/A3, CRYBB1, CRYBB2 and CRYGD in an Iranian family. Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood cells from theproband and other family members. The coding regions and flanking intronicsequences of crystalline genes were analyzed by Sanger sequencing in aproband with ADCC. The identified mutation was further evaluated in available family members. To predict the potential protein partners of CRYBA1/A3, we also used an in-silico analysis. A de novo heterozygous deletion (c.272-274delGAG, p.G91del) in exon 4 of CRYBA1/A3 gene, leading to a deletion of Glycine at codon 91 was found. This genetic variation did not change the reading frame of CRYBA1 protein. In conclusion, we identified a de novo in-frame 3-bp deletion in the proband with an autosomal dominant congenital cataract, but not in her parents, in an Iranian family. This mutation has occurred de novo on a paternal gamete during spermatogenesis. The in-silico results predicted the interaction of CRYBA1 protein with the other CRY as well as proteins responsible for eye cell signaling.

  9. Mutation Analysis Identifies GUCY2D as the Major Gene Responsible for Autosomal Dominant Progressive Cone Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kitiratschky, Veronique B. D.; Wilke, Robert; Renner, Agnes B.; Kellner, Ulrich; Vadalà, Maria; Birch, David G.; Wissinger, Bernd; Zrenner, Eberhart; Kohl, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Heterozygous mutations in the GUCY2D gene, which encodes the membrane-bound retinal guanylyl cyclase-1 protein (RetGC-1), have been shown to cause autosomal dominant inherited cone degeneration and cone–rod degeneration (adCD, adCRD). The present study was a comprehensive screening of the GUCY2D gene in 27 adCD and adCRD unrelated families of these rare disorders. Methods Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing as well as PCR and subsequent restriction length polymorphism analysis (PCR/RFLP). Haplotype analysis was performed in selected patients by using microsatellite markers. Results GUCY2D gene mutations were identified in 11 (40%) of 27 patients, and all mutations clustered to codon 838, including two known and one novel missense mutation: p.R838C, p.R838H, and p.R838G. Haplotype analysis showed that among the studied patients only two of the six analyzed p.R838C mutation carriers shared a common haplotype and that none of the p.R838H mutation carriers did. Conclusions GUCY2D is a major gene responsible for progressive autosomal dominant cone degeneration. All identified mutations localize to codon 838. Haplotype analysis indicates that in most cases these mutations arise independently. Thus, codon 838 is likely to be a mutation hotspot in the GUCY2D gene. PMID:18487367

  10. BRAIN ABNORMALITIES IN YOUNG ADULTS AT GENETIC RISK FOR AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Reiman, Eric M.; Quiroz, Yakeel T.; Fleisher, Adam S.; Chen, Kewei; Velez-Pardo, Carlos; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Fagan, Anne M.; Shah, Aarti R.; Alvarez, Sergio; Arbelaez, Andrés; Giraldo, Margarita; Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Sperling, Reisa A.; Dickerson, Brad; Stern, Chantal E.; Tirado, Victoria; Munoz, Claudia; Reiman, Rebecca A.; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Alexander, Gene E.; Langbaum, Jessica B.S.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Tariot, Pierre N.; Lopera, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background We previously detected functional brain imaging abnormalities in young adults at genetic risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we sought to characterize structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and plasma biomarker abnormalities in young adults at risk for autosomal dominant early-onset AD. Biomarker measurements were characterized and compared in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers and non-carriers from the world’s largest known autosomal dominant early-onset AD kindred, more than two decades before the carriers’ estimated median age of 44 at the onset of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and before their estimated age of 28 at the onset of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque deposition. Methods Biomarker data for this cross-sectional study were acquired in Antioquia, Colombia between July and August, 2010. Forty-four participants from the Colombian Alzheimer’s Prevention Initiative (API) Registry had structural MRIs, functional MRIs during associative memory encoding/novel viewing and control tasks, and cognitive assessments. They included 20 mutation carriers and 24 non-carriers, who were cognitively normal, 18-26 years old and matched for their gender, age, and educational level. Twenty of the participants, including 10 mutation carriers and 10 non-carriers, had lumbar punctures and venipunctures. Primary outcome measures included task-dependent hippocampal/parahippocampal activations and precuneus/posterior cingulate deactivations, regional gray matter reductions, CSF Aβ1-42, total tau and phospho-tau181 levels, and plasma Aβ1-42 levels and Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratios. Structural and functional MRI data were compared using automated brain mapping algorithms and AD-related search regions. Cognitive and fluid biomarkers were compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Findings The mutation carrier and non-carrier groups did not differ significantly in their dementia ratings, neuropsychological

  11. Native Nephrectomy with Renal Transplantation is Associated with a Decrease in Hypertension Medication Requirements for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Shumate, Ashley M; Bahler, Clinton D; Goggins, William C; Sharfuddin, Asif A; Sundaram, Chandru P

    2016-01-01

    We assessed hypertensive control after native nephrectomy and renal transplantation in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Blood pressure control was studied retrospectively in 118 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease who underwent renal transplantation between 2003 and 2013. Overall 54 patients underwent transplantation alone (group 1) and 64 underwent transplantation with concurrent ipsilateral nephrectomy (group 2). Of these 64 patients 32 underwent ipsilateral nephrectomy only (group 2a) and 32 underwent eventual delayed contralateral native nephrectomy (group 2b). The number of antihypertensive drugs and defined daily dose of each antihypertensive was recorded at transplantation and up to 36-month followup. Comparing preoperative to postoperative medications at 12, 24 and 36-month followup, transplantation with concurrent ipsilateral nephrectomy had a greater decrease in quantity (-1.2 vs -0.5 medications, p=0.008; -1.1 vs -0.3, p=0.007 and -1.2 vs -0.4, p=0.03, respectively) and defined daily dose of antihypertensive drug (-3.3 vs -1.0, p=0.0008; -2.9 vs -1.0, p=0.006 and -2.7 vs -0.6, p=0.007, respectively) than transplantation alone at each point. Native nephrectomy continued to be a predictor of hypertensive requirements on multivariable analysis (p <0.0001). The mean decrease in number of medications in group 2b from after ipsilateral nephrectomy to 12 months after contralateral nephrectomy was -0.6 (p=0.0005) and the mean decrease in defined daily dose was -0.6 (p=0.009). In patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease undergoing renal transplantation, concurrent ipsilateral native nephrectomy is associated with a significant decrease in the quantity and defined daily dose of antihypertensive drugs needed for hypertension control. Delayed contralateral native nephrectomy is associated with improved control of blood pressure to an even greater degree. Copyright © 2016 American Urological

  12. The PARK8 locus in autosomal dominant parkinsonism: confirmation of linkage and further delineation of the disease-containing interval.

    PubMed

    Zimprich, Alexander; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Farrer, Matthew; Leitner, Petra; Sharma, Manu; Hulihan, Mary; Lockhart, Paul; Strongosky, Audrey; Kachergus, Jennifer; Calne, Donald B; Stoessl, Jon; Uitti, Ryan J; Pfeiffer, Ronald F; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Homann, Nikolaus; Ott, Erwin; Wenzel, Karoline; Asmus, Friedrich; Hardy, John; Wszolek, Zbigniew; Gasser, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a new locus (PARK8) for autosomal dominant parkinsonism has been identified in one large Japanese family. Linkage has been shown to a 16-cM centromeric region of chromosome 12, between markers D12S1631 and D12S339. We tested 21 white families with Parkinson disease and an inheritance pattern compatible with autosomal dominant transmission for linkage in this region. Criteria for inclusion were at least three affected individuals in more than one generation. A total of 29 markers were used to saturate the candidate region. One hundred sixty-seven family members were tested (84 affected and 83 unaffected). Under the assumption of heterogeneity and through use of an affecteds-only model, a maximum multipoint LOD score of 2.01 was achieved in the total sample, with an estimated proportion of families with linkage of 0.32. This LOD score is significant for linkage in a replication study and corresponds to a P value of.0047. Two families (family A [German Canadian] and family D [from western Nebraska]) reached significant linkage on their own, with a combined maximum multipoint LOD score of 3.33, calculated with an affecteds-only model (family A: LOD score 1.67, P=.0028; family D: LOD score 1.67, P=.0028). When a penetrance-dependent model was calculated, the combined multipoint LOD score achieved was 3.92 (family A: LOD score 1.68, P=.0027; family D: LOD score 2.24, P=.0007). On the basis of the multipoint analysis for the combined families A and D, the 1-LOD support interval suggests that the most likely disease location is between a CA repeat polymorphism on genomic clone AC025253 (44.5 Mb) and marker D12S1701 (47.7 Mb). Our data provide evidence that the PARK8 locus is responsible for the disease in a subset of families of white ancestry with autosomal dominant parkinsonism, suggesting that it could be a more common locus.

  13. Clinical and molecular analysis of the enamelin gene ENAM in Colombian families with autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Sandra; Torres, Diana; Briceño, Ignacio; Gómez, Ana Maria; Baquero, Eliana

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the phenotype, clinical characteristics and presence of mutations in the enamelin gene ENAM in five Colombian families with autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (ADAI). 22 individuals (15 affected and seven unaffected) belonging to five Colombian families with ADAI and eight individuals (three affected and five unaffected) belonging to three Colombian families with autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta (ARAI) that served as controls for molecular alterations and inheritance patterns were studied. Clinical, radiographic and genetic evaluations were done in all individuals. Eight exons and three intron-exon boundaries were sequenced for mutation analysis. Two of the five families with ADAI had the hypoplasic phenotype, two had the hypocalcified phenotype and one had the hypomaturative phenotype. Anterior open bite and mandibular retrognathism were the most frequent skeletal abnormalities in the families with ADAI. No mutations were found. These findings suggest that ADAI in these Colombian families was unrelated to previously described mutations in the ENAM gene. These results also indicate that other regions not included in this investigation, such as the promoter region, introns and other genes should be considered as potential ADAI candidates. PMID:23055792

  14. Clinical and molecular analysis of the enamelin gene ENAM in Colombian families with autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Sandra; Torres, Diana; Briceño, Ignacio; Gómez, Ana Maria; Baquero, Eliana

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed the phenotype, clinical characteristics and presence of mutations in the enamelin gene ENAM in five Colombian families with autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (ADAI). 22 individuals (15 affected and seven unaffected) belonging to five Colombian families with ADAI and eight individuals (three affected and five unaffected) belonging to three Colombian families with autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta (ARAI) that served as controls for molecular alterations and inheritance patterns were studied. Clinical, radiographic and genetic evaluations were done in all individuals. Eight exons and three intron-exon boundaries were sequenced for mutation analysis. Two of the five families with ADAI had the hypoplasic phenotype, two had the hypocalcified phenotype and one had the hypomaturative phenotype. Anterior open bite and mandibular retrognathism were the most frequent skeletal abnormalities in the families with ADAI. No mutations were found. These findings suggest that ADAI in these Colombian families was unrelated to previously described mutations in the ENAM gene. These results also indicate that other regions not included in this investigation, such as the promoter region, introns and other genes should be considered as potential ADAI candidates.

  15. Genetic forms of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI): Vasopressin receptor defect (X-linked) and aquaporin defect (autosomal recessive and dominant).

    PubMed

    Bichet, Daniel G; Bockenhauer, Detlef

    2016-03-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be inherited or acquired, is characterized by an inability to concentrate urine despite normal or elevated plasma concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Polyuria with hyposthenuria and polydipsia are the cardinal clinical manifestations of the disease. About 90% of patients with congenital NDI are males with X-linked NDI who have mutations in the vasopressin V2 receptor (AVPR2) gene encoding the vasopressin V2 receptor. In less than 10% of the families studied, congenital NDI has an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with mutations in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) gene. When studied in vitro, most AVPR2 and AQP2 mutations lead to proteins trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum and are unable to reach the plasma membrane. Prior knowledge of AVPR2 or AQP2 mutations in NDI families and perinatal mutation testing is of direct clinical value and can avert the physical and mental retardation associated with repeated episodes of dehydration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Novel CRYGD Mutation (p.Trp43Arg) Causing Autosomal Dominant Congenital Cataract in a Chinese Family

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Binbin; Yu, Changhong; Xi, Yi-Bo; Cai, Hong-Chen; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Sirui; Zhou, Shiyi; Wu, Yi; Yan, Yong-Bin; Ma, Xu; Xie, Lixin

    2011-01-01

    To identify the genetic defect associated with autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract in a Chinese family, molecular genetic investigation via haplotype analysis and direct sequencing were performed Sequencing of the CRYGD gene revealed a c.127T>C transition, which resulted in a substitution of a highly conserved tryptophan with arginine at codon 43 (p.Trp43Arg). This mutation co-segregated with all affected individuals and was not observed in either unaffected family members or in 200 normal unrelated individuals. Biophysical studies indicated that the p.Trp43Arg mutation resulted in significant tertiary structural changes. The mutant protein was much less stable than the wild-type protein, and was more prone to aggregate when subjected to environmental stresses such as heat and UV irradiation. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21031598

  17. [Waardenburg syndrome type I--autosomal dominant hereditary combination of multiple facial anomalies with cochlear deafness (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Meinecke, P

    1982-03-01

    Waardenburg syndrome Type I is described on the basis of an observation of a family. The characteristic signs including lateral displacement of medial canthi ("telecanthus"), wide bridge of the nose, white forelock and severe cochlear deafness are found in one female patient only; however, her eyes are not of different colour. Five further bearers of characteristic signs in four generations are not so severely affected and show the facial anomalies only. To differentiate this syndrome against Waardenburg syndrome Type II which is complicated by deafness twice as often but occurs without the lateral displacement of the medial canthi, accurate measurement of the distance between the canthi is helpful. Waardenburg syndromes are hereditary according to the autosomal dominant principle with high penetration; intrafamiliarly, too, expressivity can vary greatly. To date treatment has been directed at the signs and symptoms; prognosis is usually favourable. Prevention appears possible through genetic family counseling.

  18. Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa in Pregnancy: A Case Report of the Autosomal Dominant Subtype and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Herrell, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of inherited blistering skin diseases that vary widely in their pathogenesis and severity. There are three main categories of EB: simplex, junctional, and dystrophic. This classification is based on the level of tissue separation within the basement membrane zone and this is attributed to abnormalities of individual or several anchoring proteins that form the interlocking network spanning from the epidermis to the dermis underneath. Dystrophic EB results from mutations in COL7A1 gene coding for type VII collagen leading to blister formation within the dermis. Diagnosis ultimately depends on the patient's specific genetic mutation, but initial diagnosis can be made from careful examination and history taking. We present a pregnant patient known to have autosomal dominant dystrophic EB and discuss the obstetrical and neonatal outcome. The paper also reviews the current English literature on this rare skin disorder. PMID:24864146

  19. Pleuritic chest pain from portal hypertensive gastropathy in ESRD patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease misdiagnosed as pericarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Onuigbo, Macaulay Amechi Chukwukadibia; Agbasi, Nneoma; Achebe, Jennifer; Odenigbo, Charles; Oguejiofor, Fidelis

    2016-01-01

    Portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) is a gastric mucosal lesion complicating portal hypertension, with higher prevalence in decompensated cirrhosis. PHG can sometimes complicate autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) due to the presence of multiple liver cysts. Besides, PHG is known to present as chest pain, with or without hematemesis. Other causes of chest pain in ADPKD include referred chest pain from progressively enlarging kidney cysts, and rare pericardial cysts. Chest pain, especially if pleuritic, in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, is often ascribed to uremic pericarditis. We present recurrent pleuritic chest pain in a 24-year old ESRD patient with ADPKD that was initially misdiagnosed as uremic pericarditis. It was ultimately shown to represent symptomatic PHG with excellent therapeutic response to proton pump inhibitors. PMID:27069969

  20. Ebstein anomaly associated with left ventricular noncompaction: an autosomal dominant condition that can be caused by mutations in MYH7.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, Alexa M C; van Engelen, Klaartje; Postma, Alex V; Baars, Marieke J H; Christiaans, Imke; De Haij, Simone; Klaassen, Sabine; Mulder, Barbara J M; Keavney, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a relatively common genetic cardiomyopathy, characterized by prominent trabeculations with deep intertrabecular recesses in mainly the left ventricle. Although LVNC often occurs in an isolated entity, it may also be present in various types of congenital heart disease (CHD). The most prevalent CHD in LVNC is Ebstein anomaly, which is a rare form of CHD characterized by apical displacement and partial fusion of the septal and posterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve with the ventricular septum. Several reports of sporadic as well as familial cases of Ebstein anomaly associated with LVNC have been reported. Recent studies identified mutations in the MYH7 gene, encoding the sarcomeric β-myosin heavy chain protein, in patients harboring this specific phenotype. Here, we will review the association between Ebstein anomaly, LVNC and mutations in MYH7, which seems to represent a subtype of Ebstein anomaly with autosomal dominant inheritance and variable penetrance.

  1. The first Indian-origin family with genetically proven cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL).

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sunaina; Bentley, Paul; Srivastava, Padma; Prasad, Kameshwar; Sharma, Pankaj

    2013-01-01

    We report the first family of Indian origin known to be affected by cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Seventeen members of the family spanning 3 generations had neurologic syndromes compatible with CADASIL, of whom 5 were genetically confirmed carriers of the Notch3 gene R141C mutation in exon 4 (421(C→T) and 141(Cys→Arg)). Our report highlights that CADASIL not only occurs sporadically in South Asians, but also may account for stroke in South Asians with a strong family history. Furthermore, the similarity of clinical presentations described here to those typical for Caucasian case series suggests that the CADASIL phenotype is preserved across racial groups.

  2. Genetic linkage of autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma to 1q21-q31 in three affected pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, J.L.; Paglinauan, C.; Fine, A.; Sporn, C.; Lou, D. ); Haines, J.L. )

    1994-05-15

    Glaucoma is a common disorder that results in irreversible damage to the optic nerve, causing absolute blindness. In most cases, the optic nerve is damaged by an elevation of the intraocular pressure that is the result of an abnormality in the normal drainage function of the trabecular meshwork. A family history of glaucoma is an important risk factor for the disease, suggesting that genetic defects predisposing to this condition are likely. Three pedigrees segregating an autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma demonstrated significant linkage to a group of closely spaced markers on chromosome 1. These results confirm the initial mapping of this disease and suggest that this region on chromosome 1 contains an important locus for juvenile glaucoma. The authors describe recombination events that improve the localization of the responsible gene, reducing the size of the candidate region from 30 to 12 cM. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Mapping of a gene for autosomal dominant juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma to chromosome 1 q

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, J.E.; Lichter, P.R.; Torrez, D.; Wong, D.; Johnson, A.T.; Boehnke, M.; Uro, J.L.A. )

    1994-01-01

    A large Caucasian family is presented, in which a juvenile-onset form of open-angle glaucoma is transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. Sixteen affected family members were identified from 31 at-risk individuals descended from the affected founder. Affected patients developed high intraocular pressures (sometimes >40 mm Hg) within the first 2 decades of life. Linkage analysis between the disease phenotype and 12 microsatellite repeat markers located on chromosome 1 q gave a maximum lod score of 8.38 at a recombination fraction of zero for marker D1S210. Analysis of recombinant haplotypes suggests a total inclusion region of about 14 cM between markers D1S194 and D1S218 at 1q21-q31. This represents the second juvenile-glaucoma family, in which the disease has been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 1. 57 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Linkage analysis excludes the glaucoma locus on 1q from involvement in autosomal dominant glaucoma with iris hypoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Heon, E.; Sheth, B.P.; Kalenak, J.W.

    1994-09-01

    Genetic factors have been implicated in a variety of types of glaucoma including primary open-angle glaucoma, infantile glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, and juvenile open-angle glaucoma. We previously mapped the disease-causing gene for one type of juvenile open angle glaucoma to chromosome 1q21-31. Weatherill and Hart (1969) and Pearce (1983) each noted the association of iris hypoplasia and early-onset autosomal dominant glaucoma. We recently had the opportunity to study a large family (12 affected members) with this phenotype. Affected individuals developed glaucoma at an average age of 30 years. These patients also have a strikingly underdeveloped iris stroma which causes a peculiar eye color. Linkage analysis was able to completely exclude the 1q glaucoma locus from involvement in the disorder that affects this family. A complete clinical description of the family and linkage results at additional candidate loci will be presented.

  5. Description of a large family with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia associated with the APOE p.Leu167del mutation

    PubMed Central

    Marduel, Marie; Ouguerram, Khadija; Serre, Valérie; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Marques-Pinheiro, Alice; Berge, Knut Erik; Devillers, Martine; Luc, Gérald; Lecerf, Jean-Michel; Tosolini, Laurent; Erlich, Danièle; Peloso, Gina M.; Stitziel, Nathan; Nitchké, Patrick; Jaïs, Jean-Philippe; Abifadel, Marianne; Kathiresan, Sekar; Leren, Trond Paul; Rabès, Jean-Pierre; Boileau, Catherine; Varret, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Apo E mutants are associated with type III hyperlipoproteinemia characterized by high cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Autosomal Dominant Hypercholesterolemia (ADH), due to mutations in the LDLR, APOB or PCSK9 genes, is characterized by an isolated elevation of cholesterol due to high levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). We now report an exceptionally large family including 14 members with ADH. Through genome wide mapping, analysis of regional/functional candidate genes and whole exome sequencing, we identified a mutation in the APOE gene, p.Leu167del previously reported associated with sea-blue histiocytosis and familial combined hyperlipidemia. We confirmed the involvement of the APOE p.Leu167del in ADH, with (1) a predicted destabilization of an alpha-helix in the binding domain; (2) a decreased apo E level in LDL; and (3) a decreased catabolism of LDL. Our results show that mutations in the APOE gene can be associated with bona fide ADH. PMID:22949395

  6. Aromatase excess syndrome: a rare autosomal dominant disorder leading to pre- or peri-pubertal onset gynecomastia.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Maki; Miyado, Mami; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Shozu, Makio; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2014-03-01

    Overexpression of CYP19A1 encoding aromatase results in a rare genetic disorder referred to as aromatase excess syndrome (AEXS). Male patients with AEXS manifest pre- or peri-pubertal onset gynecomastia, gonadotropin deficiency, and advanced bone age, while female patients are mostly asymptomatic. To date, 30 male patients with molecularly confirmed AEXS have been reported. A total of 12 types of submicroscopic rearrangements, i.e., two simple duplications, four simple deletions, two simple inversions, and four complex rearrangements, have been implicated in AEXS. Clinical severity of AEXS primarily depends on the types of the rearrangements. AEXS appears to account for a small number of cases of pre- or peri-pubertal onset gynecomastia, and should be suspected particularly when gynecomastia is associated with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, characteristic hormone abnormalities and/or advanced bone age. Treatment with an aromatase inhibitor appears to benefit patients with AEXS, although long-term safety of this class of drugs remains unknown.

  7. A Locus for an Autosomal Dominant Form of Progressive Renal Failure and Hypertension at Chromosome 1q21

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Daniel H.; Shohat, Tamy; Yahav, Michal; Ilan, Tsafra; Rechavi, Gidi; King, Lily; Shohat, Mordechai

    2000-01-01

    Linkage studies were performed in a large family with an autosomal dominant phenotype characterized by nephropathy and hypertension. In this family of Iraqi Jewish origin, the nephropathy develops into progressive renal failure. By performing a genomewide linkage search, we localized the disease gene to chromosome 1q21; the highest LOD score was obtained for the marker at locus D1S305, which yielded a maximum LOD score of 4.71 at a recombination fraction of 0. Recombination mapping defined an interval of ∼11.6 cM, between the markers at loci D1S2696 and D1S2635, that contains the disease gene. Localization of the disease-causing gene in this family represents a necessary step toward isolation of the defective gene and toward a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of hypertension and progressive renal failure. PMID:10930359

  8. Mutations in AQP5, encoding a water-channel protein, cause autosomal-dominant diffuse nonepidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma.

    PubMed

    Blaydon, Diana C; Lind, Lisbet K; Plagnol, Vincent; Linton, Kenneth J; Smith, Francis J D; Wilson, Neil J; McLean, W H Irwin; Munro, Colin S; South, Andrew P; Leigh, Irene M; O'Toole, Edel A; Lundström, Anita; Kelsell, David P

    2013-08-08

    Autosomal-dominant diffuse nonepidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma is characterized by the adoption of a white, spongy appearance of affected areas upon exposure to water. After exome sequencing, missense mutations were identified in AQP5, encoding water-channel protein aquaporin-5 (AQP5). Protein-structure analysis indicates that these AQP5 variants have the potential to elicit an effect on normal channel regulation. Immunofluorescence data reveal the presence of AQP5 at the plasma membrane in the stratum granulosum of both normal and affected palmar epidermis, indicating that the altered AQP5 proteins are trafficked in the normal manner. We demonstrate here a role for AQP5 in the palmoplantar epidermis and propose that the altered AQP5 proteins retain the ability to form open channels in the cell membrane and conduct water.

  9. Extra-renal manifestations of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD): considerations for routine screening and management.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Randy L; Dahl, Neera K

    2014-02-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a systemic disease, marked by progressive increase of bilateral renal cysts, resulting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and often leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Apart from renal cysts, patients often have extra-renal disease, involving the liver, heart and vasculature. Other less common but equally important extra-renal manifestations of ADPKD include diverticular disease, hernias, male infertility and pain. Extra-renal disease burden is often asymptomatic, but may result in increased morbidity and mortality. If the disease burden is significant, screening may prove beneficial. We review the rationale for current screening recommendations and propose some guidelines for screening and management of ADPKD patients.

  10. Fatal liver cyst rupture in polycystic liver disease complicated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: A case report.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fang; Liang, Yue; Zhang, Lin; Li, Wenhe; Chen, Peng; Duan, Yijie; Zhou, Yiwu

    2016-05-01

    A 59-year-old man was struck in the abdomen and later presented to the emergency room. His blood pressure dropped and eventually died 16h post trauma and just before emergency exploratory laparotomy. Autopsy revealed two polycystic kidneys and a giant polycystic liver with two ruptures. Blood (2225g) was observed in the peritoneum and the body-surface injury was minor. Genetic testing was performed to confirm that the man had an autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) complicated by polycystic liver disease (PLD). Autopsy, histopathology and medical history showed that the cause of death was the ruptures of liver cysts due to trauma. In this communication, we describe a fatal case and hope to increase awareness and recognition of PLD and ADPKD. We also wish to indicate that due to the fragile condition of liver cysts, trauma should be considered even if the body-surface injury is minor in fatal cases of PLD patient with a traumatic history.

  11. Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD): executive summary from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Arlene B; Devuyst, Olivier; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Harris, Tess; Horie, Shigeo; Kasiske, Bertram L; Odland, Dwight; Pei, York; Perrone, Ronald D; Pirson, Yves; Schrier, Robert W; Torra, Roser; Torres, Vicente E; Watnick, Terry; Wheeler, David C

    2015-07-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) affects up to 12 million individuals and is the fourth most common cause for renal replacement therapy worldwide. There have been many recent advances in the understanding of its molecular genetics and biology, and in the diagnosis and management of its manifestations. Yet, diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment vary widely and there are no broadly accepted practice guidelines. Barriers to translation of basic science breakthroughs to clinical care exist, with considerable heterogeneity across countries. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Controversies Conference on ADPKD brought together a panel of multidisciplinary clinical expertise and engaged patients to identify areas of consensus, gaps in knowledge, and research and health-care priorities related to diagnosis; monitoring of kidney disease progression; management of hypertension, renal function decline and complications; end-stage renal disease; extrarenal complications; and practical integrated patient support. These are summarized in this review.

  12. Long-Term Follow-Up of Bimaxillary Osteomyelitis Associated with Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kulyapina, A; Verdaguer Martin, J; Navarro Cuellar, C; Navarro Vila, C

    2016-03-01

    Osteopetrosis (OP) is a rare metabolic bone disease characterized by a generalized increase in skeletal mass. The disease is characterized by increased susceptibility to develop osteomyelitis of the jaws. We report a case of clinical and radiological progression of bimaxillary osteomyelitis in a patient with autosomal dominant OP. The patient presented non simultaneous osteomyelitis in both upper and lower jaws with time interval of 10 years. The osteomyelitis of maxilla resulted in oroantral fistula formation and required surgical closure with Bichat fat pad flap. The mandibular osteomyelitis resulted in sequestra formation and pathological fracture and required multiple debridement procedures. Both maxillary and mandibular osteomyelitic foci were persistent and healing required more than 2 years. The case confirms the possibility of development of non simultaneous bimaxillary osteomyelitis in patients with OP. The case enhances the need of close follow- up and preventive measures in patients with OP.

  13. Co-existing autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and nephrotic syndrome in a Nigerian patient with lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Akinbodewa, A A; Adejumo, O A; Ogunsemoyin, A O; Osasan, S A; Adefolalu, O A

    2016-01-01

    A little over 30 cases on co-existing nephrotic syndrome and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) have been reported from different regions of the world since 1957. We present a case report on co-existence of nephrotic syndrome (secondary to lupus nephritis) with ADPKD in a 24-year-old woman from Nigeria. She was positive for anti-double stranded DNA. Renal histology showed International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society Class II lupus nephritis. The co-existence of nephrotic syndrome and ADPKD may have been overlooked in Africa in the past. There is a need to screen for nephrotic syndrome in patients with ADPKD among clinicians in the African setting.

  14. Hypomagnesemia in Critically Ill Sepsis Patients.

    PubMed

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Aretha, Diamanto; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg), also known as "the forgotten electrolyte", is the fourth most abundant cation overall and the second most abundant intracellular cation in the body. Mg deficiency has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases. This article is a review of the literature regarding Mg abnormalities with emphasis on the implications of hypomagnesemia in critical illness and on treatment options for hypomagnesemia in critically ill patients with sepsis. Hypomagnesemia is common in critically ill patients, and there is strong, consistent clinical evidence, largely from observational studies, showing that hypomagnesemia is significantly associated with increased need for mechanical ventilation, prolonged ICU stay and increased mortality. Although the mechanism linking hypomagnesemia with poor clinical outcomes is not known, experimental data suggest mechanisms contributing to such outcomes. However, at the present time, there is no clear evidence that magnesium supplementation improves outcomes in critically ill patients with hypomagnesemia. Large, well-designed clinical trials are needed to evaluate the role of magnesium therapy for improving outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis.

  15. Hypomagnesemia in Critically Ill Sepsis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Aretha, Diamanto; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg), also known as “the forgotten electrolyte”, is the fourth most abundant cation overall and the second most abundant intracellular cation in the body. Mg deficiency has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases. This article is a review of the literature regarding Mg abnormalities with emphasis on the implications of hypomagnesemia in critical illness and on treatment options for hypomagnesemia in critically ill patients with sepsis. Hypomagnesemia is common in critically ill patients, and there is strong, consistent clinical evidence, largely from observational studies, showing that hypomagnesemia is significantly associated with increased need for mechanical ventilation, prolonged ICU stay and increased mortality. Although the mechanism linking hypomagnesemia with poor clinical outcomes is not known, experimental data suggest mechanisms contributing to such outcomes. However, at the present time, there is no clear evidence that magnesium supplementation improves outcomes in critically ill patients with hypomagnesemia. Large, well-designed clinical trials are needed to evaluate the role of magnesium therapy for improving outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis. PMID:26566403

  16. A novel MSX1 intronic mutation associated with autosomal dominant non-syndromic oligodontia in a large Chinese family pedigree.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jinjie; Gao, Qingping; Huang, Yanru; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Pu; Cram, David S; Liang, Desheng; Wu, Lingqian

    2016-10-01

    Tooth agenesis is a common developmental dental anomaly. The aim of the study was to identify the causal genetic mutation in a four-generation Chinese family affected with non-syndromic autosomal dominant tooth agenesis. Genome-wide scanning was performed using the Illumina Linkage-12 array. Genotyping of short tandem repeat markers was used to finely map the causative locus. Haplotype analysis and Sanger sequencing was performed to precisely locate the position and nature of the gene defect. Clinical examination of the available 23 family members showed variable tooth agenesis in 10 subjects, ranging from oligodontia to mild hypodontia. Genome-wide scanning and haplotype analyses identified the 4p16.1-p16.3 region with a maximum multi-point LOD score of 3.50, which overlapped with the MSX1 gene. A single heterozygous point mutation IVS1-5 G>A in the MSX1 gene was exclusively detected in the 10 family members affected with tooth agenesis. Sequencing of MSX1 cDNA revealed that the intronic mutation did not affect the normal splicing pattern of the pre-mRNA. However, real-time qPCR analysis of lymphocyte RNA showed that the level of MSX1 mRNA was significantly decreased in individuals heterozygous for the mutation. We identified and characterized a novel intronic mutation in the MSX1 gene in a large Chinese pedigree, adding to the small repertoire of MSX1 mutations associated with autosomal dominant tooth agenesis. We hypothesize that the variable degree of tooth agenesis observed in each affected individual may be due to sub-optimal levels of MSX1 expression during critical stages tooth development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Autosomal dominant mesomandibular fibro-osseous dysplasia: a self-resolving inherited fibro-osseous lesion of the jaws.

    PubMed

    Koutlas, Ioannis G; Forsman, Cynthia L; Kyrkanides, Stephanos; Oetting, William S; Petryk, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A hereditary congenital condition characterized by a fibro-osseous lesion sharing some features with fibrous dysplasia and affecting the middle aspect of the mandible is presented. The condition was initially described as congenital monostotic fibrous dysplasia in two siblings, a male and a female. However, there is sufficient evidence that the disorder is autosomal dominant since it has been encountered in two of four children, both males, of the female propositus and one child, a boy, of the male propositus. All patients presented at birth or right after birth with enlargement of the middle part of the mandible. Radiographs from affected individuals have shown mesomandibular enlargement with irregular trabeculation akin of "ground-glass" appearance. Histologically, samples from all patients revealed woven bone proliferation in a cellular fibroblastic stroma. Interestingly, the originally described siblings, now in their 30s, have no evidence of jaw lesions either radiographically or clinically, thus indicating that the condition is self-limiting or self-resolving. An autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with apparent male predilection is favored. The molecular basis of this condition is currently unknown. However, the location of the lesions in the middle aspect of the mandible suggests dysregulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling since BMPs regulate mandibular morphogenesis in utero, particularly in the medial region as well as postnatal bone remodeling. Immunohistochemical evaluation for a BMP-binding protein Twisted Gastrulation (TWSG1) revealed mosaic pattern of staining, with some cells, including osteoclasts, strongly stained and others exhibiting faint or no staining, thus supporting active regulation of BMP signaling within the lesion. Future investigations will determine if dysregulation of BMP signaling plays a causative role or rather reflects secondary activation of repair mechanisms and/or bone remodeling.

  18. Whole exome sequencing identifies a novel NRL mutation in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Meng; Zhang, Su; Liu, Chunjie; Qin, Yayun; Archacki, Stephen; Jin, Ling; Wang, Yong; Liu, Fei; Chen, Jiaxiang; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jiuxiang; Huang, Mi; Liao, Shengjie; Tang, Zhaohui; Guo, An Yuan; Liu, Mugen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the genetic basis and its relationship to the clinical manifestations in a four generation Chinese family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Methods Ophthalmologic examinations including fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, fundus fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and a best-corrected visual acuity test were performed to define the clinical features of the patients. We extracted the genomic DNA from peripheral blood samples. The proband’s genomic DNA was submitted to the whole exome sequencing. Results Whole exome sequencing and the subsequent data analysis detected six candidate mutations in the proband of this pedigree. The novel c.146 C>T mutation in NRL was found to be the only mutation that co-segregated with the disease in this pedigree. This mutation resulted in a substitution of proline by a leucine at position 49 of NRL protein (p.P49L). Most importantly, the proline residue at position 49 of NRL is highly conserved from zebrafish to humans. The c.146 C>T mutation was not observed in 200 control individuals. What’s more, we performed the luciferase activity assay to prove that this mutation we detected alters the NRL protein function. Conclusions The c.146 C>T mutation in NRL gene causes autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa for this family. Our finding not only expands the mutation spectrum of NRL, but also demonstrates that whole-exome sequencing is a powerful strategy to detect causative genes and mutations in RP patients. This technique may provide a precise diagnosis for rare heterogeneous monogenic disorders such as RP. PMID:27081294

  19. Relationship between renal function and renal volume in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Torres-Sánchez, M J; Ávila-Barranco, E; Esteban de la Rosa, R J; Fernández-Castillo, R; Esteban, M A; Carrero, J J; García-Valverde, M; Bravo-Soto, J A

    2016-03-01

    To determine in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease the relationship between total renal volume (the sum of both kidneys, TRV) as measured by magnetic resonance and renal function; and its behaviour according to sex and the presence of arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and hyperglycemia. Cross-sectional study including patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease who underwent periodic reviews at Nephrology external consultations at Hospital de las Nieves de Granada, and who underwent an magnetic resonance to estimate renal volume between January 2008 and March 2011. We evaluated 67 patients (59.7% women, average age of 48±14.4 years) and found a significant positive association between TRV and serum creatinine or urea, which was reversed compared with estimated glomerular filtration by MDRD-4 and Cockcroft-Gault. Women showed an average serum creatinine level and a significantly lower TRV level compared with males. Subgroups affected by arterial hypertension and hyperuricemia presented average values for serum creatinine and urea, higher for TRV and lower for estimated glomerular filtration. The hypercholesterolaemia subgroup showed higher average values for urea and lower for estimated glomerular filtration, without detecting significant differences compared with TRV. The volume of polycystic kidneys measured by magnetic resonance is associated with renal function, and can be useful as a complementary study to monitor disease progression. The presence of arterial hypertension, hyperuricemia or hypercholesterolaemia is associated with a poorer renal function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of macular structure and function in two Swedish families with genetically identified autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Abdulridha-Aboud, Wissam; Kjellström, Ulrika; Andréasson, Sten

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the phenotype in two families with genetically identified autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) focusing on macular structure and function. Methods Clinical data were collected at the Department of Ophthalmology, Lund University, Sweden, for affected and unaffected family members from two pedigrees with adRP. Examinations included optical coherence tomography (OCT), full-field electroretinography (ffERG), and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Molecular genetic screening was performed for known mutations associated with adRP. Results The mode of inheritance was autosomal dominant in both families. The members of the family with a mutation in the PRPF31 (p.IVS6+1G>T) gene had clinical features characteristic of RP, with severely reduced retinal rod and cone function. The degree of deterioration correlated well with increasing age. The mfERG showed only centrally preserved macular function that correlated well with retinal thinning on OCT. The family with a mutation in the RHO (p.R135W) gene had an extreme intrafamilial variability of the phenotype, with more severe disease in the younger generations. OCT showed pathology, but the degree of morphological changes was not correlated with age or with the mfERG results. The mother, with a de novo mutation in the RHO (p.R135W) gene, had a normal ffERG, and her retinal degeneration was detected merely with the reduced mfERG. Conclusions These two families demonstrate the extreme inter- and intrafamilial variability in the clinical phenotype of adRP. This is the first Swedish report of the clinical phenotype associated with a mutation in the PRPF31 (p.IVS6+1G>T) gene. Our results indicate that methods for assessment of the central retinal structure and function may improve the detection and characterization of the RP phenotype. PMID:27212874

  1. Identification of Disease-Causing Mutations in Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa (adRP) Using Next-Generation DNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bowne, Sara J.; Sullivan, Lori S.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Ding, Li; Fulton, Robert; Abbott, Rachel M.; Sodergren, Erica J.; Birch, David G.; Wheaton, Dianna H.; Heckenlively, John R.; Liu, Qin; Pierce, Eric A.; Weinstock, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether massively parallel next-generation DNA sequencing offers rapid and efficient detection of disease-causing mutations in patients with monogenic inherited diseases. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a challenging application for this technology because it is a monogenic disease in individuals and families but is highly heterogeneous in patient populations. RP has multiple patterns of inheritance, with mutations in many genes for each inheritance pattern and numerous, distinct, disease-causing mutations at each locus; further, many RP genes have not been identified yet. Methods. Next-generation sequencing was used to identify mutations in pairs of affected individuals from 21 families with autosomal dominant RP, selected from a cohort of families without mutations in “common” RP genes. One thousand amplicons targeting 249,267 unique bases of 46 candidate genes were sequenced with the 454GS FLX Titanium (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) and GAIIx (Illumina/Solexa, San Diego, CA) platforms. Results. An average sequence depth of 70× and 125× was obtained for the 454GS FLX and GAIIx platforms, respectively. More than 9000 sequence variants were identified and analyzed, to assess the likelihood of pathogenicity. One hundred twelve of these were selected as likely candidates and tested for segregation with traditional di-deoxy capillary electrophoresis sequencing of additional family members and control subjects. Five disease-causing mutations (24%) were identified in the 21 families. Conclusion. This project demonstrates that next-generation sequencing is an effective approach for detecting novel, rare mutations causing heterogeneous monogenic disorders such as RP. With the addition of this technology, disease-causing mutations can now be identified in 65% of autosomal dominant RP cases. PMID:20861475

  2. Mutation in the novel nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein CHCHD10 in a family with autosomal dominant mitochondrial myopathy.

    PubMed

    Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Fecto, Faisal; Ajroud, Kaouther; Lalani, Irfan; Calvo, Sarah E; Mootha, Vamsi K; Deng, Han-Xiang; Siddique, Nailah; Tahmoush, Albert J; Heiman-Patterson, Terry D; Siddique, Teepu

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathies belong to a larger group of systemic diseases caused by morphological or biochemical abnormalities of mitochondria. Mitochondrial disorders can be caused by mutations in either the mitochondrial or nuclear genome. Only 5% of all mitochondrial disorders are autosomal dominant. We analyzed DNA from members of the previously reported Puerto Rican kindred with an autosomal dominant mitochondrial myopathy (Heimann-Patterson et al. 1997). Linkage analysis suggested a putative locus on the pericentric region of the long arm of chromosome 22 (22q11). Using the tools of integrative genomics, we established chromosome 22 open reading frame 16 (C22orf16) (later designated as CHCHD10) as the only high-scoring mitochondrial candidate gene in our minimal candidate region. Sequence analysis revealed a double-missense mutation (R15S and G58R) in cis in CHCHD10 which encodes a coiled coil-helix-coiled coil-helix protein of unknown function. These two mutations completely co-segregated with the disease phenotype and were absent in 1,481 Caucasian and 80 Hispanic (including 32 Puerto Rican) controls. Expression profiling showed that CHCHD10 is enriched in skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial localization of the CHCHD10 protein was confirmed using immunofluorescence in cells expressing either wild-type or mutant CHCHD10. We found that the expression of the G58R, but not the R15S, mutation induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Our findings identify a novel gene causing mitochondrial myopathy, thereby expanding the spectrum of mitochondrial myopathies caused by nuclear genes. Our findings also suggest a role for CHCHD10 in the morphologic remodeling of the mitochondria.

  3. Whole exome sequencing identifies a novel NRL mutation in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meng; Zhang, Su; Liu, Chunjie; Qin, Yayun; Archacki, Stephen; Jin, Ling; Wang, Yong; Liu, Fei; Chen, Jiaxiang; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jiuxiang; Huang, Mi; Liao, Shengjie; Tang, Zhaohui; Guo, An Yuan; Jiang, Fagang; Liu, Mugen

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the genetic basis and its relationship to the clinical manifestations in a four generation Chinese family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Ophthalmologic examinations including fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, fundus fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and a best-corrected visual acuity test were performed to define the clinical features of the patients. We extracted the genomic DNA from peripheral blood samples. The proband's genomic DNA was submitted to the whole exome sequencing. Whole exome sequencing and the subsequent data analysis detected six candidate mutations in the proband of this pedigree. The novel c.146 C>T mutation in NRL was found to be the only mutation that co-segregated with the disease in this pedigree. This mutation resulted in a substitution of proline by a leucine at position 49 of NRL protein (p.P49L). Most importantly, the proline residue at position 49 of NRL is highly conserved from zebrafish to humans. The c.146 C>T mutation was not observed in 200 control individuals. What's more, we performed the luciferase activity assay to prove that this mutation we detected alters the NRL protein function. The c.146 C>T mutation in NRL gene causes autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa for this family. Our finding not only expands the mutation spectrum of NRL, but also demonstrates that whole-exome sequencing is a powerful strategy to detect causative genes and mutations in RP patients. This technique may provide a precise diagnosis for rare heterogeneous monogenic disorders such as RP.

  4. Mutations in GANAB, Encoding the Glucosidase IIα Subunit, Cause Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney and Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Porath, Binu; Gainullin, Vladimir G; Cornec-Le Gall, Emilie; Dillinger, Elizabeth K; Heyer, Christina M; Hopp, Katharina; Edwards, Marie E; Madsen, Charles D; Mauritz, Sarah R; Banks, Carly J; Baheti, Saurabh; Reddy, Bharathi; Herrero, José Ignacio; Bañales, Jesús M; Hogan, Marie C; Tasic, Velibor; Watnick, Terry J; Chapman, Arlene B; Vigneau, Cécile; Lavainne, Frédéric; Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Ferec, Claude; Le Meur, Yannick; Torres, Vicente E; Harris, Peter C

    2016-06-02

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common, progressive, adult-onset disease that is an important cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), which requires transplantation or dialysis. Mutations in PKD1 or PKD2 (∼85% and ∼15% of resolved cases, respectively) are the known causes of ADPKD. Extrarenal manifestations include an increased level of intracranial aneurysms and polycystic liver disease (PLD), which can be severe and associated with significant morbidity. Autosomal-dominant PLD (ADPLD) with no or very few renal cysts is a separate disorder caused by PRKCSH, SEC63, or LRP5 mutations. After screening, 7%-10% of ADPKD-affected and ∼50% of ADPLD-affected families were genetically unresolved (GUR), suggesting further genetic heterogeneity of both disorders. Whole-exome sequencing of six GUR ADPKD-affected families identified one with a missense mutation in GANAB, encoding glucosidase II subunit α (GIIα). Because PRKCSH encodes GIIβ, GANAB is a strong ADPKD and ADPLD candidate gene. Sanger screening of 321 additional GUR families identified eight further likely mutations (six truncating), and a total of 20 affected individuals were identified in seven ADPKD- and two ADPLD-affected families. The phenotype was mild PKD and variable, including severe, PLD. Analysis of GANAB-null cells showed an absolute requirement of GIIα for maturation and surface and ciliary localization of the ADPKD proteins (PC1 and PC2), and reduced mature PC1 was seen in GANAB(+/-) cells. PC1 surface localization in GANAB(-/-) cells was rescued by wild-type, but not mutant, GIIα. Overall, we show that GANAB mutations cause ADPKD and ADPLD and that the cystogenesis is most likely driven by defects in PC1 maturation.

  5. A heterozygous dominant-negative mutation in the coiled-coil domain of STAT1 is the cause of autosomal-dominant Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Masahiro; Yamada, Masafumi; Ito, Kenta; Tozawa, Yusuke; Morino, Saeko; Horikoshi, Yuho; Takada, Hidetoshi; Abdrabou, Shimaa Said Mohamed Ali; Takezaki, Shunichiro; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Ariga, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Heterozygous dominant-negative mutations of STAT1 are responsible for autosomal-dominant Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (AD-MSMD). So far, only 7 mutations have been previously described and are localized to 3 domains: the DNA-binding domain, the SH2 domain, and the tail segment. In this study, we demonstrated the first coiled-coil domain (CCD) mutation of c.749G>C, p.G250A (G250A) in STAT1 as a genetic cause of AD-MSMD in a patient with mycobacterial multiple osteomyelitis. This de novo heterozygous mutation was shown to have a dominant-negative effect on the gamma-activated sequence (GAS) transcriptional activity following IFN-γ stimulation, which could be attributable to the abolished phosphorylation of STAT1 from the wild-type (WT) allele. The three-dimensional structure of STAT1 revealed the G250 residue was located distant from a cluster of residues affected by gain-of-function mutations responsible for chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

  6. Linkage and clinical characterization of families with the RP10 (chromosome 7q) form of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, S.A.; Humphries, P.; McGuire, R.E.

    1994-09-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a set of degenerative retinal diseases characterized by night blindness and loss of peripheral vision, often followed by loss of central vision. Genetically heterogeneous, retinitis pigmentosa has been found in autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and X-linked forms. For autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), 6 loci have been mapped: rhodopsin on chromosome 3q, peripherin/RDS on 6p, RP9 on 7p, RP10 on 7q, RP1 on 8q, and RP11 on 19q. Jordan et al. first reported linkage to 7q in a Spanish family with early onset disease. Recently, McGuire et al. reported the existence of a second, unrelated family of American descent with adRP that maps to the same region of 7q. The second family also has classical, diffuse retinitis pigmentosa though with later onset. The finding of two unrelated families that map to this region suggests that RP10 may account for a significant fraction of retinitis pigmentosa cases. Combining data from both families localizes the disease gene to 7q31.1-q35. In the Spanish family a Z{sub max} of 7.2 at 0% recombination was found with the marker D7S480 and affected individuals recombinant for D7S486 and D7S650 flank the disease. The American family showed a Z{sub max} of 5.3 at 0% recombination wtih the marker D7S514 and there are affected individuals recombinant for the markers D7S522, D7S677 and D7S486, and one affected individual recombinant for D7S530. Together, these data place the disease locus between D7S522 and D7S650. In addition, blue cone pigment, which maps to 7q31.3-q32, was excluded as a candidate gene in both families by linkage testing using intragenic polymorphisms and mutation screening.

  7. Towards the identification of (a) gene(s) for autosomal dominant medullary cystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Francesco; Viola, Battista Fabio; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Caridi, Gianluca; Amoroso, Antonio; Rampoldi, Luca; Casari, Giorgio

    2003-01-01

    Medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD) belongs with nephronophthisis (NPH) in a group of inherited tubulo-interstitial nephritis, which has been referred to as the NPH-MCKD complex. Although MCKD and NPH share morphological features, they differ in several respects. The most common variant is recessive juvenile NPH, with onset in childhood and leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within the 2nd decade of life; the most frequent extrarenal involvement is tapeto-retinal degeneration. MCKD is a dominant condition recognized in later life and leading to ESRD at the age of 50 years; hyperuricemia and gout can be associated features. The first sign of MCKD is polyuria; later, the clinical findings relate to renal insufficiency. Originally, NPH and MCKD were considered separate entities. Subsequently, it has been suggested that the two diseases were a single disorder due to the clinico-pathological identity. This unifying conception was later refuted due to the identification of MCKD dominant families. Recently, considerable insight has been gained into the genetics of the NPH-MCKD complex. The majority of juvenile NPH cases are due to deletion of the NPHP1 gene on chromosome 2q13. Genes for infantile and adolescent NPH have been localized respectively to chromosome 9q22-q31 and 3q22. A new locus, NPHP4, has been recently identified on chromosome 1p36. Two genes predisposing to dominant MCKD, MCKD1 and MCKD2, have been localized to chromosome 1q21 and 16p12. Independent confirmation of the locations of MCKD1 and MCKD2 in other MCKD families, with or without hyperuricemia and gout, has been reported. The gene for familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy (FJHN), a phenotype that is very similar to MCKD, was recently mapped to 16p12, in a region overlapping with the MCKD2 locus, raising the question as to whether MCKD2 and FJHN are allelic variants of the same disease entity. The ultimate proof of the allelism between MCKD2 and FJHN will be provided by the

  8. Identification of a second HOXA2 nonsense mutation in a family with autosomal dominant non-syndromic microtia and distinctive ear morphology.

    PubMed

    Piceci, F; Morlino, S; Castori, M; Buffone, E; De Luca, A; Grammatico, P; Guida, V

    2016-08-09

    Microtia is a congenital defect affecting external ears, which appear smaller and sometimes malformed. Here we describe a five-generation family with isolated bilateral microtia segregating as an autosomal dominant trait. Similar features have been previously observed in an autosomal dominant family with non-syndromic microtia and hearing loss segregating with a HOXA2 nonsense variant. HOXA2 biallelic mutations were also described in an inbreed family with autosomal recessive microtia, hearing impairment and incomplete cleft palate. In our family, sequence analysis detected a heterozygous protein truncating nonsense variant [c.670G>T, p.(Glu224*)] segregating in all affected individuals and absent in public databases. This study confirms the role of HOXA2 gene in dominant isolated microtia and contribute to further define the dysmorphogenetic effect of this gene on ear development.

  9. Evaluation of autosomal dominant retinal dystrophy genes in an unaffected cohort suggests rare or private missense variants may often be benign

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Samuel P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many genes have been reported as harboring autosomal dominant mutations causing retinal dystrophy. As newly available gene panel sequencing and whole exome sequencing will open these genes up to greater scrutiny, we assess the rate of rare coding variation in these genes among unaffected individuals to provide context for variants that will be discovered when clinical subjects are sequenced. Methods Publicly available data from the Exome Variant Project were analyzed, focusing on 36 genes known to harbor mutations causing autosomal dominant macular dystrophy. Results Rates of rare (minor allele frequency ≤0.1%) and private missense variants within autosomal dominant retinal dystrophy genes were found to occur at a high frequency in unaffected individuals, while nonsense variants were not. Conclusions We conclude that rare missense variations in most of these genes identified in individuals with retinal dystrophy cannot be confidently classified as disease-causing in the absence of additional information such as linkage or functional validation. PMID:23687434

  10. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Autosomal Dominant Form of Progressive Hearing Loss, DFNA2*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Lv, Ping; Sihn, Choong-Ryoul; Yamoah, Ebenezer N.

    2011-01-01

    Despite advances in identifying deafness genes, determination of the underlying cellular and functional mechanisms for auditory diseases remains a challenge. Mutations of the human K+ channel hKv7.4 lead to post-lingual progressive hearing loss (DFNA2), which affects world-wide population with diverse racial backgrounds. Here, we have generated the spectrum of point mutations in the hKv7.4 that have been identified as diseased mutants. We report that expression of five point mutations in the pore region, namely L274H, W276S, L281S, G285C, and G296S, as well as the C-terminal mutant G321S in the heterologous expression system, yielded non-functional channels because of endoplasmic reticulum retention of the mutant channels. We mimicked the dominant diseased conditions by co-expressing the wild-type and mutant channels. As compared with expression of wild-type channel alone, the blend of wild-type and mutant channel subunits resulted in reduced currents. Moreover, the combinatorial ratios of wild type:mutant and the ensuing current magnitude could not be explained by the predictions of a tetrameric channel and a dominant negative effect of the mutant subunits. The results can be explained by the dependence of cell surface expression of the mutant on the wild-type subunit. Surprisingly, a transmembrane mutation F182L, which has been identified in a pre-lingual progressive hearing loss patient in Taiwan, yielded cell surface expression and functional features that were similar to that of the wild type, suggesting that this mutation may represent redundant polymorphism. Collectively, these findings provide traces of the cellular mechanisms for DFNA2. PMID:20966080

  11. Impaired Cleavage of Preproinsulin Signal Peptide Linked to Autosomal-Dominant Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Lara-Lemus, Roberto; Shan, Shu-ou; Wright, Jordan; Haataja, Leena; Barbetti, Fabrizio; Guo, Huan; Larkin, Dennis; Arvan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Recently, missense mutations upstream of preproinsulin’s signal peptide (SP) cleavage site were reported to cause mutant INS gene-induced diabetes of youth (MIDY). Our objective was to understand the molecular pathogenesis using metabolic labeling and assays of proinsulin export and insulin and C-peptide production to examine the earliest events of insulin biosynthesis, highlighting molecular mechanisms underlying β-cell failure plus a novel strategy that might ameliorate the MIDY syndrome. We find that whereas preproinsulin-A(SP23)S is efficiently cleaved, producing authentic proinsulin and insulin, preproinsulin-A(SP24)D is inefficiently cleaved at an improper site, producing two subpopulations of molecules. Both show impaired oxidative folding and are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Preproinsulin-A(SP24)D also blocks ER exit of coexpressed wild-type proinsulin, accounting for its dominant-negative behavior. Upon increased expression of ER–oxidoreductin-1, preproinsulin-A(SP24)D remains blocked but oxidative folding of wild-type proinsulin improves, accelerating its ER export and increasing wild-type insulin production. We conclude that the efficiency of SP cleavage is linked to the oxidation of (pre)proinsulin. In turn, impaired (pre)proinsulin oxidation affects ER export of the mutant as well as that of coexpressed wild-type proinsulin. Improving oxidative folding of wild-type proinsulin may provide a feasible way to rescue insulin production in patients with MIDY. PMID:22357960

  12. A 76-bp deletion in the Mip gene causes autosomal dominant cataract in Hfi mice.

    PubMed

    Sidjanin, D J; Parker-Wilson, D M; Neuhäuser-Klaus, A; Pretsch, W; Favor, J; Deen, P M; Ohtaka-Maruyama, C; Lu, Y; Bragin, A; Skach, W R; Chepelinsky, A B; Grimes, P A; Stambolian, D E

    2001-06-15

    Hfi is a dominant cataract mutation where heterozygotes show hydropic lens fibers and homozygotes show total lens opacity. The Hfi locus was mapped to the distal part of mouse chromosome 10 close to the major intrinsic protein (Mip), which is expressed only in cell membranes of lens fibers. Molecular analysis of Mip revealed a 76-bp deletion that resulted in exon 2 skipping in Mip mRNA. In Hfi/Hfi this deletion resulted in a complete absence of the wildtype Mip. In contrast, Hfi/+ animals had the same amount of wildtype Mip as +/+. Results from pulse-chase expression studies excluded hetero-oligomerization of wildtype and mutant Mip as a possible mechanism for cataract formation in the Hfi/+. We propose that the cataract phenotype in the Hfi heterozygote mutant is due to a detrimental gain of function by the mutant Mip resulting in either cytotoxicity or disruption in processing of other proteins important for the lens. Cataract formation in the Hfi/Hfi mouse is probably a combined result of both the complete loss of wildtype Mip and a gain of function of the mutant Mip.

  13. Presymptomatic atrophy in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease: A serial MRI study.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Kirsi M; Cash, David M; Poole, Teresa; Frost, Chris; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Ahsan, R Laila; Leung, Kelvin K; Cardoso, M Jorge; Modat, Marc; Malone, Ian B; Morris, John C; Bateman, Randall J; Marcus, Daniel S; Goate, Alison; Salloway, Stephen P; Correia, Stephen; Sperling, Reisa A; Chhatwal, Jasmeer P; Mayeux, Richard P; Brickman, Adam M; Martins, Ralph N; Farlow, Martin R; Ghetti, Bernardino; Saykin, Andrew J; Jack, Clifford R; Schofield, Peter R; McDade, Eric; Weiner, Michael W; Ringman, John M; Thompson, Paul M; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Rossor, Martin N; Ourselin, Sebastien; Fox, Nick C

    2017-07-22

    Identifying at what point atrophy rates first change in Alzheimer's disease is important for informing design of presymptomatic trials. Serial T1-weighed magnetic resonance imaging scans of 94 participants (28 noncarriers, 66 carriers) from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network were used to measure brain, ventricular, and hippocampal atrophy rates. For each structure, nonlinear mixed-effects models estimated the change-points when atrophy rates deviate from normal and the rates of change before and after this point. Atrophy increased after the change-point, which occurred 1-1.5 years (assuming a single step change in atrophy rate) or 3-8 years (assuming gradual acceleration of atrophy) before expected symptom onset. At expected symptom onset, estimated atrophy rates were at least 3.6 times than those before the change-point. Atrophy rates are pathologically increased up to seven years before "expected onset". During this period, atrophy rates may be useful for inclusion and tracking of disease progression. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Two pedigrees of autosomal dominant atrioventricular canal defect (AVCD): Exclusion from the critical region on 8p

    SciTech Connect

    Amati, F.; Mari, A.; Mingarelli, R.

    1995-07-03

    Atrioventricular canal defects (AVCD) constitute the predominant congenital heart defect in Down`s syndrome. For this reason, a candidate gene involved in atrioventricular canal development was previously searched and excluded in dominant pedigrees of AVCD, using linkage analysis of polymorphisms from chromosome 21. Because of the striking association between 8p deletion and AVCD, a search for an AVCD gene was carried out in two pedigrees of individuals with autosomal dominant AVCD using a set of DNA markers of the 8pter{r_arrow}q12 region. These two families include affected individuals and subjects who have transmitted the defect but are not clinically affected. Two-point lod scores were significantly negative for all markers at penetrance levels of 90% and 50%. Multipoint analysis excluded the region covered by the markers LPL-D8S262 and 30 cM to either side of this area. This result corroborates heterogeneity of this heart defect and indicates that the genetic basis of familial AVCD is different from AVCD associated to either trisomy 21 or 8p deletion. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. De Novo Occurrence of a Variant in ARL3 and Apparent Autosomal Dominant Transmission of Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Samuel P.; Clark, Michael J.; Martinez, Ariadna; Garcia, Sarah; Abelazeem, Amira A.; Matynia, Anna; Parikh, Sachin; Sullivan, Lori S.; Bowne, Sara J.; Daiger, Stephen P.; Gorin, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retinitis pigmentosa is a phenotype with diverse genetic causes. Due to this genetic heterogeneity, genome-wide identification and analysis of protein-altering DNA variants by exome sequencing is a powerful tool for novel variant and disease gene discovery. In this study, exome sequencing analysis was used to search for potentially causal DNA variants in a two-generation pedigree with apparent dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Methods Variant identification and analysis of three affected members (mother and two affected offspring) was performed via exome sequencing. Parental samples of the index case were used to establish inheritance. Follow-up testing of 94 additional retinitis pigmentosa pedigrees was performed via retrospective analysis or Sanger sequencing. Results and Conclusions A total of 136 high quality coding variants in 123 genes were identified which are consistent with autosomal dominant disease. Of these, one of the strongest genetic and functional candidates is a c.269A>G (p.Tyr90Cys) variant in ARL3. Follow-up testing established that this variant occurred de novo in the index case. No additional putative causal variants in ARL3 were identified in the follow-up cohort, suggesting that if ARL3 variants can cause adRP it is an extremely rare phenomenon. PMID:26964041

  16. [Familial congenital hypomagnesemia revealed by neonatal convulsions].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, M; Dehanin, T; Sow, A-D; Sène, M-S; Basse, A-M; Fall, A-L; Seck, L-B; Touré, K; Diop, A-G; Sow, H-D; Ndiaye, M-M

    2013-11-01

    Congenital hypomagnesemia is a rare disease, with an impact on cognitive and neurological development. We report on three familial cases of congenital hypomagnesemia, two boys and one girl who belong to the same consanguineous family. They all presented neonatal seizures and a psychomotor developmental delay. Cerebral computed tomography showed cerebral atrophy and calcifications in one case and magnetic resonance imaging found predominant cerebellar atrophy in the two other cases. All three patients also had hypocalcemia, hyperphosphoremia, and hypomagnesemia. The parathyroid hormone blood level was low in two cases and normal in the third. One 7-month old patient died. The others received a supplementation of calcium and magnesium, which normalized calcemia, phosphatemia but not magnesemia, which remained low despite high doses. They have both developed cognitive and behavioral impairments.

  17. Epiphyseal dysplasia of the femoral head, mild vertebral abnormality, myopia, and sensorineural deafness: report of a pedigree with autosomal dominant inheritance.

    PubMed Central

    MacDermot, K D; Roth, S C; Hall, C; Winter, R M

    1987-01-01

    A family is presented with short stature, femoral epiphyseal dysplasia, mild vertebral changes, and sensorineural deafness inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Myopia an