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Sample records for aux aidants naturels

  1. Dépression et niveau de fardeau chez les aidants familiaux des sujets déments en Tunisie

    PubMed Central

    Ben Thabet, Jihène; Jaoua, Feriel; Charfi, Nada; Zouari, Lobna; Zouari, Nasreddine; Maalej, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Introduction La démence peut retentir lourdement sur les aidants familiaux du patient. Les objectifs de notre étude étaient de déterminer le niveau de fardeau et de la dépression chez les aidants familiaux de sujets déments, et d'identifier les facteurs associés à un niveau de fardeau élevé. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une enquête auprès de 65 aidants tunisiens. Les niveaux de fardeau et de la dépression ont été évalués par, respectivement, l'inventaire de Zarit et l’échelle de Beck. Résultats Le taux des aidants qui avaient un niveau de fardeau élevé était de 52,3 %. Une dépression modérée ou sévère a été relevée chez 46,2 %. Un niveau de fardeau élevé était corrélé, du côté de l'aidant, avec le niveau socio-économique moyen à élevé, la cohabitation avec le patient, le fait d’être son conjoint, la réduction des activités quotidiennes et la sévérité de la dépression, et, du côté du dément, avec l'agressivité. Conclusion Les facteurs corrélés à un niveau de fardeau élevé orientent vers les cibles d'intervention et sont susceptibles d’être améliorés par la prise en charge, ce qui contribuerait à alléger la détresse des aidants. PMID:22384291

  2. LAnse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-07-18

    LAnse aux Meadows is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960. This image is from NASA Terra satellite.

  3. Modelisation de la Propagation des Ondes Sonores dans un Environnement Naturel Complexe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Esperance, Andre

    Ce travail est consacre a la propagation sonore a l'exterieur dans un environnement naturel complexe, i.e. en presence de conditions reelles de vent, de gradient de temperature et de turbulence atmospherique. Plus specifiquement ce travail comporte deux objectifs. D'une part, il vise a developper un modele heuristique de propagation sonore (MHP) permettant de prendre en consideration l'ensemble des phenomenes meteorologiques et acoustiques influencant la propagation du son a l'exterieur. D'autre part, il vise a identifier dans quelles circonstances et avec quelle importance les conditions meteorologiques interviennent sur la propagation sonore. Ce travail est divise en cinq parties. Apres une breve introduction identifiant les motivations de cette etude (chapitre 1), le chapitre 2 fait un rappel des travaux deja realises dans le domaine de la propagation du son a l'exterieur. Ce chapitre presente egalement les bases de l'acoustique geometrique a partir desquelles ont ete developpees la partie acoustique du modele heuristique de propagation. En outre, on y decrit comment les phenomenes de refraction et de turbulence atmospherique peuvent etre consideres dans la theorie des rayons. Le chapitre 3 presente le modele heuristique de propagation (MHP) developpe au cours de cet ouvrage. La premiere section de ce chapitre decrit le modele acoustique de propagation, modele qui fait l'hypothese d'un gradient de celerite lineaire et qui est base sur une solution hybride d'acoustique geometrique et de theorie des residus. La deuxieme section du chapitre 3 traite plus specifiquement de la modelisation des aspects meteorologiques et de la determination des profils de celerite et des index de fluctuation associes aux conditions meteorologiques. La section 3 de ce chapitre decrit comment les profils de celerite resultants sont linearises pour les calculs dans le modele acoustique, et finalement la section 4 donne les tendances generales obtenues par le modele. Le chapitre 4 decrit

  4. Soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William F.; Berg, Joseph M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Cheetham, Tom; Denton, Richard; Heng, John; Hennen, Brian; Joyce, David; Kelly, Maureen; Korossy, Marika; Lunsky, Yona; McMillan, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Mettre à jour les lignes directrices canadiennes de 2006 sur les soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) et présenter des recommandations pratiques fondées sur les connaissances actuelles pour traiter des problèmes de santé particuliers chez des adultes ayant une DD. Qualité des preuves Des professionnels de la santé expérimentés participant à un colloque et un groupe de travail subséquent ont discuté et convenu des révisions aux lignes directrices de 2006 en se fondant sur une recherche documentaire exhaustive, la rétroaction obtenue des utilisateurs du guide de pratique et les expériences cliniques personnelles. La plupart des preuves disponibles dans ce domaine viennent de l’opinion d’experts ou de déclarations consensuelles publiées (niveau III). Message principal Les adultes ayant une DD ont des problèmes de santé complexes, dont plusieurs diffèrent de ceux de la population en général. De bons soins primaires permettent d’identifier les problèmes de santé particuliers dont souffrent les adultes ayant une DD pour améliorer leur qualité de vie et leur accès aux soins de santé et prévenir la morbidité et le décès prématuré. Ces lignes directrices résument les problèmes de santé générale, physique, comportementale et mentale des adultes ayant une DD que devraient connaître les professionnels des soins primaires et présentent des recommandations pour le dépistage et la prise en charge en se basant sur les connaissances actuelles que les cliniciens peuvent mettre en pratique. En raison de l’interaction des facteurs biologiques, psychoaffectifs et sociaux qui contribuent à la santé et au bien-être des adultes ayant une DD, ces lignes directrices insistent sur la participation des aidants, l’adaptation des interventions, au besoin, et la consultation auprès de divers professionnels de la santé quand ils sont accessibles. Elles mettent aussi en évidence la

  5. Le pompage optique naturel dans le milieu astrophysique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    éactions publiques face à l'armement nucléaire, aux guerres de Viet-Nam et d'Algérie, aux problèmes des réfugiés politiques... Kastler était un grand savant, mais aussi un homme courageux.

  6. L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    L'Anse aux Meadows is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegians Helge and Anne Ingstad. The only authenticated Viking settlement in North America outside Greenland, it was the site of a multi-year archaeological dig that found dwellings, tools and implements that verified its time frame. The settlement, dating more than five hundred years before Christopher Columbus, contains the earliest European structures in North America. Named a World Heritage site by UNESCO, it is thought by many to be the semi-legendary 'Vinland' settlement of explorer Leif Ericson around AD 1000. The settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows consisted of at least eight buildings, including a forge and smelter, and a lumber yard that supported a shipyard. The largest house measured 28.8 by 15.6 m and consisted of several rooms. Sewing and knitting tools found at the site indicate women were present at L'Anse aux Meadows

    The image was acquired on September 14, 2007, covers an area of 14.2 x 14.6 km, and is located at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 55.6 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. Substrate-dependent Aux cluster: A new insight into Aux/CeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kong-Jie; Yang, Yan-Ju; Lang, Jia-Jian; Teng, Bo-Tao; Wu, Feng-Min; Du, Shi-Yu; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-01

    To theoretically study the structures of metal clusters on oxides is very important and becomes one of the most challenging works in computational heterogeneous catalysis since many factors affect their structures and lead to various possibilities. In this work, it is very interesting to find that the stable structures and stability evolution of Aux clusters on ceria are varied with different index surfaces of CeO2. The corresponding reasons in chemical, geometric and electronic properties are systematically explored. Aux (x = 1-4) clusters prefer to separately disperse at the O-O bridge sites on CeO2(100) due to the low coordination number of surface O; while aggregate due to the strong Au-Au attractions when x is larger than 4. Owing to the uniform distribution of O-O bridge sites on CeO2(111) and (100), the most stable configurations of Aux are 3D structures with bottom atoms more than top ones when x is larger than 4. However, 2D configurations of Aux/CeO2(110) (x < 10) are more stable than the corresponding 3D structures due to the particular O-O arrangement on CeO2(110). 3D Aux clusters across O-O-Y lines are suggested as the most stable configurations for Aux/CeO2(110) (x ≥ 10). The present work gives a detailed example for the theoretical study of metal clusters on oxide, and will shed light into the design for controllable synthesis of ceria-based catalysts with metal nanoparticles supported on CeO2.

  8. Collaborateurs aux lignes directrices en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Kraut, Roni; Crawshay, Aven; Korownyk, Christina; Vandermeer, Ben; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices, les variables associées aux différences de participation des collaborateurs et si oui ou non les lignes directrices en soins primaires fournissent un énoncé sur les conflits d’intérêts. Type d’étude Analyse rétrospective des lignes directrices en soins primaires affichées sur le site web de l’Association médicale canadienne. Deux extracteurs de données indépendants ont examiné les lignes directrices et ont extrait les données pertinentes. Contexte Canada Principaux paramètres à l’étude Commanditaires des lignes directrices, territoire (national ou provincial) visé par les lignes directrices, profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices et énoncés de conflits d’intérêts rapportés dans les lignes directrices. Résultats Sur les 296 lignes directrices de pratique clinique trouvées dans la section de la médecine familiale de l’Infobanque AMC, 65 apparaissaient en double et 35 se rapportaient de façon limitée à la médecine familiale. Vingt ne fournissaient aucune information sur les collaborateurs scientifiques, ce qui laissait 176 lignes directrices propices à l’analyse. Au total, il y avait 2495 collaborateurs (auteurs et membres de comité) : 1343 (53,8 %) spécialistes autres que des médecins de famille, 423 (17,0 %) médecins de famille, 141 (5,7 %) infirmières, 75 (3,0 %) pharmaciens, 269 (10,8 %) autres cliniciens, 203 (8,1 %) scientifiques non cliniciens et 41 (1,6 %) collaborateurs de profession inconnue. La proportion des collaborateurs de ces professions différait significativement entre les lignes directrices nationales et provinciales, de même qu’entre les lignes directrices financées par l’industrie et celles qui ne l’étaient pas (p < 0,001 dans les 2 cas). Dans le cas des lignes directrices de pratique clinique provinciales, 30,8 % des collaborateurs étaient des médecins de

  9. A Summary of Transonic Natural Laminar Flow Airfoil Development at NAE (Resume Des Recherches de l’Ena sur des Profils Aerodynamiques A Ecoulements Laminaires Naturels Transsoniques)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    connaissances. RAPPORTS TECHNIQUES DE LABORATOIRE (LTR): Informations peu dissdmindes pour des raisons d’usage secret, de droit de propn6t ou autres ou parce ...COULEMENTS LAMINAIRES NATURELS TRANSSONIQUES Acce-,iwn For NTIS CRA&I DTIC TAB Urianoonnced 0 Jusficatcn by/par copy B IVSPEc7rE Dislribiution I M. Khalid...r6sultats exp6rimentaux obtenus pour quatre profils a6rodynamiques I 6coulements laminaires naturels surcritiques qui ont fait l’objet de recherches A

  10. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, L.; Donat, N.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la dose reçue. Les protocoles habituels de réanimation des brûlés s’appliquent ici. Les soins aux irradiés nécessitent aussi une mesure de l’irradiation et une décontamination par des personnels entraînés. En cas de catastrophe nucléaire, la priorité est d’optimiser les structures existantes et de préserver les moyens pour les patients ayant la plus forte probabilité de survie. Après un accident nucléaire isolé, les difficultés dans les centres de brûlés sont l’évaluation de la profondeur et les techniques chirurgicales de couverture cutanée. La préparation des moyens médicaux et des centres de brûlés est nécessaire pour faire face à la prise en charge de ces brûlures différentes et complexes. PMID:21991218

  11. Activite locomotrice de souris isolees, de deux lignees consanguines, dans un environnement semi-naturel ou en cages d'elevage.

    PubMed

    Le Pape, G; Lassalle, J M

    1979-10-01

    Des enregistrements continus d'activité locomotrice ont été effectués sur des souris mâles isolées des lignées Balb/c et C57bl/6, vivant en cages d'élevage ou en milieu semi- naturel. Les résultats montrent que les différences entre ces deux situations ne sont pas perçues de la même façon par les animaux des deux lign'ees: alors qu'en cages d'élevage les souris des deux lignées experiment la même quantité totale d'activaté, en milieu semi-naturel les souris Balb/c sont plus actives que les C57bl/6. En outre, l≐s différences observées entre les lignées pour la repartition de l'activité au cours du nycthèmere s'inversent lorsque l'on passe d'une situation à l'autre. L'étude de la variabilité fait aparaître une dispersion plus grande des performances dans la lignée C57bl/6 en cages d'élevage, alors qu'en milieu semi-naturel la dispersion est plus chez Bal/c. Copyright © 1979. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. AUX: a scripting language for auditory signal processing and software packages for psychoacoustic experiments and education.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bomjun J

    2012-06-01

    This article introduces AUX (AUditory syntaX), a scripting syntax specifically designed to describe auditory signals and processing, to the members of the behavioral research community. The syntax is based on descriptive function names and intuitive operators suitable for researchers and students without substantial training in programming, who wish to generate and examine sound signals using a written script. In this article, the essence of AUX is discussed and practical examples of AUX scripts specifying various signals are illustrated. Additionally, two accompanying Windows-based programs and development libraries are described. AUX Viewer is a program that generates, visualizes, and plays sounds specified in AUX. AUX Viewer can also be used for class demonstrations or presentations. Another program, Psycon, allows a wide range of sound signals to be used as stimuli in common psychophysical testing paradigms, such as the adaptive procedure, the method of constant stimuli, and the method of adjustment. AUX Library is also provided, so that researchers can develop their own programs utilizing AUX. The philosophical basis of AUX is to separate signal generation from the user interface needed for experiments. AUX scripts are portable and reusable; they can be shared by other researchers, regardless of differences in actual AUX-based programs, and reused for future experiments. In short, the use of AUX can be potentially beneficial to all members of the research community-both those with programming backgrounds and those without.

  13. Sequence stratigraphy of the Aux Vases Sandstone: A major oil producer in the Illinois basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leetaru, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Aux Vases Sandstone (Mississippian) has contributed between 10 and 25% of all the oil produced in Illinois. The Aux Vases is not only an important oil reservoir but is also an important source of groundwater, quarrying stone, and fluorspar. Using sequence stratigraphy, a more accurate stratigraphic interpretation of this economically important formation can be discerned and thereby enable more effective exploration for the resources contained therein. Previous studies have assumed that the underlying Spar Mountain, Karnak, and Joppa formations interfingered with the Aux Vases, as did the overlying Renault Limestone. This study demonstrates that these formations instead are separated by sequence boundaries; therefore, they are not genetically related to each other. A result of this sequence stratigraphic approach is the identification of incised valleys, paleotopography, and potential new hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Spar Mountain and Aux Vases. In eastern Illinois, the Aux Vases is bounded by sequence boundaries with 20 ft (6 m) of relief. The Aux Vases oil reservoir facies was deposited as a tidally influenced siliciclastic wedge that prograded over underlying carbonate-rich sediments. The Aux Vases sedimentary succession consists of offshore sediment overlain by intertidal and supratidal sediments. Low-permeability shales and carbonates typically surround the Aux Vases reservoir sandstone and thereby form numerous bypassed compartments from which additional oil can be recovered. The potential for new significant oil fields within the Aux Vases is great, as is the potential for undrained reservoir compartments within existing Aux Vases fields.

  14. Structure-Function Analysis of the Presumptive Arabidopsis Auxin Permease AUX1W⃞

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Ranjan; Kargul, Joanna; Marchant, Alan; Zadik, Daniel; Rahman, Abidur; Mills, Rebecca; Yemm, Anthony; May, Sean; Williams, Lorraine; Millner, Paul; Tsurumi, Seiji; Moore, Ian; Napier, Richard; Kerr, Ian D.; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the subcellular localization, the domain topology, and the amino acid residues that are critical for the function of the presumptive Arabidopsis thaliana auxin influx carrier AUX1. Biochemical fractionation experiments and confocal studies using an N-terminal yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusion observed that AUX1 colocalized with plasma membrane (PM) markers. Because of its PM localization, we were able to take advantage of the steep pH gradient that exists across the plant cell PM to investigate AUX1 topology using YFP as a pH-sensitive probe. The YFP-coding sequence was inserted in selected AUX1 hydrophilic loops to orient surface domains on either apoplastic or cytoplasmic faces of the PM based on the absence or presence of YFP fluorescence, respectively. We were able to demonstrate in conjunction with helix prediction programs that AUX1 represents a polytopic membrane protein composed of 11 transmembrane spanning domains. In parallel, a large aux1 allelic series containing null, partial-loss-of-function, and conditional mutations was characterized to identify the functionally important domains and amino acid residues within the AUX1 polypeptide. Whereas almost all partial-loss-of-function and null alleles cluster in the core permease region, the sole conditional allele aux1-7 modifies the function of the external C-terminal domain. PMID:15486104

  15. Maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les facteurs de risque, la prise en charge et la prévention des maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques en pratique familiale. Sources des données Des articles originaux et de synthèse entre janvier 1998 et février 2012 ont été identifiés à l’aide de PubMed et des expressions de recherche en anglais water-related illness, recreational water illness et swimmer illness. Message principal Il y a un risque de 3 % à 8 % de maladies gastrointestinales (MGI) après la baignade. Les groupes à risque élevé de MGI sont les enfants de moins de 5 ans, surtout s’ils n’ont pas été vaccinés contre le rotavirus, les personnes âgées et les patients immunodéficients. Les enfants sont à plus grand risque parce qu’ils avalent plus d’eau quand ils nagent, restent dans l’eau plus longtemps et jouent dans l’eau peu profonde et le sable qui sont plus contaminés. Les adeptes des sports dans lesquels le contact avec l’eau est abondant comme le triathlon et le surf cerf-volant sont aussi à risque élevé et même ceux qui s’adonnent à des activités impliquant un contact partiel avec l’eau comme la navigation de plaisance et la pêche ont un risque de 40 % à 50 % fois plus grand de MGI par rapport à ceux qui ne pratiquent pas de sports aquatiques. Il y a lieu de faire une culture des selles quand on soupçonne une maladie reliée aux loisirs aquatiques et l’échelle clinique de la déshydratation est utile pour l’évaluation des besoins de traitement chez les enfants affectés. Conclusion Les maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques est la principale cause de MGI durant la saison des baignades. La reconnaissance que la baignade est une source importante de maladies peut aider à prévenir les cas récurrents et secondaires. On recommande fortement le vaccin contre le rotavirus chez les enfants qui se baignent souvent.

  16. Application de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebas, E.; Martin, G. H.

    2002-04-01

    La réduction des émissions d'oxydes d'azote sur turbines à gaz est obtenue par diminution de la température au sein de la chambre de combustion. Les techniques possibles comprennent l'injection d'eau ou de vapeur, la combustion pauvre et l'oxydation catalytique. Parmi celles-ci, la dernière est la plus prometteuse en terme de coûts et de performances, avec des émissions de NOx ramenées à un seul chiffre (typiquement inférieures à 3 ppm). L'IFP travaille depuis maintenant 10 ans sur l'adaptation de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz. Les études ont été conduites au travers de projets européen tels que AGATA (Advance Gas Turbine for Automotive Application) et ULECAT (Ultra Low CATalytic combustor for dual fuel gas turbine). Le premier projet était destiné au développement de véhicules hybrides et le second à la combustion stationnaire de biogaz et de combustible Diesel. Les études en cours dans ce domaine portent sur le développement d'une unité de cogénération intégrant une microturbine à combustion catalytique. Les travaux menés à l'IFP concernent la mise au point de catalyseurs répondant aux exigences de la combustion catalytique en turbine à gaz et le développement de chambres de combustion permettant la mise en oeuvre de ces catalyseurs.

  17. Génération interfaciale des transistors NMOS implantes et naturels, à drain simple et doublement diffusé

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oualid, J.; Dugas, J.; Jérisian, R.; Bouassis, A.; Labrunye, D.; Mirabel, J. M.

    1991-03-01

    We have compared the true interfacial generation velocities (S_0) and the diffusion lengths near the vicinity of the Si-SiO2 interface (L_s) on implanted and natural NMOS transistors with single diffused drain (SDD) or double diffused drain (DDD). An iterative procedure is proposed which allows the determination of both these electronic parameters by means of the measurement of the apparent interfacial velocities S'_0 on two transistors with different gate lengths. S'_0 values are deduced from the leakage current variation with gate polarization of the transistors used as gate controlled diodes (GCD). We show that the ionic implantation of boron for threshold voltage adjustment has a negligible influence on the true interfacial generation velocity, but it reduces L_s and consequently S'_0 when the gate length is greater than L_s. We attribute the reduction of the true interfacial generation velocity observed on DDD transistors to the gettering effect due to phosphorus which is not homogeneous along the channel. Nous avons comparé les vitesses de génération interfaciale (S_0) et les longueurs de diffusion au voisinage de l'interface Si-SiO2 (L_s) dans les transistors NMOS implantés et naturels, à drain simple (SDD) et doublement diffusé (DDD). Nous avons proposé une procédure itérative qui permet la détermination de ces deux grandeurs, qui caractérisent l'activité électronique au voisinage de l'interface, à partir des vitesses apparentes de génération interfaciale (S'_0) de deux transistors voisins, de longueurs de canal différentes, utilisés comme des diodes contrôlées par grille (DCG) en reliant la source et le drain. Nous avons montré que l'implantation ionique de bore, d'ajustement de la tension de seuil, a une influence pratiquement négligeable sur la vitesse de génération interfaciale S_0. Par contre, l'implantation ionique réduit notablement la longueur de diffusion au voisinage de l'interface, L_s, et par conséquent la vitesse

  18. AUX/LAX family of auxin influx carriers—an overview

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Ranjan; Péret, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Auxin regulates several aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin is unique among plant hormones for exhibiting polar transport. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the major form of auxin in higher plants, is a weak acid and its intercellular movement is facilitated by auxin influx and efflux carriers. Polarity of auxin movement is provided by asymmetric localization of auxin carriers (mainly PIN efflux carriers). PIN-FORMED (PIN) and P-GLYCOPROTEIN (PGP) family of proteins are major auxin efflux carriers whereas AUXIN1/LIKE-AUX1 (AUX/LAX) are major auxin influx carriers. Genetic and biochemical evidence show that each member of the AUX/LAX family is a functional auxin influx carrier and mediate auxin related developmental programmes in different organs and tissues. Of the four AUX/LAX genes, AUX1 regulates root gravitropism, root hair development and leaf phyllotaxy whereas LAX2 regulates vascular development in cotyledons. Both AUX1 and LAX3 have been implicated in lateral root (LR) development as well as apical hook formation whereas both AUX1 and LAX1 and possibly LAX2 are required for leaf phyllotactic patterning. PMID:23087694

  19. OsAUX1 controls lateral root initiation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heming; Ma, Tengfei; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yingtian; Ma, Haoli; Zhang, Rongsheng; Zhao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by influx and efflux transporters, controls many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin influx carriers in Arabidopsis have been shown to control lateral root development and gravitropism, but little is known about these proteins in rice. This paper reports on the functional characterization of OsAUX1. Three OsAUX1 T-DNA insertion mutants and RNAi knockdown transgenic plants reduced lateral root initiation compared with wild-type (WT) plants. OsAUX1 overexpression plants exhibited increased lateral root initiation and OsAUX1 was highly expressed in lateral roots and lateral root primordia. Similarly, the auxin reporter, DR5-GUS, was expressed at lower levels in osaux1 than in the WT plants, which indicated that the auxin levels in the mutant roots had decreased. Exogenous 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) treatment rescued the defective phenotype in osaux1-1 plants, whereas indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-D could not, which suggested that OsAUX1 was a putative auxin influx carrier. The transcript levels of several auxin signalling genes and cell cycle genes significantly declined in osaux1, hinting that the regulatory role of OsAUX1 may be mediated by auxin signalling and cell cycle genes. Overall, our results indicated that OsAUX1 was involved in polar auxin transport and functioned to control auxin-mediated lateral root initiation in rice.

  20. The identification and characterization of specific ARF-Aux/IAA regulatory modules in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Krogan, Naden T; Berleth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The current model of auxin-inducible transcription describes numerous regulatory interactions between AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) and Aux/IAAs. However, specific relationships between individual members of these families in planta remain largely uncharacterized. Using a systems biology approach, the entire suite of Aux/IAA genes directly regulated by the developmentally pivotal ARF MONOPTEROS (MP) was recently determined for multiple Arabidopsis tissue types. This study showed that MP directly targets distinct subclades of Aux/IAAs, revealing potential regulatory modules of redundantly acting Aux/IAAs involved in MP-dependent processes. Further, functional analyses indicated that the protein products of these targeted Aux/IAAs negatively feedback on MP. Thus, comprehensive identification of Aux/IAAs targeted by individual ARFs will generate biologically meaningful networks of ARF-Aux/IAA regulatory modules controlling distinct plant pathways.

  1. The Binding of Auxin to the Arabidopsis Auxin Influx Transporter AUX11[OA

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, David J.; Bakar, Norliza Tendot Abu; Swarup, Ranjan; Callaghan, Richard; Napier, Richard M.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Kerr, Ian D.

    2008-01-01

    The cellular import of the hormone auxin is a fundamental requirement for the generation of auxin gradients that control a multitude of plant developmental processes. The AUX/LAX family of auxin importers, exemplified by AUX1 from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), has been shown to mediate auxin import when expressed heterologously. The quantitative nature of the interaction between AUX1 and its transport substrate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is incompletely understood, and we sought to address this in the present investigation. We expressed AUX1 to high levels in a baculovirus expression system and prepared membrane fragments from baculovirus-infected insect cells. These membranes proved suitable for determination of the binding of IAA to AUX1 and enabled us to determine a Kd of 2.6 μm, comparable with estimates for the Km for IAA transport. The efficacy of a number of auxin analogues and auxin transport inhibitors to displace IAA binding from AUX1 has also been determined and can be rationalized in terms of their physiological effects. Determination of the parameters describing the initial interaction between a plant transporter and its hormone ligand provides novel quantitative data for modeling auxin fluxes. PMID:18614710

  2. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K.; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

  3. Symetries et integrabilite des equations aux differences finies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafortune, Stephane

    2000-09-01

    La présente thèse porte sur l'étude des symétries et des propriétés d'intégrabilité des équations aux différences finies. Dans le chapitre 1, le groupe de symétrie ponctuelle d'un système couplé à deux équations différentielles aux différences est étudié. On montre que dans certains cas, la dimension du groupe peut être infinie. Les équations peuvent décrire l'interaction de deux longues chaînes moléculaires, chacune étant composée d'atomes d'un même type. Dans le chapitre 2, une classe de théories de champs avec interaction exponentielle est introduite. L'interaction dépend de deux matrices de ``couplage'' et est suffisamment générale pour inclure toutes les théories de champs de Toda existant dans la littérature. Les symétries de Lie ponctuelles sont obtenues pour les cas où l'on a un nombre fini, infini ou semi-infini de champs. Une attention spéciale est accordée à la présence de l'invariance conforme. Dans le chapitre 3, nous procédons à la classification et à l'étude d'équations linéarisables. Nous examinons tout d'abord l'équation de Gambier continue qui contient, comme réductions, toutes les équations de deuxième ordre intégrables par linéarisation. Nous introduisons par la suite la forme discrète de cette équation et obtenons les conditions d'intégrabilité à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Nous étudions aussi les différentes réductions du cas discret. De plus, nous obtenons des transformations de Schlesinger pour les équations de Gambier discrète et continue. Dans la dernière partie du chapitre, nous étudions une famille d'équations discrètes du deuxième ordre incluant des équations résolubles par linéarisation. Plusieurs cas intégrables sont obtenus. Dans le cas discret, l'étude de l'intégrabilité est faite à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Dans le chapitre 4, nous étudions un autre critère d'intégrabilité: l'entropie algébrique. Nous montrons que les r

  4. Réactions aux interfaces de bicristaux compatibles et incompatibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taisne, A.; Décamps, B.; Priester, L.

    2003-03-01

    La rupture intergranulaire peut apparaître suite à la non accommodation des contraintes au voisinage de l'interface. La transmission du glissement au travers d'une interface est un des modes de relaxation possible qui dépend des paramètres suivants : facteurs géométriques (caractéristiques de l'interface et systèmes de glissement activés), constantes élastiques de chacune des phases. Dans cette étude, la microscopie électronique à transmission (MET) est utilisée pour analyser les configurations de dislocations résultant d'une déformation par fatigue de bicristaux d'acier austénoferritique de désorientations contrôlées. Deux types de bicristaux sont étudiés, compatible et incompatible plastiquement. Pour chacun d'eux, la déformation est initiée soit dans la phase ferritique α soit dans la phase austénitique γ selon la localisation d'une entaille préalable à l'essai mécanique. Les résultats permettent de remonter aux mécanismes élémentaires qui régissent le transfert “direct” ou “indirect” des dislocations à travers l'interface. Une corrélation avec le comportement des bicristaux à l'échelle macroscopique est également tentée.

  5. Structural basis for the auxin-induced transcriptional regulation by Aux/IAA17.

    PubMed

    Han, Mookyoung; Park, Yangshin; Kim, Iktae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Yu, Tae-Kyung; Rhee, Sangkee; Suh, Jeong-Yong

    2014-12-30

    Auxin is the central hormone that regulates plant growth and organ development. Transcriptional regulation by auxin is mediated by the auxin response factor (ARF) and the repressor, AUX/IAA. Aux/IAA associates with ARF via domain III-IV for transcriptional repression that is reversed by auxin-induced Aux/IAA degradation. It has been known that Aux/IAA and ARF form homo- and hetero-oligomers for the transcriptional regulation, but what determines their association states is poorly understood. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first solution structure of domain III-IV of Aux/IAA17 (IAA17), and characterize molecular interactions underlying the homotypic and heterotypic oligomerization. The structure exhibits a compact β-grasp fold with a highly dynamic insert helix that is unique in Aux/IAA family proteins. IAA17 associates to form a heterogeneous ensemble of front-to-back oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner. IAA17 and ARF5 associate to form homo- or hetero-oligomers using a common scaffold and binding interfaces, but their affinities vary significantly. The equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) for homo-oligomerization are 6.6 μM and 0.87 μM for IAA17 and ARF5, respectively, whereas hetero-oligomerization reveals a ∼ 10- to ∼ 100-fold greater affinity (KD = 73 nM). Thus, individual homo-oligomers of IAA17 and ARF5 spontaneously exchange their subunits to form alternating hetero-oligomers for transcriptional repression. Oligomerization is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions, so that charge complementarity at the interface determines the binding affinity. Variable binding affinity by surface charge modulation may effectively regulate the complex interaction network between Aux/IAA and ARF family proteins required for the transcriptional control of auxin-response genes.

  6. Structural basis for the auxin-induced transcriptional regulation by Aux/IAA17

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mookyoung; Park, Yangshin; Kim, Iktae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Yu, Tae-Kyung; Rhee, Sangkee; Suh, Jeong-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Auxin is the central hormone that regulates plant growth and organ development. Transcriptional regulation by auxin is mediated by the auxin response factor (ARF) and the repressor, AUX/IAA. Aux/IAA associates with ARF via domain III−IV for transcriptional repression that is reversed by auxin-induced Aux/IAA degradation. It has been known that Aux/IAA and ARF form homo- and hetero-oligomers for the transcriptional regulation, but what determines their association states is poorly understood. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first solution structure of domain III−IV of Aux/IAA17 (IAA17), and characterize molecular interactions underlying the homotypic and heterotypic oligomerization. The structure exhibits a compact β-grasp fold with a highly dynamic insert helix that is unique in Aux/IAA family proteins. IAA17 associates to form a heterogeneous ensemble of front-to-back oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner. IAA17 and ARF5 associate to form homo- or hetero-oligomers using a common scaffold and binding interfaces, but their affinities vary significantly. The equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) for homo-oligomerization are 6.6 μM and 0.87 μM for IAA17 and ARF5, respectively, whereas hetero-oligomerization reveals a ∼10- to ∼100-fold greater affinity (KD = 73 nM). Thus, individual homo-oligomers of IAA17 and ARF5 spontaneously exchange their subunits to form alternating hetero-oligomers for transcriptional repression. Oligomerization is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions, so that charge complementarity at the interface determines the binding affinity. Variable binding affinity by surface charge modulation may effectively regulate the complex interaction network between Aux/IAA and ARF family proteins required for the transcriptional control of auxin-response genes. PMID:25512488

  7. Influence of storage conditions on the formation of some volatile compounds in white fortified wines (Vins doux naturels) during the aging process.

    PubMed

    Cutzach, I; Chatonnet, P; Dubourdieu, D

    2000-06-01

    Sweet fortified wines, traditionally aged under strong oxidation conditions, have a characteristic aroma. An experimental study investigated the aging of white sweet fortified wines under various conditions. The development of various molecules, previously identified as characteristic of the aroma of this type of wine, was monitored by analysis. The development of these compounds during accelerated aging was affected by oxidation and the color of the wine. Aging in oak containers, variable storage temperatures, and variable modes of oxidation affect the formation of many of the volatile compounds responsible for the aging aroma of vins doux naturels (fortified wines). Furfural (1), 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (2), and sotolon (3) always reach concentrations above their perception thresholds in wood-aged wines, especially when new oak is used. The isomers of methyl-gamma-octalactone (4 and 5) are reliable indicators of aging in oak. Among the many identifiable volatile phenols, only the vanillin (7) content increases with aging, particularly if the container is made of wood and there is a high degree of oxidation. This molecule frequently reaches and even exceeds its perception threshold. We show here that vanillin and isomers of methyl-gamma-octalactone have a major impact on the aromas of fortified wines.

  8. Bactériophages et phagothérapie: utilisation de virus naturels pour traiter les infections bactériennes

    PubMed Central

    Ravat, F.; Jault, P.; Gabard, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary L’utilisation des bactériophages, prédateurs naturels des bactéries, est une technique pionnière efficace de lutte contre les infections bactériennes. Tombée dans l’oubli depuis un demi-siècle du coté occidental de l’ex-rideau de fer, elle fait toujours partie de l’arsenal thérapeutique des pays de l’ex-Europe de l’Est, au point de constituer une arme de choix dans la politique de santé publique de ces pays. l’émergence de bactéries multirésistantes et le risque de revenir à l’ère pré-antibiotique ont fait ressortir la phagothérapie de l’oubli injuste auquel elle avait été confinée. la biologie et la place du bactériophage dans la nature sont décrites ici. les tenants et les aboutissants de la phagothérapie et les conditions de son retour sur le devant de la scène sont explicitées. PMID:26668557

  9. Ti1-xAux Alloys: Hard Biocompatible Metals and Their Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevzi; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Morosan, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Furthermore, using materials for biomedical applications calls for alloys with high biocompatibility which are even more sparse. The Ti1-xAux (0 . 22 <= x <= 0 . 8) exhibit extreme hardness and strength values, elevated melting temperatures (compared to those of constituent elements), reduced density compared to Au, high malleability, bulk metallicity, high biocompatibility, low wear, reduced friction, potentially high radio opacity, as well as osseointegration. All these properties render the Ti1-xAux alloys particularly useful for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications, where they could be used as both permanent and temporary components. Additionally, the ability of Ti1-xAux alloys to adhere to ceramic parts could reduce the weight and cost of these components. The work at Rice was supported by NSF DMR 0847681 (E.M. and E.S.).

  10. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  11. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.

    PubMed

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-07

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed.

  12. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA—BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA—AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa.

  14. The Evolution of Minehunting in France (L’Evolution de la Chasse aux Mines en France),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-13

    AD-A132 532 THE EVOLUTION OF MINEHUNTING IN FRANCE IL’EVOLUTION DE I/1 LA CHASSE AUX MINES EN FRANCE)(U) NAVAL INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT CENTER WASHINGTON...SEP 16 0 -wm- a/or.’- i.,it ______ D a " THE EVOLUTION OF MINEHUNTING IN FRANCE (de Drezigue, Cdr; L’Evolution de la Chasse aux Mines en France...than the minehunter could assure this mission? Evolution of Minehunting The guiding thought of this evolution is the following: to have a good

  15. Genome-wide analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in maize (Zea mays. L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijun; Deng, Dexiang; Bian, Yunlong; Lv, Yanping; Xie, Qin

    2010-12-01

    The phytohormone auxin is important in various aspects of organism growth and development. Aux/IAA genes encoding short-lived nuclear proteins are responsive primarily to auxin induction. Despite their physiological importance, systematic analysis of Aux/IAA genes in maize have not yet been reported. In this paper, we presented the isolation and characterization of maize Aux/IAA genes in whole-genome scale. A total of 31 maize Aux/IAA genes (ZmIAA1 to ZmIAA31) were identified. ZmIAA genes are distributed in all the maize chromosomes except chromosome 2. Aux/IAA genes expand in the maize genome partly due to tandem and segmental duplication events. Multiple alignment and motif display results revealed major maize Aux/IAA proteins share all the four conserved domains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated Aux/IAA family can be divided into seven subfamilies. Putative cis-acting regulatory DNA elements involved in auxin response, light signaling transduction and abiotic stress adaption were observed in the promoters of ZmIAA genes. Expression data mining suggested maize Aux/IAA genes have temporal and spatial expression pattern. Collectively, these results will provide molecular insights into the auxin metabolism, transport and signaling research.

  16. The carrier AUXIN RESISTANT (AUX1) dominates auxin flux into Arabidopsis protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Rutschow, Heidi L; Baskin, Tobias I; Kramer, Eric M

    2014-11-01

    The ability of the plant hormone auxin to enter a cell is critical to auxin transport and signaling. Auxin can cross the cell membrane by diffusion or via auxin-specific influx carriers. There is little knowledge of the magnitudes of these fluxes in plants. Radiolabeled auxin uptake was measured in protoplasts isolated from roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. This was done for the wild-type, under treatments with additional unlabeled auxin to saturate the influx carriers, and for the influx carrier mutant auxin resistant 1 (aux1). We also used flow cytometry to quantify the relative abundance of cells expressing AUX1-YFP in the assayed population. At pH 5.7, the majority of auxin influx into protoplasts - 75% - was mediated by the influx carrier AUX1. An additional 20% was mediated by other saturable carriers. The diffusive influx of auxin was essentially negligible at pH 5.7. The influx of auxin mediated by AUX1, expressed as a membrane permeability, was 1.5 ± 0.3 μm s(-1) . This value is comparable in magnitude to estimates of efflux permeability. Thus, auxin-transporting tissues can sustain relatively high auxin efflux and yet not become depleted of auxin.

  17. Cloning and expression analysis of novel Aux/IAA family genes in Gossypium hirsutum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Members of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encode proteins to mediate the responses of auxin gene expression and to regulate various aspects of plant morphological development. In this paper, we report the identification of nine cDNAs that contain complete open reading frame (OR...

  18. AUX/LAX Genes Encode a Family of Auxin Influx Transporters That Perform Distinct Functions during Arabidopsis Development[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Péret, Benjamin; Swarup, Kamal; Ferguson, Alison; Seth, Malvika; Yang, Yaodong; Dhondt, Stijn; James, Nicholas; Casimiro, Ilda; Perry, Paula; Syed, Adnan; Yang, Haibing; Reemmer, Jesica; Venison, Edward; Howells, Caroline; Perez-Amador, Miguel A.; Yun, Jeonga; Alonso, Jose; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Laplaze, Laurent; Murphy, Angus; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Nielsen, Erik; Swarup, Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Auxin transport, which is mediated by specialized influx and efflux carriers, plays a major role in many aspects of plant growth and development. AUXIN1 (AUX1) has been demonstrated to encode a high-affinity auxin influx carrier. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AUX1 belongs to a small multigene family comprising four highly conserved genes (i.e., AUX1 and LIKE AUX1 [LAX] genes LAX1, LAX2, and LAX3). We report that all four members of this AUX/LAX family display auxin uptake functions. Despite the conservation of their biochemical function, AUX1, LAX1, and LAX3 have been described to regulate distinct auxin-dependent developmental processes. Here, we report that LAX2 regulates vascular patterning in cotyledons. We also describe how regulatory and coding sequences of AUX/LAX genes have undergone subfunctionalization based on their distinct patterns of spatial expression and the inability of LAX sequences to rescue aux1 mutant phenotypes, respectively. Despite their high sequence similarity at the protein level, transgenic studies reveal that LAX proteins are not correctly targeted in the AUX1 expression domain. Domain swapping studies suggest that the N-terminal half of AUX1 is essential for correct LAX localization. We conclude that Arabidopsis AUX/LAX genes encode a family of auxin influx transporters that perform distinct developmental functions and have evolved distinct regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22773749

  19. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; DiFazio, Stephen P; Brunner, A.; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  20. Candidate Elastic Quantum Critical Point in LaCu6-xAux

    DOE PAGES

    Poudel, Lekh; May, Andrew F.; Koehler, Michael R.; ...

    2016-11-30

    In this paper, the structural properties of LaCu6-xAux are studied using neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and heat capacity measurements. The continuous orthorhombic-monoclinic structural phase transition in LaCu6 is suppressed linearly with Au substitution until a complete suppression of the structural phase transition occurs at the critical composition xc=0.3. Heat capacity measurements at low temperatures indicate residual structural instability at xc. The instability is ferroelastic in nature, with density functional theory calculations showing negligible coupling to electronic states near the Fermi level. Finally, the data and calculations presented here are consistent with the zero temperature termination of a continuous structural phasemore » transition suggesting that the LaCu6-xAux series hosts an elastic quantum critical point.« less

  1. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Hanneke J M; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G B; Van Den Hoek Ostende, Lars W; Hume, Julian P; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ∼4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo (Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  2. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Hanneke J. M.; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G. B.; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Hume, Julian P.; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ˜4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo ( Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  3. The Aux/IAA, Sl-IAA17 regulates quality parameters over tomato fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Su, LY; Audran, C; Bouzayen, M; Roustan, JP; Chervin, C

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is known to be involved in all the stages of fruit development. Aux/IAAs are regulators of the auxin signaling at the transcription level. In a recent study, using RNAi strategy to limit the expression Sl-IAA17, it was shown that this tomato AuxIAA regulates fruit size mainly through altering the ploidy level of pericarp cells. Indeed, Sl-IAA17 down-regulated lines showed fruit with larger diameter, bigger volume and heavier weight than wild-type. The increase in fruit size was associated with thicker pericarp rather than larger locular spaces. The thicker pericarp was linked to larger cells harboring higher ploidy level, probably due to more active endoreduplication at the beginning of fruit development. The present report describes some additional phenotypes, not described in the initial article, among which are soluble solid content, juice pH, firmness, seed weight and fruit morphology. PMID:26317283

  4. Disruptions in AUX1-dependent auxin influx alter hypocotyl phototropism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Stone, Bethany B; Stowe-Evans, Emily L; Harper, Reneé M; Celaya, R Brandon; Ljung, Karin; Sandberg, Göran; Liscum, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Phototropism represents a differential growth response by which plant organs can respond adaptively to changes in the direction of incident light to optimize leaf/stem positioning for photosynthetic light capture and root growth orientation for water/nutrient acquisition. Studies over the past few years have identified a number of components in the signaling pathway(s) leading to development of phototropic curvatures in hypocotyls. These include the phototropin photoreceptors (phot1 and phot2) that perceive directional blue-light (BL) cues and then stimulate signaling, leading to relocalization of the plant hormone auxin, as well as the auxin response factor NPH4/ARF7 that responds to changes in local auxin concentrations to directly mediate expression of genes likely encoding proteins necessary for development of phototropic curvatures. While null mutations in NPH4/ARF7 condition an aphototropic response to unidirectional BL, seedlings carrying the same mutations recover BL-dependent phototropic responsiveness if co-irradiated with red light (RL) or pre-treated with either ethylene. In the present study, we identify second-site enhancer mutations in the nph4 background that abrogate these recovery responses. One of these mutations--map1 (modifier of arf7 phenotypes 1)--was found to represent a missense allele of AUX1--a gene encoding a high-affinity auxin influx carrier previously associated with a number of root responses. Pharmacological studies and analyses of additional aux1 mutants confirmed that AUX1 functions as a modulator of hypocotyl phototropism. Moreover, we have found that the strength of dependence of hypocotyl phototropism on AUX1-mediated auxin influx is directly related to the auxin responsiveness of the seedling in question.

  5. Decommissioning of the nuclear licensed facilities at the Fontenay aux Roses CEA center

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanjacques, Michel; Piketty, Laurence; Letuhaire, Nathalie; Mandard, Lionel; Meden, Igor; Estivie, David; Boissonneau, Jean Francois; Fouquereau, Alain; Pichereau, Eric; Binet, Cedric

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) center at Fontenay aux Roses (CEN-FAR) is the Commission's oldest center is located in the southern suburbs of Paris. It was opened on 26 March 1946 to host the first French nuclear reactor ZOE that went critical on 12 December 1946. The first laboratories were installed in existing buildings on the site. (authors)

  6. Analysis of subcellular localization of auxin carriers PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, SuiKang; Shen, ChenJia; Zhang, SaiNa; Xu, YanXia; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2011-01-01

    Auxin transport at least correlates to the three gene families: efflux carriers PIN-formed (PIN), p-glycoprotein (PGP), and influx carrier auxin resistant 1/like aux1(AUX/LAX) in Arabidopsis thaliana. In monocotyledon Sorghum bicolor, the biological function of these genes retains unclear. Our previous study reported that the member analysis, organ-specific expression and expression profiles of the auxin transporter PIN, PGP and AUX/LAX gene families in Sorghum bicolor under IAA, brassinosteroid, polar auxin transport inhibitors and abiotic stresses. Here we further supply the prediction of subcellular localization of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP proteins and discuss the potential relationship between the subcellular localization and stress response. The predicted results showed that the most of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP proteins are localized to the plasma membrane, except few localized to vacuolar membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. This data set provides novel information for investigation of auxin transporters in Sorghum bicolor. PMID:22112459

  7. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission.

  8. Chemical composition and geologic history of saline waters in Aux Vases and Cypress Formations, Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demir, I.; Seyler, B.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six samples of formation waters were collected from oil wells producing from the Aux Vases or Cypress Formations in the Illinois Basin. Forty core samples of the reservoir rocks were also collected from the two formations. Analyses of the samples indicated that the total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the waters ranged from 43,300 to 151,400 mg/L, far exceeding the 35,400 mg/mL of TDS found in typical seawater. Cl-Br relations suggested that high salinities in the Aux Vases and Cypress formation waters resulted from the evaporation of original seawater and subsequent mixing of the evaporated seawater with concentrated halite solutions. Mixing with the halite solutions increased Na and Cl concentrations and diluted the concentration of other ions in the formation waters. The elemental concentrations were influenced further by diagenetic reactions with silicate and carbonate minerals. Diagenetic signatures revealed by fluid chemistry and rock mineralogy delineated the water-rock interactions that took place in the Aux Vases and Cypress sandstones. Dissolution of K-feldspar released K into the solution, leading to the formation of authigenic illite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Some Mg was removed from the solution by the formation of authigenic chlorite and dolomite. Dolomitization, calcite recrystallization, and contribution from clay minerals raised Sr levels significantly in the formation waters. The trend of increasing TDS of the saline formation waters with depth can be explained with density stratification. But, it is difficult to explain the combination of the increasing TDS and increasing Ca/Na ratio with depth without invoking the controversial 'ion filtration' mechanism.

  9. Identification of ARF and AUX/IAA gene families in Rafflesia cantleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Nur Atiqah Mohd; Goh, Hoe-Han; Isa, Nurulhikma Md; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2016-11-01

    Rafflesia is a unique plant that produces the largest flowers in the world. It has a short blooming period of 6 to 7 days. Due to its rarity and limited accessibility, little is known about the growth and developmental process in the Rafflesia plant. In all plant species, auxin is the key hormone that is involved in growth and development. The auxin signal transduction involves members of the ARF transcription factor and AUX/IAA regulator families, which activate or inhibit the regulation of auxin response genes, thereby control the developmental process in plants. To gain a better understanding of molecular regulations in the Rafflesia plant development during flowering, members of the ARF and AUX/IAA gene families were identified from the transcriptome data of flower blooming stages in Rafflesia cantleyi. Based on Rafflesia unique transcripts (UTs) against the Arabidopsis TAIR database using BLASTX search, a total of nine UTs were identified as ARF transcription factors, while another seven UTs were identified as AUX/IAA regulators. These genes were found to be expressed in all three R. cantleyi flower stages i.e. days 1 (F1), 3 (F2), and 5 (F3). Gene expression analysis identified three genes that are differentially expressed in stage F1 vs. F2 i.e. IAA4 is upregulated while IAA8 and ARF3 are downregulated. These genes may be involved in the activation and/or inhibition of the auxin signal transduction pathway. Further analysis of these genes may unravel their function in the phenotypic development of the Rafflesia plant.

  10. Silver birch (Betula pendula) plants with aux and rol genes show consistent changes in morphology, xylem structure and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Piispanen, Riikka; Aronen, Tuija; Chen, Xiwen; Saranpää, Pekka; Häggman, Hely

    2003-08-01

    The effects of Agrobacterium pRiA4 rol and aux genes, controlled by their endogenous promoters, on tree growth and wood anatomy and chemistry were studied in 5- and 7-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) plants. Southern hybridization confirmed the following rol and aux gene combinations: control plants (no genes transferred); plants with rolC and rolD genes; plants with rolA, rolB, rolC and rolD genes; and plants with rolA, rolB, rolC, rolD, aux1 and aux2 genes. Transgene mRNA was most abundant in phloem/cambium samples and in the developing xylem, whereas no expression was detected in leaves. Plants with rolC and rolD genes or with all the rol genes were significantly shorter and had smaller leaves and a more bushy growth habit than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Morphological observations and wood chemistry analyses revealed that plants with rol genes produced less xylem and broke bud later than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Tension wood was detected in both control and transgenic plants irrespective of their gene combination, probably as a result of greenhouse cultivation. Xylem fibers were shorter in transgenic plants than in control plants, and plants with all the rol genes were characterized by shorter vessels compared with the control plants and a smaller proportional area of vessels compared with the other groups. In addition, silver birch plants with all the rol genes had approximately a 3.3% lower concentration of total acid soluble carbohydrates than control plants. We conclude that the rolC and rolD genes induced the typical "rol-phenotype," and that this was emphasized by concomitant expression of the rolA and rolB genes and alleviated by the presence of aux1 and aux2 genes. We observed consistent phenotypic effects of rol and aux genes on the morphology, anatomy and cell wall chemistry of the plants.

  11. L'intérêt de l'accoutumance aux antituberculeux majeurs

    PubMed Central

    Aniked, Sarra; Bakouh, Ouiam; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    Les réactions d’ hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux sont relativement rares et graves par leur caractère imprévisible, elles conduisent généralement à l'arrêt ou au changement thérapeutique. Nous rapportons un cas d'hypersensibilité à trois antibacillaires majeurs (Isoniazide, Pyrazinamide, Ethombutol). Une accoutumance orale à ces trois médicaments a été réalisée permettant à la patiente de bénéficier d'un traitement antibacillaire optimal. PMID:25821550

  12. Arabidopsis seed germination speed is controlled by SNL histone deacetylase-binding factor-mediated regulation of AUX1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Chen, Fengying; Li, Xiaoying; Cao, Hong; Ding, Meng; Zhang, Cun; Zuo, Jinghong; Xu, Chaonan; Xu, Jimei; Deng, Xin; Xiang, Yong; Soppe, Wim J. J.; Liu, Yongxiu

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is known to affect the speed of seed germination, but the molecular regulatory basis of this remains ambiguous. Here we report that loss of function of two histone deacetylase-binding factors, SWI-INDEPENDENT3 (SIN3)-LIKE1 (SNL1) and SNL2, results in accelerated radicle protrusion and growth during seed germination. AUXIN RESISTANT 1 (AUX1) is identified as a key factor in this process, enhancing germination speed downstream of SNL1 and SNL2. AUX1 expression and histone H3 acetylation at lysines 9 and 18 is regulated by SNL1 and SNL2. The D-type cyclins encoding genes CYCD1;1 and CYCD4;1 display increased expression in AUX1 over-expression lines and the snl1snl2 double mutant. Accordingly, knockout of CYCD4;1 reduces seed germination speed of AUX1 over-expression lines and snl1snl2 suggesting the importance of cell cycling for radicle protrusion during seed germination. Together, our work identifies AUX1 as a link between histone acetylation mediated by SNL1 and SNL2, and radicle growth promoted by CYCD1;1 and CYCD4;1 during seed germination. PMID:27834370

  13. The role of AUX1 gene and auxin content to the branching phenotype of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).

    PubMed

    Arumingtyas, Estri L; Mastuti, R; Indriyani, S

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify auxin gene, AUX1, and to determine the plant auxin content and their role in conferring branching on Kenaf. PCR analysis using AUX1 primer capable to amplify the DNA of non branching (KR11) and branching kenaf mutant, resulting in 800 bp PCR product. The sequence of the PCR product showed high degree of homology with the sequence of AUX1 gene of other plants in the NCBI GenBank database, confirming kenaf possession of the gene AUX1. However, some variation on the DNA sequence was found between branching and non branching phenotype indicated allele differences of the same gene which were responsible for the variation in the type of branching. Identification of auxin content in the roots, apical shoot, and axillary branches using spectrophotometry method showed that the branching plant has higher auxin content in the apical shoot compared to the content in the branches. This indicate that AUX1 controls the formation of branches by controlling either the content of auxin in the apical shoot and branches, or the ratio of auxin content in the shoot and branches.

  14. Precise AuxPt1−x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1−x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1−x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1−x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h. PMID:26856888

  15. Precise AuxPt1‑x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-02-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1‑x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1‑x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1‑x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h.

  16. Novel auxin transport inhibitors phenocopy the auxin influx carrier mutation aux1.

    PubMed

    Parry, G; Delbarre, A; Marchant, A; Swarup, R; Napier, R; Perrot-Rechenmann, C; Bennett, M J

    2001-02-01

    The hormone auxin is transported in plants through the combined actions of diffusion and specific auxin influx and efflux carriers. In contrast to auxin efflux, for which there are well documented inhibitors, understanding the developmental roles of carrier-mediated auxin influx has been hampered by the absence of specific competitive inhibitors. However, several molecules that inhibit auxin influx in cultured cells have been described recently. The physiological effects of two of these novel influx carrier inhibitors, 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA) and 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (CHPAA), have been investigated in intact seedlings and tissue segments using classical and new auxin transport bioassays. Both molecules do disrupt root gravitropism, which is a developmental process requiring rapid auxin redistribution. Furthermore, the auxin-insensitive and agravitropic root-growth characteristics of aux1 plants were phenocopied by 1-NOA and CHPAA. Similarly, the agravitropic phenotype of inhibitor-treated seedlings was rescued by the auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, but not by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, again resembling the relative abilities of these two auxins to rescue the phenotype of aux1. Further investigations have shown that none of these compounds block polar auxin transport, and that CHPAA exhibits some auxin-like activity at high concentrations. Whilst results indicate that 1-NOA and CHPAA represent useful tools for physiological studies addressing the role of auxin influx in planta, 1-NOA is likely to prove the more useful of the two compounds.

  17. Exposition précoce aux aliments et allergies alimentaires chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Benetta; Chan, Edmond S.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’étais sous l’impression qu’on devrait éviter de donner aux nourrissons des aliments potentiellement allergènes comme des noix, du lait de vache et des œufs pour prévenir le développement de réactions allergiques. Quels conseils devrait-on donner aux parents concernant l’introduction des aliments durant la petite enfance et le développement des allergies alimentaires? Réponse Il n’y a pas de données probantes indiquant que retarder l’introduction d’aliments particuliers après l’âge de 6 mois aide à prévenir les allergies. Une récente déclaration de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie ne recommande aucun délai quant à l’introduction d’aliments durant la petite enfance. De récentes études de recherche semblent aussi faire valoir que l’introduction précoce (entre 4 et 6 mois) d’aliments possiblement allergènes procure une forme de protection et contribue à prévenir les allergies, mais il faudrait plus de recherche à ce sujet.

  18. Superconducting parameters of BaPt4-xAuxGe12 filled skutterudite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisuradze, A.; Gumeniuk, R.; Schnelle, W.; Nicklas, M.; Baines, C.; Khasanov, R.; Amato, A.; Leithe-Jasper, A.

    2012-11-01

    We report on a study of the superconducting properties for a series of polycrystalline BaPt4-xAuxGe12 filled skutterudite compounds for x=0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1. Muon spin rotation (μSR) spectroscopy as well as magnetization, specific-heat, and electrical resistivity measurements were performed. The magnetic penetration depth λ, the coherence length ξ, and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ are evaluated. The temperature dependence of the superfluid density is well described by an s-wave superconducting gap and this classical scenario is supported by the field-independent λ. The gap-to-Tc ratio Δ0/kBTc increases with the Au content from 1.70 for x=0 to 2.1(1) for x=1. By combining μSR, magnetization, and specific-heat data, we find that BaPt4-xAuxGe12 compounds are in between the dirty and clean limits with mean free paths of the carriers l˜ξ. Interestingly, resistivity data for BaPt4Ge12 indicate a much higher upper critical field, which is probably due to defects or impurities close to the surface of the crystallites.

  19. Electronic storage capacity of ceria: role of peroxide in Aux supported on CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinli; Li, Huiying; Yu, Jun; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2015-11-07

    Density functional theory (DFT+U) was used to study the adsorption of Aux (x = 1-4) clusters on the defective CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption on the corresponding Aux/CeO2-x catalyst, in this work Aux clusters are adsorbed onto the CeO2-x + superoxide/peroxide surface. When Au1 is supported on the CeO2(111) facet with an O vacancy, the strong electronegative Au(δ-) formed is not favorable for CO adsorption. When peroxide is adsorbed on the CeO2(111) facet with the O vacancy, Aux was oxidized, resulting in stable Aux adsorption on the defective ceria surface with peroxide, which promotes CO adsorption on the Aux/CeO2-x catalyst. With more Au atoms in supported Aux clusters, CO adsorption on this surface becomes stronger. During both the Au being supported on CeO2-x and CO being adsorbed on Aux/CeO2-x, CeO2 acts as an electron buffer that can store/release the electrons. These results provide a scientific understanding for the development of high-performance rare earth catalytic materials.

  20. Tracking Performance Requirements for Tracking Performance Requirements for Rotorcraft Instrument Approaches to Reduced Minima. Phase 1. Preliminary Study (Exigences Relatives Aux Performances De Suivi D’Approche Aux Instruments D’Un Giravion Afin De Reduire Les)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    A l’a~ronautique jug~es importantes, completes et durables en termes de contribution aux connaissances actuelles. CAHIERS D’AERONAUTIQUE (AN...83 large overshoot of pad (50 + feet); late in power application 84 past pad by 10 feet; large flare 85 stopped short - taxied to pad 86 50-75 foot

  1. The AUX1 LAX family of auxin influx carriers is required for the establishment of embryonic root cell organization in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ugartechea-Chirino, Yamel; Swarup, Ranjan; Swarup, Kamal; Péret, Benjamin; Whitworth, Morag; Bennett, Malcolm; Bougourd, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The root meristem of the Arabidopsis thaliana mature embryo is a highly organized structure in which individual cell shape and size must be regulated in co-ordination with the surrounding cells. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the AUX1 LAX family of auxin import carriers during the establishment of the embryonic root cell pattern. Methods The radicle apex of single and multiple aux1 lax mutant mature embryos was used to evaluate the effect of this gene family upon embryonic root organization and root cap size, cell number and cell size. Key Results It was demonstrated here that mutations within the AUX1 LAX family are associated with changes in cell pattern establishment in the embryonic quiescent centre and columella. aux1 lax mutants have a larger radicle root cap than the wild type and this is associated with a significant increase in the root-cap cell number, average cell size, or both. Extreme disorganization of the radicle apex was observed among quadruple aux1 lax1 lax2 lax3 mutant embryos, but not in single aux1 null or in lax1, lax2 and lax3 single mutants, indicating redundancy within the AUX1 LAX family. Conclusions It was determined that the AUX1 LAX family of auxin influx facilitators participates in the establishment of cell pattern within the apex of the embryonic root in a gene-redundant fashion. It was demonstrated that aux1 lax mutants are affected in cell proliferation and cell growth within the radicle tip. Thus AUX1 LAX auxin importers emerge as new players in morphogenetic processes involved in patterning during embryonic root formation. PMID:19952011

  2. Localized iron supply triggers lateral root elongation in Arabidopsis by altering the AUX1-mediated auxin distribution.

    PubMed

    Giehl, Ricardo F H; Lima, Joni E; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation.

  3. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  4. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennouf, Adil

    L'objectif general de la presente these est d'evaluer le comportement a l'arrachement et au fluage d'ancrages injectes constitues de tendons en materiaux composites afin d'etablir des recommandations plus appropriees et realistes pour le dimensionnement et la conception. Quatre types de tendons en materiaux composites, deux a base de fibres d'aramide et deux a base de fibres de carbone, ont ete utilises dans l'etude. Les travaux de recherche de cette these ont porte notamment sur: (I) Une caracterisation physique et mecanique des tendons en materiaux composites utilises dans l'etude. (II) Une etude en laboratoire sur les coulis de scellement. La premiere etape de cette etude a concerne le developpement d'un coulis de scellement performant adapte aux tendons en materiaux composites et a differentes situations d'injection. La seconde etape a traite des essais de caracterisations physique et mecanique du coulis de scellement developpe comparativement a trois coulis de scellement usuels d'un meme rapport E/L de 0,4. (III) Une etude sur des modeles reduits d'ancrages injectes. (IV) Une etude sur des modeles d'ancrages a grande echelle. La synthese de ces etudes a permis d'enoncer les principales conclusions suivantes: (1) Les valeurs moyennes des charges de rupture des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete de 1% a 29% superieures a celles specifiees par les manufacturiers. (2) L'etude sur les coulis de scellement a permis le developpement de coulis de ciment repondant aux criteres fixes, soient une grande stabilite, une bonne fluidite, une legere expansion et de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. (3) Les tendons en materiaux composites ont montre des contraintes d'adherence maximum superieures a celles des tendons en acier. (4) Le type de fibre, la configuration et le fini de surface des tendons en materiaux composites gouvernent leur resistance a l'adherence. (5) L'introduction de sable et d'autres ajouts comme les fines de silice et la poudre d'aluminium au coulis

  5. Tétanos associé aux soins: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo

    2016-01-01

    La prophylaxie antitétanique lors de la prise en charge des blessures, est une stratégie majeure de prévention du tétanos en milieu de soins. Toute défaillance de la prise en charge des blessures expose dangereusement les victimes à la maladie. Nous rapportons un cas de tétanos survenu à la suite d’une blessure frontale prise en charge dans une structure sanitaire sans prophylaxie antitétanique. L’objectif est de rappeler aux cliniciens sur l’importance de cette prophylaxie chez tout blessé non vacciné ou ayant un statut immunitaire douteux. Patient de 52 ans non vacciné contre le tétanos a été admisau CHU YO pour cervicalgie, dysphagie, difficulté à la marche et à l’ouverture de la bouche. Dans ses antécédents il souligne une blessure frontale profonde ayant été suturée sans prophylaxie antitétanique il y a trois semaines environ. L’examen à son admission notaitun trismus lâche, une contracture abdominale, une dysphagie, une température à 36°5Cet une cicatrice au niveau du front mesurant environ 7 cm. Le diagnostic d’un tétanos généralisé stade II à porte d’entrée frontale a été retenu. Sous traitement l’évolution a été favorable et il est sorti de l’hôpital le 18septembre 2015. La prévention du tétanos associé aux soins requiert l’application rigoureuse des mesures d’asepsie, la systématisation de la sérothérapie antitétanique lors de la prise en charge de toute blessure profonde du patient non vacciné ou ayant un statut immunitaire douteux. PMID:28292071

  6. Conséquences comportementales de la violence faite aux enfants

    PubMed Central

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Discuter des répercussions de la violence sur le développement comportemental durant l’enfance, mettre en évidence certains signes comportementaux susceptibles d’alerter les médecins à la présence d’une maltraitance continue d’un enfant et explorer le rôle précis du médecin de famille dans une telle situation clinique. Sources des données Une recension systématique a servi à examiner la recherche pertinente, les articles de révision clinique et les sites web des organismes de protection de la jeunesse. Message principal Le comportement d’un enfant est une manifestation extériorisée de sa stabilité et de sa sécurité intérieures. C’est une lentille au travers de laquelle le médecin de famille peut observer le développement de l’enfant pendant toute sa vie. Tous les genres de violence sont dommageables pour les enfants, qu’elle soit physique, affective ou psychologique, et peuvent causer des problèmes à long terme dans le développement du comportement et de la santé mentale. Les médecins de famille doivent connaître les indices de maltraitance et de négligence envers les enfants et être aux aguets de ces derniers afin d’entreprendre les interventions appropriées et améliorer les résultats pour ces enfants. Conclusion La violence faite aux enfants peut causer un développement psychologique désordonné et des problèmes de comportement. Les médecins de famille exercent un rôle important dans la reconnaissance des signes comportementaux laissant présager une maltraitance, ainsi que pour offrir de l’aide afin de protéger les enfants.

  7. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun

    2015-12-07

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  8. The Tomato Aux/IAA Transcription Factor IAA9 Is Involved in Fruit Development and Leaf MorphogenesisW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Jones, Brian; Li, Zhengguo; Frasse, Pierre; Delalande, Corinne; Regad, Farid; Chaabouni, Salma; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2005-01-01

    Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins are transcriptional regulators that mediate many aspects of plant responses to auxin. While functions of most Aux/IAAs have been defined mainly by gain-of-function mutant alleles in Arabidopsis thaliana, phenotypes associated with loss-of-function mutations have been scarce and subtle. We report here that the downregulation of IAA9, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene from a distinct subfamily of Aux/IAA genes, results in a pleiotropic phenotype, consistent with its ubiquitous expression pattern. IAA9-inhibited lines have simple leaves instead of wild-type compound leaves, and fruit development is triggered before fertilization, giving rise to parthenocarpy. This indicates that IAA9 is a key mediator of leaf morphogenesis and fruit set. In addition, antisense plants displayed auxin-related growth alterations, including enhanced hypocotyl/stem elongation, increased leaf vascularization, and reduced apical dominance. Auxin dose–response assays revealed that IAA9 downregulated lines were hypersensitive to auxin, although the only early auxin-responsive gene that was found to be upregulated in the antisense lines was IAA3. The activity of the IAA3 promoter was stimulated in the IAA9 antisense genetic background, indicating that IAA9 acts in planta as a transcriptional repressor of auxin signaling. While no mutation in any member of subfamily IV has been reported to date, the phenotypes associated with the downregulation of IAA9 reveal distinct and novel roles for members of the Aux/IAA gene family. PMID:16126837

  9. Isolation of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 from etiolated pea epicotyls and their expression on a three-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    We isolated novel cDNAs containing the complete open reading frames of a putative auxin influx carrier, PsAUX1, and a putative auxin efflux carrier, PsPIN2, from etiolated pea epicotyls. High levels of homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (Accession No. AY222857) and AtPINs. Phylogenetic analyses based on deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 and AtPIN7, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1. The results were similar for PsAUX1 and AtAUX1, where PsAUX1 belongs to the same subclade as AtAUX1 and CS-AUX1. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in pea epicotyl segments was promoted upon incubation of the segments with auxin (indole-3-acetic acid). In 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings, relatively high expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 was observed in the hook region, growing epicotyls and root tips as compared with those in mature regions of epicotyls and roots. Expression of PsPIN2 in roots was less than that in shoots. Simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat remarkably increased gene expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the hook and the internodes of pea epicotyls, but the increase in PsPIN2 was less. In contrast, polar auxin transport of pea epicotyls was substantially suppressed under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3D clinostat, similar to data from a space experiment on STS-95. These results suggest that PsPINs and PsAUX1 are auxin-inducible genes, and that the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 genes is sensitive to gravistimulation.

  10. Coring Performance to Characterise the Geology in the ``Cran aux Iguanodons'' of Bernissart (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibangu, Jean-Pierre; Dagrain, Fabrice; Legrain, Hughes; Deschamps, Benoît

    The Cran aux iguanodons of Bernissart is a sinkhole (or chimney caving) with a valuable paleontological deposit due to the exceptional quantity and diversity of fossils found during the excavation conducted from 1878 to 1881. In fact, bones have been discovered in a clayey geological formation when digging à mine gallery at the -322 m level. A subsequent extraction gave an overall production of 29 iguanodons skeletons. Referring to the available data at the Natural Sciences Museum of Brussels where the found skeletons are exhibited, one does not know the degree of depletion of the deposit after the extraction. A feasibility study (Tshibangu and Dagrain 1998) showed then the need to drill 4 exploration wells of 400 m depth with different objectives: to evaluate the chance of finding more fossils, understanding how and when the geological formations moved down, and testing a seismic geophysical technique for ground imaging. The typical geological formations concerned are: chalk, limestone, conglomerate, clays, and layers of silex nodules. In October 2002 the workings started with a completely cored well (the Number 3) using the PQ wireline technique. During operations, different parameters have been recorded: rate of penetration, core recovery and a brief core description. Some problems have been encountered when crossing silex stones contained in a clayey matrix; and this paper gives some interpretations in terms of the relationship between the lithology and the drilling performances.

  11. Alkoxy-auxins Are Selective Inhibitors of Auxin Transport Mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S.; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCFTIR1 auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development. PMID:21084292

  12. Comparative performance of Fungichrom I, Candifast and API 20C Aux systems in the identification of clinically significant yeasts.

    PubMed

    Gündeş, S G; Gulenc, S; Bingol, R

    2001-12-01

    To compare the performance of current chromogenic yeast identification methods, three commercial systems (API 20C Aux, Fungichrom I and Candifast) were evaluated in parallel, along with conventional tests to identify yeasts commonly isolated in this clinical microbiology laboratory. In all, 116 clinical isolates, (68 Candida albicans, 12 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. glabrata and 24 other yeasts) were tested. Germ-tube production, microscopical morphology and other conventional methods were used as standards to definitively identify yeast isolates. The percentage of isolates identified correctly varied between 82.7% and 95.6%. Overall, the performance obtained with Fungichrom I was highest with 95.6% identification (111 of 116 isolates). The performance of API 20C Aux was higher with 87% (101 of 116 isolates) than that of Candifast with 82.7% (96 of 116). The Fungichrom I method was found to be rapid, as 90% of strains were identified after incubation for 24 h at 30 degrees C. Both of the chromogenic yeast identification systems provided a simple, accurate alternative to API 20C Aux and conventional assimilation methods for the rapid identification of most commonly encountered isolates of Candida spp. Fungichrom seemed to be the most appropriate system for use in a clinical microbiology laboratory, due to its good performance with regard to sensitivity, ease of use and reading, rapidity and the cost per test.

  13. Shoot-supplied ammonium targets the root auxin influx carrier AUX1 and inhibits lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Su, Yanhua; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Liming; Mi, Guohua; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2011-06-01

    Deposition of ammonium (NH₄+) from the atmosphere is a substantial environmental problem. While toxicity resulting from root exposure to NH₄+ is well studied, little is known about how shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) affects root growth. In this study, we show that SSA significantly affects lateral root (LR) development. We show that SSA inhibits lateral root primordium (LRP) emergence, but not LRP initiation, resulting in significantly impaired LR number. We show that the inhibition is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and sucrose uptake in shoots but relates to the auxin response in roots. Expression analyses of an auxin-responsive reporter, DR5:GUS, and direct assays of auxin transport demonstrated that SSA inhibits root acropetal (rootward) auxin transport while not affecting basipetal (shootward) transport or auxin sensitivity of root cells. Mutant analyses indicated that the auxin influx carrier AUX1, but not the auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN)1 or PIN2, is required for this inhibition of LRP emergence and the observed auxin response. We found that AUX1 expression was modulated by SSA in vascular tissues rather than LR cap cells in roots. Taken together, our results suggest that SSA inhibits LRP emergence in Arabidopsis by interfering with AUX1-dependent auxin transport from shoot to root. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Alkoxy-auxins are selective inhibitors of auxin transport mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 transporters.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-21

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCF(TIR1) auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development.

  15. Application du groupe de renormalisation aux conducteurs organiques quasi-unidimensionnels soumis a un champ magnetique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Laurent

    Des conducteurs organiques fortement anisotropes presentent, sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique, une etonnante variete de proprietes physiques tel que: l'effet Shubnikov-de Haas, l'effet de Haas-van-Alphen, l'existence de cascades d'ondes de densite de spin apparentees a l'effet Hall quantique, reentrance vers la phase metallique pouvant provenir d'un 'breakdown' magnetique, et tout recemment la possibilite d'un confinement charge induit par le champ magnetique. A cela s'ajoute les nombreuses caracteristiques deja apparues en variant la pression hydrostatique ou la substitution chimique: separation spin-charge, localisation de la charge, transition spin-Peierls, antiferromagnetisme itinerant ou non, supraconductivite, et l'existence d'une frontiere commune entre les phases supraconductrice et antiferromagnetique. En vue de completer la description theorique du diagramme de phase generalise des conducteurs organiques, nous adaptons et elargissons la methode du groupe de renormalisation quantique (GRQ) au cas ou le champ magnetique est non nul. On sait deja que cette methode permet de resoudre le dilemme tout particulier des composes Q-1D, soit leur capacite de produire des transitions de phase malgre leur forte anisotropie et consequemment de leur faible dimensionalite. Cette methode est deja utilisee pour decrire le diagramme de phase temperature versus pression des sels de Bechgaard, de leurs analogues souffres et mixtes. Le GRQ permet aussi de comprendre comment des systemes anisotropes comme les conducteurs organiques peuvent se comporter comme des liquides de Luttinger a haute temperature et comme des liquides de Fermi ou condenses a basse temperature. Nous montrons que l'introduction d'un champ magnetique dans un regime de saut coherent interchai ne a deux particules n'apporte que de simples corrections aux lois d'echelles dans le canal zero son, alors qu'il introduit un mecanisme de brisure de paire dans le canal Cooper. Dans le regime de saut coherent a une

  16. Tectonic conditions of hydrothermal polymetallic vein-type mineralization, Sainte Marie-aux-Mines, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeznia, Y.; Bourlange, S.; Ohnenstetter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines (SMM) mines host one of the most famous and oldest silver deposits in Europe. The SMM district is located in the central part of the Vosges mountains, France, within gneiss and granites of the Moldanubian zone. The SMM district includes the Neuenberg E-W vein-type Cu-Ag-As/Pb-Zn deposit and the Altenberg N-S vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposit. Deposition of the SMM hydrothermal mineralization occurred under a brittle tectonic regime that might be connected to neo-Variscan and/or post-Variscan tectonics, in a similar way as the polymetallic vein deposits of the Black Forest, Germany. A structural study was done in the Neuenberg area, in the vicinity of the Saint-Jacques vein, and within the Gabe Gottes mine, considering the orientation, extent, chronology and density of faults as well as the nature of the infilling minerals. In the Gabe-Gottes mine, the Saint-Jacques vein comprises multiple successive, sub-parallel subvertical veinlets with gangue minerals, mostly carbonates and quartz, and metal-bearing phases, sulfides and sulfosalts. The veinlets are 2 to 50 cm thick and strike N80° to N110°, the earlier veins slightly dipping towards the north, and the latest one, to the south. Seven systems of faults were identified, which may be classified into three major groups formed respectively before, during and after the main stage of ore deposition: a) Pre-mineralization faults - These consist of sinistral NE-SW strike-slip faults, and NW-SE and NE-SW steeply dipping normal faults. These could be related to Carboniferous events considering their relationships with the granitoid intrusives present in the mine area (Brézouard leucogranite ~329 Ma), and the extensional tectonics developed during exhumation processes. b) Faults associated with the main ore-deposition - These faults could be related to late-Hercynian processes from compressional to extensional tectonic regimes. Mineralization controlling faults consist of dextral and sinistral E

  17. Contribution aux Methodes Analytiques des Substances a L'aide de Faisceaux de Particules Chargees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, Abdelmajid

    Nous avons vu les possibilites d'analyse par particules chargees des aerosols recueillis sur des filtres de type MILLIPORE. La meme technique a ete utilisee pour des filtres ayant servi a la filtration de l'eau du fleuve Saint-laurent. Deux techniques ont ete utilisees: (1) FAST (Forward Alpha Scattering Technique): pour analyser l'hydrogene, le carbone, l'oxygene et puis l'azote. Des alpha de 12 MeV ont ete utilises. (2) PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission): pour analyser les elements moyens et lourds, dans ce cas des protons de 3 MeV ainsi que des ions d'argon de 1 et 1.6 MeV ont ete utilises. Les etudes ont montre que sous vide, la majorite des problemes proviennent des dommages causes par l'echauffement du a l'impact du faisceau sur le filtre. L'analyse quantitative par l'intermediaire du faisceau extrait peut presenter des difficultes en ce qui concerne les elements legers pour lesquels l'absorption des rayonnements caracteristiques dans l'atmosphere externe est importante. Les ions lourds se pretent mal aux analyses des aerosols du fait de leur limite de sensibilite. L'analyse directe de liquides par des protons est particulierement interessante puisqu'elle ne necessite aucune preparation prealable des echantillons. A cet effet, un programme de calcul de concentration des elements dans la solution a analyser a ete mis au point. Nous avons determine la limite de sensibilite de la methode PIXE pour les cibles minces (filtre) et pour le cas ou la matrice est de l'eau. Enfin, la technique FAST peut etre un complement de la technique PIXE.

  18. Réactions immunoallergiques graves aux antibacillaires: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Sabah El Machichi; Hammi, Sanae; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    L'hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux est l'un des effets secondaires imprévisibles qui apparait chez 4 à 5 % de la population exposée et s’élève à 25% chez les sujets VIH positifs. Dans notre étude parmi 39 patients ayant présenté des réactions immunoallergiques, 10 avaient des formes graves. Le délai moyen d'apparition des signes était de 23 jours. Les réactions immunoallergiques observées étaient 5 cas de toxidermie généralisée fébrile, un cas de Dress syndrome, un cas de neutropénie, un cas de pancitopénie et 2 cas de thrombopénie. Tous nos patients avaient bien évolué cliniquement et bactériologiquement après l'adoption d'un régime thérapeutique excluant le ou les médicaments incriminés. En pratique, si l'effet indésirable imputé à un antituberculeux est grave, il est impératif de l'arrêter, de traiter l'incident et d'associer une autre molécule chez certains cas. Notre étude a montré une fréquence significative des complications graves probablement sous-estimée, surtout dans les pays fortement touchés par l'infection HIV.

  19. Evaluating auxin distribution in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) through an analysis of the PIN and AUX/LAX gene families.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Richard J; Catalá, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    The temporal and spatial control of auxin distribution has a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development, and much has been learnt about the mechanisms that influence auxin pools and gradients in vegetative tissues, particularly in Arabidopsis. For example polar auxin transport, mediated by PIN and AUX/LAX proteins, is central to the control of auxin distribution. In contrast, very little information is known about the dynamics of auxin distribution and the molecular basis of its transport within and between fruit tissues, despite the fact that auxin regulates many aspects of fruit development, which include fruit formation, expansion, ripening and abscission. In addition, functional information regarding the key regulators of auxin fluxes during both vegetative and reproductive development in species other than Arabidopsis is scarce. To address these issues, we have investigated the spatiotemporal distribution of auxin during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development and the function of the PIN and AUX/LAX gene families. Differential concentrations of auxin become apparent during early fruit growth, with auxin levels being higher in internal tissues than in the fruit pericarp and the pattern of auxin accumulation depended on polar transport. Ten tomato PIN (SlPIN1 to 10) and five AUX/LAX (SlLAX1 to 5) genes were identified and found to display heterogeneous expression patterns, with tissue and developmental-stage specificity. RNAi-mediated co-silencing of SlPIN4 and SlPIN3 did not affect fruit development, which suggested functional redundancy of PIN proteins, but did lead to a vegetative phenotype, and revealed a role for these genes in the regulation of tomato shoot architecture.

  20. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in Solanaceae species using tomato as a model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Peng, Zhen; Liu, Songyu; He, Yanjun; Cheng, Lin; Kong, Fuling; Wang, Jie; Lu, Gang

    2012-04-01

    Auxin plays key roles in a wide variety of plant activities, including embryo development, leaf formation, phototropism, fruit development and root initiation and development. Auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes, encoding short-lived nuclear proteins, are key regulators in the auxin transduction pathway. But how they work is still unknown. In order to conduct a systematic analysis of this gene family in Solanaceae species, a genome-wide search for the homologues of auxin response genes was carried out. Here, 26 and 27 non redundant AUX/IAAs were identified in tomato and potato, respectively. Using tomato as a model, a comprehensive overview of SlIAA gene family is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny, chromosome locations, conserved motifs and cis-elements in promoter sequences. A phylogenetic tree generated from alignments of the predicted protein sequences of 31 OsIAAs, 29 AtIAAs, 31 ZmIAAs, and 26 SlIAAs revealed that these IAAs were clustered into three major groups and ten subgroups. Among them, seven subgroups were present in both monocot and dicot species, which indicated that the major functional diversification within the IAA family predated the monocot/dicot divergence. In contrast, group C and some other subgroups seemed to be species-specific. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that 19 of the 26 SlIAA genes could be detected in all tomato organs/tissues, however, seven of them were specifically expressed in some of tomato tissues. The transcript abundance of 17 SlIAA genes were increased within a few hours when the seedlings were treated with exogenous IAA. However, those of other six SlIAAs were decreased. The results of stress treatments showed that most SIIAA family genes responded to at least one of the three stress treatments, however, they exhibited diverse expression levels under different abiotic stress conditions in tomato seedlings. SlIAA20, SlIAA21 and SlIAA22 were not significantly influenced by stress

  1. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular adsorption properties of CO and H2O on Au-, Cu-, and AuxCuy-doped MoS2 monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadioglu, Yelda; Gökoğlu, Gökhan; Üzengi Aktürk, Olcay

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the adsorption properties of Au, Cu, and AuxCuy nanoclusters on MoS2 sheet and the interactions of the adsorbed systems with CO and H2O molecules by using first principles calculations. Results indicate that Au, Cu, or AuxCuy strongly binds to MoS2 monolayer resulting in enhanced chemical activity and sensitivity toward CO and H2O molecules compared to bare MoS2 monolayer. Although both CO and H2O molecules bind weakly to pristine MoS2 monolayer, CO strongly binds to MoS2 sheet in the presence of Au, Cu atoms or AuxCuy clusters. Semiconductor MoS2 monolayer turns into metal upon Au or Cu adsorption. AuxCuy nanocluster adsorption decreases the band gap of MoS2 monolayer acting as a n-type dopant. AuxCuy-doped MoS2 systems have improved adsorption properties for CO and H2O molecules, so the conclusions provided in this study can be useful as a guide for next generation device modeling.

  3. Preliminary paleogeographic reconstruction of the Illinois basin during deposition of the Mississippian Aux Vases Formation: Implications for hydrocarbon recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Extensive outcrop investigation and selective subsurface study allow definition of Illinois basin paleogeography during deposition of the Mississippian (Valmeyeran-Meramecian) Aux Vases Formation. The results incorporate an integrated approach utilizing field observations and petrographic analysis, wireline logs, subsurface maps, and cores. The Aux Vases Formation depositional system has been determined to be composed of subtidal to intertidal facies. Depositional facies in outcrop are based on rock body geometries, sedimentary structure assemblages, paleocurrent analysis, paleontology of body and trace fossils, facies relationships, and petrography. Depositional facies determined from subsurface data are based on correlation of lithologic interpretations from wireline logs, sand body geometries form isopach maps, and petrography. Specific depositional facies observed in outcrop and core and inferred from wireline logs and isopach maps are offshore bars and tidal channel complexes, extensive subtidal to lower intertidal, ripple-laminated, fine-grained quartzose sandstone. Carbonate facies occur as subtidal grainstones at or near the base of a sequence, or as high energy deposits which have been tidally reworked. This depositional system produces reservoir heterogeneities that complicate efficient hydrocarbon recovery. This diverse facies architecture is modified by tectonic and diagenetic overprinting, further segregating potential producing zones. To significantly improve recovery efficiency, predictions regarding compartmentalization can be used prior to designing a drilling program, an infill drilling program, or an application of enhanced recovery techniques.

  4. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. - Highlights: • A systematic analysis of the potato AUX/IAA gene family were performed. • StIAA genes were related to auxin perception and signal transduction. • Candidate StIAA genes likely related to tuber initiation and expansion were screened.

  5. Approche aux soins en milieu communautaire à des adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Osmun, W.E.; Chan, Nelson; Solomon, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les obligations d’ordre médical, éthique et juridique dans les soins aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) qui vivent dans la communauté. Sources des données Des recherches ont été faites dans Google et MEDLINE à l’aide des mots disabled, disability, vulnerable et community. Les lois pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal Le traitement d’un patient ayant une DD varie en fonction de facteurs comme la pathogenèse du problème actuel du patient, ses affections concomitantes, la gravité de ses déficiences et ses soutiens sociaux habituels. Bien que l’on s’entende sur les bienfaits du transfert des soins institutionnels vers des soins communautaires pour les patients ayant une DD, il s’est révélé difficile de leur dispenser des soins de grande qualité en milieu communautaire. Par ailleurs, il existe peu de travaux de recherche sur les façons d’offrir efficacement des soins aux adultes ayant une DD. En tant que professionnels des soins primaires, les médecins de famille sont souvent le premier point de contact pour les patients et sont à la fois responsables de la coordination et de la continuité des soins. Compte tenu de l’importance accrue accordée aux soins préventifs et à la détection précoce des maladies, la participation active du patient revêt aussi une grande importance. Les valeurs et les objectifs du patient sont des éléments essentiels à prendre en compte, même s’ils vont à l’encontre de la bonne santé du patient ou des propres valeurs du clinicien. Les lois s’appliquant aux personnes vulnérables varient d’une province à l’autre. Par conséquent, l’obligation de signaler des mauvais traitements suspectés pourrait différer selon que la personne vulnérable habite dans un centre de soins ou la communauté, que la personne qui soupçonne le comportement abusif est un fournisseur de services ou un professionnel de la santé ou

  6. Application of the New Decommissioning Regulation to the Nuclear Licensed Facilities (NLF) at Fontenay-aux-Roses's Nuclear Center (CEA)

    SciTech Connect

    Sauret, Josiane; Piketty, Laurence; Jeanjacques, Michel

    2008-01-15

    This abstract describes the application of the new decommissioning regulation on all Nuclear Licensed Facilities (NLF is to say INB in French) at Fontenay-aux-Roses's Center (CEA/FAR). The decommissioning process has been applied in six buildings which are out of the new nuclear perimeter proposed (buildings no 7, no 40, no 94, no 39, no 52/1 and no 32) and three buildings have been reorganized (no 54, no 91 and no 53 instead of no 40 and no 94) in order to increase the space for temporary nuclear waste disposal and to reduce the internal transports of nuclear waste on the site. The advantages are the safety and radioprotection improvements and a lower operating cost. A global safety file was written in 2002 and 2003 and was sent to the French Nuclear Authority on November 2003. The list of documents required is given in the paragraph I of this paper. The main goals were two ministerial decrees (one decree for each NLF) getting the authorization to modify the NLF perimeter and to carry out cleaning and dismantling activities leading to the whole decommissioning of all NLF. Some specific authorizations were necessary to carry out the dismantling program during the decommissioning procedure. They were delivered by the French Nuclear Safety Authority (FNSA) or with limited delegation by the General Executive Director (GED) on the CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses's Center, called internal authorization. Some partial dismantling or decontamination examples are given below: - evaporator for the radioactive liquid waste treatment station (building no 53): FNSA authorization: phase realised in 2002/2003. - disposal tanks for the radioactive liquid waste treatment station (building no 53) FNSA authorization: phase realised in 2004, - incinerator for the radioactive solid waste treatment station (building no 07): FNSA authorization: operation realised in 2004, - research equipments in the building no. 54 and building no. 91: internal authorization ; realised in 2005, - sample

  7. Sensibilité aux antibiotiques des souches destaphylococcus aureus communautaires dans la région de Nouakchott (Mauritanie)

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mohamed Lemine Ould; Ghaber, Sidi Mohamed; Baba, Sidi El Wafi Ould; Maouloud, Mohamed Mahmoud Ould

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Staphylocoque aureus reste un pathogène majeur de l'homme causant des infections très diverses, cutanées, urinaires, pulmonaires ainsi que des septicémies. L'objectif de ce travail est d'évaluer la sensibilité des souches communautaires de Staphylococcus aureus isolées dans différents produits pathologiques vis-à-vis des principaux antibiotiques utilisés, dans la région de Nouakchott (Mauritanie). Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective réalisée sur 281 souches de Staphylococus aureus isolées entre Janvier 2014 et Août 2015 au laboratoire du Centre Hospitalier National et aux deux laboratoires privés de la ville de Nouakchott, dans différents produits pathologiques des patients non hospitalisés. La sensibilité aux antibiotiques a été déterminée par la méthode de diffusion de disques en milieu gélosé de Mueller Hinton selon les recommandations du CA-SFM. Résultats Le taux de résistance à la pénicilline G était élevé (96 à 100%). Le taux de SARM communautaires se situe entre 25 et 26% dans les suppurations, de 34,3% dans les ECBU et de 28% dans les spermocultures. La résistance aux Macrolides-Lincosamyne-Streptogramines (MLS), donnant le phénotype MLSb inductible, était retrouvée dans 6% des souches urinaires et 27% des souches isolées à partir des suppurations. L'activité des aminosides est variable, l'amikacine était active sur toutes les souches. L'activité du cotrimoxazol est faible (77% de résistance) et aucune résistance à la vancomycine n'a été notée. Conclusion L'activité de la Pénicilline G sur les souches de Staphylococcus aureus isolées dans la région de Nouakchott est quasi nulle et le taux de SARM communautaire est important atteignant jusqu'à 34%. Ceci pourrait être expliqué par l'usage anarchique de ces molécules dans notre pays. PMID:28154631

  8. Localized Iron Supply Triggers Lateral Root Elongation in Arabidopsis by Altering the AUX1-Mediated Auxin Distribution[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; Lima, Joni E.; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation. PMID:22234997

  9. An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: Applications in Illinois (USA) aux vases oil reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, E.; Amaefule, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, S(wir), P(d), and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, No. 3, March.], are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to

  10. Probing the structures of gold-aluminum alloy clusters AuxAly(-): a joint experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Khetrapal, Navneet Singh; Jian, Tian; Pal, Rhitankar; Lopez, Gary V; Pande, Seema; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-05-05

    Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we report a systematic and joint experimental/theoretical study of a series of gold-aluminum alloy clusters, AuxAly(-) (x + y = 7,8), with various compositions (x = 1-3; y = 4-7). Well-resolved photoelectron spectra have been obtained for these clusters at different photon energies. Basin-hopping global searches, coupled with density functional theory calculations, are used to identify low-lying structures of the bimetallic clusters. By comparing computed electronic densities of states of the low-lying isomers with the experimental photoelectron spectra, the global minima are determined. It is found that for y ≥ 6 there is a strong tendency to form the magic-number square bi-pyramid motif of Al6(-) in the AuxAly(-) clusters, suggesting that the Al-Al interaction dominates the Au-Au interaction in the mixed clusters. A closely related trend is that for x > 1, the gold atoms tend to be separated by Al atoms unless only the magic-number Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif is present, suggesting that in the small-sized mixed clusters, Al and Au components do not completely mix with one another. Overall, the Al component appears to play a more dominant role due to the high robustness of the magic-number Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif, whereas the Au component tends to be either "adsorbed" onto the Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif if y ≥ 6, or stays away from one another if x < y < 6.

  11. Etude de la microstructure d'un acier 316 titane apres vieillissement et apres irradiation aux neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, G.; Le Naour, J.; Vouillon, M.

    1981-10-01

    La précipitation qui se produit lors de vieillissements de longue durée entre 450 et 700°C dans un acier 316 Ti soit hypertrempé soit écroui, a été étudiée en couplant les techniques de microscopic électronique et de microanalyse X. Pour les cas expérimentaux étudiés, les résultats obtenus montrent que la composition des carbures M 23C 6 et des phases σ, Laves et χ est peu sensible aux conditions de vieillissement et dépend également peu de l'état structural initial. Leur teneur en éléments principaux de l'alliage est d'ailleurs voisine de celle des phases précipitées dans l'acier non stabilisé. Excepté les carbures de type M 6C, toutes ces phases ont une teneur en nickel inférieure à celle de la matrice. Les premiers rérultats obtenus sur des matériaux irradiés aux neutrons montrent que la précipitation sous flux est différente de celle qui se produit dans l'acier vieilli. Les phases γ' et G ainsi que les carbures riches en nickel ont été observés. L'attention a été attirée sur le fait qu'il n'y a pas de corrélation simple entre la vitesse de gonflement et la teneuer résiduelle en nickel de la matrice.

  12. Diversification and Expression of the PIN, AUX/LAX, and ABCB Families of Putative Auxin Transporters in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Nicola; Tisdale-Orr, Tracy Eizabeth; Clouse, Ronald Matthew; Knöller, Anne Sophie; Spicer, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular transport of the plant hormone auxin is mediated by three families of membrane-bound protein carriers, with the PIN and ABCB families coding primarily for efflux proteins and the AUX/LAX family coding for influx proteins. In the last decade our understanding of gene and protein function for these transporters in Arabidopsis has expanded rapidly but very little is known about their role in woody plant development. Here we present a comprehensive account of all three families in the model woody species Populus, including chromosome distribution, protein structure, quantitative gene expression, and evolutionary relationships. The PIN and AUX/LAX gene families in Populus comprise 16 and 8 members respectively and show evidence for the retention of paralogs following a relatively recent whole genome duplication. There is also differential expression across tissues within many gene pairs. The ABCB family is previously undescribed in Populus and includes 20 members, showing a much deeper evolutionary history, including both tandem and whole genome duplication as well as probable gene loss. A striking number of these transporters are expressed in developing Populus stems and we suggest that evolutionary and structural relationships with known auxin transporters in Arabidopsis can point toward candidate genes for further study in Populus. This is especially important for the ABCBs, which is a large family and includes members in Arabidopsis that are able to transport other substrates in addition to auxin. Protein modeling, sequence alignment and expression data all point to ABCB1.1 as a likely auxin transport protein in Populus. Given that basipetal auxin flow through the cambial zone shapes the development of woody stems, it is important that we identify the full complement of genes involved in this process. This work should lay the foundation for studies targeting specific proteins for functional characterization and in situ localization. PMID:22645571

  13. Genome-wide analysis and characterization of Aux/IAA family genes related to fruit ripening in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaidong; Yuan, Changchun; Feng, Shaoxian; Zhong, Shuting; Li, Haili; Zhong, Jundi; Shen, Chenjia; Liu, Jinxiang

    2017-05-05

    Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) family genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that mediate the responses of auxin-related genes and are involved in several plant developmental and growth processes. However, how Aux/IAA genes function in the fruit development and ripening of papaya (Carica papaya L.) is largely unknown. In this study, a comprehensive identification and a distinctive expression analysis of 18 C. papaya Aux/IAA (CpIAA) genes were performed using newly updated papaya reference genome data. The Aux/IAA gene family in papaya is slightly smaller than that in Arabidopsis, but all of the phylogenetic subfamilies are represented. Most of the CpIAA genes are responsive to various phytohormones and expressed in a tissues-specific manner. To understand the putative biological functions of the CpIAA genes involved in fruit development and ripening, quantitative real-time PCR was used to test the expression profiling of CpIAA genes at different stages. Furthermore, an IAA treatment significantly delayed the ripening process in papaya fruit at the early stages. The expression changes of CpIAA genes in ACC and 1-MCP treatments suggested a crosstalk between auxin and ethylene during the fruit ripening process of papaya. Our study provided comprehensive information on the Aux/IAA family in papaya, including gene structures, phylogenetic relationships and expression profiles. The involvement of CpIAA gene expression changes in fruit development and ripening gives us an opportunity to understand the roles of auxin signaling in the maturation of papaya reproductive organs.

  14. The auxin transporter, OsAUX1, is involved in primary root and root hair elongation and in Cd stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, ChenLiang; Sun, ChenDong; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Suikang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yan; Chen, YunLong; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Aryal, Bibek; Geisler, Markus; Jiang, De An; Qi, YanHua

    2015-09-01

    Auxin and cadmium (Cd) stress play critical roles during root development. There are only a few reports on the mechanisms by which Cd stress influences auxin homeostasis and affects primary root (PR) and lateral root (LR) development, and almost nothing is known about how auxin and Cd interfere with root hair (RH) development. Here, we characterize rice osaux1 mutants that have a longer PR and shorter RHs in hydroponic culture, and that are more sensitive to Cd stress compared to wild-type (Dongjin). OsAUX1 expression in root hair cells is different from that of its paralogous gene, AtAUX1, which is expressed in non-hair cells. However, OsAUX1, like AtAUX1, localizes at the plasma membrane and appears to function as an auxin tranporter. Decreased auxin distribution and contents in the osaux1 mutant result in reduction of OsCyCB1;1 expression and shortened PRs, LRs and RHs under Cd stress, but may be rescued by treatment with the membrane-permeable auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Treatment with the auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid increased the Cd sensitivity of WT rice. Cd contents in the osaux1 mutant were not altered, but reactive oxygen species-mediated damage was enhanced, further increasing the sensitivity of the osaux1 mutant to Cd stress. Taken together, our results indicate that OsAUX1 plays an important role in root development and in responses to Cd stress.

  15. The French Tsunami warning center for the Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis, CENALT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelé, F.; Bossu, R.; Alabrune, N.; Arnoul, P.; Duperray, P.; Gailler, A.; Guilbert, J.; Hébert, H.; Hernandez, B.; Loevenbruck, A.; Roudil, P.

    2012-04-01

    The CENALT (CENtre d'Alerte aux Tsunamis) is responsible for the French NTWC (National Tsunami Warning Center). This center was established through a project that was requested by the French Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Sustainable Development. It is implemented by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), the French Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM) and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and is based in Bruyères-le-Châtel (30 km from Paris). This center is based on three main components: seismic network data, sea level network data, dissemination system and processing and analyzing softwares and is operating on a 24/7 basis. The CENALT has established scientific cooperation with 8 institutions and implemented and funded private leased lines to exchange data with institutions from 5 different European countries (Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia). The seismic data are processed with the Seiscomp 3 software. SHOM is working on making all French tide-gauge stations operated and available in real-time in 2012, and they installed 5 new tide gage stations. The tide gage data will be processed with a customized version of the Guitar (Gempa) software allowing the detection of tsunami signals, complemented by other softwares developed by the CEA. Historical tsunami databases (sources and observations) and earthquake databases, mostly based on available international databases, have been synthetized by CEA to produce information maps in real time, used to guide operators of permanence. Precomputed tsunami scenarios are implemented to build in real time maps of the highest tsunami impact expected in deep water. Along with an optimized tsunami modeling tool, these softwares help to define the areas where the tsunami may be observed and cause damage. The CENALT has been operating since early January 2012 as a pre-operational service and will be fully operational in July 2012. It is also

  16. Auxin Influx Carrier AUX1 Confers Acid Resistance for Arabidopsis Root Elongation Through the Regulation of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Takahashi, Koji; Okumura-Noda, Hiromi; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-10-01

    The plant plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase regulates pH homeostasis and cell elongation in roots through the formation of an electrochemical H(+) gradient across the PM and a decrease in apoplastic pH; however, the detailed signaling for the regulation of PM H(+)-ATPases remains unclear. Here, we show that an auxin influx carrier, AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1), is required for the maintenance of PM H(+)-ATPase activity and proper root elongation. We isolated a low pH-hypersensitive 1 (loph1) mutant by a genetic screen of Arabidopsis thaliana on low pH agar plates. The loph1 mutant is a loss-of-function mutant of the AUX1 gene and exhibits a root growth retardation restricted to the low pH condition. The ATP hydrolysis and H(+) extrusion activities of the PM H(+)-ATPase were reduced in loph1 roots. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of the PM H(+)-ATPase was reduced in loph1 roots under both normal and low pH conditions without reduction of the amount of PM H(+)-ATPase. Expression of the DR5:GUS reporter gene and auxin-responsive genes suggested that endogenous auxin levels were lower in loph1 roots than in the wild type. The aux1-7 mutant roots also exhibited root growth retardation in the low pH condition like the loph1 roots. These results indicate that AUX1 positively regulates the PM H(+)-ATPase activity through maintenance of the auxin accumulation in root tips, and this process may serve to maintain root elongation especially under low pH conditions.

  17. Phenotypes associated with down-regulation of Sl-IAA27 support functional diversity among Aux/IAA family members in tomato.

    PubMed

    Bassa, Carole; Mila, Isabelle; Bouzayen, Mondher; Audran-Delalande, Corinne

    2012-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is known to regulate several aspects of plant development, and Aux/IAA transcription factors play a pivotal role in auxin signaling. To extend our understanding of the multiple functions of Aux/IAAs further, the present study describes the functional characterization of Sl-IAA27, a member of the tomato Aux/IAA gene family. Sl-IAA27 displays a distinct behavior compared with most Aux/IAA genes regarding the regulation of its expression by auxin, and the Sl-IAA27-encoded protein harbors a unique motif of unknown function also present in Sl-IAA9 and remarkably conserved in monocot and dicot species. Tomato transgenic plants underexpressing the Sl-IAA27 gene revealed multiple phenotypes related to vegetative and reproductive growth. Silencing of Sl-IAA27 results in higher auxin sensitivity, altered root development and reduced Chl content in leaves. Both ovule and pollen display a dramatic loss of fertility in Sl-IAA27 down-regulated lines, and the internal anatomy of the flower and the fruit are modified, with an enlarged placenta in smaller fruits. In line with the reduced Chl content in Sl-IAA27 RNA interference (RNAi) leaves, genes involved in Chl synthesis display lower expression at the level of transcript accumulation. Even though Sl-IAA27 is closely related to Sl-IAA9 in terms of sequence homology and the encoded proteins share common structural features, the data indicate that the two genes regulate tomato fruit initiation and development in a distinct manner.

  18. Identification de lois constitutives et de lois de frottement adaptées aux grandes vitesses de sollicitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalverny, O.; Capéraa, S.; Pantalé, O.; Sattouf, C.

    2002-12-01

    Cet article présente une méthodologie d'identification de lois constitutives et de lois de contact adaptées aux matériaux métalliques sous chargement dynamique à grande vitesse de déformation. Les essais sont effectués à partir de montages expérimentaux adaptés à un lanceur à gaz permettant d'obtenir une vitesse de projectile de l'ordre de 350m/s pour une masse totale de 30gr. Le premier essai consiste en un impact de Taylor correspondant à un chargement mécanique de type compression. Le second essai de type “extrusion conique" permet la détermination des lois de frottement à grande vitesse. La procédure générale d'identification des lois de comportement à partir d'essais dynamiques se fait au moyen d'une analyse post-mortem des échantillons et de la corrélation entre ces résultats expérimentaux et un modèle numérique des essais. Pour les deux cas précédemment cités, nous présentons la configuration optimale d'essai ainsi que les résultats obtenus à partir d'un algorithme d'optimisation de type Levenberg-Marquard.

  19. TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    PubMed Central

    Fendrych, Matyáš; Leung, Jeffrey; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Despite being composed of immobile cells, plants reorient along directional stimuli. The hormone auxin is redistributed in stimulated organs leading to differential growth and bending. Auxin application triggers rapid cell wall acidification and elongation of aerial organs of plants, but the molecular players mediating these effects are still controversial. Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. We show that auxin-induced acidification occurs by local activation of H+-ATPases, which in the context of gravity response is restricted to the lower organ side. This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception. In addition, auxin-induced gene transcription and specifically SAUR proteins are crucial downstream mediators of this growth. Our study provides strong experimental support for the acid growth theory and clarified the contribution of the upstream auxin perception mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19048.001 PMID:27627746

  20. Comparative performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System and the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System.

    PubMed

    Smith, M B; Dunklee, D; Vu, H; Woods, G L

    1999-08-01

    The performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System (Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.), a 4-h micropanel using single-substrate enzymatic test reactions, was compared with that of the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.), a 48- to 72-h carbohydrate assimilation panel. Two hundred twenty-five yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and algae, comprising 28 species and including 30 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans, an important pathogen not tested in appreciable numbers in other comparisons, were tested by both methods. On initial testing, 196 (87.1%) and 215 (95.6%) isolates were correctly identified by the RapID and API systems, respectively. Upon repeat testing, the number of correctly identified isolates increased to 220 (97.8%) for the RapID system and 223 (99.1%) for the API system. Reducing the turbidity of the test inoculum to that of a no. 3 McFarland turbidity standard, which is below that recommended by the manufacturer, resulted in the correct identification of most of the isolates initially misidentified by the RapID system, including 10 of 30 C. neoformans isolates. Concordance between the RapID and API results after repeat testing was 97.3%.

  1. Specific poly-phenolic compounds in cell culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux.

    PubMed

    Mewis, Inga; Smetanska, Iryna M; Müller, Carsten T; Ulrichs, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Cell cultures established from plants represent an attractive alternative to whole plants for effective production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Cell culture from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux accumulated high amounts of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and anthocyanins. Two new compounds were identified: 3-O-glucosylresveratrol, a stilbene derivative, abundant in cell suspension culture, and a hydroxyphenol, 4-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-phenol, abundant in callus culture. The major anthocyanin monoglucosides present in cell suspension culture were cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and peonidin 3-O-glucoside, and the major cinnamoyl derivatives were cyanidin 3-O-p-coumaryl glucoside and peonidin 3-O-p-coumaryl glucoside. Three minor anthocyanin compounds were found in V. vinifera cell culture: delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, petunidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-pcoumaryl glucoside. Anthocyanin levels of cell suspension cultures increased significantly--about eight fold--after 4-day cultivation in new medium. Salicylic acid at a concentration of 50 μM did not enhance anthocyanin accumulation in cell suspension culture, and similar levels of jasmonic acid significantly reduced the anthocyanin content.

  2. Le système opioïde endogène et l’addiction aux drogues1

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Résumé L’addiction aux drogues est une maladie psychiatrique chronique qui conduit à d’importantes altérations adaptatives dans les circuits de récompense du cerveau. Plusieurs systèmes de neurotransmission sont impliqués dans ces modifications. Cependant, un des systèmes neurochimiques qui joue un rôle essentiel dans l’addiction est le système opioïde endogène. Les récepteurs opioïdes et les peptides opioïdes endogènes sont très largement présents dans les structures cérébrales qui contrôlent les phénomènes de récompense, en particulier le système mésolimbique. Ces récepteurs et peptides opioïdes participent d’une manière sélective à plusieurs aspects des processus addictifs induits par les opiacés, les cannabinoïdes, les psychostimulants, l’alcool et la nicotine. Cette revue rend compte de l’état actuel des connaissances sur la participation de chaque composante du système opioïde endogène dans les propriétés addictives des différentes drogues. PMID:20176158

  3. The PB1 Domain in Auxin Response Factor and Aux/IAA Proteins: A Versatile Protein Interaction Module in the Auxin Response[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An integral part of auxin-regulated gene expression involves the interplay of two types of transcription factors, the DNA binding auxin response factor (ARF) activators and the interacting auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) repressors. Insight into the mechanism of how these transcription factors interact with one another has recently been revealed from crystallographic information on ARF5 and ARF7 C-terminal domains (i.e., a protein-protein interaction domain referred to as domain III/IV that is related to domain III/IV in Aux/IAA proteins). Three-dimensional structures showed that this domain in ARF5 and ARF7 conforms to a well-known PB1 (Phox and Bem1) domain that confers protein-protein interactions with other PB1 domain proteins through electrostatic contacts. Experiments verifying the importance of charged amino acids in conferring ARF and Aux/IAA interactions have confirmed the PB1 domain structure. Some in planta experiments designed to test the validity of PB1 interactions in the auxin response have led to updated models for auxin-regulated gene expression and raised many questions that will require further investigation. In addition to the PB1 domain, a second protein interaction module that functions in ARF-ARF dimerization and facilitates DNA binding has recently been revealed from crystallography studies on the ARF1 and ARF5 DNA binding domains. PMID:25604444

  4. Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MPK) Interacts With Auxin Influx Carrier (OsAux/LAX1) Involved in Auxin Signaling in Plant.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Mohanta, Nibedita; Parida, Pratap; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinases (MPKs) are serine/threonine protein kinases that contain characteristic T-x-Y motif in the activation loop region. MPKs are important signaling molecules involved in diverse signaling cascades that regulate plant growth, development and stress responses by conducting phosphorylation events in their target proteins. MPKs phosphorylate their target proteins at either S-P/T-P (Serine/Proline/Threonine) amino acid. To understand, if MPKs are involved in the auxin signaling cascade, we identified probable target proteins of MPKs involved in auxin signaling or transport processes. A genome-wide search of the rice genome database led us to identification of the OsAux/LAX1 gene as a potential downstream target protein of MPKs. In-silico analysis predicted that MPKs interact with OsAux/LAX1 proteins which were validated by a yeast two-hybrid assay that showed OsMPK3, OsMPK4 and OsMPK6 are physically interact with OsAux/LAX1 protein. The yeast two-hybrid interaction showed that MPKs are directly involved in auxin signaling events in plants. This is the first study to report direct involvement of MPKs in the auxin signaling pathway.

  5. Sl-IAA3, a tomato Aux/IAA at the crossroads of auxin and ethylene signalling involved in differential growth

    PubMed Central

    Chaabouni, Salma; Jones, Brian; Delalande, Corinne; Wang, Hua; Li, Zhengguo; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2009-01-01

    Whereas the interplay of multiple hormones is essential for most plant developmental processes, the key integrating molecular players remain largely undiscovered or uncharacterized. It is shown here that a member of the tomato auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family, Sl-IAA3, intersects the auxin and ethylene signal transduction pathways. Aux/IAA genes encode short-lived transcriptional regulators central to the control of auxin responses. Their functions have been defined primarily by dominant, gain-of-function mutant alleles in Arabidopsis. The Sl-IAA3 gene encodes a nuclear-targeted protein that can repress transcription from auxin-responsive promoters. Sl-IAA3 expression is auxin and ethylene dependent, is regulated on a tight tissue-specific basis, and is associated with tissues undergoing differential growth such as in epinastic petioles and apical hook. Antisense down-regulation of Sl-IAA3 results in auxin and ethylene-related phenotypes, including altered apical dominance, lower auxin sensitivity, exaggerated apical hook curvature in the dark and reduced petiole epinasty in the light. The results provide novel insights into the roles of Aux/IAAs and position the Sl-IAA3 protein at the crossroads of auxin and ethylene signalling in tomato. PMID:19213814

  6. Gestion des ressources hydriques adaptee aux changements climatiques pour la production optimale d'hydroelectricite. Etude de cas: Bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haguma, Didier

    Il est dorenavant etabli que les changements climatiques auront des repercussions sur les ressources en eau. La situation est preoccupante pour le secteur de production d'energie hydroelectrique, car l'eau constitue le moteur pour generer cette forme d'energie. Il sera important d'adapter les regles de gestion et/ou les installations des systemes hydriques, afin de minimiser les impacts negatifs et/ou pour capitaliser sur les retombees positives que les changements climatiques pourront apporter. Les travaux de la presente recherche s'interessent au developpement d'une methode de gestion des systemes hydriques qui tient compte des projections climatiques pour mieux anticiper les impacts de l'evolution du climat sur la production d'hydroelectricite et d'etablir des strategies d'adaptation aux changements climatiques. Le domaine d'etude est le bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan situe dans la partie centrale du Quebec. Une nouvelle approche d'optimisation des ressources hydriques dans le contexte des changements climatiques est proposee. L'approche traite le probleme de la saisonnalite et de la non-stationnarite du climat d'une maniere explicite pour representer l'incertitude rattachee a un ensemble des projections climatiques. Cette approche permet d'integrer les projections climatiques dans le probleme d'optimisation des ressources en eau pour une gestion a long terme des systemes hydriques et de developper des strategies d'adaptation de ces systemes aux changements climatiques. Les resultats montrent que les impacts des changements climatiques sur le regime hydrologique du bassin de la riviere Manicouagan seraient le devancement et l'attenuation de la crue printaniere et l'augmentation du volume annuel d'apports. L'adaptation des regles de gestion du systeme hydrique engendrerait une hausse de la production hydroelectrique. Neanmoins, une perte de la performance des installations existantes du systeme hydrique serait observee a cause de l'augmentation des

  7. Virtual Interfaces: Research and Application (Les Interfaces Virtuelles entre Recherche et Applications).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    donndes et de la d6tection des mouvements humains, alli6s aux mod6les informatis6s des milieux naturels et artificiels, ont conduit A la mise el pltace...d’interfaces dites virtuelles. Les interfaces virtuelles offrent plus de souplesse et de naturel et elles sont donc envisag6es pour les domaines tels...contr6leurs a6ricns. principes d𔄀tude du langage naturel . Basd sur l’utilisation concomnitante d’une interface 11 GENERALITES vocale (synth~se et

  8. "If only you were a boy…": Friendship and sexual identity in Mireille Best's Hymne aux Murènes.

    PubMed

    Schechner, Stephanie

    2017-04-04

    While much French fiction devoted to lesbians focuses on romantic relationships, Mireille Best's (1943-2005) first novel, Hymne aux Murènes (Hymn to the Moray Eels) (1986), depicts a wide variety of relationships between the lesbian protagonist, Mila, and the other young women staying in a sanatorium of sorts for the treatment of an unnamed illness. In this all-female environment, Best depicts relationships between Mila and Paule, a closeted lesbian employee of the sanatorium; between Mila and young women like Josette and Lilli, who are somewhat attracted to Mila but, for the most part, do not act on this attraction; and between very close heterosexual friends (Nicoli and Nicola). In so doing, Best expands the reader's notion of friendship between women and blurs the lines between lesbians and heterosexuals, guiding the reader toward a more complex understanding of female friendship in general and lesbian friendship in particular. Throughout the novel, several characters express frustration about Mila's gender identity by saying, "If only you were a boy…" While Mila remains romantically frustrated, she develops close friendships with several young women, and Best thus conveys optimism about lesbians' ability to form friendships during adolescence and early adulthood, a time of life when, according to her characters, the boundaries between heterosexuality and lesbianism seem less rigid than they might be later in life. In this essay, I focus primarily on Best's first novel, but I include brief reflections on an earlier short story that echoes the presentation of lesbians and friendship found in the novel.

  9. Comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the Aux/IAA gene family in Eucalyptus: evidence for the role of EgrIAA4 in wood formation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Soler, Marçal; San Clemente, Hélène; Mila, Isabelle; Paiva, Jorge A P; Myburg, Alexander A; Bouzayen, Mondher; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Cassan-Wang, Hua

    2015-04-01

    Auxin plays a pivotal role in various plant growth and development processes, including vascular differentiation. The modulation of auxin responsiveness through the auxin perception and signaling machinery is believed to be a major regulatory mechanism controlling cambium activity and wood formation. To gain more insights into the roles of key Aux/IAA gene regulators of the auxin response in these processes, we identified and characterized members of the Aux/IAA family in the genome of Eucalyptus grandis, a tree of worldwide economic importance. We found that the gene family in Eucalyptus is slightly smaller than that in Populus and Arabidopsis, but all phylogenetic groups are represented. High-throughput expression profiling of different organs and tissues highlighted several Aux/IAA genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, some showing differential expression in response to developmental (juvenile vs. mature) and/or to environmental (tension stress) cues. Based on the expression profiles, we selected a promising candidate gene, EgrIAA4, for functional characterization. We showed that EgrIAA4 protein is localized in the nucleus and functions as an auxin-responsive repressor. Overexpressing a stabilized version of EgrIAA4 in Arabidopsis dramatically impeded plant growth and fertility and induced auxin-insensitive phenotypes such as inhibition of primary root elongation, lateral root emergence and agravitropism. Interestingly, the lignified secondary walls of the interfascicular fibers appeared very late, whereas those of the xylary fibers were virtually undetectable, suggesting that EgrIAA4 may play crucial roles in fiber development and secondary cell wall deposition.

  10. Niveau socioéconomique et processus du recours aux soins par les familles de patients souffrant de troubles psychiques au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Sommer, Alain; Moulaï, Pierre; Chebili, Saïd; Abaoub-Germain, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le Burkina Faso a connu une amélioration constante depuis deux décennies de l'offre de soins en psychiatrie. De même, le taux d'alphabétisation sans cesse croissant s'accompagne d'une profonde modification des conceptions et des comportements. La présente étude visait à déterminer l′impact des déterminants socioéconomiques sur le processus du recours aux soins par les familles. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale portant sur 200 familles, menée dans le service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou. Variable à expliquer: premier recours aux soins par les familles (guérisseur traditionnel ou prières religieuses vs. consultations psychiatrique ou médicale). Variable explicative: catégorie socioprofessionnelle classée en suivant la nomenclature des professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles; niveau d’études. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel SAS version 9.2. Le test du Khi deux a été utilisé. Résultats Il existait une association entre le choix du premier recours et la Profession et la catégorie socioprofessionnelledu « décideur » (p = 0.0006) ainsi que leniveau d’études du « décideur » (p = 0.0001). Conclusion La Profession et Catégorie Sociale et le niveau d'instruction scolaire pourraient être un marqueur important dans les politiques visant à optimiser les processus de recours aux soins des patients dans le circuit de soins. PMID:25161751

  11. Complex facies relationships and regional stratigraphy of the Mississippian Ste. Genevieve, Paoli, and Aux Vases Formations, Illinois basin: A major hydrocarbon-producing interval

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D.; Nelson, W.J. )

    1993-03-01

    The Mississippian Ste. Genevieve and Paoli Limestones and sandstones of the Aux Vases Formation are lateral facies of one another. This interpretation is based on comprehensive investigations of outcrops, and selected cores, samples of well cuttings, and geophysical logs conducted over a period of four years. Both units exhibit similar sedimentological characteristics and represent open marine, shallow subtidal, and intertidal environments. The presence of low-angle cross-laminae, ripple- and plane-laminae, climbing ripples, and ooid shoals suggest most deposition occurred under low energy conditions. Lenticular, channel-like scour and fill structures that contain both fine-grained quartz sand and abraded, disarticulated fossil fragments indicate localized higher energy deposition. The authors studies indicate that siliciclastic vs. carbonate deposition was controlled strictly by available sediment, and not by regressive (siliciclastic) and transgressive (carbonate) events, as inferred by previous workers. This conclusion is based on lateral facies relationships, and the supplanting of carbonates by clastics occurring in the upper part of the Ste. Genevieve through the middle part of the Paoli. The Aux Vases is thickest, coarsest, and least mature in the northwestern part of the Illinois Basin, and pinches out to the southeast. This implies a northwesterly source for clastics, perhaps the Transcontinental Arch. After early Chesterian time, the Transcontinental Arch apparently supplied little or no sediment to any flanking basin. The Ste. Genevieve, Paoli, and Aux Vases are major oil-producing units in the Illinois Basin. New understanding of regional relationships should enhance exploratory success and improve recovery from established fields.

  12. Le recours aux modeles dans l'enseignement de la biologie au secondaire : Conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants et modes d'utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlet, Madeleine

    Le recours aux modeles et a la modelisation est mentionne dans la documentation scientifique comme un moyen de favoriser la mise en oeuvre de pratiques d'enseignement-apprentissage constructivistes pour pallier les difficultes d'apprentissage en sciences. L'etude prealable du rapport des enseignantes et des enseignants aux modeles et a la modelisation est alors pertinente pour comprendre leurs pratiques d'enseignement et identifier des elements dont la prise en compte dans les formations initiale et disciplinaire peut contribuer au developpement d'un enseignement constructiviste des sciences. Plusieurs recherches ont porte sur ces conceptions sans faire de distinction selon les matieres enseignees, telles la physique, la chimie ou la biologie, alors que les modeles ne sont pas forcement utilises ou compris de la meme maniere dans ces differentes disciplines. Notre recherche s'est interessee aux conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants de biologie au secondaire au sujet des modeles scientifiques, de quelques formes de representations de ces modeles ainsi que de leurs modes d'utilisation en classe. Les resultats, que nous avons obtenus au moyen d'une serie d'entrevues semi-dirigees, indiquent que globalement leurs conceptions au sujet des modeles sont compatibles avec celle scientifiquement admise, mais varient quant aux formes de representations des modeles. L'examen de ces conceptions temoigne d'une connaissance limitee des modeles et variable selon la matiere enseignee. Le niveau d'etudes, la formation prealable, l'experience en enseignement et un possible cloisonnement des matieres pourraient expliquer les differentes conceptions identifiees. En outre, des difficultes temporelles, conceptuelles et techniques peuvent freiner leurs tentatives de modelisation avec les eleves. Toutefois, nos resultats accreditent l'hypothese que les conceptions des enseignantes et des enseignants eux-memes au sujet des modeles, de leurs formes de representation et de leur approche

  13. Fundamentals and Special Problems of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (Les Aspects Fondamentaux et les Problemes Specifiques aux Radars a Ouverture Synthetique (SAR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION: IMAGING OF SHIPS *(x,y)- P(U)IU~e dU d# AT SEA) ) (80) 6.1. Modelization The integral over U is identified as an inverse ...Special SAR-methods like squint-, stretch- and spotlight-techniques for example will be presented in addition to the inverse SAR-techniques using the...pr~sentis en complement des techniques SAR inverses faisant appel aux mouvement des cibles au lieu du mouvement du radar. Le cycle de conferences; se

  14. Élaboration de couches minces de carbone par ablation laser femtoseconde pour application aux biomatériaux implantables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, F.; Donnet, C.; Subtil, J.-L.; Belin, M.; Forest, B.; Rogemond, F.; Laporte, P.

    2005-06-01

    Des films de tetrahedral amorphous-Carbon (ta-C) ont été déposés, sous vide poussé, par ablation d'une cible de graphite avec un laser Ti : saphir (durée d'impulsion 170 fs, fréquence de répétition 1 kHz, énergie maximale par impulsion 1,5 mJ, longueur d'onde 800 nm) sur substrats standard et sur biomatériaux (acier AISI 316L, polyéthylène à très haut poids moléculaire). Les propriétés de ces couches (structure, propriétés nanomécaniques et tribologiques) ont été caractérisées, en fonction des conditions d'élaboration, en examinant l'intérêt de l'utilisation d'un laser femtoseconde et leur capacité à satisfaire aux exigences spécifiques du domaine biomédical. Les propriétés d'adhérence des films ont été considérablement améliorées lors du dépôt sur des substrats en acier inoxydable préalablement préparés par décapage ionique in situ sous atmosphère d'argon. La surface hémisphérique d'une tête fémorale, en acier inoxydable, de prothèse de hanche de diamètre 22,2 mm a été revêtue d'un film de DLC adhérent et homogène en épaisseur. La résistance à l'usure de ce revêtement sera quantifiée à l'aide d'un simulateur de marche durant un million de cycles (correspondant à une année d'activité physique d'un être humain).

  15. Les surdosages aux antivitamines K à Dakar: aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutifs

    PubMed Central

    Dia, Khadidiatou; Sarr, Simon Antoine; Mboup, Mohamed Cherif; Ba, Djibril Marie; Fall, Pape Diadie

    2016-01-01

    Les antivitamines K (AVK) sont largement utilisées dans la prévention et le traitement curatif des accidents thromboemboliques. Les objectifs de ce travail étaient de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutifs des surdosages en AVK et d’en déterminer les facteurs hémorragiques. Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive, transversale monocentrique réalisée à l’Hôpital Principal de Dakar. Tous les patients qui présentaient un INR supérieur à 5 étaient inclus. Etaient étudiés le sexe, l’âge du patient, l’AVK utilisé, l’ancienneté de sa prise, les indications, la valeur de l’INR, les médicaments associés, la présence d’hémorragie, la prise en charge immédiate et l’évolution. Nous avons inclus 154 patients. L’acénocoumarol était l’AVK le plus prescrit. Le sexe ratio était en faveur des femmes. L’âge moyen était de 63 ans. Le surdosage était asymptomatique chez 43% des patients. Les hémorragies étaient représentées principalement par des gingivorragies, épistaxis. Des hémorragies majeures étaient présentes chez 8,6% des patients représentées par des mélénas chez 6 patients (3,9%), un hématome musculaire profond chez 2 patients (1,3%) et des hématomes cérébraux intra-parenchymateux chez 2 autres. Deux patients présentaient un collapsus cardiovasculaire avec déglobulisation. Une prise d’AINS était notée chez 21% des patients. Les AVK ont été transitoirement arrêtés chez tous les patients. La mortalité était de 2% par hémorragie intracrânienne. La réduction des surdosages aux AVK passe par une maitrise par le personnel soignant des facteurs de surdosage et par bonne éducation thérapeutique des patients. PMID:27795783

  16. LATERAL ROOT PRIMORDIA 1 of maize acts as a transcriptional activator in auxin signalling downstream of the Aux/IAA gene rootless with undetectable meristem 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxiang; von Behrens, Inga; Zimmermann, Roman; Ludwig, Yvonne; Hey, Stefan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Only little is known about target genes of auxin signalling downstream of the Aux/IAA-ARF module. In the present study, it has been demonstrated that maize lateral root primordia 1 (lrp1) encodes a transcriptional activator that is directly regulated by the Aux/IAA protein ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1 (RUM1). Expression of lrp1 is confined to early root primordia and meristems and is auxin-inducible. Based on its primary protein structure, LRP1 is predicted to be a transcription factor. This notion is supported by exclusive LRP1 localization in the nucleus and its ability to activate downstream gene activity. Based on the observation that lrp1 transcription is completely repressed in the semi-dominant gain of function mutant rum1, it was demonstrated that the lrp1 promoter is a direct target of RUM1 proteins. Subsequently, promoter activation assays indicated that RUM1 represses the expression of a GFP reporter fused to the native promoter of lrp1. Constitutive repression of lrp1 in rum1 mutants is a consequence of the stability of mutated rum1 proteins which cannot be degraded by the proteasome and thus constitutively bind to the lrp1 promoter and repress transcription. Taken together, the repression of the transcriptional activator lrp1 by direct binding of RUM1 to its promoter, together with specific expression of lrp1 in root meristems, suggests a function in maize root development via the RUM1-dependent auxin signalling pathway.

  17. Conception, elaboration et mise a l'essai d'un simulateur interactif permettant une approche modelisante: Application aux lois de la genetique mendelienne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasri, Abdel-Halim

    Dans cette recherche-developpement, nous avons concu, developpe et mis a l'essai un simulateur interactif pour favoriser l'apprentissage des lois probabilistes impliqees dans la genetique mendelienne. Cet environnement informatise devra permettre aux etudiants de mener des experiences simulees, utilisant les statistiques et les probebilites comme outils mathematiques pour modeliser le phenomene de la transmission des caracteres hereditaires. L'approche didactique est essentiellement orientee vers l'utilisation des methodes quantitatives impliquees dans l'experimentation des facteurs hereditaires. En incorporant au simulateur le principe de la "Lunette cognitive" de Nonnon (1986), l'etudiant fut place dans une situation ou il a pu synchroniser la perception de la representation iconique (concrete) et symbolique (abstraite) des lois probabilistes de Mendel. A l'aide de cet environnement, nous avons amene l'etudiant a identifier le(s) caractere(s) hereditaire(s) des parents a croiser, a predire les frequences phenotypiques probables de la descendance issue du croisement, a observer les resultats statistiques et leur fluctuation au niveau de l'histogramme des frequences, a comparer ces resultats aux predictions anticipees, a interpreter les donnees et a selectionner en consequence d'autres experiences a realiser. Les etapes de l'approche inductive sont privilegiees du debut a la fin des activites proposees. L'elaboration, du simulateur et des documents d'accompagnement, a ete concue a partir d'une vingtaine de principes directeurs et d'un modele d'action. Ces principes directeurs et le modele d'action decoulent de considerations theoriques psychologiques, didactiques et technologiques. La recherche decrit la structure des differentes parties composant le simulateur. L'architecture de celui-ci est construite autour d'une unite centrale, la "Principale", dont les liens et les ramifications avec les autres unites confere a l'ensemble du simulateur sa souplesse et sa

  18. Expression of PIN and AUX1 genes encoding putative carrier proteins for auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls [correction of epicotyles] under simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    2003-10-01

    Etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat showed automorphosis-like growth and development similar to that observed in true microgravity conditions in space. Application of inhibitors of auxin polar transport phenocopied automorphosis-like growth on 1 g conditions, suggesting that automorophosis is closely related to auxin polar transport. Strenuous efforts to know the relationships between automorphosis and auxin polar transport in pea seedlings at molecular bases resulted in successful identification of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 encoding putative auxin efflux and influx carrier protein, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 and AtPINs, and between PsAUX1 and AtAUX1. Expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 genes in etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were substantially affected, but that of PsPIN2 was not. Roles of these genes in auxin polar transport and automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings are also described.

  19. Relation between anomalous Hall effect and the Dzaloshisky-Moriya anisotropy in the series of (Ag1-xAux)0.9Mn0.1 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Ashitaka, N.; Morimoto, Y.; Tabata, Y.; Kawarazaki, S.

    2007-03-01

    The influence of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) anisotropy on Rs≡ρex/M, where ρex is the extraordinary Hall resistivity and M is the magnetization, is investigated in canonical spin glass (SG) alloys. The strength of the DM anisotropy in the alloys is changed systematically by doping the third non-magnetic impurities. The Hall resistivity ρH, the magnetization M and the resistivity ρ were measured in the series of (Ag1-xAux)0.9Mn0.1 alloys with x=0, 0.007, 0.03, and 0.05. The difference between the values of zero field cooled and field cooled Rs, below the SG transition temperature, clearly increased with the amount of Au impurities. The dependence of the chirality contribution to Rs on the DM anisotropy is discussed in relation to the theoretical work for the chirality-driven anomalous Hall effect in weak coupling regime.

  20. Le syndrome d'insensibilité complète aux androgènes: à propos de deux cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Lachiri, Boutaina; Hakimi, Ihssane; Boudhas, Adil; Guelzim, Khalid; Kouach, Jaouad; Oukabli, Mohamed; Rahali, Driss Moussaoui; Dehayni, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Le syndrome d'insensibilité complète aux androgènes (SICA) est une entité rare qui correspond à la forme complète des pseudohermaphrodismes androgynoïdes. Son incidence est en fait très variable, allant, selon les auteurs de 1/20000 à 1/60000 naissances. Il est caractérisé par la coexistence chez le même sujet d'un caryotype masculin (46 XY), avec des gonades males, et d'une morphologie féminine normale. Les auteurs rapportent deux observations de deux jeunes filles présentant le SICA ayant consulté pour aménorrhée primaire, illustrant les particularités cliniques, anatomopathologiques et biologiques du syndrome avec certaines particularités. PMID:26301004

  1. J. M. Despréaux' lichens from the Canary Islands and West Africa: an account of a 19th century collection found in an English archive.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Hudson, Begoña; Whitworth, Isabella; Spooner, Brian M

    2011-01-01

    This is an historical and descriptive account of 28 herbarium specimens, 27 lichens and an alga, found in the archives of Charles Chalcraft, a descendant of the Bedford family, who were dye manufacturers in Leeds, England, in the 19th century. The lichens comprise 13 different morphotypes collected in the Canary Islands and West Africa by the French botanist J. M. Despréaux between 1833 and 1839. The collections include samples of "Roccella fuciformis", "R. phycopsis" and "R. tinctoria" (including the fertile morphotype "R. canariensis"), "Ramalina crispatula" and "R. cupularis", two distinct morphotypes of "Sticta", "S. canariensis" and "S. dufouri", "Physconia enteroxantha", "Pseudevernia furfuracea var. ceratea" and "Pseudocyphellaria argyracea". The herbarium also includes authentic material of "Parmotrema tinctorum" and a probable syntype of "Seirophora scorigena". Most of these species are known as a source of the purple dye orchil, which was used to dye silk and wool.

  2. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  3. Expression profile of PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP auxin transporter gene families in Sorghum bicolor under phytohormone and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Shen, ChenJia; Bai, YouHuang; Wang, SuiKang; Zhang, SaiNa; Wu, YunRong; Chen, Ming; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2010-07-01

    Auxin is transported by the influx carriers auxin resistant 1/like aux1 (AUX/LAX), and the efflux carriers pin-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (PGP), which play a major role in polar auxin transport. Several auxin transporter genes have been characterized in dicotyledonous Arabidopsis, but most are unknown in monocotyledons, especially in sorghum. Here, we analyze the chromosome distribution, gene duplication and intron/exon of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP gene families, and examine their phylogenic relationships in Arabidopsis, rice and sorghum. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that most of these genes were differently expressed in the organs of sorghum. SbPIN3 and SbPIN9 were highly expressed in flowers, SbLAX2 and SbPGP17 were mainly expressed in stems, and SbPGP7 was strongly expressed in roots. This suggests that individual genes might participate in specific organ development. The expression profiles of these gene families were analyzed after treatment with: (a) the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid; (b) the polar auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acids, 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid; and (c) abscissic acid and the abiotic stresses of high salinity and drought. Most of the auxin transporter genes were strongly induced by indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid, providing new evidence for the synergism of these phytohormones. Interestingly, most genes showed similar trends in expression under polar auxin transport inhibitors and each also responded to abscissic acid, salt and drought. This study provides new insights into the auxin transporters of sorghum.

  4. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Medicago truncatula during the Early Phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Tao; Xu, Luqin; Tie, Shuanggui; Wang, Huizhong

    2014-01-01

    Background Auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes, coding a family of short-lived nuclear proteins, play key roles in wide variety of plant developmental processes, including root system regulation and responses to environmental stimulus. However, how they function in auxin signaling pathway and symbiosis with rhizobial in Medicago truncatula are largely unknown. The present study aims at gaining deeper insight on distinctive expression and function features of Aux/IAA family genes in Medicago truncatula during nodule formation. Principal Findings Using the latest updated draft of the full Medicago truncatula genome, a comprehensive identification and analysis of IAA genes were performed. The data indicated that MtIAA family genes are distributed in all the M. truncatula chromosomes except chromosome 6. Most of MtIAA genes are responsive to exogenous auxin and express in tissues-specific manner. To understand the biological functions of MtIAA genes involved in nodule formation, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to test the expression profiling of MtIAA genes during the early phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti) infection. The expression patterns of most MtIAA genes were down-regulated in roots and up-regulated in shoots by S. meliloti infection. The differences in expression responses between roots and shoots caused by S. meliloti infection were alleviated by 1-NOA application. Conclusion The genome-wide identification, evolution and expression pattern analysis of MtIAA genes were performed in this study. The data helps us to understand the roles of MtIAA-mediated auxin signaling in nodule formation during the early phase of S. meliloti infection. PMID:25226164

  5. Auxin responsiveness of the MONOPTEROS-BODENLOS module in primary root initiation critically depends on the nuclear import kinetics of the Aux/IAA inhibitor BODENLOS.

    PubMed

    Herud, Ole; Weijers, Dolf; Lau, Steffen; Jürgens, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Primary root formation in early embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana is initiated with the specification of a single cell called hypophysis. This initial step requires the auxin-dependent release of the transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP, also known as ARF5) from its inhibition by the Aux/IAA protein BODENLOS (BDL, also known as IAA12). Auxin-insensitive bdl mutant embryos and mp loss-of-function embryos fail to specify the hypophysis, giving rise to rootless seedlings. A suppressor screen of rootless bdl mutant seedlings yielded a mutation in the nuclear import receptor IMPORTIN-ALPHA 6 (IMPα6) that promoted primary root formation through rescue of the embryonic hypophysis defects, without causing additional phenotypic changes. Aux/IAA proteins are continually synthesized and degraded, which is essential for rapid transcriptional responses to changing auxin concentrations. Nuclear translocation of bdl:3×GFP was slowed down in impα6 mutants as measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, which correlated with the reduced inhibition of MP by bdl in transient expression assays in impα6 knock-down protoplasts. The MP-BDL module acts like an auxin-triggered genetic switch because MP activates its own expression as well as the expression of its inhibitor BDL. Using an established simulation model, we determined that the reduced nuclear translocation rate of BDL in impα6 mutant embryos rendered the auxin-triggered switch unstable, impairing the fast response to changes in auxin concentration. Our results suggest that the instability of the inhibitor BDL necessitates a fast nuclear uptake in order to reach the critical threshold level required for auxin responsiveness of the MP-BDL module in primary root initiation.

  6. Transcriptome Profiling of Petal Abscission Zone and Functional Analysis of an Aux/IAA Family Gene RhIAA16 Involved in Petal Shedding in Rose

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuerong; Liu, Chun; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Haiqian; Liang, Yue; Ma, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Ma, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission. PMID:27695465

  7. Elevated Seismic Activity Beneath the Slumbering Morne aux Diables Volcano, Northern Dominica and the Monitoring Role of the Seismic Research Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, R. B.; Robertson, R. E.; Abraham, W.; Cole, P.; de Roche, T.; Edwards, S.; Higgins, M.; Johnson, M.; Joseph, E. P.; Latchman, J.; Lynch, L.; Nath, N.; Ramsingh, C.; Stewart, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Since June 2009, periods of elevated seismic activity have been experienced around the flanks of Morne Aux Diables Volcano in northern Dominica. This long-dormant volcano is a complex of 7 andesitic lava domes with a central depression where a cold soufrière is evident. Prior to this activity, seismicity was very quiet except for a short period in 2000 and an intense short-lived swarm in April 2003. The most recent earthquake activity has been regularly felt by residents in villages on all flanks of the complex. In Dec 09/Jan10, scientists from the Seismic Research Centre (SRC), based in Trinidad & Tobago, in collaboration with staff of the Office of Disaster Management (ODM) and Dominica Public Seismic Network (DPSN) improved the monitoring capacity around this volcano from 1 to 7 seismic stations. Earthquakes are determined to be volcano-tectonic in nature and located at shallow depths (<4 km) beneath the central depression. Additionally, in Jan/Feb 10 geothermal sampling was undertaken and 2 permanent GPS sites were deployed. Public information leaflets prepared by SRC scientists using a "Question & Answer" format have been distributed to concerned citizens whilst many public meetings were carried out by ODM staff. Field investigations indicate that the previous Late Pleistocene activity of Morne Aux Diables switched from Pelèan dome growth and gravitational collapse to more explosive pumice-falls and associated ignimbrites, both styles forming extensive pyroclastic fans around the central complex. The town of Portsmouth is located on one of these fans ~5 km southwest of the central depression. Sporadic, short bursts of seismic activity continue at the time of writing.

  8. Transcriptome Profiling of Petal Abscission Zone and Functional Analysis of an Aux/IAA Family Gene RhIAA16 Involved in Petal Shedding in Rose.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuerong; Liu, Chun; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Haiqian; Liang, Yue; Ma, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Ma, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission.

  9. Ressources pour les personnes atteintes de démence

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Christopher; Feldman, Sid; Schulz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Résumer les services offerts par la Société Alzheimer et discuter des autres sources de soutien et d’information à la disposition des personnes atteintes de démence. Sources de l’information On a fait une recension dans Ovid MEDLINE à l’aide des expressions dementia, Alzheimer disease, community health services utilization et caregiver stress. Message principal Il a été démontré qu’il est bénéfique aux patients et aux aidants si le diagnostic de la démence est posé tôt dans la maladie. Une consultation auprès de la Société Alzheimer peut aider dans la prise en charge non pharmacologique de la démence au moment du diagnostic et en tout temps durant l’évolution de la maladie. Parmi les services offerts, on peut mentionner des renseignements au sujet de la démence, le soutien aux aidants, la coordination des services communautaires et une grande diversité de ressources écrites à l’intention des patients et des aidants. Là où il est offert, le programme Premier lien peut aider avec l’orientation vers des services en minimisant la nécessité pour les patients ou les aidants de communiquer eux-mêmes avec les filiales locales de la Société. On discute aussi d’autres ressources, y compris les soins de répit et les approches technologiques pour prendre en charge l’errance. Conclusion La Société Alzheimer joue un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la démence et les médecins de famille devraient toujours envisager d’y référer leurs patients au moment du diagnostic, quelle que soit la gravité de l’état. Premier lien, quand il est accessible, peut faciliter le contact avec les services. Des ressources comme les soins de répit et les programmes de jour devraient toujours être considérés lorsqu’ils sont disponibles.

  10. Bioinformatic cis-element analyses performed in Arabidopsis and rice disclose bZIP- and MYB-related binding sites as potential AuxRE-coupling elements in auxin-mediated transcription

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In higher plants, a diverse array of developmental and growth-related processes is regulated by the plant hormone auxin. Recent publications have proposed that besides the well-characterized Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) that bind Auxin Response Elements (AuxREs), also members of the bZIP- and MYB-transcription factor (TF) families participate in transcriptional control of auxin-regulated genes via bZIP Response Elements (ZREs) or Myb Response Elements (MREs), respectively. Results Applying a novel bioinformatic algorithm, we demonstrate on a genome-wide scale that singular motifs or composite modules of AuxREs, ZREs, MREs but also of MYC2 related elements are significantly enriched in promoters of auxin-inducible genes. Despite considerable, species-specific differences in the genome structure in terms of the GC content, this enrichment is generally conserved in dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana) and monocot (Oryza sativa) model plants. Moreover, an enrichment of defined composite modules has been observed in selected auxin-related gene families. Consistently, a bipartite module, which encompasses a bZIP-associated G-box Related Element (GRE) and an AuxRE motif, has been found to be highly enriched. Making use of transient reporter studies in protoplasts, these findings were experimentally confirmed, demonstrating that GREs functionally interact with AuxREs in regulating auxin-mediated transcription. Conclusions Using genome-wide bioinformatic analyses, evolutionary conserved motifs have been defined which potentially function as AuxRE-dependent coupling elements to establish auxin-specific expression patterns. Based on these findings, experimental approaches can be designed to broaden our understanding of combinatorial, auxin-controlled gene regulation. PMID:22852874

  11. Bioinformatic cis-element analyses performed in Arabidopsis and rice disclose bZIP- and MYB-related binding sites as potential AuxRE-coupling elements in auxin-mediated transcription.

    PubMed

    Berendzen, Kenneth W; Weiste, Christoph; Wanke, Dierk; Kilian, Joachim; Harter, Klaus; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang

    2012-08-01

    In higher plants, a diverse array of developmental and growth-related processes is regulated by the plant hormone auxin. Recent publications have proposed that besides the well-characterized Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) that bind Auxin Response Elements (AuxREs), also members of the bZIP- and MYB-transcription factor (TF) families participate in transcriptional control of auxin-regulated genes via bZIP Response Elements (ZREs) or Myb Response Elements (MREs), respectively. Applying a novel bioinformatic algorithm, we demonstrate on a genome-wide scale that singular motifs or composite modules of AuxREs, ZREs, MREs but also of MYC2 related elements are significantly enriched in promoters of auxin-inducible genes. Despite considerable, species-specific differences in the genome structure in terms of the GC content, this enrichment is generally conserved in dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana) and monocot (Oryza sativa) model plants. Moreover, an enrichment of defined composite modules has been observed in selected auxin-related gene families. Consistently, a bipartite module, which encompasses a bZIP-associated G-box Related Element (GRE) and an AuxRE motif, has been found to be highly enriched. Making use of transient reporter studies in protoplasts, these findings were experimentally confirmed, demonstrating that GREs functionally interact with AuxREs in regulating auxin-mediated transcription. Using genome-wide bioinformatic analyses, evolutionary conserved motifs have been defined which potentially function as AuxRE-dependent coupling elements to establish auxin-specific expression patterns. Based on these findings, experimental approaches can be designed to broaden our understanding of combinatorial, auxin-controlled gene regulation.

  12. Traitement des conditions aux limites intérieures et extérieures pour la simulation numérique unidimensionnelle de l'écoulement de l'eau dans les canaux à surface libre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, M.; Vazquez, J.; Mose, R.; Zoaeter, M.

    2005-05-01

    Dans ce papier, on décrit le traitement des conditions aux limites intérieures et extérieures couplé avec la méthode explicite aux différences finies de Roe pour le développement d'une modélisation unidimensionnelle qui sert à résoudre les équations de Saint-Venant décrivant l'écoulement de l'eau à surface libre. Les deux méthodes les plus utilisées pour trouver la solution aux nœuds intérieurs et extérieurs définissant les conditions aux limites intérieures et extérieures d'un schéma numérique sont décrites et comparées dans deux exemples: Le premier traite le problème du ressaut hydraulique et le second décrit l'écoulement de l'eau au dessus des seuils. Deux types de discrétisation du terme source, pointwise et upwind, sont considérés et comparés aussi. Les résultats obtenus et comparés avec la solution analytique dans le cas du ressaut, et avec les résultats numériques déjà publiés dans le cas des seuils, montrent l'avantage de la méthode des caractéristiques sur la méthode de l'extrapolation pour les conditions aux limites, et la discrétisation upwind du terme source sur la discrétisation pointwise.

  13. Statut phospho-calcique en hémodialyse chronique dans l’Oriental Marocain: évaluation de l’adhésion aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO

    PubMed Central

    Benabdellah, Nawal; Karimi, Ilham; Bentata, Yassamine; Yacoubi, Hicham; Haddiya, Intissar

    2013-01-01

    Les troubles phosphocalciques sont fréquents en hémodialyse chronique. Leurs conséquences justifient une prévention et un traitement adaptés aux recommandations des sociétés savantes. L’objectif de notre étude était de déterminer le statut phosphocalcique de nos patients hémodialysés chroniques (HDC) et l’évaluation des taux de conformité des indicateurs aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO. Ainsi, nous avons réalisé une étude transversale incluant les 83 patients HDC du centre d’hémodialyse de l’hôpital Al Farabi d’Oujda. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 49.8± 15.6 ans. Une prédominance masculine a été notée. La conformité des indicateurs du bilan phosphocalcique chez nos patients hémodialysés chroniques par rapport aux recommandations KDIGO était de l’ordre de 21.6%. Le pourcentage des patients ayant des données phosphocalciques conformes aux cibles recommandées par les K/DOQI était Les patients répondants simultanément aux quatres critères recommandés par les K/DOQI n’étaient que 8.4%. PMID:24570784

  14. Détermination de la solubilité du tétrahydrothiophène (THT) liquide dans les principaux constituants du gaz naturel (CH4, CO2 et N2) au moyen d'un dispositif dynamique avec analyse chromatographique en ligne de la phase vapeur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanem, G.; Tagand, G.; Loiseleur, H.; Ingrain, D.; Jose, J.

    1998-05-01

    Some odorous products as tetrahydrothiophene (THT) whose odour is perceived at low concentration, are injected in natural gas in order to odorize it. This artificial odorization allows to detect immediately any gas leak in atmosphere. The authors have measured the equilibrium compositions of gaseous phases for binaires THT-CH4, THT-N2 and THT-CO2 in the transport and distribution conditions of natural gas [ {1 < P (bar) < 60} and {-30 < t(^circ C) < 50}] . For this purpose an experimental device based on a principle of dynamic saturation coupled with an on-line gas chromatographic analysis was assembled and adjusted. Additional thermodynamic properties are required to know the molar composition of vapour phase. The authors have measured the THT vapour pressure and estimated the second virial coefficients. For the estimations it was necessary to know the critical values and the acentric factor that have been calculated with various correlations. Certains produits comme le tétrahydrothiophène (THT), dont l'odeur est perçue à faible teneur, sont injectés dans le gaz naturel en vue de son odorisation. Cette odorisation artificielle rend toute fuite éventuelle de gaz dans l'atmosphère immédiatement détectable. Les auteurs ont mesuré les compositions à l'équilibre des phases gaseuses des binaires THT-CH4, THT-N02 et THT-CO2 dans les conditions de transport et de distribution du gaz [ {1 < P (bar) < 60} and {-30 < t(^circ C) < 50}] . Dans ce but, un dispositif expérimental original basé sur un principe de saturation dynamique avec analyse chromatographique en ligne de la phase vapeur a été réalisé et mis au point. Des grandeurs thermodynamiques supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour atteindre les compositions molaires de la phase vapeur. Les auteurs ont mesuré les pressions de vapeur du THT et estimé les seconds coefficients du viriel. Ces estimations font intervenir les grandeurs critiques et facteurs acentriques qui ont été calculés par diverses

  15. Aspects épidémiologiques des accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan (ICA)

    PubMed Central

    N'goran, Yves N'da Kouakou; Traore, Fatou; Tano, Micesse; Kramoh, Kouadio Euloge; Kakou, Jean-Baptiste Anzouan; Konin, Christophe; Kakou, Maurice Guikahue

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de notre étude était de décrire les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et les Facteurs de Risque cardio-Vasculaires (FRV) des patients admis pour accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) dans un service autre que celui de la neurologie. Méthodes Étude transversale rétrospective sur une période de 2 ans (janv. 2010 et déc. 2011), réalisée aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan. Résultats Il s'agissait de 176 adultes avec un âge moyen de 60 ans, une prédominance féminine. Les facteurs de risque majeurs retrouvés étaient l'hypertension artérielle dans 86,4% des cas, le diabète dans 11,4% des cas, le tabagisme dans 2,2% des cas. Les motifs de consultation étaient la perte de connaissance dans 36,4% des cas, l'hémiplégie dans 31,8% des cas, les céphalées dans 17,4% des cas, les vertiges dans 10,9% et les palpitations dans 2,2% des cas. La tension artérielle systolique moyenne était à 174 mmHg, la tension artérielle diastolique moyenne était à 105 mmHg et la pression pulsée moyenne était à 70 mmHg. Les AVC étaient associés à une arythmie complète par fibrillation auriculaire dans 11,4% des cas. Les AVC ischémiques représentaient 84,1%. L’évolution aux urgences a été marquée par un décès dans 17% (30) des cas. Conclusion Les AVC constituent un problème majeur de santé publique. Malgré sa prédominance féminine, ils (AVC) touchaient 44% des hommes dans notre étude lorsqu'on sait qu'en Afrique l'activité sociale repose sur les hommes. Ils restent une pathologie grave par la forte létalité. PMID:26327997

  16. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (MACINTOSH A/UX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  17. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (MACINTOSH A/UX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  18. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T.

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism. PMID:25738325

  19. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism.

  20. Effects of pulsed electric field on secondary metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux suspension culture and exudates.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenzhen; Riedel, Heidi; Thaw Saw, Nay Min Min; Kütük, Onur; Mewis, Inga; Jäger, Henry; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2011-06-01

    Plant cell cultures provide a large potential for the production of secondary metabolites. Through the application of different physical and chemical cell stress factors, we investigated the production of the secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures. The effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) and ethephon on growth and secondary metabolism, particularly anthocyanins and phenolic acids synthesis, were investigated by using suspension culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux as a model system. Anthocyanins were measured by spectrophotometer and extracellular phenolic acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The compounds were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. After the treatments with PEF and ethephon, the concentrations of anthocyanins and phenolic acids in cell culture were higher than in the control, without loss of biomass. The combination of PEF treatment and ethephon improved secondary metabolites formation. Production levels of extracellular phenolic acids, 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol were increased by PEF and ethephon treatments. The results show that PEF induced a defense response of plant cells and may have altered the cell/membrane's dielectric properties. PEF, an external stimulus or stress, is proposed as a promising new abiotic elicitor for stimulating secondary metabolites biosynthesis in plant cell cultures.

  1. Generation d'impulsions breves utilisant la non-linearite associee aux porteurs de charge libres dans des semi-conducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Isabelle

    Dans cette these, nous utilisons la non-linearite associee aux porteurs de charge libres generes par absorption multi-photonique dans des semi-conducteurs pour produire des impulsions breves dans l'infrarouge moyen. Nous proposons d'abord la methode de generation par suppression de la transmission et auto-defocalisation, ou le faisceau incident a l'angle de Brewster genere les porteurs de charge libres, creant un profil d'indice qui defocalise le faisceau. L'impulsion resultante presente un temps de montee calque sur l'impulsion initiale, suivie d'une coupure abrupte. En polarisation TE, on obtient le decoupage par effet d'etalon ou le faisceau est incident sur un etalon oriente sur un minimum de transmission; le debut de l'impulsion est reflechi. Le changement d'indice accompagnant la creation de porteurs de charge libres syntonise la transmission de l'etalon et seule la partie centrale de l'impulsion est transmise. Enfin, le decoupage peut aussi s'effectuer en configuration pompe-sonde; un faisceau continu (sonde) est incident sur un etalon simultanement soumis a l'illumination d'une d'impulsion breve (pompe). Cette derniere genere des porteurs de charge libres, conduisant a un glissement de la frequence instantanee de la sonde. Le faisceau est envoye dans un filtre spectral qui ne transmet que la portion ayant subi un important glissement de frequence.

  2. Amélioration du modèle de Preisach. Application aux matériaux magnétiques doux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, J. J.; Tenant, P.; Zegadi, L.

    1997-08-01

    Magnetic material modeling creates problems particulary when fast, easy to use and accurate models are needed. In this article an investigation of the Preisach model is presented. This model is not really suitable for soft magnetic material with flat loops. A new approach which gives rise to an important improvement of the Preisach model is described. The main properties of the Preisach model are retained. La modélisation des matériaux magnétiques pose de nombreux problèmes, surtout lorsqu'il s'agit d'allier simplicité, rapidité d'exécution et précision. Dans cet article, nous proposons une étude sur le générateur de cycles d'hystérésis de Preisach. Ce modèle s'avère mal adapté aux matériaux magnétiques à cycles d'hystérésis couchés. Nous suggérons une nouvelle approche qui permet d'accroître considérablement la précision du modèle de Preisach tout en conservant ses principales qualités.

  3. The auxin influx carriers AUX1 and LAX3 are involved in auxin-ethylene interactions during apical hook development in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    PubMed

    Vandenbussche, Filip; Petrásek, Jan; Zádníková, Petra; Hoyerová, Klára; Pesek, Bedrich; Raz, Vered; Swarup, Ranjan; Bennett, Malcolm; Zazímalová, Eva; Benková, Eva; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    Dark-grown dicotyledonous seedlings form a hook-like structure at the top of the hypocotyl, which is controlled by the hormones auxin and ethylene. Hook formation is dependent on an auxin signal gradient, whereas hook exaggeration is part of the triple response provoked by ethylene in dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings. Several other hormones and light are also known to be involved in hook development, but the molecular mechanisms that lead to the initial installation of an auxin gradient are still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to unravel the cross-talk between auxin and ethylene in the apical hook. Auxin measurements, the expression pattern of the auxin reporter DR5::GUS and the localization of auxin biosynthesis enzymes and influx carriers collectively indicate the necessity for auxin biosynthesis and efficient auxin translocation from the cotyledons and meristem into the hypocotyl in order to support proper hook development. Auxin accumulation in the meristem and cotyledons and in the hypocotyl is increased approximately 2-fold upon treatment with ethylene. In addition, a strong ethylene signal leads to enhanced auxin biosynthesis at the inner side of the hook. Finally, mutant analysis demonstrates that the auxin influx carrier LAX3 is indispensable for proper hook formation, whereas the auxin influx carrier AUX1 is involved in the hook exaggeration phenotype induced by ethylene.

  4. Fabrication of naturel pumice/hydroxyapatite composite for biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Komur, Baran; Lohse, Tim; Can, Hatice Merve; Khalilova, Gulnar; Geçimli, Zeynep Nur; Aydoğdu, Mehmet Onur; Kalkandelen, Cevriye; Stan, George E; Sahin, Yesim Muge; Sengil, Ahmed Zeki; Suleymanoglu, Mediha; Kuruca, Serap Erdem; Oktar, Faik Nuzhet; Salman, Serdar; Ekren, Nazmi; Ficai, Anton; Gunduz, Oguzhan

    2016-07-07

    We evaluated the Bovine hydroxyapatite (BHA) structure. BHA powder was admixed with 5 and 10 wt% natural pumice (NP). Compression strength, Vickers micro hardness, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction studies were performed on the final NP-BHA composite products. The cells proliferation was investigated by MTT assay and SEM. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of NP-BHA samples was interrogated. Variances in the sintering temperature (for 5 wt% NP composites) between 1000 and 1300 °C, reveal about 700 % increase in the microhardness (~100 and 775 HV, respectively). Composites prepared at 1300 °C demonstrate the greatest compression strength with comparable result for 5 wt% NP content (87 MPa), which are significantly better than those for 10 wt% and those that do not include any NP (below 60 MPa, respectively). The results suggested the optimal parameters for the preparation of NP-BHA composites with increased mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Changes in micro-hardness and compression strength can be tailored by the tuning the NP concentration and sintering temperature. NP-BHA composites have demonstrated a remarkable potential for biomedical engineering applications such as bone graft and implant.

  5. The Aux/IAA gene rum1 involved in seminal and lateral root formation controls vascular patterning in maize (Zea mays L.) primary roots

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Paschold, Anja; Marcon, Caroline; Liu, Sanzhen; Tai, Huanhuan; Nestler, Josefine; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Opitz, Nina; Lanz, Christa; Schnable, Patrick S.; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays L.) Aux/IAA protein RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEMS 1) controls seminal and lateral root initiation. To identify RUM1-dependent gene expression patterns, RNA-Seq of the differentiation zone of primary roots of rum1 mutants and the wild type was performed in four biological replicates. In total, 2 801 high-confidence maize genes displayed differential gene expression with Fc ≥2 and FDR ≤1%. The auxin signalling-related genes rum1, like-auxin1 (lax1), lax2, (nam ataf cuc 1 nac1), the plethora genes plt1 (plethora 1), bbm1 (baby boom 1), and hscf1 (heat shock complementing factor 1) and the auxin response factors arf8 and arf37 were down-regulated in the mutant rum1. All of these genes except nac1 were auxin-inducible. The maize arf8 and arf37 genes are orthologues of Arabidopsis MP/ARF5 (MONOPTEROS/ARF5), which controls the differentiation of vascular cells. Histological analyses of mutant rum1 roots revealed defects in xylem organization and the differentiation of pith cells around the xylem. Moreover, histochemical staining of enlarged pith cells surrounding late metaxylem elements demonstrated that their thickened cell walls displayed excessive lignin deposition. In line with this phenotype, rum1-dependent mis-expression of several lignin biosynthesis genes was observed. In summary, RNA-Seq of RUM1-dependent gene expression in maize primary roots, in combination with histological and histochemical analyses, revealed the specific regulation of auxin signal transduction components by RUM1 and novel functions of RUM1 in vascular development. PMID:24928984

  6. Administration d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens aux enfants ayant des antécédents de sibilance

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Kendra; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Un enfant qui fréquente ma clinique s’est récemment fait une entorse à la cheville et il éprouve de la douleur et de la difficulté à supporter son poids sur la jambe affectée. Sa mère lui donne de l’acétaminophène parce qu’on lui a dit de ne jamais utiliser d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens (AINS) en raison de son asthme contrôlé par pharmacologie. L’asthme chez un enfant est-il une contre-indication à l’administration d’AINS? La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par les AINS existe-t-elle comme entité réelle? Réponse Les AINS sont des médicaments analgésiques et antipyrétiques efficaces. La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par des AINS a été décrite chez des adultes ayant certains facteurs de prédisposition, mais n’a pas été clairement identifiée chez un grand nombre d’enfants. Les AINS peuvent donc être recommandés aux enfants ayant une sibilance connue qui n’ont pas d’antécédents de maladie respiratoire déclenchée par des AINS. PMID:27521406

  7. Light-dependent gravitropism and negative phototropism of inflorescence stems in a dominant Aux/IAA mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, axr2.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2014-09-01

    Gravitropism and phototropism of the primary inflorescence stems were examined in a dominant Aux/IAA mutant of Arabidopsis, axr2/iaa7, which did not display either tropism in hypocotyls. axr2-1 stems completely lacked gravitropism in the dark but slowly regained it in light condition. Though wild-type stems showed positive phototropism, axr2 stems displayed negative phototropism with essentially the same light fluence-response curve as the wild type (WT). Application of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid-containing lanolin to the stem tips enhanced the positive phototropism of WT, and reduced the negative phototropism of axr2. Decapitation of stems caused a small negative phototropism in WT, but did not affect the negative phototropism of axr2. p-glycoprotein 1 (pgp1) pgp19 double mutants showed no phototropism, while decapitated double mutants exhibited negative phototropism. Expression of auxin-responsive IAA14/SLR, IAA19/MSG2 and SAUR50 genes was reduced in axr2 and pgp1 pgp19 stems relative to that of WT. These suggest that the phototropic response of stem is proportional to the auxin supply from the shoot apex, and that negative phototropism may be a basal response to unilateral blue-light irradiation when the levels of auxin or auxin signaling are reduced to the minimal level in the primary stems. In contrast, all of these treatments reduced or did not affect gravitropism in wild-type or axr2 stems. Tropic responses of the transgenic lines that expressed axr2-1 protein by the endodermis-specific promoter suggest that AXR2-dependent auxin response in the endodermis plays a more crucial role in gravitropism than in phototropism in stems but no significant roles in either tropism in hypocotyls.

  8. The Aux/IAA gene rum1 involved in seminal and lateral root formation controls vascular patterning in maize (Zea mays L.) primary roots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Paschold, Anja; Marcon, Caroline; Liu, Sanzhen; Tai, Huanhuan; Nestler, Josefine; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Opitz, Nina; Lanz, Christa; Schnable, Patrick S; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-09-01

    The maize (Zea mays L.) Aux/IAA protein RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEMS 1) controls seminal and lateral root initiation. To identify RUM1-dependent gene expression patterns, RNA-Seq of the differentiation zone of primary roots of rum1 mutants and the wild type was performed in four biological replicates. In total, 2 801 high-confidence maize genes displayed differential gene expression with Fc ≥2 and FDR ≤1%. The auxin signalling-related genes rum1, like-auxin1 (lax1), lax2, (nam ataf cuc 1 nac1), the plethora genes plt1 (plethora 1), bbm1 (baby boom 1), and hscf1 (heat shock complementing factor 1) and the auxin response factors arf8 and arf37 were down-regulated in the mutant rum1. All of these genes except nac1 were auxin-inducible. The maize arf8 and arf37 genes are orthologues of Arabidopsis MP/ARF5 (MONOPTEROS/ARF5), which controls the differentiation of vascular cells. Histological analyses of mutant rum1 roots revealed defects in xylem organization and the differentiation of pith cells around the xylem. Moreover, histochemical staining of enlarged pith cells surrounding late metaxylem elements demonstrated that their thickened cell walls displayed excessive lignin deposition. In line with this phenotype, rum1-dependent mis-expression of several lignin biosynthesis genes was observed. In summary, RNA-Seq of RUM1-dependent gene expression in maize primary roots, in combination with histological and histochemical analyses, revealed the specific regulation of auxin signal transduction components by RUM1 and novel functions of RUM1 in vascular development. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Characterization of Engine Mount Elastomers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    20 °C, varient grandement, car elles se situent entre 0,02 pour le caoutchouc naturel et 0,27, dans le cas de l’élastomère à base de copolymère...deux élastomères préparés au PSL résistent assez bien aux hydrocarbures. Toutefois, dans le cas d’un mélange de caoutchouc nitrile et de poly...de copolymère d’éthylène/acide acrylique constitue un produit de remplacement acceptable du caoutchouc naturel et du caoutchouc néoprène, dans les

  10. Evaluation des indicateurs d’alerte précoce de la résistance du VIH aux ARV en Côte d’Ivoire en 2011

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Kouadio Jean; Damey, Néto Florence; Konan, Diby Jean Paul; Aka, Joseph; Aka-Konan, Sandrine; Ani, Alex; Bonle, Marguerite Te; Kouassi, Dinard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction En 2001, l'Organisation des Nations Unies recommandait de rendre disponible les médicaments antirétroviraux dans les pays à ressources limitées. Cependant, l'utilisation de ces médicaments à grande échelle s'accompagne du développement de résistance du virus. En Côte d'Ivoire, plusieurs sites prescrivent les antirétroviraux. Cette étude avait pour objectif d'évaluer les facteurs programmatiques associés à un risque élevé d'émergence de résistance du VIH aux antirétroviraux. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une cohorte rétrospective sur 20 sites de prise en charge des personnes vivant avec le VIH. La population d'étude était constituée des personnes ayant initié leur traitement antirétroviral sur les sites en 2008-2009. L'estimation de la taille de l'échantillon a été faite à partir de la stratégie d'échantillonnage de l'OMS. Résultats Sur 20 sites, 98% des prescriptions initiales étaient conformes aux directives nationales et 20% des sites avaient 100% de prescriptions conformes. Au total, 33% des patients étaient perdus de vue au cours des 12 premiers mois de traitement antirétroviral et 20% des sites avaient moins de 20% de perdus de vue. A 12 mois, 51% des patients demeuraient sous traitement de première intention approprié et 11% des sites ont atteint le seuil d'au moins 70% de patients sous traitement de première intention approprié. Un seul site n'a pas connu de rupture d'antirétroviraux sur les 12 mois. Conclusion Des insuffisances relevées dans la prise en charge des personnes vivant avec le VIH traduisent l'existence d'un risque important de résistance du virus aux antirétroviraux en 2008-2009. Pour minimiser ce risque les pratiques de prescription devraient être améliorées, un système de recherche des absents aux rendez-vous devrait être mis en place et la disponibilité constante des antirétroviraux devraient être assurée. PMID:28250876

  11. Interagency Training for Comprehensive Operations: Government Partners Perceptions of Exercise Maple Guardian (La Formation Interorganismes aux fins d’Operations Globales: Perceptions des Partenaires Gouvernementaux de l’Exercise Maple Guardian)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    afghans durant l’exercice et quant à la valeur perçue de la formation pour se préparer à collaborer avec les membres de la population afghane durant le...contemporaines a poussé le gouvernement du Canada à adopter progressivement une approche globale face aux opérations, fondée en partie sur une intervention...supporting the creation and sustainment of good governance, are also critical to addressing the scope and depth of the needs of the people of such states

  12. RE(AuAl2)nAl2(AuxSi1-x)2: a new homologous series of quaternary intermetallics grown from aluminum flux.

    PubMed

    Latturner, Susan E; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2008-03-17

    The combination of early rare earth metals (La- to Gd and Yb), gold, and silicon in molten aluminum results in the formation of intermetallic compounds with four related structures, forming a new homologous series: RE[AuAl2]nAl2(AuxSi(1-x))2, with x approximately 0.5 for most of the compound and n = 0, 1, 2, and 3. Because of the highly reducing nature of the Al flux, rare earth oxides instead of metals can also be used in these reactions. These compounds grow as large plate-like crystals and have tetragonal structure types that can be viewed as intergrowths of the BaAl4 structure and antifluorite-type AuAl2 layers. REAuAl2Si materials form with the BaAl4 structure type in space group I4/mmm (cell parameters for the La analogue are a = 4.322(2) A, c = 10.750(4) A, and Z = 2). REAu2Al4Si forms in a new ordered superstructure of the KCu4S3 structure type, with space group P4/nmm and cell parameters of the La analogue of a = 6.0973(6) A, c = 8.206(1) A, and Z = 2. REAu3Al6Si forms in a new I4/mmm symmetry structure type with cell parameters of a = 4.2733(7) A, c = 22.582(5) A, and Z = 2 for RE = Eu. The end member of the series, REAu4Al8Si, forms in space group P4/mmm with cell parameters for the Yb analogue of a = 4.2294(4) A, c = 14.422(2) A, and Z = 1. New intergrowth structures containing two different kinds of AuAl2 layers were also observed. The magnetic behavior of all these compounds is derived from the RE ions. Comparison of the susceptibility data for the europium compounds indicates a switch from 3-D magnetic interactions to 2-D interactions as the size of the AuAl2 layer increases. The Yb ions in YbAu(2.91)Al(6)Si(1.09) and YbAu(3.86)Al(8)Si(1.14) are divalent at high temperatures.

  13. Evolution de la résistance aux antibiotiques des entérobactéries isolées à l'Hôpital Général de Douala de 2005 à 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ebongue, Cécile Okalla; Tsiazok, Martial Dongmo; Mefo'o, Jean Pierre Nda; Ngaba, Guy Pascal; Beyiha, Gérard; Adiogo, Dieudonné

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cette étude vise à déterminer le profil de résistance aux antibiotiques des entérobactéries isolées à l'Hôpital Général de Douala (Cameroun) et analyser leur évolution dans le temps. Méthodes Etude rétrospective, sur une période de huit ans (2005 - 2012), portant sur l'ensemble des souches d'entérobactéries isolées chez les malades ambulatoires et hospitalisés. Les prélèvements ont été analysés au laboratoire de bactériologie de l'Hôpital Général de Douala. Résultats Les entérobactéries étaient les germes les plus fréquents sur l'ensemble des souches isolées. Nous avons noté une prédominance d’Escherichia coli (48,5%) et de Klebsiella pneumoniae (32,8%). Pendant la période d’étude, nous avons observé des taux de résistance élevés aux principales classes d'antibiotiques, et une augmentation entre 2005 et 2012 de 29,1% à 51,6% pour les céphalosporines de troisième génération, de 29,2% à 44% pour la ciprofloxacine. L'imipénème, l'amikacine et la fosfomycine étaient les molécules les plus actives avec respectivement 1,3%, 12,9% et 13,4% des souches d'entérobactéries résistantes. Conclusion L’évolution des résistances des entérobactéries aux antibiotiques est un phénomène réel dans la ville de Douala. Il expose à des difficultés de prise en charge thérapeutique des infections. Lamaitrise actuelle de ce phénomène est une véritable urgence et nécessite une implication des pouvoirs publics. Des tests spécifiques de recherche des bétalactamases à spectre élargi (BLSE) et AmpC doivent être mis en place dans nos laboratoires afin de mettre en évidence les différents phénotypes de résistances. PMID:26140070

  14. Developpement d'une plateforme de calcul d'equilibres chimiques complexes et adaptation aux problemes electrochimiques et d'equilibres contraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neron, Alex

    Avec l'arrivée de l'environnement comme enjeu mondial, le secteur de l'efficacité énergétique prend une place de plus en plus importante pour les entreprises autant au niveau économique que pour l'image de la compagnie. Par le fait même, le domaine des technologies de l'énergie est un créneau de recherche dont les projets en cours se multiplient. D'ailleurs, un des problèmes qui peut survenir fréquemment dans certaines entreprises est d'aller mesurer la composition des matériaux dans des conditions difficiles d'accès. C'est le cas par exemple de l'électrolyse de l'aluminium qui se réalise à des températures très élevées. Pour pallier à ce problème, il faut créer et valider des modèles mathématiques qui vont calculer la composition et les propriétés à l'équilibre du système chimique. Ainsi, l'objectif global du projet de recherche est de développer un outil de calcul d'équilibres chimiques complexes (plusieurs réactions et plusieurs phases) et l'adapter aux problèmes électrochimiques et d'équilibres contraints. Plus spécifiquement, la plateforme de calcul doit tenir compte de la variation de température due à un gain ou une perte en énergie du système. Elle doit aussi considérer la limitation de l'équilibre due à un taux de réaction et enfin, résoudre les problèmes d'équilibres électrochimiques. Pour y parvenir, les propriétés thermodynamiques telles que l'énergie libre de Gibbs, la fugacité et l'activité sont tout d'abord étudiées pour mieux comprendre les interactions moléculaires qui régissent les équilibres chimiques. Ensuite, un bilan énergétique est inséré à la plateforme de calcul, ce qui permet de calculer la température à laquelle le système est le plus stable en fonction d'une température initiale et d'une quantité d'énergie échangée. Puis, une contrainte cinétique est ajoutée au système afin de calculer les équilibres pseudo-stationnaires en évolution dans le temps. De plus, la

  15. Pollution Atmosphérique et Santé: Corrélation ou Causalité? Le Cas de la Relation entre l'Exposition aux Particules et la Mortalité Cardio-pulmonaire.

    PubMed

    Dab, William; Ségala, Claire; Dor, Frédéric; Festy, Bernard; Lameloise, Philippe; Moullec, Yvon Le; Tertre, Alain Le; Médina, Sylvia; Quénel, Philippe; Wallaert, Benoît; Zmirou, Et Denis

    2001-02-01

    De nombreuses études épidémiologiques ont observé dans des contextes différents une faible relation à court terme entre les particules et la mortalité cardio-pulmonaire, même quand les normes de qualité de l'air n'étaient pas dépassées. La causalité de cette relation est un enjeu de santé publique en raison de l'importance de la population exposée. Notre objectif est de faire l'inventaire critique des arguments utilisés dans 15 revues de la littérature publiées. Nous expliquons l'importance de distinguer la validité de la causalité et analysons de façon systématique les différents critères de jugement dans le contexte des études écologiques temporelles. Notre conclusion est que la relation observée est valide et que la plupart des critères de causalité sont respectés. Diminuer le niveau d'exposition des populations aux particules est souhaitable. En Europe, en agissant à la source, notamment sur les émissions Diesel, on diminuera aussi d'autres polluants qui peuvent jouer un rôle sanitaire. Aux États-Unis, la situation est plus complexe car les particules sont surtout secondaires. Il est également indispensable de poursuivre les recherches pour mieux connaître les déterminants des expositions globales des individus et mieux comprendre le rôle toxique des différents facteurs physico-chimiques des particules.

  16. Analyse quantitative des foraminifères benthiques actuels de la marge atiantique marocaine entre Cap Draˆa et Cap Juby: reponses fauniques aux changements de l'environnement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezqi, H.; Oujidi, M.; Boutakiout, M.; Labraimi, M.

    2000-02-01

    La population des foraminifères benthiques actuels de la marge atlantique marocaine, entre Cap Draˆa et Cap Juby, aétéétudiée dans 58 prélèvements parmi 430 répartis suivant un système de radiales perpendiculaireàla ligne de rivage. Quarante-sept espèces parmi 104 appartenantà58 genres et 28 familles ontétéreconnues. Les abondances absolues de chacune des espèces ontétécomparées dans les différents prélèvements ainsi que les indices biocénotiques (richesse spécifique, abondance, indice de pélagisme, nombre d'espèces benthiques enroulées, nombre d'espèces benthiques costulées) et les paramètres abiotiques (nature de substrat et profondeur). L'analyse factorielle des correspond ances, complétée par la classification hiérarchique et la projection des paramètres biotiques et abiotiques en tant que colonnes supplémentaires ont révéléclue la profondeur est le facteur principal de la distribution des espèces et des prélèvements. En effet, elle oppose les associations d'espèces infralittorales enroulées lisses aux associations d'espècesépibathyales rectilignes ornées, les espèces circalittorales occupent une position intermédiaire. Le facteur secondare correspondàla nature du substrat, oppose les associations d'espèces vasicoles aux associations d'espèces sabulicoles aussi bien celles de l'environnement infralittoral que celles de l'épibathyal.

  17. Séroprévalence et facteurs associés au VIH et aux hépatites virales B et C dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nkala, Isabelle Vanessa Monthe; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kamga, Hortense Gonsu; Noubom, Michel; Mvogo, Côme Ebana; Sosso, Maurice Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la séroprévalence et les facteurs associés au VIH et aux hépatites virales B et C dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et analytique réalisée de février 2012 à Juin 2012 dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats Au total, 982 personnes ont été dépistées pour le VIH et les hépatites virales B et C. Les femmes représentaient 56,3% des personnes dépistées. La tranche d’âge la plus représentée était celle des 20 à 24 ans. L’âge médian était de 34,5 ans. Les prévalences du VIH, de l'AgHBs, et de l'Ac anti HCV étaient respectivement de 6,0%, 4,1%, et 0,4%. La prévalence du VIH était 2 fois plus élevée parmi les femmes que les hommes avec 8,1% contre 3,5% (p=0,01). Les prévalences les plus élevées ont été observées chez les personnes de 30 à 34 ans, 40 à 44 ans avec 15,0% et 11,5% (p=0,01), les personnes sans emploi avec 11,1% (p<0,001) et les personnes en union libre avec 17,9% (p=0,000). La prévalence du VIH n’était pas directement liée aux comportements et pratiques sexuels de la population de l’étude. On enregistrait une prévalence élevée de 29,3% chez les individus ayant déclaré avoir au moins une infection sexuellement transmissible (p=0,000). Conclusion Il apparait urgent de mettre en place des stratégies de prévention contre le VIH, les hépatites virales et les facteurs associés au Cameroun. PMID:26113899

  18. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in (175)LuX and (197)AuX (X = (19)F, (35)Cl, (79)Br and (127)I).

    PubMed

    Demissie, Taye B; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in (175)LuX and (197)AuX (X = (19)F, (35)Cl, (79)Br, (127)I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  19. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin-rotation constants in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br and 127I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Taye B.; Jaszuński, Michał; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    We present nuclear spin-rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in 175LuX and 197AuX (X = 19F, 35Cl, 79Br, 127I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin-rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin-rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin-rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin-rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  20. Superconductivity at the highest transition temperature of 8.1 K in a simple cubic AuxSb1-x-yTey alloy system synthesized under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyo, A.; Hira, K.; Tokiwa, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Hase, I.; Yanagisawa, T.; Takeshita, N.; Kihou, K.; Lee, C. H.; Shirage, P. M.; Raychaudhuri, P.; Eisaki, H.

    2014-02-01

    We have investigated superconductivity and structure in a gold-antimony-tellurium ternary alloy system (AuxSb1-x-yTey) synthesized under high pressure. We found that Au0.125Sb0.75Te0.125 and AuSb6Te when crystallized in simple cubic structures (α-Po type), which are reported to be semiconductors above 20 K, are superconductors with a transition temperature (Tc) of 6.7 K. The structure and Tc are mapped on an Au-Sb-Te triangular diagram. A β-Po-type rhombohedral structure appears before the crystal structure changes from As type (Sb) to α-Po type. Superconductivity is observed in the β-Po-type structure as well as in the α-Po-type structure. Tc increases with decreasing Te concentration toward the Te-free Au-Sb end of the diagram. A Tc of 8.1 K was achieved for the Au-Sb alloy with a typical composition of Au0.15Sb0.85. This Tc value is the highest among materials with the α-Po-type structure under ambient pressure. Our Au0.125Sb0.75Te0.125 sample exhibits a weak metallic behavior in resistivity. The discrepancy in the normal state resistivity behaviors between the previous study and ours must originate from a difference in the number of lattice defects in the samples.

  1. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin–rotation constants in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br and {sup 127}I)

    SciTech Connect

    Demissie, Taye B. Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth; Jaszuński, Michał

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin–rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br, {sup 127}I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin–rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin–rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin–rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin–rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  2. Surveillance urinaire des professionnels de la santé exposés aux antinéoplasiques dans le cadre de leur travail: revue de la littérature de 2010 à 2015

    PubMed Central

    Poupeau, Céline; Roland, Christel; Bussières, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte Il existe de plus en plus de données sur la présence de traces de médicaments dangereux dans l’urine des professionnels de la santé exposés à ces médicaments. Objectif Présenter une revue de la littérature scientifique concernant la surveillance urinaire de professionnels de la santé exposés aux anti-néoplasiques dans le cadre de leur travail. Sources de données Recherche sur PubMed avec les Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) « occupational exposure » et « antineoplastic agents » ainsi que sur Google Scholar avec les termes « antineoplastic », « urine » et « occupational exposure ». Sélection des études et extraction des données L’examen a porté sur tous les articles en anglais et en français ayant trait aux professionnels de la santé exposés à des médicaments dangereux dans le cadre de leur travail, publiés entre le 1er janvier 2010 et le 31 décembre 2015. Les articles ne comportant pas de résultats urinaires et ceux concernant les vétérinaires ainsi que les revues de littérature, les éditoriaux, les lettres à la rédaction et les résumés de congrès ont été exclus. Synthèse des données Vingt-quatre articles ont été retenus. Les études ont été menées dans 52 établissements de santé provenant de sept pays. Elles regroupaient 826 travailleurs exposés à des médicaments dangereux et 175 témoins, notamment des infirmiers (n = 16 études), des pharmaciens (n = 10), des assistants techniques en pharmacie (n = 8), des médecins (n = 7), des aides-soignants (n = 2) et autres (n = 8). Différentes méthodes analytiques ont été utilisées pour quantifier la présence de 13 médicaments dangereux, principalement le cyclophosphamide (n = 16 études), les platines (n = 7) et l’alpha-fluoro-béta-alanine, un métabolite urinaire du 5-fluorouracile (n = 3). La proportion de travailleurs qui ont étés déclarés positifs s’étendait de 0 % (n = 10 études) à 100 % (n = 4). Si l’on ne retient que

  3. A Feminist Intervention That Hurt Women: Biological Differences, Ergonomics, and Occupational Health: Une intervention féministe qui a nui aux femmes: différences biologiques, égalité, ergonomie et santé au travail.

    PubMed

    Messing, Karen

    2017-01-01

    éministes aux solutions pour le milieu de travail, ainsi que des pistes de recherche.

  4. Ampleur et impact des évènements indésirables graves liés aux soins: étude d'incidence dans un hôpital du Centre-Est tunisien

    PubMed Central

    Bouafia, Nabiha; Bougmiza, Iheb; Bahri, Fathi; Letaief, Mondher; Astagneau, Pascal; Njah, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La prévention des événements indésirables représente une priorité de santé du fait de leur fréquence et de leur gravité potentielle. Ce travail a été mené afin d'avoir un diagnostic de la situation épidémiologique relative aux événements indésirables survenant dans notre hôpital. Méthodes Une étude prospective a été menée auprès de tous les patients qui ont été hospitalisés au CHU Farhat Hached - Sousse (Tunisie) sur une période d'un mois dans quatorze services de l'hôpital. La détection d'évènement indésirable grave (EIG) était basée sur les critères adoptés dans différentes études. Les tests T et Chi 2 ont été utilisés pour identifier les facteurs contribuant à l'apparition d'évènements indésirables. Résultats Au total, 162 EIG ont été identifiés pendant la période. 45% de ces évènements étaient des infections nosocomiales. Ces EIG ont eu comme conséquences un décès chez 9,2% des patients, la mise en jeu du pronostic vital de 26% des patients et la prolongation de la durée de séjour chez 61,7% d'entre eux. L'admission dans des circonstances particulières et l'exposition à des soins invasifs étaient identifiés comme des facteurs de risque potentiels EIG. Conclusion Le renforcement de la stratégie de gestion des risques sanitaires en ciblant préférentiellement le risque infectieux constitue une étape fondamentale dans l'amélioration de la sécurité des patients au sein de notre établissement de santé. PMID:24711868

  5. Coupleurs fibres - metasurfaces aux frequences THz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Martin

    Metamaterials are a class of arficial materials where the electromagnetic properties can be tailored during the design process. Currently demonstrated properties are varied, ranging from frequency filters to enhancement of quentum effects such as photon spin Hall effect. While these materials are mastered from a theoretical point of view, their fabrication is much more complicated. It is generally accepted that metamaterial elements must be under the effective medium limit (Lambda < lambda/10). Moreover, assembly of a 3D periodical system becomes much more complicated for small elements. For this reason, metamaterials are usually printed in 2D, on a surface, which are called metasurfaces. Generally, these are produced for the THz frequencies (˜ 1012 Hz) or lower to have a large wavelength and thus easy fabrication. Working at THz frequencies also carries additional problems. Absorption in traditional optical mediums is typically large (for exemple, BK7 glass has losses of 20 dB / cm) and powers supplied by THz sources are generally weak ( 100 muW for a THz-TDS standard source). Metasurfaces can thus play an important role by replacing traditional mediums. Moreover, we can use the resonant properties of metamaterials to produce sensors and other devices. Currently, the metasurfaces are used in conjuction with a free-space beam instead of a typical waveguide, which may be problematic when implementing devices. A simple solution to this problem is to use the metamaterial as a standard coupler by placing a waveguide above the metasurface. As stated before, we generally consider metasurfaces as effective mediums, where the permittivity is insensitive to the angle of the incident beam. However, a large amount of publications on this subject shows that this is not respected. This can have a huge impact on properties of a coupler based on such a material. First, modelisation is not a simple 2D mode calculation with a simple expression for permittivity. Second, contra-directional coupling becomes permitted due to wavevector becoming close to the periodicity. This work shows modelisation of such a fiber-metasurface coupler while taking account of these problems, with two publications on the subject. The first article modelises the coupler using a 400 mum diameter subwavelength step-index fiber coupled to a metasurface made of SRR on a 700 mum thick fused silica substrate. Frequencies are around 300 GHz (lambda = 1000 mum). We obtain some interesting results. First, the system shows a large number of fine resonances (˜ 1.5 GHz) instead of a single large resonance which would be typically seen on such a metasurface. These are constitued of a both a SRR-bound field and a propagative substrate mode. Second, these resonances are strongly influenced by the fiber-metasurface distance. Third, the spectral position can be easily calculated using a band diagram since they are located at Van Hove singularities. The second article treats of a paper sensor based on such a device. The geometry used is the same as in the first article, except for two differences. First, the substrate thickness has been reduced to 320 mum to lower the amount of substrate modes available. Second, a paper layer was added underneath the substrate. Since the resonances are a mixture of SRR-bound and substrate modes, resonance parameters change with paper properties. The spectral position can be related to paper thickness and real part of the permittivity while the reflectance amplitude is related to the imaginary part of the permittivity. A Clausius-Mossotti model is used to link the imaginary part of epsilon to the water content. Assuming negligible losses for the fiber and substrate, we obtain limit of detections of 10 mum of paper thickness change and 0.02 % V/V for the water content.

  6. Perception et réceptivité des proches-aidants à l'égard de la vidéosurveillance intelligente pour la détection des chutes des aînés à domicile.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Nolwenn; Proulx Goulet, Chloë; St-Arnaud, Alain; Ducharme, Francine; Meunier, Jean; Turgeon Londei, Sophie; Saint-Arnaud, Jocelyne; Giroux, Francine; Rousseau, Jacqueline

    2015-12-01

    To address the issue of falls, which are increasing as the population ages, an intelligent video-monitoring system is being developed. The aim of the study is to explore caregivers' perceptions of and receptiveness to a prototype of this fall detection system. A cross-sectional mixed-method study was carried out with individual interviews of 18 caregivers. Statistical frequencies and content analysis were conducted (SPSS and N'Vivo). The results show that most participants (n = 15/18) liked the intelligent video-monitoring system and were willing to use it. They would worry less if they could be alerted if a care recipient fell, but they were concerned about privacy and cost. Participants had a positive perception of the system and expressed their wishes regarding the kind of alert and the person to contact in case of a fall.

  7. Photo-Induced Absorption Band in One-Dimensional Halogen-Bridged Mixed-Valence Platinum Complex: [Pt(en)2][PtI2(en)2](SO4)2\\cdot6H2O and its Au-Doped Complex: [AuxPt1-xI(en)2]SO4\\cdot3H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Nobuyuki; Kojima, Norimichi; Ban, Toshiro; Tsujikawa, Ikuji

    1987-11-01

    The intervalence charge-transfer absorption spectra in the mixed-valence complexes [Pt(en)2][PtI2(en)2](SO4)2\\cdot6H2O and [AuxPt1-xI(en)2]SO4\\cdot3H2O (x{=}0.03) have been investigated at 4.2 K. In these complexes, below the charge-transfer absorption edge, a weak absorption band (A-band) has been observed for the light polarized parallel to the chain axis. When these complexes were irradiated with the light in the region of the charge-transfer transition from PtII to PtIV, the absorption coefficient of the A-band increased remarkably, which implies that the A-band is a photo-induced absorption band. The photo-induced effect for the A-band in [AuxPt1-xI(en)2]SO4\\cdot3H2O (x{=}0.03) is more intense than that in [Pt(en)2][PtI2(en)2](SO4)2\\cdot6H2O. The A-band suggests the existence of new excitations such as a soliton-like excitation in the electronic state of the platinum chains.

  8. Les recommandations de prise en charge des complications métaboliques associées aux antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Josephine; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; McCrindle, Brian; Grisaru, Silviu; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : Les antipsychotiques de deuxième génération s’associent souvent à des complications métaboliques. Ces médicaments sont utilisés plus souvent pour le traitement des troubles de santé mentale chez les enfants, ce qui a requis l’élaboration de lignes directrices officielles sur la surveillance de leur innocuité et de leur efficacité. Des lignes directrices ont déjà été élaborées pour surveiller les complications métaboliques et neurologiques. Afin d’aider les praticiens qui effectuent ces interventions de surveillance, une série de recommandations thérapeutiques complémentaires a été élaborée pour les cas où l’on observe des mesures ou des résultats anormaux. OBJECTIF : Créer des recommandations probantes afin de contribuer à la prise en charge des complications métaboliques chez les enfants traités au moyen d’antipsychotiques de deuxième génération. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les auteurs ont procédé à une analyse systématique des publications sur les complications métaboliques des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants. Les membres du groupe consensuel ont évalué l’information recueillie grâce à l’analyse bibliographique systématique et ont fait appel à un processus de groupe nominal pour parvenir à un consensus à l’égard de recommandations thérapeutiques. Dans la mesure du possible, ils se sont reportés aux lignes directrices existantes sur l’évaluation et le traitement des anomalies métaboliques chez les enfants. RÉSULTATS : Des recommandations probantes sont présentées pour contribuer à la prise en charge des complications métaboliques, y compris la prise de poids, l’augmentation du tour de taille, l’élévation des taux de prolactine, de cholestérol, de triglycérides et de glucose, les épreuves de fonction hépatique anormales et les études thyroïdiennes anormales. CONCLUSION : Il faut recourir à des mesures de surveillance convenables lorsqu’on prescrit

  9. Les recommandations thérapeutiques relatives aux effets secondaires extrapyramidaux associés à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Doja, Asif; Belanger, Stacey; Patten, Scott

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE ET OBJECTIF : L’utilisation d’antipsychotiques augmente chez les enfants. Le présent article visait à orienter les cliniciens quant à la prise en charge clinique des effets secondaires extrapyramidaux des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les publications, les entrevues avec des informateurs clés et des échanges avec les membres d’un groupe de discussion et les partenaires ont permis de déterminer les principaux secteurs cliniques d’orientation et les préférences quant à la structure des présentes recommandations. Les membres responsables des lignes directrices ont reçu le projet de recommandations, ont évalué l’information recueillie grâce à une analyse bibliographique systématique et ont utilisé un processus de groupe nominal pour parvenir à un consensus quant aux recommandations thérapeutiques. Les lignes directrices contiennent une description des anomalies neurologiques souvent observées avec l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques ainsi que les recommandations sur le moyen d’examiner et de quantifier ces anomalies. Une démarche séquentielle sur la prise en charge des anomalies neurologiques est présentée. RÉSULTATS : On peut observer plusieurs types de symptômes extrapyramidaux attribuables à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques chez les enfants, y compris la dystonie aiguë, l’akathisie, le parkinsonisme et la dyskinésie tardive, toutes induites par les neuroleptiques, de même que la dystonie tardive, l’akathisie tardive et les dyskinésies de sevrage. La forte majorité des données probantes sur le traitement des troubles du mouvement induits par les antipsychotiques proviennent de patients adultes atteints de schizophrénie. Étant donné le peu de données pédiatriques, les recommandations découlent de publications portant tant sur des adultes que sur des enfants. Compte tenu des limites de généralisation des données provenant de sujets adultes pour des enfants, il

  10. Les discours naturels de la classe (The Natural Discourse of the Class).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coste, Daniel

    1984-01-01

    Against the background of the variety of language teaching methods currently in use, the actual daily classroom situation and the communication rituals it adopts are examined. Teachers are encouraged to draw on and expand classroom communication practices. (MSE)

  11. Caractérisation des propriétés du gaz naturel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmouni, Camal; Le Corre, Olivier; Tazerout, Mohand

    2003-08-01

    Methane number and Lower Heating Value ( LHV) of natural gas are determined by the online measurement of thermal conductivity at two different temperatures. Natural gas is first considered as a ternary mixture of the most important components. A pseudo-ternary composition can then be calculated, using the thermal conductivity formula for mixtures derived from kinetic theory. A non-linear system is solved numerically using the Newton-Raphson method. A sensor based on thermal conductivity measurement has been developed and tested successfully for many natural gas compositions. To cite this article: C. Rahmouni et al., C. R. Mecanique 331 (2003).

  12. Prise en charge hospitalière de la malnutrition aigue sévère chez l'enfant avec des préparations locales alternatives aux F-75 et F-100: résultats et défis

    PubMed Central

    Nguefack, Félicitée; Adjahoung, Chritoph Akazong; Keugoung, Basile; Kamgaing, Nelly; Dongmo, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La mise en œuvre des directives de l'OMS permettrait de réduire significativement la mortalité hospitalière due à la malnutrition sévère. Cependant, elle n'est pas effective et la pénurie en aliments thérapeutiques est l'une des principales causes. L’étude décrit notre expérience sur la prise en charge hospitalière de la malnutrition aigue sévère avec des laits alternatifs aux F75 et F100 composés localement. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'un essai clinique non randomisé. La prise en charge des patients utilisait les laits composés localement et une évaluation quotidienne du gain pondéral était faite. Résultats L’étude a porté sur 41 sujets âgés de 6 à 59 mois. Au total, 73,2% avaient le kwashiorkor-marasmique, 17,0% le kwashiorkor, 9,8% le marasme et 41,5% étaient infectés par le VIH. Nous avons noté une prise progressive du poids d'environ 10 g/kg/jour vers le 7ème jour et de 15 à 20 g/kg/jour en fin d'hospitalisation. Le taux de mortalité était de 21,9% soit une réduction de 8,4% des chiffres antérieurs. Conclusion Malgré les obstacles financiers liés au coût des ingrédients, les préparations lactées alternatives aux standards F75 et F100, sont adaptables dans notre contexte. En l'absence des formules standards de l'OMS et lorsque la référence vers une structure qui en disposent n'est pas possible, les préparations locales permettraient de réhabiliter efficacement les patients. D'autres recherches pointues permettraient de tirer les ingrédients uniquement de notre environnement. Elles contribueraient ainsi à minimiser les couts des préparations et de favoriser la pérennisation des laits thérapeutiques locaux. PMID:26587175

  13. Caracterisation de la propagation sans-fil dans les avions commerciaux pour une transmission dediee aux services aux passagers et aux systemes avioniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghir, Hassane

    Aircraft systems are interconnected by cable bundles that may represent a hundred kilometres. Those wirings penalize the aircraft weight. Cable bundles favour electromagnetic interference on board aircraft and routing a new cable for integrating new equipment boxes in a sustained aircraft requires a lot of retrofit work. Consequently, the aviation industry and aerospace community are working in the scope of different projects on new alternatives that will better fit to the future generation of aircrafts and help to reduce interconnecting wires on board. Wireless technologies represent a coveted solution that could make significant improvements and benefits to new generations of aircrafts. This research work focuses on the study of the wireless propagation over some frequency bands inside commercial aircrafts. The main objective is to provide conclusions and recommendations on criteria that may help optimizing the wireless communication without impacting the existent systems. Targeted applications are the inflight entertainment (IFE) service and wireless sensing systems. This work was conducted in collaboration with Bombardier-Aerospace based in Montreal (QC) in the frame of AVIO-402 project under the grant of CRIAQ (http://www.criaq.aero/). In this study, an experimental characterization of the propagation channel in the ISM band around 2.4 GHz frequency 5.8 GHz has been performed in a CRJ700 aircraft from Bombardier Aerospace. This characterization allowed to extract the parameters needed to analyze the channel behavior. The measurements results have shown that the propagation characteristics are close to those of both typical indoor medium in terms of the delay spread and a tunnel in terms of path loss. Then, a 3D channel modeling and simulation have been achieved with an RF prediction software (Wireless Insite Remcom). The simulations also consider the millimeter band around 60 GHz. The simulations yielded to analytical models of radio coverage which were subsequently used to evaluate wireless link interference scenarios and performance metrics. Finally, these models were used to design a TDL (Tapped Delay Line) channel model with the goal of an implementation under Matlab in a wireless transmission chain.

  14. Modelisation de la chimie d'une couche limite atmospherique non polluee. influence des hydrocarbures naturels emis par la vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, A.; Prieur, S.; Fontan, J.; Barthomeuf, M. O.

    We present here the development of a physicochemical model of the unpolluted planetary boundary layer in which reactive mechanisms and intensity of vertical exchange of matter are taken into account. This is a box model which allows the study of evolution of concentration of trace constituents in an air mass over a large homogeneous source. Cycles of ozone, nitrogen oxides, methane, carbon monoxide and isoprene, a biogenic hydrocarbon, are considered in the chemical part. The dynamic aspect is constituted by a time variable equivalent mixing height. Experiments on photochemical formation of ozone in the lower layer of the atmosphere are conducted with this model with various initial and boundary conditions. These experiments show the influence of a ground removal and of vertical exchanges on the variations of ozone concentrations at ground level. They put forward a photochemical formation in which intensity varies with the intensity of NO x and isoprene source according to a nonlinear law.

  15. Seventh international conference on liquefied natural gas. Volume 2. Septieme congres international sur le gaz naturel liquefie. Tome 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Four sessions of the conference included: (1) LNG and world wide energy supplies; (2) liquefaction of natural gas and vaporization of LNG; (3) LNG transport, handling and storage; and (4) legal, economic and financial aspects of LNG trade. This volume contains sessions three and four. Individual papers were abstracted separately. (DP)

  16. Seventh international conference on liquefied natural gas. Volume 1. Septieme Congres international sur le gaz naturel liquefie. Tome 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Four sessions of the conference included: (1) LNG and woroldwide energy supplies; (2) liquefaction of natural gas and vaporization of LNG; (3) LNG transport, handling and storage; and (4) legal, economic and financial aspects of LNG trade. Two volumes were published. This volume contains the sessions one and two. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers. (DP)

  17. Influence de la microporosité sur le piégeage du gaz dans un milieu poreux naturel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzanne, Karine; Billiotte, Joël

    2004-09-01

    Trapped-gas content in natural porous media, also called residual gas saturation ( Sgr), corresponds to the imbibition end-point. To define the parameters controlling Sgr, two parameters were studied: the influence of rock characteristics (on 400 sandstone samples) and initial gas saturation ( Sgi), on the basis of 60 experimental curves between Sgr and Sgi. Based on an extensive experimental database, this study establishes the dominant influence of microporosity on trapped gas saturation, and indirectly that of the contained clays. To cite this article: K. Suzanne, J. Billiotte, C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  18. Microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau : faisabilité et intérêt pour la biologie d'un instrument de laboratoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J. F.; Moy, J. P.

    2005-06-01

    La biologie étudie des structures ou des phénomènes sub-cellulaires. Pour cela la microscopie est la technique d'observation privilégiée. La résolution spatiale de la microscopie optique s'avère bien souvent insuffisante pour de telles observations. Les techniques plus résolvantes, comme la microscopie électronique par transmission sont souvent destructrices et d'une complexité peu adaptée aux besoins des biologistes. La microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau permet l'imagerie rapide de cellules dans leur milieu naturel, nécessite peu de préparation et offre des résolutions de quelques dizaines de nanomètres. De plus, il existe un bon contraste naturel entre les structures carbonées (protéines, lipides) et l'eau. Actuellement cette technique est limitée aux centres de rayonnement synchrotron, ce qui impose une planification et des déplacements incompatibles avec les besoins de la biologie. Un tel microscope fonctionnant avec uns source de laboratoire serait d'une grande utilité. Ce document présente un état de l'art de la microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau. Un cahier des charges détaillé pour un appareil de laboratoire ayant les performances optiques requises par les biologistes est présenté et confronté aux microscopes X de laboratoire déjà existants. Des solutions concernant la source et les optiques sont également discutées.

  19. Lésions concomitantes aux genoux flottants et gravite

    PubMed Central

    Eone, Daniel Handy; Lamah, Léopold; Bayiha, Jean Emile; Ondoa, Danielle Larissa Essomba; Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Ibrahima, Farikou; Bahebeck, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Le genou flottant est issu d’un traumatisme de haute énergie, dont la genèse suggère de vaste dégâts aussi bien sur le plan locorégional que général. Faisant référence au polytaumatisme. Le but de notre étude était de recenser toutes les lésions concomitantes au genou flottant dans notre milieu de pratique et d’évaluer la sévérité. Nous avons mené une étude descriptive et rétrospective couvrant une période de 14 ans et 9 mois. Sur un échantillon de 75 genoux flottants, avec une moyenne d’âge de 35 ans. Soixante six patients avaient obtenu un score d’ISS supérieur ou égal à 16 donc qualifié de polytraumatisé. Les traumatismes crâniens, les lésions thoraciques et abdominales retrouvés en même temps que le genou flottant exigent une réanimation adéquate. PMID:28292046

  20. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Even though it has been used for several centuries, its behavior to high temperature remains to be understood. In the light of recent extreme events, including accidents, and arson, special attention has been focused on the performance of concrete in the fire safety assessment of buildings and tunnels. Fire represents one of the most severe conditions encountered during the life-time of a structure. Concrete exposed to high temperature can significantly jeopardize the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Spalling of concrete remains one of the main issues to be addressed in the case of fire in buildings and tunnels. Successful modeling of this phenomenon depends not only on the accurate prediction of the temperature distribution through structural concrete but also on its mechanical response to the heating and boundaries restrains conditions and the migration of moisture and associated pore pressures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable formulation of concrete with all required information to understand its behavior during and after exposure to elevated temperature. It is also necessary to properly assess the effects of thermal degradation in order to develop predictive tools and validate design codes. Many structural problems can be adequately worthy by an elastoplastic model. The ultimate goal of this study is the development of a new constitutive model under a chemoplastic framework. To do this, an experimental program is carried out. The purpose of this program is twofold. First, it is essential to calibrate the proposed constitutive law that will be developed, and, second, for defining an inverse a problem. Usually, uniaxial and triaxial tests, conducted with confining pressure varied between 1.3 and 24 MPa and a temperature up to 700°C, allow us to identify the constitutive law parameters. This law reproduces the reduced field strength due to degradation of exothermic origin. This experimental program puts emphasis on the fragile nature of the preheated concrete and demonstrates the non-applicability of two failure criteria often used in engineering calculation. An alternative is proposed and well-tested. Indeed, exposing the concrete to high temperature results in irreversible loss of stiffness as well as a loss of decohesion strength. These losses are, typically, expressed through semi-empirical relationships of the mechanical properties with temperature. Unfortunately, these relationships are inadequate because the direct impact of this degradation, on the macroscopic scale, can result in a dependency relationship between the elastic properties and the hydrates mass. Therefore, unlike traditional methods using conventional elasto-plastic models and adjusting certain parameters with local temperature, the proposed constitutive law that incorporates a function of dehydration similar to the softening index in chemo-plastics gives good results. An Etse and Willam similar criterion is used and modified for the occasion. Hardening and softening mechanisms are then needed to expand and contract the loading surface for defining the strength of the concrete on a wide range of dehydration processes. The direction and magnitude of a permanent deformation, core of the inelastic domain, are defined through the development of non-associated chemoplastic potential and new curve of ductility. The influence of hydrostatic pressure (dilatancy) and dehydration on the concrete behavior are taken into account in our model. The model is implemented in the Matlab(c) code. Strains and stresses generated in the concrete are now accurately predicted. To illustrate the capabilities of the developed model to predict the complex behavior of concrete exposed to high temperature, simulations are performed through numerical loading paths scenarios. The model is able to accurately reproduce all the experimental data.

  1. Publicite: le souk aux images (Advertising: The Image Market).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourevitch, Jean-Paul

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history of advertising, through its images, from the end of the nineteenth century to the present. Analyzes advertising and propaganda styles, their symbols, the interaction between commercial and political messages, and the impact of audiovisual techniques on promotional images. (MES)

  2. Intoxications aigues aux organophosphores chez la femme enceinte

    PubMed Central

    Barhoumi, Mohamed Hafed; Bannour, Badra; Barhoumi, Tarek; Jouini, Rami; Marwene, Nadia; Fatnassi, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-01-01

    Les intoxications aiguës par les pesticides organophosphorés (OP) au cours de la grossesse sont des événements rares, peu décrites dans la littérature. A travers cette étude rétrospective, nous rapportons les résultats de sept cas d’ingestion suicidaire d’OP chez des femmes enceintes. Cette intoxication était le plus souvent grave. En effet, cinq des sept parturientes avaient un Glasgow initial < 9 et le POP score était ≥ 3 chez toutes les parturientes. Cinq patientes avaient nécessité une ventilation mécanique de durée moyenne de 3,4 jours. L’évolution était favorable pour toutes les patientes mais dans plus de la moitié des cas elle était défavorable pour le fœtus (mort fœtal in utéro). Deux mécanismes peuvent expliquer ces complications fœtales. Le premier est l’hypoxie fœtale associée ou non à un état de choc qui peuvent se traduire au niveau du RCF par une tachycardie ou des décélérations et aboutir ainsi à un décès in utero. Le deuxième mécanisme est le passage de ces pesticides à travers la barrière placentaire, ce qui pose un risque potentiel pour le fœtus par altération des systèmes enzymatiques des microsomes. PMID:28293343

  3. Et pourquoi pas une education aux sciences qui aborde la participation des acteurs sociaux aux controverses sociotechniques?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    In this article we discuss research that was conducted as part of a project on citizen science education. We present the research and some of the results, and then take a position on the pertinence of examining, in science classes, questions on citizen participation in socio-technical debates and the roles and capacities of the social actors…

  4. Et pourquoi pas une education aux sciences qui aborde la participation des acteurs sociaux aux controverses sociotechniques?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    In this article we discuss research that was conducted as part of a project on citizen science education. We present the research and some of the results, and then take a position on the pertinence of examining, in science classes, questions on citizen participation in socio-technical debates and the roles and capacities of the social actors…

  5. Profil comparatif et évolutif des personnes infectées par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine traitées aux antirétroviraux à Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Koy, Tshingani; Mukumbi, Henri; Malandala, Ghislain Lubangi Muteba; Donnen, Philippe; Wilmet–Dramaix, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A trithérapie (ARV) introduite en R.D.Congo en 1996, a permis l′amélioration substantielle de la qualité de vie des PVVIH et a réduit la morbimortalité liée au sida en R.D. Congo. L'objectif de cette étude est de présenter le profil épidémiologique comparatif, clinique, ainsi que l’évolution anthropométrique des PVVIH sous ARV à Kinshasa. Méthodes Etude de cohorte sur 438 PVVIH, de 18 ans et plus, suivies entre mai 2010 à 2011 à Amo Congo à Kinshasa. Une comparaison a été faite entre les patients suivis pendant un an et ceux perdus de vue. Le Chi carré de Mc Nemar et l'analyse de variance pour mesures répétées ont été appliqués pour étudier l’évolution. Résultats Près 12 mois de suivi, 11,4% de patients ont été perdus de vue. Parmi eux, on observait des proportions significativement plus élevées de personnes de niveau socioéconomique bas, d'indice de masse corporelle (IMC) bas, présentant de l'anorexie, des affections opportunistes. Les proportions de patients aux stades OMS 3 & 4 et naïfs étaient également significativement plus élevées et la durée sous ARV plus courte. Les gains moyens des paramètres anthropométriques au 12ème mois, étaient importants: de 3,6 [3,2 - 4,0] kg pour le poids, 1,8 (1,4 - 2,3) cm pour le périmètre abdominal, 0,9 (0,8 - 1,2) cm pour le périmètre brachial, 1,4 (1,2 - 1,5) kg/m2 pour l'IMC. La proportion de patients avec un IMC <18,5 kg/m2 a significativement plus baissé entre l'admission et le 12ème mois parmi les patients sans stomatite que parmi ceux avec stomatite. L'IMC moyen évoluait significativement différemment entre l'admission et le 12ème mois selon l’âge et la taille de ménage. Conclusion Les facteurs fragilisant la rétention des patients sous antirétroviraux et une évolution progressive de l’état nutritionnel ont été observés. PMID:25995784

  6. Comportement de frittés et de films d'oxyde de titane en présence d'atmosphères gazeuses, hors équilibre thermodynamique, en régime stationnaire; application aux capteurs résistifs d'oxygène

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerisian, R.; Gautron, J.; Loup, J. P.

    1992-04-01

    mesurée, en régime stationnaire, en fonction du débit des gaz ; ces atmosphères sont d'autant plus éloignées de l'équilibre que le débit est élevé. On montre que les variations de résistance des échantillons, en fonction du débit, dépendent du domaine de pression partielle d'oxygène, de la température et de la structure des échantillons. La sensibilité à l'oxygène est accrue par un morphologie qui, à l'échelle macroscopique, favorise la diffusion de l'oxygène et qui, à l'échelle microscopique, permet la création de barrière de potentiel aux joints de grains. En milieu oxydant, à 870 K, un mécanisme de volume qui met en jeu la cinétique des échanges avec la phase gazeuse, détermine une variation de résistance en P_{O_2}^{1/4}/P_{CO}^{1/2}. En milieu réducteur, à la même température, la non-stœchiométrie en volume de l'oxyde est fixée par le couple redox CO/CO2 comme si l'atmosphère était en équilibre thermodynamique. Mais l'abondance des électrons de conduction, favorise la chimisorption de l'oxygène qui contrôle la résistance des couches selon une loi en P_{O_2}^{1/2} en créant des barrières de potentiel à la surface des grains. Des modèles, permettant le calcul du potentiel de surface ainsi que du taux de recouvrement, sont développés ; la comparaison des modèles indique une diffusion relativement lente des lacunes d'oxygène à 870 K. A 1 100 K, l'atmosphère tend à être à l'équilibre thermodynamique : i) en atmosphère oxydante, tous les capteurs sont en équilibre avec la pression partielle d'oxygène ; ii) en atmosphère réductrice, dominée par le couple redox CO/CO2, seules les couches sont sensibles à la présence de traces d'oxygène.

  7. Parks and People. A European Conference for Naturparke Parcs Naturels/National Parks (U.K.) and Equivalent Reserves (Losehill Hall, Castleton, England, September 25-29, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youel, Alex J.

    Presented are the proceedings of the European Conference for National Parks and Equivalent Reserves held at the Peak National Park Study Centre, Castleton, England in 1978. Thirty-nine representatives from 10 countries focused on the relationship between the parks and the people connected with them (the local people, the visitors, and the park…

  8. Parks and People. A European Conference for Naturparke Parcs Naturels/National Parks (U.K.) and Equivalent Reserves (Losehill Hall, Castleton, England, September 25-29, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youel, Alex J.

    Presented are the proceedings of the European Conference for National Parks and Equivalent Reserves held at the Peak National Park Study Centre, Castleton, England in 1978. Thirty-nine representatives from 10 countries focused on the relationship between the parks and the people connected with them (the local people, the visitors, and the park…

  9. Les minéraux techniques naturels : connaissance, typologie et propriétés d'usageNatural technical minerals: investigation, typology and utilisation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvon, Jacques; Cases, Jean-Maurice; Villiéras, Frédéric; Michot, Laurent; Thomas, Fabien

    By nature minerals are heterogeneous materials for many of their properties. These properties also vary according to composition and structure fluctuations, compared to definitions. Technical minerals are used in applications where their performances depend on intrinsic properties and processing conditions. It is possible to base rankings on simple criteria, allowing estimating the abilities of minerals for each utilisation. The research of the corresponding mechanisms concerns the molecular level. These questions are discussed for kaolins, raw materials for baked clays, talqueous materials and montmorillonites. To cite this article: J. Yvon et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 717-730.

  10. Vie sociale I: Introduction aux droits et aux responsabilites des citoyens americains (Social Studies I: Introduction to the Rights and Responsibilities of American Citizens).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI.

    The textbook for a social studies course on citizenship rights and responsibilities in the United States, presented entirely in French, consists of eight chapters. Each contains a preview of vocabularly and key ideas; a brief introductory text on the chapter topic; and a series of more specific texts, with illustrations, a list of questions for…

  11. ETUDE AU MICROSCOPE ELECTRONIQUE DES TRANSFORMATIONS NUCLEAIRES DE E. COLI K12 S ET K12 S (λ26) APRES IRRADIATION AUX RAYONS ULTRAVIOLETS ET AUX RAYONS X

    PubMed Central

    Ryter, Antoinette

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear transformations induced in E. coli K12S and K12S(λ26) by ultraviolet radiations and x-rays have been studied with ultrathin sections in the electron microscope. The nucleoplasm keeps its normal aspect during "fragmentation" and during "condensation" of the nucleus into the "vesicular" form. Serial sections show that the "fragmented" nucleus consists in reality of only one very tortuous vacuole. No difference either in the shape or in the fine structure of the nucleus could be observed between the lysogenic strain and the non-lysogenic strain. A high concentration of NaCl has a "condensation" effect on the fragmented nuclei and decreases the induction rate. PMID:13745076

  12. Vie sociale I: Introduction aux droits et aux responsabilites des citoyens americains (Social Studies I: Introduction to the Rights and Responsibilities of American Citizens).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI.

    The textbook for a social studies course on citizenship rights and responsibilities in the United States, presented entirely in French, consists of eight chapters. Each contains a preview of vocabularly and key ideas; a brief introductory text on the chapter topic; and a series of more specific texts, with illustrations, a list of questions for…

  13. Analyse numerique de la microplasticite aux joints de grains dans les polycristaux metalliques CFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriamisandratra, Mamiandrianina

    La rupture par fatigue concerne aujourd’hui encore beaucoup de pièces métalliques soumises en service à un chargement répétitif. À l’échelle de la microstructure, les joints de grains sont connus pour jouer un rôle important dans la tenue en fatigue du matériau grâce au durcissement qu’ils confèrent. Cependant les joints de grains eux-mêmes ou la zone à leur proximité ont souvent été identifiés comme lieux d’amorçage de fissures de fatigue, particulièrement dans le cas des métaux cubiques à faces centrées (CFC). Dans le but de caractériser le comportement micromécanique à proximité de différents types de joint de grain, le comportement à l’interface en traction monotone uniaxiale a été modélisé par la méthode des éléments finis et une loi de plasticité cristalline a été utilisée. De plus, quelques configurations cristallographiques bicristallines ont alors été simulées et leur comportement a été analysé sous un chargement de traction axiale monotone. Le cadre de validité de la modélisation a été restreint à celui des petites déformations (<5%). Quatre critères importants dictant le comportement mécanique cristallin ont été identifiés. Il s’agit de la rigidité élastique, du facteur de Schmid des deux systèmes de glissement les plus favorables, et enfin du ratio entre ces deux plus forts facteurs de Schmid traduisant la propension au glissement simple ou multiple. Des simulations de traction sur des monocristaux ont ainsi permis de comprendre l’influence propre de chaque critère sur le comportement macroscopique (contraintes et déformations) et microscopique (glissements cristallins). Les calculs bicristallins ont ensuite mis en évidence l’activation particulière de certains systèmes de glissement à priori non favorables au niveau du joint de grain. Ce phénomène a été associé avec la nécessité d’assurer la compatibilité mécanique de déformation de part et d’autre de l’interface. Le profil de la déformation dans le sens longitudinal de l’éprouvette a montré une baisse systématique de déformation au niveau du joint et dont l’intensité augmente avec la désorientation angulaire entre les deux grains. L’hétérogénéité de la déformation en chaque section de l’éprouvette est quant à elle surtout liée au caractère fortement anisotrope de la plasticité et s’avère plus prononcée lorsque le mode de déformation est assuré par un glissement simple. Enfin, un cas bicristallin qui présentait une compatibilité microscopique des traces de glissement dans le plan du joint de grain a été étudié. Cependant, aucune corrélation avec le profil de glissement n’a été relevée, une cause macroscopique étant plus vraisemblablement à l’origine du profil observé. Mots-clés: joints de grains, localisation, plasticité cristalline, éléments finis, bicristal.

  14. Conception aerodynamique d'un profil d'aile transsonique laminaire adaptable aux conditions de vol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robitaille, Martin

    This work presents the design and optimization of a morphing airfoil system. It is part of the CRIAQ MDO-505 project. A particular emphasis is put on the achievement of laminar flow through the use of the gamma - R˜ethetat transition prediction model, which is validated by the use of the database obtained during the CRIAQ 7.1 project containing transition measurements on a morphing airfoil. The presence of strict structural constraints on the system enables a realistic evaluation of the potential of such a system. A comparison with unconstrained multi-point optimization results show that constraints on the position and extent of the flexible skin reduce its efficiency in reducing drag. A full aircraft drag estimation program was implemented using empirical relations to estimate the proportion of total drag related to the airfoil. Drag reductions achieved by the airfoil optimization was factored by the proportion and it was found that the morphing wing system is able to improve aircraft drag by up to 1.1%.

  15. Encouraging Adults To Acquire Literacy Skills = L'Alphabetisation: encourager les adultes a participer aux programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Audrey M.

    According to a 1989 survey, 6.9 million people or 38 percent of the Canadian adult population are low-literate. They are mostly older, are equally men and women, and live in rural and urban areas. Besides literacy acquisition for personal purposes, there are national purposes, such as responding to labor needs. Reasons for nonparticipation in…

  16. Acquisition de donnees a haute resolution et faible latence dediee aux capteurs avioniques de position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koubaa, Zied

    The communication network and the detection mechanisms are two critical systems in a plane. Their performance has a direct impact on aircrafts. This is of particular interest for avionics designers, who have increasingly invested more and more in the development of these elements. As a part of a project in this domain, we introduce the design and the development of a smart interface for position sensors dedicated to flights (Smart Sensor Interface - SSI). This interface will serve to connect sensors of different technologies (electromagnetic, optical and MEMS) to the new communication network, AFDX. The role of this interface is to generate an appropriate excitation signal for certain types of sensors (R/LVDT), and to treat, demodulate, and digitize their output signals. The proposed interface is thus composed of a Signal Acquisition Path (SAP) and an Excitation Signal Generation (ESG). By adopting the Integrated Modular Avionics architecture (IMA), we can minimize the size of the classic interface, reduce its energy consumption and improve its reliability and its performance. The focus of our design is particularly on the Data Acquisition Path (DAP). An Architecture characterized by a high resolution (14 bits) and a low latency (1.2 ms) of this module is introduced and developed in this prestigious work. This architecture was developed after a wellconducted study of existing solutions found in literature work and a detailed analysis of the problems arise in the design and implementation of this system (DAP). The conversion of the sensor signal into a digital signal is the most important step in acquiring data, as it sets the resolution of the acquired information and generates the majority of its latency. This module can also affect the reliability and stability of the system. Among different models and architectures, the Delta-Sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is preferred for this application (for better resolution). This converter is formed by an analog circuit (modulator) followed by digital filters. The complexity of the implementation, the processing delay and the output resolution are all susceptible to change depending on the architecture of these filters. Thus, the main problem while designing such a system arises in the opposing evolution of the resolution and latency parameters; the improvement or evolution of one, results in the destruction of the other. Therefore, our work aims to provide one or more method to optimize the latency caused by the CAN while maintaining the same resolution of the desired data (14 bits). This optimization takes into account the objective of integrating the DAP in modules of small size and low power consumption. This proposed solution was implemented in order to validate the design of the conception of the interface. We are also interested to achieve the proposed solution and validate our design. The obtained results will be evaluated after following the manufacturing strategy. The data acquisition unit is made up of two electronic components. The first component is an integrated circuit, which uses CMOS 0.13mum IBM technology and contains the analog part of CAN (SigmaDelta modulator). The second component is a Virtex-6 FPGA, which allows one to acquire the necessary digital processing required for the acquisition and conversion of the sensor signal. In the final version of the interface, our analog portion will be integrated with the analog portion of GSE in the same chip. The integrated digital logic in the (FPGA) role will thus provide digital data to the ESG module in order to generate the excitation signal.

  17. Methode des elements finis hybride appliquee aux vibrations des coques spheriques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menaa, Mohamed

    The analysis of spherical shells filled with fluid and subjected to supersonic flow has been the subject of few research. Most of these studies treat the dynamic behaviour of empty shells. Few works have investigated spherical shells filled with fluid or subjected to supersonic flutter. In this thesis, we propose to develop a model to analyse the vibratory behaviour of both empty spherical shells and partially filled with fluid. This model is also applicable to study of the dynamic stability of spherical shells subjected to supersonic flow. The model developed is a combination of finite element method, thin shell theory, potential fluid theory and aerodynamic fluid theory. Different parameters are considered here in this study. In the first part of this study, free vibration analysis of spherical shell is carried out. The structural model is based on a combination of thin shell theory and the classical finite element method. Free vibration equations using the hybrid finite element formulation are derived and solved numerically. The results are validated using numerical and theoretical data available in the literature. The analysis is accomplished for spherical shells of different geometries, boundary conditions and radius to thickness ratios. This proposed hybrid finite element method can be used efficiently for design and analysis of spherical shells employed in high speed aircraft structures. In the second part of the present study, a hybrid finite element method is applied to investigate the free vibration of spherical shell filled with fluid. The structural model is based on a combination of thin shell theory and the classical finite element method. It is assumed that the fluid is incompressible and has no free-surface effect. Fluid is considered as a velocity potential variable at each node of the shell element where its motion is expressed in terms of nodal elastic displacement at the fluid-structure interface. Numerical simulation is done and vibration frequencies for different filling ratios are obtained and compared with existing experimental and theoretical results. The dynamic behavior for different shell geometries, filling ratios and boundary conditions with different radius to thickness ratios is summarized. This proposed hybrid finite element method can be used efficiently for analyzing the dynamic behavior of aerospace structures at less computational cost than other commercial FEM software. In this study, aeroelastic analysis of a spherical shell subjected to the external supersonic airflow is carried out. The structural model is based on a combination of linear spherical shell theory and the classic finite element method. In this hybrid method, the nodal displacements are found from the exact solution of shell governing equations rather than approximated by polynomial functions. Linearized first-order potential (piston) theory with the curvature correction term is coupled with the structural model to account for pressure loading. Linear mass, stiffness and damping matrices are found using the hybrid finite element formulation. Aeroelastic equations are derived and solved numerically. The results are validated using numerical and theoretical data available in the literature. The analysis is accomplished for spherical shells of different boundary conditions, geometries, flow parameters and radius to thickness ratios. Results show that the spherical shell loses its stability through coupled-mode flutter. This proposed hybrid finite element method can be used efficiently for design and analysis of spherical shells employed in high speed aircraft structures.

  18. Enseigner aux eleves doues et talentueux (Teaching Students Who Are Gifted and Talented).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    This guide is intended to help schools and classroom teachers in Alberta provide successful school experiences for gifted and talented students. Section 1 focuses on program administration, including Alberta legislation, policy, and regulations; district administration of programs; and school administration of programs. Section 2 identifies an…

  19. L'age sombre : du rayonnement cosmologique aux premieres étoiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priou, Denis

    2017-05-01

    The last scattering and recombination epoch is one of the most spectacular moments in the history of the Universe. The observation of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), a relic of a very ancient past of the Universe, provides the astronomers with a huge quantity of information, by means of which they can build and test cosmological models describing the evolution of the Universe. By modeling the physical contents of the early Universe and the various interactions occuring during this epoch, it possible to describe very accurately the sequence of events that paved the way to the emission of the CMB and to the recombination of protons and electrons into neutral hydrogen atoms. In this paper are presented the main physical, theoretical and observational, ingredients that allows the astronomers to describe this key epoch and to determine when and how the recombination occurred.

  20. La contribution des astronomes aux mesures de précision.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debarbat, S.

    The system for astronomical constants includes the astronomical unit, the velocity of light and the light-time for the unit distance in the metric system. In France, at least from the 17th century, scientists had in mind to unify the units. But it is not before the time of the French Revolution that it was succeeded to adopt a unified system based on the metre. Measurements were made of an arc of meridian, from Dunkirk to Barcelona to determine the new unit as the fraction of 1 over 107 of a quarter of any part of the Earth from the north pole to the equator. On the occasion of the bicentenary of the nomenclature of the metric system (1795), the Paris Observatory has presented during more than six months in 1995, mostly for students, manuscripts, documents related to the subject, in its galeries on the first floor of the Perrault building. The exhibition ended with the 1960 and 1983 definitions of the meter to which the Paris Observatory has contributed. For astronomers it was recalled the reason for which the Angström had to be considered as not more usable, being only close to the fraction 1/1010 of the meter.

  1. Comment preparer des materiaux destines aux nouveaux lecteurs (How To Prepare Materials Intended for New Readers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Susan; And Others

    A French version of a guide originally published in Spanish for use in Latin America, this book explains how to develop instructional material for teaching reading to "new readers" in developing nations. The guide was developed to aid the teaching of reading to adults who can already read but who are not yet accomplished readers. The materials…

  2. Fabrication de cristaux photoniques par croissance cristalline anisotrope par la méthode aux hydrures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saoudi, R.; Gil-Lafon, E.; Trassoudaine, A.; Castelluci, D.; Ramdani, R. M.; Darraud, C.

    2006-10-01

    Nous avons utilisé la croissance cristalline à morphologie contrôlée pour l'élaboration de cristaux photoniques bidimensionnelles de matériaux III-V sur substrat III V masqué. Appliquée sur GaAs cette méthode a démontré qu'il est possible de faire croître différentes formes de cristaux en jouant sur l'anisotropie de la vitesse de croissance des faces exposées du substrat. Les potentialités de cette technique sont très prometteuses car elle permet d'envisager une fabrication de masse des composants à base de cristaux photoniques.

  3. Alternatives to Anti-Personnel Landmines (Solutions de remplacement aux mines antipersonnel)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    using the Defence Planning Questionnaires (DPQ) to incorporate the impact of these alternatives in the NATO Force Requirement Analysis Process and the...report yearly, via their replies to the Defence Planning Questionnaire (DPQ)1, the degree of achievement of the goals applicable for that year and...concernant l’achat de ces ouvrages , adressez-vous par lettre ou par télécopie à l’adresse indiquée ci-dessus. Veuillez ne pas téléphoner. Des

  4. Comportement dynamique d'alliages a memoire de forme et application aux composites-AMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Santis, Silvio

    Meeting current industrial, governmental and international standards regarding vibration and noise levels is a challenging task facing many engineers. These specifications are present in just about all fields of engineering, from aerospace to marine transportation, from automotive to railway transportation, from computer equipment to industrial working environments. An appropriate use of the remarkable properties of high damping metals (HIDAMETS) and shape memory alloy (SMA) reinforced composites emerges as a possible solution to these problems. Among many obstacles to overcome in developing such a technology, the implementation of reliable and adequate characterization techniques to determine dynamic properties of these materials appears to be of prime importance. The research efforts presented in this thesis are aimed at developing advanced techniques to characterize the dynamic behavior of HIDAMETS and SMA reinforced composites. These characterization results lead to the enhancement of numerical (finite element) and/or analytical methods for the simulation of dynamic responses of structures made of these materials. In particular, the research work has focused on three themes: the numerical and experimental validation of applying a characterization procedure developed for traditional composites to SMA reinforced composites; the development of a test bench for uniaxial hysteresis characterization of HIDAMETS in the medium frequency range; the hysteresis characterization and modeling of manganese copper (MnCu) and nickel titanium samples. The results obtained in the course of these efforts show that the characterization technique developed for traditional composites at the University of Brussels is sufficiently precise to successfully predict natural frequencies of complex SMA reinforced composite structures. Using the characterization to predict structural damping ratios, we observe a bias error in the prediction with respect to experimental results although the relative values between modes are consistent. Regarding the development of the test bench for uniaxial hysteresis characterization of HIDAMETS, results suggest that with the introduction of a few minor enhancements and with particular experimental precautions, the test bench can play an important role in characterizing HIDAMETS dynamic properties at various frequencies and strain amplitudes and in understanding micro mechanical mechanisms responsible for energy dissipation. Finally, uniaxial hysteresis loops and related parameters have been obtained with MnCu and NiTi samples. A material model based on dual kriging interpolation that expresses the tangent stiffness along these hysteresis loops as a function of strain and strain amplitude has also been developed.

  5. Le consentement libre et éclairé aux soins en psychiatrie

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Grainne; Chaimowitz, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Le patient a le droit d’être informé sur les soins de santé qui lui sont proposés et de participer activement à la prise de décisions relativement à ces soins. Le respect de la dignité et de l’autonomie de la personne passe par le respect de son droit de prendre des décisions à propos de ses soins psychiatriques, notamment de refuser un traitement, pour autant qu’elle soit apte à prendre des décisions. Il importe que le psychiatre connaisse les fondements éthiques du consentement libre et éclairé et les exigences prévues par le droit en cette matière, y compris la jurisprudence. Le consentement n’est pas immuable, pouvant changer avec le temps, au fil de l’évolution des conditions et des circonstances. Par conséquent, le consentement doit être un processus continu.

  6. Introduction to Flight Test Engineering (Introduction aux techniques des essais en vol)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    national decision makers. The RTO performs its mission with the support of an extensive network of national experts. It also ensures effective co...qui sont à prendre en compte, la composition de l’équipe d’essais, le soutien logistique , l’instrumentation, l’informatique, le plan des essais en...was published in the years 1954 to 1956. This original Manual was prepared as four volumes: 1. Performance , 2. Stability and Control, 3

  7. Micronutrient status in elderly people. Geriatrie/Min. Vit. Aux Network.

    PubMed

    Monget, A L; Galan, P; Preziosi, P; Keller, H; Bourgeois, C; Arnaud, J; Favier, A; Hercberg, S

    1996-01-01

    A biochemical assessment of the vitamin and trace element status of 756 institutionalized elderly men and women, 66-103 years old (average 83.5 +/- 7.6 y), was conducted in 26 nursing homes in different areas of France. Serum concentrations of beta- and alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, retinol, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, vitamin C, zinc and selenium were measured. A difference in biochemical markers according to sex was observed for vitamins E and C: elderly women had higher levels of alpha-tocopherol and vitamin C than elderly men. When expressed as a ratio of cholesterol, the difference between sexes for alpha-tocopherol disappeared. Simple regression analysis showed that most vitamins and trace elements were significantly negatively correlated with age. A high prevalence of low concentrations of vitamin C, zinc and selenium was revealed.

  8. Pratique d'apprentissage en ligne aux etudes superieures (Online Learning for Higher Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Louise

    2001-01-01

    Online learning requires new approaches to teaching and learning. At the University of Montreal, 28 graduate students in education and adult students specializing in educational technology attended an experimental distance education course. Students identified advantages and disadvantages of online learning/teaching and reflected on how the course…

  9. Algorithme d'adaptation du filtre de Kalman aux variations soudaines de bruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canciu, Vintila

    This research targets the case of Kalman filtering as applied to linear time-invariant systems having unknown process noise covariance and measurement noise covariance matrices and addresses the problem represented by the incomplete a priori knowledge of these two filter initialization parameters. The goal of this research is to determine in realtime both the process covariance matrix and the noise covariance matrix in the context of adaptive Kalman filtering. The resultant filter, called evolutionary adaptive Kalman filter, is able to adapt to sudden noise variations and constitutes a hybrid solution for adaptive Kalman filtering based on metaheuristic algorithms. MATLAB/Simulink simulation using several processes and covariance matrices plus comparison with other filters was selected as validation method. The Cramer-Rae Lower Bound (CRLB) was used as performance criterion. The thesis begins with a description of the problem under consideration (the design of a Kalman filter that is able to adapt to sudden noise variations) followed by a typical application (INS-GPS integrated navigation system) and by a statistical analysis of publications related to adaptive Kalman filtering. Next, the thesis presents the current architectures of the adaptive Kalman filtering: the innovation adaptive estimator (IAE) and the multiple model adaptive estimator (MMAE). It briefly presents their formulation, their behavior, and the limit of their performances. The thesis continues with the architectural synthesis of the evolutionary adaptive Kalman filter. The steps involved in the solution of the problem under consideration is also presented: an analysis of Kalman filtering and sub-optimal filtering methods, a comparison of current adaptive Kalman and sub-optimal filtering methods, the emergence of evolutionary adaptive Kalman filter as an enrichment of sub-optimal filtering with the help of biological-inspired computational intelligence methods, and the step-by-step architectural synthesis of the evolutionary adaptive Kalman filter. Next, the thesis describes all the aspects related to MATLAB/Simulink modeling and simulation: the performance criterion represented by the Cramer-Rae Lower Bound, the step-by-step modeling of the evolutionary adaptive Kalman filter, and the simulation results that confirm the viability of this approach. The thesis ends with the conclusion and the references. The appendices (the mathematical model of a 6DoF Inertial Measurement Unit, the experimental setup, the Simulink diagrams/MATLAB programs that constitute the evolutionary adaptive Kalman filter, plus the simulation results) are regrouped in a separate document.

  10. COURS DE LANGUE FRANCAISE DESTINE AUX JEUNES FRANCO-AMERICAINS ("BOWDOIN MATERIALS").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRAULT, GERALD J.; AND OTHERS

    THE DATA IN THIS REPORT COMPRISE A TEACHING GUIDE FOR USE IN FRENCH LANGUAGE COURSE FOR YOUNG FRANCO-AMERICANS. THE MATERIAL IS ORAL EXERCISES IN FRENCH DEALING WITH VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR PRESENTED ENTIRELY IN THE FRENCH LANGUAGE. ACCOMPANYING THE MATERIAL IS A MANUAL AND A WORKBOOK FOR AIDING INSTRUCTION. (WN)

  11. Education et Developpement. Une Approche aux Interventions d'Education en Milieux Defavorises. MEQ, Mars 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centrale de L'Enseignement du Quebec (Canada).

    This document is a commentary on a report by the Quebec Ministry of Education on the problem of educating the disadvantaged. One basic criticism of the report is that it is not enough to decry the failure of the schools and propose a strategy of compensatory education to solve the problem of disadvantagement. It is necessary to realize that the…

  12. Les accidents aux AVK: étude rétrospective à propos de 30 cas

    PubMed Central

    Serghini, Issam; Aissaoui, Younés; Quamouss, Youssef; Sedikki, Rachid; Taj, Nourredine; Salim Alaoui, Jaafar; Zoubir, Mohamed; Boughanem, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Les accidents hémorragiques sous AVK (antivitamines K) sont la première cause d’hospitalisation iatrogène. Le but de cette étude est de ressortir les caractéristiques des patients présentant des accidents hémorragiques graves sous AVK et de mettre le point sur la prise en charge. Nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective portant sur 30 malades, réalisée au service de réanimation de l’hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de 59, 6 avec un sexe ratio de 1,5 (18 femmes et 12 femmes). On note dans notre série le terrain multi-taré des patients sous AVK avec plusieurs antécédents en cause. La fibrillation auriculaire était la principale indication recensée. Plus que la moitié ne bénéficiaient pas d’une bonne surveillance biologique à base d’INR (international normalized ratio). Le saignement d’origine gastro-intestinal était le plus fréquent. La conduite était différente en fonction des cas mais axée sur l’arrêt des AVK, l’administration de vit K, la transfusion de culots globulaires et plasma frais congelé. Plus du quart des patients admis sont décédés. L’index de Landefeld s’est avéré utile, il permet de classer les patients selon le risque prédictif de saignement (élevé moyen ou faible), ce qui concordait avec les résultats de notre étude. Son importance est d’ autant plus qu’il est facile à mesurer et à appliquer par le médecin en ambulatoire et permet de définir les patients nécessitant une surveillance accrue. La polymédication et les antécédents de saignement digestif sont apparus comme facteur de risque de saignement sous AVK. La prévention de la survenue de ces accidents est le pilier de la prise en charge, d’où l’importance de l’information et de l’éducation des différents intervenants dans cette complication iatrogène potentiellement mortelle. PMID:22514758

  13. Une classe aux dimensions de l'Everest! (A Class as Vast as Everest!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Helene; des Rosiers, Sylvie

    2003-01-01

    In a mountaineering role-playing project in Quebec schools, participating students, in groups of five, must cooperate and use the different skills acquired across the whole curriculum to overcome difficulties and attain success. The students plan a simulated mountain-climbing expedition, solve problems, and cope with various crises. (TD)

  14. Couplage neutronique-thermohydraulique arthur-donjon avec les conditions aux collecteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Alexandre

    First, the ARTHUR code of thermal-hydraulic encloses four initial elements, which are also initial conditions: channel outlet pressure, inlet mass flux, inlet coolant temperature and reactor geometry. The calculations using conservation laws and the modeling correlation for the CANDU-6 thermal-hydraulic phenomenon are based on the drift-flux model. It's a middle point between a simple and fast model and a complex and slow calculation. The couple ARTHUR-DONJON is a good tool since 2008. But, there is a place for improvements. For thermal-hydraulics, inlet pressure has to be added as initial condition. This will influence mass flux and coolant temperature. A jacobian method for mass flux correction will be developed and implemented to satisfy inlet and outlet pressures initial conditions. We have to use jacobians to find a relation between initials conditions and systems inputs. The jacobians is used to transform the system between state 1 and state 2. In reactor physics, IQS unit in DONJON code will be substituted by KINSOL unit for kinetics. For cross sections calculations in AFM unit, it will be corrected for a better power evolution. Thermal-hydraulics changes will involve some reactor physics changes and then, it will give a better simulation system. The results are excellent with the new ARTHUR-DONJON. We are going from 4 to 6 % of error to 0,1 % with power plant essay measurements. We are going from 0,5 second in one week calculations to 1,0 second in two or three days of calculations. Our results are not divergent with power plant essay measurements and they're now near those observed for a real nuclear reactor.

  15. Des professeurs europeens face aux methodes francaises. (European Teachers Facing French Methods).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puren, Christian

    1981-01-01

    Describes a methodology conference which took place in 1980 in Dijon for European secondary school teachers in which they were exposed to French teaching methods. Results show they were especially resistant to audiovisual methods. (BK)

  16. Lévitation magnétique par association d'aimants permanents et de supraconducteurs à haute température critique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebel, P.; Tixador, P.; Chaud, X.

    1995-06-01

    Since their discovery in the years 1986/87, the high critical temperature superconductors have reached nowadays performances interesting enough to conceive passive magnetic bearings and suspensions which would combined permanent magnets and naturally stable superconducting pellets. After underlining the principal factors that affect the superconductormagnet interaction, different experimental results are given about vertical and axial forces with some stiffness values. The magnetization curve of a superconductor help to understand the hysteretic behavior of the force as a function of the distance between superconductor and magnet. So called simple and hybrid structures of superconducting magnetic suspension are presented. Finally simple numerical simulations allow to draw some interesting conclusions about both geometry and best fitting structure of permanent magnets. Depuis leur découverte dans les années 1986/87, les supraconducteurs à haute température critique ont désormais atteint des performances intéressantes et rendent envisageables des paliers et suspensions magnétiques passives associant aimants permanents et pastilles supraconductrices naturellement stables. Après avoir indiqué les termes importants influençant l'interaction supraconducteur - aimant, différents relevés expérimentaux sont donnés pour les forces verticales et transversales avec quelques valeurs de raideurs. La courbe d'aimantation d'un supraconducteur permet de comprendre le comportement hystérétique de la force en fonction de la distance supraconducteur-aimant. Les structures dites simple et hybride des suspensions magnétiques supraconductrices sont présentées. Enfin quelques simulations numériques simples permettent de dégager quelques conclusions intéressantes quant aux géométries respectives et aux structures d'aimants permanents les mieux adaptées.

  17. Cost savings associated with 10 years of road safety policies in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Altés, Anna; Suelves, Josep M; Barbería, Eneko

    2013-01-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: Déterminer si les politiques de sécurité routière introduites entre 2000 et 2010 en Catalogne, Espagne, qui visaient principalement à réduire de 50% les décès causés par des collisions routières avant 2010, ont été associées à des avantages économiques pour la société. MÉTHODES: Une analyse des coûts a été réalisée dans une perspective sociétale sur un horizon temporel de 10 ans. Elle a pris en compte les coûts suivants: les admissions à l’hôpital, les transports en ambulance, les autopsies, les soins de santé spécialisés, la police, les pompiers et les dépannages routiers, l’adaptation au handicap et la productivité perdue en raison du placement des personnes dans des établissements spécialisés, les décès ou les congés des blessés ou de leurs aidants, ainsi que les coûts matériels et les frais administratifs. Les données provenaient du registre d’un hôpital catalan, du système d´information du Service catalan de la circulation, des compagnies d'assurance et d’autres sources. Tous les coûts ont été calculés en euros (€), selon les valeurs de l’année 2011. RÉSULTATS: Une diminution substantielle des décès causés par collision routière a été observée entre 2000 et 2010. Entre 2001 et 2010, grâce à la mise en œuvre de nouvelles politiques de sécurité routière, on a recensé une diminution de 26 063 collisions routières avec victimes, une diminution de 2909 décès (57%) et une diminution de 25 444 hospitalisations. Le total des économies estimé sur les coûts était d’environ 18 000 millions d’euros. En ce qui concerne ce chiffre, environ 97% résultaient de la réduction des coûts liés à la perte de productivité. Parmi les économies restantes, 63% étaient associées aux soins de santé spécialisés, 15% à l’adaptation au handicap et 8,1% aux soins hospitaliers. CONCLUSION: Les politiques de sécurité routière mises en place en Catalogne ces derni

  18. European Heritage Landscapes. An Account of the Conference on Planning and Management in European Naturparke/Parcs Naturels/National Parks (U.K.) and Equivalent Category "C" Reserves (Losehill Hall, Castleton, England, September 26-30, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Roland

    Presented are the proceedings of the Conference on Planning and Management in European National Parks and equivalent Category "C" reserves held at the Peak National Park Study Center, Castleton, England, in 1977. Fifty-two representatives from 16 countries focused practical solutions to management and planning problems in national parks. (BT)

  19. Effet paradoxal du vieillissement sur des tâches de mémoire prospective time-based en situation de laboratoire et en milieu naturel : Rôle des fonctions exécutives.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, Barbara; Auffray, Caroline; Kermarrec, Christophe

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigates the specific role of three executive functions in the explanation of performance variability on laboratory and naturalistic time-based prospective memory tasks in aging. Ninety people aged 18 to 80 years performed three executive tasks assessing inhibition, flexibility and updating, one laboratory time-based task and one naturalistic time-based task. The results indicate that age has a negative impact on the laboratory time-based task and a positive impact on the naturalistic task. The mediation analysis shows that inhibition and flexibility operate as a mediator in the negative relationship between age and the laboratory time-based task. Additionally, the hierarchical regression analyses show that, after controlling for age, none of the executive functions evaluated is predictive of performance of the naturalistic time-based task. Overall, these results seem to suggest that different cognitive processes underlie the performance on naturalistic and on laboratory time-based tasks. Future studies should confirm these results.

  20. European Heritage Landscapes. An Account of the Conference on Planning and Management in European Naturparke/Parcs Naturels/National Parks (U.K.) and Equivalent Category "C" Reserves (Losehill Hall, Castleton, England, September 26-30, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Roland

    Presented are the proceedings of the Conference on Planning and Management in European National Parks and equivalent Category "C" reserves held at the Peak National Park Study Center, Castleton, England, in 1977. Fifty-two representatives from 16 countries focused practical solutions to management and planning problems in national parks. (BT)

  1. Minéraux naturels et solides divisés. Méthodologie d'étude des phénomènes de surface : applications industrielles et problèmes d'environnement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cases, Jean-Maurice

    This introductory paper aims at presenting the series of articles in this special issue of Comptes Rendus Geoscience devoted to the study and use of natural minerals. The research methodology that can be applied to the investigation of surface phenomena related to adsorption, exchange and retention onto the surface of natural minerals and divided solids is presented. A special focus is given to the retention of surfactant molecules, in view of their considerable importance in numerous industrial fields, such as, for instance, mineral flotation and enhanced oil recovery. Throughout this introductory paper, the relevance of this research approach to the field of geosciences is stressed by listing various applications where it can provide conclusive answers, especially for environmentally related issues. To cite this article: J.-M. Cases, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 585-596.

  2. L'enseignement d'une langue (non-maternelle ou maternelle) aux apprenants en difficulté et aux enfants issus de milieux socialement défavorisés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wambach, Michel

    1986-06-01

    Official statistics reveal a high percentage of school failure at primary-school level in Belgium, notably among children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds, be they francophone or foreign. Furthermore, the percentage of adult illiteracy is rising. These situations share a common root: the methodology of the mother tongue at school and the approach to the written language in particular. After defining the psychological objective of a language course the present study proposes a methodology, a synthesis of up-to-date psycho-pedagogical, linguistic and (neuro) biological trends. The data from this research make it possible to verify the working hypotheses which have been elaborated and revised over the last twenty years. Within the recommended methodology, the libération de la parole (`liberation of speech') occupies an important place. This initial stage increases and reinforces the creative dispositions in the child and prepares for real language activities. These help the child to communicate and enable a functional learning of the language. The methodology of reading takes into account research conducted on the operation of the memory and the selective activity of the brain. A first evaluation of the methodology has verified the working hypotheses. Moreover, the pupils in the experimental classes obtained markedly higher grades in tests such as reading comprehension, elaborating texts and in those tests calling for imagination and creativity.

  3. Etude theorique et experimentale de la correlation entre la resistance aux chocs thermiques et aux chocs mecaniques des materiaux refractaires utilises dans les fours de traitement de l'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebbani, Mohamed Jamal Eddine

    2001-07-01

    This work is a theoretical and experimental study of the correlation between the resistance to thermal shock and mechanical shock of refractory materials. The study of thermal shock showed that the Bahr and Hasselman approaches are alike and that they can be combined into a single, more general approach. This generalisation allowed the division of the theoretical models into two groups: the Hasselman model and the Harmuth model. However, neither of these approaches can predict the behaviour of all refractory materials submitted to thermal shock. Therefore, the generalisation of the Hasselman approach is more appropriate for more dense materials while the Hartmuth approach is more appropriate for less dense materials. The influence of porosity on the energy of rupture helped to explain the behaviour of the less dense material. The absence of generalisation in this case allows those parameters that could be correlated with thermal shock resistance to be dependent on the type of refractory. The study of mechanical shock provided a better understanding of this mechanism. The work performed showed, theoretically and experimentally, that the resistance of the refractory materials could be correlated with the parameter s20 Egwof n-22 . This new parameter helped to explain the statistical correlation between the resistance to mechanical impact and the soxRst parameter established in earlier work. The sintering influence, which makes the refractories more resistant to this type of demand, notably by reducing the "n" coefficient, was shown. This part of the study allowed the establishment of equivalence between thermal fatigue and fatigue by mechanical impact. An evaluation of the correlation between the two mechanisms demonstrated, theoretically and experimentally, that the mechanical and thermal demands could only be exceptionally correlated. In the case of thermal shock, which are imposed deformation demands, it is the shorter cracks which are the most dangerous. However, in the case of mechanical shock, which is constraint imposed, it is the longer cracks that are the most harmful. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. Integration of family planning with national health services. Integration de la planification familiale aux services nationaux de sante.

    PubMed

    Mandara, N

    1984-09-01

    After independence in the 1960s, most African government inherited health structures that were curative oriented, costly, and directed toward the urban population. Primary health care, oriented toward prevention, promotion, improvement of the environment, cure, and rehabilitation, has since been adopteed as a better approach to health in Africa. This approach aims to integrate health care with thee activities of other seectors and places relicance on available community resources. An unexpected change has been the transformation of social and political attitudes toward family planning as a basic human right, a concomitant to heealth, and an integral part of socioeconomic development. Family planning is gradually being integrated into the maternal and child health services of all countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. In some cases, the government has assumed service delivery responsibilities previously carried out by family planning associations, thereby changing the association's role to that of education and motivation. Other countries have faced duplication of services and wastage of resources as a result of integration. There is a need for an overall evaluation of the integrated family planning-maternal and child heath services to determine future priorities and strategies. Problems so far encountered have included coverage, acceptability, accessibility, quality and continuity of care, data collection, and limited resources. However, cost factors, the shortage of trained manpower, the lack of facilities, and prevailing cultural and religious attitudes suggest the advisibility of integrated rather than vertical health programs in Africa. For both planning and administrative purposes, it is necessary to have a central Maternal and Child Health-Family Planning unit within the Ministry of Health as well as regional and district units.

  5. Defining Binding Efficiency and Specificity of Auxins for SCFTIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA Co-receptor Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Structure–activity profiles for the phytohormone auxin have been collected for over 70 years, and a number of synthetic auxins are used in agriculture. Auxin classification schemes and binding models followed from understanding auxin structures. However, all of the data came from whole plant bioassays, meaning the output was the integral of many different processes. The discovery of Transport Inhibitor-Response 1 (TIR1) and the Auxin F-Box (AFB) proteins as sites of auxin perception and the role of auxin as molecular glue in the assembly of co-receptor complexes has allowed the development of a definitive quantitative structure–activity relationship for TIR1 and AFB5. Factorial analysis of binding activities offered two uncorrelated factors associated with binding efficiency and binding selectivity. The six maximum-likelihood estimators of Efficiency are changes in the overlap matrixes, inferring that Efficiency is related to the volume of the electronic system. Using the subset of compounds that bound strongly, chemometric analyses based on quantum chemical calculations and similarity and self-similarity indices yielded three classes of Specificity that relate to differential binding. Specificity may not be defined by any one specific atom or position and is influenced by coulomb matrixes, suggesting that it is driven by electrostatic forces. These analyses give the first receptor-specific classification of auxins and indicate that AFB5 is the preferred site for a number of auxinic herbicides by allowing interactions with analogues having van der Waals surfaces larger than that of indole-3-acetic acid. The quality factors are also examined in terms of long-standing models for the mechanism of auxin binding. PMID:24313839

  6. FEMIC (Fibromes Embolises aux MICrospheres calibrees): Uterine Fibroid Embolization using Tris-acryl Microspheres. A French Multicenter Study

    SciTech Connect

    Joffre, Francis; Tubiana, Jean-Michel; Pelage, Jean-Pierre

    2004-11-15

    Purpose: A French multicenter registry was set up to confirm the safety and efficacy of large calibrated tris-acryl gelatin microspheres for embolization of symptomatic fibroids. Methods: Technical recommendations included embolization using large microspheres (>500 {mu}m) with no secondary embolization agent. Postprocedural pain, clinical improvement and adverse events were prospectively evaluated during a follow-up period of at least 6 months.Results: Eighty-five women complaining of fibroid-related symptoms entered the study. In seven women, a secondary embolization agent was used in addition to microspheres. Complete resolution of menorrhagia was achieved in 84% of women at 24 months and significant uterine and fibroid volume reductions were noted after 6 months (37% and 73%, respectively). Three women experienced definitive amenorrhea (4%) and two women required hysteroscopic resection of a fibroid. Eight women were treated by hysterectomy because of treatment failure. In seven of these women, treatment failure was explained by an additional cause of symptoms including diffuse adenomyosis, endometrial hyperplasia or ovarian artery supply to the fibroids.Conclusion: Limited uterine artery embolization using large microspheres has good clinical success rate with low postprocedural pain and complications. Women can expect excellent midterm results with a high level of symptom control and significant fibroid volume reduction. Confidence in the end-point recommended here may require the experience of several cases.

  7. AGARD Flight Test Technique Series. Volume 15. Introduction to Avionics Flight Test (Introduction aux Essais des Systemes D’armes)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    65 2.3.16. Air Combat Modes .............. .................... .. 68 2.3.16.1. Purpose ............... .................... 68 2.3.16.2...Air-to-Ground Radar Modes and All Azimuth Resolution Target Separations Table XI Theoretical Display Resolution Table XII Comparison of Radar and...Card 18: Velocity Resolution Data Card Card 19: Blind Speeds Data Cards Card 20: Air Combat Maneuvering Modes Data Card Card 21: False Alarm Rate Data

  8. Opération multimode transverse des OPOs: des structures classiques aux corrélations quantiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, M.; Ducci, S.; Gigan, S.; Treps, N.; Maître, A.; Fabre, C.

    2002-06-01

    Nous démontrons la formation de structures transverses sur les faisceaux émis par un oscillateur paramétrique optique (OPO) de type II en configuration confocale. D'un point de vue classique nous mettons en évidence le caractère multimode transverse de telles structures. A travers l'étude des corrélations spatiales des faisceaux générés nous montrons que ces structures sont également multimodes d'un point de vue quantique.

  9. Optimisation de dispositifs en guide d'onde avec coupleur a réseau : application aux commutateurs optiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, F.; Paraire, N.; Dansas, P.; Moresmau, N.

    1994-07-01

    Numerous devices used in the field of photonics and optronics are made of semiconductor multilayered structures including a nonlinear waveguide and a grating coupler. Optimization of such devices depends on the optical thicknesses of the various layers and on the grating characteristics. For a given sample, the layer parameters are usually known as a first approximation, but a good accuracy is necessary to define the operating wavelength and the coupler characteristics. In a particular case — a InP/InGaAsP/InP sample which operates for optical switching in the transmission mode — we have first defined an optimized structure. Then, we have built an experimental set-up able to measure reflection and transmission coefficients versus polarization, wavelength and incidence angle. From transmission measurements performed with this apparatus, we have deduced both real and imaginary parts of the layers refractive indices. These calculated values allowed us to reoptimize the structure and to determine the operating wavelength. De nombreux dispositifs utilisés en photonique et optoélectronique sont constitués de structures multicouches en semi-conducteurs comportant un guide d'onde non linéaire et d'un coupleur à réseau. Leurs performances dépendent, en particulier, des épaisseurs optiques des différentes couches constituantes et des caractéristiques du réseau de diffraction. Pour un échantillon, les paramètres nominaux des différentes couches sont connus en première approximation, mais il est nécessaire de les préciser pour définir les conditions de fonctionnement et les caractéristiques optimales du coupleur. Dans un cas particulier — échantillon de InP/InGaAsP/InP qui doit fonctionner en commutateur optique par transmission — nous avons défini une structure optimale, puis nous avons mis au point un montage expérimental permettant de mesurer les coefficients de réflexion et de transmission en fonction de la polarisation, de la longueur d'onde et de l'angle d'incidence. Nous avons déduit de ces mesures les parties réelle et imaginaire des indices. Ces résultats nous ont permis de réoptimiser la structure (définie a priori) et de déterminer sa longueur d'onde de fonctionnement.

  10. Partial Differential Equations and Continuum Models of Phase Transitions (Equations aux Derivees Partielles et Modeles Continus de Transitions de Phases)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-22

    DES MATEIRIAUX A M1E1OIRE DE FORMlE Michel FREIIOND(*) On donne un mod~le thermodynamique macroscopique des mat6rlaux 6 * m6moire de formne utilisant...480. [10] D.J. Korteweg, Archives NGerlandaises, 28, 1901, p. 1-24. [II] Y. Rocard, Thermodynamique , Masson, 1952. [12] J.S. Rowlinson and B. Widom

  11. Le silicium nanoporeux: microstructuration diélectrique et application aux structures photoniques avancées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrand, P.

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this work is to elaborate and study photonic bandgap microstructures using nanoporous silicon. Planar microstructures like microcavities are first considered, and their influence on both angular and spectral distributions of photoluminescence are investigated. The primary conclusion derived from these studies is that it is essential to control the propagation of light in the plane, too. Thus, the lateral propagation of light, enhanced by a vertical structuring of the optical index (step-index waveguide as well as Bragg reflection waveguide) is studied. Furthermore, a numerical model based on the standard transfer-matrix method is suggested to calculate guiding losses. Finally, a holographic process is utilized to obtain a lateral structuring of the optical index, thereby allowing the investigation of its effects on the guided light. The transmittance, measured on a multimode waveguide using white light, shows several stopbands, which are attributed to diagonal and off-diagonal couplings. The comparison of these measurements to the coupled-mode theory allows a map of the optical index to be plotted. A strong birefringence in regions that were illuminated during the holographic process was illustrated. This suggests a stronger decrease of the extraordinary index (Δ n = -0.4) than the ordinary index (Δ n = -0.22). With a period of 450 nm, these values of index contrast are promising, even if the effective depth on which the index is modulated is only 0.5 μm. Ce travail est consacré à la réalisation et à l'étude de microstructures photoniques à base de silicium nanoporeux. Nous commençons notre étude par des structures planaires de type microcavité, dont nous caractérisons l'influence sur la photoluminescence du matériau, en termes de redistribution spectrale et angulaire. Il apparaît très vite la nécessité de contrôler la propagation de la lumière dans le plan de la structure. Aussi, nous cherchons d'abord à favoriser la propagation latérale au moyen d'une structuration verticale de l'indice, et nous étudions le guidage au moyen de deux types de structures, exploitant soit à un guidage conventionnel par réflexion totale interne, soit à un guidage par réflexion de Bragg. À cette occasion nous proposons une méthode numérique, basée sur le formalisme des matrices de transfert, permettant de calculer l'atténuation de la puissance transportée dans le plan. Par la suite, nous mettons à profit le procédé holographique de structuration d'indice démontré par des travaux antérieurs et étudions son influence sur la lumière guidée. La transmission, mesurée en lumière blanche sur un guide multimode révèle de multiples bandes interdites que nous interprétons en termes de couplages diagonaux et non diagonaux. La confrontation des mesures avec une modélisation par la méthode des modes couplés nous permet d'établir une carte d'indice de notre structure. Il apparaît une biréfringence marquée dans les régions insolées par le procédé holographique, caractérisées par une diminution deux fois plus importante de l'indice extraordinaire (Δ n =-0{,}4) que de l'indice ordinaire (Δ n =-0{,}22). Avec une période de 450 nm, ces valeurs de contraste sont encourageantes, bien que la modulation d'indice ne soit présente que sur une profondeur effective de l'ordre de 0,5 μm.

  12. An Inventory of Human Rights Teaching Materials = Repertoire du Materiel Pedagogique Relatif aux Droits de la Personne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Human Rights Commission, Winnipeg.

    This document is an inventory designed to help educators more efficiently locate resources for teaching about human rights in the classroom. The types of materials identified in this document include: teaching units and guides, reference books, multi-media kits, filmstrips, tapes, video cassettes, supplementary curricular materials, and other…

  13. An Inventory of Human Rights Teaching Materials = Repertoire du Materiel Pedagogique Relatif aux Droits de la Personne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Human Rights Commission, Winnipeg.

    This document is an inventory designed to help educators more efficiently locate resources for teaching about human rights in the classroom. The types of materials identified in this document include: teaching units and guides, reference books, multi-media kits, filmstrips, tapes, video cassettes, supplementary curricular materials, and other…

  14. La Desorientation Spatiale Liee Aux Appareils Vestibulaires Chez Les Pilotes (Spatial Disorientation Caused by Vestibular Organs in Pilots)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    de la fonction d’un vestibule 2. Les pilotes avec la pr6dominance directrice de lorigine p6riph6rique. Dans le premier sous - groupe, compos6 de 7...pr6dominance directrice dans les tests rotatifs. Dans le deuxi~me sous - groupe, compos6 de 13 pilotes, on a constat6 chez 9 d’eux la pr6dominance... directrice de lorigine p6riph6rique de 21 ýt 40%, chez 3 d’eux les r6sultats dans les limites 14-18%, et seulement chez 1 d’eux la pr6dominance directrice

  15. Le Federalisme Canadien et les Subventions aux Universites Quebecoises. (The Intervention of the Canadian Government in Quebec Universities.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellavance, Michel

    1980-01-01

    The intervention of the Canadian government in financing Quebec universities has followed various paths through individual or institutional direct or indirect grants, operating or investment grants, and fiscal transfers. The historical evolution of federal grants to Quebec universities is described by singling out four periods. In French.…

  16. Essais de fissuration a froid appliques aux metaux d'apport inoxydables martensitiques 410NiMo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquin, Mathieu

    Martensitic stainless steels have represented since few years a material of choice for the manufacture of mechanical parts such as hydroelectric turbines. The development of the alloy has led to grades with very low amount of carbon giving them a good weldability. The assembly of these parts, made by autogenous welding, requires the use of materials with low transformation temperature (LTT) such as 410NiMo. These filler metals are also used for assembly by heterogeneous welding of steel parts susceptible to cold cracking. The transformation of austenite to martensite occurring at low temperature, residual stresses from single-pass welding operation are different from those normally found and reduce the risk of cracking. By cons, industrial experience shows that in situation of multipass welding, the risks of cold cracking are still present. This project aimed to determine a cracking test for assessing susceptibility to cold cracking of 13%Cr-4%Ni stainless steel according to the welding procedure, in autogenous welding situation. Literature contains much information about cold cracking phenomena. That phenomena occurs under three conditions. These conditions are: a high diffusible hydrogen level, significant residual stresses and a brittle microstructure. It seems that despite the low mass ratio of carbon (0.022%C) and the low diffusible hydrogen level (< 3 ml/100g) risks of cold cracking remain present during multipass deposits. Use of cracking tests was necessary to assess the sensitivity to cracking of the martensitic stainless steel. Before the work preliminary tests have been made or tested Tekken GBOP and testing to determine that to obtain the most representative of the industrial reality results. Then they have been modified to reverse the compression stress in the seam test to tension by the addition of a second weld. This inversion occurs in multipass welding and has been targeted as an important factor in the occurrence of cold cracking phenomenon. The results of these tests show that Tekken test is not suitable for LTT testing. It was also demonstrated that GBOP test with two juxtaposed seams configuration gave results consistent with the industrial observations. The second stage of the project was to study the cracking test selected. Acoustic emission tests were done during welding and cooling of GBOP test. These tests were conducted in order to detect when the cracking of the test occurred and to validate the method of inspection. This inspection is done after separation of the specimen, by observation of the fracture surface. Usually, cliveage zone on the fracture surface can be associated with cold cracking and dimple zones can be associated with the specimen separation. Through these tests, it was possible to validate this assertion. Then the relevance of the addition of a second weld has been validated by studying the residual stress by the contour method. It was possible to observe an area of the first bead in tension, promoting cracking of the test. Finally, some test runs were made with various filler metals in order to confirm that the utilization of the modified GBOP test for 13%Cr-4%Ni was adequate. A fractographic study of some sample was also made.

  17. Transport Electronique Dans Les Super Reseaux : Applications Aux Détecteurs Infrarouges à Grandes Longueur D'onde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuillier, Emmanuel

    2010-11-01

    The low flux infrared imaging needs performant high wavelength detectors. Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIP), thanks to the maturity of GaAs, the possibility to adjust the detected wavelength on a large range and to realize large uniform matrix are good candidate for such applications. In order to validate this interest, we have performed an electro-optic characterization of a 15{μ}m sample. These measurements have been used to simulate the performance of a camera based on this QWIP and used in a low infrared photons flux scenario. We predict that this QWIP would succeed. Nevertheless these simulations also underline the detrimental role of the dark current. Thus we have developed a simulation tool based on a hoping approach between localized states, which provide us a better understanding of the transport in these heterostructures. The code has in particular underlines the role plays by the electron -ionized impurities interaction, which make the dark current very sensitive to the doping profile. Using this tool we have designed new structures, with optimized doping profile, in which the scattering rate has been decreased by a factor two. Moreover we have identified a quantum origin to the plateau shape of the I(V) curve. This code is more generally a useful simulation tool for the transport in hétérostructures. The influence of growth defects (non ideal interface and disorder) has been quantized and we have performed the first evaluation of The R0A in a THz QCD. Finally non local transport effects have been investigated. Saw teeth observation on the I(V) curves have been modeled and their influence on the detectivty estimated.

  18. Aircraft Dynamic Loads due to Flow Separation (Les Contraintes Aerodynamiques Imposees aux Aeronefs par le Decollement de l’Ecoulement)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    iquipemnt plus important ) . Los doux procidia soot comporis our 1& figure 9 au nombro do Mach-C, 80 dons no. section comportant A8 capteurs do pression...6t6 choisios La premiere do 117 secondes represento nn temps pratiquoment infini. La figure 10 montre 1e nisultot do Is. sommotion dos capteurs ...slagissait dens ce cas do contriler la daux premiers modes do flexion. 7.-COMPARAISON CALCULS ESSAIS A partir dos masures d. capteurs instationnairag

  19. Primitive Auxin Response without TIR1 and Aux/IAA in the Charophyte Alga Klebsormidium nitens1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Yuri; Seo, Mitsunori

    2017-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates many aspects of growth and development in land plants, but the origin and evolution of auxin signaling and response mechanisms remain largely unknown. Indeed, it remains to be investigated whether auxin-related pathways diverged before the emergence of land plants. To address this knowledge deficit, we analyzed auxin responses in the charophyte alga Klebsormidium nitens NIES-2285, whose ancestor diverged from a green algal ancestor during the evolution of land plants. This strain is the same as Klebsormidium flaccidum NIES-2285, for which the draft genome was sequenced in 2014, and was taxonomically reclassified as K. nitens. This genome sequence revealed genes involved in auxin responses. Furthermore, the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was detected in cultures of K. nitens, but K. nitens lacks the central regulators of the canonical auxin-signaling pathway found in land plants. Exogenous IAA inhibited cell division and cell elongation in K. nitens. Inhibitors of auxin biosynthesis and of polar auxin transport also inhibited cell division and elongation. Moreover, exogenous IAA rapidly induced expression of a LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-DOMAIN transcription factor. These results suggest that K. nitens has acquired the part of the auxin system that regulates transcription and cell growth without the requirement for the central players that govern auxin signaling in land plants. PMID:28533212

  20. Etude des proprietes electroniques des etats fondamentaux aux facteurs de remplissage entiers dans la bicouche de graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemonde, Marc-Antoine

    Dans ce document, on etudie les proprietes electroniques d'un systeme compose de deux couches de graphene separees par un dielectrique en presence d'un fort champ magnetique perpendiculaire. L'epaisseur du dielectrique est choisie de facon a pouvoir negliger le transfert de charges par effet tunnel. Ce type de systeme est etudie par quelques groupes de recherche dans le principal but de predire et comprendre la formation de condensat de Bose-Einstein d'excitons dont les composants sont des fermions relativistes sans masse [1] [2] [3]. Nous nous interessons a l'effet de l'interaction electron-electron sur les etats fondamentaux de ce systeme et 'a leurs excitations collectives a facteur de remplissage entier. Plus precisement, nous etudions les diagrammes de phase de cette bicouche de graphene sans terme tunnel dans le niveau de Landau n = 0 pour les facteurs de remplissage nu = 1 et nu = 2 dans la limite ou la temperature tend vers zero. Lors de cette etude, nous appuyons les predictions faites par Allan H. MacDonald et Yogesh N. Joglekar a propos de la formation d'un condensat de Bose-Einstein d'excitons pour differentes zones des diagrammes de phase. Nous etudions aussi la relation de dispersion des excitations collectives soutenues par les etats fondamentaux et leur effet sur le systeme. Finalement, nous nous interessons a la conductivite du systeme. Nous demontrons alors les regles de selection pour l'absorption inter-niveaux de Landaux et nous etudions l'effet des modes collectifs sur l'absorption .intrarniveau de Landau, Ce dernier phenomene ressort directement de la forme particuliere du reseau atomique du graphene et nous proposons dans ce document une toute premiere etude de ce concept. Mots-cles : graphene, gaz d'electrons bidimensionnel, effets Hall quantiques, proprietes electroniques, modes collectifs

  1. Relaxation diélectrique de solutions aqueuses d'éthylène glycol aux micro-ondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicq, G.; Delbos, G.; Forniés Marquina, J. M.; Lamkaouchi, K.

    1999-09-01

    The study of dielectric properties of aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol in the frequency range 10 MHz - 20 GHz is reported as a function of water concentration at 20 circC. Some complex permittivity measurements were carried out using a precise reflectrometric method at 1.20, 3.26 and 9.45 GHz and some others using HP 8510 B network analyser from 45 MHz to 20 GHz and measurements by time domain reflectometry (T.D.R.). The dielectric relaxation analysis shows two domains of “Debye" dispersion for pure ethylene glycol and his aqueous solutions. Using a spectral decomposition, the static and high frequency dielectric constant and the relaxation time have been determined. The dielectric behaviour is interpreted by using the concept of Schallamach, concerning the mixtures of associated-associated liquids. Les auteurs présentent des séries de résultats de mesures en hyperfréquences concernant les permittivités diélectriques de l'éthylène-glycol et de ses solutions aqueuses à 20 circC, pour diverses concentrations, entre 100 MHz et 20 GHz. Ils ont utilisé trois techniques différentes : des mesures précises à trois fréquences fixes parfaitement stabilisées en guides d'ondes 1,20 ; 3,26 et 9,45 GHz par une méthode réflectométrique ; des mesures utilisant l'analyseur de réseau vectoriel HP 8510 B fonctionnant entre 45 MHz et 20 GHz ; et des mesures par réflectométrie en domaine de temps (R.D.T.). Ils montrent que l'analyse de la relaxation peut être représentée par la superposition de deux domaines de dispersion de type “Debye" pour l'éthylène glycol et ses solutions aqueuses. Par décomposition spectrales, ils déduisent la permittivité statique, les temps de relaxation et la permittivité à fréquence infinie à 20 circC? Ils proposent que ces mélanges soient de type associé-associé suivant le concept de Schallamach, qui montre que pour des mélanges de ce type, il existe des relaxations d'agrégats contenant les deux types de molécules plutôt que des relaxations de molécules individuelles.

  2. De l'imparfait du subjonctif aux methodes communicatives (The Move from the Imperfect Subjunctive to Communicative Methods).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debyser, Francis

    1985-01-01

    The communicative approach has brought second language instruction a long way from strict grammar-oriented pedagogy, carrying with it a return to meaning, less repetition, emphasis on the learner, and attention to the social and pragmatic aspects of communication. (MSE)

  3. Méthodes aux Grandes Échelles pour Mesurer la Topologie (Globale) de l'Univers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roukema, B.

    Several recent large length scale methods of detecting the topology of the Universe are briefly reviewed. Three-dimensional methods include those of Lehoucq, Luminet & Lachi\\`eze-Rey (1996), Roukema (1996) and Roukema & Edge (1997). The two-dimensional ``circles'' method of Cornish, Spergel & Starkman (1996b) is also mentioned.

  4. Quand des cheminots autrichiens sont aux prises avec des informations radiophoniques (When Austrian Railroad Employees Have to Tackle Radio Messages).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, Leonard; Zeller, Marguerite

    1980-01-01

    Describes a French language course at the advanced level arranged for a group of Austrian railroad employees and based on the use of prerecorded excerpts from radio news broadcastings. Gives an account of the steps and tasks involved in progressing from a global interpretation to full comprehension. (MES)

  5. Photoproduction de Mesons sur le Nucleon aux Energies Intermediaire (in French) [Photoproduction of mesons on the nucleon at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Guidal, Michel

    1996-12-13

    One object of this thesis is to propose a model taking account of low transfer reaction mechanisms for a series of photoproduction reactions on nucleons for photon energies ≳4 GeV. If our comprehension of processes with low transfers is correct, then extrapolating our model in the domain of large transfers and the comparison with data supplied will give us information on the domains in energy and transfers from which an interpretation of reactions in terms of the "soft" process ceases to be valid. In the domain of large transfers, only one approach in terms of "hard" process can then explain the data. We are interested in electromagnetic photoproduction reactions because the probe, firstly, interacts with the target via an exact and well known mechanism (described by the QED theory) and also eliminates the interaction phenomena in the initial state. No probe is as well known as the photon. The extraction of reaction mechanisms, amplitudes and coupling constants match is made easier than in the case of hadronic probes. The energy domain Eγ >4 GeV studied is particularly interesting because it is from this energy of incident photons that can be expected to achieve large enough pulse transfers to hope for emergence of hard processes and therefore see the cessation of validity of interpretation of hadron models. Also, resonance effects are minor and do not interfere with our interpretations. Experimentally, this area is widely unexplored and the new generation accelerators of a large duty cycle (CEBAF, MAMI, ESRF, ELF, ...) combined with 4π detectors will allow to precisely measure low cross sections reactions of a large transfer. We first study pion photoproduction reactions on nucleon because they are the most experimentally accessible reactions and many data of high energy and low transfers exist. This will require strong constraints on the model parameters of the numerous analyses performed previously. Then we'll move on to kaon photoproduction reactions and φ because, as will be developed further, the strangeness constitutes privileged probe to investigate the hard processes. Our survey is interested in reactions on nucleons because it is necessary to understand well the elementary mechanisms before studying nuclei (effects of medium, Hypernuclei, color transparency effects, ...). This thesis is divided into two main parts. The first is essentially theoretical and we will discuss the ideas, formalism of calculation and outcomes of our model. The second is more experimental and we present simulations and studies done to demonstrate the feasibility of the experiments we propose to put in evidence hard mechanisms using the CLAS detector at CEBAF.

  6. An Environmental Sociology for the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Gary

    2017-02-01

    changement climatique, le traitement de la nature et de la société en tant qu'entités distinctes a fait place à un accent sur les assemblages socio-naturels. En utilisant l'anthropocéne comme une lentille pour explorer ce point de vue émergeant, on fait valoir (1) que la théorisation actuelle sur l'assemblage socio-naturel doit accorder plus d'attention aux questions de temporalité et de complexité, (2) que prendre ces facteurs en compte reconceptualise la relation entre la nature et la société en tant qu'assemblage socio-naturel complexe et en évolution, (3) que ce processus évolutif doit être compris dans le contexte de l'évolution cosmique et de la tension entre entropie et émergence de la complexité locale, et (4) sur le développement humain découlent de la tension entre ces deux tendances, et non de la pénurie de ressources. Une sociologie de l'environnement pour l'anthropocéne, fondée sur des hypothéses sur la nature de la dynamique causale et du contexte compatible avec notre compréhension de la science actuelle du systéme terrestre, est proposée.

  7. Etude d'un systeme de trigeneration decentralise en climats canadiens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaire Tanguay, Dominique

    Ce mémoire présente l'étude d'un système de trigénération ou CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) au gaz naturel fournissant les besoins thermiques à un immeuble à logement typique de 13 étages. Un groupe électrogène permettant de générer de l'électricité tout en fournissant de l'eau chaude assure le chauffage du bâtiment et de l'eau chaude sanitaire tandis qu'une machine à absorption ammoniac-eau permet de transformer cette chaleur en puissance frigorifique afin de climatiser le bâtiment en période chaude. Le modèle de cette machine à absorption a spécialement été conçu pour fonctionner avec une température de désorption basse et permet d'évaluer les performances de telles machines dans des situations hors design. Ce modèle à été vérifié à l'aide d'autres modèles avérés et propose des coefficients de performance de l'ordre de 0,7 à 0,8. L'évaluation des performances horaires de ce système est présentée pour une année standard sous trois climats canadiens. Ces performances sont ensuite comparées aux différentes méthodes employées pour assurer ces besoins ainsi que pour générer l'électricité supplémentaire. Les résultats démontrent d'excellentes performances même lorsque comparées aux plus récentes technologies. Les résultats passent d'une légère augmentation de la consommation de gaz naturel dans un climat chaud comme Toronto à une importante réduction dans un climat froid comme Edmonton. Ce système permet donc de combler les besoins thermiques d'un bâtiment tout en générant de l'électricité dans des périodes de pointes annuelles et possiblement journalières. Plusieurs études dont notamment l'optimisation du système et le couplage à d'autres types de bâtiment permettrait cependant de mieux évaluer les possibilités complètes de la trigénération. Mots-clés : Trigénération, CCHP, Absorption, Ammoniac-eau, cogénération.

  8. Le role du phytoplancton de petite taille (<20 mum) dans les variations des proprietes optiques des eaux du Saint-Laurent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, Sebastien

    Les mesures satellitaires de couleur des oceans sont largement determinees par les proprietes optiques inherentes (IOPs) des eaux de surface. D'autre part, le phytoplancton de petite taille (<20 mum) est le plus souvent dominant dans les oceans, et peut donc etre une source importante de variation des IOPs dans les oceans. Dans ce contexte, le but principal de ce doctorat etait de definir l'impact du phytoplancton (<20 mum) sur les variations des proprietes optiques de l'Estuaire et du Golfe du Saint-Laurent (Canada). Afin d'atteindre cet objectif, il etait necessaire de determiner en milieu controle les facteurs de variabilite des proprietes optiques cellulaires et des IOPs du phytoplancton (<20 mum) des eaux du Saint-Laurent, et d'evaluer la contribution du phytoplancton (<20 mum) aux proprietes optiques totales des eaux du Saint-Laurent. Des experiences en laboratoire ont montre que les variations des proprietes optiques des cellules phytoplanctoniques soumises a un cycle jour-nuit, ainsi qu'a des changements concomitants d'intensite lumineuse, peuvent contribuer significativement a la variabilite des proprietes optiques observee en milieu naturel. D'autres experiences ont, quant a elles, mis en evidence que les variations des proprietes optiques des cellules phytoplanctoniques dues aux phases de croissance peuvent alterer les IOPs des oceans, particulierement pendant les periodes de floraison. De plus, la presence de bacteries et de particules detritiques peut egalement affecter la variabilite des IOPs totales, notamment la diffusion. Au printemps, dans l'Estuaire et le Golfe du Saint-Laurent, la contribution du phytoplancton <20 mum aux IOPs presentait des differences regionales evidentes pour les proprietes d'absorption et de diffusion. En plus de la variabilite spatiale, les proprietes optiques cellulaires presentaient des variations journalieres, et ce particulierement pour le picophytoplancton. Enfin, la plupart des differences observees dans les

  9. Du syntagme nominal aux objets-de-discours: SN complexes, nominalisations, anaphores. (From nominal syntagma to Objects of Discourse: SN Complexes, Nominalizations, Anaphora).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrendonner, Alain, Ed.; Reichler-Beguelin, Marie-Jose, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Papers on nominal syntagma as objects in discourse include: "Quelques notions utiles a la semantique des descripteurs nominaux" ("Some Useful Notions on the semantics of Nominal Descriptors") (Alain Berrendonner); "Note sur le statut semantique et la fonction de quelques relatives integrees" ("Note on the…

  10. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Bayou Pointe Aux Chenes, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana. Topical report, August 1991--April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, G.D.; Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and night- of-way management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted on August 22, 1991, in an emergent intertidal estuarine wetland in Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana. The site includes three pipelines installed between 1958 and 1969. Vegetation within the site comprises three native tidal marsh grasses: Spartina alterniflora, Spartina patens, and Distichlis spicata. All three species occurred over the pipelines, within the right-of-way and in both natural areas. Vegetative differences attributable to the installation or presence of the pipelines were not obvious over the pipelines or in the habitat east of the pipelines. However, because of the presence of a canal west of the 1969 pipeline, vegetation was less abundant in that area, and D. spicata was absent from all but the most distant plots of the transacts. Data obtained in the study indicate that when rights-of-way through brackish marsh are restored to their original elevations, they are revegetated with native vegetation similar to that in surrounding areas.

  11. Projets Pilotes Quebecois Portant sur L'Integration Scolaire aux Niveaux Pre-Scolaire et Primaire (Quebec Pilot Projects on Mainstreaming of Preschool and Primary-Level Schoolchildren).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Laurent, Lise; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article synthesizes 55 Quebec (Canada) pilot projects on mainstreaming of pupils with learning disabilities, behavior disorders, physical or sensorial handicaps, or mental handicaps, at preschool and elementary levels. It focuses on extent of integration, interventions, training and support for teachers, and evaluation methodology used.…

  12. Developpement de methodes de calcul de coefficients de sensibilite des sections efficaces multigroupes autoprotegees et de sensibilite implicite du keff aux densites isotopiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, Maxime

    Since deterministic codes use a multigroup scheme, self-shielding calculations are required before one can carry out neutron transport calculations. These calculations are used to obtain multigroup cross sections where flux depressions at resonance energies are properly taken into account. For each system where a transport solution is required, self-shielding calculations must be carried out beforehand. Multigroup cross sections in the resonant energy range are therefore system-dependent quantities. This means that a variation on a reactor parameter, an isotopic density for example, will have an impact on the resonant self-shielded cross sections. It is therefore relevant to distinguish between two types of effects resulting from a variation on a given parameter. This parameter can explicitly appear in the transport equation (for example, an isotopic density explicitly appears through the macroscopic cross sections of the corresponding mixture) and perturb the multiplication factor keff (or any other quantity obtained from solving the transport equation). This is called an explicit effect. This parameter variation can also affect self-shielding calculations and perturb resonant multigroup cross sections, which can themselves cause a variation of keff. This is what we refer to as an implicit effect. In general, the keff perturbations resulting from the implicit effect have the opposite sign of those resulting from the explicit effect. When a variation on a parameter leads to a perturbation on another parameter, following a transport calculation for instance, we can compute sensitivity coefficients between those two parameters. In this thesis, we consider the self-shielded cross sections and keff sensitivity coefficients to isotopic densities. More precisely, we develop methods to compute the self-shielded cross sections sensitivity to densities arising from two different self-shielding models, an equivalent dilution model and a subgroup model. Once these coefficients are known, they can be combined with the keff sensitivity coefficients to the multigroup cross sections to obtain the keff implicit sensitivity coefficients to the isotopic densities. The self-shielded cross sections sensitivity computation methods developed here are based on the computation of the derivatives of the collision probabilities. Both self-shielding models considered here are based on the computation of the collision probabilities. These probabilities are then used to solve the slowing-down equation for the flux to be used for the evaluation of the self-shielded cross sections. For both self-shielding models, we develop a sensitivity analysis method by analytically differentiating all the relevant equations and then solve for the derivatives of the self-shielded cross sections with respect to the isotopic densities. Several systems are analyzed in this work : a simple Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) cell with mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, a PWR assembly with uranium oxide (UOX) fuel, a CANDU cell and a canadian SuperCritical Water Reactor (SCWR) cell. In each case, we compare the sensitivity coefficients resulting from the methods based on the derivatives of the collision probabilities with those obtained from a direct computation of the derivatives of the cross sections, where we carry out one reference calculation and one perturbed calculation and simply compared the cross sections. We show that the agreement between the sensitivity coefficients found using different methods is very good. We also look at the effect of the SPH factor (for the subgroup self-shielding model) on the sensitivity coefficients and at how the self-shielded cross section sensitivities vary spatially when we consider several "layers" in a fuel pin or when we consider fuel pins at different positions in an assembly. For each system, we also present a detailed analysis of the different contributions to the keff sensitivity. The explicit and implicit components are computed separately and compared and we show the contributions of all the relevant resonant reactions to the implicit sensitivity.

  13. L'enseignement des langues secondes standard aux minorites culturelles a Bruxelles (Standard Second Language Instruction to Cultural Minorities in Brussels).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vriendt, Sera

    Three major issues in the second language instruction of migrant primary school children in Brussels are discussed: (1) how to develop communicative competence; (2) how to ensure correct pronunciation; and (3) how to improve nonverbal communication. In the case of pronunciation, a "soft" method without explanation about articulation or…

  14. Transcriptome profiling of petal abscission zone and functional analysis of AUX/IAA family genes reveal that RhIAA16 is involved in petal shedding in rose

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rose is one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone d...

  15. Grammaire de l’expérience romantique adolescente au Québec: une analyse sociosémantique des idéaux amoureux

    PubMed Central

    Blais, Martin; Hébert-Ratté, Roxanne; Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine

    2016-01-01

    Cette étude vise à décrire, à travers les thèmes qu’évoque la plus belle expérience amoureuse chez de jeunes Québécois âgés de 14 à 19 ans, les formes sémantiques de l’amour contemporain ainsi que les attentes et les paradoxes dont elles témoignent sur le plan communicationnel. Au total, 6 961 jeunes Québécois âgés de 14 à 18 ans recrutés dans les milieux scolaires ont décrit leur plus belle expérience amoureuse vécue ou souhaitée. Une analyse des champs lexicaux, réalisée avec le logiciel Sémato, a permis de dégager six (6) formes sémantiques dominantes: 1) la fidélité, le respect et l’authenticité, 2) les références à la sensualité (embrasser et enlacement), 3) l’ancrage de l’amour idéal dans la compagnie de l’autre et des activités concrètes, 4) l’importance de la passion, de la magie (pour les deux genres) et, surtout pour les garçons, du plaisir, 5) l’ancrage de l’idéal amoureux dans des projets d’union et d’enfants, et 6) l’ancrage du couple dans des lieux précis, dans un quotidien ou des souvenirs tangibles. Ces formes sémantiques sont discutées en fonction des problèmes qu’elles ont pu résoudre et ceux qu’elles font émerger. Les différences de genre sont aussi discutées. PMID:27917004

  16. Serotypage Des Pneumocoques (Hemocultures Et Ponctions Tracheales), Sensibilite Aux Antibiotiques Et Considerations Sur L'Usage D'Un Vaccin Specifique.

    PubMed

    Crokaert, F; Blogie, M; Prigoginc, T; Yourassowsky, E

    1980-01-01

    114 strains isolated by blood cultures and transtracheal aspirations were typed: serotypes 3 and 4 were largely predominant and a 14-valent vaccine (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 14, 19, 23, 25, 51, 56) should cover 67 % of these strains and protect 53 % of our patients because the efficacy of the vaccine is evaluated at 80 %. A controlled clinical trial seems to be necessary. We did not isolate any penicillin-resistant strain but 14 % of our strains were resistant to tetracycline.

  17. Synthese et methodologie des moyens de correction phonetique du "R" francais enseigne aux anglophones (Methods of Correcting the Pronunciation of the French "R" for English Speakers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebel, Jean-Guy

    The present work begins with a phonetic description of the acceptable French /R/ and descriptions of several allophones of English /R/ which must be avoided while learning the French. Various theories are discussed concerning the relationship between the position of the /R/ in an utterance and the difficulty students have in pronouncing it…

  18. Operational Medical Issues in Hypo-and Hyperbaric Conditions (les Questions medicales a caractere oprationel liees aux conditions hypobares ou hyperbares)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    thoracic pressure, unfavourable body positions relative to the force of gravity, or G-forces. At rest the pharyngeal end of the tube is closed. Contracting... pharyngeal muscles, mainly mm. tensor and T-7 levator veli palatini, like when swallowing or yawning, will normally open the tube and supply the middle...as the research sources on that topic is relatively insufficient . The observed trends of changes in hypoxic response of the autonomic cardiac control

  19. Uninhabited Military Vehicles (UMVs): Human Factors Issues in Augmenting the Force (Vehicules Militaires sans Pilote (UMV): Questions Relatives aux Facteurs Humains lies a l’augmentation des Forces)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    theories (i.e., social behaviour) might better describe operators who interact with vehicles as a team. Thus human-machine and human-human interaction...resonance with the social psychology of obedience and capability for human to act callously when disconnected from suffering and under pressure from...Institute. [5] Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioural study of obedience. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, Vol. 67, pp. 371-378. [6] Milgram, S. (2004

  20. Adaptation of a Turbine Test Facility to High-Temperature Research (Adaptation d’un banc de Turbine aux Recherches pour les Hautes Temperatures,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-19

    Des hautes temperatures devant turbine sur turborgacteur et turbines A gaz. (High turbine inlet temperatures in turbo - jet engines and gas turbines ... turbo - jet engines .) Revue Gn(rale de Thermique, No. 166, October 1975 15 D. Arnal Etude exprimentale et thgorique de la transition de la couche J.C...r AD-AIOl 374 ROYAL AIRCRAFT ESTABLISHMENT FARNBOROUBH (ENGLAND) F/B 10/1 ADAPTATION OF A TURBINE TEST FACILITY TO HIGH-TEMPERATURE RESEA--ETC(U) DEC

  1. Developpement d'un modele thermodynamique pour les cristallites de coke: Application aux systems carbone-hydrogene et carbone-soufre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzilleau, Philippe

    Carbon materials are essential components of multiple key industrial processes. One example of such a process is the production of aluminum using the Hall-Heroult process. It is well known that important quantities of carbon materials are regularily consumed by the operation of the Hall-Heroult process. In recent years, the increased impurity content of industrial carbon materials motivated the development of a better understanding for the high temperature behavior of these specific materials. The most common forms of carbon materials used in the industry are cokes. Cokes are carbon materials which, following heat treatment, present a crystalline structure similar to that observed in graphite. However, the observed crystallite size of cokes is usually much smaller than the one observed in graphite. For this reason, the chemical and thermodynamic properties of the ordered phase of cokes (i.e. coke crystallites) are very different than those of graphite (although coke crystallites of infinite size would possess properties almost identical to graphite). Coke crystallites consist of hexagonal planes of carbon atoms stacked one above the other. This particular aspect causes strong anisotropic properties in coke crystallites. No thermodynamic model was found for the production of a reliable correlation between the effect of crystallite size and chemical composition for the predictive calculations of the thermodynamic properties (and phase equilibriums) of coke crystallites. It is also difficult to produce predictive calculations that can be compared to experimental results using such a thermodynamic model. The goal of the present work is to propose a thermodynamic model designed to solve this problem. The present model is based on the well-defined geometrical properties of coke cristallites. This geometry allows the development of mathematical equations for the calculation of the mass balances of the crystallite (using a simplified geometry) using only the commonly used cristallite size parameters La (diameter of the crystallite) and Lc (height of the crystallite). The use of the Compound Energy Formalism is necessary to establish the methodology of the present model. Globally, the planar structure of the crystallites is divided into three sublattices on which individual chemical species are assumed to mix randomly. Appropriate thermodynamic paths are used to define the relative enthalpies and absolute entropies of these chemical species. The relative enthalpy and absolute entropy of the coke crystallites are derived for various values of La in the carbon/hydrogen and carbon/sulfur chemical systems. For the carbon/hydrogen system, the model parameters are based on the known values for the entropy of formation of simple hydrogenous organic compounds in the gaseous phase and known carbon/hydrogen bond enthalpies. Also, additional enthalpic properties of coke crystallites and graphitic structures are required for the definition of the thermodynamic paths (for example, the enthalpy associated with the delocalization of one electron in graphitic structures). Results for the carbon/hydrogen system are compared to experiments concerning the dehydrogenation of various cokes. A very satisfying agreement is obtained between the dehydrogenation curves predictively calculated by the model and the reported experimental results (obtained using slow heating rates). Most of the hydrogen content of coke crystallites (this content does not inclue the hydrogen in the condensed volatile matter phase) is predicted to leave the crystalline structure for temperatures between 1100 and 1300 K. Also, experimental measurements of the Gibbs energy of coke relative to graphite are reported. These measurements were obtained using a solid state electrochemical technique. A stabiliy of approximately 900 J g-1, relative to graphite, is reported for temperatures between 950 and 1250 K and for a crystallite size La of ˜10 nm. This value is in excellent agreement with the present thermodynamic model. Finally, an open discussion is made on the possible existance of a degraphitization behavior for coke crystallites heat treated above 2585 K. For the carbon/sulfur system, a modeling approach similar to the one developed for the carbon/hydrogen system is used. Approximately 75% of the model parameters of the carbon/hydrogen and carbon/sulfur systems are common to the two models. Predictive desulfurization curves using the current thermodynamic model are presented for temperatures above 1500 K. A very good agreement is obtained between the model calculations and the reported experimental data. Most of the sulfur content of coke crystallites is predicted to leave the crystallites for temperatures between 1600 and 1850 K. This temperature range is very similar to the puffing temperatures typically found during the desulfurization of petrochemical cokes. The good precision of the model for both studied systems (carbon/sulfur and carbon/hydrogen) combined with the transferability of the model parameters between the carbon/hydrogen and carbon/sulfur systems tend to validate the global approach developed so far.

  2. Management of Heat and Cold Stress -- Guidance to NATO Medical Personnel (Gestion des contraintes thermiques (chaleur et froid) Conseils aux personnels medicaux de I’OTAN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    limit sweat accumulation in the fabric . 3 - 6 RTO-TR-HFM-187 COLD STRESS MANAGEMENT 1) Liner gloves that fit directly against the skin wick away...breathable fabrics . Soldiers must clean their clothing according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Wet clothing can be hung to dry inside a...materials that provide good insulation, have low water-absorbing capacity (no cotton), and are waterproof (when appropriate) and breathable. • Wear

  3. Cartographie de parametres forestiers par fusion evidentielle de donnees geospatiales multi-sources: Application aux peuplements forestiers en regeneration et feuillus matures du Sud du Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Brice

    2009-10-01

    Foresters are faced with difficulties to obtain sub-polygon information with the mapping methods available nowadays. The main objective of this work consisted in the development of new methods able to improve the map accuracy of regenerating forest stands and mature forest stands in the South of Quebec, Canada. The Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) and the Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) showed their ability to integrate multiple heterogenous data sources to go further than the classical classification procedures like the maximum likelihood or the spectral unmixing, in terms of map accuracy. Improvement on the ability to map regenerating stands, passed from 82.7% with the maximum likelihood method to 91.1% with the Free DSm model with a total transfer of the mass of the "Union" class to the "Intersection" class (+ 8.4%). For the mature stands, the improvement passed from 63.8% with the K nearest neighbour to 79.5% with the DST according to a classical belief structuration and the hybrid decision rule for which the conflict threshold was fixed at 10% (+ 15.7%). Our results with DST and a bayesian belief structuration showed the difficulty to model the uncertainty in the fusion process. This is probably due to the lack of scientific knowledge about the influence of the biophysical and climatic parameters on the mapped forest stands and to the necessity to model specifically the uncertainty for each source. Our work showed concrete improvement when mapping forest stands with DST which is encouraging to continue explorating the fundamental principle of the proposed hybrid decision rule. This means a particular focus on the difference between the fused masses of each potential class after the fusion, to choose the best hypothesis. Keywords. forest mapping, Quebec, deciduous stands, regenerating stands, mature stands, data fusion, Dempster-Shafer Theory, Dezert-Smarandache Theory, hybrid decision rule

  4. Educational Research in Relation to the Rights of the Child (Les Sciences De L'Education en Relation Aux Droits De L'Enfant).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Herreweghe, M. L., Ed.

    This collection of 24 articles explores how educational research, programs and policies in several countries are related to the issue of children's rights. Several of the collected articles focus on aspects of children's experience and development. Group membership, children's right to happiness, the development of an optimistic outlook among…

  5. Biocompatibilite des complexes proteines-nanoparticules: Perspectives sur la reponse cellulaire aux nanoparticules d'oxyde de fer fonctionnalisees, revetues d'un corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbeh, Doris Antoinette

    This thesis presents the study of the biocompatibility of nanoparticles (NPs) of iron oxide (Fe3O4) candidates for targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules. We especially devoted to study the impact of the surface composition of the NPs and protein adsorption at the surface thereof on the cellular responses. To do this, we first examined the toxic potential of magnetite with various functionalizations: one that is prepared with (1) a monolayer of oleic acid (Fe3O4@OA), which is then converted to (2) an envelope silane containing an amine (Fe3O4@NH 2), (3) a coating of silica (Fe3O4@SiO 2), and (4) an envelope containing a silane coating on amine silica (Fe3O4@SiO2@NH 2). The presence of these groups at the surface of the NPs was confirmed by XPS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. We were able to prove that the toxic potential of NPs is dose-dependent and we determine the biocompatible doses for each surface functionalization. Microscopic observation of the morphology of the cells exposed to NPs, and their proinflammatory and mitochondrial activity showed that, in addition to surface features, the cell culture medium also affect the cytotoxicity of the NPs. These results clearly show that in order to use our NPs as pharmaceutical nanocarrier safely, we need to control the surface functionalization and the dynamic interaction between the NP and the physiological environment in which it is suspended. To understand the interaction between the NP and the culture medium, as a first step, we used three different culture media namely: DMEM, F-12K and DMEM / F12 (see Appendix A) and uncoated magnetite (Fe3O 4). These media were enriched with either fetal bovine serum (see Appendix B) or with a synthetic serum (SFMS). We have proved the presence of a protein corona on NPs suspended in culture media enriched with bovine serum. We also demonstrated that the formation of the corona depends on the composition of the culture medium and that the cytotoxic potential of the NPs is influenced by NP-protein interaction. In a second step, we used one culture medium (DMEM / F12) and the magnetite with three different surface compositions: uncoated SPIONs with hydroxyl groups (OH) on the surface; coated SPIONs with an amine group (NH2) on the surface and the last one with a carboxylic group (COOH) on the surface. The results show that the composition of the corona depends on the surface composition of the NP and cellular responses are also different from one surface to another. In fact, some proteins (e.g. albumin) are adsorbed on the coatings only positively charged (NH2), while others (e.g., fibrinogen) are adsorbed on the negatively charged coatings (OH and COOH). Cell proliferation is influenced by the surface chemistry and is dose-dependent. SPIONs coated with carboxylic groups are more biocompatible while those uncoated, having hydroxyl groups on the surface are the most cytotoxic. Exploring three possible mechanisms of cytotoxicity, i.e., the production of ions by the SPIONs in the culture media, reactive oxygen species and protein adsorption, we found that in our case, protein adsorption was behind the cytotoxicity of our NPs since oxidative stress have been proved non-existent and there are not enough ions in the culture media to be detected . From these results, we can make a first correlation between the chemical composition of the surface, the identity of the adsorbed proteins and cellular responses. But we must take into account many other parameters related either to the NPs such as the charge, the agglomeration status, or related to the culture medium as the density of each protein, or finally to the experimental conditions.

  6. Caractérisation de la structure des membranes ionomères (NAFION^{tinytextregistered}) par diffusion de rayons X aux petits angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubatat, L.; Rollet, A. L.; Diat, O.; Gébel, G.

    2002-07-01

    Ionomer membranes, like Nafion^{tinytextregistered} used in fuel cell, present a nano- phase separation between domains with different ionic concentrations. Up to now models describe the ionic domains as spheres of about 40 Å diameter. Small angles X-ray scattering studies over a large range of wave vectors, lead to a new assumption for the Nafion structure, describing the polymer aggregation as elongated objects surrounding by the ionic charges. Les membranes ionomères de type Nafion^{tinytextregistered} utilisées en pile à combustible, sont caractérisées par une nano-séparation de phases entre des domaines plus ou moins riches en sites ioniques. Les modèles proposés pour décrire ces domaines ioniques, les représentent généralement sous forme de sphères de 40 Å de diamètre. L'étude en diffusion de rayons X que nous avons menée récemment, sur une large gamme de vecteurs d'ondes, nous permet de proposer une vision différente de la structure du Nafion en considérant une agrégation de polymères sous formes d'objets très allongés, avec en surface les charges ioniques.

  7. The Capability of Virtual Reality to Meet Military Requirements (la Capacite de la rea1ite virtuelle a repondre aux besoins militaires)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Distribution/Availability Statement Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Supplementary Notes Abstract The purpose of the workshop was to...distribution of this document. Information about the availability of this and other RTO unclassified publications is given on the back cover. 13. Keywords...and technological basis that will guarantee a solid base for the future. The content of this publication has been reproduced directly from material

  8. Admission Requirements to Canadian Faculties of Medicine and Their Selection Policies = Conditions d'Admission aux Facultes de Medecine Canadiennes et Leurs Politiques de Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Medical Colleges, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Information is presented to help applicants to Canadian medical colleges realistically assess their chances for gaining admission. The guide is also intended for career counselors in high schools and higher education. One section provides statistics on the following characteristics that are associated with being selected: sex, age, Medical College…

  9. L'acces des jeunes de regions rurales aux etudes postsecondaires (The Access of Youth from Rural Areas to Postsecondary Studies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawh, Natasha; Charron, Jocelyn

    2003-01-01

    The access to postsecondary education that is offered to students in rural areas differs significantly from the access available to urban students. An overview is given of the various factors and structural obstacles influencing rural access to postsecondary education, including aspirations, college preparation, socioeconomic characteristics of…

  10. L'Ordinateur dans l'enseignement des langues: un colosse aux pieds d'argile? (The Computer in Language Teaching: A Giant with Clay Feet?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Raymond; Guberman, Solange

    1988-01-01

    The computer's potential in second language teaching is compared with the reality of commercial programs and teacher training in an effort to separate beliefs from facts. It is concluded that based on recent developments, the computer is about to occupy its rightful place in language teaching. (Author/MSE)

  11. Histoire du télescope, la contemplation de l'Univers, des premiers instruments aux actuelles machines célestes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2009-01-01

    Alors que la plupart des scientifiques réalisent leurs expérimentations en laboratoire, les astronomes sont condamnés à ne jamais pouvoir toucher l'objet de leurs travaux: le ciel se laisse contempler mais demeure hors d'atteinte. Pour déchiffrer le message céleste, l'oeil ne suffit pas. Il fallut attendre la naissance de la première lunette astronomique pour ouvrir une nouvelle voie à notre insatiable désir de savoir. Ancêtre de tous les télescopes petits et grands, ce tout premier instrument d'observation allait en effet étendre vers l'infini le pouvoir de nos yeux. Quatre cents ans après, ce sont d'immenses machines qui scrutent pour nous l'Univers, en nous permettant même de remonter le temps. C'est leur histoire qui nous est racontée ici mais, par deçà les engins les plus complexes, ce livre nous parle de leurs bâtisseurs. Démontant au passage certaines idées reçues, ce livre nous plonge dans les balbutiements de ces instruments avant de nous emmener côtoyer les premiers géants et découvrir les révolutions en cours. Illustré de nombreux documents historiques et techniques, ce récit est également pourvu d'encadrés expliquant en profondeur le fonctionnement des instruments.

  12. Synthese et methodologie des moyens de correction phonetique du "R" francais enseigne aux anglophones (Methods of Correcting the Pronunciation of the French "R" for English Speakers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebel, Jean-Guy

    The present work begins with a phonetic description of the acceptable French /R/ and descriptions of several allophones of English /R/ which must be avoided while learning the French. Various theories are discussed concerning the relationship between the position of the /R/ in an utterance and the difficulty students have in pronouncing it…

  13. Thumbs Down. A Classroom Response to Violence towards Women = Pouce. La prevention en milieu scolaire de la violence faite aux femmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Teachers' Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet is designed to encourage age-appropriate classroom discussion and activities aimed at deterring violence against women. Teachers can address violence as an issue that touches the lives of teachers and students. Domestic violence against women cuts across socioeconomic, ethnic and cultural groups. Topics addressed by grade level…

  14. Developpement d'une plateforme de simulation et d'un pilote automatique - Application aux Cessna Citation X et Hawker 800XP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi, Georges

    This report presents several methodologies for the design of tools intended to the analysis of the stability and the control of a business aircraft. At first, a generic flight dynamic model was developed to predict the behavior of the aircraft further to a movement on the control surfaces or further to any disturbance. For that purpose, different categories of winds were considered in the module of simulation to generate various scenarios and conclude about the efficiency of the autopilot. Besides being realistic, the flight model takes into account the variation of the mass parameters according to fuel consumption. A comparison with a simulator of the company CAE Inc. and certified level D allowed to validate this first stage with an acceptable success rate. Once the dynamics is validated, the next stage deals with the stability around a flight condition. For that purpose, a first static analysis is established to find the trim conditions inside the flight envelop. Then, two algorithms of linearization generate the state space models which approximate the decoupled dynamics (longitudinal and lateral) of the aircraft. Then to test the viability of the linear models, 1,500 comparisons with the nonlinear dynamics have been done with a 100% rate of success. The study of stability allowed to highlight the need of control systems to improve first the performances of the plane, then to control its different axes. A methodology based on a coupling between a modern control technique (LQR) and a genetic algorithm is presented. This methodology allowed to find optimal and successful controllers which satisfy a large number of specifications. Besides being successful, they have to be robust to uncertainties owed to the variation of mass. Thus, an analysis of robustness using the theory of the guardian maps was applied to uncertain dynamics. However, because of a too sensitive region of the flight envelop, some analyses are biased. Nevertheless, a validation with the nonlinear dynamics allowed to prove the robustness of the controllers over the entire flight envelope. Finally, the last stage of this project concerned the control laws for the autopilot. Once again, the proposed methodology, bases itself on the association of flight mechanic equations, control theory and a metaheuristic optimization method. Afterward, four detailed test scenarios are presented to illustrate the efficiency and the robustness of the entire autopilot.

  15. La formation aux techniques du travail universitaire et la notion de tache (Training in the Techniques of Academic Work and the Notion of Task).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses questions concerning training students in techniques of academic work and use of the English language in this context. These questions, currently researched at the English Language Center of King Abdulaziz University, focus on the notion of task as a minimal pedagogic unit, and on task-objective coordination criteria. Societe Nouvelle…

  16. Effets de l'ajout d'un mecanisme ductile a la console sur la reponse d'un pylone aux bris de conducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berube, Louis-Philippe

    Les bris de conducteurs causent des efforts dynamiques importants pouvant causer de lourds dommages sur les pylônes de ligne de transport. Les efforts peuvent être tels qu'ils peuvent causer la ruine en cascade de plusieurs pylônes. Cette recherche porte sur l'étude de l'effet de l'ajout d'un mécanisme ductile à la console d'un pylône soumis à un bris de conducteur. L'étude est composée de deux phases complémentaires, l'une expérimentale comportant l'utilisation d'un banc d'essais à échelle réduite, et l'autre numérique utilisant le logiciel Code-Aster pour la modélisation d'essais dynamiques comportant un mécanisme ductile à la console. Les essais à échelle réduite comportaient huit essais élastiques et onze essais comportant un fusible ductile à la console. Lors des essais, le fusible ductile a démontré sa capacité à réduire les efforts dynamiques au canton. La réponse du mécanisme en fonction de sa capacité ductile a démontré qu'une capacité trop faible n'apportait aucun gain sur la réduction des efforts et que l'étude de la capacité requise se doit d'être étudiée pour un cas donné. Les modélisations par éléments finis effectuées à l'aide du logiciel Code-Aster ont su représenter la réponse dynamique obtenue lors des essais. Les modélisations élastiques ont permis une représentation des déformations plastiques ainsi que des déplacements. Une modélisation a de plus été effectuée sur une géométrie réelle de pylône pour évaluer les gains possibles suite à l'ajout d'un mécanisme ductile à la console. Les résultats obtenus valident les résultats du banc d'essais en présentant une réduction des efforts de bris au canton de l'ordre de 35%. Mots-clés : Ligne de transport électrique, Bris de conducteurs, éléments finis, échelle réduit.

  17. L'Ordinateur dans l'enseignement des langues: un colosse aux pieds d'argile? (The Computer in Language Teaching: A Giant with Clay Feet?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Raymond; Guberman, Solange

    1988-01-01

    The computer's potential in second language teaching is compared with the reality of commercial programs and teacher training in an effort to separate beliefs from facts. It is concluded that based on recent developments, the computer is about to occupy its rightful place in language teaching. (Author/MSE)

  18. Dynamique d'un laser a colorant a pompage synchrone avec cavite couplee et applications aux ondes terahertz breves et intenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baribault, Robert

    Nous presentons deux methodes de generation de battements de frequences terahertz pouvant servir a illuminer des antennes photoconductrices afin d'obtenir une emission a spectre etroit et une grande plage d'accordabilite dans l'infrarouge lointain (IRL). Nous discutons des differentes applications dans l'IRL, et presentons plusieurs techniques de generation d'IRL. Parmi ces methodes, nous choisissons celle qui depend de l'illumination incidente, basee sur un deplacement de charges dans un semi-conducteur soumis a une tension a ses bornes, l'antenne photoconductrice. Nous etudions l'emission d'ondes terahertz par cette antenne photoconductrice pour quatre types d'illumination, l'impulsion ultrabreve, l'impulsion ultrabreve modelee, le pseudo-battement par decalage d'impulsions avec glissement en frequence, et le battement. Nous presentons des resultats experimentaux d'illumination d'une antenne photoconductrice en silicium sur saphir endommage par radiation (rd-SOS) avec une impulsion breve et un battement. Un accroissement de l'efficacite est demontre pour le battement. Nous simulons la dynamique d'un laser a colorant a pompage synchrone (LACPS) afin de comprendre ses conditions optimales d'utilisation. Deux LACPS, pompes par le meme laser Nd:YAG, sont synchronises temporellement et spatialement et permettent d'obtenir un battement stable par le controle des delais optiques. Les durees a mi-hauteur des impulsions des deux LACPS doivent demeurer identiques en fonction de la longueur d'onde. La section efficace d'emission du milieu de gain est critique dans la dynamique de ce laser. La duree a mi-hauteur de l'impulsion varie peu avec la section efficace d'emission. Pour controler les fluctuations dues a l'emission spontanee, on ajoute une cavite couplee qui minimise l'effet de l'emission spontanee dans la dynamique du LACPS. Nous montrons les battements obtenus avec deux LACPS, de 0.5 THz et 18 THz, dont deux, a 0.85 THz et 9.36 THz sont amplifies jusqu'a une energie d'impulsion de l'ordre du millijoule. En conclusion, nous proposons une modification au systeme de generation de battement qui facilite l'utilisation du montage. Nous presentons une methode alternative de stabiliser la forme temporelle des impulsions du LACPS sans la cavite couplee. Nous presentons egalement une nouvelle approche d'illumination d'une antenne photoconductrice avec un battement avec un glissement en frequence.

  19. AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series. Volume 16. Introduction to Airborne Early Warning Radar Flight Test. (Introduction aux essais en vol des Radars Aeroportes d’Alerte Lointaine)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-01

    AGARD Publications) 00185 Roma Kentigern House Carretera de Torrej6n a Ajalvir, Pk.4 LUXEMBOURG 65 Brown Street 28850 Torrej6n de Ardoz - Madrid Voir...ICELAND SPAIN Director Research & Development Director of Aviation INTA (RTO/AGARD Publications) Communications & Information c/o Flugrad Carretera

  20. Thermoelectric Properties of Au- Containing Type-I Clathrates Ba8AuxGa16-3xGe30+2x

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Zuxin; Cho, Jung Young; Tessema, Misle M.; Salvador, James R.; Waldo, Richard A.; Yang, Jihui; Wang, Hsin; Cai, Wei; Kirkham, Melanie J; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    Type I clathrates, with compositions based on Ba8Ga16Ge30, are a class of promising thermoelectric materials due to their intrinsically low thermal conductivity. It has been demonstrated previously that the thermoelectric performance can be improved by transition metal substitution of the framework atoms. In this study, the effects of Au substitution for Ga/Ge on thermal and electrical transport properties of type I clathrate compounds have been investigated. Polycrystalline samples with a large range of Au content have been synthesized using conventional solid state techniques with the actual compositions of resulting materials approximately following Zintl-Klemm rules. The charge carrier type changes from electrons (n) to holes (p) as the Au content increases. The Seebeck coefficient (S) and power factor (S2/ where is the electrical resistivity) were improved by Au substitution and the resulting overall thermoelectric properties were enhanced by Au substitution with a thermoelectric figure of merit ZT ~ 0.63 at temperature T = 740 K for the composition Ba8Au5.47Ge39.96. The results presented herein show that Au-containing type I clathrates are promising p-type thermoelectric materials for high temperature applications.

  1. Trois types de stratégies des fabricants pour la fidélisation aux médicaments de marque

    PubMed Central

    Prémont, Marie-Claude; Gagnon, Marc-André

    2014-01-01

    La restructuration de l'industrie pharmaceutique a mené au développement de trois nouveaux types de stratégies commerciales pour la fidélisation de différentes cohortes de patients à des médicaments: la fidélisation par le rabais, par l'accompagnement et par la compassion. La fidélisation par le rabais vise à maintenir les traitements au produit de marque et décourager la substitution au produit générique. La fidélisation par l'accompagnement est basée sur une offre des services de suivi et d'accompagnement à domicile et par téléphone afin d'encourager les patients à adopter un traitement puis d'en améliorer l'observance. Enfin, l'industrie offre des programmes de compassion où les patients peuvent recevoir des traitements avant même que le médicament ne soit généralement disponible ou remboursé par son assureur. Dès que le médicament (le plus souvent très dispendieux) est inscrit à la liste des médicaments remboursés, le manufacturier met fin au programme de compassion et bénéficie d'une importante cohorte de patients déjà sous traitement. L'impact de ces programmes sur les politiques publiques et les droits des patients soulève de nombreuses préoccupations, au nombre desquelles figurent au premier plan l'accès direct du fabricant au patient et ses données de santé et la pression à la hausse sur les coûts de l'assurance-médicaments. PMID:25617517

  2. Focus on Child Care Initiatives Fund Project = Point de Mire sur les projets de la Caisse d'aide aux projets en matiere de garde des enfants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This Canadian journal contains 10 articles in English and French that: (1) profile the Lakeview Children's Centre child care facility in Langruth, Manitoba, focussing on rural communities; (2) report on the Those Who Care research study of day care work environments and caregiver characteristics; (3) discuss the SpeciaLink network of pioneering…

  3. Évaluation des propriétés énergétiques et microphysiques d'une source de convection artificielle à partir d' une étude de combustion organisée de fuel-oil en milieu naturel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Pham Van; Benech, B.; Diamant, W.

    To evaluate the potential environmental impacts of waste heat released by future dry cooling towers, an oil burning system which emits sensible heat at a rate of the order of 1000 MW into the atmosphere has been built up at the Centre de Recherches Atmosphériques. The project involved development of an oil burner device and experiments to quantify the amounts of heat and other matters released from oil combustion, such as gas and aerosol, that are not present in the case of cooling towers but may interact with heat and cause complications. The burner produces a flame of 3-5 m in height and 0.5-1.5 m in diameter. Fuel is consumed at a rate of 3.5-16.5 ℓ min -1 at a pressure of 30-60 bars to develop a thermal output of 3-11 MW. The thermal power is distributed into three parts: sensible heat (82%), radiative energy (7-13%) and forced convection energy ( ~ 6 %); the two latter energy forms also heat the ambient air and so increase the real sensible heat output which eventually reaches 90 % of the thermal power. When the plume rises to some tens of meters, the combustion gas density is not very different from the air density and the additional water vapor does not exceed 5 % of the ambient water vapor. Smoke aerosol produced at the rate of 2-6gkg -1 of fuel-oil exhibits a maximum concentration of 10 7 particles cm -3 with a mean diameter of 0.5μm. The aerosol consists essentially of hydrophobic carbon (97%), while other elements, that may form hygroscopic or ice nuclei are present only in trace concentrations. The gaseous sulfur content may be higher but the SO 2 oxidation rate is very slow and then the cloud condensation nuclei amounts injected by the plume are neglegible in comparison with the natural nuclei. Thus the thermal impact on the atmosphere of the fuel oil combustion is essentially due to its thermodynamic characteristics, and our 105-burner system (Météotron) should correctly simulate in full scale a dry cooling tower. The smoke particles are quite useful as they make the plume visible and are used as passive tracers of the thermal disturbance.

  4. Surgénérateurs ; l'état des matériaux aux hautes irradiations, hautes puissances locales et températures, leurs gradients et propriétés mécaniques adaptées aux contraintes qui en résultent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautray, Robert; Friedel, Jacques

    2010-12-01

    The motivations to realize nuclear breeder reactors are developed in the present context of a strong growth in electronuclear power stations in many countries, using mostly moderated and water cooled reactors. The past studies can be of a substantial profit in France and, to a lesser degree, in other countries of the EU. However, to use fully the 238 uranium isotope, the materials for these breeders must withstand much harder radiation than those for water reactors. The power densities and thermal gradients will also be much more intense. The mechanical stresses, both static and dynamic, will be large and will act on materials with altered mechanical properties. Fuel elements will have to be produced with materials already irradiated several times and therefore showing such alterations. A field of studies concerning materials and their mechanical behavior in new and severe conditions is sketched here, both in construction and working conditions, together with proposed necessary instrumentation and research orientations.

  5. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier th

  6. Note des Éditeurs scientifiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, P.

    Cette série d'articles est une revue de résultats expérimentaux sur différents "fluides" moléculaires, dans lesquels la cohésion est due à des forces de Van der Waals et à des liaisons hydrogène, l'eau étant un de ces fluides. Ces résultats sont présentés de façon à justifier expérimentalement un modèle original, non extensif, des propriétés de ces fluides, et l'ensemble se présente sous la forme de trois articles décrivant le modèle, suivis chacun par un article le comparant aux résultats expérimentaux publiés par de nombreux auteurs. Le caractère non extensif des propriétés physiques des fluides est choquant, contraire à beaucoup d'idées établies, il semble n'avoir en sa faveur qu'un argument, la comparaison avec un nombre de résultats expérimentaux assez grand pour que l'effet du hasard soit difficilement soupçonnable. En particulier, les écarts entre des résultats de mesures faits par des auteurs différents dans des conditions différentes sont expliqués, le sérieux et la compétence des différents expérimentateurs ne sont plus mis en doute : mais l'interprétation de ces résultats avec un modèle extensif non adapté est seule mise en cause. Les modèles extensifs étant utilisés systématiquement, au delà des expériences de physiciens, dans les calculs d'ingénieurs, et dans la modélisation d'appareils qui fonctionnent et de phénomènes naturels observés par tout le monde, il fallait expliquer pourquoi on pouvait renoncer à l'extensivité. Les raisons du succès pratique des modèles extensifs sont données, d'abord dans le cas des nématiques, puis dans celui des liquides ordinaires, et c'est ce qui rend l'ensemble cohérent, tant avec les mesures physiques fines qu'avec les observations quotidiennes. Il n'en reste pas moins que si l'interprétation donnée dans cette série d'articles est généralisable, une justification théorique du modèle utilisé devient nécessaire. Pour ce qui est des propriétés d

  7. Security Classification Using Automated Learning (SCALE): Optimizing Statistical Natural Language Processing Techniques to Assign Security Labels to Unstructured Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    techniques de traitement du langage naturel statistique et d’apprentissage automa- tique pour attribuer automatiquement une classification de sécurité à...automatique de la sensibilité d’un document ont été publiées. Dans le présent document, nous examinons l’efficacité du traitement du langage na...résultats démontrent que le traitement du langage naturel statistique combiné à l’apprentissage automatique est un moyen efficace qui permet

  8. Combustion of Solid Propellants (La Combustion des Propergols Solides)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    on peut s’interroger sur l’adquation des moyens engages ausceptiblea do se manifester naturellement au cours du A Ia complexit6 du probl~me... capteur d’Helmoltz; de pression lorsque Ia fr~quence vanet. Calcul num~rique et mithode expdrimentale donnent des irdsultats en bon accord, c’cst-i... naturellement , avec des niveaux stabilis~s moddr~s. mod~le de combustion (r~f. 30) et des limites de L’opinion est r~pandue que la segmentation peut l’approche

  9. Photonic Metamaterials for Defence and Security Applications (Les meta-materiaux photoniques pour les applications de defense et de securite)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    exceptionnelles qui ne sont pas facilement observables dans les matériaux naturels . La plupart des recherches sur les méta-matériaux ont été consacrées à...matériaux naturels ) est une des principales raisons qui a poussé les chercheurs à approfondir leurs études sur les méta-matériaux. Avec un index...rapports signal/bruit plus importants, une vitesse plus élevée, une taille réduite, et une gamme plus large pour les systèmes de capteurs optiques

  10. Computational analysis of auxin responsive elements in the Arabidopsis thaliana L. genome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Auxin responsive elements (AuxRE) were found in upstream regions of target genes for ARFs (Auxin response factors). While Chip-seq data for most of ARFs are still unavailable, prediction of potential AuxRE is restricted by consensus models that detect too many false positive sites. Using sequence analysis of experimentally proven AuxREs, we revealed both an extended nucleotide context pattern for AuxRE itself and three distinct types of its coupling motifs (Y-patch, AuxRE-like, and ABRE-like), which together with AuxRE may form the composite elements. Computational analysis of the genome-wide distribution of the predicted AuxREs and their impact on auxin responsive gene expression allowed us to conclude that: (1) AuxREs are enriched around the transcription start site with the maximum density in 5'UTR; (2) AuxREs mediate auxin responsive up-regulation, not down-regulation. (3) Directly oriented single AuxREs and reverse multiple AuxREs are mostly associated with auxin responsiveness. In the composite AuxRE elements associated with auxin response, ABRE-like and Y-patch are 5'-flanking or overlapping AuxRE, whereas AuxRE-like motif is 3'-flanking. The specificity in location and orientation of the coupling elements suggests them as potential binding sites for ARFs partners. PMID:25563792

  11. Fiches pratiques: Laissez Parler Les Petits Papiers; Salut L'Artiste; Le Feu aux poudres; "Le Chauffeur" de G. Vigneault (Practical Ideas: Letting the Scraps of Paper Speak; Greetings to the Artist; Playing with Fire; G. Vigneault's "Le Chauffeur").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boiron, Michel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four language class activities are suggested, including an exercise designed to involve even the most recalcitrant students in oral communication, an artist's visit to the class to discuss his work, use of an authentic document to develop understanding of figurative language, and a reading comprehension and interpretation activity. (MSE)

  12. A Survey of Serious Aircraft Accidents Involving Fatigue Fracture. Volume 2. Rotary-Wing Aircraft (Etude sur des Accidents Importants d’Avions du aux Effets des Fractures de Fatigue. Volume 2. Effets sur des Helicopteres).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    accidents occurring from a particular form of crack initiation (for example "fretting"), look up the cross-reference list in Table 4, and use the...tail rotor problems (7 per year), and failures in the main rotor system (4 per year). 4.4 Initiation Sites The fatigue- crack initiation sites for the...sufficient action taken in order to arrest the problem. 5. The five most common initiation sites for fatigue cracks that have resulted in rotary-wing

  13. A Survey of Serious Aircraft Accidents Involving Fatigue Fracture. Volume 1. Fixed-Wing Aircraft (Etude sur des Accidents Importants d’Avions du aux Effets des Fractures de Fatigue. Volume 1. Effets sur des Avions).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    E276 F11 F96 7100 F108 F113 F120 F166 F193 F215 G306 G313 G332 G362 G376 G421 G523 G531 G536 NICARAGUA E19 G280 NIGERIA A47 NORTH YEMEN E404 PAKISTAN...West Chester, Pa. USA. Left main gear attach bolt. Ref: NTSB file 3-3287. G280 Boeing 727 28 Sep 70 0 S Las Mercedes Airport, Managua, Nicaragua...17 Sep 75 0 S Tokyo, Japan. 727-200 Welding parts (Ps4) of combustion chamber outer case. Origin: pitting corrosion. Landing Gear G280 Boeing 727 28

  14. Utilisation de la teledetection, des SIG et de l'intelligence artificielle pour determiner le niveau de susceptibilite aux mouvements de terrain: Application dans les Andes de la Bolivie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peloquin, Stephane

    1999-11-01

    The socio-economic impact of mass movements for our society is getting more and more serious. The loss of lives and economic losses are now ten times greater than they were at the beginning of the decade. In the hope of reducing these impacts, it is essential to adopt a preventive policy that will encourage mapping of mass movement susceptibility level (MMSL) in critical zones. However, this task is complex and only experts using present techniques can provide satisfactory results. To make possible the production of these maps by a larger number of individuals, we have developed an expert system called EXPERIM that uses remote sensing data and geographic information systems to facilitate the complex tasks without requiring the user to be highly competent in this field of study. This thesis presents the results obtained from a complete strategy developed for a region surrounding Cochabamba, Bolivia. The operational expert system prototype will soon be integrated within the watershed management program directed by the local executing organisation PROMIC. The knowledge acquisition and its expression in concrete terms constitute the principal axis of this research, while the results obtained are the heart of the EXPERIM expert system. These strategic steps aim to establish a knowledge base of data and rules that describe field conditions for each MMSL. We have been able to extract this information by using binary discriminant analysis of a MMSL map produced by an expert for a pilot zone called Cuenca Taquina, which is geoecologically representative of the 38 neighbouring watersheds. Using this technique, we were able to establish a sensitivity model that recreates the expert's map with a success rate of 89% and 78% when two or three MMS levels are used. Based on a detailed analysis of the susceptibility model it was evident that stability conditions are the result of the topographic, geologic and geomorphologic environments. The level of susceptibility was found to be independent of the vegetation condition. In order to apply the model to the surrounding watersheds, we integrated remotely sensed data within the spatial database to map the presence/absence of five essential geoecological units required by the susceptibility model. This was done using a hierarchical classification method. Three sensors were evaluated: Landsat, SPOT and RADARSAT. In the elaboration of this specific step, we evaluated the most efficient spectral band combinations within each image and between images for each of the five geoecological units. For each of the land cover types, the analysis shows that LANDSAT constitutes the most powerful sensor to map these units and that image fusion does not provide significantly better results when compared to the extra amount of work that this requires. Using remote sensing data instead of field data or airphotograph interpretation in watersheds where only topographic data are available decreases the level of accuracy by less than 10%.

  15. Bouchon d’oreille a attenuation active adaptee aux bruits d’helicoptere (Ear Plugs for Active Attenuation Adapted for Helicopter Noises) (Gehoerschutzstopsel mit aktriver Daempfung, geeignet fuer Hubschrauberlaerm)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Hubschrauberharm RWsum6 Le spectre du bruit d’un h~licopt~re se compose de deux parties bien distinctes. La premi~re est une composante basses frquences...61ectrique comme haut-parleur. Avec cc type d’t6metteur, on parties bien distinctes. La premiere est une composante arrivait A obtenir une...d’augmenter la vitesse de convergence. Pour le syst~me les signaul y1 n dr etr Pournl sont dtcm in fedack, de dimnl inue feedforward on a choisi

  16. Vers une méthode de réglage expérimentale des commandes PID floues : application aux systèmes électromécaniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maussion, P.; Hissel, D.

    1998-08-01

    Electrical and electromechanical systems have to satisfy to more and more constrained specifications. Therefore, non-linear control structures must be spread out. Among them, fuzzy logic control can be one interessant and performant alternative. The main handicap of this kind of stucture resides in the fact that the tuning parameters are very numerous. In this paper, we first propose an on-site tuning strategy of this set of parameters in the case of a fuzzy proportionnal-integrative controller based on the experimental designs methodology and on a limited number of pre-defined closed-loop experiments. Then, a complete set of predetermined parameters for a fuzzy proportionnal-integrative-derivative controller will be given. These parameters have been optimized on a specified benchmark according to an IAE criterion. They are calculated like the Ziegler-Nichols or Broïda methodology on conventional controllers; that is, using a single open-loop step response to obtain a model of a first-order plus delay transfert function. Validity limits for this method are provided. Les systèmes électriques ou électromécaniques doivent satisfaire à des spécifications de plus en plus contraignantes qui nécessitent la mise au point de structures de commande non linéaires. Parmi celles-ci, la commande par logique floue constitue une alternative intéressante et performante. Son principal handicap réside dans le nombre très important de paramètres à régler. Dans cet article, nous nous proposons de systématiser ces réglages dans deux cas de figure. Tout d'abord nous utiliserons la méthodologie des plans d'expérimentations pour effectuer un réglage sur site d'un contrôleur flou de type proportionnel-intégral. Ce réglage sera obtenu en ne réalisant qu'un nombre limité d'essais expérimentaux en boucle fermée avec des combinaisons prédéfinies des paramètres à régler. La combinaison optimale de ces paramètres au sens d'un critère de type IAE (Intégrale de la valeur Absolue de l'Erreur) sera déduite de l'exploitation des résultats des essais. Dans un deuxième temps, nous proposerons des réglages prédéfinis et optimisés (au sens du même critère) d'un contrôleur flou de type proportionnel-intégral-dérivé. Ces réglages préétablis ne nécessiteront qu'un seul essai d'identification du système à contrôler en boucle ouverte et peuvent donc se rapprocher des méthodologies classiques et éprouvées de réglage sur site que constituent les réglages de Ziegler-Nichols ou de Broïda pour des contrôleurs conventionnels. Dans cet article, les jeux de paramètres préétablis que nous fournirons seront valables pour des systèmes dont la réponse indicielle en boucle ouverte est modélisable sous la forme d'une fonction de transfert du premier ordre plus un retard pur. Les limites de validité de cette méthode seront précisées.

  17. A propos d'une typologie des objectifs possibles d'un enseignement "du" francais aux adultes en formation (Concerning a Typology of Possible Objectives in Teaching French to Continuing Education Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariet, Francois

    1977-01-01

    Proposes an approach to French language instruction which stresses themes, such as literature, law, economics, and management, rather than specific occupational levels, so as to respect the needs of adult continuing education students of all socioeconomic levels. (AM)

  18. La Presse francaise telle que la connaissent et l'ignorent les etudiants en francais aux Etats-Unis (What Students of French in the United States Know and Don't Know about the French Press).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariet, Francois

    1985-01-01

    Reports and discusses results of a survey of French students in Middlebury College's summer language school concerning their knowledge about and interest in French newpapers and magazines and data on the circulation and readership of those publications, with emphasis on the importance of regional newspapers. (MSE)

  19. Implantation des sites de soins communautaires en République Démocratique du Congo: consécration d'un double standard dans l'accès aux soins

    PubMed Central

    Dunia, Gisèle Mawazo Binti

    2013-01-01

    Depuis 2005, la République Démocratique du Congo a amorcé l'implantation des sites de soins communautaires. Cette stratégie a pour objectif de rapprocher les services de santé des populations éloignées. Bien que cela parte d'une bonne intention, elle résulte, à notre sens, en une consécration d'un système de santé à deux vitesses. En effet, les populations vivant en ville ont accès à des soins prestés par des agents de santé formés alors que celles vivant en milieu rural reculé ont pour prestataires de soins des relais communautaires. Cette situation marginalise encore plus des populations dont la situation géographique est déjà préoccupante. Pourtant, la population est prête à parcourir des kilomètres en échange d'un service qu'elle estime de qualité. PMID:23785563

  20. L'enseignement de l'espagnol aux francophones (Pour une didactique des langues "voisines") (The Teaching of Spanish to Speakers of French [Toward a Didactic of "Neighbor" Languages])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabene, Louise

    1975-01-01

    The question of whether apparent similarity of two languages really facilitates the learning process is raised. Linguistic and pedagogical problems involved in the instruction of languages which resemble each other are discussed. (Text is in French.) (TL)

  1. Etat nutritionnel des enfants âgés de 6 à 59 mois infectés par le VIH mais non traités aux ARV à Lubumbashi

    PubMed Central

    Mwadianvita, Costa Kazadi; Kanyenze, Faustin Ngoy; Wembonyama, Cecile Watu; Mutomb, Florence Mujing A; Mupoya, Kalombo; Nkoy, Albert Mwembo–Tambwe A; Mwenze, Prosper Kalenga

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'infection par le VIH provoque et/ou aggrave les déficits nutritionnels de l'enfant. Ce travail avait pour objectif d'analyser l’état nutritionnel des enfants infectés par le VIH à Lubumbashi. Méthodes Une étude transversale portant sur 83 enfants âgés de 6 à 60 mois s'est déroulée de mai 2010 à mai 2011 dans trois(3) centres de prise en charge des Personnes Vivant avec le VIH(PVV), notamment le Centre d'Excellence(CE) de l'hôpital Sendwe, le Centre Amo-Congo de la Kenya et le Centre de Référence de la Kenya. Les statistiques descriptives usuelles ont été utilisées. Résultats La prévalence de la malnutrition globale était de 60,2% (n = 50) dont 8,4% de malnutrition sévère. Le poids moyen était de 11,6±4,1 kg avec un minimum de 5 kg et un maximum de 22 kg. Le taux d'hémoglobine moyen était d'environ 9,8± 2,0 g/dl avec une prévalence globale de l'anémie (hémoglobine < 11g/dl) à 69,9%. L’émaciation concernait 20,5% des enfants et 8,4% avaient un retard de croissance. Le retard de croissance (p = 0,007), l'insuffisance pondérale (p = 0,002) et l’émaciation (p = 0,046) étaient associés de façon significative à l’état avancé de l'infection à VIH. La survenue de l'anémie n’était pas associée au déficit nutritionnel (p = 0,6). Conclusion Ces résultats révèlent que l'infection à VIH modifie l’état nutritionnel des enfants à Lubumbashi avec 60,2% de malnutrition globale et 8,4% de retard de croissance. Les enfants au stade avancé de l'infection à VIH en sont plus affectés. PMID:25574336

  2. Acceptabilité du test VIH proposé aux nourrissons dans les services pédiatriques, en Côte d'Ivoire, Significations pour la couverture du diagnostic pédiatrique

    PubMed Central

    Oga, Maxime; Brou, Hermann; Dago-Akribi, Hortense; Coffie, Patrick; Amani-Bossé, Clarisse; Ékouévi, Didier; Yapo, Vincent; Menan, Hervé; Ndondoki, Camille; Timité-Konan, M.; Leroy, Valériane

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Problème: Le dépistage VIH chez les enfants a rarement été au centre des préoccupations des chercheurs. Quand le dépistage pédiatrique a retenu l'attention, cela a été pour éclairer seulement sur les performances diagnostiques en ignorant même que le test pédiatrique comme bien d'autres peut s'accepter ou se refuser. Cet article met au cœur de son analyse les raisons qui peuvent expliquer qu'on accepte ou qu'on refuse de faire dépister son enfant. Objectif: Etudier chez les parents, les mères, les facteurs explicatifs de l'acceptabilité du test VIH des nourrissons de moins de six mois. Méthodes: Entretien semi-directif à passages répétés avec les parents de nourrissons de moins de six mois dans les formations sanitaires pour la pesée/vaccination et les consultations pédiatriques avec proposition systématique d'un test VIH pour leur nourrisson. Résultats: Nous retenons que la réalisation effective du test pédiatrique du VIH chez le nourrisson repose sur trois éléments. Primo, le personnel de santé par son discours (qui dénote de ses connaissances et perceptions même sur l'infection) orienté vers les mères influence leur acceptation ou non du test. Secundo, la mère qui par ses connaissances et perceptions même sur le VIH, dont le statut particulier, l'impression de bien-être chez elle et son enfant influence toute réalisation du test pédiatrique VIH. Tertio, l'environnement conjugal de la mère, particulièrement caractérisé par les rapports au sein du couple, sur la facilité de parler du test VIH et sa réalisation chez les deux parents ou chez la mère seulement sont autant de facteurs qui influencent la réalisation effective du dépistage du VIH chez l'enfant. Le principe préventif du VIH, et le désir de faire tester l'enfant ne suffisent pas à eux seuls pour aboutir à sa réalisation effective, selon certaines mères confrontées au refus du conjoint. A l'opposé, les autres mères refusant la réalisation du test pédiatrique disent s'y opposer ; bien entendu, même dans le cas où le conjoint l'accepterait. Discussion: Les mères sont les principales mises en cause et craignent les réprimandes et la stigmatisation. Le père, le conjoint peut être un obstacle, quand il s'oppose au test VIH du nourrisson, ou devenir le facilitateur de sa réalisation s'il est convaincu. Le positionnement du père demeure donc essentiel dans la question de l'acceptabilité du VIH pédiatrique. Les mères en ont conscience et présagent des difficultés à faire dépister ou non les enfants sans avis préalable du conjoint à la fois père, et chef de famille. Conclusion: La question du dépistage pédiatrique du VIH, au terme de notre analyse, met en face trois éléments qui exigent une gestion globale pour assurer une couverture effective. Ces trois éléments n'existeraient pas sans s'influencer, donc ils sont constamment en interaction et empêchent ou favorisent la réalisation ou non du test pédiatrique. Aussi, dans une intention d'aboutir à une couverture effective du dépistage VIH des nourrissons, faut-il tenir compte d'une gestion harmonieuse de ces trois éléments: La première, la mère seule (avec ses connaissances, ses perceptions), son environnement conjugal (de proposition du test intégrant 1- l’époux et / ou père de l'enfant avec ses perceptions et connaissances sur l'infection 2- la facilité de parler du test et sa réalisation chez les deux ou un des parents, la mère) et les connaissances, attitudes et pratiques du personnel de l’établissement sanitaire sur l'infection du VIH. Recommandations: Nos recommandations proposent une redéfinition de l'approche du VIH/sida vers des familles exposées au VIH et une intégration plus accentuée du père facilitant leur propre acceptation du test VIH et celle de leur enfant. PMID:25088574

  3. CFD Techniques for Propulsion Applications Panel Symposium (77th), Held in San Antonio, Texas on 27-31 May 1991 (Les Techniques de l’Aerodynamique Numerique pour les Applications aux Propulseurs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    Nord 92 4 29 052 92-11824Inn..I The Mission of AGARD According to its Charter, the mission of AGARD is to bring together the leading personalities of...the AGARD WG 18 Compressor Test Cases 3 by W.J. Calvert i A Computational Study of Tip Leakage Flow and Losses in a Linear Turbine Cascade 4 by J...Multi-Dimensional Reacting Flow, and ( 4 ) Unsteady Viscous Flow. All of the topics have direct relevance to the propulsion community which is attempting

  4. Preparing Children for Schools and Schools for Children. Notes, Comments = Preparer les enfants a l'ecole et adapter l'ecole aux enfants. Notes, Comments--No. 194.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This paper critically examines evaluations of the effects of early childhood development programs in Third World countries. Introductory comments underscoring the importance of preschool interventions for the improvement of primary schools are followed by a section explaining the paper's analytical framework, which posits an interactive…

  5. Fiche pratique: La peche aux mots; Faire parler les BD; Rubrique evenement; Les droits de l'homme (Practical Ideas: Fishing for Words; Making Comic Strips Talk; Events Report; The Rights of Man).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timbal-Doclaux, Louis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Four activities for classroom French instruction are described: a board game for children's vocabulary development; a sentence and dialogue construction exercise using comic strips (existing or student-made); a discussion of the treatment of the notion of "event" in different journalistic contexts; and an exercise in debating skills and language.…

  6. How is Modelling and Simulation Meeting the Defence Challenges out to 2015? (Comment la modelisation et la simulation repondent-elles aux defis de la Defense jusqu’en 2015?)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    understanding the state-of-the- art applications, leading-edge research efforts, and conceptual contributions supporting the conclusion that NATO is... nouveau degré d’agilité conceptuelle et d’adaptivité technique. Les communications présentées lors de ce symposium ont permis d’appréhender les...les moyens de relever ce nouveau défi complexe. Au cours de cette conférence de deux jours, 24 exposés furent présentés, répartis en sept sessions

  7. Variations de résistivité électrique associées aux transformations martensitiques dans l'acier à mémoire de forme FM30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouraoui, Tarak; Tamarat, Karim; Dubois, Bernard

    1996-07-01

    The Fe-31.6wt% Mn-6.45wt% Si (FM30) steel showed forward, reverse and isothermal martensitic transformations. These phenomena were detected by electrical resistance measurements as a function of temperature. The forward transformation failed at the appearance of the antiferromagnetism of the austenitic phase. However, a M_f^{prime} temperature can be considered as a end of evolution. By studying the reverse transformation \\varepsilon to γ, it was shown that the fcc high temperature phase was unstable at 298 K when the quenching temperature was equal or higher than 1073 K. L'acier Fe-31,6Mn-6,45Si (FM30) présente des transformations martensitiques (directe, inverse et isotherme) qui sont mises en évidence par mesure de résistence électrique en température. La transformation directe γ to \\varepsilon est inhibée par l'apparition de l'antiferromagnétisme de la phase γ. Cependant nous avons envisagé une température de fin d'évolution M_f^{prime}. L'étude de la transformation inverse \\varepsilon to γ montre que la phase cfc de haute température est instable à 298 K après trempe depuis des températures égales ou supérieures à 1073 K.

  8. Etude analytique et numérique de la réponse en vibration à hautes fréquences d'éprouvettes de fatigue vibratoire des métaux. Application aux aciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Aich, A.; El Kihel, B.; Kifani, A.; Sahban, F.

    1994-07-01

    In the present paper, the so-called " ultrasonic fatigue " or fatigue at very high frequency has been studied in the materials elastic behaviour case while neglecting the thermal effects that influence the mechanical fields. The determination of mechanical fields and specimen resonance length has been done both analytically and numerically. The numerical method used for this calculation is the finite element method (FEM). Martensitic steel " Soleil A2 " and austenitic steel " ICL 472 BC " have been considered in order to compare the two methods (analytical and numerical). It is shown that a perfect convergence is obtained between the two solutions. Dans le présent travail, la fatigue vibratoire a été étudiée dans le cas du comportement élastique des matériaux en négligeant les effets thermiques pouvant influencer les champs mécaniques. La détermination de ces champs et de la longueur de résonance des éprouvettes de fatigue a été faite analytiquement et numériquement. Le calcul numérique effectué se base sur la méthode des éléments finis. Dans le but d'une comparaison des solutions analytiques et numériques, deux aciers ont été considérés : un acier martensitique (Soleil A2) et un acier austénitique de type 18-10 (ICL 472 BC). Une parfaite convergence est obtenue entre les deux solutions.

  9. Facteurs associes aux décès des nouveau-nés suspects d'infections bactériennes au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pédiatrique Charles de Gaulle de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Solange Odile Yugbaré; Méda, Désiré; Dao, Lassina; Kouéta, Fla; Ludovic, Kam; Traoré, Ramata Ouédraogo; Yé, Diarra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Il s'agit d’étudier les facteurs associés au décès des nouveau-nés suspects d'infections bactériennes au centre hospitalier universitaire pédiatrique Charles de gaulle de Ouagadougou. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude de cohorte rétrospective du 1er janvier 2009 au 31 décembre 2012 au centre hospitalier universitaire pédiatrique Charles de gaulle de Ouagadougou. Résultats La fréquence hospitalière des nouveau-nés suspects d'infection bactérienne sur était de 62,8%. L’âge médian à l'admission était de trois jours et le sex ratio de 1,1. Parmi ces nouveau-nés, 351 (22,8%) ont bénéficié d'au moins un examen bactériologique, et 28 (8%) ont eu la confirmation de l'origine bactérienne de l'infection. Au cours de la période néonatale, 138(9%) nouveau-nés sont décédés avec un taux de létalité précoce et tardive respectivement de 9,6% et 8,3%. Le lieu de résidence, le mode d'admission, le nombre de consultations prénatales, le poids de naissance, la présence de signes de gravité et l'année d'admission étaient les facteurs de risque indépendants associés au décès. Conclusion Les facteurs associés au décès devraient être pris en compte dans les interventions de santé pour réduire la mortalité néonatale. PMID:27583071

  10. Support to Industry Partners in Achieving Designation/Certification for the US Safety Act (Soutien aux Partenaires de L’industrie afin de les Aider a Obtenir la Designation/Certification Associee a la Loi Americaine sur la Securite)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    instances. For example, a drug that is developed to treat illnesses (eg. ciprofloxacin ) may have side effects that create liability. In normal use...maladies (p. ex., la ciprofloxacine ) peut avoir des effets secondaires qui engagent une responsabilité. Dans le cas d’une utilisation normale, le fabricant...does not limit the liability in other instances. For example, a drug that is developed to treat illnesses (eg. ciprofloxacin ) may have side effects

  11. Fiche pratique: La peche aux mots; Faire parler les BD; Rubrique evenement; Les droits de l'homme (Practical Ideas: Fishing for Words; Making Comic Strips Talk; Events Report; The Rights of Man).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timbal-Doclaux, Louis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Four activities for classroom French instruction are described: a board game for children's vocabulary development; a sentence and dialogue construction exercise using comic strips (existing or student-made); a discussion of the treatment of the notion of "event" in different journalistic contexts; and an exercise in debating skills and language.…

  12. A propos d'une typologie des objectifs possibles d'un enseignement "du" francais aux adultes en formation (Concerning a Typology of Possible Objectives in Teaching French to Continuing Education Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariet, Francois

    1977-01-01

    Proposes an approach to French language instruction which stresses themes, such as literature, law, economics, and management, rather than specific occupational levels, so as to respect the needs of adult continuing education students of all socioeconomic levels. (AM)

  13. La vulnerabilite de l'universite face aux politiques gouvernementales et la cooperation internationale nord-sud (The Vulnerability of the University in the Face of Governmental Politics and North-South International Cooperation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barot, Elisabeth

    1991-01-01

    Cooperation between universities in northern and southern hemispheres in the current economic and geopolitical climate is discussed. The relationship between Canadian universities and the government is chronicled, and mechanisms of international cooperation are analyzed. Certain ethical principles are proposed as a framework for Canadian…

  14. Moving to Inclusion. Active Living through Physical Education: Maximizing Opportunities for Students with a Disability = Integration en Mouvement. La vie active par l'education physique: Multipliez les possibilities offertes aux eleves ayant un handicap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Active Living Alliance for Canadians with a Disability, Gloucester (Ontario).

    This document is composed of 10 manuals which provide both general and specific guidelines to facilitate the inclusion of Canadian students with disabilities in physical education programs. An introductory manual identifies general concepts, strategies, and practical approaches that can be used in an inclusive physical education program. It…

  15. Preparing Children for Schools and Schools for Children. Notes, Comments = Preparer les enfants a l'ecole et adapter l'ecole aux enfants. Notes, Comments--No. 194.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This paper critically examines evaluations of the effects of early childhood development programs in Third World countries. Introductory comments underscoring the importance of preschool interventions for the improvement of primary schools are followed by a section explaining the paper's analytical framework, which posits an interactive…

  16. L'application de l'appareil Suvaglingua de correction phonetique a l'enseignement de l'espagnol aux francophones (The Use of the Suvaglingua Synthesizer for Phonetic Correction in Spanish Courses for French Speakers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarmiento, Jose; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes the use of the verbo-tonal method of phonetic correction and the Suvaglingua synthesizer in Spanish courses at the International School of Interpreters at Mons, France. (Text is in French.) (PMP)

  17. Le Diplome d'Universite Face aux Activities de Formation Continue: Analyse Sommaire de la Documentation Actuelle. (The University Graduate with Respect to Continuing Education Programs: Summary Analysis of Current Documentation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferland, Mario

    The document reviews the literature pertaining to university graduates and professional continuing education and discusses principal administrative problems in the organization of continuing education programs. Chapter 1 examines the university graduate's need for continuing education, new conceptions of continuing education for the university…

  18. Enseigner aux eleves ayant des troubles emotionnels et (ou) des psychopathologies. Elabore pour les eleves ayant des besoins speciaux (Teaching Students with Emotional Disorders and/or Mental Illnesses. Elaborated for Eligible Special Needs Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    This resource manual, in French, is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia…

  19. La contribution de la diversité des expériences littéraires préscolaires aux habiletés émergentes en littéracie

    PubMed Central

    PARENT, Sophie; MONTÉSINOS-GELET, Isabelle; SÉGUIN, Jean R.; ZELAZO, Philip David; TREMBLAY, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les études antérieures montrent que les facteurs langagiers et cognitifs chez le jeune enfant ne suffisent pas pour expliquer les différences individuelles dans l’acquisition des compétences relatives à la langue écrite (Sénéchal et LeFevre, 2002). S’inspirant de l’éthologie et de la sociologie, Pellegrini (2001) propose que l’exposition à une plus grande variété d’interlocuteurs et de contextes sociaux pour l’exercice des compétences liées à l’écrit favorise l’acquisition du langage littéraire et des compétences en lecture/écriture. La présente étude a pour but de vérifier cette contribution de la variété des opportunités sociales reliées à l’écrit à l’acquisition des compétences émergentes en littéracie à 5 ans. Cette contribution est examinée de concert avec les ressources financières familiales, l’éducation parentale, la fréquence des activités mère-enfant de lecture/écriture et les compétences verbales et mnémoniques de l’enfant. Les résultats confirment partiellement l’hypothèse de Pellegrini et appuient la pertinence de considérer plusieurs dimensions des expériences sociales préscolaires. La contribution unique de la diversité des activités littéraires de l’enfant à 48 mois s’avère de taille similaire à celle du vocabulaire réceptif évalué à 42 mois et de la mémoire à court terme à 42 mois. La diversité des interlocuteurs n’ajoute toutefois pas au modèle. PMID:28566801

  20. Formalisme rationnel le la méthode de détermination des contraintes résiduelles par diffraction des rayons X: application aux couches minces et multicouches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, K. F.; Kahloun, C.; Grilhé, J.

    1993-06-01

    The use of the rational formalism in the residual stress determination method by X-ray diffraction improves the precision and the mathematical elegance of this method. It eliminates the approximations made in the conventional formalism, and corrects the results by more than 15% in certain case of thin films and multilayers. L'utilisation du formalisme rationnel dans la méthode de détermination des contraintes résiduelles par diffraction des rayons X améliore la rigueur, la précision et l'élégance mathématique de la méthode. Elle permet d'éviter les approximations faites dans le formalisme conventionnel, et apporte des corrections qui dépassent 15 % dans certains cas de couches minces et de multicouches.

  1. The Maturing of a Profession: An Overview of Workplace Education Practitioner Development Opportunities = Une Profession en Plein Essor: Un apercu des possibilites de perfectionnement offertes aux practiciens de l'education en milieu de travail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roger, Margarit

    This document consists of English and French versions of a report profiling some of the local, regional, and national professional development opportunities available to workplace education practitioners across Canada. The report begins with an introduction that describes the process used to identify the programs (surveys and interviews with more…

  2. Comportement non linéaire des générateurs électrochimiques associés aux convertisseurs statiques. Détection de l'état de charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pioufle, B.; Fauvarque, J. F.; Delalande, P.

    1998-06-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear behaviour of electrochemical cells submitted to high level current pulses is examined. Gas creation caused by current charge pulses, leads to an higher impedance of the cell. A battery state of charge (SOC) indicator based on this phenomenon is then proposed. Indeed, fusion of data provided by response to different current pulses (different levels, different duration, charge or discharge pulses) permits to give an accurate SOC indication. An experimental SOC indicator test-bench for lead-acid batteries is finally presented in this article. The discharge mode is taken into account in the algorithm. Le but de cette étude est de mettre en évidence le comportement non linéaire des générateurs électrochimiques secondaires soumis à des sollicitations impulsionnelles de charge ou de décharge de grande amplitude. L'influence de la création de composés gazeux sur l'impédance de la batterie est examinée. En second lieu, cette non-linéarité au niveau de la réponse à l'impulsion est exploitée pour détecter l'état de charge de la batterie. Les informations issues de la réponse à diverses sollicitations impulsionnelles en courant (différentes durées, différentes amplitudes, en charge ou en décharge) sont fusionnées, afin de détecter l'état de charge de l'accumulateur. Une méthodologie pour prendre en compte le régime de décharge est exposée dans l'article (cas des accumulateurs plomb-acide). Une réalisation expérimentale permettant la détection de l'état de charge d'un accumulateur au plomb est présentée.

  3. Human Factors Evaluation of Prototype Visor Attachment Sub-systems and Review of Alternative Visor Designs (Evaluation des Facteurs Humains lies aux Prototypes de sous - Systemes de Fixation de Visiere et Critique de Concepts Alternatifs de Visieres)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    HumanSystems Inc.; RDDC Toronto CR 2007-025; R&D pour la défense Canada – Toronto; February 2007 La Force terrestre des FC utilise actuellement deux...container. All participants agreed that a soft cloth case was preferred, with integral storage for extra thumbscrews, and a cleaning solution and

  4. Application des modèles de Langmuir et Freundlich aux isothermes d'adsorption des métaux lourds par l'argile purifiée

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayari, F.; Srasra, E.; Trabelsi-Ayadi, M.

    2004-12-01

    Bentonite, which consist essentially of clay minerals belonging to the smectite group, have a wide range of chemical and industrial uses. The structure chemical composition, exchangeable-ion type and small crystal size of smectite are responsible for several properties, including a large chemically active surface area, a high cation-exchange capacity and interlamellar surface having usual hydratation characteristics. A sample collected from Zaghouan (North East Tunisia, North Africa) is studied through some physico-chemical methods. Results from X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), cation exchange capacities, specific and total surfaces, confirm the general smectite character of the sample. The adsorption capacity of this clay was tested out using three metallic ions (Pb2+, Zn2+, Ni2+). The results showed that, in all cases, adsorption can be illustrated by Freundlich or Langmuir isotherms. However, for 10-3M Pb2+ the low value of the correlation coefficient (R2) indicated that the experimental data for the adsorption didn't fit to any linear form of the Langmuir equation. Metal adsorbed onto Zaghouan clay varied in the decreasing order PbPb2+ > Zn2+ > Ni2+ and fitted in satisfactorily with the uptake capacity. For Pb2+ the amount of adsorbed ions remained higher than the CEC (cation exchange capacity) of the clay fraction. This result may be due to adsorption of hydroxy lead complex in addition to sorption of bivalent lead form which explains the high amount of Pb2+ removed from aqueous solution.

  5. Utilisation des micro-ordinateurs en ecriture aux cycles primaire et moyen: methodes, roles, attitudes et produits. L'education et la technologie (Writing with Microcomputers in the Elementary Grades: Process, Roles, Attitudes, and Products. Education and Technology Series).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larter, Sylvia; And Others

    A study examined and compared writing with and without microcomputers in elementary schools. Specifically, the study examined (1) how the products of writing instruction with a computer differ from the products of traditionally taught writing, (2) the process of teaching writing, (3) teacher-pupil roles when pupils are writing, (4) teacher…

  6. Moving to Inclusion. Active Living through Physical Education: Maximizing Opportunities for Students with a Disability = Integration en Mouvement. La vie active par l'education physique: Multipliez les possibilities offertes aux eleves ayant un handicap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Active Living Alliance for Canadians with a Disability, Gloucester (Ontario).

    This document is composed of 10 manuals which provide both general and specific guidelines to facilitate the inclusion of Canadian students with disabilities in physical education programs. An introductory manual identifies general concepts, strategies, and practical approaches that can be used in an inclusive physical education program. It…

  7. AGARD Flight Test Instrumentation Series. Volume 1, Issue 2. Basic Principles of Flight Test Instrumentation Engineering (Introduction Generale aux Principles de Base de l’Instrumentation des Essais en Vol)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    States of America, * M.L. Henney (British Aircraft Corp.) from the United Kingdom, * J . ldrac and J . Perrochon (Centre d’Essais en Vol) and * C...R.A. NATC/USA Tresset, J . CEV/France van der Velde, R.L. NLR/Netherlands R.R. Hildebrand, AFFTC/USA Member, Flight Mechanics Panel Chairman, Flight...Sensors, and Data Transmission 5-13 5.6.3 Laser Methods 5-13 5.6.4 Ring Laser Gyro (RLG) 5-13 5.6.5 Optical Gratings and Scales 5.14 5.6.6 Encoders 5-14 5.7

  8. Barrier-Free Design: Access to and Use of Buildings by Physically Disabled People = Amenagement pour Acces Facile: Acces Facile aux Immeubles et Leur Utilisation par les Personnes Handicapees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Works Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The manual describes, for people with physical disabilities, a building standard of accessibility and the policy for its application. Policies address both new construction and renovation work based on principles of building accessibility to a broad range of users, public service accessibility, and equality of access to employment opportunities.…

  9. L'application de l'appareil Suvaglingua de correction phonetique a l'enseignement de l'espagnol aux francophones (The Use of the Suvaglingua Synthesizer for Phonetic Correction in Spanish Courses for French Speakers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarmiento, Jose; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes the use of the verbo-tonal method of phonetic correction and the Suvaglingua synthesizer in Spanish courses at the International School of Interpreters at Mons, France. (Text is in French.) (PMP)

  10. Child Care Resources Catalogue: Child Care Initiatives Fund Projects = Des ressources en services de garde a l'enfance: Projets de la Caisse d'aide aux projets en matiere de garde des enfants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Child Care Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This catalog lists end-products of projects sponsored by Health and Welfare Canada under the Child Care Initiatives Fund. These resources include final reports, manuals, books, conference proceedings, videos, kits, and pamphlets. The resources are listed numerically by project number, with each one-page listing providing: (1) product title; (2)…

  11. Child Care Resources Catalogue: Child Care Initiatives Fund Projects. Updated = Catalogue des ressources en services de garde a l'enfance: Projets de la Caisse d'aide aux projets en matiere de garde des enfants. Mis a jour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Child Care Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This catalog update lists over 150 end-products of projects sponsored by Health and Welfare of Canada under the Child Care Initiatives Fund. These child care resources include: final reports, manuals, books, conference proceedings, videos, kits, and pamphlets. The first edition of the catalog covers projects completed as of September 1992, as well…

  12. Child Care Resources Catalogue: Child Care Initiatives Fund Projects. Updated = Catalogue des ressources en services de garde a l'enfance: projects de la Caisse d'aide aux projets en matiere de garde des enfants. Mis a jour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Child Care Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This catalog update lists over 150 end-products of projects sponsored by Human Resources Development Canada under the Child Care Initiatives Fund. These child care resources include: final reports, manuals, books, conference proceedings, videos, kits, and pamphlets. The catalog is produced in a loose-leaf format to allow for annual updates, and…

  13. OPTICS (Operational Threat Integrated Corrective Spectacles) Production and Initial Human Factors Testing (Lunettes Optics (Lunettes Correctrices Integrees a L’equipment de protection Contre les Menaces Operationnelles) - Production et Essais Initiaux Relatifs Aux Facteurs Humains)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    lentilles correctrices rapportées qui soient compatibles avec les lunettes de protection balistique et qui permettent l’utilisation à l’intérieur du...dispositif; le concept 0 a pris pour point de départ des lentilles rapportées de prescription commerciales courantes de type sportif, le concept 1 s’est...pouvant utiliser des lentilles de prescription intégrées à des lunettes de protection balistique et à un respirateur C4 a été bien reçu. Les participants

  14. Le cadmium associé aux dépôts phosphatés en Tunisie méridionaleCadmium associated with phosphate deposits in southern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beji Sassi, Aïcha; Sassi, Sassi

    1999-10-01

    Cadmium values varying between ppm to tens of ppm have been noted in phosphorites from the Early Eocene of Tunisia. The heavy fraction (d≥3.1) (< 2%) with higher Cd contents is composed of pellets with sulphide inclusions of free sphalerite and pyrite. The sphalerite XRD indicates a crystallographic parameter with a value of 5.4492 Å. Analytical data give the following structural formula: (Zn .825 Cd ,109 Fe .002 Pb .001) S 1.012 for J. M'Rata; (Zn .959 Cd ,056) S .995 for J.M'Dilla; (Zn .952 Cd .029 Fe .004 Cu .006 Pb .005) S .954 for J. Abdallah. SEM photographs show a heterogeneous Cd distribution within sphalerite. One transverse using 10 linear points across a grain of sphalerite gave a composition of S (48.47- 49.80 at.%), Zn (44.39-46.19 at.%), Cd (4.85-7.16 at.%) and Fe (0.02-0.19 at.%). Such high Cd values have not been found in natural sphalerite. A geochemical process involving sulphate-reducing bacteria could explain the presence of sphalerite inside and outside the phosphate grains. Zinc and Cd are present in sediment abnormally rich in exclusively planktonic organic matter, which is known to specifically concentrate them.

  15. Paralysie flasque en début de grossesse: penser à l'hypokaliémie due aux vomissements gravidiques, à propos de deux observations dans un pays en voie de développement

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Maouly

    2015-01-01

    Les vomissements gravidiques peuvent être responsables de rares complications neuromusculaires mais graves notamment la paralysie hypokaliémique. Nous rapportons des observations de deux jeunes femmes d'origine guinéenne, sans histoires familiales ni antécédents particuliers, admises pour paralysie flasque des quatre membres dans un contexte de vomissements incoercibles en début de grossesse. Le bilan retrouvait une hypokaliémie majeure associée à quelques troubles électro-cardiographiques. L'apport de potassium par voie parentérale avait permis une récupération motrice totale. La paralysie hypokaliémique est une complication rare des vomissements gravidiques. Une supplémentation potassique prudente avec une surveillance électro-cardiographique et biologique permet une disparition spectaculaire des troubles neuromusculaires. PMID:26327956

  16. A Survey of Blast Injury across the Full Landscape of Military Science (Etude d’ensemble des blessures dues aux explosions a travers le panorama complet de la science militaire)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...advice to NATO and national decision makers. The RTO performs its mission with the support of an extensive network of national experts. It also ensures...the form of one or more new task groups and/or workshops to address, at a minimum: 1) Methods for blast incident reconstruction and analysis where

  17. The Role of the Air Force Environmental Health Nurse in Long-Term Health Problems in Natural Disasters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Since typhoid fever and cholera vaccines afford a low level of short-lived individual protection, these diseases can best be prevented by prompt...Press, Now York, 19-69. deVille do Goyet, C. Maladies Transmissibles et Survel- lance Epidemiologique lots de Disastres Naturels.,- .,i e’j of th World

  18. Technical Programme 1993 (Le Programme Technique, 1993)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Symposium sur "Les Effets de la Propagation Atmospherique a travers des Obscurcissants Naturels et Artificiels sur le Rayonnement des Ondes Millimetriques...for Small Gas Turbines" Reunion du Panel et Symposium sur "Les Technologies pour les Petites Turbines a Gaz " 4-8 CANADA TIP Panel Meeting/Specialists

  19. 76 FR 40262 - Determination of Attainment, Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... portions of Grundy County (Aux Sable and Goose Lake Townships) and Kendall County (Oswego Township), was... Grundy County (Aux Sable and Goose Lake Townships) and Kendall County (Oswego Township) in Illinois have...

  20. Hydrochemical evidence for mixing of river water and groundwater during high-flow conditions, lower Suwannee River basin, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, Christy A.; Katz, Brian G.; Hirten, Joshua J.

    de la mer, en avril 1996, et le débit a atteint 360m3/s. Au cours de ces conditions de hautes eaux, l'eau de la Suwannee s'est introduite directement dans l'aquifère karstique supérieur de Floride, principale ressource d'eau potable de la région. Les modifications de la composition chimique de l'eau souterraine ont été quantifiées au moyen de traceurs géochimiques naturels et des techniques de modélisation du bilan de matière. Le mélange de l'eau de la rivière avec l'eau souterraine a été marqué par une diminution des concentrations en calcium, silice et 222Rn, et par une augmentation du carbone organique dissous (COD), de l'acide tannique et des chlorures, par rapport aux conditions de basses eaux connues d'après le puits de contrôle voisin de Wingate Sink et les sources de la rivière Little. La part d'eau de rivière dans le mélange avec l'eau souterraine était de 0,13 à 0,65 à Wingate Sink et de 0,5 à 0,99 au puits W-17258, à partir des modèles de mélange binaire recourant à divers traceurs. L'aptitude d'un traceur naturel à quantifier un mélange d'eau de rivière et d'eau souterraine s'est traduite par des différences dans les concentrations en traceurs des deux termes du mélange, et par la démonstration de la façon dont les traceurs réagissent dans le mélange. Des solutés avec des concentrations semblables à celles des deux termes du mélange (Na, Mg, K, Cl, SO4, SiO2) n'ont pas été des traceurs aussi efficaces pour quantifier le mélange entre l'eau de la rivière et l'eau souterraine que ceux pour lesquels existent des différences de concentrations plus fortes entre celles des deux termes (Ca, acide tannique, COD, 222Rn, HCO3).

  1. Contractions Graduees D'algebres de Lie et Applications EN Physique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Montigny, Marc

    1992-01-01

    representations finies des groupes de de Sitter, en utilisant des methodes deja connues. Les deux derniers chapitres sont des ecrits originaux qui, contrairement a tous les articles precedents, necessitent des modifications majeures avant d'etre soumis pour publication. Comme ils sont relies au sujet general de cette these, nous avons cru bon de les y inclure. Le premier d'entre eux porte sur une interpretation des geometries de Cayley-Klein en termes des contractions graduees. Ces travaux s'inserent naturellement dans le cadre de cette these puisque les resultats que nous y obtenons contiennent la plupart des groupes cinematiques comme cas particuliers de geometries a quatre dimensions. Pour clore le tout, nous considerons dans le chapitre 8 l'application des contractions traditionnelles aux equations differentielles. Plus precisement, nous nous interessons a la contraction des equations differentielles invariantes sous deux groupes reliees par contraction: so(2,1) (de Sitter en 1 + 1 dimensions) et p(1,1) (Poincare en 1 + 1 dimensions). A notre connaissance, cet article constitue le premier pas dans cette direction. Nous y suggerons une demarche vers une generalisation. La methode originale de contraction graduee present de nombreuses perspectives de recherches, d'interet autant mathematique que physique. Nous en discutons brievement dans le chapitre 9. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  2. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Alain

    2004-11-01

    Le premier colloque Rayons X et Matière (Rx 95) s'est tenu à Strasbourg en 1995. Il était destiné à célébrer le centenaire de la découverte des rayons X par ROENTGEN et a alors réuni plus de cent trente chercheurs et industriels concernés par les rayons X et les matériaux. Parmi eux se trouvaient les Professeurs André GUINIER et Hans NEFF ainsi que Monsieur Michel BRUNEL qui hélas ne sont plus parmi nous à ce jour. La qualité et la convivialité des échanges entre les participants lors de cette première réunion ne pouvaient que nous inciter à la reconduire et nous avons pris rendez vous pour 1997, puis 1999, puis 2001 et enfin pour 2003, soient cinq colloques, un tous les deux ans pendant dix ans. Au cours des années, nous avons essayé d'adapter les thèmes abordés à l'évolution de la recherche et des techniques. Ces thèmes se sont naturellement ajoutés aux thèmes classiques comme la diffraction et la fluorescence. Les nanomatériaux, les microfaisceaux en sont des exemples. A de très rares exceptions les communications présentées étaient de très bon niveau et nous avons toujours eu beaucoup de plaisir à les publier. Ces colloques ont bien fonctionné en raison de la participation des industriels qui, dans leur grande majorité, nous ont accompagnés régulièrement. Ces colloques présentent l'avantage, par rapport à des colloques spécialisés, de couvrir (presque) tout le champ des applications des rayons X et seulement ce domaine. Toutefois il est clair que les données économiques évoluent et que la situation est chaque aimée plus difficile pour tout le monde, chercheurs et industriels. Temps et moyens sont comptés et maintenant chacun doit faire de plus en plus de choix, rentabilité oblige ! Le maintien du colloque Rayons X et Matière passera obligatoirement par une réflexion globale : redéfinition des objectifs, augmentation de l'ouverture européenne, recherche d'autres formes de participation associant mieux les

  3. Light-Induced In Situ Transformation of Metal Clusters to Metal Nanocrystals for Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zeng, Zhiping; Hsu, Shao-Hui; Hung, Sung-Fu; Chen, Hao Ming; Liu, Bin

    2015-12-30

    In situ transformation of glutathione-capped gold (Aux) clusters to gold (Au) nanocrystals under simulated solar light irradiation was achieved and utilized as a facile synthetic approach to rationally fabricate Aux/Au/TiO2 ternary and Au/TiO2 binary heterostructures. Synergistic interaction of Aux clusters and Au nanocrystals contributes to enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalysis.

  4. CF Training for Moral and Ethical Decision Making in an Operational Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-16

    témoin composé de six officiers commissionnés et sous-officiers actifs. Ces participants avaient été choisis parce que chacun d’eux avait déjà...de décompression post-mission. Ces activités ont été jugées des compléments naturels à l’instruction pré-déploiement sur la PDME dans un contexte

  5. Long-term stability of 8-methoxypsoralen in ointments for topical PUVA therapy ('Cream-PUVA').

    PubMed

    Martens-Lobenhoffer, J; Rinke, M; Lösche, D; Gollnick, H

    1999-01-01

    8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) is an established photochemotherapeutic agent for PUVA therapy. Recently, a so-called 'cream-PUVA' modality was introduced into therapy of psoriasis and other dermatoses. Little is known, however, about the stability of 8-MOP in ointments used for the topical application of this compound. Therefore, we investigated the long-term stability of 8-MOP in three different ointments, Unguentum Cordes(TM), Cold Cream Naturel(TM) and a water-containing gel on the basis of Carbopol 940. All three ointments were prepared with 8-MOP concentrations of 0.05 and 0.005%, and stored over 12 weeks at room temperature (19-20 degrees C) and at 5 degrees C. 8-MOP concentrations were measured at days 1, 8, 15, 29, 57 and 88 after preparation by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The ointments were dissolved in an organic solvent, 10 microl were transferred onto the TLC plate and the chromatograms were developed first in toluene and then in toluene/ethyl acetate 2:1 v/v to resolve 8-MOP from the ointment constituents. The peak heights of 8-MOP were used for quantitation. The intraday variabilities are <3% for Unguentum Cordes and Cold Cream Naturel and <6% for the Carbopol 940 gel. The interday variabilities were <6.3% in all cases. In Unguentum Cordes and Cold Cream Naturel the concentrations of 8-MOP remain stable, but in Unguentum Cordes the emulsion began to break up after 8 weeks. In the Carbopol gel, only about 40% of the nominal concentrations of 8-MOP were found and they decrease significantly at storage at 5 degrees C. We conclude that the Carbopol gel seems to be unsuitable for PUVA therapy, whereas Cold Cream Naturel shows the best results.

  6. [Sexuality and violence].

    PubMed

    Abraham, G; Vlatkovic, D

    2011-03-23

    Violence is only a form of excessive aggressiveness, hence we ask ourselves if it is something naturel or if it is something produced by society. Sexual violence in particular could express a sort of vehemence as well as attain a destructive intention, losing even any eroticism, as observed very frequently in rape. Instead of describing different manifestations of violence, it is more profitable to try to explain the deep origin of violence itself.

  7. Reduction of Military Vehicle Acquisition Time and Cost through Advanced Modelling and Virtual Simulation (La reduction des couts et des delais d’acquisition des vehicules militaires par la modelisation avancee et la simulation de produit virtuel)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    l’informatique – a naturellement conduit à envisager l’usage de la simulation de façon systématique tout au long d’un programme naval comme un élément...les fonctions de transfert des déformations souples au niveau des capteurs gyromètre et accéléromètre du système de commande de vol sur les braquages

  8. Effect of Pre-Strain on the Dielectric and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of HSIII Silicone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    module d’élasticité du caoutchouc naturel . Au cours des dernières années, RDDC Atlantique a réalisé des recherches sur les action- neurs...plateformes militaires futures, comme les actionneurs, les capteurs et les dispositifs de stockage de l’énergie. Les résultats sont également

  9. Trexler Lake Project, Lehigh River Basin, PA. Supplement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    underground water table are relatively low except during periods of high runoff when the area’s agricultural naturel adds to a higher phosphate concentration...moderately high flows in Switzer and Lyon Creeks, the total phosphate concentrations were 0.82 and 1.7 mg/l, respectively. These are considered high...and are believed due to the dairy farms in the stream valleys. Phosphate concentrations at Schnecksville are high when surface runoff is high. One

  10. Production of Ni-Cr-Ti-natural fibres composite and investigation of mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Pesmen, G.; Erol, A.

    2015-03-30

    Intermetallic materials such as Ni{sub 2}Ti, Cr{sub 2}Ti are among advanced technology materials that have outstanding mechanical and physical properties for high temperature applications. Especially creep resistance, low density and high hardness properties stand out in such intermetallics. The microstructure, mechanical properties of (%50Ni-%48Cr-%2Ti)-%10Naturel Fibres and (%64Ni-%32Cr-%4Ti)-%10Naturel Fibres powders were investigated using specimens produced by tube furnace sintering at 1000-1200-1400°C temperature. A composite consisting of ternary additions, a metallic phase, Ti,Cr and Ni have been prepared under Ar shroud and then tube furnace sintered. XRD, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were investigated to characterize the properties of the specimens. Experimental results carried out for composition (%64Ni-%32Cr-%4Ti)-%10Naturel at 1400°C suggest that the best properties as 112.09HV and 5,422g/cm{sup 3} density were obtained at 1400°C.

  11. In situ and laboratory investigations of fluid flow through an argillaceous formation at different scales of space and time, Tournemire tunnel, southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisson, Jean-Yves; Bertrand, Lucien; Heitz, Jean-François; Golvan, Yann Moreau-Le

    2001-01-01

    'argilite est caractérisée par de faibles teneurs en eau ( 3-5%) et de très petits rayons d'accès de pores. Les coefficients de diffusion à l'eau tritiée (1×10-12 à 2×10-11 m2/s) et les conductivités hydrauliques déduites de différents types d'essais au laboratoire (10-13 à 10-14 m/s) sont caractéristiques d'une roche très imperméable. Des tests hydrauliques in situ (y compris une mesure de charge à long terme) ont fourni des valeurs approchées des charges et un ordre de grandeur des perméabilités à l'échelle de 1-10 m (10-11 à 10-13 m/s). En dépit des incertitudes sur ces données (facteur d'échelle, présence de fissures, et artéfacts possibles dus aux couplages hydro-chimique et mécanique) on suppose que les transferts sont essentiellement gouvernés par des processus diffusifs. La reconnaissance de transferts naturels possible à une plus grande échelle de temps et d'espace a été étudiée à partir des traceurs isotopiques naturels des fluides interstitiels. Une modélisation, basée sur un profil en deutérium le long de la colonne argileuse et postulant un processus diffusif a permis de proposer une estimation de temps de transfert possible, mais le manque de connaissances précises au stade actuel de l'étude concernant l'évolution géologique passée du site et le rôle possible de la fracturation ne permet pas de réduire les incertitudes constatées sur ces estimations. Resumen. Dentro del contexto de un programa de investigación y desarrollo para la eliminación de residuos, el Instituto Francés de Protección Nuclear y Seguridad seleccionó un emplazamiento experimental en el túnel de Tournemire (Aveyron, Francia) para llevar a cabo estudios sobre el flujo potencial de fluídos a diferentes escalas temporales y espaciales, en una formación arcillosa de 250 m de espesor. La argilita tiene un contenido natural bajo de agua ( 3-5%) y una porosidad accesible muy pequeña. Los coeficientes de difusión de agua con tritio (entre 10-12 y

  12. LA TRANSPLANTATION HÉPATIQUE ORTHOTOPIQUE À L’UNIVERSITÉ DU COLORADO

    PubMed Central

    Corman, J.; Starzl, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    Ce travail a été réalisé grâce aux fonds de recherche de la Veterans Administration, aux fonds RR-00051 et RR-00069 du programme des centres de recherche clinique générale de la Division of Research Resources, National Institutes of Health, et aux fonds AI-10176-01, AI-AM-08898, et AM-07772. PMID:21572894

  13. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, Werner; Meinnel, Jean

    2003-02-01

    'interaction entre le neutron et la matière, mais également une haute spécificité dans la conception et l'utilisation des diffractomètres et spectromètres neutroniques. Pour ces raisons, l'accès aux neutrons est souvent limité, sinon réservé à des spécialistes, ce qui freine tout naturellement l'utilisation par des chercheurs non familiarisés à ce domaine.Pour combattre ce déficit d'information et cet état de fait, en accord avec de nombreux collègues Rennais, nous avons proposé à la Société Française de Neutronique d'organiser une École d'été qui s'adresse plus spécialement à de non-spécialistes de la diffusion neutronique. Le public visé concernait donc à la fois les chercheurs confirmés mais peu familiarisés avec le domaine neutronique, mais aussi les jeunes chercheurs dès le niveau doctorant. En effet pour ces derniers, l'utilisation des “grands instruments" s'avère nécessaire pour qu'ils soient à la hauteur de leur sujet de thèse. Pour cette raison, il était évident d'intégrer cette École d'été dans le programme de l'École Doctorale “Sciences des Matériaux" de l'Université de Rennes 1 qui rassemble chimistes, physiciens et géologues. Dans le même contexte, notre intérêt était de proposer un large spectre de cours couvrant la diversité des applications de la diffusion neutronique dans les différents domaines de recherche en chimie et physique des matériaux, en sciences de la terre ainsi qu'en sciences pour l'ingénieur. Un deuxième but était de montrer de plus la complémentarité des neutrons et des rayons X et plus spécifiquement des X produits par rayonnement synchrotron.Dans l'avenir, nous sommes persuadés que la diffusion neutronique va jouer un rôle clé pour le développement de nouveaux matériaux et de leur caractérisation. Dans cette optique, des efforts considérables ont été déjà engagés aux États-Unis ainsi qu'au Japon où deux nouvelles sources de neutrons sont en cours de construction. Du point

  14. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, Helmut; Fischer, Henry; Leclercq-Hugeux, Françoise

    2003-09-01

    une observation directe et non-destructive des positions et des mouvements atomiques. La gamme des distances et des temps sondés par les neutrons autorisent aussi bien de suivre le mouvement des atomes à l'échelle inter atomique que l'évolution d'une structure soit mésoscopique soit macroscopique sur des temps de moins d'une picoseconde à plusieurs heures. La gamme des techniques de diffusion utilisées pour couvrir un tel champ d'application est naturellement très large : différents types de diffractomètres permettent des études de structure atomique trés pointue et résolue dans le temps. Les spectromètres nous donnent accès à la dynamique d'une dizaine de femto- à plusieurs nanosecondes. La diffusion aux petits angles, la reflectomètrie et finalement la tomographie nous permettent de regarder la structure et la dynamique d'objets plus grands. Il était illusoire de prétendre couvrir la totalité des systèmes désordonnés et l'ensemble des techniques de diffusion neutronique pertinentes au cours d'une école de 3 jours. Nous avons donc été amené à nous concentrer sur les liquides, les verres, les cristaux plastiques et les polymères. Ce choix s'est imposé par le souhait d'introduire les concepts de base, en acceptant de sacrifier certains domaines d'applications. Il va de soi que l'étude approfondie de systèmes mettant en jeu plusieurs échelles de distance (structure moléculaire, portée des corrélations entre les molécules) et de temps (relaxations caractéristiques des divers phenomènes dynamiques selon leur extension spatiale) implique une pluralité de techniques expérimentales, complémentaires des différentes techniques neutroniques disponibles. Un des objectifs de cette école etait donc de préciser les domaines de pertinence des différentes techniques neutroniques disponibles en en situant la complémentarité avec d'autres approches instrumentales (diffraction des rayons X, EXAFS, RMN, etc.). Enfin la confrontation avec

  15. Apports du cryo-microscope électronique à balayage à émission de champ à l'étude des matières organiques et des relations organo-minérales naturelles. Application aux croûtes microbiotiques des sols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Défarge, Christian; Issa, Oumarou Malam; Trichet, Jean

    1999-05-01

    The cryo-SEM (SEM equipped with a freeze-drying sample preparation system) allows the micromorphological transformations occurring during desiccation-rewetting cycles of microbiotic crusts from Sahelian soils to be visualised, like the swelling up of mucilaginous envelopes of the constituent micro-organisms through water absorption. When the cryo-SEM is equipped with a field emission gun, which permits observations at low voltage operation (1 kV) without coating, the natural surface of the samples may be revealed, in particular the presence, at the surface of mineral grains, of microbe-derived organic meshes that probably play a role in the resistance of these crusts to erosion.

  16. Workplace Learning: The Role of Canadian Colleges and Institutes in Meeting Canada's Professional, Technical and Trade Skills Challenges = L'apprentissage en milieu de travail: Le role des colleges et instituts canadiens face aux defis canadiens en matiere des competences professionnels et techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolmson, Lorna, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue examines selected topics in vocational education in Canadian community colleges. It focuses on the central themes of community college and industry partnerships, vocational education assessment, and vocational and workplace education pedagogical models. Articles include: (1) "Industry and Colleges: Key Partners in Meeting Canada's…

  17. Calcul numérique accéléré de mesures de performance sur les modèles Markoviens appliqués aux systèmes informatiques et de télécommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaddar, A.; Sinno, N.

    2005-05-01

    La complexité du phénomène de files d'attente dans les systèmes informatiques et télécommunications nécessite leur simulation par des modèles Markoviens pour les mesures de performance, mesure des délais d'attente au niveau des routeurs pour le modèle informatique et l'étude de la gestion des appels téléphoniques pour le modèle des circuits téléphoniques. L'optimisation des méthodes numériques de résolution des équations relatives à ces deux modèles va permettre d' ídentifier les critères de convergence rapide vers les états stationnaires correspondant à ces mesures.

  18. Counter-IED Initiative PPE Horizon 0, Phase 1, Protection Versus Performance Preliminary Trade-off Analysis, Behavioural Task Analysis (Initiative d’epi pour la Lutte aux IED - Horizon 0 Phase 1 - Analyse de Compromis Preliminaire de la Protection par Rapport au Rendement Analyse Comportementale des Taches)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    RESULTS .............................................................................92 TABLE 17: RATINGS OF THE THERMAL COMFORT ON A 7 POINT SCALE...98. In addition to the body mapping of thermal discomfort, participants also rated thermal comfort acceptability for hot spots, ventilation and...overall comfort. Additionally each participant completed a thermal comfort Humansystems® Counter IED Page 91 questionnaire that examined ventilation

  19. Proposals for Solutions to Problems Related to the Use of F-34 (SFP) and High Sulphur Diesel on Ground Equipment Using Advanced Reduction Emission Technologies (Propositions de solutions aux problemes lies a l’utilisation de F-34 (SFP) et de diesel a haute teneur en soufre pour le materiel terrestre disposant de technologies avancees de reduction des emissions)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    technologies avancées de réduction des émissions) Final Report of Exploratory Team AVT-ET-073. ii RTO-TM-AVT-ET-073 The...on board diagnostic system ( OBD ) integrated in the ECU to control the exhaust gas quality. HSF use will negatively impact on ECU and action must be

  20. Fiches pratiques: Le circuit de l'herbe; Journal a plusieurs mains; Comment aborder l'economie d'une facon economique; Des articles d'autrefois aux determinants d'aujourd'hui (Practical Ideas: The Path of Grass; Group Diary; Approaching Economics in an Economical Way; From Yesterday's Articles to Today's Determiners).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vever, Daniel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Four activities for the French language classroom are described, including a comprehension game based on the cow's digestive system, a group journal exercise using current events, an economics vocabulary development activity, and a grammar exercise focusing on the use of determiners in news articles. (MSE)

  1. Fiches pratiques: Le circuit de l'herbe; Journal a plusieurs mains; Comment aborder l'economie d'une facon economique; Des articles d'autrefois aux determinants d'aujourd'hui (Practical Ideas: The Path of Grass; Group Diary; Approaching Economics in an Economical Way; From Yesterday's Articles to Today's Determiners).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vever, Daniel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Four activities for the French language classroom are described, including a comprehension game based on the cow's digestive system, a group journal exercise using current events, an economics vocabulary development activity, and a grammar exercise focusing on the use of determiners in news articles. (MSE)

  2. Les annees de transition: une epoque de changement. Reveu et analyse des projets pilotes sur les questions relatives aux annees de Transition. Volume 1: Resume (Year of Transition: Times for Change. A Review and Analysis of Pilot Projects Investigating Issues in the Transition Years. Volume 1: Summary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy; And Others

    In 1990, the Ontario (Canada) Ministry of Education implemented the Transition Years project, an initiative for restructuring middle-grades education. This French-language document presents findings of a study that identified effective policies and practices used by the pilot schools. Data were derived from: (1) surveys completed by staffs in…

  3. Human Factors Analysis of Aircrew Operational Tasks in a Fixed-Wing Search and Rescue Aircraft Cargo Compartment (Analyse des facteurs humains lies aux taches operationnelles qui sont executees par les membres d’equipage dans la soute des avions de recherche et de sauvetage)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Techs during operational tasks was evaluated. The results were used to provide guidance based on ergonomics principals, standards in the industry, and...results indicate that the postural and loading demands were well above those accepted based on ergonomics practice and occupational limitations...placed on SAR Techs were well above the acceptable upper limits based on industry-standard ergonomics guidance. It was demonstrated using QBack

  4. Workplace Learning: The Role of Canadian Colleges and Institutes in Meeting Canada's Professional, Technical and Trade Skills Challenges = L'apprentissage en milieu de travail: Le role des colleges et instituts canadiens face aux defis canadiens en matiere des competences professionnels et techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolmson, Lorna, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue examines selected topics in vocational education in Canadian community colleges. It focuses on the central themes of community college and industry partnerships, vocational education assessment, and vocational and workplace education pedagogical models. Articles include: (1) "Industry and Colleges: Key Partners in Meeting Canada's…

  5. Contribution des surfaces saturées et des versants aux flux d'eau et d'éléments exportés en période de crue: traçage à l'aide du carbone organique dissous et de la silice. Cas du petit bassin versant du Strengbach (Vosges, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idir, Samir; Probst, Anne; Viville, Daniel; Probst, Jean-Luc

    1999-01-01

    Two contributing areas have been determined in the small forested Strengbach catchment by using dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved silica as the most efficient chemical tracers of stream water origin during a storm event. Dissolved silica represents the deep layers of the hillslopes which contributes 71-75 % of the total storm runoff and 85-99 % of the fluxes of major elements exported by the Strengbach. DOC corresponds to the saturated areas which occupy only 2 % of the total catchment area but which supply 25-29 % of the total streamflow and 56 % of the DOC stream flux. The specific fluxes of water (L·s -1·ha -1) and elements (kg·ha -1) are much more important in the saturared areas than in the rest of the catchment.

  6. Caractérisation géométrique et cinématique des structures liées aux phases compressives de l'Éocène au Quaternaire inférieur en Tunisie : exemple de la Tunisie nord-orientale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mzali, Houcem; Zouari, Hédi

    2006-08-01

    During Eocene to Early Quaternary period, three compressive tectonic phases are recognized in Northeast Tunisia: a NW-SE to north-south phase during the Late Eocene, a N120-to-N140 phase in the Late Miocene, and a NW-SE to north-south phase in the Plio-Early Quaternary. The first Eocene phase has built NE-SW folds and remobilised east-west-to-N120 and NE-SW faults with a reverse component. The second Miocene phase is characterized by east-west-to-N120 faults with a normal component and NE-SW folds. The third phase occurred during the Plio-Early Quaternary has edified NE-SW folds associated with east-west-to-N120 dextral reverse strike-slip faults and NE-SW faults with a reverse component. To cite this article: H. Mzali, H. Zouari, C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  7. LE MAINTIEN DU POUVOIR CHEZ LA PERSONNE ÂGÉE HÉBERGÉE SOUFFRANT DE DÉFICITS COGNITIFS

    PubMed Central

    Vézina, Aline; Pelletier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Cet article théorique interpelle à la fois la recherche et l’intervention, à l’égard du mieux-être des personnes âgées hébergées présentant des troubles cognitifs associés à des démences dégénératives. Appuyé par la perspective de l’interactionnisme symbolique, il met l’accent sur les interactions entre le personnel soignant (infirmière, infirmière auxiliaire, préposée, ergothérapeute, personnel de réadaptation et des loisirs, travailleuse sociale, etc.) et les proches aidants, dans un objectif de maintien du pouvoir pour et par la personne âgée. Sous l’angle de l’approche centrée sur la personne, qui affirme l’importance de dépasser l’âgisme et l’impuissance quant à la démence, il aborde deux approches : l’approche prothétique élargie et l’approche biographique qui permettent de soutenir l’identité et l’affirmation de soi de la personne âgée hébergée souffrant de déficits cognitifs. PMID:24795486

  8. The clathrin-binding motif and the J-domain of Drosophila Auxilin are essential for facilitating Notch ligand endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kandachar, Vasundhara; Bai, Ting; Chang, Henry C

    2008-01-01

    Background Ligand endocytosis plays a critical role in regulating the activity of the Notch pathway. The Drosophila homolog of auxilin (dAux), a J-domain-containing protein best known for its role in the disassembly of clathrin coats from clathrin-coated vesicles, has recently been implicated in Notch signaling, although its exact mechanism remains poorly understood. Results To understand the role of auxilin in Notch ligand endocytosis, we have analyzed several point mutations affecting specific domains of dAux. In agreement with previous work, analysis using these stronger dAux alleles shows that dAux is required for several Notch-dependent processes, and its function during Notch signaling is required in the signaling cells. In support of the genetic evidences, the level of Delta appears elevated in dAux deficient cells, suggesting that the endocytosis of Notch ligand is disrupted. Deletion analysis shows that the clathrin-binding motif and the J-domain, when over-expressed, are sufficient for rescuing dAux phenotypes, implying that the recruitment of Hsc70 to clathrin is a critical role for dAux. However, surface labeling experiment shows that, in dAux mutant cells, Delta accumulates at the cell surface. In dAux mutant cells, clathrin appears to form large aggregates, although Delta is not enriched in these aberrant clathrin-positive structures. Conclusion Our data suggest that dAux mutations inhibit Notch ligand internalization at an early step during clathrin-mediated endocytosis, before the disassembly of clathrin-coated vesicles. Further, the inhibition of ligand endocytosis in dAux mutant cells possibly occurs due to depletion of cytosolic pools of clathrin via the formation of clathrin aggregates. Together, our observations argue that ligand endocytosis is critical for Notch signaling and auxilin participates in Notch signaling by facilitating ligand internalization. PMID:18466624

  9. Auxin-induced degradation dynamics set the pace for lateral root development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Auxin elicits diverse cell behaviors through a simple nuclear signaling pathway initiated by degradation of Aux/IAA co-repressors. Our previous work revealed that members of the large Arabidopsis Aux/IAA family exhibit a range of degradation rates in synthetic contexts. However, it remained an unr...

  10. The maize (Zea mays L.) AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID gene family: phylogeny, synteny, and unique root-type and tissue-specific expression patterns during development.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Yvonne; Zhang, Yanxiang; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin plays a key role in the coordination of many aspects of growth and development. AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) genes encode instable primary auxin responsive regulators of plant development that display a protein structure with four characteristic domains. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of the 34 members of the maize Aux/IAA gene family was performed. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed two classes of Aux/IAA proteins that can be distinguished by alterations in their domain III. Seven pairs of paralogous maize Aux/IAA proteins were discovered. Comprehensive root-type and tissue-specific expression profiling revealed unique expression patterns of the diverse members of the gene family. Remarkably, five of seven pairs of paralogous genes displayed highly correlated expression patterns in roots. All but one (ZmIAA23) tested maize Aux/IAA genes were auxin inducible, displaying two types of auxin induction within three hours of treatment. Moreover, 51 of 55 (93%) differential Aux/IAA expression patterns between different root-types followed the expression tendency: crown roots > seminal roots > primary roots > lateral roots. This pattern might imply root-type-specific regulation of Aux/IAA transcript abundance. In summary, the detailed analysis of the maize Aux/IAA gene family provides novel insights in the evolution and developmental regulation and thus the function of these genes in different root-types and tissues.

  11. Combinatorial Auction Theory Applied to the Selection of Surface Warfare Officer Retention Incentives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    needs. Companies such as Ernst & 2 CENTER FOR NAVAL ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA VA & Hattiangadi, 2001. 3...ELC, ADCA, AUX MACH CVN65 DIV WEPS**, SHP ELX MTL, FCO, NTDS-CIC, CMS, 1LT CVN68 DIV WEPS, 1LT(3), E DIVO, AUX CVN69 NTDS-CIC, 1LT, DIV WEPS, E

  12. Visit CD

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le DG H.Schopper souhaite la bienvenue aux ambassadeurs des pays membres et aux représentants des pays avec lesquels le Cern entretient des relations proches et fait un exposé sur les activités au Cern

  13. Visit CD

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-03

    Le DG H.Schopper souhaite la bienvenue aux ambassadeurs des pays membres et aux représentants des pays avec lesquels le Cern entretient des relations proches et fait un exposé sur les activités au Cern

  14. Functional analysis of molecular interactions in synthetic auxin response circuits

    PubMed Central

    Lanctot, Amy; Hageman, Amber; Nemhauser, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Auxin-regulated transcription pivots on the interaction between the AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) repressor proteins and the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcription factors. Recent structural analyses of ARFs and Aux/IAAs have raised questions about the functional complexes driving auxin transcriptional responses. To parse the nature and significance of ARF–DNA and ARF–Aux/IAA interactions, we analyzed structure-guided variants of synthetic auxin response circuits in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our analysis revealed that promoter architecture could specify ARF activity and that ARF19 required dimerization at two distinct domains for full transcriptional activation. In addition, monomeric Aux/IAAs were able to repress ARF activity in both yeast and plants. This systematic, quantitative structure-function analysis identified a minimal complex—comprising a single Aux/IAA repressing a pair of dimerized ARFs—sufficient for auxin-induced transcription. PMID:27647902

  15. New tangles in the auxin signaling web

    PubMed Central

    Wright, R. Clay

    2015-01-01

    Plants use auxin to relay critical information that shapes their growth and development. Auxin perception and transcriptional activation are mediated by the degradation of Aux/IAA repressor proteins. Degradation of Aux/IAAs relieves repression on Auxin Response Factors (ARFs), which bind DNA sequences called Auxin Response Elements (AuxREs). In most higher plant genomes, multiple paralogs exist for each part of the auxin nuclear signaling pathway. This potential combinatorial diversity in signaling pathways likely contributes to the myriad of context-specific responses to auxin. Recent structures of several domains from ARF proteins have exposed new modes of ARF dimerization, new models for ARF-AuxRE specificity, and the strong likelihood of larger order complexes formed by ARF and Aux/IAA homo- and heteromultimerization. Preliminary experiments support a role for these novel interactions in planta, further increasing the potential architectural complexity of this seemingly simple pathway. PMID:25750737

  16. On turbulence and the formation of riffle-pools in gravel-bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacVicar, Bruce J.

    meme periode afin de suivre les changements morphologiques. Un evenement majeur s'est passe au debut de la periode d'etude. Cet evenement a deplace l'arbre qui determine le lieu de la mouille, ce qui a provoque une nouvelle periode de developpement morphologique que nous avons caracterisee. En general, la morphologie et le transport de sediment refletent la variabilite de l'ecoulement. En aval de l'arbre, toutes les tailles de particules marquees ont ete enlevees de la mouille et l'erosion de la mouille a ete progressive. En contraste, en amont de l'arbre nous avons observe que le transport de sediment est tres sensible aux tailles des particules et que deux cycles d'aggradation et de degradation se sont produits. Les particules plus larges que le D84 n'ont pas ete deplacees du debut de la mouille pendant la periode d'etudes, malgre au moins un evenement avec une frequence de retour de 15 ans. La conclusion centrale de la modelisation et de l'etude de terrain est que la turbulence est necessaire pour expliquer la formation des seuil-mouilles. Le modele est tres important pour la generalisation des resultats parce qu'il demontre que des formes du lit avec une taille, un triage de particule par taille, et une stabilite similaire a ce que nous observons dans les seuil-mouilles naturels peuvent etre generees sans qu'un element comme l'arbre soit present pour le provoquer. Pour cela, il faut que le modele inclue une regle qui lie la turbulence a l'acceleration, une autre regle qui imite l'effet de la separation de l'ecoulement, et les sediments de tailles heterogenes. La convergence de ces facteurs avec les observations de terrain encourage l'hypothese que tous les seuil-mouilles sont generes par un mecanisme similaire. Il apparait que les elements qui forcent les seuil-mouilles fonctionnent comme des catalyseurs qui activent les processus associes a l'ecoulement non uniforme, mais que ces processus peuvent aussi emerger du systeme complexe qui constitue une riviere a lit

  17. Semi-relativistic quark-antiquark potential models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basdevant, J. L.; Boukraa, S.

    We study the qualitative and quantitative properties of the spectrum of a two-body hamiltonian with relativistic kinematics. We show that this kinematics leads in a natural way to the observed features of light flavour (u, d, s) spectroscopy. After having established the basic properties of the operator √ p2 + m2 + V(r) in the cases of linear or logarithmic potentials, we show that, to first approximation, all q1 q2 meson states can be reproduced with a very simple universal flavour-independent potential whose parameters are directly related to basic physical quantities : the Regge slopes of light flavours and the quasi-logarithmic coupling strength of heavy quarks. We can derive equivalent effective non-relativistic hamiltonians which justify the successes of NR approaches. The main difficulties encountered, in particular in incorporating spin effects, appear to be due to the fact that, in phenomenological potential models, chiral symmetry and the ensuing Goldstone nature of the pion cannot be implemented in a natural way. Hence, such an approach can take its full predictive power only if it is based on a deeper field-theoretic level. Devant le succès spectaculaire des modèles potentiels pour la spectroscopie des états formés de quarks lourds (cc, bb, etc.), il est tentant d'essayer d'étendre de tels modèles aux états comprenant des quarks légers, u, d et s. En particulier, la spectroscopie des états mésoniques « lourds » est phénoménologiquement dominée par l'existence d'un potentiel confinant universel, quasi logarithmique entre 0,1 fm et 1 fm, tandis que celle des états légers se décrit de façon simple par des trajectoires de Regge linéaires qui ont une pente universelle. 11 est donc légitime de se demander s'il s'agit là de deux secteurs disjoints du monde hadronique, ou bien s'il existe une certaine unité dans la spectroscopie mésonique au plan phénoménologique. Cependant, en présence de quarks légers, voire de masse nulle, les

  18. Stratigraphic and geochemical controls on naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater, eastern Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, M. E.; Simo, J. A.; Freiberg, P. G.

    pyrite et dans les sulfates dissous et la corrélation entre les concentrations en sulfates, en fer et en arsenic dissous laissent penser que l'oxydation des sulfures est le processus dominant contrôlant la libération de l'arsenic dans les eaux souterraines. Cependant, les oxy-hydroxydes contenant de l'arsenic sont susceptibles d'être une autre source d'arsenic si des conditions réductrices apparaissent ou s'ils sont transportés dans l'aquifère sous forme de colloïdes. L'analyse des données provenant de puits montre que l'intersection entre le SCH et les niveaux statiques des puits domestiques est fortement corrélée à de fortes concentrations en arsenic dans les eaux souterraines. Des données de terrain et de laboratoire conduisent à penser que la contamination en arsenic la plus forte est causée par l'interaction localisée aux forages entre l'air, l'eau et les sulfures. Bien que la contamination en arsenic soit causée par l'oxydation de sulfures présents naturellement, elle est influencée par les fluctuations du niveau piézométrique causées par les pompages du captage municipal ou par les variations climatiques, ce qui peut conduire au déplacement des zones géographiques où se produisent les contaminations. Resumen Se han medido concentraciones de arsénico muy altas (de hasta 12000μg/L) en las aguas subterráneas de un acuífero confinado, en areniscas, localizado en la parte oriental de Wisconsin (EEUU). La fuente principal de arsénico es un horizonte de cementación secundaria (SCH) con un alto contenido en sulfuros, y con una gran variabilidad en espesor, morfología y concentraciones de As. El arsénico aparece en piritas y marcasitas, además de en oxihidróxidos de hierro, pero no como una fase independiente de arsenopiritas. El hecho que la marca isotópica de piritas y sulfatos disueltos sea muy similar, y que exista una gran correlación entre las concentraciones de sulfato disuelto, hierro y arsénico sugiere que la oxidación de

  19. Protease activity, localization and inhibition in the human hair follicle

    PubMed Central

    Bhogal, R K; Mouser, P E; Higgins, C A; Turner, G A

    2014-01-01

    ène, est censé se produire indépendamment des autres phases du cycle de cheveux. Bien que les mécanismes réels impliqués dans la perte de cheveux ne soient pas entièrement connus, il a été émis l'hypothèse que les processus conduisant à l'étape finale de la perte de cheveux peuvent être modulés par des protéases et/ou l'activité d'inhibiteurs de protéase. Dans cette étude, nous avons étudié la présence de protéases et de l'activité des protéases dans les cheveux humains perdus naturellement et évalué l'activité inhibitrice d'enzyme de différents matériaux. Méthodes Nous avons mesuré l'activité enzymatique en utilisant un dosage basé sur la fluorescence et la localisation des protéines par immunohistochimie indirecte (IHC). Nous avons également développé un modèle de peau ex vivo pour mesurer la force nécessaire pour extraire les fibres capillaires de la peau. Résultats Nos données démontrent la présence d'une activité de la protéase dans le matériau de tissu entourant les racines du bulbe. Nous avons également démontré la localisation de l'expression des protéines de la sérine protéase spécifique du follicule pileux humain par IHC. Ces données fournissent des éléments de preuve démontrant la présence de protéases autour des racines du bulbe de cheveux qui peuvent jouer un rôle durant la phase exogène. Nous avons également testé l'hypothèse selon laquelle un nouveau système inhibiteur de protéase (combinaison de Trichogen ® et climbazole) pouvait inhiber l'activité de la protéase dans les extraits des bulbes de la racine des cheveux, recueillies à partir d'un éventail de groupes ethniques (Royaume-Uni, Brésil, Chine, 1ère génération Mexicains aux États-Unis, Thaïlande et Turquie) dans les deux sexes, mâles et les femelles. En outre, nous avons démontré que cette combinaison est capable d'augmenter la force nécessaire pour enlever les poils dans un système de modèle de peau ex vivo. Conclusion

  20. Nucleic-acid characterization of the identity and activity of subsurface microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, E. L.

    Nucleic-acid approaches to characterizing naturally occurring microorganisms in their habitats have risen to prominence during the last decade. Extraction of deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) and ribonucleic-acid (RNA) biomarkers directly from environmental samples provides a new means of gathering information in microbial ecology. This review article defines: (1) the subsurface habitat; (2) what nucleic-acid procedures are; and (3) the types of information nucleic-acid procedures can and cannot reveal. Recent literature examining microbial nucleic acids in the terrestrial subsurface is tabulated and reviewed. The majority of effort to date has focused upon insights into the identity and phylogeny of subsurface microorganisms afforded by analysis of their 16S rRNA genes. Given the power of nucleic-acid-based procedures and their limited application to subsurface habitats to date, many future opportunities await exploration. Au cours des derniers dix ans, les approches basées sur les acides nucléiques sont apparues et devenues essentielles pour caractériser dans leurs habitats les microorganismes existant à l'état naturel. L'extraction directe de l'ADN et de l'ARN, qui sont des biomarqueurs, d'échantillons environnementaux a fourni un nouveau moyen d'obtenir des informations sur l'écologie microbienne. Cet article synthétique définit 1) l'habitat souterrain, 2) ce que sont les procédures basées sur les acides nucléiques, 3) quel type d'informations ces procéedures peuvent et ne peuvent pas révéler. Les travaux récemment publiés concernatn les acides nucléiques microbiens dans le milieu souterrain terrestre sont catalogués et passés en revue. La majorité des efforts pour obtenir es données s'est concentrée sur l'identité et la phylogénie des microorganismes souterrains fournies par l'analyse de leurs gènes 16S rRNA. Étant donné la puissance des procédures basées sur les acides nucléiques et leur application limitée aux habitats souterrains

  1. Le Laboratoire de Mécanique Appliquée Raymond Chaléat a 40 ans !

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comité D'Organisation Du Colloque Ime 2002, Le

    2002-12-01

    Le LMARC a été créé par Raymond Chaléat dans les locaux de l'École Nationale d'Horlogerie (a présent Lycée Technique Jules Haag).L'équipe de recherche était alors constituée de 2 enseignants-chercheurs (Raymond Chaléat et Gérard Lallement) et d'un technicien (Bernard Prêtre). Les travaux de recherche se situaient naturellement dans le domaine de la chronométrie et en particulier dans la mécanique non linéaire analytique inhérente à la montre en fonctionnement. En effet, Raymond Chaléat fut l'élève, puis le collaborateur du Professeur Jules Haag, mathématicien et mécanicien, lui-même élève de Poincarré.Le LMARC a étendu ses activités avec l'arrivée de Claude Oudet, puis de Claude Oytana à la rhéologie des matériaux solides qui est devenue plus tard l'Équipe Propriétés Mécaniques des Matériaux. En parallèle, G. Lallement a créé une équipe Vibrations devenue à ce jour Dynamique des Structures. À ce jour, le Laboratoire compte plus de 110 personnes dont 40 doctorants.Il a depuis diversifié ses activités avec 3 nouvelles équipes tournées vers la Modélisation et la Mise en Forme des Matériaux, les Micromachines et la Biomécanique et les Mécanismes. Il a su également prendre toute sa place au sein de l'Institut des Microtechniques de Franche-Comté en contribuant à plusieurs thèmes.Notre Laboratoire a été l'un des premiers laboratoires associé au CNRS (4ème) et a toujours été rattaché à l'Université de Franche-Comté (Présidence par C. Oytana de 1996 a 2001) par l'entremise de I'UFR Sciences et Techniques. Il a toujours maintenu des liens forts avec I'ENSMM (École Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et des Microtechniques) d'une part par ses enseignants-chercheurs et d'autre part deux de ses directeurs, Raymond Chaléat et actuellement Jean-Claude Gelin.En plus de ses relations constantes avec l'industrie régionale, le LMARC a développé des actions contractuelles avec de grands groupes tels que EDF

  2. Assessment of Potential Cross-Reactivity of Human Endogenous Matrix Metalloproteinases with Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum Antibodies in Human Sera Obtained from Patients with Dupuytren's Contracture

    PubMed Central

    Edkins, Thomas J.; Koller-Eichhorn, Roland; Alhadeff, Jack A.; Mayer, Ulrich; Faust, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) contains a fixed ratio of class I (AUX-I) and class II (AUX-II) collagenases and is used as treatment for Dupuytren's contracture. These two Zn-dependent enzymes, produced by the Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium histolyticum, are related functionally to matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which, among other functions, degrade the extracellular matrix. Since AUX-I and AUX-II exhibit sequence similarities to human MMPs, we assessed MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase), MMP-2 (gelatinase A), MMP-3 (stromelysin 1), MMP-8 (collagenase 2), and MMP-13 (collagenase 3) for cross-reactivity with anti-AUX-I and anti-AUX-II antibodies in patient serum. Serum samples from 71 subjects enrolled in a long-term clinical study (58 males and 13 females; 63 ± 10 years old [mean ± standard error]) were evaluated for cross-reactivity with the five MMPs using the two validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Inhibition cutoff points for anti-AUX-I and anti-AUX-II antibodies were based on assay inhibition obtained with a nonspecific protein, bovine gamma globulin, which was tested for each clinical sample. No MMP cross-reactivity was found for any of the 71 clinical antibody-positive sera evaluated. Sequence identity assessments indicated minimal, nonmeaningful alignments of the MMPs and AUX-I/AUX-II. Furthermore, clinical adverse event assessments indicated no safety signals related to MMP inhibition. The bioanalytical results, sequence identity, and clinical assessments consistently did not demonstrate cross-reactivity between CCH antidrug antibodies and endogenous human matrix metalloproteinases. The results presented here suggest that treatment of Dupuytren's contracture patients with CCH does not lead to any clinical adverse events associated with MMP inhibition. PMID:22357647

  3. Managing menopause.

    PubMed

    Reid, Robert; Abramson, Beth L; Blake, Jennifer; Desindes, Sophie; Dodin, Sylvie; Johnston, Shawna; Rowe, Timothy; Sodhi, Namrita; Wilks, Penny; Wolfman, Wendy

    2014-09-01

    contraceptifs oraux à faible dose peuvent être offerts à titre de solutions de rechange pour le soulagement des symptômes ménopausiques au cours de la transition ménopausique. (I-A) 4. Les traitements d’ordonnance non hormonaux (y compris certains antidépresseurs, la gabapentine et la clonidine) peuvent entraîner une certaine atténuation des bouffées de chaleur; ils présentent toutefois leurs propres effets indésirables. Ces solutions de rechange peuvent être envisagées lorsque l’hormonothérapie s’avère contre-indiquée ou lorsque la patiente ne souhaite pas y avoir recours. (I-B) 5. Nous ne disposons que de données limitées sur l’efficacité de la plupart des approches parallèles en ce qui concerne la prise en charge des bouffées de chaleur. Ainsi, en l’absence de preuves solides de leur efficacité et compte tenu des données minimales dont nous disposons quant à leur innocuité, ces approches ne devraient pas être recommandées. Les femmes devraient être avisées que, jusqu’en janvier 2004, la plupart des produits de santé naturels entraient sur le marché canadien en tant que « produits alimentaires » et n’étaient pas soumis à la réglementation régissant les produits pharmaceutiques. Ainsi, la plupart de ces produits n’ont pas fait l’objet de tests rigoureux en ce qui concerne la prise en charge des bouffées de chaleur allant de modérées à graves; de plus, pour bon nombre d’entre eux, nous ne disposons pas de données sur l’efficacité et l’innocuité. (I-B) 6. L’œstrogénothérapie peut être offerte aux femmes qui ont subi une ménopause chirurgicale dans le cadre de la prise en charge de l’endométriose. (I-A) Chapitre 5 : Santé urogénitale Recommandations 1. La crème d’œstrogènes conjugués, l’anneau intravaginal d’estradiol à libération prolongée ou les comprimés vaginaux d’estradiol sont recommandés à titre de traitement efficace contre l’atrophie vaginale. (I-A) 2. La mise en

  4. Developing Soft-Kill Capability for Light Armoured Vehicles through Battlefield Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    système de composantes disponibles directement des manufacturiers pourrait être configuré comme suit: 1. Système de capteurs (a) Capteur fixe...d’échantillonnage de 60 Hz (b) Balayage de capteur monté sur une mini-tourelle avec une vitesse angulaire de 750◦/s, • Couverture dans l’infrarouge moyen, 1024...à partir de trois sources distinctes. Ces contributions incluent : la modélisation de la technologie et des phénomènes naturels par les

  5. Combat Aircraft Maneuverability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    latdrale Les probl~mes de stabilitd dynanique transversale nous am~nent tout naturellement I parler de ma- niabilitd en roulis, le renversement du sans de...l’int6gration dans les maquettes de capteurs et d’actionneurm de hautes performances associis 2 des syst~mas de t~l(rsitrie et de t~l~scontrle numdriquem...linceseante miniaturisation de capteurs etarquables performoante at de leur Alactronique aeeoci~a. royennant - dane un premier temps une adaptation de

  6. On the Proportion of Digits in Redundant Numeration Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-08

    naturels par une somme de nombres de Fibonacci ou de nombres de Lucas ,” Bull. Soc. Royale Sci. Liege 41 (1972) pp. 179-82. A.M.S. Classification Numbers : 05A15, 05A16, 68R05 ...numeration system around 3000 B.C.. Instead of powers of 2’s, if Fibonacci numbers are used, then an alternate numeration system (viz. Zeckendorf [14...is the ith Fibonacci number . For example, 1000 = 0110 = 5 in the Fibonacci numeration system, where 5 is equivalent to both F5 and F4 + F3. It is

  7. Auxin Influx Activity Is Associated with Frankia Infection during Actinorhizal Nodule Formation in Casuarina glauca1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Péret, Benjamin; Swarup, Ranjan; Jansen, Leen; Devos, Gaëlle; Auguy, Florence; Collin, Myriam; Santi, Carole; Hocher, Valérie; Franche, Claudine; Bogusz, Didier; Bennett, Malcolm; Laplaze, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Plants from the Casuarinaceae family enter symbiosis with the actinomycete Frankia leading to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. We observed that application of the auxin influx inhibitor 1-naphtoxyacetic acid perturbs actinorhizal nodule formation. This suggests a potential role for auxin influx carriers in the infection process. We therefore isolated and characterized homologs of the auxin influx carrier (AUX1-LAX) genes in Casuarina glauca. Two members of this family were found to share high levels of deduced protein sequence identity with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AUX-LAX proteins. Complementation of the Arabidopsis aux1 mutant revealed that one of them is functionally equivalent to AUX1 and was named CgAUX1. The spatial and temporal expression pattern of CgAUX1 promoter:β-glucuronidase reporter was analyzed in Casuarinaceae. We observed that CgAUX1 was expressed in plant cells infected by Frankia throughout the course of actinorhizal nodule formation. Our data suggest that auxin plays an important role during plant cell infection in actinorhizal symbioses. PMID:17556507

  8. Auxin influx activity is associated with Frankia infection during actinorhizal nodule formation in Casuarina glauca.

    PubMed

    Péret, Benjamin; Swarup, Ranjan; Jansen, Leen; Devos, Gaëlle; Auguy, Florence; Collin, Myriam; Santi, Carole; Hocher, Valérie; Franche, Claudine; Bogusz, Didier; Bennett, Malcolm; Laplaze, Laurent

    2007-08-01

    Plants from the Casuarinaceae family enter symbiosis with the actinomycete Frankia leading to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. We observed that application of the auxin influx inhibitor 1-naphtoxyacetic acid perturbs actinorhizal nodule formation. This suggests a potential role for auxin influx carriers in the infection process. We therefore isolated and characterized homologs of the auxin influx carrier (AUX1-LAX) genes in Casuarina glauca. Two members of this family were found to share high levels of deduced protein sequence identity with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AUX-LAX proteins. Complementation of the Arabidopsis aux1 mutant revealed that one of them is functionally equivalent to AUX1 and was named CgAUX1. The spatial and temporal expression pattern of CgAUX1 promoter:beta-glucuronidase reporter was analyzed in Casuarinaceae. We observed that CgAUX1 was expressed in plant cells infected by Frankia throughout the course of actinorhizal nodule formation. Our data suggest that auxin plays an important role during plant cell infection in actinorhizal symbioses.

  9. Metal-cluster-decorated TiO2 nanotube arrays: a composite heterostructure toward versatile photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fang-Xing; Hung, Sung-Fu; Miao, Jianwei; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Hongbin; Liu, Bin

    2015-02-04

    Recent years have witnessed increasing interest in the solution-phase synthesis of atomically precise thiolate-protected gold clusters (Aux ); nonetheless, research on the photocatalytic properties of Aux -semiconductor nanocomposites is still in its infancy. In this work, recently developed glutathione-capped gold clusters and highly ordered nanoporous layer-covered TiO2 nanotube arrays (NP-TNTAs) are employed as nanobuilding blocks for the construction of a well-defined Aux /NP-TNTA heterostructure via a facile electrostatic self-assembly strategy. Versatile photocatalytic performances of the Aux /NP-TNTA heterostructure which acts as a model catalyst, including photocatalytic oxidation of organic pollutant, photocatalytic reduction of aromatic nitro compounds and photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under simulated solar light irradiation, are systematically exploited. It is found that synergistic interaction stemming from monodisperse coverage of Aux clusters on NP-TNTAs in combination with hierarchical nanostructure of NP-TNTAs reinforce light absorption of Aux /NP-TNTA heterostructure especially within visible region, hence contributing to the significantly enhanced photocatalytic and PEC water splitting performances. Moreover, photocatalytic and PEC mechanisms over Aux /NP-TNTA heterostructure are elucidated and corresponding reaction models were presented. It is anticipated that this work could boost new insight for photocatalytic properties of metal-cluster-sensitized semiconductor nanocomposites. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A genome-wide analysis of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid gene family in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Qiao, Linyi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Han, Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Li, Xin; Zhan, Haixian; Ma, Jian; Luo, Peigao; Zhang, Wenping; Cui, Lei; Li, Xiaoyan; Chang, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family plays key roles in the primary auxin-response process and controls a number of important traits in plants. However, the characteristics of the Aux/IAA gene family in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have long been unknown. In this study, a comprehensive identification of the Aux/IAA gene family was performed using the latest draft genome sequence of the bread wheat "Chinese Spring." Thirty-four Aux/IAA genes were identified, 30 of which have duplicated genes on the A, B or D sub-genome, with a total of 84 Aux/IAA sequences. These predicted Aux/IAA genes were non-randomly distributed in all the wheat chromosomes except for chromosome 2D. The information of wheat Aux/IAA proteins is also described. Based on an analysis of phylogeny, expression and adaptive evolution, we prove that the Aux/IAA family in wheat has been replicated twice in the two allopolyploidization events of bread wheat, when the tandem duplication also occurred. The duplicated genes have undergone an evolutionary process of purifying selection, resulting in the high conservation of copy genes among sub-genomes and functional redundancy among several members of the TaIAA family. However, functional divergence probably existed in most TaIAA members due to the diversity of the functional domain and expression pattern. Our research provides useful information for further research into the function of Aux/IAA genes in wheat.

  11. Auxilin is required for formation of Golgi-derived clathrin-coated vesicles during Drosophila spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Fabian, Lacramioara; Bayraktar, Jennifer L.; Ding, Hong-Mei; Brill, Julie A.; Chang, Henry C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Clathrin has previously been implicated in Drosophila male fertility and spermatid individualization. To understand further the role of membrane transport in this process, we analyzed the phenotypes of mutations in Drosophila auxilin (aux), a regulator of clathrin function, in spermatogenesis. Like partial loss-of-function Clathrin heavy chain (Chc) mutants, aux mutant males are sterile and produce no mature sperm. The reproductive defects of aux males were rescued by male germ cell-specific expression of aux, indicating that auxilin function is required autonomously in the germ cells. Furthermore, this rescue depends on both the clathrin-binding and J domains, suggesting that the ability of Aux to bind clathrin and the Hsc70 ATPase is essential for sperm formation. aux mutant spermatids show a deficit in formation of the plasma membrane during elongation, which probably disrupts the subsequent coordinated migration of investment cones during individualization. In wild-type germ cells, GFP-tagged clathrin localized to clusters of vesicular structures near the Golgi. These structures also contained the Golgi-associated clathrin adaptor AP-1, suggesting that they were Golgi-derived. By contrast, in aux mutant cells, clathrin localized to abnormal patches surrounding the Golgi and its colocalization with AP-1 was disrupted. Based on these results, we propose that Golgi-derived clathrin-positive vesicles are normally required for sustaining the plasma membrane increase necessary for spermatid differentiation. Our data suggest that Aux participates in forming these Golgi-derived clathrin-positive vesicles and that Aux, therefore, has a role in the secretory pathway. PMID:21343365

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of the genes encoding an auxin efflux carrier and the auxin influx carriers associated with the adventitious root formation in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cotyledon segments.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-He; Zou, Ming-Hong; Feng, Bi-Hong; Huang, Xia; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-06-01

    Polar auxin transport (PAT) plays an important role in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segments, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we cloned a gene encoding an auxin efflux carrier (designated as MiPIN1), and we cloned four genes encoding auxin influx carriers (designated as MiAUX1, MiAUX2, MiAUX3 and MiAUX4). The results of a phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that MiPIN1 and the MiAUXs belong to plant PIN and AUXs/LAXs groups. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the expression of MiPIN1 and the MiAUXs was lowest at 0 days but sharply increased on and after day 4. During the root formation in the mango cotyledon segments, the MiPIN1 expression in the distal cut surface (DCS) was always higher than the expression in the proximal cut surface (PCS) whereas the expression of the MiAUXs in the PCS was usually higher than in the DCS. This expression pattern might be result in the PAT from the DCS to the PCS, which is essential for the adventitious root formation in the PCS. Our previous study indicated that a pre-treatment of embryos with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) significantly promoted adventitious rooting in PCS whereas a pre-treatment with 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) completely inhibited this rooting. In this study, however, IBA and TIBA pre-treatments slightly changed the expression of MiPIN1. In contrast, while the MiAUX3 and MiAUX4 expression levels were significantly up-regulated by the IBA pre-treatment, the expression levels were down-regulated by the TIBA pre-treatment. These findings imply that MiAUX3 and MiAUX4 are more sensitive to the IBA and TIBA treatments and that they might play important roles during adventitious root formation in mango cotyledon segments.

  13. Aircraft Avionics and Missile System Installation Cost Study. Volume 2. Appendices F and G.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-12

    0 195 80046 VHU500349 E1 B LTN-211 NAY SYSTEN 3 24744 130 80047 H-53 AIX500281 Al B INC DISC CLUTCH IN AUIILLARY POWER PLANT 3 22800 187 3036 16 56...80047 B-53 AB1500281 A2 B INC DISC CLUTCH IN AUXILLARY POWER PLANT 3 22680 133 1262 9 36 80047 VHU500281 El B AUX POWER PLANT DISC CLUTCH KITS 1 22678...52 80047 VU500281 12 B AUX POWER PLANT DISC CLUTCH KITS 1 22678 52 80047 VHUSO0281 13 B AUX POWER PLANT DISC CLUTCH KITS 1 23003 52 80048 H-53

  14. Problemes theoriques et methodologiques dans l'etude des langues/dialectes en contact aux niveaux macrologique et micrologique = Theoretical and Methodological Issues in the Study of Languages/Dialects in Contact at Macro- and Micro-Logical Levels of Analysis. Proceedings of the International Conference DALE (University of London)/ICRB (Laval University, Quebec)/ICSBT (Vrije Universiteit te Brussel) (London, England, May 23-26, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Michel, Ed.; Hamers, Josiane F., Ed.

    Papers from an international conference on the interaction of languages and dialects in contact are presented in this volume. Papers include: "Quelques reflexions sur la variation linguistique"; "The Investigation of 'Language Continuum' and 'Diglossia': A Macrological Case Study and Theoretical Model"; "A Survey of…

  15. Francais langue etrangere: l'enseignement de l'orthographe elementaire aux adolescents mal scolarises issus de milieux socio-culturels defavorises. Quelques notes sur une recherche (French as a Foreign Language: The Teaching of Elementary Spelling to Adolescents Who Were Slow Learners and Who Had Come from Disadvantaged Milieux. Some Research Notes). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey-von-Allmen, Micheline

    The reflections in this paper represent part of a study of disadvantaged 13 to 15 year-old children of immigrants in Switzerland. This section deals with the process of learning spelling. In order to observe the students' learning, the same dictation was given four times during the school year. The results were studied intuitively and…

  16. Current Uses of M&S Covering Support to Operations, Human Behaviour Representation, Irregular Warfare, Defence against Terrorism and Coalition Tactical Force Integration (Utilisation actuelle M&S couvrant le soutien aux operations, la representation du comportement humain, la guerre asymetrique, la defense contre le terrorisme et l’integration d’une force tactique de coalition). Proceedings of the NATO RTO Modelling and Simulation Group Symposium held in Brussels, Belgium on 15 and 16 October 2009.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...provide advice to NATO and national decision makers. The RTO performs its mission with the support of an extensive network of national experts. It also...NMSG. Cette année un mélange homogène de participants représentant les trois piliers – gouvernement , industrie et milieu universitaire – a pu être

  17. Découverte de l'Éocène continental autour de l'archipel de Kasserine, aux Jebels Rhéouis, Boudinar et Chamsi en Tunisie centro-méridionale : nouvelles implications paléogéographiquesEocene continental facies discovery around the Kasserine archipelago in Rheouis, Boudinar and Chamsi Jebels in the central-meridional Tunisia: new palaeogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamoussi, Fakher; Abbès, Chedly; Fakhfakh, Emna; Bédir, Mourad; Kharbachi, Samir; Soussi, Mohamed; Zargouni, Fouad; López-Galindo, Alberto

    2001-09-01

    The Rhéouis and Boudinar Eocene outcrops located along the Tunisian 'north-south axis' show continental deposits similar to those already described in the west-central and meridional Atlas in the Jebel Chaambi and Chebket Bouloufa. The field investigations of these levels conduct to the discovery of Bulimes' terrestrial Gastropods known in the Mediterranean domain. The presence of palygorskite in the clay minerals confirms the emerged tendency of these deposits. The continental palaeogeography might have been induced by the Triassic halokinetic movements along the Atlasic anticlines.

  18. Evaluation d’un enseignement par les étudiants appliquée au module « aide à la rédaction de thèse»: destiné aux internes des hôpitaux des Armées au Centre d’épidémiologie et de Santé Publique des Armées, Marseille

    PubMed Central

    Kasouati, Jalal; Velut, Guillaume; Deparis, Xavier; Touloune, Farida

    2016-01-01

    Introduction En éducation, l'évaluation concerne les institutions de formation, les programmes, les enseignants ou les étudiants. Elle peut être prédictive, sommative ou formative. L'Evaluation d'un Enseignement par les Etudiants (EEE) est l'un des outils de ce dernier type. Objectif Évaluer l'enseignement de la première partie de la formation « aide à la rédaction de thèse ». Méthodes C'est une étude transversale classée dans le cadre « EEE » qui a porté sur le module « aide à la rédaction de thèse » dispensée au CESPA au profit de 27 participants préparant leur projet de fin d'étude. Résultats Le taux de réponse des participants présents était de 100%. D'un sexe ratio F/M de 2 et de une moyenne d'âge de 25,5 ans +/- 2,7 ans, les questionnés étaient majoritairement des internes de médecine générale. Plus de 85% affirmait n'avoir bénéficié d'aucune formation au préalable dans les domaines traités. Les participants avaient des attentes qui rejoignaient sommairement les objectifs de la formation. A part le rythme jugé non adapté par plus de la moitié, 80% des participants ont été satisfaits des autres aspects évalués et 95,8% parmi eux prévoyaient d'assister à la deuxième partie de la formation Pour tout les participants, la formation a permis d'amélioré de façon significative leur connaissance et aurais certainement un impact positif sur leurs travaux de recherche. Conclusion Notre travail était un moyen d'installer une certaine complicité entre les étudiants et les enseignants pour atteindre un objectif commun: « AMELIORER LA FORMATION ». PMID:27800091

  19. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 1 of 4).

    PubMed

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    décisions opportunes à l’égard des politiques et des services de santé génésique au Canada. (III-B)  7. Les processus et les politiques de Santé Canada devraient être passés en revue pour que l’on puisse s’assurer qu’ils ne nuisent pas indûment à l’offre d’une vaste gamme de modes de contraception modernes aux Canadiennes. (III-B) Chapitre 2 : Soins en matière de contraception et accès à la contraception Déclarations sommaires  8. Bien que le Canada compte de nombreuses options en matière de contraception, les modes de contraception couramment utilisés par les femmes en âge de procréer sont issus d’une gamme restreinte. (II-3)  9. L’utilisation du condom diminue au fur et à mesure que se poursuit une relation et lorsque le partenaire sexuel est considéré comme étant le partenaire principal, probablement en raison d’une baisse du risque perçu d’infections transmissibles sexuellement au sein de la relation en question. L’utilisation du condom pourrait, de façon fortuite, également connaître une baisse marquée à la suite de la mise en œuvre d’un mode de contraception efficace ne faisant pas partie des méthodes de barrière (comme la contraception hormonale ou intra-utérine). (II-3) 10. Le counseling en matière de planification familiale peut naturellement mener au dépistage de la violence conjugale et des problèmes liés à la fonction sexuelle. (III) 11. Les personnes bien renseignées et bien motivées qui ont acquis les compétences nécessaires à la pratique de comportements sexuels à risques réduits sont plus susceptibles d’utiliser des modes de contraception et des pratiques sexuelles à risques réduits de façon efficace et systématique. (II-2) Recommandations  8. Des services exhaustifs de planification familiale (y compris des services d’avortement) devraient être offerts à tous les Canadiens, peu importe leur emplacement géographique. Ces services devraient être confidentiels et

  20. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 2 of 4).

    PubMed

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    décisions opportunes à l’égard des politiques et des services de santé génésique au Canada. (III-B)  7. Les processus et les politiques de Santé Canada devraient être passés en revue pour que l’on puisse s’assurer qu’ils ne nuisent pas indûment à l’offre d’une vaste gamme de modes de contraception modernes aux Canadiennes. (III-B) Chapitre 2 : Soins en matière de contraception et accès à la contraception Déclarations sommaires  8. Bien que le Canada compte de nombreuses options en matière de contraception, les modes de contraception couramment utilisés par les femmes en âge de procréer sont issus d’une gamme restreinte. (II-3)  9. L’utilisation du condom diminue au fur et à mesure que se poursuit une relation et lorsque le partenaire sexuel est considéré comme étant le partenaire principal, probablement en raison d’une baisse du risque perçu d’infections transmissibles sexuellement au sein de la relation en question. L’utilisation du condom pourrait, de façon fortuite, également connaître une baisse marquée à la suite de la mise en œuvre d’un mode de contraception efficace ne faisant pas partie des méthodes de barrière (comme la contraception hormonale ou intra-utérine). (II-3) 10. Le counseling en matière de planification familiale peut naturellement mener au dépistage de la violence conjugale et des problèmes liés à la fonction sexuelle. (III) 11. Les personnes bien renseignées et bien motivées qui ont acquis les compétences nécessaires à la pratique de comportements sexuels à risques réduits sont plus susceptibles d’utiliser des modes de contraception et des pratiques sexuelles à risques réduits de façon efficace et systématique. (II-2) Recommandations  8. Des services exhaustifs de planification familiale (y compris des services d’avortement) devraient être offerts à tous les Canadiens, peu importe leur emplacement géographique. Ces services devraient être confidentiels et

  1. Matériaux pour la production d'hydrogène

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Just, J.

    2002-04-01

    L'émergence des piles à combustible et l'apparition de l'hydrogène comme carburant dans des véhicules grand public comme les autobus, suscitent un élan fort pour la mise au point de technologies nouvelles pour la production d'hydrogène décentralisée et à petite échelle. Du fait de sa richesse en hydrogène. des réserves disponibles et de son infrastructure de distribution, le gaz naturel est considéré comme la ressource majeure pouvant fournir les quantités d'hydrogène nécessaires pour un passage progressif vers une économie de l'hydrogène dans les décennies immédiates en attendant que progressivement les énergies renouvelables prennent le relais. Des solutions innovantes, incluant de nouveaux matériaux, sont nécessaires pour la mise au point des petits générateurs d'hydrogène efficaces et bon marché alimenté au gaz naturel qui sont attendus par les fabricants (le piles à combustible, les acteurs de l'énergie et les fabricants de véhicules.

  2. Differentiation between Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum by sorbitol assimilation.

    PubMed Central

    Rezusta, A; Rubio, M C; Alejandre, M C

    1991-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum was easily differentiated from T. mentagrophytes by its ability to assimilate sorbitol with an API 20C AUX strip. One hundred percent of 36 T. rubrum strains and none of 147 T. mentagrophytes strains assimilated sorbitol. PMID:1993760

  3. Final Determination - signed October 16, 1985

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fianl Determination of the U.S. EPA's Assistant Administrator for External Affairs concerning the Bayou Aux Carpes site in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana pursuant to Section 404(c) of the Clean Water Act.

  4. Local structure of disordered Au-Cu and Au-Ag alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenkel, A. I.; Machavariani, V. Sh.; Rubshtein, A.; Rosenberg, Yu.; Voronel, A.; Stern, E. A.

    2000-10-01

    X-ray-absorption fine structure (XAFS) and x-ray-diffraction (XRD) measurements of disordered alloys AuxCu1-x and Au0.5Ag0.5 prepared by melt spinning were performed. In the Au0.5Ag0.5 alloy, no significant local deviations of the atoms from the average fcc lattice were detected while in AuxCu1-x alloys, significant deviations of atoms from the average fcc lattice were found. Mean-square vibrations of the Cu-Cu distances revealed by the XAFS in AuxCu1-x alloys indicate the weakening of contact between Cu atoms in the dilute limit. Our computer simulation for AuxCu1-x clusters of 105 atoms reproduces the main features of both the XAFS and XRD data.

  5. A UNIX device driver for a Translink II Transputer board

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    A UNIX device driver for a TransLink II Transputer board is described. A complete listing of the code is presented. The device driver allows a transputer array to be used with the A/UX operating system.

  6. Auxin and Ethylene Response Interactions during Arabidopsis Root Hair Development Dissected by Auxin Influx Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Abidur; Hosokawa, Satoko; Oono, Yutaka; Amakawa, Taisaku; Goto, Nobuharu; Tsurumi, Seiji

    2002-01-01

    The plant hormones auxin and ethylene have been shown to play important roles during root hair development. However, cross talk between auxin and ethylene makes it difficult to understand the independent role of either hormone. To dissect their respective roles, we examined the effects of two compounds, chromosaponin I (CSI) and 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA), on the root hair developmental process in wild-type Arabidopsis, ethylene-insensitive mutant ein2-1, and auxin influx mutants aux1-7, aux1-22, and double mutant aux1-7 ein2. β-Glucuronidase (GUS) expression analysis in the BA-GUS transgenic line, consisting of auxin-responsive domains of PS-IAA4/5 promoter and GUS reporter, revealed that 1-NOA and CSI act as auxin uptake inhibitors in Arabidopsis roots. The frequency of root hairs in ein2-1 roots was greatly reduced in the presence of CSI or 1-NOA, suggesting that endogenous auxin plays a critical role for the root hair initiation in the absence of an ethylene response. All of these mutants showed a reduction in root hair length, however, the root hair length could be restored with a variable concentration of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). NAA (10 nm) restored the root hair length of aux1 mutants to wild-type level, whereas 100 nm NAA was needed for ein2-1 and aux1-7 ein2 mutants. Our results suggest that insensitivity in ethylene response affects the auxin-driven root hair elongation. CSI exhibited a similar effect to 1-NOA, reducing root hair growth and the number of root hair-bearing cells in wild-type and ein2-1 roots, while stimulating these traits in aux1-7and aux1-7ein2 roots, confirming that CSI is a unique modulator of AUX1. PMID:12481073

  7. Auxin and ethylene response interactions during Arabidopsis root hair development dissected by auxin influx modulators.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Abidur; Hosokawa, Satoko; Oono, Yutaka; Amakawa, Taisaku; Goto, Nobuharu; Tsurumi, Seiji

    2002-12-01

    The plant hormones auxin and ethylene have been shown to play important roles during root hair development. However, cross talk between auxin and ethylene makes it difficult to understand the independent role of either hormone. To dissect their respective roles, we examined the effects of two compounds, chromosaponin I (CSI) and 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA), on the root hair developmental process in wild-type Arabidopsis, ethylene-insensitive mutant ein2-1, and auxin influx mutants aux1-7, aux1-22, and double mutant aux1-7 ein2. Beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression analysis in the BA-GUS transgenic line, consisting of auxin-responsive domains of PS-IAA4/5 promoter and GUS reporter, revealed that 1-NOA and CSI act as auxin uptake inhibitors in Arabidopsis roots. The frequency of root hairs in ein2-1 roots was greatly reduced in the presence of CSI or 1-NOA, suggesting that endogenous auxin plays a critical role for the root hair initiation in the absence of an ethylene response. All of these mutants showed a reduction in root hair length, however, the root hair length could be restored with a variable concentration of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). NAA (10 nM) restored the root hair length of aux1 mutants to wild-type level, whereas 100 nM NAA was needed for ein2-1 and aux1-7 ein2 mutants. Our results suggest that insensitivity in ethylene response affects the auxin-driven root hair elongation. CSI exhibited a similar effect to 1-NOA, reducing root hair growth and the number of root hair-bearing cells in wild-type and ein2-1 roots, while stimulating these traits in aux1-7and aux1-7ein2 roots, confirming that CSI is a unique modulator of AUX1.

  8. Utilization of Quantum Distribution Functions for Ultra-Submicron Device Transport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    mfithode utilisable pour dicrire lea phinomines de transport quantique dans la physique des disposi- tifs submicroniques. La fonction de distribution...de Wigner est rappele ici et sa non unicitf eat discutle, ainsi que sS ghngralisation aux autres fonctions de distribution quantique . L’fquation du...montre qua lea Equations du moment contiennent des corrections quantiques par rapport aux Equations classiques et que ces termes quantiques ne sont pas

  9. Retention, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Divergence of the Auxin/Indole Acetic Acid and Auxin Response Factor Gene Families in Brassica Rapa Shed Light on Their Evolution Patterns in Plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhinan; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Tang, Jun; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Bei; Hou, Xilin

    2015-12-31

    Auxin/indole acetic acids (Aux/IAAs) and auxin response factors (ARFs), major components of the Aux signaling network, are involved in many developmental processes in plants. Investigating their evolution will provide new sight on the relationship between the molecular evolution of these genes and the increasing morphotypes of plants. We constructed comparative analyses of the retention, structure, expansion, and expression patterns of Aux/IAAs and ARFs in Brassica rapa and their evolution in eight other plant species, including algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and angiosperms. All 33 of the ARFs, including 1 ARF-like (AL) (a type of ARF-like protein) and 53 Aux/IAAs, were identified in the B. rapa genome. The genes mainly diverged approximately 13 Ma. After the split, no Aux/IAA was completely lost, and they were more preferentially retained than ARFs. In land plants, compared with ARFs, which increased in stability, Aux/IAAs expanded more rapidly and were under more relaxed selective pressure. Moreover, BraIAAs were expressed in a more tissue-specific fashion than BraARFs and demonstrated functional diversification during gene duplication under different treatments, which enhanced the cooperative interaction of homologs to help plants adapt to complex environments. In addition, ALs existed widely and had a closer relationship with ARFs, suggesting that ALs might be the initial structure of ARFs. Our results suggest that the rapid expansion and preferential retention of Aux/IAAs are likely paralleled by the increasingly complex morphotypes in Brassicas and even in land plants. Meanwhile, the data support the hypothesis that the PB1 domain plays a key role in the origin of both Aux/IAAs and ARFs.

  10. Aerothermodynamic Design, Review on Ground Testing and CFD (Conception aerothermodynamique, revue sur les essais au sol et dynamique des fluides informatisee)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...response probes and unsteady measurement techniques are exposed as well as non-intrusive diagnostic tools, like spectroscopy from VUV to NIR, and thermal...diagnostic non intrusifs, comme la spectroscopie des VUV aux NIR, et l’imagerie thermique. Leur contribution aux bases de données aérothermodynamiques

  11. Documentation for SWATH Ship Resistance and Propulsion Prediction Programs (CLOSEFIT and SYNTHESIS): Maintenance Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    YDIVER R Divisor for normalizing Y XADDER R Number to be added to normalize X 19 COMMON/ OMEGA / PURPOSE: OMEGA stores the variables used in evaluating...COMMON BLOCKS: AUX, OMEGA , OUT SUBROUTINE CALLED: NONE CALLED BY: SWATH COM14ENTS: 36 NAME: SUBROUTINE EVAL PURPOSE: Subroutine EVAL evaluates the...indicating the presence of a second strut N0 if single strut 2 1 if tandem struts COMMON BLOCKS: OUT, AUX, OMEGA SUBROUTINE CALLED: NONE CALLED BY: SWATH

  12. Retention, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Divergence of the Auxin/Indole Acetic Acid and Auxin Response Factor Gene Families in Brassica Rapa Shed Light on Their Evolution Patterns in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhinan; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Tang, Jun; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Bei; Hou, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Auxin/indole acetic acids (Aux/IAAs) and auxin response factors (ARFs), major components of the Aux signaling network, are involved in many developmental processes in plants. Investigating their evolution will provide new sight on the relationship between the molecular evolution of these genes and the increasing morphotypes of plants. We constructed comparative analyses of the retention, structure, expansion, and expression patterns of Aux/IAAs and ARFs in Brassica rapa and their evolution in eight other plant species, including algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and angiosperms. All 33 of the ARFs, including 1 ARF-like (AL) (a type of ARF-like protein) and 53 Aux/IAAs, were identified in the B. rapa genome. The genes mainly diverged approximately 13 Ma. After the split, no Aux/IAA was completely lost, and they were more preferentially retained than ARFs. In land plants, compared with ARFs, which increased in stability, Aux/IAAs expanded more rapidly and were under more relaxed selective pressure. Moreover, BraIAAs were expressed in a more tissue-specific fashion than BraARFs and demonstrated functional diversification during gene duplication under different treatments, which enhanced the cooperative interaction of homologs to help plants adapt to complex environments. In addition, ALs existed widely and had a closer relationship with ARFs, suggesting that ALs might be the initial structure of ARFs. Our results suggest that the rapid expansion and preferential retention of Aux/IAAs are likely paralleled by the increasingly complex morphotypes in Brassicas and even in land plants. Meanwhile, the data support the hypothesis that the PB1 domain plays a key role in the origin of both Aux/IAAs and ARFs. PMID:26721260

  13. Definability of semifields of continuous positive functions by the lattices of their subalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    We consider the lattice {A}(U(X)) of subalgebras of a semifield U(X) of continuous positive functions on an arbitrary topological space X and its sublattice {A}_1(U(X)) of subalgebras with unity. The main result of the paper is the proof of the definability of any semifield U(X) both by the lattice {A}(U(X)) and by its sublattice {A}_1(U(X)). Bibliography: 12 titles.

  14. Neutron irradiation affects the expression of genes involved in the response to auxin, senescence and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Damasso, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We report, in Arabidopsis thaliana plants, the effect of neutron irradiation on the transcription of a set of genes belonging to different physiological groups: auxin action, senescence, oxidative stress and some aspects of photosynthesis. The results indicated that, in the wild-types, the effect on the ARF1, ARF2 and 19 genes was of downregulation, whereas of the tested AUX/IAA only AUX/IAA7 showed upregulation. Different results were obtained as regards the irradiation of the auxin transport mutants aux1 and eir1 because, in these cases, the ARF genes were upregulated, whereas AUX/IAA7 was downregulated in eir1. On the other hand, the senescence activated genes SAG12 and SAG13, and those connected to oxidative stress were upregulated in the wild-type, but downregulated in aux1. The gene CAB1, connected to photosynthesis, was also downregulated in the wild-type, but upregulated in aux1. Gene expression recovered in many cases almost to the initial condition in a time lapse of 24 hours, even though some effect persisted for a longer time. In particular, the state of juvenility of arf2 was extended by irradiation, whereas, in all the other cases, senescence was accelerated. The research indicates that through mutant selection or genetic engineering a true possibility exists of producing organism more suitable for life in space. PMID:20505355

  15. The rapid deformation behaviour of various polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walley, S. M.; Field, J. E.; Pope, Rh.; Safford, N. A.

    1991-12-01

    friction and calibration errors. In addition, a study was carried out into unlubricated deformation at strain rates of 10^3 s^{-1} using specimens of different thickness. Each polymer was found to have a different variation of friction with thickness, some showing zero friction. The strain rate sensitivity of the yield stress of lubricated polymers varied in the range 5-15 MPa per decade of strain rate at room temperature. However, many showed some softening as the strain rate was raised from 10^3 to 10^4 s^{-1}. The stress-strain response of polymers to deformation at strain rates of 10^3 s^{-1} at 100 K was also investigated. Les ingénieurs font un usage de plus en plus intensif des polymères dans les structures qui supportent des impacts. Cependant, comparé aux métaux, relativement peu d'études ont été menées de leur propriétés mécaniques. Cet article décrit une étude du comportement de différents polymères fréquemment utilisés, sous une contrainte de compression rapide. La nécessité de l'établissement d'une méthode de caractérisation de ces matériaux est discutée puisqu'il y a une grande variété en propriétés entre des matériaux avec le même nom. De plus les propriétés des polymères sont plus susceptibles de changer durant un entreposage que celles d'un métal. Une connaissance des propriétés thermiques est importante quand on s'intéresse aux déformations rapides et donc adiabatiques. Une table de ces propriétés est présentée. Un usage intensif de photographie à grande vitesse (temps de pose de 7 μs) est effectué afin d'étudier qualitativement le comportement de disques solides de polymère pour une vitesse de déformation de 2, 5 × 10^3 s^{-1} et pour les températures 300 et 100 K. Le temps de pose était assez rapide pour mettre en évidence l'initiation de la fracture et la destruction qui suit, pour tous les polymères étudiés y compris le polycarbonate (PC) qui rompt d'une façon à peu près explosive pour un taux

  16. Tobacco mosaic virus-directed reprogramming of auxin/indole acetic acid protein transcriptional responses enhances virus phloem loading.

    PubMed

    Collum, Tamara D; Padmanabhan, Meenu S; Hsieh, Yi-Cheng; Culver, James N

    2016-05-10

    Vascular phloem loading has long been recognized as an essential step in the establishment of a systemic virus infection. In this study, an interaction between the replication protein of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and phloem-specific auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) transcriptional regulators was found to modulate virus phloem loading in an age-dependent manner. Promoter expression studies show that in mature tissues TMV 126/183-kDa-interacting Aux/IAAs predominantly express and accumulate within the nuclei of phloem companion cells (CCs). Furthermore, CC Aux/IAA nuclear localization is disrupted upon infection with an interacting virus. In situ analysis of virus spread shows that the inability to disrupt Aux/IAA CC nuclear localization correlates with a reduced ability to load into the vascular tissue. Subsequent systemic movement assays also demonstrate that a virus capable of disrupting Aux/IAA localization is significantly more competitive at moving out of older plant tissues than a noninteracting virus. Similarly, CC expression and overaccumulation of a degradation-resistant Aux/IAA-interacting protein was found to inhibit TMV accumulation and phloem loading selectively in flowering plants. Transcriptional expression studies demonstrate a role for Aux/IAA-interacting proteins in the regulation of salicylic and jasmonic acid host defense responses as well as virus-specific movement factors, including pectin methylesterase, that are involved in regulating plasmodesmata size-exclusion limits and promoting virus cell-to-cell movement. Combined, these findings indicate that TMV directs the reprogramming of auxin-regulated gene expression within the vascular phloem of mature tissues as a means to enhance phloem loading and systemic spread.

  17. Tobacco mosaic virus-directed reprogramming of auxin/indole acetic acid protein transcriptional responses enhances virus phloem loading

    PubMed Central

    Collum, Tamara D.; Padmanabhan, Meenu S.; Hsieh, Yi-Cheng; Culver, James N.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular phloem loading has long been recognized as an essential step in the establishment of a systemic virus infection. In this study, an interaction between the replication protein of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and phloem-specific auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) transcriptional regulators was found to modulate virus phloem loading in an age-dependent manner. Promoter expression studies show that in mature tissues TMV 126/183-kDa–interacting Aux/IAAs predominantly express and accumulate within the nuclei of phloem companion cells (CCs). Furthermore, CC Aux/IAA nuclear localization is disrupted upon infection with an interacting virus. In situ analysis of virus spread shows that the inability to disrupt Aux/IAA CC nuclear localization correlates with a reduced ability to load into the vascular tissue. Subsequent systemic movement assays also demonstrate that a virus capable of disrupting Aux/IAA localization is significantly more competitive at moving out of older plant tissues than a noninteracting virus. Similarly, CC expression and overaccumulation of a degradation-resistant Aux/IAA-interacting protein was found to inhibit TMV accumulation and phloem loading selectively in flowering plants. Transcriptional expression studies demonstrate a role for Aux/IAA-interacting proteins in the regulation of salicylic and jasmonic acid host defense responses as well as virus-specific movement factors, including pectin methylesterase, that are involved in regulating plasmodesmata size-exclusion limits and promoting virus cell-to-cell movement. Combined, these findings indicate that TMV directs the reprogramming of auxin-regulated gene expression within the vascular phloem of mature tissues as a means to enhance phloem loading and systemic spread. PMID:27118842

  18. Patient Prioritization Preferences among Physiotherapy Entry-Level Students: The Importance of Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Laliberté, Maude; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Objectif : Étudier les préférences des étudiants en physiothérapie au niveau débutant sur le plan de l'attribution d'une priorité aux patients, en particulier aux patients vivant avec une douleur chronique. Méthode: Après une discussion en groupe, 249 étudiants canadiens en physiothérapie au niveau débutant ont rempli un questionnaire basé sur cinq scénarios distincts (cas de patients fictifs). On a demandé aux répondants d'attribuer une priorité aux patients (P1=priorité la plus élevée, P5=priorité la plus basse). Résultats : Les étudiants en physiothérapie ont accordé la priorité la plus élevée aux patients vivant avec de la douleur chronique et aux patients qui venaient de subir une intervention chirurgicale. Le patient âgé et le patient qui avait un déficit cognitif ont reçu une priorité plus basse. Conclusions : Les étudiants en physiothérapie accordent la plus grande priorité à un diagnostic de douleur chronique. Les publications montrent toutefois que la douleur chronique constitue la priorité la plus basse dans les outils de triage des départements de physiothérapie. Il pourrait y avoir un virage au niveau des préférences entre la période qui précède la pratique (étudiants) et celle qui la suit (clinicien) en ce qui a trait aux patients vivant avec une douleur chronique.

  19. Présentation générale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volino, F.

    Le travail faisant l'objet de cette série d'articles de titre général "Théorie visco-élastique non-extensive", numérotée de (I) à (VI), a été initialement motivé par l'analyse de mesures de Résonance Magnétique Nucléaire (RMN) sur des polymères nématogènes dans les phases nématique et isotrope [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]. Sans entrer dans le détail de ces mesures, rappelons que les mouvements des molécules rétrécissent les raies RMN, mais que, avec des molécules aussi grosses que ces polymères, on est en dehors du régime de rétrécissement extrême, donc dans un régime ou la forme de raie dépend du détail des mouvements [9]. La théorie des modes élastiques des nématiques fournissait le cadre conceptuel naturel pour décrire de tels mouvements. L'application de cette théorie, qui, dans une version simplifiée, mais suffisante en pratique, ne fait intervenir que deux paramètres ajustables, le paramètre d'ordre nématique et une viscosité moyenne, a effectivement permis de reproduire dans le détail des formes de raie RMN de polymères en phase nématique, avec des valeurs des deux paramètres en accord avec celles qui avaient pu être estimées par des mesures directes. La théorie des modes élastiques était donc testée avec succès par l'analyse de formes de raies RMN. L'analyse en phase nématique apparaissait bien auto-cohérente [5]. Une incohérence logique est cependant apparue dans les études qui ont suivi. Les ajustements précédents avaient été faits pour des spectres obtenus au milieu de la phase nématique, ou l'ordre orientationnel est relativement élevé. Cependant, l'ordre diminue en chauffant, et on a trouvé qu'il est toujours possible de simuler les formes de raies avec le même modèle, en changeant les valeurs du paramètre d'ordre et de la viscosité. - la transition nématique-isotrope, l'expérience montre que l'allure générale des spectres RMN du polymère change peu, et le calcul montre qu'ils peuvent être

  20. Gravistimulation changes expression of genes encoding putative carrier proteins of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, T.; Hitotsubashi, R.; Miyamoto, K.; Tanimoto, E.; Ueda, J.

    STS-95 space experiment has showed that auxin polar transport in etiolated epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings is controlled by gravistimulation. In Arabidopsis thaliana auxin polar transport has considered to be regulated by efflux and influx carrier proteins in plasma membranes, AtPIN1 and AtAUX1, respectively. In order to know how gravistimuli control auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls at molecular levels, strenuous efforts have been made, resulting in successful isolation of full-length cDNAs of a putative auxin efflux and influx carriers, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (accession no. AY222857, Chawla and DeMason, 2003) and AtPINs, and also among PsAUX1, AtAUX1 and their related genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 relating to lateral transport of auxin, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1 relating to auxin polar transport. In the present study, we examined the effects of gravistimuli on the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 in etiolated pea seedlings by northern blot analysis. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in hook region of 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat increased as compared with that of the seedlings grown under 1 g conditions. On the other hand, that of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the 1st internode region under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat also increased, while that of PsPIN2 was affected little. These results suggest that expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 regulating polar/lateral transport of auxin is substantially under the control of gravity. A possible role of PsPINs and PsAUX1 of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings will also be discussed.

  1. Auxin and its transport play a role in plant tolerance to arsenite-induced oxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Aparna; Rathinasabapathi, Bala

    2013-10-01

    The role of auxin in plant development is well known; however, its possible function in root response to abiotic stress is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate a novel role of auxin transport in plant tolerance to oxidative stress caused by arsenite. Plant response to arsenite [As(III)] was evaluated by measuring root growth and markers for stress on seedlings treated with control or As(III)-containing medium. Auxin transporter mutants aux1, pin1 and pin2 were significantly more sensitive to As(III) than the wild type (WT). Auxin transport inhibitors significantly reduced plant tolerance to As(III) in the WT, while exogenous supply of indole-3-acetic acid improved As(III) tolerance of aux1 and not that of WT. Uptake assays using H(3) -IAA showed As(III) affected auxin transport in WT roots. As(III) increased the levels of H2 O2 in WT but not in aux1, suggesting a positive role for auxin transport through AUX1 on plant tolerance to As(III) stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signalling. Compared to the WT, the mutant aux1 was significantly more sensitive to high-temperature stress and salinity, also suggesting auxin transport influences a common element shared by plant tolerance to arsenite, salinity and high-temperature stress.

  2. CONCLUSIONS ET RECOMMANDATIONS À L’ISSUE DE LA CONSULTATION DE L’OMS SUR LA LUTTE CONTRE LA CARENCE MARTIALE CHEZ LE NOURRISSON ET LE JEUNE ENFANT DANS LES PAYS D’ENDÉMIE PALUSTRE

    PubMed Central

    Allen, L.; Black, R.E.; Brandes, N.; Brittenham, G.; Chazot, G.; Chunming, C.; Crawley, J.; de Benoist, B.; Dalmiya, N.; Darnton-Hill, I.; Dewey, K.; El-Arifeen, S.; Fontaine, O.; Geissler, C.; Haberle, H.; Harvey, P.; Hasler, J.; Hershko, C.; Hurrell, R.; Juma, M.A.; Lönnerdal, B.; Lozoff, B.; Lynch, S.; Salgado, H. Martines; McLean, E.; Metz, J.; Oppenheimer, S.; Premji, Z.; Prentice, A.; Ramsan, M.; Ratledge, C.; Stoltzfus, R.; Tielsch, J.; Winachagoon, P.

    2011-01-01

    Cet article présentent les résultats d'une Consultation d'Experts dont l'objectif était d'évaluer l'efficacité et l'innocuité des suppléments de fer administrés aux nourrissons et aux jeunes enfants dans les zones d’endémie palustre, ainsi que les conséquences d’une telle mesure pour la santé publique. Les participants à cette Consultation, qui s’est déroulée à Lyon (France) les 12–14 juin 2006, se sont entendus sur plusieurs questions importantes concernant l’administration d’une supplémentation martiale aux nourrissons et aux jeunes enfants dans les zones d’endémie palustre. Les conclusions du présent rapport s’appliquent plus particulièrement aux pays où le paludisme est endémique. PMID:18630054

  3. Comparison of Three Commercial Systems for Identification of Yeasts Commonly Isolated in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Wadlin, Jill K.; Hanko, Gayle; Stewart, Rebecca; Pape, John; Nachamkin, Irving

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated three commercial systems (RapID Yeast Plus System; Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.; API 20C Aux; bioMerieux-Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.; and Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card, bioMerieux-Vitek) against an auxinographic and microscopic morphologic reference method for the ability to identify yeasts commonly isolated in our clinical microbiology laboratory. Two-hundred one yeast isolates were compared in the study. The RapID Yeast Plus System was significantly better than either API 20C Aux (193 versus 167 correct identifications; P < 0.0001) or the Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card (193 versus 173 correct identifications; P = 0.003) for obtaining correct identifications to the species level without additional testing. There was no significant difference between results obtained with API 20C Aux and the Vitek Yeast Biochemical Card system (P = 0.39). The API 20C Aux system did not correctly identify any of the Candida krusei isolates (n = 23) without supplemental testing and accounted for the major differences between the API 20C Aux and RapID Yeast Plus systems. Overall, the RapID Yeast Plus System was easy to use and is a good system for the routine identification of clinically relevant yeasts. PMID:10325356

  4. Auxin-induced degradation dynamics set the pace for lateral root development.

    PubMed

    Guseman, Jessica M; Hellmuth, Antje; Lanctot, Amy; Feldman, Tamar P; Moss, Britney L; Klavins, Eric; Calderón Villalobos, Luz Irina A; Nemhauser, Jennifer L

    2015-03-01

    Auxin elicits diverse cell behaviors through a simple nuclear signaling pathway initiated by degradation of Aux/IAA co-repressors. Our previous work revealed that members of the large Arabidopsis Aux/IAA family exhibit a range of degradation rates in synthetic contexts. However, it remained an unresolved issue whether differences in Aux/IAA turnover rates played a significant role in plant responses to auxin. Here, we use the well-established model of lateral root development to directly test the hypothesis that the rate of auxin-induced Aux/IAA turnover sets the pace for auxin-regulated developmental events. We did this by generating transgenic plants expressing degradation rate variants of IAA14, a crucial determinant of lateral root initiation. Progression through the well-established stages of lateral root development was strongly correlated with the engineered rates of IAA14 turnover, leading to the conclusion that Aux/IAAs are auxin-initiated timers that synchronize developmental transitions.

  5. The diageotropica mutation and synthetic auxins differentially affect the expression of auxin-regulated genes in tomato.

    PubMed Central

    Mito, N; Bennett, A B

    1995-01-01

    The effect of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutation, diageotropica (dgt), on the accumulation of mRNA corresponding to tomato homologs of three auxin-regulated genes, LeAux, LeSAUR, and Lepar, was examined. The dgt mutation inhibited the induction of LeAux and LeSAUR mRNA accumulation by naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) but had no effect on NAA-induced Lepar mRNA accumulation. The effect of two synthetic auxins, NAA and 3,7-dichloro-8-quinoline carboxylic acid (quinclorac), on the accumulation of LeAux, LeSAUR, and Lepar mRNA was also examined. Quinclorac induced the expression of each of the auxin-regulated genes, confirming its proposed mode of herbicidal action as an auxin-type herbicide. Concentrations of quinclorac at least 100-fold higher than NAA were required to induce LeAux and LeSAUR mRNA accumulation to similar levels, whereas Lepar mRNA accumulation was induced by similar concentrations of NAA and quinclorac. Collectively, these data suggest the presence of two auxin-dependent signal transduction pathways: one that regulates LeSAUR and LeAux mRNA accumulation and is interrupted by the dgt mutation and a second that regulates Lepar mRNA accumulation and is not defective in dgt tomato hypocotyls. These two auxin-regulated signal transduction pathways can be further discriminated by the action of two synthetic auxins, NAA and quinclorac. PMID:7480327

  6. Colonization of the oral cavity by probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ravn, I; Dige, I; Meyer, R L; Nyvad, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if three probiotic bacteria present in the milk product Cultura Dofilus® naturell could be detected in saliva and on oral mucosal surfaces, and if they colonized dental surfaces in situ in 8 caries-inactive individuals after 8 daily exposures to the milk product for up to 3 days. Bacteria were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. While probiotic bacteria were present sporadically in the oral cavity on mucosal surfaces and in saliva after 3 days of frequent use of the probiotic milk, they were not detected on dental surfaces. Probiotic bacteria may thus contribute to general oral health, but their potential role in biofilm-induced dental diseases remains unclear.

  7. Études par diffraction de fibres de l'ADN double brin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsyth, V. T.; Parrot, I. M.

    2005-11-01

    L'état fibreux est un état naturel pour les molécules de polymère qui ont tendance à adopter des conformations hélicoïdales régulières plutôt que des structures globulaires caractéristiques à de nombreuses protéines. La diffraction de fibres a donc une application étendue pour l'étude d'une grande variété de polymères biologiques et synthétiques. Ce papier a pour objectif d'illustrer l'étendue générale de la méthode et, en particulier, de démontrer l'impact des sources modernes de rayonnement synchrotron et de faisceaux neutroniques.

  8. Proposed Integration of VMSA Submarine for WIB: RPR FOM 2.0 Mapping and Data Agreements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    exercise. Résumé Le présent document décrit les modèles de capteur et d’arme qui seront utilisés pour simuler un sous-marin de force rouge...convenant à chaque fédéré. Principaux résultats Le présent document décrit les modèles de capteur et d’arme qui serviront à simuler le sous- marin ennemi...qui est largement utilisé par le Groupe des SCV, et le FOM RPR 2.0, qui constitue un choix naturel pour les simulateurs/simulations déjà conformes

  9. Les Brulures Chimiques Par Le Laurier Rose

    PubMed Central

    Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Le laurier rose ou Nerium oleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose de gravité différente. Cela doit aboutir à une information élargie de la population, ainsi qu'une réglementation stricte de sa commercialisation. PMID:21991211

  10. Boys, Transitions, and Physical (In)activity: Exploring the Socio-Behavioural Mediators of Participation.

    PubMed

    Jachyra, Patrick; Gibson, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    Objet: Explorer les mécanismes sociocomportementaux qui poussent les garçons à faire de l'activité physique (AP) ou les en dissuade à l'aube de l'adolescence et les répercussions sur le plan de la physiothérapie. Méthodes: Cette étude qualitative critique comportait des entrevues en profondeur basées sur des techniques de « l'entrevue active » de 15 garçons adolescents. La génération et l'analyse des données ont été propulsées par les techniques de la théorie à base empirique et la sociologie de la pratique de Bourdieu. Résultats: L'analyse a dégagé des relations intersectionnelles entre les émotions, les plaisirs inhérents au mouvement et un sentiment de lien avec l'AP, dont chacune a agi comme facteur de motivation incitant à faire de l'AP. De façon analogue, l'insatisfaction à l'égard de leur corps, des perceptions de soi négatives et des cas répétés d'intimidation explicite et symbolique ont convergé pour dissuader de faire de l'AP et susciter de l'apathie à cet égard. Conclusion: La détermination de mécanismes sociocomportementaux qui motivent et découragent l'activité physique aide à produire de nouvelles connaissances qui aident à comprendre l'attrition de l'AP chez les garçons à l'aube de l'adolescence. En tant que promoteurs de la santé et experts du mouvement, les physiothérapeutes ont un rôle important à jouer en aidant les adolescents, sans égard à leurs aptitudes, à participer à des activités qui leur donnent un sens, de l'inclusivité et un sentiment de lien avec l'AP.

  11. Méningiome intracrânien multiple: expérience du service de neurochirurgie CHU Avicenne Rabat - Salé, à propos de 4 cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Djoubairou, Ben Ousmanou; Karekezi, Claire; Moussé, Nabil; Doleagbenou, Agbéko Komlan; Gana, Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia; El Maaqili, Moulay Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Les méningiomes intracrâniennes multiples sont définies comme la présence d'au moins deux méningiomes sur des sites intracrâniens différents et ceci en absence de neurofibromatose. C'est une tumeur rare dont la prévalence varie entre 1-10%. Le but de notre travail était de décrire les caractéristiques cliniques, radiologiques, histologiques d'une série de 4 patients porteurs de méningiome multiple et en déduire les facteurs de risques de survenue de cette pathologie. Préciser la qualité d'exérèse chirurgicale de la lésion selon la classification de Simpson. Rapporter les suites postopératoires ainsi que le suivie à long termes des patients afin de préciser leur qualité de vie. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective portant sur 4 cas de Méningiomes intracrâniens multiples sur 174 patients opérés pour méningiome au CHU Avicenne entre Janvier 2000 à Décembre 2013. En s'aidant des données cliniques, imageries, chirurgicales, histologiques mentionnée dans le dossier médical de chaque patient. Notre série est constitué de 4 patients (3 femmes pour 1 homme), d'un âge allant de 42-50 ans (moyenne d’âge= 45,5 ans). Nous avons identifié 21 méningiomes (17 en sus tentoriel et 4 en sous tentoriel), aucun cas de décès ni d'infection postopératoire dans notre échantillon. Le pronostic reste bon malgré le nombre de lésion nécessitant parfois plusieurs interventions chirurgicales. PMID:25419331

  12. Dynamique des systèmes désordonnés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pick, R. M.

    2003-09-01

    Ce bref exposé résume quelques unes de nos connaissances sur la dynamique des systèmes désordonnés, en passant successivement de l'état solide aux cristaux à désordre dynamique d'orientation puis aux liquides, en se limitant presque exclusivement aux liquides surfondus. Une description analytique n'est donnée que pour les solides monoatomiques désordonnés, le reste de la présentation étant qualitatif, quelques exemples illustrant des aspects de cette dynamique plus particulièrement liés à l'esprit de ces Journées de Neutronique

  13. Bruit thermique et effets quantiques dans une cavité optique de grande finesse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caniard, T.; Briant, T.; Heidmann, A.; Pinard, M.

    2006-10-01

    Nous nous intéressons aux bruits dans les mesures optiques de très grande sensibilité et aux limites associées. Une des limitations fondamentales des mesures interférométriques, telles que les détections d'ondes gravitationnelles, est liée aux fluctuations de la pression de radiation exercée par la lumière sur les miroirs. Celle-ci induit des corrélations quantiques entre la position des miroirs et les fluctuations de la lumière. L'observation de ces effets quantiques ouvrirait de nombreuses perspectives: étude de la limite quantique standard, production d'états comprimés, réalisation d'une mesure quantique non destructive ldots

  14. Les noyaux actifs de galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camenzind, Max; Boucher, A.

    Découverts il y a plus de 30 ans, les quasars et les radiogalaxies sont des galaxies particulières qui manifestent en leur centre une activité intense. Cet ouvrage se consacre aux principales questions de la physique des noyaux actifs en les illustrant par de récentes données. Y sont traités les domaines suivants: les noyaux des galaxies actives, la théorie des trous noirs en rotation et de leurs disques d'accrétion, l'origine des raies d'émission et les jets des galaxies actives. Fournissant une introduction génerale à la terminologie, cet ouvrage s'adresse aussi bien aux étudiants en astronomie qu'aux astrophysiciens.

  15. Molecular basis for AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR protein interaction and the control of auxin response repression

    PubMed Central

    Korasick, David A.; Westfall, Corey S.; Lee, Soon Goo; Nanao, Max H.; Dumas, Renaud; Hagen, Gretchen; Guilfoyle, Thomas J.; Jez, Joseph M.; Strader, Lucia C.

    2014-01-01

    In plants, the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcription factor family regulates gene expression in response to auxin. In the absence of auxin, ARF transcription factors are repressed by interaction with AUXIN/INDOLE 3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) proteins. Although the C termini of ARF and Aux/IAA proteins facilitate their homo- and heterooligomerization, the molecular basis for this interaction remained undefined. The crystal structure of the C-terminal interaction domain of Arabidopsis ARF7 reveals a Phox and Bem1p (PB1) domain that provides both positive and negative electrostatic interfaces for directional protein interaction. Mutation of interface residues in the ARF7 PB1 domain yields monomeric protein and abolishes interaction with both itself and IAA17. Expression of a stabilized Aux/IAA protein (i.e., IAA16) bearing PB1 mutations in Arabidopsis suggests a multimerization requirement for ARF protein repression, leading to a refined auxin-signaling model. PMID:24706860

  16. Ephémérides astronomiques 2011 : Connaissance des Temps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau Des Longitudes (Bdl); Institut de Mécanique Céleste Et de Calcul Des Ephémérides (Imcce); Observatoire de Paris

    2011-12-01

    Cet ouvrage d'éphémérides destiné aux astronomes, aux professeurs et aux étudiants est divisé en deux parties. Il donne les positions des astres pour l'année 2011. Le livre présente l'état actuel des connaissances sur les bases et les explications de calculs des éphémérides puis donne sous forme d'éphémérides tabulées les données permettant d'obtenir la position des astres à observer. En utilisant le CD-ROM, l'utilisateur peut préparer ses observations.

  17. Modeling of Impact Properties of Auxetic Materials: Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    numérique portant sur les propriétés de résistance aux chocs des mousses auxétiques, des matériaux spéciaux qui possèdent un coefficient de Poisson...mousses auxétiques soumises à des charges de choc et de réaliser une étude paramétrique afin de déterminer les effets de divers paramètres...prévoir la variation en fonction du temps de paramètres distincts tels que l’absorption de l’énergie interne, la force de choc et la réduction de la

  18. Hormonal requirements for effective induction of microspore embryogenesis in triticale (× Triticosecale Wittm.) anther cultures.

    PubMed

    Żur, Iwona; Dubas, Ewa; Krzewska, Monika; Waligórski, Piotr; Dziurka, Michał; Janowiak, Franciszek

    2015-01-01

    Effective microspore embryogenesis in triticale is determined by a specific hormonal homeostasis: low value of IAA/cytokinins, IAA/ABA and cytokinins/ABA ratios as well as proper endogenous/exogenous auxin balance, which favours androgenic structure formation and green plant regeneration ability. The concentration of plant growth regulators (PGRs): auxins (Auxs), cytokinins (CKs) and abscisic acid (ABA) was measured in anthers of eight DH lines of triticale (× Triticosecale Wittm.), and associated with microspore embryogenesis (ME) responsiveness. The analysis was conducted on anthers excised from control tillers at the phase optimal for ME induction and then after ME-initiating tillers treatment (21 days at 4 °C). In control, IAA predominated among Auxs (11-39 nmol g(-1) DW), with IBA constituting only 1 % of total Auxs content. The prevailing isoforms of CKs were cis isomers of zeatin (121-424 pmol g(-1) DW) and zeatin ryboside (cZR, 146-432 pmol g(-1) DW). Surprisingly, a relatively high level (10-64 pmol g(-1) DW) of kinetin (KIN) was detected. Cold treatment significantly changed the levels of all analysed PGRs. The anthers of 'responsive' DH lines contained higher concentrations of IBA, cis and trans zeatin, cZR and ABA, and lower amount of IAA and KIN in comparison with 'recalcitrant' genotypes. However, the effects of exogenous ABA, p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid treatments suggest that none of the studied PGRs acts alone in the acquisition of embryogenic competency, which seems to be an effect of concerted PGRs crosstalk. The initiation of ME required a certain threshold level of ABA. A crucial prerequisite for high ME effectiveness was a specific PGRs homeostasis: lower Auxs level in comparison with CKs and ABA, and lower CKs/ABA ratio. A proper balance between endogenous Auxs in anthers and exogenous Auxs supplied by culture media was also essential.

  19. Carbohydrate Stress Affecting Fruitlet Abscission and Expression of Genes Related to Auxin Signal Transduction Pathway in Litchi

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Jian-Fei; Wu, Jian-Yang; Zhong, Hai-Ying; Li, Cai-Qin; Chen, Jian-Ye; Lu, Wang-Jin; Li, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Auxin, a vital plant hormone, regulates a variety of physiological and developmental processes. It is involved in fruit abscission through transcriptional regulation of many auxin-related genes, including early auxin responsive genes (i.e., auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA), Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) and small auxin upregulated (SAUR)) and auxin response factors (ARF), which have been well characterized in many plants. In this study, totally five auxin-related genes, including one AUX/IAA (LcAUX/IAA1), one GH3 (LcGH3.1), one SAUR (LcSAUR1) and two ARFs (LcARF1 and LcARF2), were isolated and characterized from litchi fruit. LcAUX/IAA1, LcGH3.1, LcSAUR1, LcARF1 and LcARF2 contain open reading frames (ORFs) encoding polypeptides of 203, 613, 142, 792 and 832 amino acids, respectively, with their corresponding molecular weights of 22.67, 69.20, 11.40, 88.20 and 93.16 kDa. Expression of these genes was investigated under the treatment of girdling plus defoliation which aggravated litchi fruitlet abscission due to the blockage of carbohydrates transport and the reduction of endogenous IAA content. Results showed that transcript levels of LcAUX/IAA1, LcGH3.1 and LcSAUR1 mRNAs were increased after the treatment in abscission zone (AZ) and other tissues, in contrast to the decreasing accumulation of LcARF1 mRNA, suggesting that LcAUX/IAA1, LcSAUR1 and LcARF1 may play more important roles in abscission. Our results provide new insight into the process of fruitlet abscission induced by carbohydrate stress and broaden our understanding of the auxin signal transduction pathway in this process at the molecular level. PMID:23443112

  20. Final Report 2175 Modular Radar Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-30

    AFC Amplifier AGC Module L.V. LC FUter SYS Power Converter (DC) SYS Power Converter (AC) AUX Power Supply (DC) AUX Power Supply (AC) +5VRec/Fil...Pos. Series Reg. 4* 4 2 1C - $200 ND „ HV Rectifier/ FUter I* 1 1 IB - $150 ND LV Rectifier/ FUter 3* 3 2 1C - $175 ND _ Comparator 1* 1 1 1A - $100...Status F1LXFMR/XIST0RS & Line Rect/ FUter (Special for each magnetron) 1* — — 2G 20X10-6 $350 ND Modular Isolation LC Filter(Special for each

  1. Assessment of Motion Effects on the FPSO (Floating, Production, Storage and Offloading) Vessel Terra Nova

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    sur le sommeil , les sympt6mes et la gravit6 du mal de mer et l’ex~cution des tdches a 6t6 effectu6 A divers moments dans le cours d’une p~riode de...partir des 911 questionnaires retourn~s, on a appris que les probli-mes assochis aux troubles de sommeil et aux sympt6mes du mal des transports pouvaient...tre qualifiis de l6gers A mod~r~s. Par contre, la correlation entre les troubles de sommeil et les mouvements du navire 6tait relativement 6lev~e. Le

  2. Analysis of the North Truro Sea Clutter Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    rimentaux pour le fouilis de mer en fonction de l’angle d’incidence rasante A. diffirentes bandes de fr~quences ont W obtenus pour une observation face aux...de mer: P’un face au vent et l’autre en travers du vent. Les donn~es correspondant A. de faibles angles d’incidence rasante 6taient tr&s diff6rentes...de celles pr6dites par les deux mod~les. Des recherches suppl~mentaires sur le fouilis de mer aux incidences rasantes sont n~cessaires pour verifier et

  3. Tow Forces in Waves for Canadian Navy Vessels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    supplémentaire. La présence d’une voie mari- time induit une résistance additionnelle ainsi que des forces dynamiques attribuables aux vagues agissant sur...supplémentaire. La présence d’une voie maritime induit une résistance additionnelle ainsi que des forces dynamiques attribuables aux vagues agissant... dynamiques agissant pendant le remorquage. Les prévisions des forces exercées pendant le remorquage dans une mer à l’état 5 montrent que les forces

  4. Duplication appendiculaire révélé à l'occasion d'un syndrome appendiculaire récidivant

    PubMed Central

    Aggouri, Younes; Ossibi, Pierlesky Elion; Oussaid, Mourad; Tourghai, Imane; Hassani, Karim Ibn Majdoub; laalim, Said Ait; Mazaz, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    La duplication appendiculaire est une malformation très rare. Elle se rencontre chez les enfants exceptionnellement chez les adultes. Sa découverte est souvent fortuite à l'occasion d'une laparotomie ou laparoscopie pour une autre pathologie. Nous rapportons un cas particulier d'un patient qui a bénéficié d'une appendicectomie il y'a 3 mois qui est admis aux urgences pour un syndrome appendiculaire récidivant avec aux explorations radiologique et chirurgicale la présence d'une appendicite rétrocoecale. PMID:26175825

  5. On directly measuring relative Fermi energies of noble metals and their alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiman, G. G.; Sundaram, V. S.; Rogers, J. D.

    1981-09-01

    We present the first evidence of direct measurement of relative Fermi energies in alloys and between pure metals. From applying the "atomic" concept of core hole final state screening, the Auger energy shift of noble metal A equals EFA- EF( x). High resolution Auger shifts in P1- xtCux, AuxCu1- x and AuxAg1- x demonstrate experimental verification of this simple relation. We find E FCuE FAu ≅ - 0.2 eV, and E FPt ≅ E FCu and E FAg ≅ E FAu.

  6. Network Centric Operations: Challenges Associated with the Human-in-the-Loop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    L’interface homme - machine est cruciale aux opérations facilitées par réseaux. Sans système centré sur la personne, ces opérations seront vouées à... homme - machine est cruciale aux opérations facilitées par réseaux. Sans système centré sur la personne, ces opérations seront vouées à l’échec. Les...a broader and more sophisticated understanding of what kind of machine -human interface networked systems will require in the years ahead

  7. Comparison of three commercial systems for the identification of germ-tube negative yeast species isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Sand, C; Rennie, R P

    1999-04-01

    Three commercial systems were evaluated for their ability to identify 171 germ-tube negative yeasts isolated from clinical specimens. The Yeast Biochemical Card and Analytical Profile Index 20 AUX identified 97% of 171 strains tested. The Biolog system had poor clinical utility: only 48% of strains were identified. For Yeast Biochemical Card and Analytical Profile Index 20 AUX, 9% and 6%, respectively, required repeat testing and both systems required supplemental tests for 28% of the strains. These observations indicate that considerable expertise and a battery of reagents in addition to the basic systems are required for accurate identification of germ-tube negative yeasts.

  8. Development of a Dynamic Biomechanical Model for Load Carriage: Phase 1 Part A: Equipment Upgrades to Accommodate Dynamic Biomechanical Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    tester at this time with the 3D function to be completed later. These changes to the automated programmable motion control system create a number of...longueur. Ces capteurs de force de sangle sont linéaires et robustes, et leur conception est bien adaptée aux sangles portées aux épaules et à la...système automatisé programmable de commande des mouvements ont donné accès à des fonctions qui n’existaient pas dans le système précédent, notamment : 1

  9. Visual Analytics in Public Safety: Example Capabilities for Example Government Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    pour divers organismes fédéraux types. Le rapport se termine par des recommandations quant aux façons dont le gouvernement fédéral pourrait s’y prendre...rapport se termine par des recommandations quant aux façons dont le gouvernement fédéral pourrait s’y prendre pour faciliter l’adaptation et...façons dont le gouvernement fédéral pourrait s’y prendre pour faciliter l’adaptation et l’exploitation d’un outil d’analytique visuel. 14

  10. Air Weather Service Master Station Catalog USAFETAC Climatic Database Users Handbook No. 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) G = Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) K = Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) 0...AFGWC) J = Jepsen (JEPS) K = Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) M = Located by meteorological analysis B-6 N = Hydrology office...Airfield ACC - Area control center AERO - Aerodrome AHP - U.S. Army Heliport AUX - Auxiliary AFS - Airways Facilities Sector AMOS - Automated

  11. Efficient Conduct of Individual Flights and Air Traffic or Optimum Utilization of Modern Technology for the Overall Benefit of Civil and Military Airspace Users. Conference Proceedings of the Symposium of the Guidance and Control Panel (42nd) Held in Brussels, Belgium on 10-13 June 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    systboo au, s01, - de positions do supervision at d’ intervootion faisant appal aux techniques lee plus modernos do cornS- alcatio 1.. binajacbino. 13F...and Istituto di Analisi dei Sistemi 0 _ ed Informatica - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Viale Manzoni, 30- 00185 Roma - Italy - SUMMARY This paper

  12. An Investigation into the Use of Side-Arm Control for Civil Rotorcraft Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    contribution aux connaissances actuelles. CAHIERS D’AERONAUTIQUE (AN): Informations de moindre portde mais importantes en termes d’accroissement des...touchdown with no perceptible longitudinal or lateral drift. * Sidestep A sideward hover- taxi manoeuvre was required across a circle of 200 feet in

  13. A History of Full-Scale Testing of Aircraft Structures at the National Aeronautical Establishment (L’Histoire de l’Evaluation en Laboratorie de Structures d’Aeronefs a l’Etablissement Aeronautique National)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    l’aeronautique jug~es importantes, completes et durables en termes de contribution aux connais- sances actuelles. " CAHIERS D’AkRONAUTIQUE (AN): Informations de...service including taxi time, with a nominal testing flight time of 3.5 minutes. Each flight consisted of one pre-flight ground load, 49 manoeuvre

  14. Technologies for Protection and Resistance Enhancement of Critical Infrastructures againstExtreme Fire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    études sur les solutions courantes ainsi que sur celles déjà employées aux fins de la protection des bâtiments contre les incendies ordinaires, en vue...Cowalchuk and Mr. Dwayne Goudie from Transport Canada, Mr. Antonio Aldykiewicz from Grace, and Mr. Richard Lapointe from Sika Canada for their input and

  15. Transient Annealing Characterization of Irradiated MOSFETS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    silicium ) aux radiations nucleaires est une fonction du temps tres complexe. Ce rapport decrit les phenomenes physiques causant cette reponse et les...address of the organization preparing the document 2. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION Orgenizations for whom the document was Prepared, e.g Establishment

  16. Des agents de santé communautaires pour la promotion de la santé des pasteurs nomades au Mali.

    PubMed

    Ag Ahmed, Mohamed Ali

    2016-12-01

    Au Mali, les nomades (des Maures, Touaregs et Peulhs) représentent environ 1,25 million de personnes. Les services de santé leur sont peu accessibles en raison de leur mobilité, liée à leur activité d'élevage. La question que se posent plusieurs intervenants en santé publique des pays où vivent ces nomades est de savoir comment améliorer leur santé. Dans ce commentaire, après un bref exposé des problèmes liés à l'accès aux services de santé, nous proposons une approche innovante et holistique de la santé, qui soutient que des agents de santé communautaires (ASC) pourraient contribuer à améliorer la santé des nomades en offrant conjointement des services de santé aux nomades et à leurs animaux (le concept « One Health » [d'Une Seule Santé]). Des pistes de réflexion sont dégagées, quant aux principaux défis pour leur efficacité et durabilité, qui sont la conception et gestion du programme, leur soutien par les communautés et leur intégration aux services de santé publique et vétérinaire.

  17. Automated Alerting for Black Hole Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    set origin igp set community no-export ! ! line con 0 password password login transport input none line aux 0 password password login...next hop to 192.168.10.2, origin to IGP , and community to no-export. Community no- export tells that this route should not be forwarded outside the

  18. Data Acquisition and Preparation for Social Network Analysis Based on Email: Lessons Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    de ce genre, en plus d’être nécessaire pour appliquer les solutions aux serveurs de courriels, réduirait le nombre d’éventualités pour lesquelles il...J.2 Microsoft™ Support • Pierre Major, MCSE Technical Account Manager Microsoft™ Premier Support Email: Pmajor@Microsoft.Com Phone

  19. Foreign Exchange Value-at-Risk with Multiple Currency Exposure: A Multivariate and Copula Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    à un risque financier lié aux varia- tions du taux de change, et les responsables de la gestion interne se voient donc pressés de trouver des...Jondeau, E. and Rockinger, M. (2006), The Copula-GARCH model of conditional dependencies: An international stock market application, Journal of

  20. Defence Output Measures: An Economics Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    Des budgets de la comptabilité des intrants, des extrants, de la gestion et des ressources ont été utilisés comme mesures relatives aux résultats...This Report focused on financial management information (e.g. management of stocks and assets)) and made no mention of defence output measures. At

  1. Experiences in porting NASTRAN (R) to non-traditional platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gregory L.; Norton, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 UNIX version of NASTRAN was ported to two new platforms that are not supported by COSMIC: the Sun SPARC workstation and the Apple Macintosh using the A/UX version of UNIX. The experiences of the authers in porting NASTRAN is summarized here. Suggestions for users who might attempt similar ports are given.

  2. Properties of Organic Superconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    fBEDrrrF) 4 (ReO 4 ) 2 , devient supraconducteur pour des pressions suptrseures A 4 kbar avec une temperature de transition aol environs dce 2 K. A plus...coupl6es aux 6lectrons. Ces experiences sont incompatibles avec linterpr~tation expliquant lorigine /I/ du pic A 29 cm- 1 par un pseudogap supraconducteur

  3. The Communicative Computer Compares: A CALL Design Project for Elementary French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Patricia J.

    A computer lesson entitled "Aux Jeux Olympiques" (To the Olympic Games) simulates an ongoing situational dialog between the French student and the PLATO computer system. It offers an international setting for functional learning exercises focusing on students' understanding and use of comparative constructions, selected verbs, and other linguistic…

  4. Auxin Influx Carriers Control Vascular Patterning and Xylem Differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Siligato, Riccardo; Alonso, Jose M.; Swarup, Ranjan; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Caño-Delgado, Ana I.; Ibañes, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is an essential hormone for plant growth and development. Auxin influx carriers AUX1/LAX transport auxin into the cell, while auxin efflux carriers PIN pump it out of the cell. It is well established that efflux carriers play an important role in the shoot vascular patterning, yet the contribution of influx carriers to the shoot vasculature remains unknown. Here, we combined theoretical and experimental approaches to decipher the role of auxin influx carriers in the patterning and differentiation of vascular tissues in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem. Our theoretical analysis predicts that influx carriers facilitate periodic patterning and modulate the periodicity of auxin maxima. In agreement, we observed fewer and more spaced vascular bundles in quadruple mutants plants of the auxin influx carriers aux1lax1lax2lax3. Furthermore, we show AUX1/LAX carriers promote xylem differentiation in both the shoot and the root tissues. Influx carriers increase cytoplasmic auxin signaling, and thereby differentiation. In addition to this cytoplasmic role of auxin, our computational simulations propose a role for extracellular auxin as an inhibitor of xylem differentiation. Altogether, our study shows that auxin influx carriers AUX1/LAX regulate vascular patterning and differentiation in plants. PMID:25922946

  5. Localized Impact Damage in Ceramics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-31

    Shear modulus, MPa - 41,000 Poisson’s ratio 0.30 (c) in growth plane 0.35 L " Modulus of rupture at 250C, MPa 97.2 (b ) 110.3 (e ) * IRTRAN 2... Milieux Vitreux. Applications aux mesures de Quelques Proprieter Physiques des Verres" from Communications Scientifiques et Techniques. 1. Sujet

  6. Parallel Function Strategy in Pronoun Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grober, Ellen H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Subjects completed sentences of the form NP1 aux V NP2 because (but) Pro...(e.g., John may scold Bill because he...) with a reason or motive for the action described. A basic perceptual strategy was hypothesized to underlie the comprehension of these sentences which have a potentially ambiguous pronoun in the subject position of the subordinate…

  7. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2006-10-01

    Cycle solaire; Voyager 1; Geysers aux pôles martiens; Panètes extrasolaires; Systèmes planétaires en formation; Spirales de poussière; NGC 6397; Protogalaxies lointaines; Deutérium; Économie cosmique; AKARI; Travaux inutiles (les avatars du mot planète)

  8. Post-Secondary Students' Relationship to People They Consider to Be Scientific Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    This article is situated in contemporary debates about the ways to achieve a scientific literacy that encourages a greater lay participation in public debates and political decision making. Drawing on the notion of "relationship to scientific experts" (in French, "rapport aux experts scientifiques"), I explore the ways in which…

  9. Section traumatique de l'utérus non gravide chez une accidentée de voie publique: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Cédrick, Sangwa Milindi; Marius, Kitembo Feruzi; Mireille, Kakinga Zabibu; Nelly, Mukonda Sompo; Chamy, Cham Lubamba; Numbi, Kabamge; Mutomb, Jean Felix

    2015-01-01

    Dans cet article les auteurs rapportent un rare cas de section traumatique d'un utérus non gravide, chez une accidentée de voie publique reçu dans un tableau d'hemopéritoine aux services des urgences de l'hôpital General Provincial de Reference Jason Sendwe. PMID:26113916

  10. IFLA General Conference 1991. Division of Regional Activities: Section of Africa; Section of Asia and Oceania; Section of Latin America and the Carribean. Booklet 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The six papers in this collection were presented at three sections of the Division of Regional Activities: (1) "A la recherche d'Approches adaptees aux Besoins en Documentation des Africains (In Search of an Approach Adapted to the Information Needs of Africans)" (Touria Temsamani Haji, Morocco); (2) "People's Libraries: An African…

  11. The School Car: Bringing the Three R's to Newfoundland's Remote Railway Settlements (1936-1942).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noseworthy, Randy P.

    During the mid-1930s, the main line of the Newfoundland (Canada) Railway stretched 547 miles from St. John's to Port aux Basques, and railway workers and their families lived along the line in small isolated settlements. The provincial department of education, the Newfoundland Railway, and the Anglo-Newfoundland Development Company devised an…

  12. IFLA General Conference 1991. Division of Regional Activities: Section of Africa; Section of Asia and Oceania; Section of Latin America and the Carribean. Booklet 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The six papers in this collection were presented at three sections of the Division of Regional Activities: (1) "A la recherche d'Approches adaptees aux Besoins en Documentation des Africains (In Search of an Approach Adapted to the Information Needs of Africans)" (Touria Temsamani Haji, Morocco); (2) "People's Libraries: An African…

  13. Electronically Induced Phase Transformations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ries (w hen the Slater free-electron exchange is used). A systematic the active researcher. study of relativistic electron densities and isomer...comp:wrees aux mesures actuelles d’effet dHvA d’Arko et Schirber. Le calu; du facteur de forme neutronique en presence d’un champ magnetique est en bon

  14. Uncovering the Richness of the Stimulus: Structure Dependence and Indirect Statistical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reali, Florencia; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2005-01-01

    The poverty of stimulus argument is one of the most controversial arguments in the study of language acquisition. Here we follow previous approaches challenging the assumption of impoverished primary linguistic data, focusing on the specific problem of auxiliary (AUX) fronting in complex polar interrogatives. We develop a series of corpus analyses…

  15. Mechanism of auxin perception by the TIR1 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xu; Calderon-Villalobos, Luz Irina A; Sharon, Michal; Zheng, Changxue; Robinson, Carol V; Estelle, Mark; Zheng, Ning

    2007-04-05

    Auxin is a pivotal plant hormone that controls many aspects of plant growth and development. Perceived by a small family of F-box proteins including transport inhibitor response 1 (TIR1), auxin regulates gene expression by promoting SCF ubiquitin-ligase-catalysed degradation of the Aux/IAA transcription repressors, but how the TIR1 F-box protein senses and becomes activated by auxin remains unclear. Here we present the crystal structures of the Arabidopsis TIR1-ASK1 complex, free and in complexes with three different auxin compounds and an Aux/IAA substrate peptide. These structures show that the leucine-rich repeat domain of TIR1 contains an unexpected inositol hexakisphosphate co-factor and recognizes auxin and the Aux/IAA polypeptide substrate through a single surface pocket. Anchored to the base of the TIR1 pocket, auxin binds to a partially promiscuous site, which can also accommodate various auxin analogues. Docked on top of auxin, the Aux/IAA substrate peptide occupies the rest of the TIR1 pocket and completely encloses the hormone-binding site. By filling in a hydrophobic cavity at the protein interface, auxin enhances the TIR1-substrate interactions by acting as a 'molecular glue'. Our results establish the first structural model of a plant hormone receptor.

  16. The School Car: Bringing the Three R's to Newfoundland's Remote Railway Settlements (1936-1942).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noseworthy, Randy P.

    During the mid-1930s, the main line of the Newfoundland (Canada) Railway stretched 547 miles from St. John's to Port aux Basques, and railway workers and their families lived along the line in small isolated settlements. The provincial department of education, the Newfoundland Railway, and the Anglo-Newfoundland Development Company devised an…

  17. La santé des Premières nations, des Inuits et des Métis: les facteurs que doivent envisager les leaders en santé canadiens dans la foulée du rapport de la Commission de vérité et réconciliation du Canada.

    PubMed

    McNally, Mary; Martin, Debbie

    2017-03-01

    Les peuples des Premières nations, inuits et métis qui habitent au Canada sont aux prises avec de profondes disparités en matière de santé par rapport aux Canadiens non autochtones, et ce, dans presque toutes les mesures liées à la santé et au bien-être. Pour faire progresser les services de santé auprès des peuples autochtones, il faut passer à l'action dans tous les ordres de prestation des soins et des politiques en santé. Il est donc essentiel que les leaders et les prestataires des établissements, des systèmes et des installations de santé du Canada comprennent et prennent en main les déterminants de la santé propres aux peuples autochtones, y compris l'héritage du colonialisme et le racisme ancien et actuel. La Commission de vérité et réconciliation du Canada est le point de départ pour réagir de manière positive aux injustices.

  18. Roles of abscisic acid and auxin in shoot-supplied ammonium inhibition of root system development.

    PubMed

    Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2011-10-01

    A plastic root system is a prerequisite for successful plant acclimation to variable environments. The normally functioning root system is the result of a complex interaction of root-borne signals and shoot-derived regulators. We recently demonstrated that AUX1, a well-studied component of auxin transport, mediates shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) inhibition of lateral root (LR) formation in Arabidopsis. By contrast, the response did not involve ABA pathways, via which several other abiotic stresses affect LR formation. We proposed that SSA regulates LR emergence by interrupting AUX1-mediated auxin transport from shoot to root. Here, by analyzing both ABA- and auxin-related mutants, we show that AUX1 is also required for SSA-mediated suppression of primary root growth. Ammonium content in shoots was furthermore shown to increase linearly with shoot-, but not root-supplied, ammonium, suggesting it may represent the internal trigger for SSA inhibition of root development. Taken together, our data identify AUX1-mediated auxin transport as a key transmission step in the sensing of excessive ammonium exposure and its inhibitory effect on root development. 

  19. Radiations cosmiques : danger dans l'Espace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.; Dzitko, H.

    2000-06-01

    Au sol, l'atmosphere nous protege plus ou moins bien. Mais dans l'espace ou a bord des avions de ligne, l'homme est directement expose aux rayonnements cosmiques qui peuvent etre mortels. Un veritable frein a la presence humaine prolongee dans l'espace. Une menace que les agences spatiales prennent tres au serieux.

  20. Maygen: A Symbolic Debugger Generation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    ri the (ollecdon of information Sond comments regarding this burden estimate or any other auxed of ths, I € ofltOn O nformation. in(cuding suggestons...34 routines to satisfy the compiler’s checks, knowing that these dummy routines will not actually be called. The extension command file is created by

  1. Uncovering the Richness of the Stimulus: Structure Dependence and Indirect Statistical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reali, Florencia; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2005-01-01

    The poverty of stimulus argument is one of the most controversial arguments in the study of language acquisition. Here we follow previous approaches challenging the assumption of impoverished primary linguistic data, focusing on the specific problem of auxiliary (AUX) fronting in complex polar interrogatives. We develop a series of corpus analyses…

  2. Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain16 and 18 Act Downstream of the AUXIN1 and LIKE-AUXIN3 Auxin Influx Carriers to Control Lateral Root Development in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han Woo

    2015-01-01

    Several members of the Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain (LBD)/Asymmetric Leaves2-Like (ASL) gene family have been identified to play important roles in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lateral root (LR) development during auxin response, but their functional relationship with auxin transporters has not been established yet. Here, we show that the AUXIN1 (AUX1) and LIKE-AUXIN3 (LAX3) auxin influx carriers are required for auxin signaling that activates LBD16/ASL18 and LBD18/ASL20 to control LR development. The lax3 mutant phenotype was not significantly enhanced when combined with lbd16 or lbd18. However, LBD18 overexpression could rescue the defects in LR emergence in lax3 with concomitant expression of the LBD18 target genes. Genetic and gene expression analyses indicated that LBD16 and LBD18 act with AUX1 to regulate LR initiation and LR primordium development, and that AUX1 and LAX3 are needed for auxin-responsive expression of LBD16 and LBD18. LBD18:SUPERMAN REPRESSIVE DOMAIN X in the lbd18 mutant inhibited LR initiation and LR primordium development in response to a gravitropic stimulus and suppressed promoter activities of the cell cycle genes Cyclin-Dependent Kinase A1;1 and CYCLINB1;1. Taken together, these results suggest that LBD16 and LBD18 are important regulators of LR initiation and development downstream of AUX1 and LAX3. PMID:26059335

  3. Neutron Radiation Induced Degradation of Diode Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    de fluance utilis6 dans ce travail (diode du type 3). La plupart des r~sultats anterieurs sur les, diodes A jonction p-n correspondent aux rdsultats...termes des thories pour une jonction p-n et pour les effects de radiations sur semiconducteurs. II est prddit qu’une diode du type 3 pourrait &tre

  4. Prognozing of the Resistance to Hypoxia in Military Pilots by Cardiovascular and Respiratory Parameters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    report: TITLE: Operational Medical Issues in Hypo-and Hyperbaric Conditions [les Questions medicales a caractere oprationel liees aux conditions...systolic BP. INTRODUCTION Physiological stress of the high altitude flight has been the subject of intensive human factors research in aviation...bands were calculated using Fast Fourier Transform. 3. HRV-derived indices: Physical Stress (PS) (arb. un.) (mathematical algorithm based on

  5. USAF Experience with Hyperbaric Therapy of Altitude Decompression Sickness (1941-1999)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Operational Medical Issues in Hypo-and Hyperbaric Conditions [les Questions medicales a caractere oprationel liees aux conditions hypobares ou hyperbares...observed differences have been variously attributed to fat and/or hormones . (15,16,18) In any event, again, the actual rates of decompression sickness

  6. Evaluation d'un scenario d'apprentissage favorisant la mobilisation des habiletes reliees au processus d'enquete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Samuel F. J.

    Les resultats au Programme international pour le suivi des acquis des eleves (PISA) demontrent que les jeunes neobrunswickois francophones se classent b un niveau significativement inferieur comparaiivement aux eleves anglophones du Nouveau-Brunswick, aux eleves des autres provinces canadiennes et se classent sous la moyenne internationale de tous les pays participants quant b la culture scientifique. L'evaluation de cette culture scientifique est basee sur une serie de savoirs, de savoir-faire et de savoir-etre reliee au processus d'enquete scolaire. Le processus d'enquete scolaire est une approche b l'apprentissage ou les eleves effectuent des recherches d'informations, discutent d'idees et entreprennent des investigations pour augmenter leur comprehension d'un probleme ou d'un sujet. Les recherches demontrent que le processus d'enquete scolaire est rarement une composante pedagogique importante de la salle de classe et les recherches portant sur l'implantation du processus d'enquete scolaire recommandent de rendre ce dernier plus accessible aux enseignantes et aux enseignants. Afin de rendre le processus d'enquete plus accessible aux enseignantes et aux enseignants, notre recherche porte sur l'evaluation de la valeur pedagogique d'un scenario d'apprentissage (PhaRoboS) concu specialement pour creer un environnement dans lequel les eleves auront plusieurs occasions a mobiliser les habiletes reliees au processus d'enquete. Les retombees de cette evaluation nous permettront d'offrir des pistes de remediations afin d'aider plus d'enseignantes et d'enseignants b creer un environnement dans lequel les eleves auront plusieurs occasions b mobiliser les habiletes reliees au processus d'enquete. Cette evaluation s'est faite a partir d'une methodologie inspiree de l'evaluation pour fin d'amelioration d'un objet pedagogique. L'analyse des donnees qualitatives recueillies aupres des eleves et de leur enseignante d'une ecole francophone du Nouveau-Brunswick semble montrer que

  7. Comparison of Vitek Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Versus Conventional Methods in Candida Identification.

    PubMed

    Keçeli, Sema Aşkın; Dündar, Devrim; Tamer, Gülden Sönmez

    2016-02-01

    Candida species are generally identified by conventional methods such as germ tube or morphological appearance on corn meal agar, biochemical methods using API kits and molecular biological methods. Alternative to these methods, rapid and accurate identification methods of microorganisms called matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDİ-TOF MS) has recently been described. In this study, Candida identification results by API Candida kit, API 20C AUX kit and identifications on corn meal agar (CMA) are compared with the results obtained on Vitek-MS. All results were confirmed by sequencing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA. Totally, 97 Candida strains were identified by germ tube test, CMA, API and Vitek-MS. Vitek-MS results were compatible with 74.2 % of API 20C AUX and 81.4 % of CMA results. The difference between the results of API Candida and API 20C AUX was detected. The ratio of discrepancy between Vitek-MS and API 20C AUX was 25.8 %. Candida species mostly identified as C. famata or C. tropicalis by and not compatible with API kits were identified as C. albicans by Vitek-MS. Sixteen Candida species having discrepant results with Vitek-MS, API or CMA were randomly chosen, and ITS sequence analysis was performed. The results of sequencing were compatible 56.2 % with API 20C AUX, 50 % with CMA and 93.7 % with Vitek-MS. When compared with conventional identification methods, MS results are more reliable and rapid for Candida identification. MS system may be used as routine identification method in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  8. Laser ablation generation of clusters from As-Te mixtures, As-Te glass nano-layers and from Au-As-Te nano-composites. Quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Štěpánová, Vlasta; Prokeš, Lubomír; Slavíček, Pavel; Alberti, Milan; Havel, Josef

    2015-06-15

    Arsenic tellurides have found important applications in various fields of science, but only a few gold-arsenic tellurides have been reported. Laser ablation synthesis (LAS), a suitable method for the generation of new compounds, has been used to generate clusters from As-Te mixtures, an As-Te glass and Au-As-Te nano-composites. Chalcogenide glass nano-layers prepared via Physical Vapour Deposition - thermal evaporation were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). LAS with laser desorption ionisation quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI QIT TOFMS) was used for the generation and analysis of new AuxAsmTen clusters. The stoichiometry of the clusters was determined via isotopic envelope modelling. A simple procedure for the preparation of the Au-As-Te nano-composite was developed. From As-Te mixtures only five binary AsmTen clusters were generated, while from a glass layer 10 binary AsmTen clusters were identified, because during the deposition of the glass the elements reacted with each other to form a complex three-dimensional (3D) structure. Using LAS on the Au-As-Te nano-composite leads to the formation of six unary Ten (n = 1-6), 16 binary (AsmTen and AuxTen), and 31 ternary AuxAsmTen clusters. LAS was demonstrated to be a useful technique for the generation of AuxAsmTen clusters in the gas phase. More AsmTen clusters were generated from the deposited glass layers than from As-Te mixtures. Most of the ternary AuxAsmTen clusters generated from the nano-composite are reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The MEDIATOR genes MED12 and MED13 control Arabidopsis root system configuration influencing sugar and auxin responses.

    PubMed

    Raya-González, Javier; López-Bucio, Jesús Salvador; Prado-Rodríguez, José Carlos; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; Guevara-García, Ángel Arturo; López-Bucio, José

    2017-08-05

    Arabidopsis med12 and med13 mutants exhibit shoot and root phenotypes related to an altered auxin homeostasis. Sucrose supplementation reactivates both cell division and elongation in primary roots as well as auxin-responsive and stem cell niche gene expression in these mutants. An analysis of primary root growth of WT, med12, aux1-7 and med12 aux1 single and double mutants in response to sucrose and/or N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) placed MED12 upstream of auxin transport for the sugar modulation of root growth. The MEDIATOR (MED) complex plays diverse functions in plant development, hormone signaling and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance through coordination of transcription. Here, we performed genetic, developmental, molecular and pharmacological analyses to characterize the role of MED12 and MED13 on the configuration of root architecture and its relationship with auxin and sugar responses. Arabidopsis med12 and med13 single mutants exhibit shoot and root phenotypes consistent with altered auxin homeostasis including altered primary root growth, lateral root development, and root hair elongation. MED12 and MED13 were required for activation of cell division and elongation in primary roots, as well as auxin-responsive and stem cell niche gene expression. Remarkably, most of these mutant phenotypes were rescued by supplying sucrose to the growth medium. The growth response of primary roots of WT, med12, aux1-7 and med12 aux1 single and double mutants to sucrose and application of auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) revealed the correlation of med12 phenotype with the activity of the auxin intake permease and suggests that MED12 acts upstream of AUX1 in the root growth response to sugar. These data provide compelling evidence that MEDIATOR links sugar sensing to auxin transport and distribution during root morphogenesis.

  10. L’évaluation et le traitement du nourrisson exposé au virus d’immunodéficience humaine de type 1

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Dans les pays industrialisés, des soins et un traitement sont offerts aux femmes enceintes et aux nourrissons, afin de faire chuter à 2 % ou moins le taux d’infection périnatale au virus d’immunodéficience humaine de type 1 (VIH-1). Le pédiatre joue un rôle de premier plan dans la prévention de la transmission du VIH-1 de la mère à l’enfant par le dépistage des nourrissons exposés au VIH dont l’infection au VIH de la mère n’a pas été diagnostiquée avant l’accouchement. Il prescrit une prophylaxie antirétrovirale à ces nourrissons, afin de réduire le risque d’acquisition de l’infection au VIH-1 et d’en éviter le plus possible la transmission par le lait maternel. De plus, le pédiatre peut soigner les nourrissons exposés au VIH-1 en les surveillant pour obtenir un dépistage précoce de l’infection au VIH-1 et évaluer les toxicités à court et à long terme de l’exposition aux antirétroviraux, assurer une chimioprophylaxie de la pneumonie à Pneumocystis et soutenir les familles qui vivent avec une infection au VIH-1, grâce à des conseils thérapeutiques aux parents ou aux soignants.

  11. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 30 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-25

    ISS030-E-193144 (25 March 2012) --- Wave clouds near Ile aux Cochons are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 30 crew member on the International Space Station. This photograph illustrates the formation of wave clouds in the wake—or downwind side—of Ile aux Cochons (“Isle of Pigs”) located in the Southern Indian Ocean. The island is approximately located 3,000 kilometers southeast of the southern tip of the African continent and 2,300 kilometers northwest of Antarctica. The island itself, of which only a part of the eastern coastline is visible at center, is volcanic in origin with a summit elevation of 775 meters above sea level. According to scientists, the Ile aux Cochons stratovolcano is thought to have erupted within the last 12,000 years; however no historical activity has been recorded. The summit elevation is high enough for the land surface to interact with cloud layers and winds flowing past the island. Two major cloud layers are visible; a lower, more uniform layer consists of roughly parallel cloud “streets” that suggest a westerly flow pattern of air. When the air mass encounters the Ile aux Cochons, moisture-laden air rises and cools, causing more water vapor to condense into clouds. As the air mass passes over the summit of Ile aux Cochons and descends, it may encounter alternating moist and dry air layers, enabling the formation of the discontinuous chevron-shaped wave clouds in the wake of the island. While their appearance suggests that the clouds are forming in the wake of the island and moving eastwards, in fact it is the air mass that is moving, with clouds forming in regions of moist air and dissipating in dry regions. Ile aux Cochons is the westernmost of the islands that form the subantarctic Crozet Archipelago (part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands). Accept for occasional research visits, the island is uninhabited. The island is an important breeding site for seabirds, including the world’s largest

  12. Storms Consolidated field, Illinois basin: Identifying new reserves in a mature area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, S.L.; Leetaru, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    Discovered in 1939, Storms Consolidated field in the central Illinois basin has produced approximately 24.5 million bbl oil, mainly from Mississippian sandstone reservoirs, yet may contain significant remaining reserves. The field produces from a combination structural-stratigraphic trap along the upthrown side of a major normal fault trend. Although the principal reservoir zone, the Waltersburg Sandstone, is mostly depleted, another important interval, the Aux Vases Sandstone, appears underexploited in many parts of the field. Description and analysis of the only continuous core through the Aux Vases has led to the identification of major lithofacies and their characterization in terms of reservoir quality. The Aux Vases appears to represent a series of shallow marine bars separated by nonreservoir areas of siltstone, shale, and shaly sandstone. Log-based mapping of reservoir distribution, plus production and pressure data, indicates significant lateral and vertical compartmentalization of the reservoir. Although insufficient data exist for full-scale integrated reservoir characterization studies, a trend surface analysis was performed on structural information across the field. The results of this analysis were compared with reservoir distribution maps to identify areas for future drilling or recompletion.Discovered in 1939, Storms Consolidated field in the central Illinois basin has produced approximately 24.5 million bbl oil, mainly from Mississippian sandstone reservoirs, yet may contain significant remaining reserves. The field produces from a combination structural-stratigraphic trap along the upthrown side of a major normal fault trend. Although the principal reservoir zone, the Waltersburg Sandstone, is mostly depleted, another important interval, the Aux Vases Sandstone, appears underexploited in many parts of the field. Description and analysis of the only continuous core through the Aux Vases has led to the identification of major lithofacies and their

  13. Patient delay in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in China: findings of case detection projects.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Enarson, D A; Chiang, C-Y; Rusen, I D; Qiu, L-X; Kan, X-H; Yuan, Y-L; Du, J; Zhang, T-H; Li, Y; Li, X-F; Du, C-T; Zhang, L-X

    2015-03-21

    Objectif : Evaluer le délai d’accès aux services des santé de nouveaux patients atteints de tuberculose pulmonaire (TBP) à frottis positif détectés au sein de sept projets FIDELIS (Fund for Innovative DOTS Expansion through Local Initiatives to Stop TB) exécutés en Chine entre 2003 et 2008 ; 2) comparer les retards du traitement par province ; et 3) évaluer les facteurs associés aux retards.Méthode : Les dossiers des patients TPB à frottis positif ont été revus. Les données émanaient du registre des consultations, de celui du laboratoire, des dossiers des patients, des cartes de traitement et des formulaires d’évaluation des personnes ayant un accès limité aux services de santé (PWLAHS). Les données ont été recueillies grâce à un questionnaire standard et vérifiées par le personnel des sites et de l’Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose et les Maladies Respiratoires (L’Union) et analysées par L’Union.Résultats : De 75 401 nouveaux patients atteints de TBP à frottis positif, 63–89% étaient des PWLAHS. Le produit intérieur brut moyen des sites du projet et du niveau national était de 557 et 998 $US respectivement. Le délai médian d’accès aux soins était de 93 jours (extrêmes 68–128). Ce délai était plus long pour les femmes, les patients âgés, les résidents ruraux et ceux estimés être des PWLAHS. Ce délai d’accès aux services était significativement associé à un nombre de symptômes plus élevé.Conclusions : Le délai d’accès aux services de santé en Chine est long et offre des opportunités d’amélioration en matière de lutte contre la TB et de traitement.

  14. PubMed

    Hemou, P F; Sama, H D; Tchétikè, P; Potkar, T

    2015-12-31

    Le crush syndrome se définit comme l'ensemble des manifestations locales et générales secondaires à une rhabdomyolyse traumatique avec ischémie de grosses masses musculaires par compression prolongée, à l'origine d'un syndrome compartimental ou syndrome des loges. Rarement isolé, il peut passer inaperçu dans les 24 à 48 premières heures de la phase aiguë d'un traumatisme sévère quand les principales préoccupations médicales sont la sauvegarde des fonctions vitales. La souffrance musculaire liée au syndrome compartimental entraîne la libération de myoglobine dans la circulation générale. La précipitation de la myoglobine dans les tubules rénaux est un facteur de tubulopathie, s'ajoutant à l'atteinte ischémique éventuelle, concomitante du traumatisme initial. Il s'ensuit une insuffisance rénale aiguë avec, entre autres, acidose et hyperkaliémie. Le crush syndrome constitue une urgence médico-chirurgicale, récurrente et d'actualité lors des catastrophes, mettant en exergue tous les problèmes de prise en charge de ce syndrome. Le remplissage précoce et important, vise à restaurer et maintenir une normovolémie et un débit urinaire de 1 à 2 ml/kg/h, en s'aidant au besoin de diurétiques et de bicarbonate afin d'éviter l'émission d'urines acides, dans le but d'éviter la précipitation de myoglobine et l'apparition de l'insuffisance rénale. Si celle-ci survient, l'usage précoce de l'Épuration Extra Rénale (EER « prophylactique ») peut permettre une réalimentation rapide, adaptée au traumatisme initial ou de nécessité en vue d'une alimentation équilibrée. La levée chirurgicale (aponévrotomie) de la compression musculo-vasculo-nerveuse est une urgence vitale pour le membre concerné. Le syndrome de revascularisation lors de la décompression (par levée de garrot ou post chirurgicale) peut entraîner un arrêt cardiaque irréversible par hyperkaliémie sur terrain hypovolémique et choqué.

  15. Les myélopathies cervicarthrosiques: résultat clinique et radiologique de la chirurgie sur une série de 135 patients opérés au service de neurochirurgie CHU Avicenne

    PubMed Central

    Djoubairou, Ben Ousmanou; Nabil, Moussé; Karekezi, Claire; Diawara, Seylan; El Fatemi, Nizar; Gana, Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia; Maaqili, Moulay Rachid

    2014-01-01

    La myélopathie cervicarthrosique est un syndrome clinique en relation avec la diminution des dimensions du canal rachidien, la cervicarthrose est l’étiologie principale après 50 ans. L'objectif du traitement est de rétablir les dimensions du canal rachidien cervical. Le choix de la technique chirurgicale sera guidé par l'analyse des signes cliniques, imageries, pré opératoire en fonction de laquelle sera pratiquée soit la voie antérieure, postérieure, ou exceptionnellement la voie combinée. Notre étude a pour but dans un premier temps d’évaluer à long terme les résultats cliniques et radiologiques de la chirurgie ensuite répondre à cette préoccupation: La lordose cervicale pré opératoire et postopératoire sont t-elles des facteurs de bon pronostic? Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective entre 2000 et 2013 portant sur 135 patients opérés dans notre formation et remplissant les critères inclusions. La collecte des données s'est faite en s'aidant du dossier médical des patients (échelle d'Association des orthopédistes Japonais), Imagerie (Radio, TDM, IRM), mesure de l'angle de courbure rachidienne en pré et postopératoire, ceci dans le but d’évaluer à long terme les résultats clinique et radiologique de la chirurgie. Ont été inclus dans notre étude 135 patients, 82 Hommes (60%), 53 femmes (40%) avec un âge moyen de 52 ans, ayant consulté pour des motifs divers (Névralgies cervicobrachiales, lourdeur des membres, troubles génito-sphinctériens). Soixante cinq patients (48%) ont bénéficié d'un abord antérieur (dissectomie, cloward, somatotomie médiane), 64 patients (47%) ont été opérés par voie postérieure (laminectomie de 1 à 3 niveaux) et 6 patients (5%) ont bénéficié d'un abord combiné dans un délai moyen de 3 mois devant la persistance des symptômes. Le niveau cervical le plus touché était C5C6 suivie de C4C5. L’évolution globale de nos patients était favorable dans 58% des cas, stationnaire

  16. Submarine geo-hazards on the eastern Sardinia-Corsica continental margin based on preliminary pipeline route investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchini, S.; Taliana, D.; Giacomini, L.; Herisson, C.; Bonnemaire, B.

    2011-03-01

    The understanding of the morphology and the shallow geo-hazards of the seafloor is a major focus for both academic and private industry research. On November and December 2009 a geophysical pipeline survey was carried out by Fugro Oceansismica S.p.A. (FOSPA) and FUGRO France (FFSA) for DORIS Engineering on behalf of GRTgaz (Engineering centre, Transmission Pipe Department; http://www.grtgaz.com) which are currently investigating the possibility of laying a pipeline between Sardinia and Corsica as a spur line from the planned GALSI Project. The Project, "Alimentation de la Corse en gaz naturel", consists of a corridor 100 km long and 1.0 km wide along the Corsica-Sardinia shelf. The integration of the multibeam, sidescan sonar and sparker data provided a high resolution seafloor mapping for geo-hazard assessment. In this article the data acquired along a break of slope section (approximately 20 km × 1.5 km), in the eastern sector of the Strait of Bonifacio are described. The area was abandoned during the survey, because of its unsuitability. Indeed, in this area the continental shelf, approximately 100 m deep and deepening gently eastward, is characterized by an uneven morphology, with different seabed features such as Beach- rocks mainly NNW-SSE oriented. Also, the continuity of the continental margin, identified around -110/-115 m, is interrupted by four canyon heads which incise the slope and are associated with glide deposits.

  17. Optical studies of ion-beam synthesized metal alloy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magudapathy, P.; Srivatsava, S. K.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Amirthapandian, S.; Sairam, T. N.; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2015-06-01

    AuxAg1-x alloy nanoparticles with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have been synthesized on a silica glass substrate. A small Au foil on an Ag foil is irradiated as target substrates such that ion beam falls on both Ag foil and Au foils. Silica slides are kept at an angle ˜45° with respect to the metallic foils. While irradiating the metallic foils with 100 keV Ar+ ions, sputtered Au and Ag atoms get deposited on the silica-glass. In this configuration the foils have been irradiated by Ar+ ions to various fluences at room temperature and the sputtered species are collected on silica slides. Formation of AuxAg1-x nanoparticles has been confirmed from the optical absorption measurements. With respect to the exposure area of Au and Ag foils to the ion beam, the SPR peak position varies from 450 to 500 nm. Green photoluminescence has been observed from these alloy metal nanoparticles.

  18. Human Dimensions in Embedded Virtual Simulation (Les dimensions humaines dans la simulation virtuelle integree)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    pour la recherche et la technologie (RTO) de l’Organisation du Traité de l’Atlantique Nord (OTAN) a organisé et animé un atelier consacré aux facteurs...humains et aux problèmes de performances liés à la simulation virtuelle intégrée (EVS). Cet atelier s’est tenu du 20 au 22 octobre 2009 à l’institut...lors de cet atelier . En outre, les membres du comité organisateur ont dirigé une série d’exercices de cartographie heuristique destinés à réfléchir

  19. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Ettalbi, S; Ibnouzahir, M; Rachid, M; Bahaichar, N; Boukind, H

    2007-12-31

    La main est fréquemment exposée aux brûlures, ce qui entraîne des séquelles cutanées. A partir d'une série de 14 patients suivis dans notre service sur une année, nous avons essayé d'établir la simplicité, l'efficacité et le rôle de la greffe de peau totale dans le traitement de ces séquelles (les organes nobles ne sont pas mis à nu). La greffe de peau totale associée à une rééducation efficace permet aux patients de reprendre la mobilité des mains dans les brefs délais.

  20. Hémorragies digestives hautes révélant une sangsue

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Djafar; Diarra, Mahamadou; Ahidan, Rabiou; Garba, Moumouni; Idrissi, Mounia; Hida, Moustapha

    2015-01-01

    Les hémorragies digestives hautes sont un motif fréquent de consultation aux urgences pédiatriques et font généralement suite à des causes multiples comme les œsophagites, gastrites. Cependant son étiologie liée à l'ingestion accidentelle d'un corps étranger comme la sangsue est rarement décrite. Nous rapportons le cas d'un enfant de 3ans admis aux urgences pédiatriques pour des hémorragies digestives hautes chez qui l'endoscopie digestive avait mis en évidence une sangsue enclavée derrière la glotte. La prise en charge consistait en une extraction de ce corps étranger avec surveillance des constantes vitales. PMID:26889336