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Sample records for autosuggestion

  1. TRADITIONAL MEDICINES OF INDIA. 1 THE ROLE OF MIND AND AUTOSUGGESTION IN THE EFFICACY OF MAGICO – RELIGIOUS PRACTICE OF TRIBAL MEDICINES

    PubMed Central

    Pushpangadan, P.

    1984-01-01

    Magico – religious rites in treating physical and mental ailments once widespread in ancient India are still prevalent among the tribals / primitive societies. This study shows that it is based on a scientifically sound psychological approach. Magical incantation and other religious rites performed to cure the disease unknowingly affect the mind of patient who in turn subjected to have autosuggestions of getting cured. This generates a kind of psychic energy in him which then helps him to regain the natural capacity of the body to recover from the ailments. PMID:22557409

  2. Suggestion in Education: The Historical Path of Suggestopedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Mary L.

    Although techniques of autosuggestion in personal development have a long history in some Eastern cultures, suggestibility as a character trait first came into focus in the West with the "animal magnetism" of Franz Mesmer. The uncovering of the nature and phenomena of hypnosis resulted in a steady and enduring interest in this state of…

  3. Suggestion in Education: The Historical Path of Suggestopedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Mary L.

    Although techniques of autosuggestion in personal development have a long history in some Eastern cultures, suggestibility as a character trait first came into focus in the West with the "animal magnetism" of Franz Mesmer. The uncovering of the nature and phenomena of hypnosis resulted in a steady and enduring interest in this state of…

  4. Effects of Induced Elation-Depression on Speech in the Initial Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Michael

    1977-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between induced mood states of elation or depression and interviewee verbal behavior. Affective states were manipulated by an autosuggestion technique (mood induction procedure). Subjects were 45 female college students, assigned to treatment conditions of elation, depression, or neutral mood induction. Data…

  5. The placebo effect: how the subconscious fits in.

    PubMed

    Mommaerts, J L; Devroey, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The placebo effect is very well known, being replicated in many scientific studies. At the same time, its exact mechanisms still remain unknown. Quite a few hypothetical explanations for the placebo effect have been suggested, including faith, belief, hope, classical conditioning, conscious/subconscious expectation, endorphins, and the meaning response. This article argues that all these explanations may boil down to autosuggestion, in the sense of "communication with the subconscious." An important implication of this is that the placebo effect can in principle be used effectively without the placebo itself, through a direct use of autosuggestion. The benefits of such a strategy are clear: fewer side effects from medications, huge cost savings, no deception of patients, relief of burden on the physician's time, and healing in domains where medication or other therapies are problematic.

  6. Role of the Chaplain in Ministry Related to Psychogenic Diseases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    effectuated through suggestion: hypnosis , autogenics, and visualization. The similar effects for both autosuggestion and meditation are marked, but there are...patient appears to be in a hypnotic trance, the hypnotist can suggest things to the patient. The use of hypnosis to regress a patient’ age in order to...of hypnosis in aiding patients with psychogenic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, not only in recalling the crisis that precipitated the

  7. Root Doctors as Providers of Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Stitt, Van J.

    1983-01-01

    Physicians in primary care recognize that as many as 65 percent of the patients seen in their offices are there for psychological reasons. In any southern town with a moderate population of blacks, there are at least two “root doctors.” These root doctors have mastered the power of autosuggestion and are treating these patients with various forms of medication and psychological counseling. This paper updates the practicing physician on root doctors who practice primary care. PMID:6887277

  8. The Evaluation of Less-Lethal Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    0. Egner Physicist USALWL/USA1U-:L Dr. R. S. Fisher Forensic Pathologist, Chief Medical Examiner, MD State of Maryland 5 Dr. F. G. Wolfort Surgeon, MD... hypnosis ), yet a great many people cannot be hypnotized. The element of surprise would certainly be important. One of the Group members suggested that...and emotion. Pain thresholds can be raised to nearly twice control values by a loud noise, autosuggestion, hypnosis or distraction. 133 It has been

  9. Theories of Suggestion

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William

    1928-01-01

    The word “suggestion” has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence. Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena. The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability. Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct “inhibited in its aim” (transference) and brings in his distinction of “ego” and “ego-ideal” (or “super-ego”) to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible. PMID:19986306

  10. The suggestible brain: posthypnotic effects on value-based decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Stelzel, Christine; Krutiak, Harald; Magrabi, Amadeus; Steimke, Rosa; Paschke, Lena M.; Kathmann, Norbert; Walter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Hypnosis can affect perception, motor function and memory. However, so far no study using neuroimaging has investigated whether hypnosis can influence reward processing and decision-making. Here, we assessed whether posthypnotic suggestions can diminish the attractiveness of unhealthy food and whether this is more effective than diminishing attractiveness by one’s own effort via autosuggestion. In total, 16 participants were hypnotized and 16 others were instructed to associate a color cue (blue or green) with disgust regarding specific snacks (sweet or salty). Afterwards, participants bid for snack items shown on an either blue or green background during functional magnetic resonance imaging measurement. Both hypnosis and autosuggestion successfully devalued snacks. This was indicated by participants’ decision-making, their self-report and by decreased blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), a region known to represent value. Different vmPFC subregions coded for cue and snack type. The cue had significantly stronger effects on vmPFC after hypnosis than after autosuggestion, indicating that hypnosis was more effective in genuinely reducing value. Supporting previous findings, the precuneus was involved in the hypnotic effects by encoding whether a snack was sweet or salty during hypnotic cue presentation. Our results demonstrate that posthypnotic suggestions can influence valuation and decision-making. PMID:23887809

  11. The suggestible brain: posthypnotic effects on value-based decision-making.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Vera U; Stelzel, Christine; Krutiak, Harald; Magrabi, Amadeus; Steimke, Rosa; Paschke, Lena M; Kathmann, Norbert; Walter, Henrik

    2014-09-01

    Hypnosis can affect perception, motor function and memory. However, so far no study using neuroimaging has investigated whether hypnosis can influence reward processing and decision-making. Here, we assessed whether posthypnotic suggestions can diminish the attractiveness of unhealthy food and whether this is more effective than diminishing attractiveness by one's own effort via autosuggestion. In total, 16 participants were hypnotized and 16 others were instructed to associate a color cue (blue or green) with disgust regarding specific snacks (sweet or salty). Afterwards, participants bid for snack items shown on an either blue or green background during functional magnetic resonance imaging measurement. Both hypnosis and autosuggestion successfully devalued snacks. This was indicated by participants' decision-making, their self-report and by decreased blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), a region known to represent value. Different vmPFC subregions coded for cue and snack type. The cue had significantly stronger effects on vmPFC after hypnosis than after autosuggestion, indicating that hypnosis was more effective in genuinely reducing value. Supporting previous findings, the precuneus was involved in the hypnotic effects by encoding whether a snack was sweet or salty during hypnotic cue presentation. Our results demonstrate that posthypnotic suggestions can influence valuation and decision-making. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Linking Publications and Observations: The ESO Telescope Bibliography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meakins, S.; Grothkopf, U.

    2012-09-01

    Bibliometric studies have become increasingly important in evaluating individual scientists, specific facilities, and entire observatories. In this context, the ESO Library has developed and maintains two tools: FUSE, a full-text search tool, and the Telescope Bibliography (telbib), a content management system that is used to classify and annotate ESO-related scientific papers. The new public telbib interface provides faceted searches and filtering, autosuggest support for author, bibcode and program ID searches, hit highlighting as well as recommendations for other papers of possible interest. It is available at www.eso.org/libraries/telbib.html.

  13. The ESO Telescope bibliography at your fingertips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, Uta; Meakins, Silvia

    2012-09-01

    Bibliometric studies have become increasingly important in evaluating individual scientists, specific facilities, and entire observatories. The ESO Library has developed and maintains the Telescope Bibliography (telbib), a database of refereed papers that use observational data generated by ESO's facilities. Recently, a new public interface has been released. In addition to classical queries for bibliographic and facility-related information, it provides advanced features like faceted searches and filtering, autosuggest support for author, bibcode and program ID searches, hit highlighting as well as recommendations for other papers of possible interest. An additional tool offers the possibility to create graphical statistics on the fly based on user-defined criteria. The ESO Telescope Bibliography is available at http://telbib.eso.org/.

  14. Autogenic training alters cerebral activation patterns in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Schlamann, Marc; Naglatzki, Ryan; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke R

    2010-10-01

    Cerebral activation patterns during the first three auto-suggestive phases of autogenic training (AT) were investigated in relation to perceived experiences. Nineteen volunteers trained in AT and 19 controls were studied with fMRI during the first steps of autogenic training. FMRI revealed activation of the left postcentral areas during AT in those with experience in AT, which also correlated with the level of AT experience. Activation of prefrontal and insular cortex was significantly higher in the group with experience in AT while insular activation was correlated with number years of simple relaxation exercises. Specific activation in subjects experienced in AT may represent a training effect. Furthermore, the correlation of insular activation suggests that these subjects are different from untrained subjects in emotional processing or self-awareness.

  15. Nosology and therapy of mental illness in Ayurveda.

    PubMed

    Dube, K C

    1979-01-01

    Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine, is described in Atharva Veda and in subsequent treatises by Charak, Susrut, and Vagbhatt, containing the details of etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and therapy of afflictions in humans and animals. The science of mental disorders (Bhoot-Vidya) describes extensively conditions from mild anger and greed to severe psychoses. This paper presents a synoptic overview comparing the clinical conditions described in Ayurveda with clinical conditions described in the Internationl Classification of Diseases. The symbiotic relationship between 'psyche' and 'soma' was recognised in Ayurveda, attributing the highest importance to psychic energy as the propulsive power of creation--the original force. According to Vedic concepts, personality is composed of three elements (gunas): i. Satva (pure qualities), ii. Rajas (pleasure-seeking propensities and emotions), iii. Tamas (animal-like behavioural tendencies leading to deterioration). Abnormalities result from the excess of Tomas and Rajas. The main therapies are i. suggestion, auto-suggestion, hynotism, assurance, persuasion, and ritualistic therapy; ii. transferring of symptoms; iii. confession, penance, and sacrifice; iv. use of natural elements; v. medicine and endocrine therapies; and vi. tantic and yogic practices.

  16. [The berserks--what was wrong with them?].

    PubMed

    Høyersten, Jon Geir

    2004-12-16

    The terms berserk and going berserk reflect the violent and ferocious warriors and ruthless murderers of Scandinavia and Northern Europe, active from before the Viking age until the advent of Christianity. The main source on the phenomenon is the Old Norse literature, mainly the Icelandic sagas with their sober descriptive accounts of the berserks and their behaviour. The berserks are frequently depicted as having had antisocial character traits; often as bullies who evince, by way of autosuggestion, an enormous and uncontrollable rage, slaughtering and killing. They felt no pain and hardly took in the environment they lived in. The fits were followed by exhaustion or sleep. Although the phenomenon waned completely by the advent of Christianity, it can hardly be discarded as just myth or folklore. Most likely it could be explained as a kind of dissociative reaction. The widespread idea of toadstool as causative agent is at best debatable. The conceptions of pre-Christian heathenism about the human mind are of importance to the understanding of suggestibility and capacity for trance reaction. The condition is considered a culture-bound syndrome. Comparisons are drawn to lycanthropy (werewolf madness), frequently considered an identical phenomenon. Clinically (i.e. historically) it was mainly something different, namely psychotic conditions.

  17. [Lessons from the history of therapy--therapeutic optimism and its pitfalls].

    PubMed

    Koelbing, H M

    1983-10-01

    If we are to help patients effectively, our understanding of diseases and our therapeutic potential should, again and again, just be somewhat better than they actually are. Throughout the ages this has been the fundamental situation in medical practice. The response on the physician's part has nearly always been an attitude of therapeutic optimism. At all times physicians--and patients also--have relied on therapeutic principles and remedies based on professional experience and medical theory. In conjunction with the (generally recognized) healing powers of nature, and of (unrecognized) autosuggestion, this has led to many satisfactory and even remarkable cures. Examples from antiquity to the 19th century are quoted, and the snags of an over-optimistic attitude become evident, viz. a rational therapy is no better than the underlying pathogenetic theory; exaggerated therapeutic activity may cause useless torment to the patient (a point already made by Hippocrates); the optimistic physician or the enthusiastic pioneer of a new remedy may be blind to toxic side effects or the development of addiction. To sum up: therapeutic optimism is fine--but don't overdo it!

  18. [The role of imagination in modern medicine].

    PubMed

    Schott, Heinz

    2004-06-01

    In Renaissance and early modern times, the concept of imagination (Latin imaginatio) was essential for the (natural) philosophical explanation of magic processes, especially in the anthropology of Paracelsus. He assumed that imagination was a natural vital power including cosmic, mental, phychical, and physical dimensions. The Paracelsians criticized traditional humor pathology ignoring their theory of' 'natural magic'. On the other hand, they were criticized by their adversaries as charlatans practicing 'black magic'. About 1800, in between enlightenment and romanticism, the healing concept of, animal magnetism' (Mesmerism) evoked an analogous debate, whether, magnetic' phenomena originated from a real (physical) power (so-called, fluidum') or were just due to fantasy or imagination (German Einbildungskraft). At the end of the 19th century, the French internist Hippolyte Bernheim created-against the background of medical hypnosis (hypnotism') as a consequence of Mesmerism - his theory of suggestion and autosuggestion: a new paradigm of psychological respectively psychosomatic medicine, which became the basis for the concept of, placebo' in modern biomedicine. From now on, all the effects of, alternative medicine' could easily be explained by the, placebo-effect', more or less founded - at least unconsciously - on fraud.

  19. FlyAtlas: database of gene expression in the tissues of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Scott W; Herzyk, Pawel; Dow, Julian A T; Leader, David P

    2013-01-01

    The FlyAtlas resource contains data on the expression of the genes of Drosophila melanogaster in different tissues (currently 25-17 adult and 8 larval) obtained by hybridization of messenger RNA to Affymetrix Drosophila Genome 2 microarrays. The microarray probe sets cover 13,250 Drosophila genes, detecting 12,533 in an unambiguous manner. The data underlying the original web application (http://flyatlas.org) have been restructured into a relational database and a Java servlet written to provide a new web interface, FlyAtlas 2 (http://flyatlas.gla.ac.uk/), which allows several additional queries. Users can retrieve data for individual genes or for groups of genes belonging to the same or related ontological categories. Assistance in selecting valid search terms is provided by an Ajax 'autosuggest' facility that polls the database as the user types. Searches can also focus on particular tissues, and data can be retrieved for the most highly expressed genes, for genes of a particular category with above-average expression or for genes with the greatest difference in expression between the larval and adult stages. A novel facility allows the database to be queried with a specific gene to find other genes with a similar pattern of expression across the different tissues.

  20. [Recall and pseudo-memory. On the yearning to be a trauma victim].

    PubMed

    Stoffels, H; Ernst, C

    2002-05-01

    Memories are not called up from "storage" but instead are constructed anew in each case. Although many experiments have proven that memories are visual and inaccurate, many psychotherapists still assume that memories which surface during therapy are realistic representations of facts. They do not take into account that reminiscences (pseudomemories) of events can be planted in the memory by the imagination or through behavioral pressure. In light of this, the question arises as to why some patients during therapy tend to invent in particular memories of traumatic early childhood experiences. The authors assume that certain suggestive elements come to bear with victimization. The advantage gained is of great importance and has many facets. The case of Wilkomirski proves that mystification of the ego via identification with victims is not only provoked in psychotherapeutic treatment but also is a means of gaining public attention and support. As concerns the therapeutic handling of actual emotional traumatization (whose pathogenic significance and long-term effects used to be underestimated), suggestive and autosuggestive processes play a large role. In this respect, modern trauma research and psychotherapy are faced with special challenges.

  1. Enabling Meaningful Affiliation Searches in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D. M.; Chyla, R.; Holachek, A.; Accomazzi, A.; Henneken, E. A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    For many years, users have wanted to search affiliations in the ADS in order to build institutional databases and to help with author disambiguation. Although we currently provide this capability upon request, we have yet to incorporate it as part of the operational Abstract Service. This is because it cannot be used reliably, primarily because of the lack of uniform representation of the affiliation data. In an effort to make affiliation searches more meaningful, we have designed a two-tiered hierarchy of standard institutional names based on Ringgold identifiers, with the expectation that this will enable us to implement a search by institution, which will work for the vast majority of institutions. It is our intention to provide the capability of searching the ADS both by standard affiliation name and original affiliation string, as well as to enable autosuggest of affiliations as a means of helping to disambiguate author identification. Some institutions are likely to require manual work, and we encourage interested librarians to assist us in standardizing the representation of their institutions in the affiliation field.

  2. Functional symptoms in neurology: questions and answers

    PubMed Central

    Reuber, M; Mitchell, A; Howlett, S; Crimlisk, H; Grunewald, R

    2005-01-01

    Between 10 and 30% of patients seen by neurologists have symptoms for which there is no current pathophysiological explanation. The objective of this review is to answer questions many neurologists have about disorders characterised by unexplained symptoms (functional disorders) by conducting a multidisciplinary review based on published reports and clinical experience. Current concepts explain functional symptoms as resulting from auto-suggestion, innate coping styles, disorders of volition or attention. Predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating aetiological factors can be identified and contribute to a therapeutic formulation. The sympathetic communication of the diagnosis by the neurologist is important and all patients should be screened for psychiatric or psychological symptoms because up to two thirds have symptomatic psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment programmes are likely to be most successful if there is close collaboration between neurologists, (liaison) psychiatrists, psychologists, and general practitioners. Long term, symptoms persist in over 50% of patients and many patients remain dependent on financial help from the government. Neurologists can acquire the skills needed to engage patients in psychological treatment but would benefit from closer working relationships with liaison psychiatry or psychology. PMID:15716517

  3. A Solr Powered Architecture for Scientific Metadata Search Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, S. A.; Billingsley, B. W.; Harper, D.; Kovarik, J.; Brandt, M.

    2014-12-01

    Discovering and obtaining resources for scientific research is increasingly difficult but Open Source tools have been implemented to provide inexpensive solutions for scientific metadata search applications. Common practices used in modern web applications can improve the quality of scientific data as well as increase availability to a wider audience while reducing costs of maintenance. Motivated to improve discovery and access of scientific metadata hosted at NSIDC and the need to aggregate many areas of arctic research, the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS) contributed to a shared codebase used by the NSIDC Search and Arctic Data Explorer (ADE) portals. We implemented the NSIDC Search and ADE to improve search and discovery of scientific metadata in many areas of cryospheric research. All parts of the applications are available free and open for reuse in other applications and portals. We have applied common techniques that are widely used by search applications around the web and with the goal of providing quick and easy access to scientific metadata. We adopted keyword search auto-suggest which provides a dynamic list of terms and phrases that closely match characters as the user types. Facet queries are another technique we have implemented to filter results based on aspects of the data like the instrument used or temporal duration of the data set. Service APIs provide a layer between the interface and the database and are shared between the NSIDC Search and ACADIS ADE interfaces. We also implemented a shared data store between both portals using Apache Solr (an Open Source search engine platform that stores and indexes XML documents) and leverage many powerful features including geospatial search and faceting. This presentation will discuss the application architecture as well as tools and techniques used to enhance search and discovery of scientific metadata.

  4. Eagle-i: Making Invisible Resources, Visible

    PubMed Central

    Haendel, M.; Wilson, M.; Torniai, C.; Segerdell, E.; Shaffer, C.; Frost, R.; Bourges, D.; Brownstein, J.; McInnerney, K.

    2010-01-01

    RP-134 The eagle-i Consortium – Dartmouth College, Harvard Medical School, Jackson State University, Morehouse School of Medicine, Montana State University, Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU), the University of Alaska, the University of Hawaii, and the University of Puerto Rico – aims to make invisible resources for scientific research visible by developing a searchable network of resource repositories at research institutions nationwide. Now in early development, it is hoped that the system will scale beyond the consortium at the end of the two-year pilot. Data Model & Ontology: The eagle-i ontology development team at the OHSU Library is generating the data model and ontologies necessary for resource indexing and querying. Our indexing system will enable cores and research labs to represent resources within a defined vocabulary, leading to more effective searches and better linkage between data types. This effort is being guided by active discussions within the ontology community (http://RRontology.tk) bringing together relevant preexisting ontologies in a logical framework. The goal of these discussions is to provide context for interoperability and domain-wide standards for resource types used throughout biomedical research. Research community feedback is welcomed. Architecture Development, led by a team at Harvard, includes four main components: tools for data collection, management and curation; an institutional resource repository; a federated network; and a central search application. Each participating institution will populate and manage their repository locally, using data collection and curation tools. To help improve search performance, data tools will support the semi-automatic annotation of resources. A central search application will use a federated protocol to broadcast queries to all repositories and display aggregated results. The search application will leverage the eagle-i ontologies to help guide users to valid queries via auto-suggestions

  5. Lucid Dreaming: A State of Consciousness with Features of Both Waking and Non-Lucid Dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Ursula; Holzmann, Romain; Tuin, Inka; Hobson, J. Allan

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: The goal of the study was to seek physiological correlates of lucid dreaming. Lucid dreaming is a dissociated state with aspects of waking and dreaming combined in a way so as to suggest a specific alteration in brain physiology for which we now present preliminary but intriguing evidence. We show that the unusual combination of hallucinatory dream activity and wake-like reflective awareness and agentive control experienced in lucid dreams is paralleled by significant changes in electrophysiology. Design: 19-channel EEG was recorded on up to 5 nights for each participant. Lucid episodes occurred as a result of pre-sleep autosuggestion. Setting: Sleep laboratory of the Neurological Clinic, Frankfurt University. Participants: Six student volunteers who had been trained to become lucid and to signal lucidity through a pattern of horizontal eye movements. Measurements and Results: Results show lucid dreaming to have REM-like power in frequency bands δ and θ, and higher-than-REM activity in the γ band, the between-states-difference peaking around 40 Hz. Power in the 40 Hz band is strongest in the frontal and frontolateral region. Overall coherence levels are similar in waking and lucid dreaming and significantly higher than in REM sleep, throughout the entire frequency spectrum analyzed. Regarding specific frequency bands, waking is characterized by high coherence in α, and lucid dreaming by increased δ and θ band coherence. In lucid dreaming, coherence is largest in frontolateral and frontal areas. Conclusions: Our data show that lucid dreaming constitutes a hybrid state of consciousness with definable and measurable differences from waking and from REM sleep, particularly in frontal areas. Citation: Voss U; Holzmann R; Tuin I; Hobson A. Lucid dreaming: a state of consciousness with features of both waking and non-lucid dreaming. SLEEP 2009;32(9):1191-1200. PMID:19750924

  6. Lucid dreaming: a state of consciousness with features of both waking and non-lucid dreaming.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ursula; Holzmann, Romain; Tuin, Inka; Hobson, J Allan

    2009-09-01

    The goal of the study was to seek physiological correlates of lucid dreaming. Lucid dreaming is a dissociated state with aspects of waking and dreaming combined in a way so as to suggest a specific alteration in brain physiology for which we now present preliminary but intriguing evidence. We show that the unusual combination of hallucinatory dream activity and wake-like reflective awareness and agentive control experienced in lucid dreams is paralleled by significant changes in electrophysiology. 19-channel EEG was recorded on up to 5 nights for each participant. Lucid episodes occurred as a result of pre-sleep autosuggestion. Sleep laboratory of the Neurological Clinic, Frankfurt University. Six student volunteers who had been trained to become lucid and to signal lucidity through a pattern of horizontal eye movements. Results show lucid dreaming to have REM-like power in frequency bands delta and theta, and higher-than-REM activity in the gamma band, the between-states-difference peaking around 40 Hz. Power in the 40 Hz band is strongest in the frontal and frontolateral region. Overall coherence levels are similar in waking and lucid dreaming and significantly higher than in REM sleep, throughout the entire frequency spectrum analyzed. Regarding specific frequency bands, waking is characterized by high coherence in alpha, and lucid dreaming by increased delta and theta band coherence. In lucid dreaming, coherence is largest in frontolateral and frontal areas. Our data show that lucid dreaming constitutes a hybrid state of consciousness with definable and measurable differences from waking and from REM sleep, particularly in frontal areas.

  7. Toward an intellectual history of transference. 1888-1900.

    PubMed

    Makari, G J

    1994-09-01

    Freud's concept of transference was not the discovery of a solitary genius, but was an inspired, creative synthesis deeply rooted in the prevailing discourses of his time. In the nineteenth century, transference started out as a neurologic term; Freud used that concept of displaceable energies in his neurologic writings as early as 1888. Then in Studies in Hysteria, Freud explicated the basis by which ideas dissociated and made for a mésalliance with the physician. False connections such as transference were conceptualized along lines drawn by Charcot's school, and the concept of auto-suggestion that they used to explain the inherent suggestibility of a hysteric. In developing this 1895 model of transference, Freud strove to tame disquieting concerns about the epistemologic status of hysteria and hypnosis. It is the epistemologic anxiety created by accusations of iatrogenic suggestion as much as the sexual anxiety Szasz pointed to that prodded Freud to focus exclusively on the intrapsychic. It also may be the legacy of this epistemologic anxiety that accounts for the fact that until recently, psychoanalytic theoreticians have been hesitant to explore the effect that the real person of the analyst might have on the manifestations of transference. In the last years of the nineteenth century, Freud modified his theory of transference and built a place for it in his topographic model of mind. In the Interpretation of Dreams, Freud integrated the biologic and psychologic possibilities inherent in prior usages of übertragung. By 1900, transference could theoretically refer to both a hypothesized displacement of quantifiable neuronal energies as well as the psychological phenomena Freud observed occurring between him and his patients. Perceptual theories of illusion like Helmholtz's provided Freud with a model that by analogy helped re-define transference as a central facet of irrational inner life. Transference in 1900 accounted for a patient's possible distortion of

  8. Mind-body interventions during pregnancy for preventing or treating women's anxiety.

    PubMed

    Marc, Isabelle; Toureche, Narimane; Ernst, Edzard; Hodnett, Ellen D; Blanchet, Claudine; Dodin, Sylvie; Njoya, Merlin M

    2011-07-06

    Anxiety during pregnancy is a common problem. Anxiety and stress could have consequences on the course of the pregnancy and the later development of the child. Anxiety responds well to treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy and/or medication. Non-pharmacological interventions such as mind-body interventions, known to decrease anxiety in several clinical situations, might be offered for treating and preventing anxiety during pregnancy. To assess the benefits of mind-body interventions during pregnancy in preventing or treating women's anxiety and in influencing perinatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2010), MEDLINE (1950 to 30 November 2010), EMBASE (1974 to 30 November 2010), the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) (1 December 2010), ClinicalTrials.gov (December 2010) and Current Controlled Trials (1 December 2010), searched the reference lists of selected studies and contacted professionals and authors in the field. Randomized controlled trials, involving pregnant women of any age at any time from conception to one month after birth, comparing mind-body interventions with a control group. Mind-body interventions include: autogenic training, biofeedback, hypnotherapy, imagery, meditation, prayer, auto-suggestion, tai-chi and yoga. Control group includes: standard care, other pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions, other types of mind-body interventions or no treatment at all. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion all assessed risk of bias for each included study. We extracted data independently using an agreed form and checked it for accuracy. We included eight trials (556 participants), evaluating hypnotherapy (one trial), imagery (five trials), autogenic training (one trial) and yoga (one trial). Due to the small number of studies per intervention and to the diversity of outcome measurements, we performed no meta